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Sample records for nonlinear triggered lightning

  1. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  2. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  3. Attempts to Create Ball Lightning with Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    fluids, solids, and vegetation , as described in the next section. The experiments were performed during Summer 2008 at the International Center for... filters were used on all 35 mm cameras to prevent over-exposure. There were a total of eight successful triggered lightning events during the ball...Dinnis, Ball Lightning Caused by Oxidation of Nanoparticle Networks from Normal Lightning Strikes in Soil, Nature 403, 519-521, 2000 Paiva, G. and Pavão

  4. Ionospheric effects of whistler waves from rocket-triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotts, B. R. T.; Gołkowski, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) is one of the primary mechanisms for energetic electron loss from Earth's radiation belts. While previous works have emphasized lightning location and the return stroke peak current in quantifying lightning's role in radiation belt electron loss, the spectrum of the lightning return stroke has received far less attention. Rocket-triggered lightning experiments performed at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida, provide a means to directly measure the spectral content of individual lightning return strokes. Using an integrated set of numerical models and directly observed rocket-triggered lightning channel-base currents we calculate the latitudinal dependence of the precipitation signature. Model results indicate that rocket-triggered lightning may produce detectable LEP events and that return strokes with higher ELF (3 Hz-3 kHz) content cause proportionally more ionospheric ionization and precipitate more electrons at higher latitudes than return strokes with proportionally higher VLF (3 kHz-30 kHz) content. The predicted spatio-temporal signature of the induced electron precipitation is highly dependent upon the return stroke spectral content. As a result, we postulate that rocket-triggered lightning experiments enable us to the estimate the spectral profile of energetic electrons precipitated from the Earth's radiation belts.

  5. Broadband interferometer observations of a triggered lightning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The development of positive leader of an artificially triggered lightning has been analyzed based on the data of electric field change, location of radiation source and frequency spectrum obtained by using the broadband interferometer system. The results indicate that radiation from positive leader could be detected within close distance in spite of the relatively weak radiation, while the radiation from negative breakdown processes was relatively stronger.Positive leader developed with few branches, and the initial progression velocity was of the order of 10s m/s. The distribution of power spectrum by 25 MHz high pass filter indicated that the radiation frequency from positive leader maximized at 25-30 MHz, while that from negative breakdown processes maximized at 60-70 MHz.

  6. Experiments of Wind Turbine Blades with Rocket Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minowa, Masayuki; Sumi, Shinichi; Minami, Masayasu; Horii, Kenji

    This paper describes the results of the experiments of wind turbine blades with rocket triggered lightning. A number of wind power stations have been projected and planted. Lightning damage to wind turbines has been an increasing problem recently. So development on protection of wind power plants from lightning is necessary to be fully run for the future. In the experiments, the 1.8m long blade was struck by the lightning discharge triggered by rocket. For the blade kept dry inside, the very strong discharge of positive peak current 28kV, total charge 520 Coulombs, was triggered, but the breakdown did not occur through the blade into inside. Another blade polluted by salty wet inside was struck by the lightning discharge of negative peak current of 4kA with 0.5 Coulombs. The lightning was small, nevertheless, the blade was broken at the upper edge and the blade was disconnected by crack. For the protection of blade, the blade surface was covered with stainless steel plate. The blade itself was safe when the big positive lightning discharged, while most part of stainless steel cover was burned out. Supplement breakdown tests of wind turbine blade were carried out with lightning impulse voltage in laboratory. As a result, it became clear that the blade kept dry inside was an effective lightning protection of wind turbine blades.

  7. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  8. Analysis of Channel Luminosity Characteristics in Rocket-Triggered Lightning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Weitao; ZHANG Yijun; ZHOU Xiuji; MENG Qing; ZHENG Dong; MA Ming; WANG Fei; CHEN Shaodong; QIE Xiushu

    2008-01-01

    A comparison is made of the high-speed(2000 fps)photographic records in rocket-triggered negative lightning between two techniques.The analysis shows that:the initial speed of upward positive leader (UPL)in altitude-triggered negative lightning(ATNL)is about one order of magnitude less than that in classically triggered negative lightning(CTNL),while the triggering height of ATNL is higher than that of CTNL;the afterglow time of metal-vaporized part of the lightning channel Call endure for about 160-170 ms,thus the luminosity of the air-ionized part can reflect the characteristics of the current in the lightning channel better than that of the metal-vaporized part.According to the different characteristics of the luminosity change of the lightning channel,together with the observation of the electric field changes,three kinds of processes after return-stroke(RS)can be distinguished:the continuous decaying type without M component,the isolated type and the continuing type with M component,corresponding to different wave shapes of the continuous current.The geometric mean of the interval of RS with M component is 77 ms,longer than that(37 ms)of RS without M component.And the initial continuous current(ICC)with M component also has a longer duration compared to the ICC without M component.The distinction in the relative luminosity between the lightning channel before RS and that before M component is obvious:the former is very weak or even cannot be observed,while the latter is still considerably luminous.

  9. Applications of triggered lightning to space vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, William; Sanicandro, Rocco; Rompalla, John; Wohlman, Richard

    1992-11-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the USAF Eastern Space Missile Center (ESMC) covering an area of 25 x 40 km are frequently called America's Spaceport. This title is earned through the integration, by labor and management, of many skills in a wide variety of engineering fields to solve many technical problems that occur during the launch processing of space vehicles. Weather is one of these problems, and although less frequent in time and duration when compared to engineering type problems, has caused costly and life threatening situations. This sensitivity to weather, especially lightning, was recognized in the very early pioneer days of space operations. The need to protect the many v\\facilities, space flight hardware, and personnel from electrified clouds capable of producing lightning was a critical element in improving launch operations. A KSC lightning committee was formed and directed to improve lightning protection, detection, and measuring systems and required that all theoretical studies be confirmed by KSC field data. Over the years, there have been several lightning incidents involving flight vehicles during ground processing as well as launch. Subsequent investigations revealed the need to improve these systems as well as the knowledge of the electrical atmosphere and its effects on operations in regard to cost and safety. Presented here is how, KSC Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (AFSL), in particular Rocket Triggered Lightning, is being used to solve these problems.

  10. High energy radiation from aircraft-triggered lightning and thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, Alexander P. J.; de Boer, Alte I.; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS http://ildas.nlr.nl/) was developed in an EU FP6 project to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. The system contains one E-field and eight H-field sensors distributed over the fuselage. It has recently been extended to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x-ray photons above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on an A-350 aircraft. When triggered by lightning and digitizes data synchronously with 10 ns intervals. Twelve continuously monitoring photon energy channels were implemented for X-ray detectors operating at slower rate (15 ms, pulse counting). In spring of 2014 and 2015 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells recording the data from the sensors. Total of 93 lightning strikes to the aircraft are recorded. Eighteen of them are also detected by WWLLN network. One strike consists of six individual strokes within 200 ms that were all synchronously identified by WWLLN. The WWLLN inter-stroke distance is much larger than the aircraft movement. Three of these strokes generated X-ray bursts. One exceptionally bright X-ray pulse of more than 8 MeV has been detected in association with another strike; it probably saturated the detector's photomultiplier. Neither long gamma-ray glow, nor positron annihilation have been detected during the campaign. An explanation is sought in the typical altitude profile of these test flights.

  11. Triggered lightning spectroscopy: Part 1. A qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, T. Daniel; Christian, Hugh J.

    2017-08-01

    The first high-speed spectra of triggered lightning have been obtained. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, spectra were recorded at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing, Camp Blanding, FL. The spectra were recorded with a high-speed camera with a grism mounted in front of it. The triggered lightning channels observed were generally at low altitude in a region that included the copper wire. Spectral emissions were recorded at each phase: the initial stage, dart leader, return stroke, and continuing current. These spectra are separated into two major regions: soft ultraviolet to visible (3800-6200 Å) and visible to near infrared (6200-8700 Å). The emissions during the initial stage reflect those of a copper wire burn in air. The majority of the emissions are neutral copper. After the initial stage comes the first return stroke which contains no detected molecular emissions; however, it does contain neutral, singly, and doubly ionized nitrogen and oxygen, neutral argon, and neutral hydrogen. Occasionally, before a return stroke, the dart leader coming down the channel will be stepped. During these occasions the leader spectra resemble that of the return stroke but are dimmer and shorter lived. After the initial portion of the return stroke, there are often changes in the luminosity of the spectrum which corresponds with fluctuations in the continuing current. During these "reillumination phases" no singly or doubly ionized lines have been observed to reemerge over the detection threshold, only neutral emission features.

  12. Frequency domain analysis of triggered lightning return stroke luminosity velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-02-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to time domain return stroke luminosity signals to calculate the phase and group velocities and the amplitude of the luminosity signals as a function of frequency measured between 4 m and 115 m during 12 triggered lightning strokes. We show that pairs of time domain luminosity signals measured at different heights can be interpreted as the input and the output of a system whose frequency domain transfer function can be determined from the measured time domain signals. From the frequency domain transfer function phase we find the phase and group velocities, and luminosity amplitude as a function of triggered lightning channel height and signal frequency ranging from 50 kHz to 300 kHz. We show that higher-frequency luminosity components propagate faster than the lower frequency components and that higher-frequency luminosity components attenuate more rapidly than lower frequency components. Finally, we calculate time domain return stroke velocities as a function of channel height using two time delay techniques: (1) measurement at the 20% amplitude level and (2) cross correlation.

  13. Oxide reduction during triggered-lightning fulgurite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. E.; Jones, K. S.; Rambo, K. J.; Rakov, V. A.; Jerald, J.; Uman, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    In this study triggered-lightning induced fulgurites were formed in 99.9% pure binary oxides of manganese (MnO) and nickel (NiO) in order to study oxide reduction mechanisms. The fulgurite formation process involved packing the oxide in PVC holders and using the standard rocket-and-wire technique to trigger a lightning strike through the oxide at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Camp Blanding, Florida. These two oxides were chosen from the thermodynamic extrapolation of the oxide stability using the Ellingham Diagram. This diagram indicates that NiO is significantly less stable than MnO. Fulgurites from the pure oxides were analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM); secondary electron images, backscattered images and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the microstructure and composition of the fulgurites. SEM/EDS analysis of the NiO and MnO prior to fulgurite formation confirmed they were pure binary oxides with no metallic contamination. After fulgurite formation, it was found that the nickel oxide fulgurite contained metallic nickel particles; the manganese oxide fulgurite showed no metallic phase formation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination confirmed that the MnO was a pure oxide with no sign of metallic phase formation. However, TEM results of the NiO showed that approximately 50% of the NiO was reduced to metallic face-centered cubic Ni. The Ni and NiO were observed to be coherent with the [1 0 0]Ni//[1 0 0]NiO and [1 1 0]Ni//[1 1 0]NiO. These results are consistent with the aforementioned thermodynamic stability calculations and show that the presence of carbonaceous material or mixtures of oxides is not necessary for oxide reduction during fulgurite formation. These studies do not rule out the possibility that electrolysis plays a role in oxide reduction. However, these fulgurites were made simultaneously during the same lightning strike and therefore were subjected to the same

  14. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  15. Upward Lightning in Rapid City, SD and the First Season of the Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, C. A.; Warner, T. A.; Helsdon, J. H.; Schumann, C.; Alves, J.; Saba, M. M.; Cummins, K. L.; Orville, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    For the past three years, upward lightning from ten towers located along the front range of the Black Hills have been observed using both standard- and high-speed cameras and electric field measurements. Multiple towers arranged in close proximity to each other combined with high cloud bases common during the warm season allow Rapid City, South Dakota to be an ideal location to observe upward lightning. The UPward LIGHtning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) was developed at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in cooperation with the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil, to expand the instrumentation available for observation and analysis of the triggering flash type, component, and mechanism along with weather conditions that are favorable for upward lightning development. This project combines local weather observations, multiple electric field meters and field change sensors, and two interferometers with the previously used cameras. UPLIGHTS main goal is to use these resources to better understand the triggering/initiation of upward lightning from tall objects. Based on the analysis of previous years' observations, we proposed that the primary triggering flash type is a positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) in the vicinity of the towers. UPLIGHTS will attempt to determine if upward positive leaders are triggered from these towers by either 1) the approach of horizontally propagating negative stepped leaders associated with either intracloud development or following a +CG return stroke and/or 2) a +CG return stroke as it propagates through a previously formed leader network that is near the towers. The study will also examine the mechanism behind the initiation of upward leaders from multiple tall objects during same flash. This talk will touch on some concepts of previous work along with a summary of summer 2012, the first of three UPLIGHTS seasons.

  16. ELF Sferics Produced by Rocket-Triggered Lightning and Observed at Great Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, N. A.; Moore, R. C.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental observations of ELF radio atmospherics produced by rocket-triggered lightning flashes are used to analyze Earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation and propagation characteristics as a function of return stroke. Rocket-triggered lightning experiments are performed at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) located at Camp Blanding, Florida. Long-distance ELF observations are performed in California, Greenland, and Antarctica, although this work focuses on observations performed in Greenland. The lightning current waveforms directly measured at the base of the lightning channel (at the ICLRT) are used together with the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to predict the sferic waveform observed at the receiver locations under various ionospheric conditions. LWPC was developed by the Naval Ocean Systems Center over a period of many years. It is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. This paper critically compares observations with model predictions, and in particular analyzes Earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation as a function of return stroke. The ability to infer source characteristics using observations at great distances may prove to greatly enhance the understanding of lightning processes that are associated with the production of transient luminous events (TLEs) as well as other ionospheric effects associated with lightning.

  17. Artificially triggered lightning and its characteristic discharge parameters in two severe thunderstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The lightning-induced-damages in the mid-latitude regions are usually caused during severe thunder-storms. But the discharge parameters of natural lightning are difficult to be measured. Five lightning flashes have been artificially triggered with the rocket-wire technique during the passage of two severe thunderstorms. The discharge current and close electric field of return stroke in artificially triggered lightning have been obtained in microsecond time resolution by using current measuring systems and electric field change sensors. The results show that the five triggered lightning flashes include 1 to 10 return strokes, and the average return stroke current is 11.9 kA with a maximum of 21.0 kA and a mini-mum of 6.6 kA, similar to the subsequent return strokes in natural lightning. The half peak width of the current waveform is 39 μs, which is much larger than the usual result. The peak current of stroke Ip (kA) and the neutralized charge Q(C) has a relationship of Ip = 18.5Q0.65. The radiation field of return stroke is 5.9 kV·m-1 and 0.39 kV·m-1 at 60 m and 550 m, respectively. The radiation field decreases as r -1.119 with increase of horizontal distance r from the discharge channel. Based on the well-accepted transmission line model, the speed of return stroke is estimated to be about 1.4×108 m·s-1, with a variation range of (1.1―1.6)×108 m·s-1. Because of the similarities of the triggered lightning and natural lightning, the results in this article can be used in the protection design of natural lightning.

  18. Results of Rocket-Triggered Lightning Studies at Camp Blanding, Florida: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2003-12-01

    In this review, we present selected results of triggered-lightning experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. After a general update, the following three topics will be covered in more detail. (1)Mechanism of cutoff and re-establishment of current in rocket-triggered lightning. We will present evidence (electric and magnetic fields, channel-base current, time-resolved optical records) that the gap resulting from the vaporization of the triggering wire by the upward positive leader current is bridged by a leader/return-stroke type process (Rakov et al., 2003). Characterization of the attempted interruption and following re-establishment of current to ground in rocket-triggered lightning may have important implications for the understanding of channel current cutoff in natural lightning flashes and may provide new insights into the formation of strokes occurring in the same channel within a millisecond or less. (2)Estimation of input energy in rocket-triggered lightning. In 2000, the electric fields in the immediate vicinity (within 0.1 to 1.6 m) of the triggered lightning channel were measured with Pockels sensors (Miki et al., 2002). We used these fields and associated currents measured at the base of a 2-m strike object to compute power and energy, each per unit channel length and as a function of time (up to 10 ms), associated with return strokes in rocket-triggered lightning. In doing so, we assumed that the vertical component of the electric field at horizontal distances of 0.1 to 1.6 m from the lightning attachment point is not much different from the longitudinal electric field inside the channel (Borovsky, 1995). The estimated mean input energy over the first 50 μs or so is between 1 and 10 kJ/m, consistent with predictions of gas dynamic models. (3)Multiple-station measurements of electric and magnetic fields and their time derivatives produced by close natural lightning discharges. In 2002

  19. The 3-dimensional numerical simulation of artificially altitude-triggered negative lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Bin; Shi, Lihua; Chen, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    A 3-dimensional numerical model for artificially altitude-triggered negative lightning is developed based on an analytic thunderstorm model and the Dielectric Breakdown Model (DBM). Two major parameters are concerned, they are the thundercloud electric field and the length of the nylon wire which isolates the triggering wire from the ground. A few groups of contrast numerical experiments are done to study their effects on the success rates of altitude-triggered lightning. It is found that the success rates of altitude-triggered lightning increase when the thundercloud electric field enhances or the length of the nylon wire increases. Another interesting phenomenon is that the upward positive leader is always initiated earlier than the downward negative leader in either case.

  20. Correlated Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and Radar Observations of the Initial Stages of Florida Triggered Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Uman, M, A.; Jordan, D. M.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Rison, W.; Blakeslee, R.

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the geometrical and electrical characteristics of the initial stages of nine Florida triggered lightning discharges using a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), a C-band SMART radar, and measured channel-base currents. We determine initial channel and subsequent branch lengths, average initial channel and branch propagation speeds, and channel-base current at the time of each branch initiation. The channel-base current is found to not change significantly when branching occurs, an unexpected result. The initial stage of Florida triggered lightning typically transitions from vertical to horizontal propagation at altitudes of 3-6 km, near the typical 0 C level of 4-5 km and several kilometers below the expected center of the negative cloud-charge region at 7-8 km. The data presented potentially provide information on thunderstorm electrical and hydrometeor structure and discharge propagation physics. LMA source locations were obtained from VHF sources of positive impulsive currents as small as 10 A, in contrast to expectations found in the literature.

  1. Acoustic Properties of Return Strokes and M-components From Rocket-Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D.; Carvalho, F. L.; Rassoul, H.

    2015-12-01

    Using a linear, one-dimensional array of 15 microphones situated 95 meters from the lightning channel; we measure the acoustic signatures from 11 triggered-lightning events comprising 41 return strokes and 28 M-components. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, FL during the summer of 2014. Recently, we reported that beamforming signal processing enables acoustic imaging of the lightning channel at high frequencies (Dayeh et al. 2015). Following up on the work, we report on the characteristics of the acoustic measurements in terms of sound pressure amplitude, peak currents, power spectral density (PSD) properties, and the inferred energy input. In addition, we find that M-component do not create acoustic signatures in most occasions; we discuss these cases in context of the associated current amplitude, rise time, and background continuing current.

  2. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  3. Investigation of Polarimetric and Electrical Characteristics of Natural and Triggered Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, P. T.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Winn, W. P.; Eack, K.; Trueblood, J.; Edens, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    For the past three summers, the University of Oklahoma has deployed three mobile, polarimetric radars to the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida and Langmuir Laboratory near Socorro, New Mexico for the purpose of investigating the relationship between cloud structure and the propagation of triggered and natural lightning channels. This presentation will highlight observations from select natural and triggered events at these two facilities. During the summer of 2012, University of Oklahoma radar operators made a launch recommendation to the ICLRT during the passage of Tropical Storm Debby over northeast Florida that resulted in a successful triggered flash with 11 return strokes. The trigger was attempted as precipitation streamers within the stratiform rainbands of Tropical Storm Debby approached the launch site. According to the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), there were no reported natural cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 60 km of the ICLRT 20 hours before and eight hours after the triggered flash. The recommendation was made based on previous analyses of the storm structure of trigger attempts from the ICLRT that indicated the coincidence of several successful triggers with descending regions of enhanced radar reflectivity, or descending precipitation packets (DePPs). Polarimetric data from the frequency-agile Rapid-scanning X-band Polarimetric (RaXPol) radar as well as data from the lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field meter (EFM) networks from the ICLRT for this event will be presented. Past analyses also revealed ice alignment signatures in differential phase and specific differential phase as strong electric fields near the top of electrified clouds cause small ice particles to become vertically aligned. These signatures are especially noticeable for circularly polarized radars. Polarimetric data from the Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching (SMART) radar and Ra

  4. Comparative analysis of the initial stage in two artificially-triggered lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Qie, X.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Feng, G.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, G.

    2009-02-01

    The initial discharge stages of two flashes during the Shandong Artificially Triggering Lightning Experiment (SHATLE) are analyzed based on the synchronous data of the current and close electromagnetic field. For a lightning flash, named 0503, the wire was connected, not electrically, but via a 5 m length of nylon, with the lightning rod; while for another, named 0602, the wire was connected with the rod directly. Results show that the discharge processes of the initial stage (IS) in flash 0503 are quite different from that of the usual classical-triggered flash 0602 and altitude-triggered flashes. A large pulse with a current of about 720 A resulted from the breakdown of the 5 m air gap during flash 0503, and the corresponding electric field at 60 m from the lightning rod was 0.38 kV/m. The upward positive leaders (UPLs) propagated continuously from the tip of the rocket after this breakdown. The geometric mean (GM) of the UPL peak current was 23.0 A. Vaporization of the wire occurred during the initial continuous current (ICC) stage and the largest current pulse was about 400 A. Compared with triggered flash 0503, the discharge processes of IS in flash 0602 were simple, only two large pulses similar to each other occurred before dart leader/return stroke sequences. The peak current of the first pulse was 2.1 kA and its corresponding electric field and magnetic field at a distance of 60 m from the lightning rod were 0.98 kV/m and 7.03 μT, respectively. During the second pulse, the wire disintegrated. The current decreased to the background level at the moment of the wire disintegration. The current of the second pulse in triggered flash 0602 was 2.8 kA, and the corresponding electric field and magnetic field at 60 m from the lightning rod were 1.22 kV/m and 9.01 μT, respectively.

  5. Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampe, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents basic physical theory for movement of electric charges in clouds, earth, and air during production of lightning and thunder. Amount of electrical energy produced and heating effects during typical thunderstorms is described. Generalized safety practices are given. (JM)

  6. Correlated lightning mapping array and radar observations of the initial stages of three sequentially triggered Florida lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Rison, W.; Krebhiel, P. R.; I Biggerstaff, M.; Hyland, P.; Blakeslee, R.

    2013-08-01

    Correlated Lightning Mapping Array and vertical-scan radar images are presented for three rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flashes that occurred sequentially within 17 min in the presence of a decaying multicellular convective storm system over north-central Florida. The initial stage (IS) of each flash propagated generally vertically to the altitude of the 0°C melting level, about 5 km, and then subsequently propagated for many kilometers horizontally along the melting level contour. Radar images suggest that the propagation paths of the IS channels below and above the melting level were heavily influenced by precipitation gradients. Flash UF 11-24 exhibited a 12.6 km unbranched IS channel, the longest unbranched channel observed in the study by a factor of three. During flash UF 11-25 (119 ms following the cessation of the measured IS current at ground and prior to the first return stroke), a natural cloud-to-ground discharge, perhaps induced by the IS, initiated between 2.5 and 4 km altitude and struck ground 5 to 7 km from the launching facility. The IS of flash UF 11-26 propagated upward through a descending precipitation packet and apparently induced a naturally appearing bi-level intracloud discharge via an upward-negative leader that initiated within the IS breakdown region 3.5 km from the launching facility. The upward-negative leader propagated from 5.6 to 9.3 km altitude in a time of 11 ms. The electrical current measured at ground during the IS of flash UF 11-26 exhibited a 57 ms polarity reversal, transferring 19 C of positive charge to ground.

  7. The energy spectrum of X-rays from rocket-triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Grove, J. E.; Gwon, C.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Lucia, R. J.; Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Uman, M. A.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Although the production of X-rays from natural and rocket-triggered lightning leaders have been studied in detail over the last 10 years, the energy spectrum of the X-rays has never been well measured because the X-rays are emitted in very short but intense bursts that result in pulse pileup in the detectors. The energy spectrum is important because it provides information about the source mechanism for producing the energetic runaway electrons and about the electric fields that they traverse. We have recently developed and operated the first spectrometer for the energetic radiation from lightning. The instrument is part of the Atmospheric Radiation Imagery and Spectroscopy (ARIS) project and will be referred to as ARIS-S (ARIS Spectrometer). It consists of seven 3'' NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube scintillation detectors with different thicknesses of attenuators, ranging from no attenuator to more than 1'' of lead placed over the detector (all the detectors are in a 1/8'' thick aluminum box). Using X-ray pulses preceding 48 return strokes in 8 rocket-triggered lightnings, we found that the spectrum of X-rays from leaders is too soft to be consistent with Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche. It has a power law dependence on the energies of the photons, and the power index, λ, is between 2.5 and 3.5. We present the details of the design of the instrument and the results of the analysis of the lightning data acquired during the summer of 2012.

  8. HAARP-based Investigations of Lightning-induced Nonlinearities within the D-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is well-documented that energetic lightning can produce fantastical events with the lower ionosphere. Although the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter is not as powerful as lightning, it can be used to investigate the nonlinear interactions that occur within the lower ionosphere, many of which also occur during lightning-induced ionospheric events. This paper presents the best experimental results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the HAARP observatory between 2007 and 2014, including ELF/VLF wave generation experiments, wave-wave mixing experiments, and cross-modulation experiments. We emphasize the physical processes important for lightning-ionosphere interactions that can be directly investigated using HAARP.

  9. Development of lightning resistant overhead ground wire and characteristics against lightning current triggered by rocket; Tai rai kaku chisen no kaihatsu to rokketo yurai no jitsuraigeki denryu ni yoru tai rai seino no kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Yokoya, M.; Kawashima, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Omi, H. [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Asano, Y. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Goda, Y. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-03-20

    It has been important to maintain high reliability for supplying electric power in recent high-intelligent society. Overhead ground wires (GW) are installed at upper positions of overhead transmission lines in order to prevent lightning attack on conductors. As the sacrifice, GW sometimes gets certain damages including strand-breakage by a severe lightning attack. Recently, optical fiber composite ground wire(OPGW), which has arisen for development of strong GW against lightning attack, in particular for transmission lines passing through areas where `winter lightning` with enormous electric charge occurs, or areas where frequent lightning occurs. We investigated materials and strand structures to get high lightning-resistant properties and verified by rocket-triggered lightning experiments and DC arc tests. As the results, we have developed excellent lightning-resistant OPGW that has fundamental properties equivalent to conventional GW. 12 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Lightning-triggered electroporation and electrofusion as possible contributors to natural horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-09-01

    Phylogenetic studies show that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a significant contributor to genetic variability of prokaryotes, and was perhaps even more abundant during the early evolution. Hitherto, research of natural HGT has mainly focused on three mechanisms of DNA transfer: conjugation, natural competence, and viral transduction. This paper discusses the feasibility of a fourth such mechanism--cell electroporation and/or electrofusion triggered by atmospheric electrostatic discharges (lightnings). A description of electroporation as a phenomenon is followed by a review of experimental evidence that electroporation of prokaryotes in aqueous environments can result in release of non-denatured DNA, as well as uptake of DNA from the surroundings and transformation. Similarly, a description of electrofusion is followed by a review of experiments showing that prokaryotes devoid of cell wall can electrofuse into hybrids expressing the genes of their both precursors. Under sufficiently fine-tuned conditions, electroporation and electrofusion are efficient tools for artificial transformation and hybridization, respectively, but the quantitative analysis developed here shows that conditions for electroporation-based DNA release, DNA uptake and transformation, as well as for electrofusion are also present in many natural aqueous environments exposed to lightnings. Electroporation is thus a plausible contributor to natural HGT among prokaryotes, and could have been particularly important during the early evolution, when the other mechanisms might have been scarcer or nonexistent. In modern prokaryotes, natural absence of the cell wall is rare, but it is reasonable to assume that the wall has formed during a certain stage of evolution, and at least prior to this, electrofusion could also have contributed to natural HGT. The concluding section outlines several guidelines for assessment of the feasibility of lightning-triggered HGT.

  11. Upward negative leaders in positive triggered lightning: Stepping and branching in the initial stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yunjiao; Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Liu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Fan, Yanfeng; Wu, Xueke

    2017-07-01

    By conducting comprehensive observation on the rarely triggered positive lightning flashes, two cases of upward negative leaders were quantitatively investigated with simultaneous data of current, optical, and electromagnetic field changes at fine time resolution. The impulsive channel current associated with the initial leader stepping involved pulse interval, peak, charge of 19.1 μs, 122.3 Å, 465.9 μC, and 20.3 μs, 58.4 Å, 267.2 μC, for the two cases, respectively. The negative charge of an individual step was nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the positive leader step in triggered lightning. The upward negative stepped leader branches shortly after initiation, and consequently, the stepping-caused current pulses became multipeaked, wider, and more frequent in waveforms. The main leader tip propagated at an average speed of 2.10 × 105 m/s, while its partial speed fluctuated a lot as was significantly influenced by the behaviors of subbranches development.

  12. Triggered lightning sky waves, return stroke modeling, and ionosphere effective height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.; Cummer, S. A.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-03-01

    Ground waves and sky waves measured 209 km and 250 km south of six triggered lightning flashes containing 30 strokes that occurred in the half-hour before sunset on 27 August 2015 are presented and analyzed. We use a cross-correlation technique to find the ionospheric effective reflection height and compare our results to previous techniques that calculate effective height based on the time delay between ground wave and sky wave time domain features. From the first flash to the last flash there is, on average, a 1.6 km increase in effective ionospheric height, whereas no change in effective ionospheric height can be discerned along the individual strokes of a given flash. We show to what extent the triggered lightning radiation source can be described (using channel-base current, channel geometry, and channel luminosity versus time and height) and speculate that a well-characterized source could allow a more accurate determination of the electromagnetic fields radiated toward the ionosphere than has been done to date. We show that both channel geometry and the change in return stroke current amplitude and waveshape with channel height (inferred from measured channel luminosity versus height and time) determine the waveshape of the ground wave (and presumably the upward propagating wave that results in the sky wave) and that the waveshape of the ground wave does not appear to be related to the current versus time waveform measured at the channel base other than a roughly linear relationship between the two peak values.

  13. Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoshinori; Uchida, Shigeaki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Ogata, Akihisa; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Kawasaki, Zen-ichiro; Fujiwara, Etsuo; Ishikubo, Yuji; Kawabata, Kinya

    2000-01-01

    Generation of a long laser-plasma channel capable of triggering and guiding an electrical discharge is a crucial issue for laser-triggering protection system. We make a long plasma channel to increase the probability of triggered lightning by laser. To produce a long laser plasma channel, we propose da new technique called hybrid plasma channel method which combines weakly and strongly ionized plasma channels to maximize laser-energy efficiency of discharge guiding. We investigate the characteristics of the hybrid plasma channels to maximize laser-energy efficiency of discharge guiding. We investigate the characteristics of the hybrid plasma channel method through several laboratory experiments. The weakly ionized channel was generated by UV laser pulses in air. As the number density of electrons in weakly ionized channel is proportional to 1.1 power of laser intensity, nitrogen and oxygen molecules can not attributed to the source of ionized plasma. It is suggested that dissociation process of impurities in air whose density is 1011 - 1012 cm-3 plays an important role in plasma formation and leader triggering effect. The 50 percent flashover voltage using the hybrid plasma channel method is lower than that without the weakly ionized plasma channel. It was also found that higher repetition rate of the plasma generation on lowers the V50 furthermore.

  14. Evaluation of the GLD360 performance characteristics using rocket-and-wire triggered lightning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.; Ngin, T.; Gamerota, W. R.; Pilkey, J. T.; Hill, J. D.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Nag, A.; Said, R. K.

    2014-05-01

    We estimated the performance characteristics of the Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) using rocket-and-wire triggered lightning data acquired at Camp Blanding, Florida, in 2011-2013. The data set consisted of 201 return strokes and 84 kiloampere-scale (≥1 kA) superimposed pulses (initial continuous current pulses and M components) in 43 flashes. All the events transported negative charge to ground. The GLD360 detected 75 strokes and 4 superimposed pulses in 29 flashes. The resultant detection efficiencies were 67% for flashes, 37% for strokes, and 4.8% for superimposed pulses. Out of 75 detected strokes, one (1.3%) was reported with incorrect polarity. The median location error was 2.0 km, and the median absolute current estimation error was 27%. This is the first comprehensive evaluation of GLD360 performance characteristics relative to absolute ground truth, with all previous evaluations being at least in part relative to other locating systems. The results presented in this work may be applicable to regions in and around Florida.

  15. Lightning-triggered electroporation and electrofusion as possible contributors to natural HGT among prokaryotes

    CERN Document Server

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies show that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a significant contributor to genetic variability of prokaryotes, and was perhaps even more abundant during early evolution. Hitherto, research of natural HGT has mainly focused on three mechanisms: conjugation, natural competence, and viral transduction. This paper discusses the feasibility of a fourth such mechanism - cell electroporation and/or electrofusion triggered by atmospheric electrostatic discharges (lightnings). A description of electroporation as a phenomenon is followed by a review of experimental evidence that electroporation of prokaryotes in aqueous environments can result in release of non-denatured DNA, as well as uptake of DNA from the surroundings and transformation. Similarly, a description of electrofusion is followed by a review of experiments showing that prokaryotes devoid of cell wall can electrofuse into hybrids expressing the genes of their both precursors. Under sufficiently fine-tuned conditions, electroporation and...

  16. Observations of the initial stage of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Weitao; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Liangtao; Huang, Zhigang

    2017-05-01

    Observations have been obtained of the initial stage of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning flash with a high-resolution broadband VHF interferometer. The discharge produced 54 precursor current pulses (PCPs) over 883 ms during the rocket's ascent. The interferometer observations show that the PCPs were produced by breakdown at the ascending tip of the rocket, and that individual PCPs were produced by weak upward positive breakdown over meters-scale distances, followed by more energetic, fast downward negative breakdown over several tens of meters distance. The average propagation speeds were 5 × 106 m s-1 and 3 × 107 m s-1, respectively. The sustained upward positive leader (UPL) was initiated by a rapid, repetitive burst of 14 precursor pulses. Upon initiation, the VHF radiation abruptly became continuous with time. Significantly, breakdown during the UPL appeared to extend the discharge in a similar manner to that of the precursor pulses.

  17. Measurement of low-frequency magnetic pulses from negative stepped leaders in rocket-triggered lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gaopeng

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of low-frequency magnetic pulses from negative stepped leaders in rocket-triggered lightning flashes Gaopeng Lu,1,2 Yanfeng Fan,1,3 Hongbo Zhang,1,3 Rubin Jiang,1,2 Mingyuan Liu,1,2 and Xiushu Qie,1,2 1. Key Laboratory of Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment Observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China 2. Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044, China 3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China We report the measurement of magnetic pulses from the negative stepped leaders in positive rocket-triggered lightning flashes with the low-frequency (4 kHz to 420 kHz) magnetic sensor at two different distances (78 m and 970 m, respectively) during the SHantong Artificial Triggered Lightning Experiments (SHATLE) during summer of 2015. Different from the magnetic radiation from positive leaders as observed in the considerably more frequent cases, the impulsive signals from the negative leader sustain for a much longer time interval, while the attenuation of current pulse launched by the stepping of leader is also observed. The general pattern of magnetic pulses observed for the negative stepped leader is different from the positive counterpart. Also, the initial negative leader appears to be brighter than the positive ones, as shown by both high-speed video observation and the magnetic measurement.

  18. Characteristics of return stroke currents of classical and altitude triggered lightning in GCOELD in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Weitao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Wansheng; Chen, Shaodong; Dan, Jianru

    2013-07-01

    The currents of 29 return strokes (RSs) involved in 10 classical triggered lightning flashes (TLFs) and an altitude TLF conducted in Guangdong, China from 2008 to 2011 are analyzed for the first time. They have relatively greater peak values (geometric mean (GM) of 16.07 kA), average rate of rise between 10 and 90% (S10-90%, GM of 29.16 kA μs- 1), charge transfer within 1 ms (Q1 ms, GM of 1.36 C) and action integral within 1 ms (AI1 ms, GM of 5.39 × 103 A2 s), compared with those reported in other studies. The current peak value exhibits pronounced exponential relation with S10-90% (determination coefficient (R2) = 0.43) and maximum rate of rise (R2 = 0.77), power relation with Q1 ms (R2 = 0.89), and logarithmic relation with AI1 ms (R2 = 0.93). Additionally, the discharges associated with the processes of initial-stage return strokes (ISRSs) involved in two altitude TLFs, with the peak currents of 10.09 kA and 9.03 kA, respectively, are investigated. Their peak, 10-90% risetime, average rate of rise between 10 and 90% and maximum rate of rise are comparable to those of the RSs. The chopped-shape pulses closely following the ISRSs and the pulses associated with the disintegration and reconnections of the wire's channel are also discussed.

  19. An experimental test of the 'transmission-line model' of electromagnetic radiation from triggered lightning return strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Leteinturier, C.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1988-01-01

    Peak currents, two-dimensional average propagation speeds, and electric field waveforms for a number of subsequent return strikes in rocket-triggered lightning flashes were measured in order to test the 'transmission-line model' of return-stroke radiation of Uman and McLain (1970). Reasonable agreement is found between the propagation speeds measured with the streak camera and those deduced from the transmission-line model. A modification of the model is proposed in which two wave fronts travel upward and downward away from a junction point a short distance above the ground.

  20. Modeling of Nonlinear Elements During Lightning Overvoltage Simulations%雷电过电压仿真中非线性元件的建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents some problems of lightning overvoltage modeling in transmission lines with nonlinear elements. The presented results were obtained mostly for fast front transients of subsequent lightning return stroke currents. The effectiveness of numerical algorithms of nonlinear models and possibilities of their development for such transients are analyzed. Computer simulations carried out by application of EMTP show that nonlinear models of back-flashover and ZnO arresters work properly, while the implemented corona model can not be used for relatively large peak values of subsequent lightning return-stroke currents.

  1. Data Assimilation of Lightning using 1D+3D/4D WRF Var Assimilation Schemes with Non-Linear Observation Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, M. I.; Stefanescu, R.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Marchand, M.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's launch of the GOES-R Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 will provide continuous, full disc, high resolution total lightning (IC + CG) data. The data will be available at a horizontal resolution of approximately 9 km. Compared to other types of data, the assimilation of lightning data into operational numerical models has received relatively little attention. Previous efforts of lightning assimilation mostly have employed nudging. This paper will describe the implementation of 1D+3D/4D Var assimilation schemes of existing ground-based WTLN (Worldwide Total Lightning Network) lightning observations using non-linear observation operators in the incremental WRFDA system. To mimic the expected output of GLM, the WTLN data were used to generate lightning super-observations characterized by flash rates/81 km2/20 min. A major difficulty associated with variational approaches is the complexity of the observation operator that defines the model equivalent of lightning. We use Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) as a proxy between lightning data and model variables. This operator is highly nonlinear. Marecal and Mahfouf (2003) have shown that nonlinearities can prevent direct assimilation of rainfall rates in the ECMWF 4D-VAR (using the incremental formulation proposed by Courtier et al. (1994)) from being successful. Using data from the 2011 Tuscaloosa, AL tornado outbreak, we have proved that the direct assimilation of lightning data into the WRF 3D/4D - Var systems is limited due to this incremental approach. Severe threshold limits must be imposed on the innovation vectors to obtain an improved analysis. We have implemented 1D+3D/4D Var schemes to assimilate lightning observations into the WRF model. Their use avoids innovation vector constrains from preventing the inclusion of a greater number of lightning observations Their use also minimizes the problem that nonlinearities in the moist convective scheme can introduce discontinuities in the cost function

  2. The Angular Distribution of Electron and X-ray Emission from Triggered Lightning Leader Steps Using the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Energetic radiation is known to be produced by thunderclouds and lightning. To investigate the characteristics of these emissions, ground-based observations are being conducted at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL. Measurements of the electric and magnetic fields, optical emissions, and energetic radiation from both natural and rocket-triggered lightning discharges are recorded at the ICLRT. Specifically, the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA) is used to measure x-ray and gamma-ray emissions. In total, the ICLRT encompasses 36 NaI and two LaBr3 PMTs as part of TERA. Additionally, these measurements were compared with Monte Carlo simulations of runaway electron propagation and their x-ray emission with the goal of understanding the underlying mechanism of runaway electron production and their role in lightning initiation and propagation. In this study, we investigate individual leader steps to determine if electrons at the source (and hence x-rays) are emitted isotropically or with some degree of anisotropy. This study is motivated by the work of Saleh et al. 2009, which compared distributions of a beamed and an isotropic electron source to radial energy distributions using TERA and determined that the average electron source of emission was isotropic. The anisotropy of the runaway electrons is important because it may provide information on the electric fields near the lightning leader tip.

  3. Ground Level Observations of a Possible Downward-Beamed TGF during a Rocket-Triggered Lightning Flash at Camp Blanding, Florida in August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Rassoul, H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D.; Grove, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground level high-energy observations of an August 2014 rocket-triggered lightning event at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, Florida show a 180 µs burst of multiple-MeV photons during the latter part of the Upward Positive Leader (UPL) phase of an altitude-triggered lightning flash, following the first, truncated return stroke. The timing and waveform profile being atypical from x-ray emissions from lightning leaders, our observations suggest the occurrence of a downward beamed terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF). Instrumentation operating during this event include a set of 16 NaI(TI)/PMT detectors plus 7 1-m2 plastic scintillation detectors spread across the 1 km2 facility, with 38 additional Na(TI)/PMT detectors located inside the 1"-thick Pb-shielded x-ray camera and an x-ray spectrometer. Comparing the location and energy data from these detectors to Monte Carlo simulations of TGFs from the REAM code developed by Dwyer [2003], our analysis investigates possible TGF production regions and determines the likelihood of the observed high-energy emissions being produced by a TGF inside the thunderstorm.

  4. Properties of x-ray emission from natural and rocket triggered lightning as measured by the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ziad

    The Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA) is an experiment designed to measure energetic radiations (x-rays and gamma-rays) from thunderstorms and lightning. It is located at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) facility at Camp Blanding, FL. The array is integrated with the Multiple Station Experiment (MSE) which provides simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic fields from nearby lightning. Since 2003, the facility has been operated jointly by University of Florida and Florida Institute of Technology. The array contains eight plastic, two Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3) and 37 Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors distributed over 25 stations covering the ˜ .5 km2 facility and centered around the rocket launch tower which is used to trigger lightning. A subset of the MSE/TERA network, consisting of 9 stations, is operated as a time of arrival network. From 2005 to 2007, MSE/TERA recorded 9 successful rocket-triggered lightning events and 16 natural flashes, all negative cloud-to-ground. In this dissertation, I present an analysis of the x-ray emission from rocket triggered and natural lightning to study their spatial and temporal variation during the leader formation. The x-rays are emitted in discrete bursts lasting for about 1 musec and observed to occur during the last 10˜100 musec of the dart leader and dart-stepped leader phase of triggered lightning and during the last 1 ms of the stepped leader phase of natural lightning, just prior to the time of the return stroke and ceases afterwards. I propose a model for the x-ray emission from a dart-stepped leader which depicts the seed electrons being accelerated near the leader tip clue to the high electric fields and following the path of the dart-stepped leader. Using detailed 3D Monte Carlo simulations, which fully model the bremsstrahlung production, electron and x-ray propagation, the model shows that the seed electrons are emitted isotropically in the azimuthal angle with

  5. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanism for Aftershock Triggering and Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Aftershocks are ubiquitous in nature. They are the manifestation of relaxation phenomena observed in various physical systems. In one prominent example, they typically occur after large earthquakes. They also occur in other natural or experimental systems, for example, in solar flares, in fracture experiments on porous materials and acoustic emissions, after stock market crashes, in the volatility of stock prices returns, in internet traffic variability and e-mail spamming, to mention a few. The observed aftershock sequences usually obey several well defined non-trivial empirical laws in magnitude, temporal, and spatial domains. In many cases their characteristics follow scale-invariant distributions. The occurrence of aftershocks displays a prominent temporal behavior due to time-dependent mechanisms of stress and/or energy transfer. In this work, we consider a slider-block model to mimic the behavior of a seismogenic fault. In the model, we introduce a nonlinear viscoelastic coupling mechanism to capture the essential characteristics of crustal rheology and stress interaction between the blocks and the medium. For this purpose we employ nonlinear Kelvin-Voigt elements consisting of an elastic spring and a dashpot assembled in parallel to introduce viscoelastic coupling between the blocks and the driving plate. By mapping the model into a cellular automaton we derive the functional form of the stress transfer mechanism in the model. We show that the nonlinear viscoelasticity plays a critical role in triggering of aftershocks. It explains the functional form of the Omori-Utsu law and gives physical interpretation of its parameters. The proposed model also suggests that the power-law rheology of the fault gauge and underlying lower crust and upper mantle control the decay rate of aftershocks. To verify this, we analyze several prominent aftershock sequences to estimate their decay rates and correlate with the rheological properties of the underlying lower crust and

  6. Fine spatial evolution of leaders and M-components in rocket-triggered lightning observed with a broadband interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingli; Shen, Yanchi; Du, Yaping; Dong, Wansheng

    2017-08-01

    Based on measurements of VHF radiation sources and VLF electric fields with a broadband interferometer system, the spatial evolution of leader processes and K-breakdowns and M-components involved in a classically-triggered negative lightning discharge have been analyzed. While a normal classically-triggered negative discharge usually starts with a positive leader initiates from the tip of the ascending triggering-wire and moves upward, there was no such an initial upward positive leader (UPL) being observed for the present discharge, probably due to low resolution and sensitivity of the measurements. Instead, there was a downward negative leader (PDL) at the preliminary stage of the discharge being observed, followed by a 173-ms-long lasting M-component-wise process and two leader/return-stroke processes. The PDL was most likely a leader process along the channel trace possibly built by the undetected UPL, as its speed which ranged from 3.7 × 106 m/s to 0.3 × 106 m/s is similar to that of a dart leader in literature. The long lasting M-component-wise process consisted of a slow negative-going change stage (Ma), followed by a fast negative-going change stage (Mb) and then a slow positive-going change stage (Mc). Ma was found to be intra-cloud negative breakdowns moving towards overhead position of the PDL trace. Mb would be considered as a common M-component (channel brightening), which starts with a K breakdown in cloud (Mb1) moving horizontally towards overhead position of the previous PDL, followed by an event (Mb2) moving up from ground to cloud along PDL trace. As Mb2 reaching the cloud, more new K breakdowns (Mc) appeared in cloud around extremities of the pre-built channels by Ma and Mb. The leader preceding the first return stroke (L1) started inside the cloud and propagated downward to the triggering-wire trace, but with a different channel to that of PDL. As the leader touched the triggering wire trace, it appeared to propagate upward along the same

  7. Science of Ball Lightning (Fire Ball)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Yoshi-Hiko

    1989-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Preface * Ball Lightning -- The Continuing Challenge * Hungarian Ball Lightning Observations in 1987 * Nature of Ball Lightning in Japan * Phenomenological and Psychological Analysis of 150 Austrian Ball Lightning Reports * Physical Problems and Physical Properties of Ball Lightning * Statistical Analysis of the Ball Lightning Properties * A Fluid-Dynamical Model for Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning * The Lifetime of Hill's Vortex * Electrical and Radiative Properties of Ball Lightning * The Candle Flame as a Model of Ball Lightning * A Model for Ball Lightning * The High-Temperature Physico-Chemical Processes in the Lightning Storm Atmosphere (A Physico-Chemical Model of Ball Lightning) * New Approach to Ball Lightning * A Calculation of Electric Field of Ball Lightning * The Physical Explanation to the UFO over Xinjiang, Northern West China * Electric Reconnection, Critical Ionization Velocity, Ponderomotive Force, and Their Applications to Triggered and Ball Lightning * The PLASMAK™ Configuration and Ball Lightning * Experimental Research on Ball Lightning * Performance of High-Voltage Test Facility Designed for Investigation of Ball Lightning * List of Participants

  8. Rocket-triggered lightning experiment and application study of transmission line for metal oxide surge arresters; Sanka aengata hiraiki no roketto yurai jikken kekka to sodensen eno tekiyo kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H. [Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Kobayashi, M.

    1997-03-20

    In the measurement of the rocket-triggered lightning current and voltage, executed from 1986 to 1995 at mountain top of Okushishiku in Kanazawa areas, the authors succeeded in artificially inducing the winter lightning to the arresters. Using the data obtained in those measurements, we analyzed the energy absorption characteristics of surge arresters, which are installed on every tower of transmission line for three phases, by EMTP. The energy withstand capability of individual arrester was verified as approximately same as expected value. Analysis result for energy share of each arrester connected in parallel showed that usual light duty arresters installed on every tower have possibility to be able to absorb the big winter lightning energy even if the lightning hit directly the power line. 14 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. A unifying Lyapunov-based framework for the event-triggered control of nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Postoyan, Romain; Nesic, Dragan; Tabuada, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    We present a prescriptive framework for the event-triggered control of nonlinear systems. Rather than closing the loop periodically, as traditionally done in digital control, in event-triggered implementations the loop is closed according to a state-dependent criterion. Event-triggered control is especially well suited for embedded systems and networked control systems since it reduces the amount of resources needed for control such as communication bandwidth. By modeling the event-triggered implementations as hybrid systems, we provide Lyapunov-based conditions to guarantee the stability of the resulting closed-loop system and explain how they can be utilized to synthesize event-triggering rules. We illustrate the generality of the approach by showing how it encompasses several existing event-triggering policies and by developing new strategies which further reduce the resources needed for control.

  10. Cloud Climatologies for Rocket Triggered Lightning from Launches at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    6  Figure 4.  Map indicating five nautical mile ring around the average launch site (light yellow...as a temperature constraint, a wind direction and speed limitation, to potential for lightning occurrence, or a specific cloud formation surrounding...meteorological conditions near the site of the Apollo XII incident (From: Merceret et al. 2010) As the Saturn V rocket with the manned space capsule ascended

  11. The physics of lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Joseph R., E-mail: jdwyer@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Uman, Martin A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field.

  12. Adaptive Event-Triggered Control Based on Heuristic Dynamic Programming for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Zhong, Xiangnan; Sun, Changyin; He, Haibo

    2016-04-08

    This paper presents the design of a novel adaptive event-triggered control method based on the heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) technique for nonlinear discrete-time systems with unknown system dynamics. In the proposed method, the control law is only updated when the event-triggered condition is violated. Compared with the periodic updates in the traditional adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) control, the proposed method can reduce the computation and transmission cost. An actor-critic framework is used to learn the optimal event-triggered control law and the value function. Furthermore, a model network is designed to estimate the system state vector. The main contribution of this paper is to design a new trigger threshold for discrete-time systems. A detailed Lyapunov stability analysis shows that our proposed event-triggered controller can asymptotically stabilize the discrete-time systems. Finally, we test our method on two different discrete-time systems, and the simulation results are included.

  13. 1D+4D-VAR data assimilation of lightning with WRFDA system using nonlinear observation operators

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Razvan; Fuelberg, Henry; Marchand, Max

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of assimilating data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) during two cases of severe weather. Data from the ENTLN serve as a substitute for those from the upcoming launch of the GOES Lightning Mapper (GLM). We use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and variational data assimilation techniques at 9 km spatial resolution. The main goal is to examine the potential impact of lightning observations from the future GLM. Previous efforts to assimilate lightning observations mainly utilized nudging approaches. We develop three more sophisticated approaches, 3D-VAR WRFDA and 1D+nD-VAR (n=3,4) WRFDA schemes that currently are being considered for operational implementation by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This research uses Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) as a proxy between lightning data and model variables. To test the performance of the aforementioned schemes, we assess the q...

  14. Event-triggered sliding mode control for a class of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Abhisek K.; Bandyopadhyay, Bijnan

    2016-09-01

    Event-triggering strategy is one of the real-time control implementation techniques which aims at achieving minimum resource utilisation while ensuring the satisfactory performance of the closed-loop system. In this paper, we address the problem of robust stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems subject to external disturbances using sliding mode control (SMC) by event-triggering scheme. An event-triggering scheme is developed for SMC to ensure the sliding trajectory remains confined in the vicinity of sliding manifold. The event-triggered SMC brings the sliding mode in the system and thus the steady-state trajectories of the system also remain bounded within a predesigned region in the presence of disturbances. The design of event parameters is also given considering the practical constraints on control execution. We show that the next triggering instant is larger than its immediate past triggering instant by a given positive constant. The analysis is also presented with taking delay into account in the control updates. An upper bound for delay is calculated to ensure stability of the system. It is shown that with delay steady-state bound of the system is increased than that of the case without delay. However, the system trajectories remain bounded in the case of delay, so stability is ensured. The performance of this event-triggered SMC is demonstrated through a numerical simulation.

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  17. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to electrical equipment or telephone lines inside a house. Lightning can injure a person several ways: Lightning ... a feathering, branching pattern, consist of clusters of tiny pinpoint spots like a cigarette burn, or consist ...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  20. Nonlinear analysis of electromyogram following gait training with myoelectrically triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation in stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Khattar, Bhawna; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2012-12-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) facilitates ambulatory function after paralysis by activating the muscles of the lower extremities. The NMES-assisted stepping can either be triggered by a heel-switch (switch-trigger), or by an electromyogram (EMG)-based gait event detector (EMG-trigger). The command sources—switch-trigger or EMG-trigger—were presented to each group of six chronic (>6 months post-stroke) hemiplegic stroke survivors. The switch-trigger group underwent transcutaneous NMES-assisted gait training for 1 h, five times a week for 2 weeks, where the stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle of the paretic limb was triggered with a heel-switch detecting heel-rise of the same limb. The EMG-trigger group underwent transcutaneous NMES-assisted gait training of the same duration and frequency where the stimulation was triggered with surface EMG from medial gastrocnemius (MG) of the paretic limb in conjunction with a heel-switch detecting heel-rise of the same limb. During the baseline and post-intervention surface EMG assessment, a total of 10 s of surface EMG was recorded from bilateral MG muscle while the subjects tried to stand steady on their toes. A nonlinear tool—recurrence quantification analysis (RQA)—was used to analyze the surface EMG. The objective of this study was to find the effect of NMES-assisted gait training with switch-trigger or EMG-trigger on two RQA parameters—the percentage of recurrence (%Rec) and determinism (%Det), which were extracted from surface EMG during fatiguing contractions of the paretic muscle. The experimental results showed that during fatiguing contractions, (1) %Rec and %Det have a higher initial value for paretic muscle than the non-paretic muscle, (2) the rate of change in %Rec and %Det was negative for the paretic muscle but positive for the non-paretic muscle, (3) the rate of change in %Rec and %Det significantly increased from baseline for the paretic muscle after EMG-triggered NMES

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  4. Near Optimal Event-Triggered Control of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Using Neurodynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an event-triggered near optimal control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems. Event-driven neurodynamic programming (NDP) is utilized to design the control policy. A neural network (NN)-based identifier, with event-based state and input vectors, is utilized to learn the system dynamics. An actor-critic framework is used to learn the cost function and the optimal control input. The NN weights of the identifier, the critic, and the actor NNs are tuned aperiodically once every triggered instant. An adaptive event-trigger condition to decide the trigger instants is derived. Thus, a suitable number of events are generated to ensure a desired accuracy of approximation. A near optimal performance is achieved without using value and/or policy iterations. A detailed analysis of nontrivial inter-event times with an explicit formula to show the reduction in computation is also derived. The Lyapunov technique is used in conjunction with the event-trigger condition to guarantee the ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system. The simulation results are included to verify the performance of the controller. The net result is the development of event-driven NDP.

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  8. Robust finite-time event-triggered H∞ boundedness for network-based Markovian jump nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglu; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Hailing; Chen, Yiping; Xiang, Huili

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of finite-time event-triggered H∞ boundedness for network-based Markovian jump nonlinear system. An improved model is introduced in terms of network-induced delay. By synthesizing the newly event-triggering conditions, the finite-time H∞ boundedness for networked Markovian jump nonlinear systems are guaranteed. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed theoretical results.

  9. Application of the nonlinear antenna theory model to a tall tower struck by lightning for the evaluation of return stroke channel current and radiated electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. H. S.; Moini, R.; Sadeghi, S. H. H.; Kordi, B.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper an improved antenna theory (AT) model with nonlinearly varying resistive loading and fixed inductive loading is used to electromagnetically simulate lightning strikes to tall structures. Measurement data captured from Toronto's CN tower are used to verify the validity of the new model. Both the return stroke channel (RSC) and the tower are modeled by straight thin conducting wires. The wire model of the channel is assumed to have distributed nonlinear resistive elements as a function of current and time, adopted from the numerical models of a spark channel and consequent shockwave from a lightning discharge, yielding a varying value of the channel radius from the base to the cloud along the RSC. Such distributed elements are used to take into account the current attenuation while propagating along the channel and varying propagation speeds lower than the speed of light. RSC current distribution and radiated electromagnetic fields in near, intermediate, and far range distances predicted by the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the measurement data and with those of the original AT model and the AT with fixed inductive loading (ATIL-F) model. Current wave propagation speed profile in RSC and tower is investigated as a function of height as well. The effects of applying different tower geometry models are also studied. It is shown that the new model is able to reproduce one of the characteristic features of the electromagnetic fields radiated by lightning, namely, the far-field inversion of polarity with a zero crossing occurring in the tens of microseconds range. We have also investigated the effect of nonlinearity of the channel assumed in the new model. It is shown that among the electromagnetic models, distributed nonlinear resistance along the channel leads to a zero crossing in the tens of microseconds range even for large values of resistance. It is also shown that decreasing the nonlinearity results in the predictions

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  19. Event-triggered nonlinear consensus in directed multi-agent systems with combinational state measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Chen, Guo; Xiao, Li

    2016-10-01

    Event-triggered sampling control is motivated by the applications of embedded microprocessors equipped in the agents with limited computation and storage resources. This paper studied global consensus in multi-agent systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics on general directed networks using decentralised event-triggered strategy. For each agent, the controller updates are event-based and only triggered at its own event times by only utilising the locally current sampling data. A high-performance sampling event that only needs local neighbours' states at their own discrete time instants is presented. Furthermore, we introduce two kinds of general algebraic connectivity for strongly connected networks and strongly connected components of the directed network containing a spanning tree so as to describe the system's ability for reaching consensus. A detailed theoretical analysis on consensus is performed and two criteria are derived by virtue of algebraic graph theory, matrix theory and Lyapunov control approach. It is shown that the Zeno behaviour of triggering time sequence is excluded during the system's whole working process. A numerical simulation is given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  4. Lightning Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  5. Lightning Initiation and Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-22

    measured by the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array ( TERA ), J. Geophys. Res, Vol. 114, accepted for publication, Z. Saleh, 1. Dwyer,1. Howard, M...triggered lightning as measured by the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array ( TERA ), 1. Geophys. Res. VoL 114 accepted for publication, Z. Saleh, 1. Dwyer, 1...Howard, M. Uman, M. Bakhtiari, D. Concha, M. Stapleton, D. Hill, C. Biagi, and H. Rassoul Abstract The Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array ( TERA

  6. Event-triggered H∞ control for T-S fuzzy nonlinear systems and its application to truck-trailer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Park, Ju H; Wang, Hailing

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of event-triggered H∞ control for a class of T-S fuzzy nonlinear systems. An improved event-triggered scheme (ETS) characterized by discrete sampling is proposed, where the time-derivative of the membership function is not required. To get conservative conditions, the deviation bound of asynchronous normalized membership functions is considered. By utilizing the non-quadratic fuzzy line-integral Lyapunov functions and a free-matrix-based integral inequality, novel criteria for stabilization analysis of T-S fuzzy nonlinear systems are established. Finally, a truck-trailer system is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed theories.

  7. Three-dimensional non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of massive gas injection triggered disruptions in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fil, A.; Nardon, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Orain, F.; Becoulet, M.; Beyer, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Guirlet, R.; Koslowski, H. R.; Lehnen, M.; Morales, J.; Pamela, S.; Passeron, C.; Reux, C.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2015-06-01

    JOREK 3D non-linear MHD simulations of a D2 Massive Gas Injection (MGI) triggered disruption in JET are presented and compared in detail to experimental data. The MGI creates an overdensity that rapidly expands in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It also causes the growth of magnetic islands ( m / n = 2 / 1 and 3/2 mainly) and seeds the 1/1 internal kink mode. O-points of all island chains (including 1/1) are located in front of the MGI, consistently with experimental observations. A burst of MHD activity and a peak in plasma current take place at the same time as in the experiment. However, the magnitude of these two effects is much smaller than in the experiment. The simulated radiation is also much below the experimental level. As a consequence, the thermal quench is not fully reproduced. Directions for progress are identified. Radiation from impurities is a good candidate.

  8. To sample or not to sample: Self-triggered control for nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anta, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Feedback control laws have been traditionally implemented in a periodic fashion on digital hardware. Although periodicity simplifies the analysis of the mismatch between the control design and its digital implementation, it also leads to conservative usage of resources such as CPU utilization in the case of embedded control. We present a novel technique that abandons the periodicity assumption by using the current state of the plant to decide the next time instant in which the state should be measured, the control law computed, and the actuators updated. This technique, termed self-triggered control, is developed for two classes of nonlinear control systems, namely, state-dependent homogeneous systems and polynomial systems. The wide applicability of the proposed results is illustrated in two well known physical examples: a jet engine compressor and the rigid body.

  9. Lightning Observations with the Upgraded Lanmguir Lab Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Hunyady, S.; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Langmuir Lab Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) is located on and around the Magdalena Mountains in central New Mexico. Recently there have been several improvements to the LMA which have dramatically increased its sensitivity. By switching most stations to solar power (which allows us to place them far from buildings and power lines) and reducing the noise of the power supply, the station-generated and local environmental noise has been reduced to levels near the theoretical thermal value. Because of the recent switch to digital television, the LMA is no longer degraded by the anthropogenic noise of distant VHF television transmitters, due to the stations mostly being switched to UHF. The distant interference was a particularly bad problem for the stations located high in the Magdalena Mountains. The combination of lower threshold values and increasing the number of stations to 16 enables lower-power sources to be detected above the local noise levels and hence located by the system. We are now able to observe the positive leaders (which produce a much lower level of VHF radiation than negative leaders) which propagate upward from a triggering rocket. Lightning channels in natural lightning discharges are also much more clearly defined than in the past. Minor discharges (with one or a few LMA-detected sources) between larger lightning flashes are routinely observed. Much more detail is observed from distant lightning discharges. (However, the increased sensitivity does not reduce the vertical and radial errors for lightning observed outside the array.) In addition to the more sensitive LMA, we continue to improve our array of high-resolution electrostatic field change stations, which provides considerable information on lightning-induced charge transfer. We will present examples of observations of natural and triggered lightning, showing the increased detail now available from the recent improvements to the Langmuir Lab LMA.

  10. Fault zone damage, nonlinear site response, and dynamic triggering associated with seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan

    My dissertation focuses primarily on the following three aspects associated with passing seismic waves in the field of earthquake seismology: temporal changes of fault zone properties, nonlinear site response, and dynamic triggering. I systematically analyze temporal changes of fault zone (FZ) site response along the Karadere-Duzce branch of the North Anatolian fault that ruptured during the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquake sequences. These results provide a bridge between the large-amplitude near-instantaneous changes and the lower-amplitude longer-duration variations observed in previous studies. The temporal changes measured from this high-resolution spectral ratio analysis also provide a refinement for the beginning of the longer more gradual process typically observed by analyzing repeating earthquakes. I use the same sliding-window spectral ratio technique to analyze temporal changes in site response associated with the strong ground motion of the Mw6.6 2004 Mid-Niigata earthquake sequence recorded by the borehole stations in Japanese Digital Strong-Motion Seismograph Network (KiK-Net). The results suggest that at a given site the input ground motion plays an important role in controlling both the coseismic change and postseismic recovery in site response. In a follow-up study, I apply the same sliding-window spectral ratio technique to surface and borehole strong motion records at 6 KiK-Net sites, and stack results associated with different earthquakes that produce similar PGAs. In some cases I observe a weak coseismic drop in the peak frequency when the PGA is as small as ˜20--30 Gal, and near instantaneous recovery after the passage of the direct S waves. The percentage of drop in the peak frequency starts to increase with increasing PGA values. A coseismic drop in the peak spectral ratio is also observed at 2 sites. When the PGA is larger than ˜60 Gal to more than 100 Gal, considerably stronger coseismic drops of the peak frequencies are observed

  11. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  12. Relativistic-microwave theory of ball lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H-C

    2016-06-22

    Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.

  13. Optimal precursors triggering the Kuroshio Extension state transition obtained by the Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Mu, Mu; Wang, Qiang; Pierini, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the initial perturbations that are the easiest to trigger the Kuroshio Extension (KE) transition connecting a basic weak jet state and a strong, fairly stable meandering state, are investigated using a reduced-gravity shallow water ocean model and the CNOP (Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation) approach. This kind of initial perturbation is called an optimal precursor (OPR). The spatial structures and evolutionary processes of the OPRs are analyzed in detail. The results show that most of the OPRs are in the form of negative sea surface height (SSH) anomalies mainly located in a narrow band region south of the KE jet, in basic agreement with altimetric observations. These negative SSH anomalies reduce the meridional SSH gradient within the KE, thus weakening the strength of the jet. The KE jet then becomes more convoluted, with a high-frequency and large-amplitude variability corresponding to a high eddy kinetic energy level; this gradually strengthens the KE jet through an inverse energy cascade. Eventually, the KE reaches a high-energy state characterized by two well defined and fairly stable anticyclonic meanders. Moreover, sensitivity experiments indicate that the spatial structures of the OPRs are not sensitive to the model parameters and to the optimization times used in the analysis.

  14. Characteristics of Lightning Discharges and Electric Structure of Thunderstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qie Xiushu; Zhang Yijun; Zhang Qilin

    2006-01-01

    Progresses in the research on physical processes of lightning discharge and electric structure of thunderstorm in the last decade in China have been reviewed. By using the self-developed lightning detecting and locating techniques with high temporal and spatial resolution, the characteristics and parameters of lightning discharge in some representative areas in China have been obtained. Observations on lightning activity were conducted for the first time in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in 2002-2005, and the special characteristics of the thunderstorm and lightning activity in the plateau were revealed. The lightning spectra in the band of visible light were recorded, and the spectral lines were identified in detail with introduction of modern theories of atomic structure. The techniques on artificially altitude triggered lightning and related measurements under a harsh electromagnetic environment have been well developed. Evidences of bi-directional leader propagation were observed by means of optics and VHF radiation during the triggered lightning discharges. Some lightning protection devices have been tested using the artificial lightning triggering techniques. In addition, the correlation between lightning activities and weather and climate was preliminarily studied.

  15. Development of lightning-resistant overhead ground wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoya, Munehisa; Katsuragi, Yukio (Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Goda, Yutaka (Central Research Inst. of the Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka (Japan)); Nagata, Yutaka; Asano, Yuji (Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Overhead ground wires (GW) are vulnerable to strand breakage due to lightning strikes. With the wider application in recent years of Composite Fiber Optic Ground Wire (OPGW), it becomes more important to protect GW from such damage. In this paper, the authors present the results of various investigations made in developing lightning-resistant GW/OPGW. Investigations included field experiments using rocket-triggered lightning, studies on materials and designs to improve lightning characteristics and various evaluation tests, such as DC arc tests, of several prototypes. As a result, the authors have developed excellent lightning-resistant GW/OPGW applicable for conventional transmission lines.

  16. Aperiodic Robust Model Predictive Control for Constrained Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems: An Event-Triggered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changxin; Gao, Jian; Li, Huiping; Xu, Demin

    2017-08-14

    The event-triggered control is a promising solution to cyber-physical systems, such as networked control systems, multiagent systems, and large-scale intelligent systems. In this paper, we propose an event-triggered model predictive control (MPC) scheme for constrained continuous-time nonlinear systems with bounded disturbances. First, a time-varying tightened state constraint is computed to achieve robust constraint satisfaction, and an event-triggered scheduling strategy is designed in the framework of dual-mode MPC. Second, the sufficient conditions for ensuring feasibility and closed-loop robust stability are developed, respectively. We show that robust stability can be ensured and communication load can be reduced with the proposed MPC algorithm. Finally, numerical simulations and comparison studies are performed to verify the theoretical results.

  17. Distributed Nonlinear Control with Event-Triggered Communication to Achieve Current-Sharing and Voltage Regulation in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    A distributed nonlinear controller is presented to achieve both accurate current-sharing and voltage regulation simultaneously in dc microgrids considering different line impedances’ effects among converters. Then, an improved event-triggered principle for the controller is introduced through...... combining the state-dependent tolerance with a nonnegative offset. In order to design the event-triggered principle and guarantee the global stability, a generalized dc microgrid model is proposed and proven to be positive definite, based on which Lyapunov-based approach is applied. Furthermore, considering...... the effects from constant power loads, the damping performance of proposed controller is further improved and compared with the traditional V-I droop controller. The proposed event-triggered-based communication strategy can considerably reduce the communication traffic and significantly relax the requirement...

  18. Event-triggered nonlinear control for attitude stabilization of a quadrotor

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Castellanos, Fermi; Téllez-Guzmán, J. J.; Durand, Sylvain; Marchand, Nicolas; Álvarez-Muñoz, J. U.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Event-triggered control is a ressource-aware sampling strategy that updates the control value only when a certain condition is satisfied, which denotes event instants. Such a technique allows to reduce the control computational cost and communications. In this paper, a quaternion-based feedback is developed for event-triggered attitude stabilization of a quadrotor mini-helicopter. The feedback is derived from the universal formula for event-triggered stabilization of g...

  19. Multivariate Statistical Inference of Lightning Occurrence, and Using Lightning Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccippio, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Two classes of multivariate statistical inference using TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor, Precipitation Radar, and Microwave Imager observation are studied, using nonlinear classification neural networks as inferential tools. The very large and globally representative data sample provided by TRMM allows both training and validation (without overfitting) of neural networks with many degrees of freedom. In the first study, the flashing / or flashing condition of storm complexes is diagnosed using radar, passive microwave and/or environmental observations as neural network inputs. The diagnostic skill of these simple lightning/no-lightning classifiers can be quite high, over land (above 80% Probability of Detection; below 20% False Alarm Rate). In the second, passive microwave and lightning observations are used to diagnose radar reflectivity vertical structure. A priori diagnosis of hydrometeor vertical structure is highly important for improved rainfall retrieval from either orbital radars (e.g., the future Global Precipitation Mission "mothership") or radiometers (e.g., operational SSM/I and future Global Precipitation Mission passive microwave constellation platforms), we explore the incremental benefit to such diagnosis provided by lightning observations.

  20. Z-M in Lightning Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    reflectivity 20-25 dBZ which maintained their electric field for many tens of minutes well downstream of the 34 convective core. Dye and Willett (2007...concede that although the two anvils did not produce lightning, the electric field was probably sufficient to trigger lightning for many tens of minutes...online at: http://ghrc.msfc.nasa.gov/ uso /readme/ldar.html.] Greene, Douglas R. and Robert A. Clark, 1972: Vertically integrated liquid water—A new

  1. Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Lightning Rip Currents Space Thunderstorms, Hail Tornadoes Tsunamis Ultraviolet (UV) Wildland Fires Wind Winter Weather INFORMATION ... affects a much larger area than the other causes of lightning casualties, the ground current causes the ...

  2. Protection of large wind turbine blades against lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Montañá Puig, Juan; Rachidi-Haeri, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Bermúdez, José Luis; Solà de Las Fuentes, Gloria; Hermoso Alameda, Blas

    2008-01-01

    Lightning protection of modern wind turbines presents a number of new challenges due to the geometrical, electrical and mechanical particularities of the turbines. The risk assessment requires the estimation of the number of expected strikes. In the case of modern turbines, most of the expected lightning flashes will be upward. In addition, due to the rotation of the blades, modern wind turbines may trigger their own lightning. Moreover, since wind turbines are becoming tall struc...

  3. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q. D.; Budny, R. V.

    2015-03-01

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (Ti,e) and toroidal velocity (Vϕ) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  4. Lightning Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    33-38, 1975. 6. Schonland, B.F.J., The Lightning Discharge, Handbuch der Physik , 22, 576-628, Springer-Verlag, OHG, Berlin, 1956. 25 (K,z) R GROUND o... Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms, IEEE Std 100-1977, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1977. 313 cc C 0J 0J o -4 0$4j 4j)4J 0 1.4 >- ~ o 0 0 .,.C...Electric Power Research Institute) EL-1140, Project 1141 Final Report, Sept. 1979. 8. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms, Wiley

  5. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  6. Nonlinear wake amplification by an active medium in a cylindrical waveguide using a modulated trigger bunch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeev; Toroker; Miron; Voin; Levi; Schchter

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov wake amplification can be used as an accelerating scheme,in which a trigger bunch of electrons propagating inside a cylindrical waveguide filled with an active medium generates an initial wake field.Due to the multiple reflections inside the waveguide,the wake may be amplified significantly more strongly than when propagating in a boundless medium.Sufficiently far away from the trigger bunch the wake,which travels with the same phase velocity as the bunch,reaches saturation and it can accelerate a second bunch of electrons trailing behind.For a CO2 gas mixture our numerical and analytical calculations indicate that a short saturation length and a high gradient can be achieved with a large waveguide radius filled with a high density of excited atoms and a trigger bunch that travels at a velocity slightly above the Cerenkov velocity.To obtain a stable level of saturated wake that will be suitable for particle acceleration,it is crucial to satisfy the single-mode resonance condition,which requires high accuracy in the waveguide radius and the ratio between the electron phase velocity and the Cerenkov velocity.For single-mode propagation our model indicates that it is feasible to obtain gradients as high as GV m-1 in a waveguide length of cm.

  7. Lightning in superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestgården, J I; Shantsev, D V; Galperin, Y M; Johansen, T H

    2012-01-01

    Crucially important for application of type-II superconductor films is the stability of the vortex matter--magnetic flux lines penetrating the material. If some vortices get detached from pinning centres, the energy dissipated by their motion will facilitate further depinning, and may trigger a massive electromagnetic breakdown. Up to now, the time-resolved behaviour of these ultra-fast events was essentially unknown. We report numerical simulation results revealing the detailed dynamics during breakdown as within nanoseconds it develops branching structures in the electromagnetic fields and temperature, with striking resemblance of atmospheric lightning. During a dendritic avalanche the superconductor is locally heated above its critical temperature, while electrical fields rise to several kV/m as the front propagates at instant speeds near up to 100 km/s. The numerical approach provides an efficient framework for understanding the ultra-fast coupled non-local dynamics of electromagnetic fields and dissipation in superconductor films.

  8. Internal transport barrier triggered by non-linear lower hybrid wave deposition under condition of beam-driven toroidal rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Q. D., E-mail: qgao@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    By using gyro-Landau fluid transport model (GLF23), time-dependent integrated modeling is carried out using TRANSP to explore the dynamic process of internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the neutral beam heating discharges. When the current profile is controlled by LHCD (lower hybrid current drive), with appropriate neutral beam injection, the nonlinear interplay between the transport determined gradients in the plasma temperature (T{sub i,e}) and toroidal velocity (V{sub ϕ}) and the E×B flow shear (including q-profile) produces transport bifurcations, generating spontaneously a stepwise growing ITB. In the discharge, the constraints imposed by the wave propagation condition causes interplay of the LH driven current distribution with the plasma configuration modification, which constitutes non-linearity in the LH wave deposition. The non-linear effects cause bifurcation in LHCD, generating two distinct quasi-stationary reversed magnetic shear configurations. The change of current profile during the transition period between the two quasi-stationary states results in increase of the E×B shearing flow arising from toroidal rotation. The turbulence transport suppression by sheared E×B flow during the ITB development is analysed, and the temporal evolution of some parameters characterized the plasma confinement is examined. Ample evidence shows that onset of the ITB development is correlated with the enhancement of E×B shearing rate caused by the bifurcation in LHCD. It is suggested that the ITB triggering is associated with the non-linear effects of the LH power deposition.

  9. Predictive Event Triggered Control based on Heuristic Dynamic Programming for Nonlinear Continuous Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    our best knowledge , this is the first study of using a “predictive” approach through a model network to design the event-triggered ADP. This is the...investigated in the com- munity before, to our best knowledge , this is the first study of using a “predictive” approach through a model network to...programming has been used to solve the optimal control for many years. However, due to the ” curse of di- mensionality” [9], [10], the adaptive dynamic

  10. Theory of ball lightning

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, H -C

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive explanation on ball lightning, a luminous sphere occasionally witnessed after ordinary lightning. In the last decade, it has been well established that natural lightning routinely generates relativistic electrons, which account for observed x rays. So we assume that, in a ball lightning event, a well-defined relativistic electron bunch is produced by the stepped leader of lightning. When this electron bunch strikes various media, a powerful microwave pulse is emitted by the coherent transition radiation mechanism. This intense microwave ionizes air, evacuates plasmas by its radiation pressure to form a globular plasma cavity, and then gets trapped inside the cavity. This theory successfully explains all characteristics of ball lightning, especially the appearance of ball lightning in fully-screened aircraft. Moreover, the proposed radiation mechanism fully explains the strongest radio signals from lightning and nanosecond spikes in the signals are direct evidences on the generation ...

  11. The lightning flash

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    With contributions from today's leading lightning engineers and researchers, this updated 2nd edition of Vernon Cooray's classic text, The Lightning Flash provides the reader with an essential introduction to lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment. Providing the reader with a thorough background into almost every aspect of lightning and its impact on electrical and electronic equipment, this new edition is updated throughout and features eight new chapters that bring the science up to date.

  12. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  13. Uncertainty Quantification of Non-linear Oscillation Triggering in a Multi-injector Liquid-propellant Rocket Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Pavel; Sideris, Athanasios; Sirignano, William

    2014-11-01

    We examine the non-linear dynamics of the transverse modes of combustion-driven acoustic instability in a liquid-propellant rocket engine. Triggering can occur, whereby small perturbations from mean conditions decay, while larger disturbances grow to a limit-cycle of amplitude that may compare to the mean pressure. For a deterministic perturbation, the system is also deterministic, computed by coupled finite-volume solvers at low computational cost for a single realization. The randomness of the triggering disturbance is captured by treating the injector flow rates, local pressure disturbances, and sudden acceleration of the entire combustion chamber as random variables. The combustor chamber with its many sub-fields resulting from many injector ports may be viewed as a multi-scale complex system wherein the developing acoustic oscillation is the emergent structure. Numerical simulation of the resulting stochastic PDE system is performed using the polynomial chaos expansion method. The overall probability of unstable growth is assessed in different regions of the parameter space. We address, in particular, the seven-injector, rectangular Purdue University experimental combustion chamber. In addition to the novel geometry, new features include disturbances caused by engine acceleration and unsteady thruster nozzle flow.

  14. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  15. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.

    2012-04-01

    . Moreover, numerous infrasound events which have the infrasound from lightning signature could not be correlated when thunderstorms were close to the station. Statistical analyses of all correlated infrasound events show an exponential decrease of the infrasound amplitude with the distance of one order of magnitude per 50 km. These analyses show also that the relative position of lightning is important: the detection limit is higher when lightning occur at the East of the station than when they occur at the West. The dominant wind (the Easterlies) could be responsible of this dissymmetry. It also exists a high variability of detection efficiency with the seasons (better efficiency in fall than in spring). Finally, these statistics show clearly a structure inside the shadow zone (from 70 to 200 km away from the station). These results will be compared with intensive numerical simulations. The simulations are separated into two parts: the simulation of the near-field blast wave generated by a lightning and the simulation of the non-linear propagation of the shock front through a realistic atmosphere. By comparing our numerical results to recorded data over a full 1-year period, we aim to show that dominant features of statistics at the IMS station may be explained by the meteorological variability.

  16. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  17. Predicting the Probability of Lightning Occurrence with Generalized Additive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabsic, Peter; Mayr, Georg; Simon, Thorsten; Zeileis, Achim

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the predictability of lightning in complex terrain. The main objective is to estimate the probability of lightning occurrence in the Alpine region during summertime afternoons (12-18 UTC) at a spatial resolution of 64 × 64 km2. Lightning observations are obtained from the ALDIS lightning detection network. The probability of lightning occurrence is estimated using generalized additive models (GAM). GAMs provide a flexible modelling framework to estimate the relationship between covariates and the observations. The covariates, besides spatial and temporal effects, include numerous meteorological fields from the ECMWF ensemble system. The optimal model is chosen based on a forward selection procedure with out-of-sample mean squared error as a performance criterion. Our investigation shows that convective precipitation and mid-layer stability are the most influential meteorological predictors. Both exhibit intuitive, non-linear trends: higher values of convective precipitation indicate higher probability of lightning, and large values of the mid-layer stability measure imply low lightning potential. The performance of the model was evaluated against a climatology model containing both spatial and temporal effects. Taking the climatology model as a reference forecast, our model attains a Brier Skill Score of approximately 46%. The model's performance can be further enhanced by incorporating the information about lightning activity from the previous time step, which yields a Brier Skill Score of 48%. These scores show that the method is able to extract valuable information from the ensemble to produce reliable spatial forecasts of the lightning potential in the Alps.

  18. A review of advances in lightning observations during the past decade in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Lü, Weitao; Chen, Shaodong; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Xu; Chen, Lüwen; Dong, Wansheng; Dan, Jianru; Pan, Hanbo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in understanding the physical processes of artificially triggered lightning and natural lightning as well as the progress in testing lightning protection technologies, based on a series of lightning field campaigns jointly conducted by the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences and Guangdong Meteorological Bureau since 2006. During the decade-long series of lightning field experiments, the technology of rocket-wire artificially triggered lightning has been improved, and has successfully triggered 94 lightning flashes. Through direct lightning current waveform measurements, an average return stroke peak current of 16 kA was obtained. The phenomenon that the downward leader connects to the lateral surface of the upward leader in the attachment process was discovered, and the speed of the upward leader during the connection process being significantly greater than that of the downward leader was revealed. The characteristics of several return strokes in cloud-to-ground lighting have also been unveiled, and the mechanism causing damage to lightning protection devices (i.e., ground potential rise within the rated current) was established. The performance of three lightning monitoring systems in Guangdong Province has also been quantitatively assessed.

  19. Progress in understanding disruptions triggered by massive gas injection via 3D non-linear MHD modelling with JOREK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardon, E.; Fil, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G.; contributors, JET

    2017-01-01

    3D non-linear MHD simulations of a D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) triggered disruption in JET with the JOREK code provide results which are qualitatively consistent with experimental observations and shed light on the physics at play. In particular, it is observed that the gas destabilizes a large m/n  =  2/1 tearing mode, with the island O-point coinciding with the gas deposition region, by enhancing the plasma resistivity via cooling. When the 2/1 island gets so large that its inner side reaches the q  =  3/2 surface, a 3/2 tearing mode grows. Simulations suggest that this is due to a steepening of the current profile right inside q  =  3/2. Magnetic field stochastization over a large fraction of the minor radius as well as the growth of higher n modes ensue rapidly, leading to the thermal quench (TQ). The role of the 1/1 internal kink mode is discussed. An I p spike at the TQ is obtained in the simulations but with a smaller amplitude than in the experiment. Possible reasons are discussed.

  20. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-08-01

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  1. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchard, D., E-mail: mitcharddr@cardiff.ac.uk; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A. [Morgan-Botti Lightning Laboratory, Advanced High Voltage Research Centre, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-29

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  2. Lightning Injury: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    bilateral perilymphatic fistulas from a lightning strike have been reported [65,68]. Other neuro-otologic findings have included transient vertigo...Keraunopathology. An analysis of 45 fatalities. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1996;17(2):89–98. [7] Blumenthal R. Lightning fatalities on the South African...Trauma 1989;29(5):665–71. [65] Sun GH, Simons JP, Mandell DL. Bilateral perilymphatic fistulas from a lightning strike: a case report. Laryngoscope

  3. Statistical Analysis for Probable Varying Potential Lightnings Strokes to Extended Objects%Statistical Analysis for Probable Varying Potential Lightnings Strokes to Extended Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Rezinkina; O. Rezinkin; C. Bean; S.R. Chalise; J. Grastya

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the statistical modeling method of the lightning attachment process to extended objects has been proposed. The modeling takes into account the probabilities of lightning occurrence with current of different am- plitudes, and nonlinear variation of spark resistance at leader channel growth. The method also takes into considera- tion the dependency of velocity and acceleration of a lightning leader on its potential. The propagation of lightning channel towards the earth is tortuous and random in orientation and does not depend upon ground objects until it en- ters into "last stroke zone". It assumes that the lightning leader channel orientation begins when its streamer zone touches the earth, a grounded object, a grounded lightning rod or a streamer zone of the ascending leader. The proba- ble frequency of lightning strikes to an investigated object can be obtained by the summation of the total probable number of strikes of all possible potentials at each node of the object, appearing with the assigned probability, as well as the points of origin of the heads of lightning leaders from all nodes on the plain (over the object) at corresponding heights. The proposed method is implemented to ealculate the lightning stroke probability to a high voltage substation. Due to lightning attraction from the territory greater than that of the investigated object, the total number of annual probable lightning strokes to the object is increased by 1.28 times in comparison with the case of the same flat territory.

  4. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  5. Infrasound Observations from Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Thomas, R. J.; Jones, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    To provide additional insight into the nature of lightning, we have investigated its infrasound manifestations. An array of three stations in a triangular configuration, with three sensors each, was deployed during the Summer of 2008 (July 24 to July 28) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) sources due to lightning. Hyperbolic formulations of time of arrival (TOA) measurements and interferometric techniques were used to locate lightning sources occurring over and outside the network. A comparative analysis of simultaneous Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data and infrasound measurements operating in the same area was made. The LMA locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. The comparison showed strong evidence that lightning does produce infrasound. This work is a continuation of the study of the frequency spectrum of thunder conducted by Holmes et al., who reported measurements of infrasound frequencies. The integration of infrasound measurements with RF source localization by the LMA shows great potential for improved understanding of lightning processes.

  6. Lightning in aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, F.

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that a civilian aircraft is struck, on average, once or twice per year. This number tends to indicate that a lightning strike risk is far from being marginal and so requires that aircraft manufacturers have to demonstrate that their aircraft is protected against lightning. The first generation of aircrafts, which were manufactured mainly in aluminium alloy and had electromechanical and pneumatic controls, had a natural immunity to the effects of lightning. Nowadays, aircraft structures are made primarily with composite materials and flight controls are mostly electronic. This aspect of the "more composite and more electric" aircraft demands to aircraft manufacturers to pay a particular attention to the lightning protection and to its certification by testing and/or analysis. It is therefore essential to take this risk into account when designing the aircraft. Nevertheless, it is currently impossible to reproduce the entire lightning phenomenon in testing laboratories and the best way to analyse the lightning protection is to reproduce its effects. In this context, a number of standards and guides are produced by standards committees to help laboratories and aircraft manufacturers to perform realistic tests. Although the environment of a laboratory is quite different from those of a storm cloud, the rules of aircraft design, the know-how of aircraft manufacturers, the existence of international work leading to a better understanding of the lightning phenomenon and standards more precise, permit, today, to consider the risk as properly controlled.

  7. Joint voltages resulting from lightning currents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William Arthur; Warne, Larry Kevin; Merewether, Kimball O.; Chen, Kenneth C.

    2007-03-01

    Simple formulas are given for the interior voltages appearing across bolted joints from exterior lightning currents. External slot and bolt inductances as well as internal slot and bolt diffusion effects are included. Both linear and ferromagnetic wall materials are considered. A useful simplification of the slot current distribution into linear stripline and cylindrical parts (near the bolts) allows the nonlinear voltages to be estimated in closed form.

  8. Note on lightning temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanakyan, Yu. R., E-mail: yralanak@mail.ru [Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, some features of the dynamics of a lightning channel that emerges after the leader-streamer process, are theoretically studied. It is shown that the dynamic pinch effect in the channel becomes possible if a discharge current before the main (quasi-steady) stage of a lightning discharge increases rapidly. The ensuing magnetic compression of the channel increases plasma temperature to several million degrees leading to a soft x-ray flash within the highly ionized plasma. The relation between the plasma temperature and the channel radius during the main stage of a lightning discharge is derived.

  9. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  10. a Time-Resolved Photographic Study of Lightning in the Thunderstorm Research International Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idone, Vincent Peter

    Time-resolved recordings of 118 strokes in both natural and artificially triggered lightning flashes obtained during participation in the Thunderstorm Research International Program (TRIP) have allowed the measurement of leader and return stroke propagation speeds, providing the largest single body of such data to date. The mean two-dimensional return stroke propagation speed found for 63 natural lightning strokes is 11 x 10('7) m/s. The distribution of measured propagation speeds peaks strongly at (TURN)9 x 10('7) m/s and extends from 2.9 to 24 x 10('7) m/s. Propagation speed reductions in upper channel segments are observed in both first and subsequent strokes. Those results are compared with the earlier work of Schonland and McEachron; substantial disparities are found and examined. The return stroke propagation speeds of the triggered lightning strokes are evaluated in three dimensions via stereo photography of the lightning. A mean of 11 x 10('7) m/s is found for 55 strokes, with a range of 6.4 to 16 x 10('7) m/s. Return stroke propagation speed reductions during propagation along the channel are also observed for these triggered lightning strokes. Propagation speeds are determined for 21 natural and 32 triggered lightning dart leaders, with means of 11 x 10('6) m/s and 18 x 10('6) m/s, respectively. Dart leader propagation speed increases near ground are reported for the first time. Variations in the propagation speed and luminous characteristics of four natural lightning dart-stepped leaders, two triggered lightning dart-stepped leaders, and three natural lightning stepped leaders are examined. The analysis reveals a positive correlation between the dart length and the dart leader propagation speed, this being observed in both natural and triggered lightning. Also, a correlation is found between the dart leader and return stroke propagation speed for the triggered lightning data; no such correlation is found for natural lightning. For one stroke of the

  11. Lightning Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).

  12. Status of development of lightning detector for PLANET-C mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, M.; Teraguchi, T.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetometer onboard Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source can be considered to be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft orbit. However, there still remain some uncertainties to conclude finally such waves are originated by lightning discharge in the atmosphere. In order to identify the discharge phenomena in the atmosphere of Venus without any doubt, we plan to observe the lightning activity with high-speed optical detector onboard Planet-C, the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter mission which will be launched in 2010 by JAXA. We are developing a new type of lightning detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera). Main difference from other equipments which have provided evidences of lightning existence in Venus is the high-speed sampling rate at 50kHz for each pixel, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. On the other hand, spatial resolution is not first priority as the first detector of Venus lightning. New type of APD (avalanche photo diode) array with a format of 8 x 8 is used and a narrow band interference filter at wavelength of 777.4 nm (OI) is selected for lightning measurement. The development is now at the stage for designing and manufacturing the flight model, based on the performance and environmental tolerance of the proto model. Especially, the algorithm for self- triggering is carefully improved in order to exclude false-trigger by other pulse-like noise.

  13. Analysis and Assessment of Peak Lightning Current Probabilities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum presents a summary by the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center of lightning characteristics and lightning criteria for the protection of aerospace vehicles. Probability estimates are included for certain lightning strikes (peak currents of 200, 100, and 50 kA) applicable to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during rollout, on-pad, and boost/launch phases. Results of an extensive literature search to compile information on this subject are presented in order to answer key questions posed by the Space Shuttle Program Office at the Johnson Space Center concerning peak lightning current probabilities if a vehicle is hit by a lightning cloud-to-ground stroke. Vehicle-triggered lightning probability estimates for the aforementioned peak currents are still being worked. Section 4.5, however, does provide some insight on estimating these same peaks.

  14. Upward lightning attachment analysis on wind turbines and correlated current parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Ishii, M.; Saito, M.

    2017-01-01

    for intense upward lightning activity. 172 video recordings of lightning discharges on rotating wind turbines are analysed and attachment angle, detachment angle, and the resulting angular displacement were determined. A classification between self-initiated and other-triggered upward lightning events...... is performed by means of video analysis. The results reveal that the majority of discharges are initiated on vertical blades; however, also attachments to horizontal blades are reported. Horizontal attachment (or a slightly inclined blade state) is often related with a triggered lightning event prior...... to the discharge. There are about twice as many lightning attachments during the ascending blade movement compared to the descending blade movement. Furthermore, a comparison between current parameters from stationary and rotating wind turbines reveal no substantial difference between the two operational modes...

  15. Lightning detection in planetary atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Lightning in planetary atmospheres is now a well-established concept. Here we discuss the available detection techniques for, and observations of, planetary lightning by spacecraft, planetary landers and, increasingly, sophisticated terrestrial radio telescopes. Future space missions carrying lightning-related instrumentation are also summarised, specifically the European ExoMars mission and Japanese Akatsuki mission to Venus, which could both yield lightning observations in 2016.

  16. Lightning medicine in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Trengrove, Estelle; Jandrell, Ian R; Saayman, Gert

    2012-06-06

    South Africa has a rich history of lightning research; however, research on the clinical and pathological effects and features of lightning-related injury (keraunomedicine or lightning medicine) remains neglected locally. By providing an overview of keraunomedicine and focussing on South African perspectives, we hope to raise awareness and propose that a concerted and co-ordinated attempt be made to report and collate data regarding lightning strike victims in South Africa.

  17. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  18. Giant optical nonlinearity of silver-doped silicon thin film at low power input: laser-triggered cluster resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jingsong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai (China); Zhejiang University, State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Jing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Mufei [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apartado Postal 365, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2011-09-15

    Silver-doped silicon thin films were deposited on glass substrate in a co-sputtering procedure. Silver nanoparticles were segregatedly distributed. The nonlinear properties were extracted by z-scan measurements at low laser input power. For about 50% silver density, the nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients peaked, respectively, at -8.086 x 10{sup -2} m/W and 1.47 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/W, which, with respect to the input intensity, are several orders higher than reported data. The sudden surge of nonlinear responses was explained satisfactorily based on a self-consistent microscopic model calculation for silver clusters. Resonances exist and depend apparently on the laser-modified local cluster concentration. (orig.)

  19. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  20. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  1. Using lightning locating system based on time-of-arrival technique to study three-dimensional lightning discharge processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A time-of-arrival(TOA) system based on GPS technology for locating VHF radiation sources from lightning has been developed and used in observation sites in the northern Shandong Province,China.The 3D images of the lightning progression have been obtained successfully for the first time in China.The 3D-channel evolutions of typical negative CG,positive CG and IC lightning flashes have been discussed together with the data of fast electric field change.It was found that significant differences existed between the negative and positive CG lightning flashes in terms of the initiation and propagation of the radiation sources.The preliminary breakdown of a negative CG lightning flash propagated at a speed about 5.2×104 m/s.The stepped leader of negative CG lightning flashes was trigged by negative initial breakdown.Thereafter,it propagated downward at a speed of 1.3×105 m/s.The initial process of the positive CG lightning flashes was also a propagation process of negative streamer.These streamers propagated dominantly horizontally in the positive charge region and accumulated positive charges at the origin of the lightning,and as a consequence,initiated downward positive streamers.A new type of lightning discharge that was triggered by a narrow bipolar pulse(NBP) is discussed in this study.The NBP was originated at altitude of about 10.5 km in the upper positive charge region.As a distinct difference from normal IC flash,its channels extended horizontally all around and produced a lot of radiation sources.The source power of the NBP could approach 16.7 kW,which is much greater than that of normal lightning discharge ranging between 100 mW and 500 W.The 3D propagation of this new type of lightning discharge was observed and obtained for the first time in China.The possible initiation mechanism of this new type of light-ning is discussed here.

  2. Adaptive Neural Network-Based Event-Triggered Control of Single-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive neural network (NN) control of single-input and single-output uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems under event sampled NN inputs. In this control scheme, the feedback signals are transmitted, and the NN weights are tuned in an aperiodic manner at the event sampled instants. After reviewing the NN approximation property with event sampled inputs, an adaptive state estimator (SE), consisting of linearly parameterized NNs, is utilized to approximate the unknown system dynamics in an event sampled context. The SE is viewed as a model and its approximated dynamics and the state vector, during any two events, are utilized for the event-triggered controller design. An adaptive event-trigger condition is derived by using both the estimated NN weights and a dead-zone operator to determine the event sampling instants. This condition both facilitates the NN approximation and reduces the transmission of feedback signals. The ultimate boundedness of both the NN weight estimation error and the system state vector is demonstrated through the Lyapunov approach. As expected, during an initial online learning phase, events are observed more frequently. Over time with the convergence of the NN weights, the inter-event times increase, thereby lowering the number of triggered events. These claims are illustrated through the simulation results.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Lightning Return Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Frota Mattos, Marcos Andre

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Several lightning return stroke models were developed in this work. Initially very simple models were developed, and subsequently many of the main features of the channel were added. The corona effect, the geometrical parameters, non-linear losses and the cloud losses are these features. To solve the RLC network model of the channel the numerical technique known as TLM was used. A numerical sensitivity study was made to analyse the influence of the filtering and the Gibbs effects on the results. A sensitivity study of the channel's parameters was also made. For the first time three of the main measured lightning channel quantities were calculated showing good agreement with observations. These quantities are the electromagnetic field, current waveshape at ground and the velocity of propagation. The surge impedence and the current rise-time were also calculated at all heights.

  4. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.

    2015-10-01

    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leaders. We report here a serendipitous recording of bidirectional lightning initiation in virgin air under the cloud base at ~11,000 images per second, and the differences in characteristics of opposite polarity leader sections during the earliest stages of the discharge. This case reveals natural lightning initiation, propagation and a return stroke as in negative cloud-to-ground flashes, upon connection to another lightning channel - without any masking by cloud.

  5. Examination of Height of Transmission Line and Lightning Striking Distance concerning Lightning Shielding Effect Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sekioka, Shozo; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    We examined the lightning frequency reported by Eriksson and the lightning current distribution shown in IEC 62305-1. The lightning striking coefficient is assumed to be related to height of structures. The lightning current distribution to ground which was applicable to the electro-geometric model is estimated. Using the assumption of lightning striking distance coefficient and the estimated lightning current distribution, we calculated the lightning frequency and the lightning current distribution, concerning lightning shielding effect in transmission lines. The calculation results of the lightning frequency and the lightning current distributions were compared with the observation results, and agree satisfactorily with them.

  6. Lightning not detected on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    Scientists have speculated that lightning on Saturn's moon Titan could produce changes in atmospheric chemistry and could even spark production of organic compounds that could be precursors to the evolution of life, but so far there has been no conclusive detection of lightning on Titan. Extending previous searches for lightning on Titan, Fischer and Gurnett analyzed radio data up to the 72nd close flyby of Titan by the Cassini spacecraft. They found no evidence of lightning and concluded that if lightning occurs at all on Titan, it is probably a very rare event. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047316, 2011)

  7. Identifying the occurrence of lightning and transient luminous events by nadir spectrophotometric observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Sato, Mitsuteru; Ushio, Tomoo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Makoto; Kikuchi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inan, Umran S.; Linscott, Ivan; Hobara, Yasuhide; Frey, Harald U.; Mende, Stephen B.; Chen, Alfred B.; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Kusunoki, Kenichi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new technique to identify the occurrence of lightning and transient luminous events (TLEs) using multicolor photometric data obtained by space borne nadir measurements. We estimate the spectral characteristics of lightning and TLEs by converting the optical data obtained by the ISUAL limb experiment to the GLIMS nadir geometry. We find that the estimated spectral shapes of TLE-accompanied lightning are clearly different from those of pure lightning. The obtained results show that (1) the intensity of FUV signals and (2) the ratio of 337/red (609-753 nm) spectral irradiance are useful to identify the occurrence of TLEs. The occurrence probabilities of TLEs are 10%, 40%, 80%, in the case of lightning events having the 337/red spectral irradiance ratio of 0.95, 2.95, 14.79, respectively. By using the 60% criterion of the 337/red ratio and the existence of FUV emissions, we classify the 1039 GLIMS-observed lightning events into 828 pure lightning and 211 TLE-accompanied lightning. Since the GLIMS trigger level is adjusted to observe extremely-bright events, the occurrence probability of TLEs obtained here most probably reflects the characteristics of energetic lightning. The estimated global map is consistent with previously determined distributions: the highest activities of lightning and TLEs are found over the North/South American continents, African continent, and Asian maritime regions. While the absolute occurrence number of pure lightning and TLE-accompanied lightning are found to maximize in the equatorial region, the occurrence probability of TLEs possibly increase somewhat in the mid-latitude region. Since the occurrence probabilities of TLEs are higher over the ocean than over land, it is likely that the GLIMS-observed TLEs are due primarily to elves which tends to occur more frequently over the ocean.

  8. Lightning Imaging with LOFAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholten Olaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that LOFAR can be used as a lightning mapping array with a resolution that is orders of magnitude better than existing arrays. In addition the polarization of the radiation can be used to track the direction of the stepping discharges.

  9. The Origin of Lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A heavenly source gives an orphaned Cherokee boy 12 silver arrows and directs him to kill the chief of the cruel Manitos (spirits). When the boy fails in his mission, the angry Manitos turn him into lightning, condemning him to flash like his silver arrows across the skies forever. (DS)

  10. Lightning electromagnetic field generated by grounding electrode considering soil ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong; HE Jinliang; ZHANG Bo; GAO Yanqing

    2006-01-01

    A circuit model with lumped time-variable parameter is proposed to calculate the transient characteristic of grounding electrode under lightning current, which takes into consideration the dynamic and nonlinear effect of soil ionization around the grounding electrode. The ionization phenomena in the soil are simulated by means of time-variable parameters under appropriate conditions. The generated electromagnetic field in the air is analyzed by using electrical dipole theory and image theory when the lightning current flows into the grounding electrode. The influence of soil ionization on the electromagnetic field is investigated.

  11. Aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váchová J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general solution of aerodynamically generated noise by lightning arrester. Governing equations are presented in form of Lighthill acoustic analogy, as embodied in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation. This equation is based on conservation laws of fluid mechanics rather than on the wave equation. Thus, the FW-H equation is valid even if the integration surface is in nonlinear region. That’s why the FWH method is superior in aeroacoustics. The FW-H method is implemented in program Fluent and the numerical solution is acquired by Fluent code.The general solution of acoustic signal generated by lightning arrester is shown and the results in form of acoustic pressure and frequency spectrum are presented. The verification of accuracy was made by evaluation of Strouhal number. A comparison of Strouhal number for circumfluence of a cylinder and the lightning arrester was done, because the experimental data for cylinder case are known and these solids are supposed to be respectively in shape relation.

  12. Lightning and its association with the frequency of headache in migraineurs: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoffrey V; Houle, Timothy; Nicholson, Robert; Peterlin, Albert; Martin, Vincent T

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is to determine if lightning is associated with the frequency of headache in migraineurs. Participants fulfilling diagnostic criteria for International Headache Society-defined migraine were recruited from sites located in Ohio ( N  = 23) and Missouri ( N  = 67). They recorded headache activity in a daily diary for three to six months. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression determined the odds ratio (OR) of headache on lightning days compared to non-lightning days. Other weather factors associated with thunderstorms were also added as covariates to the GEE model to see how they would attenuate the effect of lightning on headache. The mean age of the study population was 44 and 91% were female. The OR for headache was 1.31 (95% confidence limits (CL); 1.07, 1.66) during lighting days as compared to non-lightning days. The addition of thunderstorm-associated weather variables as covariates were only able to reduce the OR for headache on lightning days to 1.18 (95% CL; 1.02, 1.37). The probability of having a headache on lightning days was also further increased when the average current of lightning strikes for the day was more negative. This study suggests that lightning represents a trigger for headache in migraineurs that cannot be completely explained by other meteorological factors. It is unknown if lightning directly triggers headaches through electromagnetic waves or indirectly through production of bioaerosols (e.g. ozone), induction of fungal spores or other mechanisms. These results should be interpreted cautiously until replicated in a second dataset.

  13. Lightning hazards overview: Aviation requirements and interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    A ten-year history of USAF lightning incidents is presented along with a discussion of the problems posed by lightning to current aircraft, and the hazards it constitutes to the electrical and electronic subsystems of new technology aircraft. Lightning technical protection technical needs, both engineering and operational, include: (1) in-flight data on lightning electrical parameters; (2) tech base and guidelines for protection of advanced systems and structures; (3) improved laboratory test techniques; (4) analysis techniques for predicting induced effects; (5) lightning strike incident data from general aviation; (6) lightning detection systems; (7) pilot reports on lightning strikes; and (8) better training in lightning awareness.

  14. Lightning protection of PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Enrico; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes can affect photovoltaic (PV) generators and their installations, involving also the inverter's electronics. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk connected to lightning strikes in order to adopt the correct protective measures for the system. The Standard IEC (EN) 62305-2 reports the procedures for the risk calculation and for the choice of proper lightning protection systems. Usually the technical guidelines suggest protecting with SPDs (surge protective devices) b...

  15. Terrestrial gamma-ray flash production by lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Brant E.

    to the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the physics of energetic photon production and propagation in air. These comparisons are used to constrain the TGF source altitude, energy, and directional distribution, and indicate a broadly-beamed low-altitude source inconsistent with production far above thunderstorms as previously suggested. The details of energetic electron production by electric fields in air are then examined. In particular, the source of initial high-energy electrons that are accelerated and undergo avalanche multiplication to produce bremsstrahlung is studied and the properties of these initial seed particles as produced by cosmic rays are determined. The number of seed particles available indicates either extremely large amplification of the number of seed particles or an alternate source of seeds. The low-altitude photon source and alternate source of seed particles required by these studies suggest a production mechanism closely-associated with lightning. A survey of lightning physics in the context of TGF emission indicates that current pulses along lightning channels may trigger TGF production by both producing strong electric fields and a large population of candidate seed electrons. The constraints on lightning physics, thunderstorm physics, and TGF physics all allow production by this mechanism. A computational model of this mechanism is then presented on the basis of a method of moments simulation of charge and current on a lightning channel. Calculation of the nearby electric fields then drives Monte Carlo simulations of energetic electron dynamics which determine the properties of the resulting bremsstrahlung. The results of this model compare quite well with satellite observations of TGFs subject to requirements on the ambient electric field and the current pulse magnitude and duration. The model makes quantitative predictions about the TGF source altitude, directional distribution, and lightning association that are in overall

  16. Learning from concurrent Lightning Imaging Sensor and Lightning Mapping Array observations in preparation for the MTG-LI mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defer, Eric; Bovalo, Christophe; Coquillat, Sylvain; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Farges, Thomas; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William

    2016-04-01

    The upcoming decade will see the deployment and the operation of French, European and American space-based missions dedicated to the detection and the characterization of the lightning activity on Earth. For instance the Tool for the Analysis of Radiation from lightNIng and Sprites (TARANIS) mission, with an expected launch in 2018, is a CNES mission dedicated to the study of impulsive energy transfers between the atmosphere of the Earth and the space environment. It will carry a package of Micro Cameras and Photometers (MCP) to detect and locate lightning flashes and triggered Transient Luminous Events (TLEs). At the European level, the Meteosat Third Generation Imager (MTG-I) satellites will carry in 2019 the Lightning Imager (LI) aimed at detecting and locating the lightning activity over almost the full disk of Earth as usually observed with Meteosat geostationary infrared/visible imagers. The American community plans to operate a similar instrument on the GOES-R mission for an effective operation in early 2016. In addition NASA will install in 2016 on the International Space Station the spare version of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) that has proved its capability to optically detect the tropical lightning activity from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. We will present concurrent observations recorded by the optical space-borne Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the ground-based Very High Frequency (VHF) Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) for different types of lightning flashes. The properties of the cloud environment will also be considered in the analysis thanks to coincident observations of the different TRMM cloud sensors. The characteristics of the optical signal will be discussed according to the nature of the parent flash components and the cloud properties. This study should provide some insights not only on the expected optical signal that will be recorded by LI, but also on the definition of the validation strategy of LI, and

  17. TRIP illumines lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. D.

    It is 8 yr since important measurements of lightning in single-cell thunderstorms were made during the Thunderstorm Research International Project (TRIP), yet no theoretical interpretation of the lightning generation mechanism from the data has been made. This tardiness in interpreting the data is undoubtedly related to the existing confusion in lightning generation theories.According to Chalmers [1967], there are two classes of thunderstorm charge separation theories: those that rely on gravitation and those that do not involve gravitation. In the gravitational class, Chalmers again distinguished two types of processes: those in which ions are naturally generated (e.g., by cosmic rays, etc.) and are then attached to particles in the cloud and those in which some process (e.g., collision, coagulation, etc.) generates positive and negatively charged particles from neutrals in the cloud. Some of these two process types, cited in Chalmers' work, are given in Table 1, together with some of the scientists who originally proposed these processes.

  18. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  19. The effects of lightning and high altitude electromagnetic pulse on power distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uman, M.A.; Rubinstein, M.; Yacoub, Z. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-01-01

    We simultaneously recorded the voltages induced by lightning on both ends of an unenergized 448-meter long unenergized electric power line and the lightning vertical electric and horizontal magnetic fields at ground level near the line. The lightning data studied and presented here were due both to cloud lightning and to very close (about 20 m from the line) artificially initiated lightning. For cloud sources, a frequency-domain computer program called EMPLIN was used to calculate induced line voltages as a function of source elevation, angle of incidence, and wave polarization of the radiated cloud discharge pulses in order to compare with the measurements. For very-close lightning, the measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories, those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which we call oscillatory, and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which we call impulsive. The amplitude of the induced voltage ranged from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages. A new technique is derived for the calculation of the electromagnetic fields from nearby lightning to ground above an imperfectly conducting ground. This technique was used in conjunction with an existing time domain coupling theory and lightning return stroke model to calculate voltages at either end of the line. The results show fair agreement with the measured oscillatory voltage waveforms if corona is ignored and improved results when corona effects are modeled. The modeling of the impulsive voltage, for which local flashover probably successful. In an attempt to understand better the sources of the line voltages for very close lightning, measurements of the horizontal and vertical electric fields 30 m from triggered lightning were obtained.

  20. Observation of Long Ionospheric Recoveries from Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour Salut, M.; Cohen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lightning strokes induces lower ionospheric nighttime disturbances which can be detected through Very Low Frequency (VLF) remote sensing via at least two means: (1) direct heating and ionization, known as an Early event, and (2) triggered precipitation of energetic electrons from the radiation belts, known as Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP). For each, the ionospheric recover time is typically a few minutes or less. A small class of Early events have been identified as having unusually long ionospheric recoveries (10s of minutes), with the underlying mechanism still in question. Our study shows for the first time that some LEP events also demonstrate unusually long recovery. The VLF events were detected by visual inspection of the recorded data in both the North-South and East-West magnetic fields. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) are used to determine the location and peak current of the lightning responsible for each lightning-associated VLF perturbation. LEP or Early VLF events are determined by measuring the time delay between the causative lightning discharges and the onset of all lightning-associated perturbations. LEP events typically possess an onset delay greater than ~ 200 msec following the causative lightning discharges, while the onset of Early VLF events is time-aligned (events are distinguished from ducted events based on the location of the causative lightning relative to the precipitation region. From 15 March to 20 April and 15 October to 15 November 2011, a total of 385 LEP events observed at Indiana, Montana, Colorado and Oklahoma VLF sites, on the NAA, NLK and NML transmitter signals. 46 of these events exhibited a long recovery. It has been found that the occurrence rate of ducted long recovery LEP events is higher than nonducted. Of the 46 long recovery LEP events, 33 events were induced by ducted whistlers, and 13 events were associated with nonducted obliquely propagating whistler waves. The occurrence

  1. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be treated. The exact mechanism of nerve injury has not been explained, but both direct injury by electrical current overload or a vascular cause receive the most attention. Because electrical injuries carry both externally visible cutaneous injuries and possible hidden musculoskeletal damage, conventional burn resuscitation formulas based on body surface area injured may not provide enough fluid to maintain urine output. Damaged muscle resulting in swelling within the investing fascia of an extremity may result in compartment syndromes, requiring further attention. If myoglobin has been detected in the urine, treatment is aggressive volume resuscitation and possibly alkalinization of the urine or mannitol is given IV push to minimize pigment precipitation in the renal tubules. Approximately 15% of electrical burn victims

  2. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  3. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  4. Variation in Regional and Global Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; McCarthy, M.; Virts, K.; Hutchins, M. L.; Jacobson, A. R.; Heckman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Daily global lightning variation over oceans and orography, caused by major weather patterns such as typhoons and seasonal weather oscillations, are determined with high time resolution. Observations of strong variations in global lightning are used to study possible variations in magnetospheric particle densities. Strong lightning patterns associated with ocean currents are demonstrated with a study of the Gulf Stream. We located all major lightning producing storms, using a clustering algorithm on 10 years of World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data to reduce the influence of rapidly increasing lightning network detection efficiency on temporal studies. The clustered storms are used to study the variations and patterns of global and regional lightning activity. WWLLN and Earth Networks lightning detection networks have been used to show the energy per flash of lightning over the oceans is higher than over land, and the sharp contrast at the coasts will be examined.

  5. Lightning jump as a nowcast predictor: Application to severe weather events in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnell, C.; Rigo, T.; Pineda, N.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies reported sudden increases in the total lightning flash rate (intra-cloud+cloud-to-ground) preceding the occurrence of severe weather (large hail, wind gusts associated to thunderstorms and/or tornadoes). Named ;Lightning Jump;, this pattern has demonstrated to be of operational applicability in the forecasting of severe weather phenomena. The present study introduces the application of a lightning jump algorithm, with an identification of cells based solely on total lightning data, revealing that there is no need of radar data to trigger severe weather warnings. The algorithm was validated by means of a dataset severe weather events occurred in Catalonia in the period 2009-2014. Results obtained revealed very promising.

  6. Fiber-Optic Sensor for Aircraft Lightning Current Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George G.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    An electric current sensor based on Faraday rotation effect in optical fiber was developed for measuring aircraft lightning current. Compared to traditional sensors, the design has many advantages including the ability to measure total current and to conform to structure geometries. The sensor is also small, light weight, non-conducting, safe from interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. Potential applications include characterization of lightning current waveforms, parameters and paths, and providing environmental data for aircraft certifications. In an optical fiber as the sensing medium, light polarization rotates when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. By forming closed fiber loops around a conductor and applying Ampere s law, measuring the total light rotation yields the enclosed current. A reflective polarimetric scheme is used, where polarization change is measured after the polarized light travels round-trip through the sensing fiber. The sensor system was evaluated measuring rocket-triggered lightning over the 2011 summer. Early results compared very well against a reference current shunt resistor, demonstrating the sensor s accuracy and feasibility in a lightning environment. While later comparisons show gradually increasing amplitude deviations for an undetermined cause, the overall waveforms still compared very well.

  7. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Adams, Luke Clyde [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ferre, Gregoire Robing [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Grantcharov, Vesselin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Iaroshenko, Oleksandr [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Krishnapriyan, Aditi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Kurtakoti, Prajvala Kishore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Le Thien, Minh Quan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lim, Jonathan Ng [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Low, Thaddeus Song En [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Lystrom, Levi Aaron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Ma, Xiaoyu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Nguyen, Hong T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Pogue, Sabine Silvia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Orandle, Zoe Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Reisner, Andrew Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Revard, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Roy, Julien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Sandor, Csanad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Slavkova, Kalina Polet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Weichman, Kathleen Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Wu, Fei [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Yang, Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-11-29

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  8. Lightning Caused Fires and Acres

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned as a result of lightning, from 2001 through 2008 (updated annually). Displayed by the eleven Geographic Areas used by the...

  9. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  10. Lightning Imaging via VHF Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Osaka University has been developing interferometric lightning mapping systems for some time, first with narrow band VHF interferometers, and then with broadband digital VHF interferometers (DITF). Recently, a collaboration between New Mexico Tech and Osaka University resulted in the development of the NMT INTF. All of these interferometric lightning mapping systems have added greatly to our understanding of lightning physics. The next generation of digital broadband VHF interferometer is now being developed in Osaka, called the Lightning Imaging via VHF Emission (LIVE) interferometer. LIVE is capable of mapping lightning in real-time with sub-millisecond time resolution, or through post processing with sub-microsecond time resolution. Near-field corrections have been developed, so that sources very close to the array can be located accurately, and so that the baselines can lengthened for improved angular resolution. LIVE is capable of locating lighting over more than a 75 dB range of brightnesses, allowing the system to be extremely sensitive, and the long baselines allow for location uncertainties as low as tens of meters. Presented are observations of lightning recorded in the Kasai area of Japan, as well as the Pengerang region of Malaysia showing the capabilities of the LIVE interferometer.

  11. Interaction between Adjacent Lightning Discharges in Clouds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; ZHANG Guangshu; ZHANG Tong; LI Yajun; WU Bin; ZHANG Tinglong

    2013-01-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS),three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed,and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed.All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region).Moreover,at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges.Identified from electric field changes,the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges.However,it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge.The third case provided evidence of this possibility.Together,the results suggested that,if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions,lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced,on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  12. Characteristics of lightning, sprites, and human-induced emissions observed by nadir-viewing cameras on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The Lightning and Sprites Observation (LSO) experiment was designed to test a new concept of nadir-viewing sprite measurement on board the International Space Station using spectral differentiation methods for lightning and sprite identification. It was composed of two calibrated cameras: one equipped with a narrowband filter at 763 nm to maximize the contrast between sprites and lightning, and the other to monitor lightning. The LSO was operated at night during 15 days from 2001 to 2004 during which 197 lightning flashes, several sprites, hundreds of gas flares, and tens of cities were analyzed. The main strength of this experiment was its high spatial resolution of about 400 m. The structural details of some lightning are thus observed highlighting complex systems. Some features such as the nonlinear increase of the lightning-illuminated cloud top area with the peak radiance and the radial decrease of the lightning flash radiance were quantified. The median area is 129 km2 with median minor and major axes of 12 and 16 km. Two methods of sprite identification are presented and applied to the most intense sprite events observed by LSO. The sprite diameter is 5 km and it is shifted of about 22 km from the center of the parent lightning. A ratio of 1.7% is deduced for lightning flashes between the radiances measured by both cameras. These observations should be useful for the preparation or the analysis of future space missions dedicated to nadir-viewing observations of sprites.

  13. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5–50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8–10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases. PMID:27665937

  14. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  15. Lightning NOx and Impacts on Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lee T.

    2016-01-01

    Lightning generates relatively large but uncertain quantities of nitrogen oxides, critical precursors for ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH), the primary tropospheric oxidants. Lightning nitrogen oxide strongly influences background ozone and OH due to high ozone production efficiencies in the free troposphere, effecting small but non-negligible contributions to surface pollutant concentrations. Lightning globally contributes 3-4 ppbv of simulated annual-mean policy-relevant background (PRB) surface ozone, comprised of local, regional, and hemispheric components, and up to 18 ppbv during individual events. Feedbacks via methane may counter some of these effects on decadal time scales. Lightning contributes approximately 1 percent to annual-mean surface particulate matter, as a direct precursor and by promoting faster oxidation of other precursors. Lightning also ignites wildfires and contributes to nitrogen deposition. Urban pollution influences lightning itself, with implications for regional lightning-nitrogen oxide production and feedbacks on downwind surface pollution. How lightning emissions will change in a warming world remains uncertain.

  16. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Zhang, J; Chen, L; Xue, Q; Zhu, R

    2016-09-26

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  17. A Fiber-Optic Current Sensor for Lightning Measurement Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2015-01-01

    An optical-fiber sensor based on Faraday Effect is developed for measuring total lightning electric current. It has many unique capabilities not possible with traditional current sensors. Designed for aircraft installation, the sensor is lightweight, non-conducting, structure-conforming, and is immune to electromagnetic interference, hysteresis and saturation. It can also be used on windmills, lightning towers, and can help validate lightning detection network measurements. Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation yields the total current enclosed. The broadband, dual-detector, reflective polarimetric scheme allows measurement of both DC component and AC waveforms with about 60 dB dynamic range. Three sensor systems were built with different sensitivities from different laser wavelengths. Operating at 850nm, the first system uses twisted single-mode fiber and has a 150 A - 150 KA range. The second system operates at 1550nm, uses spun polarization maintaining fiber, and can measure 400 A - 400 KA. Both systems were validated with rocket-triggered lightning measurements and achieved excellent results when compared to a resistive shunt. The third system operates at 1310nm, uses spun polarization maintaining fiber, and can measure approximately 300 A - 300 KA. High current measurements up to 200 KA were demonstrated at a commercial lightning test facility. The system was recently installed on an aircraft and flown near icing weather conditions.

  18. Protection of LV system against lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanova Nedyalkova, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Lightning is a natural hazard and one of the greatest local mysteries. Scientists have not fully understood the mechanism of lightning. It is one of the most beautiful displays in nature and one of the nature's most dangerous phenomenon known to man. Overvoltage due to lightning is a very important problem of LV systems. Some lightning flashes damage buildings and a few kill or injure people and animals, either directly or indirectly, by causing fire and explosions. The need for protect...

  19. Space Launching Site Protection against Lightning Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Issac, F.; Bachelier, E.; Prost, D.; Enjalbert, V.; Mohedano, L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A launching pad, because of its activity, is particularly sensitive to the risk of lightning. The use of Standard IEC62305 "Protection against lightning" establishes the general framework for the Lightning Protection System (LPS). However, the specific activity of a launching pad requires special analysis on specific points of the LPS. Indeed, it is necessary to take into account the lightning conductor system particularity on the one hand, and the launcher electromagn...

  20. Geometrical Effects on the Electromagnetic Radiation from Lightning Return Strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Smith, D. A.; LeVine, D. M.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphological difference between the electromagnetic radiation-field waveforms of "first" and "subsequent" return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning flashes is well known and can be used to identify the formation of new channels to ground. This difference is generally believed due to the existence of branches on first-stroke channels, whereas subsequent strokes re-illuminate only the main channel of a previous stroke; but experimental evidence for this hypothesis is relatively weak. It has been argued for the influence of channel geometry on the fine structure of radiation from subsequent return strokes by comparing the field-change waveforms recorded at the same station from strokes within the same flash and between different flashes of both natural and triggered lightning. The present paper introduces new evidence for both of these hypotheses from a comparison of waveforms between sensors in different directions from the same stroke.

  1. Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find

    2013-01-01

    The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...

  2. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  3. Experimental generation of volcanic lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel; Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Ash-rich volcanic plumes that are responsible for injecting large quantities of aerosols into the atmosphere are often associated with intense electrical activity. Direct measurement of the electric potential at the crater, where the electric activity in the volcanic plume is first observed, is severely impeded, limiting progress in its investigation. We have achieved volcanic lightning in the laboratory during rapid decompression experiments of gas-particle mixtures under controlled conditions. Upon decompression (from ~100 bar argon pressure to atmospheric pressure), loose particles are vertically accelerated and ejected through a nozzle of 2.8 cm diameter into a large tank filled with air at atmospheric conditions. Because of their impulsive character, our experiments most closely represent the conditions encountered in the gas-thrust region of the plume, when ash is first ejected from the crater. We used sieved natural ash with different grain sizes from Popocatépetl (Mexico), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), and Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) volcanoes, as well as micrometric glass beads to constrain the influence of material properties on lightning. We monitored the dynamics of the particle-laden jets with a high-speed camera and the pressure and electric potential at the nozzle using a pressure transducer and two copper ring antennas connected to a high-impedance data acquisition system, respectively. We find that lightning is controlled by the dynamics of the particle-laden jet and by the abundance of fine particles. Two main conditions are required to generate lightning: 1) self-electrification of the particles and 2) clustering of the particles driven by the jet fluid dynamics. The relative movement of clusters of charged particles within the plume generates the gradient in electrical potential, which is necessary for lightning. In this manner it is the gas-particle dynamics together with the evolving particle-density distribution within different regions of

  4. Tropic lightning: myth or menace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2014-11-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  5. Positive lightning and severe weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  6. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning Fire for Daxing an Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Lightning fire is one of natural fires; its mechanism is very complex and difficult to control. Daxing'an Mountain is the main region that lightning fires occur in China. Research on lightning fires indicates that special fuel, dry-storm weather and high altitude form the lightning fire environment. Lightning fires have close relation with lights. When lightning occurs, especially dry-lightning which brings little precipitation with surface temperature growing and fuel dehydrating, these often lead to l...

  7. An Intrinsic Fiber-Optic Sensor for Structure Lightning Current Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel. G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    An intrinsic optical-fiber sensor based on Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for measuring lightning current on aircraft, towers and complex structures. Originally developed specifically for aircraft installations, it is light-weight, non-conducting, structure conforming, and is immune to electromagnetic interference, hysteresis and saturation. It can measure total current down to DC. When used on lightning towers, the sensor can help validate other sensors and lightning detection network measurements. Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation yields the total current enclosed. A broadband, dual-detector, reflective polarimetric scheme allows measurement of both DC component and AC waveforms with a 60 dB dynamic range. Two systems were built that are similar in design but with slightly different sensitivities. The 1310nm laser system can measure 300 A - 300 kA, and has a 15m long sensing fiber. It was used in laboratory testing, including measuring current on an aluminum structure simulating an aircraft fuselage or a lightning tower. High current capabilities were demonstrated up to 200 kA at a lightning test facility. The 1550nm laser system can measure 400 A - 400 kA and has a 25m fiber length. Used in field measurements, excellent results were achieved in the summer of 2012 measuring rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT), Camp Blanding, Florida. In both systems increased sensitivity can be achieved with multiple fiber loops. The fiber optic sensor provides many unique capabilities not currently possible with traditional sensors. It represents an important new tool for lightning current measurement where low weight

  8. Lightning and Life on Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Paul; Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Hodosan, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    Miller and Urey performed a ground-breaking experiment, in which they discovered that electric discharges through a low redox ratio gas of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen produced a variety of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Since this experiment, there has been significant interest on the connection between lightning chemistry and the origin of life. Investigation into the atmosphere of the Early Earth has generated a serious challenge for this project, as it has been determined both that Earth's early atmosphere was likely dominated by carbon dioxide and molecular nitrogen with only small amounts of hydrogen, having a very high redox ratio, and that discharges in gases with high redox ratios fail to yield more than trace amounts of biologically relevant products. This challenge has motivated several origin of life researchers to abandon lightning chemistry, and to concentrate on other pathways for prebiotic synthesis. The discovery of over 2000 exoplanets includes a handful of rocky planets within the habitable zones around their host stars. These planets can be viewed as remote laboratories in which efficient lightning driven prebiotic synthesis may take place. This is because many of these rocky exoplanets, called super-Earths, have masses significantly greater than that of Earth. This higher mass would allow them to more retain greater amounts hydrogen within their atmosphere, reducing the redox ratio. Discharges in super-Earth atmospheres can therefore result in a significant yield of amino acids. In this talk, I will discuss new work on what lightning might look like on exoplanets, and on lightning driven chemistry on super-Earths. Using a chemical kinetics model for a super-Earth atmosphere with smaller redox ratios, I will show that in the presence of lightning, the production of the amino acid glycine is enhanced up to a certain point, but with very low redox ratios, the production of glycine is again inhibited. I will conclude

  9. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  10. Lightning hazard reduction at wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kithil, R. [National Lightning Safety Institute, Louisville, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The USA wind farm industry (WFI) largely is centered in low-lightning areas of the State of California. While some evidence of lightning incidents is reported here, the problem is not regarded as serious by most participants. The USA WFI now is moving eastward, into higher areas of lightning activity. The European WFI has had many years experience with lightning problems. One 1995 German study estimated that 80% of wind turbine insurance claims paid for damage compensation were caused by lightning strikes. The European and USA WFI have not adopted site criteria, design fundamentals, or certification techniques aimed at lightning safety. Sufficient evidence about lightning at wind farms is available to confirm that serious potential problems exist.

  11. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  12. Seasonal prediction of lightning activity in North Western Venezuela: Large-scale versus local drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Á. G.; Díaz-Lobatón, J.; Chourio, X.; Stock, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    The Lake Maracaibo Basin in North Western Venezuela has the highest annual lightning rate of any place in the world (~ 200 fl km- 2 yr- 1), whose electrical discharges occasionally impact human and animal lives (e.g., cattle) and frequently affect economic activities like oil and natural gas exploitation. Lightning activity is so common in this region that it has a proper name: Catatumbo Lightning (plural). Although short-term lightning forecasts are now common in different parts of the world, to the best of the authors' knowledge, seasonal prediction of lightning activity is still non-existent. This research discusses the relative role of both large-scale and local climate drivers as modulators of lightning activity in the region, and presents a formal predictability study at seasonal scale. Analysis of the Catatumbo Lightning Regional Mode, defined in terms of the second Empirical Orthogonal Function of monthly Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS-TRMM) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite data for North Western South America, permits the identification of potential predictors at seasonal scale via a Canonical Correlation Analysis. Lightning activity in North Western Venezuela responds to well defined sea-surface temperature patterns (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Meridional Mode) and changes in the low-level meridional wind field that are associated with the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone migrations, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and tropical cyclone activity, but it is also linked to local drivers like convection triggered by the topographic configuration and the effect of the Maracaibo Basin Nocturnal Low Level Jet. The analysis indicates that at seasonal scale the relative contribution of the large-scale drivers is more important than the local (basin-wide) ones, due to the synoptic control imposed by the former. Furthermore, meridional CAPE transport at 925 mb is identified as the best potential predictor for lightning activity in the Lake

  13. Evaluation of Product Algorithm Strategies for the Future Lightning Imager on MTG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, U.; Grandell, J.

    2014-12-01

    The future European geostationary Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) will carry a lightning observation instrument - the Lightning Imager (LI), which will observe lightning in thunderstorm for the whole visible Earth disk with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its data will be of great benefit for nowcasting of lightning thread and severe weather, as well as for applications in lightning physics, chemistry and climatology. Primary data output of the instrument are the 'lightning events' corresponding to triggered pixels of the detector matrix. These primary data are processed into a set of products: hierarchically organized point data - groups and flashes, and various products of data accumulated over time and space bins. The algorithm strategies for generation of these level-2 products are evaluated in this contribution.The clustering of the lightning event data consists of two steps: i) pixel events are clustered in a group representing the optical pulse, and ii) the groups are clustered in a flash representing the lightning flash. The algorithm strategies for clustering are discussed and evaluated for the various algorithm parameters. The distance function and linkage criteria are formulated in time and space. For groups the criterion is immediate adjacency in time and space. For flashes the gap to the nearest neighbor in time and space have to be lower a threshold value. Examples and statistics of the application of the clustering algorithms are presented for LIS data and for proxy data.The second group of products accumulate the lightning point data in time (30s) and space (2km) intervals. The planned products are the accumulated flash number, flash area and flash radiance. All these products are created on a per flash bases using the pixel set for each flash. They are calculated on a grid which correspond cloud imager (FCI) grid on the same platform. The accumulated products represent an snapshot picture of the current lightning activity, valuable in

  14. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T.; Brask, M.H. [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F.V.; Raben, N. [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J. [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L. [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P.E. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  15. A Conjecture Concerning Ball Lightning

    CERN Document Server

    Sturrock, P A

    2016-01-01

    There is at present no theory that can explain the curious properties of ball lightning. This suggests that we may not be using the most appropriate concepts. The concept of a 'parallel space' may point the way to a valid theory.

  16. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office

  17. On the Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past decade, considerable uncertainties still exist with the quantification of lightning NOX production and distribution in the troposphere. It is even more challenging for regional chemistry and transport models to accurately parameterize lightning NOX production and distribution in time and space. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) parameterizes the lightning NO emissions using local scaling factors adjusted by the convective precipitation rate that is predicted by the upstream meteorological model; the adjustment is based on the observed lightning strikes from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). For this parameterization to be valid, the existence of an a priori reasonable relationship between the observed lightning strikes and the modeled convective precipitation rates is needed. In this study, we will present an analysis leveraged on the observed NLDN lightning strikes and CMAQ model simulations over the continental United States for a time period spanning over a decade. Based on the analysis, new parameterization scheme for lightning NOX will be proposed and the results will be evaluated. The proposed scheme will be beneficial to modeling exercises where the obs

  18. A Spherical Earth Solution for TOA Lightning Location Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Solakiewicz, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of retrieving ligntning, ground-strike location on a spherical Earth surface using a network of 4 or more time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors is considered, It is shown that this problem has an analytic solution and therefore does not require the use of nonlinear estimation theory (e.g., minimization). The mathematical robustness of the analytic solution is tested using computer-generated lightning sources and simulated TOA measurement errors. A summary of a quasi-analytic extension of the spherical Earth solution to an oblate spheroid Earth geometry is also provided.

  19. Where are the lightning hotspots on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R. I.; Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The first lightning observations from space date from the early 1960s and more than a dozen spacecraft orbiting the Earth have flown instruments that recorded lightning signals from thunderstorms over the past 45 years. In this respect, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), having just completed its mission (1997-2015), provides the longest and best total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning data base over the tropics.We present a 16 year (1998-2013) reprocessed data set to create very high resolution (0.1°) TRMM LIS total lightning climatology. This detailed very high resolution climatology is used to identify the Earth's lightning hotspots and other regional features. Earlier studies located the lightning hotspot within the Congo Basin in Africa, but our very high resolution lightning climatology found that the highest lightning flash rate on Earth actually occurs in Venezuela over Lake Maracaibo, with a distinct maximum during the night. The higher resolution dataset clearly shows that similar phenomenon also occurs over other inland lakes with similar conditions, i.e., locally forced convergent flow over a warm lake surface which drives deep nocturnal convection. Although Africa does not have the top lightning hotspot, it comes in a close second and it is the continent with the highest number of lightning hotspots, followed by Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania. We also present climatological maps for local hour and month of lightning maxima, along with a ranking of the highest five hundred lightning maxima, focusing discussion on each continent's 10 highest lightning maxima. Most of the highest continental maxima are located near major mountain ranges, revealing the importance of local topography in thunderstorm development. These results are especially relevant in anticipation of the upcoming availability of continuous total lightning observations from the Geostationary Lightning Mapping (GLM

  20. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  1. Combining Analysis of Coupled Electrical-Thermal and BLOW-OFF Impulse Effects on Composite laminate Induced by Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Yue, Z. F.; Wang, F. S.; Ji, Y. Y.

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive simulation procedure combining electrical-thermal analysis and BLOW-OFF impulse (BOI) analysis was conducted to investigate lightning direct effects on damage behavior of composite. The nonlinear material model was elaborated combining the damage mechanism of composite laminate subjected to lightning strike. Results of electrical-thermal analysis indicated that temperature distribution of composite laminate is mainly affected by the electrical anisotropy because of Joule heating. By comparing results of BOI analysis with lightning test, it can be found that strain fields of analysis meet well with the damage pattern of lightning specimen. It could be concluded that the analysis procedure is suitable for modeling damage of composite due to lighting strike, and results of logarithmic strain field can be used to help estimate the zone which need to be repaired for composite.

  2. The 1st Asian Lightning Protection Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The First Asian Lightning Protection Forum was held on October 28-29, 2003 in Beijing, China.The forum was sponsored by the China Association for Standardization and was organized by Chinese National Committee for Lightning Protection Technology Standardization, Department of Electrical Engineering Tsinghua University, China Electricity Council, Zhongguang High-tech Industrial Development Co.,Ltd, and Lightning Protection Center of Guangdong Province.

  3. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  4. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  5. Lightning Protection and Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  6. Overview of Saturn lightning observations

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Barry, T; Delcroix, M; Go, C; Peach, D; Vandebergh, R; Wesley, A

    2011-01-01

    The lightning activity in Saturn's atmosphere has been monitored by Cassini for more than six years. The continuous observations of the radio signatures called SEDs (Saturn Electrostatic Discharges) combine favorably with imaging observations of related cloud features as well as direct observations of flash-illuminated cloud tops. The Cassini RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument and ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) in orbit around Saturn also received ground-based support: The intense SED radio waves were also detected by the giant UTR-2 radio telescope, and committed amateurs observed SED-related white spots with their backyard optical telescopes. Furthermore, the Cassini VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) instruments have provided some information on chemical constituents possibly created by the lightning discharges and transported upward to Saturn's upper atmosphere by vertical convection. In this paper we summarize the main results on Satur...

  7. Forest fires caused by lightning activity in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Benali, Akli; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires in southern Europe have been causing in the last decades extensive economic and ecological losses and, even human casualties (e.g. Pereira et al., 2011). According to statistics provided by the EC-JRC European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) for Europe, the years of 2003 and 2007 represent the most dramatic fire seasons since the beginning of the millennium, followed by the years 2005 and 2012. These extreme years registered total annual burned areas for Europe of over 600.000 ha, reaching 800.000 ha in 2003. Over Iberia and France, the exceptional fire seasons registered in 2003 and 2005 were coincident respectively with one of the most severe heatwaves (Bastos et al., 2014) and droughts of the 20th century (Gouveia et al., 2009). On the other hand, the year 2007 was very peculiar as the area of the Peloponnese was struck by a severe winter drought followed by a subsequent wet spring, being also stricken by three heat heaves during summer and played a major role increasing the susceptibility of the region to wildfires (Gouveia et al., 2016). Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by natural factors such as lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia. In contrast, Mediterranean countries such as Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant uncertainties remain for the triggering mechanism for the majority of fires registered in the catalog, since they were cataloged without a likely cause. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2002-2009, with the original data provided by the National forestry Authority; 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Portuguese Institute for Sea

  8. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  9. Integral lightning protection system in petroleum facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Horacio; Gallego, Luis; Montana, Johny; Younes, Camilo; Rondon, Daniel; Gonzalez, Diego; Herrera, Javier; Perez, Ernesto; Vargas, Mauricio; Quintana, Carlos; Salgado, Milton [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)]. E-mail: paas@paas.unal.edu.co

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an Integral Lightning Protection System, focused mainly in petroleum facilities and applied to a real case in Colombia, South America. As introduction it is presented a summary of the incidents happened in last years, a diagnosis and the proposal of solution. Finally, as part of the analysis, a lightning risk assessment for the Central Process Facility is showed. (author)

  10. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  11. A model for lightning in littoral areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The littoral or coastal areas are different compared to the maritime or continental areas considering lightning. Only the last years some research about these areas has been carried out. The need for a model, regarding the lightning activity in these areas is much needed. And now, with the changes i

  12. Lightning protecting materials used on radar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Damstra, Geert C.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Because of the extensive use in modern systems of very sensitive electronic components, lightning strikes does not represent only a threat, but something that cannot be neglected anymore and safety hazards caused by direct and indirect lightning to the aircraft or naval industry. Everyday new materi

  13. When Lightning Strikes a Second Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…

  14. The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are

  15. Lightning Protection of Floating Roof Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekitan,

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior to export, processed crude oil is stored in Floating Roof Tanks (FRT to further allow any trapped gas within the crude oil to escape, as this stabilises the crude oil. In the oil and gas industry, FRT’s are vital in the processing of crude oil to the acceptable export specification.In the tropics and other lightning prone regions, lightning induced floating roof tank fire constitutes a major threat to crude oil production. Among others, a single lightning incident could result in the loss of life, product and production time, avoidable incident review time, damaged equipment, wasted repair cost, bad publicity and loss of income.This paper therefore, is aimed at providing an effective solution to the menace of lightning induced tank fire by focussing on the starting process of the lightning induced fire and proposing alternative concepts for breaking the fire triangle before fire ensues

  16. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...... resolution of 3 km ×3 km. The probabilistic models were based on the logistic regression, aiming to explain the probability of having at least a lightning-fire during the three year period. Results showed that the number of thunderstorms during the three-year period was the most significantvariable...

  17. Lightning injuries in sports and recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.

  18. Development of a Technique for Representing Lightning Arresters in the Surge Simulations based on the FDTD Method and its Application to the Calculation of Lightning-Induced Voltages on a Distribution Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Akiyoshi; Noda, Taku

    Recently, the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method, which directly solves Maxwell's equations, has been applied to lightning surge problems involving electrical wires in three-dimensional arrangements, such as power and telecommunication circuits. Lightning arresters are installed to protect the circuits from abnormal voltages due to lightning, for example. We have already proposed a technique for representing a lightning arrester in the FDTD method. However, this technique simply represents the V-I characteristics of the arrester using just three parameters and requires a method for avoiding the numerical oscillation due to the nonlinear characteristics of the arrester. In this paper, we propose a new technique for representing the V-I characteristics of the arrester in detail using the piecewise linear function defined by several points and for improving the numerical stability without the method for avoiding the numerical oscillation. Using a test circuit, the proposed technique is validated by comparing the results calculated by the FDTD method with those by the EMTP (ElectroMagnetic Transients Program) which is a circuit-theory-based simulation program. Finally, as an example of applying the proposed technique, we calculate lightning-induced voltages on a distribution line with a lightning arrester. The calculated results by the FDTD method agree well with those by a conventional method based on circuit theroy.

  19. Draft IEC 61400-24 wind turbines: lightning protection blades

    OpenAIRE

    Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Montañá Puig, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine blades are the most exposed parts of the turbine, and would experience the full impact from the electric fields as associated with the lightning attachment process, the lightning currents, and the magnetic field associated with lightning currents.At some point in time hopes were high that lightning would not strike blades made of non-conducting material only, but practical experiences have clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. Lightning does in fact st...

  20. Spatial Variation of the Correlated Color Temperature of Lightning Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoji, Nobuaki; Aoyama, Ryoma

    2014-01-01

    In present work, we propose the analysis method of lightning based on the color analysis. We analyzed the digital still images in which the cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) lightning flashes are shown. Applying some digital image processing techniques, we extracted lightning channels. Then, the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the extracted lightning channels was obtained by mapping digital pixels of the extracted lightning channels to CIE 1931 xy-chromaticity diagram. Our result...

  1. An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash Lightning Nowcasting, Lightning Amount and Lightning Jump Warning Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Lightning one of the most dangerous weather-related phenomena, especially as many jobs and activities occur outdoors, presenting risk from a lightning strike. Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning represents a considerable safety threat to people at airfields, marinas, and outdoor facilities-from airfield personnel, to people attending outdoor stadium events, on beaches and golf courses, to mariners, as well as emergency personnel. Holle et al. (2005) show that 90% of lightning deaths occurred outdoors, while 10% occurred indoors despite the perception of safety when inside buildings. Curran et al. (2000) found that nearly half of fatalities due to weather were related to convective weather in the 1992-1994 timeframe, with lightning causing a large component of the fatalities, in addition to tornadoes and flash flooding. Related to the aviation industry, CG lightning represents a considerable hazard to baggage-handlers, aircraft refuelers, food caterers, and emergency personnel, who all become exposed to the risk of being struck within short time periods while convective storm clouds develop. Airport safety protocols require that ramp operations be modified or discontinued when lightning is in the vicinity (typically 16 km), which becomes very costly and disruptive to flight operations. Therefore, much focus has been paid to nowcasting the first-time initiation and extent of lightning, both of CG and of any lightning (e.g, in-cloud, cloud-to-cloud). For this project three lightning nowcasting methodologies will be combined: (1) a GOESbased 0-1 hour lightning initiation (LI) product (Harris et al. 2010; Iskenderian et al. 2012), (2) a High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) lightning probability and forecasted lightning flash density product, such that a quantitative amount of lightning (QL) can be assigned to a location of expected LI, and (3) an algorithm that relates Pseudo-GLM data (Stano et al. 2012, 2014) to the so-called "lightning jump" (LJ) methodology (Shultz et al

  2. Lightning activity and precipitation structure of hailstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG GuiLi; QIE XiuShu; YUAN Tie; NIU ShuZhen

    2007-01-01

    By using the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning location data from the lightning detection network of Henan Province, surface Doppler radar data and standard orbit data of PR, TMI and LIS on TRMM satellite, the apatjal and temporal characteristice of CG lightning flashes in 10 severe hailstorms are analyzed. The results show that the percentage of+CG lightning in these hailstorms is high with an average value of 45.5%.There is a distinct increase in CG flash rate during the rapid development stage of hailstorms. The hailstone falling corresponds to an active positive flash period, and the increase of+CG flash rate is generally accompanied with a decrease of-CG flash rate. The flash rate declines rapidly during the dissipating stage of hailstorms. The precipitation structure and lightning activity in two typical hailstorms are studied in detail. It is found that strong convective cells with reflectivity greater than 30dBZ mainly are situated in the front region of hailstorms, whereas the trailing stratiform region is in the rear part of the hailstorme. The maximum heights of echo top are higher than 14km.Convective rain contributes much more rainfall to the total than stratiform rain, and the convective rain takes about 85% and 97% of the total in the two cases, respectively. Total lightning in the hailstorms is very active with the flash rate up to 183 fl/min and 55 fl/min, respectively. The results also indicate that most lightning flashes occurred in the echo region greater than 30dBZ and its immediate periphery. The probability of lightning occurrence is 20 times higher in the convective region than in the stratiform region. The result suggests that the lightning information is helpful to the identification of convective rain region. The linear relationship between flash rate and ice water content is disclosed primarily.

  3. Lightning activity and precipitation structure of hailstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By using the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning location data from the lightning detection network of He- nan Province, surface Doppler radar data and standard orbit data of PR, TMI and LIS on TRMM satellite, the spatial and temporal characteristics of CG lightning flashes in 10 severe hailstorms are analyzed. The results show that the percentage of +CG lightning in these hailstorms is high with an average value of 45.5%. There is a distinct increase in CG flash rate during the rapid development stage of hailstorms. The hailstone falling corresponds to an active positive flash period, and the increase of +CG flash rate is generally accompanied with a decrease of –CG flash rate. The flash rate declines rapidly during the dissipating stage of hailstorms. The precipitation structure and lightning activity in two typical hail- storms are studied in detail. It is found that strong convective cells with reflectivity greater than 30dBZ mainly are situated in the front region of hailstorms, whereas the trailing stratiform region is in the rear part of the hailstorms. The maximum heights of echo top are higher than 14 km. Convective rain con- tributes much more rainfall to the total than stratiform rain, and the convective rain takes about 85% and 97% of the total in the two cases, respectively. Total lightning in the hailstorms is very active with the flash rate up to 183 fl/min and 55 fl/min, respectively. The results also indicate that most lightning flashes occurred in the echo region greater than 30 dBZ and its immediate periphery. The probability of lightning occurrence is 20 times higher in the convective region than in the stratiform region. The result suggests that the lightning information is helpful to the identification of convective rain region. The linear relationship between flash rate and ice water content is disclosed primarily.

  4. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  5. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Amita N; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S K

    2014-10-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.

  6. Lightning Attachment Estimation to Wind Turbines by Utilizing Lightning Location Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim; Lopez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The goal of a lightning exposure assessment is to identify the number, type and characteristics of lightning discharges to a certain structure. There are various Lightning Location System (LLS) technologies available, each of them are characterized by individual performance characteristics...... three different wind power plant locations are analyzed and the impact of varying data qualities is evaluated regarding the ability to detect upward lightning. This work provides a variety of background information which is relevant to the exposure assessment of wind turbine and includes practical...

  7. Lightning Current Measurement with Fiber-Optic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic current sensor is successfully developed with many potential applications for electric current measurement. Originally developed for in-flight lightning measurement, the sensor utilizes Faraday Effect in an optical fiber. The Faraday Effect causes linear light polarization in a fiber to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field. The polarization change is detected using a reflective polarimetric scheme. Forming fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation results in the determination of the total current enclosed. The sensor is conformable to complex structure geometry. It is also non-conductive and immune to electromagnetic interference, saturation or hysteresis. Installation is non-intrusive, and the sensor can be safely routed through flammable areas. Two similar sensor systems are described in this paper. The first system operates at 1310nm laser wavelength and is capable of measuring approximately 300 A - 300 kA, a 60 dB range. Laboratory validation results of aircraft lighting direct and in-direct effect current amplitudes are reported for this sensor. The second system operates at 1550nm wavelength and can measure about 400 A - 400 kA. Triggered-lightning measurement data are presented for this system. Good results are achieved in all cases.

  8. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  9. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  10. Lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, D. W.; Uman, M. A.; Wilcox, C. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A commercial lightning-locating system (LLS) was employed in the study of lightning phenomenology in the Tampa Bay area of Florida. The LLS output included the time, location, number of strokes per flash, and initial peak magnetic field value of first strokes for lightning ground flashes lowering negative charge. Attention is given to the design and the operation of the LLS, and the experimental results. Measured properties of each of 111 storms are given in a number of tables. It was observed that the apparent motion associated with the lightning activity in storm systems was not due to the motion of the individual single-peak and multiple-peak storms but rather to the successive growth of new storms near previously active storms.

  11. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  12. A Fiber-Optic Aircraft Lightning Current Measurement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber-optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed for aircraft installations. It can measure total lightning current amplitudes and waveforms, including continuing current. Additional benefits include being small, lightweight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate in presence of magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the total induced light polarization change yields the total current enclosed. The system operates at 1310nm laser wavelength and can measure approximately 300 A - 300 kA, a 60 dB range. A reflective polarimetric scheme is used, where the light polarization change is measured after a round-trip propagation through the fiber. A two-detector setup measures the two orthogonal polarizations for noise subtraction and improved dynamic range. The current response curve is non-linear and requires a simple spline-fit correction. Effects of high current were achieved in laboratory using combinations of multiple fiber and wire loops. Good result comparisons against reference sensors were achieved up to 300 kA. Accurate measurements on a simulated aircraft fuselage and an internal structure illustrate capabilities that maybe difficult with traditional sensors. Also tested at a commercial lightning test facility from 20 kA to 200 kA, accuracy within 3-10% was achieved even with non-optimum setups.

  13. Lightning frequency over the Italian peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turoldo, F.; Stel, F.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Bernardi, M.; Adamo, C.; Rovelli, C.; Dietrich, S.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analize the spatial frequency of lightning over Italy and to interpret the observed features in relationship with topography and with the climatic characteristics of the area. The data used to perform this analysis are : i) cloud to ground measurem ents (CG) from 1995 to 2000 given by CESI/SIRF (Sistem a Italiano Rilevamento Fulmini); ii) total flash measurements from 1995 to 2000 obtained trough the OTD system (Optical Transient Detector) given by NASA; iii) topography measurements obtained trough the ETOPO -2 database downloaded from NOAA. Both the yearly number of positive and negative CG lightning decrease with the increasing of topographic height. The number of positive and negative CG lightning decreases with the same derivative even if it seems that only below 1000 m it is possible to reach ratios between positive over negative CG lightning higher than 1. These values are observed only in the North African area present in the ranges of our analysis , that is from longitude 5 to 11 °E and from latitude 36 to 37 °N. Future studies will confirm if this is a real effect or an observational bias. The behavior of total lightning activity (IC and CG) in relationship with CG lightning activity and with topography is studied by means of OTD data. Being OTD data retrieved trough satellites, the analysis is done making us e of the flash rate per squared kilometer and per year instead of the number of lightning. Flash rate is computed using data on a re solution of 0.5°x0.5° and keping into account the changes in the surface due to the changes in latitude and longitude. This work confirms the observation (made even by other authors) that CG lightning frequency decreases as topographic height increases. A similar trend is found in total lightning flash rate, which is essentially due to the contribution of IC lightning. These observations are explained assuming that thunderstorm activity decreases with the increasing of topographic height

  14. Scientific Lightning Detection Network for Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Lozbin, A.; Inchin, A.; Shpadi, Y.; Inchin, P.; Shpadi, M.; Ayazbayev, G.; Bykayev, R.; Mailibayeva, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of grant financing of the scientific research in 2015-2017 the project "To Develop Electromagnetic System for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research" was found. The project was start in January, 2015 and should be done during 3 years. The purpose is to create a system of electromagnetic measurements for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research consisting of a network of electric and magnetic sensors and the dedicated complex for data processing and transfer to the end user. The main tasks are to set several points for electromagnetic measurements with 100-200 km distance between them, to develop equipment for these points, to develop the techniques and software for lightning location (Time-of-arrival and Direction Finding (TOA+DF)) and provide a lightning activity research in North Tien-Shan region with respect to seismicity and other natural and manmade activities. Also, it is planned to use lightning data for Global Electric Circuit (GEC) investigation. Currently, there are lightning detection networks in many countries. In Kazakhstan we have only separate units in airports. So, we don't have full lightning information for our region. It is planned, to setup 8-10 measurement points with magnetic and electric filed antennas for VLF range. The final data set should be including each stroke location, time, type (CG+, CG-, CC+ or CC-) and waveform from each station. As the magnetic field lightning antenna the ferrite rod VLF antenna will be used. As the electric field antenna the wide range antenna with specific frequencies filters will be used. For true event detection TOA and DF methods needs detected stroke from minimum 4 stations. In this case we can get location accuracy about 2-3 km and better.

  15. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  16. Lightning Mapping Array flash detection performance with variable receiver thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Vanna C.; Bruning, Eric C.

    2016-07-01

    This study characterizes Lightning Mapping Array performance for networks that participated in the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field program using new Monte Carlo and curvature matrix model simulations. These open-source simulation tools are readily adapted to real-time operations or detailed studies of performance. Each simulation accounted for receiver threshold and location, as well as a reference distribution of source powers and flash sizes based on thunderstorm observations and the mechanics of station triggering. Source and flash detection efficiency were combined with solution bias and variability to predict flash area distortion at long ranges. Location errors and detection efficiency were highly dependent on the station configuration and thresholds, especially at longer ranges, such that performance varied more than expected across different networks and with azimuth within networks. Error characteristics matched prior studies, which led to an increase in flash distortion with range. Predicted flash detection efficiency exceeded 95% within 100 km of all networks.

  17. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-07-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes.

  18. On the initiation of lightning in thunderclouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Chilingaryan, Suren; Karapetyan, Tigran; Kozliner, Lev; Khanikyants, Yeghia; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Pokhsraryan, David; Soghomonyan, Suren

    2017-05-02

    The relationship of lightning and elementary particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements - TGEs) as a probe we investigate the characteristics of the interrelated atmospheric processes. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux by the lightning flash. With new precise electronics, we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with the rearranging of the charge centers in the cloud. The analysis of the TGE energy spectra before and after the lightning demonstrates that the high-energy part of the TGE energy spectra disappeared just after lightning. The decline of particle flux coincides on millisecond time scale with first atmospheric discharges and we can conclude that Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREA) in the thundercloud assist initiation of the negative cloud to ground lightning. Thus, RREA can provide enough ionization to play a significant role in the unleashing of the lightning flash.

  19. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  20. Multiple Lightning Discharges in Wind Turbines Associated with Nearby Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Madsen, Søren Find;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of five events where simultaneous lightning currents were registered in different wind turbines of a wind farm with lightning monitoring equipment installed. Measurements from current monitoring devices installed at the wind turbines and observations from auto-tri...

  1. Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN Lightning Strike Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  2. Lightning Performance on Overhead Distribution Lines : After Improvement Field Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Zoro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two feeders of 20 kV overhead distribution lines which are located in a high lightning density area are chosen to be observed as a field study due to their good lightning performance after improvement of lightning protection system. These two feeders used the new overhead ground wire and new line arrester equipped with lightning counter on the main lines. The significant reduced of lines outages are reported. Study was carried out to observe these improvements by comparing to the other two feeders line which are not improved and not equipped yet with the ground wire and line arrester. These two feeders located in the nearby area. Two cameras were installed to record the trajectory of the lightning strikes on the improved lines. Lightning peak currents are measured using magnetic tape measurement system installed on the grounding lead of lightning arrester. Lightning overvoltage calculations are carried out by using several scenarios based on observation results and historical lightning data derived from lightning detection network. Lightning overvoltages caused by indirect or direct strikes are analyzed to get the lightning performance of the lines. The best scenario was chosen and performance of the lines were improved significantly by installing overhead ground wire and improvement of lightning arrester installation.

  3. Spatiotemporal characteristics of positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges and bidirectional leader of the lightning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The three-dimension spatiotemporal development characteristics of positive cloud-toground (CG) lightning discharges have been analyzed by using the data measured by the lightning mapping array system with high time and space resolution. The results indicate that a positive CG lightning discharge can be divided into three stages based on the characteristics of its development. The first stage is discharge process in cloud with a long duration preceding the return stroke. This process with an average of 370 ms propagated at velocity of 105 m/s and produced intensive radiation with a magnitude equal to that of the negative leader. During this stage, the lightning channels developed horizontally in the positive charge region with few branches as the negative polarity breakdown. During the stage after the return stroke of the positive CG lightning, the lightning channels propagated at velocity of 2 times faster than that before the return stroke. This stage involved lots of positive fast impulses and corresponded to the continuing current process producing less and dispersed radiation points and more intensive radiation powers. During the final stage of the positive CG lightning, the lightning channels developed at velocity equal to that before the return stroke and the radiation points appeared mainly at the ends of channel. The spatiotemporal development characteristics of the positive CG lightning are very different from that of the negative CG lightning. All of the radiation points of the positive CG lightning appeared in the positive charge region of cloud. Little or no radiation was detected during the positive leader just before the return stroke. The duration of the positive CG lightning was an average of 730 ms. The positive CG lightning discharges with lasting time of 500-600 ms were 43%. 90% of the positive CG lightning discharges involved one return stroke, the most return stroke number being four. The current of the return stroke was an average of 36.5 k

  4. Frequency domain analysis of lightning protection using four lightning protection rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javor Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the lightning discharge channel is modeled as a vertical monopole antenna excited by a pulse generator at its base. The lightning electromagnetic field of a nearby lightning discharge in the case of lightning protection using four vertical lightning protection rods was determined in the frequency domain. Unknown current distributions were determined by numerical solving of a system of integral equations of two potentials using the Point Matching Method and polynomial approximation of the current distributions. The influence of the real ground, treated as homogeneous loss half-space of known electrical parameters, expressed through a Sommerfeld integral kernel, was modeled using a new Two-image approximation which gives good results in both near and far fields.

  5. Franklin Lecture: Lightning in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    A broad overview is given of lightning in planetary atmospheres. Searches for lightning using spacecraft-borne instrumentation have now been conducted at almost all of the planets in the solar system, the exceptions being Mercury, which has no appreciable atmosphere, and Pluto which has not yet been visited by a spacecraft. The techniques used include (1) imaging observations to detect optical flashes produced by lightning; (2) high-frequency radio measurements to detect the impulsive broadband radio bursts, called spherics, produced by lightning discharges; and (3) low-frequency plasma wave measurements to detect the whistling tones, called whistlers, produced by lightning. Using these techniques, lightning has been reported at five planets other than Earth. These are: Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Of these, the existence of lightning at Venus is doubtful, and the evidence of lightning at Neptune is at best marginal. Jupiter and Saturn have by far the most intense and well documented lightning activity. During the Voyager 1 flyby of Jupiter, whistlers and intense optical flashes, comparable to those from terrestrial superbolts, were observed by the plasma wave and optical imaging instruments. However, no impulsive high-frequency radio bursts were observed. Two factors may be responsible for the absence of high-frequency radio signals: (1) the very strong magnetic field of Jupiter, which blocks the escape of the extra-ordinary mode; and (2) the relatively high electron collision frequency in the ionosphere, which increases the absorption of radio waves. During the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys of Saturn many very strong high-frequency radio bursts, called Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SEDs), were detected. Although the origin of these impulsive radio bursts was initially uncertain, strong evidence now exists that SEDs are produced by lightning. Recent optical imaging and radio measurements from the Cassini spacecraft clearly show that SEDs originate from

  6. Lightning: Nature's Probe of Severe Weather for Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lightning, the energetic and broadband electrical discharge produced by thunderstorms, provides a natural remote sensing signal for the study of severe storms and related phenomena on global, regional and local scales. Using this strong signal- one of nature's own probes of severe weather -lightning measurements prove to be straightforward and take advantage of a variety of measurement techniques that have advanced considerably in recent years. We briefly review some of the leading lightning detection systems including satellite-based optical detectors such as the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and ground-based radio frequency systems such as Vaisala's National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), long range lightning detection systems, and the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) networks. In addition, we examine some of the exciting new research results and operational capabilities (e.g., shortened tornado warning lead times) derived from these observations. Finally we look forward to the next measurement advance - lightning observations from geostationary orbit.

  7. Numerical tools for lightning protection of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Mieritz, Casper Falkenstrøm; Candela Garolera, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents the different numerical tools used for lightning protection analysis. Initially the risk assessment considering attachment point distribution and location of vulnerable points on the wind turbine will be discussed, where also the term Lightning Protection Coordination (...

  8. An Operational Perspective of Total Lightning Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize

  9. Lightning chemistry on Earth-like exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Rimmer, Paul B.; Waldmann, Ingo; Rocchetto, Marco; Yurchenko, Sergey N.; Helling, Christiane; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for lightning shock-induced chemistry that can be applied to atmospheres of arbitrary H/C/N/O chemistry, hence for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. The model couples hydrodynamics and the STAND2015 kinetic gas-phase chemistry. For an exoplanet analogue to the contemporary Earth, our model predicts NO and NO2 yields in agreement with observation. We predict height-dependent mixing ratios during a storm soon after a lightning shock of NO ≈10-3 at 40 km and NO2 ≈10-4 below 40 km, with O3 reduced to trace quantities (≪10-10). For an Earth-like exoplanet with a CO2/N2 dominated atmosphere and with an extremely intense lightning storm over its entire surface, we predict significant changes in the amount of NO, NO2, O3, H2O, H2 and predict a significant abundance of C2N. We find that, for the Early Earth, O2 is formed in large quantities by lightning but is rapidly processed by the photochemistry, consistent with previous work on lightning. The chemical effect of persistent global lightning storms are predicted to be significant, primarily due to NO2, with the largest spectral features present at ∼3.4 and ∼6.2 μm. The features within the transmission spectrum are on the order of 1 ppm and therefore are not likely detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope. Depending on its spectral properties, C2N could be a key tracer for lightning on Earth-like exoplanets with a N2/CO2 bulk atmosphere, unless destroyed by yet unknown chemical reactions.

  10. Dancing red sprites and the lightning activity in their parent thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bór, József; Zelkó, Zoltán; Hegedüs, Tibor; Jäger, Zoltán; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Popek, Martin; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Red sprites are brief optical emissions initiated in the mesosphere by intense tropospheric lightning discharges. A group of red sprites, in which the elements appear in rapid succession with some lateral offset from one another is referred to as a dancing sprite event. The occurrence of such events implies that significant and sequential charge removal extending to large regions of the thunderstorm can take place in the underlying cloud system. In this work, we examine the relation of the locations and observation times of appearing sprite elements to the temporal and spatial distribution of the lightning activity in a specific sprite-active thunderstorm. The selected mesoscale convective system (MCS) composed of several extremely active thundercloud cells crossed Central Europe from South-West to North-East through Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Poland on the night of 6 August, 2013. This MCS has triggered over one hundred sprites including several dancing sprite events. Video recordings of sprites captured from Sopron, Hungary (16.6°E, 47.7°N) and Nydek, Czech Republic (18.8°E, 49.7°N) were used to identify dancing sprite events and to determine the exact locations of the appearing sprite elements by a triangulation technique used originally to analyze meteor observations. Lightning activity in the MCS can be reviewed using the database of LINET lightning detection network which fully covers the region of interest (ROI). The poster demonstrates how cases of sequential charge removal in the thunderstorm can be followed by combining the available information on the occurrence time, location, polarity, and type (CG/IC) of detected lightning strokes in the ROI on one hand and the occurrence time and location of elements in dancing sprite events on the other hand.

  11. North Alabama Total Lightning Climatology in Support of Lightning Safety Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, G. T.; Schultz, C. J.; Koshak, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) was installed in 2001 to observe total lightning (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) and study its relationship to convective activity. NALMA has served as ground-truth for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imager (TRMM-LIS) and will again for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Also, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT) has transitioned these data to National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to evaluate the impact in operations since 2003. This study focuses on seasonal and diurnal observations from NALMA's 14 year history. This is initially intended to improve lightning safety at Marshall Space Flight Center, but has other potential applications. Improvements will be made by creating a dataset to investigate temporal, spatial, and seasonal patterns in total lightning over the Tennessee Valley, compare these observations to background environmental parameters and the TRMM-LIS climatology, and investigate applying these data to specific points of interest. Unique characteristics, such as flash extent density and length of flashes can be investigated, which are unavailable from other lightning networks like the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The NALMA and NLDN data can be combined such that end users can use total lightning to gain lead time on the initial cloud-to-ground flash of a storm and identify if lightning is extending far from the storm's core. This spatial extent can be analyzed to determine how often intra-cloud activity may impinge on a region of interest and how often a cloud-to-ground strike may occur in the region. The seasonal and diurnal lightning maps can aid with planning of various experiments or tests that often require some knowledge about future weather patterns months in advance. The main goal is to develop a protocol to enhance lightning safety everywhere once the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is on orbit

  12. Analysis and Identification of Corona Parameters on Overhead Power Lines in Case of Direct Lightning Strikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bajorek J; Maslowski G; Ziemba R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for determining specific models of overhead power lines with presence of corona phenomenon.The obtained models provide stable numerical solutions for computer simulation of transients caused by direct lightning strikes.The corona nonlinear charge-voltage characteristics obtained from experimental tests are used for identification of the corona parameters based on System Identification Toolbox implemented in Matlab package.Different transfer functions,which give the same waveshapes of overvoltages are determined using two parametric models.A circuit representation of the obtained transfer functions is proposed and the corona model is implemented in the EMTP-RV as a hierarchical structure composed of a overhead power line divided into sections with corona branches.Some computer simulations of lightning overvoltages propagated in a typical 220 kV power line due to direct lightning strikes to a line tower are presented.The proposed method and the model implemented in EMTP-RV are still valid for multi-conductor lines and for higher voltages of power lines but new corona nonlinear charge-voltage characteristics are required as an input parameter for the identification procedure.

  13. Influence of line isolation overlappings on formation of lightning overvoltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antropov I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The model of substation protection against lightning waves with considered multiple overlappings of line isolation has been presented. Influence of multiple overlapping of isolation on line support on formation of lightning overvoltages has been shown. Ambiguity of determination of lightning current dangerous parameters at the fixed length of its front has been revealed

  14. Modelling lightning caused transmission line outages in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Shen, S.S.P. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences; Koval, D.O. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The characteristics of lightning and the relationship between lightning and transmission line outages is not fully understood by utility planners. This study used 20 year data sets of lightning events to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of lightning in Alberta. Studies of geographical and temporal characteristics of lightning caused transmission line outages for several voltage level transmission lines were also examined. A lasso regression variable selection procedure and Cp criterion were used to model the duration of the lightning-caused transmission line outages as a function of weather and lightning patterns. The province was divided into 110 by 110 grids, and lightning variables were calculated for each cell. All the lightning variables for each cell were then averaged based on their areas. The overall cloud-ground lightning flashes 20-year mean frequency and the physical locations of power transmission lines were then plotted. Estimated probability density functions of the duration of lightning caused transmission line outages were classified by their voltage levels. The study showed that the characteristics of the lightning caused outages were different for different voltage levels of the transmission lines. Results suggested that the findings will have a significant impact on the accuracy of reliability methodologies that use the average duration of transmission line outages in their calculations. It was concluded that the new methodology can be applied to any transmission line system operating in a unique geographical environmental area. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Lightning risk warnings based on atmospheric electric field measurements in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio da Silva Ferro*

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology that employs the electrostatic field variations caused by thundercloud formation or displacement to generate lightning warnings over a region of interest in Southeastern Brazil. These warnings can be used to prevent accidents during hazardous operations, such as the manufacturing, loading, and test of motor-rockets. In these cases, certain equipment may be moved into covered facilities and personnel are required to take shelter. It is also possible to avoid the threat of natural and triggered lightning to launches. The atmospheric electric field database, including the summer seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 (from November to February, and, for the same period and region, the cloud-to-ground lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network – BrasilDAT – were used in order to perform a comparative analysis between the lightning warnings and the cloud-to- ground lightning strikes that effectively occurred inside the area of concern. The analysis was done for three areas surrounding the sensor installation defined as circles with 5, 10 and 15 km of radius to determine the most effective detection range. For each area it was done using several critical electric field thresholds: +/- 0.5; +/- 0.8; +/- 0.9; +/- 1.0; +/- 1.2; and +/- 1.5 kV/m. As a result of the reduction of atmospheric electric field data provided by the sensor installed in area of concern and lightning provided by BrasilDAT, it was possible, for each of the areas of alert proposals, to obtain the following parameters: the number of effective alarms; the number of false alarms; and the number of failure to warning. From the analysis of these parameters, it was possible to conclude that, apparently, the most interesting critical electric field threshold to be used is the level of 0.9 kV/m in association with a distance range of 10 km around the point where the sensor is installed.

  16. Statistical Evolution of the Lightning Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Natural lightning is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate lightning geo-location data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in lightning, taking advantage of the fact that millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a lightning flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other lightning and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic lightning, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG lightning flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest

  17. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.

    2009-01-01

    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  18. Lightning flash sizes relative to storm structure and turbulence during the Kinematic Texture and Lightning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, E. C.; Salinas, V.; Berkseth, S.; Chmielewski, V.; Brothers, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing work as part of the Kinematic Texture and Lightning Experiment at Texas Tech University has quantified the lightning flash size, rate, and energy alongside the turbulent structure of thunderclouds. 2016 was the final year of observations, which fielded two high-resolution mobile Ka-band radars and mobile environmental soundings. Lightning measurements were made by a VHF Lightning Mapping Array. In order to enhance the detection of the smallest lightning discharges in the turbulent portions of the thundercloud, a rapidly-deployable mobile Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) station augmented a traditional fixed LMA. This capability of targeting particular storm complexes with LMA measurements will be described, and the improved detection capability quantified. The complete set of field measurements from 2014-16 sampled numerous individual cells and storm complexes, ranging in intensity from multicellular convection to supercells and mesoscale convective systems. Flash measurements coincident with radar observations included deep, highly turbulent convective cores and extensive anvil regions. Comparison of flash characteristics across these storm morphologies will be shown, with a focus on the dynamical organization of storms and the turbulent kinematics that drive differences in lightning flash sizes and rates.

  19. Application and Analysis for Surge Arrester on Lightning Protection of Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively reduce lightning stroke outage rate, effect of lightning protection with surge arrester on transmission line has been generally acknowledged relative to other lightning protection measures. This article introduces in such aspects as the working principle of line surge arrester and effect of lightning protection, and also explores application for lightning arrester of distribution network to achieve difference lightning protection and improve the lightning protection performance of distribution network.

  20. Application and Analysis for Surge Arrester on Lightning Protection of Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daxing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively reduce lightning stroke outage rate, effect of lightning protection with surge arrester on transmission line has been generally acknowledged relative to other lightning protection measures. This article introduces in such aspects as the working principle of line surge arrester and effect of lightning protection, and also explores application for lightning arrester of distribution network to achieve difference lightning protection and improve the lightning protection performance of distribution network.

  1. Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winnie

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  2. Lightning and severe thunderstorms in event management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Katie M

    2012-01-01

    There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, lightning, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. Lightning and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and lightning safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.

  3. On ULF Signatures of Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösinger, T.; Shalimov, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Recent works on magnetic signatures due to distant lightning discharges are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on magnetic signatures in the ULF range (in the old definition from less than 1 mHz up to 1 Hz), that is in the frequency range below the Schumann resonance. These signatures are known to be of importance for the excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) which works only at night time conditions. This emphasizes the difference between night and day time ULF signatures of lightning. The IAR forms a link between the atmosphere and magnetosphere. Similarities and differences of this link in the VLF (Trimpi effect) and ULF range are worked out. A search for a unique signature of sprite-associated positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges ended with a negative result. In this context, however, a new model of lightning-associated induced mesospheric currents was built. Depending on mesospheric condition it can produce magnetic signatures in the entire frequency range from VLF, ELF to ULF. In the latter case it can explain signatures known as the Ultra Slow Tail of +CG lightning discharges. A current problem on the magnetic background noise intensity has been solved by taking more seriously the contribution of +CG lightning discharges to the overall background noise. Their low occurrence rate is more than compensated by their large and long lasting continuing currents. By superposed epoch analysis it could be shown that the ULF response to -CG is one to two orders smaller that in case of +CG with similar peak current values of the return stroke.

  4. Artificial Neural Network applied to lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, R. B.; Guedes, D.; Bianchi, R.

    2013-05-01

    The development of video cameras enabled cientists to study lightning discharges comportment with more precision. The main goal of this project is to create a system able to detect images of lightning discharges stored in videos and classify them using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)using C Language and OpenCV libraries. The developed system, can be split in two different modules: detection module and classification module. The detection module uses OpenCV`s computer vision libraries and image processing techniques to detect if there are significant differences between frames in a sequence, indicating that something, still not classified, occurred. Whenever there is a significant difference between two consecutive frames, two main algorithms are used to analyze the frame image: brightness and shape algorithms. These algorithms detect both shape and brightness of the event, removing irrelevant events like birds, as well as detecting the relevant events exact position, allowing the system to track it over time. The classification module uses a neural network to classify the relevant events as horizontal or vertical lightning, save the event`s images and calculates his number of discharges. The Neural Network was implemented using the backpropagation algorithm, and was trained with 42 training images , containing 57 lightning events (one image can have more than one lightning). TheANN was tested with one to five hidden layers, with up to 50 neurons each. The best configuration achieved a success rate of 95%, with one layer containing 20 neurons (33 test images with 42 events were used in this phase). This configuration was implemented in the developed system to analyze 20 video files, containing 63 lightning discharges previously manually detected. Results showed that all the lightning discharges were detected, many irrelevant events were unconsidered, and the event's number of discharges was correctly computed. The neural network used in this project achieved a

  5. Visual Analysis for Nowcasting of Multidimensional Lightning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Peters

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, most weather-related damages are caused by thunderstorms. Besides floods, strong wind, and hail, one of the major thunderstorm ground effects is lightning. Therefore, lightning investigations, including detection, cluster identification, tracking, and nowcasting are essential. To enable reliable decisions, current and predicted lightning cluster- and track features as well as analysis results have to be represented in the most appropriate way. Our paper introduces a framework which includes identification, tracking, nowcasting, and in particular visualization and statistical analysis of dynamic lightning data in three-dimensional space. The paper is specifically focused on enabling users to conduct the visual analysis of lightning data for the purpose of identification and interpretation of spatial-temporal patterns embedded in lightning data, and their dynamics. A graphic user interface (GUI is developed, wherein lightning tracks and predicted lightning clusters, including their prediction certainty, can be investigated within a 3D view or within a Space-Time-Cube. In contrast to previous work, our approach provides insight into the dynamics of past and predicted 3D lightning clusters and cluster features over time. We conclude that an interactive visual exploration in combination with a statistical analysis can provide new knowledge within lightning investigations and, thus, support decision-making in weather forecast or lightning damage prevention.

  6. Statistical analysis of lightning electric field measured under Malaysian condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain

    2014-02-01

    Lightning is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The Lightning characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of lightning protection system as well as for the calculation of lightning radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect lightning signals and to determine various parameters produced by a lightning flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the lightning signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of lightning signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed lightning signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.

  7. The lightning activities in super typhoons over the Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of lightning activities have been studied in seven super typhoons from 2005 to 2008 over the Northwest Pacific, using data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The results indicated that there were three distinct lightning flash regions in mature typhoon, a significant maximum in the eyewall regions (20-80 km from the center), a minimum from 80-200 km, and a strong maximum in the outer rainbands (out of 200 km from the center). The lightning flashes in the outer rainbands were much more than those in the inner rainbands, and less than 1% of flashes occurred within 100 km of the center. Each typhoon produced eyewall lightning outbreak during the periods of its intensification, usually several hours prior to its maximum intensity, indicating that lightning activity might be used as a proxy of intensification of super typhoon. Little lightning occurred near the center after landing of the typhoon.

  8. Irregularities of ionospheric VTEC during lightning activity over Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Nor, W. N. A. Wan Mohd

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the irregularities of vertical total electron content (VTEC) during lightning activity and geomagnetic quiet days over Antarctic Peninsula in year 2014. During the lightning event, the ionosphere may be disturbed which may cause disruption in the radio signal. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of lightning on VTEC in the study of upper-lower interaction. The lightning data is obtained from World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the VTEC data has analyzed from Global Positioning System (GPS) for O’Higgins (OHI3), Palmer (PALV), and Rothera (ROTH). The results demonstrate the VTEC variation of ∼0.2 TECU during low lightning activity which could be caused by energy dissipation through lightning discharges from troposphere into the thermosphere.

  9. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  10. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  11. Lightning driven EMP in the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, H. L.; Fernsler, R. F.; Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Large lightning discharges can drive electromagnetic pulses (EMP) that cause breakdown of the neutral atmosphere between 80 and 95 km leading to order of magnitude increases in the plasma density. The increase in the plasma density leads to increased reflection and absorption, and limits the pulse strength that propagates higher into the ionosphere.

  12. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand...

  13. Lightning detection and exposure algorithms for smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Lin; Su, Laili; Huang, Yining

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the key theory of lightning detection, exposure and the experiments. Firstly, the algorithm based on differential operation between two adjacent frames is selected to remove the lightning background information and extract lighting signal, and the threshold detection algorithm is applied to achieve the purpose of precise detection of lightning. Secondly, an algorithm is proposed to obtain scene exposure value, which can automatically detect external illumination status. Subsequently, a look-up table could be built on the basis of the relationships between the exposure value and average image brightness to achieve rapid automatic exposure. Finally, based on a USB 3.0 industrial camera including a CMOS imaging sensor, a set of hardware test platform is established and experiments are carried out on this platform to verify the performances of the proposed algorithms. The algorithms can effectively and fast capture clear lightning pictures such as special nighttime scenes, which will provide beneficial supporting to the smartphone industry, since the current exposure methods in smartphones often lost capture or induce overexposed or underexposed pictures.

  14. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  15. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of lightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightning characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, the polarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting. PMID:27879700

  16. Calibrated, multiband radiometric measurements of the optical radiation from lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Mason G.

    Calibrated, multiband radiometric measurements of the optical radiation emitted by rocket-triggered lightning (RTL) have been made in the ultraviolet (UV, 200-360 nm), the visible and near infrared (VNIR, 400-1000 nm), and the long wave infrared (LWIR, 8-12 microm) spectral bands. Measurements were recorded from a distance of 198 m at the University of Florida International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) during the summers of 2011 and 2012. The ICLRT provided time-correlated measurements of the current at the base of the RTL channels. Following the onset of a return stroke, the dominant mechanism for the initial rise of the UV and VNIR waveforms was the geometrical growth of the channel in the field-of-view of the sensors. The UV emissions peaked about 0.7 micros after the current peak, with a peak spectral power emitted by the source per unit length of channel of 10 +/- 7 kW/(nm-m) in the UV. The VNIR emissions peaked 0.9 micros after the current peak, with a spectral power of at 7 +/- 4 kW/(nm-m). The LWIR emissions peaked 30-50 micros after the current peak, and the mean peak spectral power was 940 +/- 380 mW/(nm-m), a value that is about 4 orders of magnitude lower than the other spectral band emissions. In some returns strokes the LWIR peak coincides with a secondary maximum in the VNIR band that occurs during a steady decrease in channel current. Examples of the optical waveforms in each spectral band are shown as a function of time and are discussed in the context of the current measured at the channel base. Source power estimates in the VNIR band have a mean and standard deviation of 2.5 +/- 2.2 MW/m and are in excellent agreement with similar estimates of the emission from natural subsequent strokes that remain in a pre-existing channel which have a mean and standard deviation of 2.3 +/- 3.4 MW/m. The peak optical power emitted by RTL in the UV and VNIR bands are observed to be proportional to the square of the peak current at the

  17. Electric Field Change and VHF Radiation during Lightning Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Bandara, S. A.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies of lightning initiation [e.g., Marshall et al., JGR 2014; Marshall et al., AGU 2015] have shown that an initial electric field change (IEC) occurs for about 1 ms before the first initial breakdown (IB) pulse in most (and perhaps all) lightning flashes. The same studies indicate that the IEC itself begins after an event that radiates strongly in the VHF radio band; this event seems to be the real lightning initiation event [e.g., Rison et al., Nature Communications 2016]. During the summer of 2016 we used an array of E-change sensors and VHF sensors located in north Mississippi to obtain correlated data on the VHF lightning initiation event, the IEC, and the IB pulses of nearby lightning flashes. In this presentation we show examples of lightning initiation events and their subsequent IECs at multiple sensors. In addition, we show examples of the VHF radiation associated with IB pulses.

  18. Weekly Cycle of Lightning: Evidence of Storm Invigoration by Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2009-01-01

    We have examined summertime 1998 2009 U.S. lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to look for weekly cycles in lightning activity. As was found by Bell et al. (2008) for rain over the southeast U.S., there is a significant weekly cycle in afternoon lightning activity that peaks in the middle of the week there. The weekly cycle appears to be reduced over population centers. Lightning activity peaks on weekends over waters near the SE U.S. The statistical significance of weekly cycles over the western half of the country is generally small. We found no evidence of a weekly cycle of synoptic-scale forcing that might explain these patterns. The lightning behavior is entirely consistent with the explanation suggested by Bell et al. (2008) for the cycles in rainfall and other atmospheric data from the SE U.S., that aerosols can cause storms to intensify in humid, convectively unstable environments.

  19. Chasing Lightning: Sferics, Tweeks and Whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. A.; Franzen, K.; Garcia, L.; Schou, P.; Rous, P.

    2008-12-01

    We all know what lightning looks like during a thunderstorm, but the visible flash we see is only part of the story. This is because lightning also generates light with other frequencies that we cannot perceive with our eyes, but which are just as real as visible light. Unlike the visible light from lightning, these other frequencies can carry the lightning's energy hundreds or thousands of miles across the surface of the Earth in the form of special signals called "tweeks" and "sferics". Some of these emissions can even travel tens of thousands of miles out into space before returning to the Earth as "whistlers". The INSPIRE Project, Inc is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose beginning mission was to bring the excitement of observing these very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves emissions from lightning to high school students. Since 1989, INSPIRE has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,600 participants around the world to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. Many of these participants are using the VLF data they collect in very creative projects that include fiction, music and art exhibitions. During the Fall 2008 semester, the first INSPIRE based university-level course was taught at University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) as part of its First-Year Seminar (FYS) series. The FYS classes are limited to 20 first-year students per class and are designed to create an active-learning environment that encourages student participation and discussion that might not otherwise occur in larger first-year classes. This presentation will cover the experiences gained from using the INSPIRE kits as the basis of a university course. This will include the lecture material that covers the basic physics of lightning, thunderstorms and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as the electronics required to understand the basic workings of the VLF kit. It will also cover the students assembly of the kit in an

  20. The impact of lightning on tropospheric ozone chemistry using a new global lightning parametrisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, D. L.; Doherty, R. M.; Wild, O.; Abraham, N. L.

    2016-06-01

    A lightning parametrisation based on upward cloud ice flux is implemented in a chemistry-climate model (CCM) for the first time. The UK Chemistry and Aerosols model is used to study the impact of these lightning nitric oxide (NO) emissions on ozone. Comparisons are then made between the new ice flux parametrisation and the commonly used, cloud-top height parametrisation. The ice flux approach improves the simulation of lightning and the temporal correlations with ozone sonde measurements in the middle and upper troposphere. Peak values of ozone in these regions are attributed to high lightning NO emissions. The ice flux approach reduces the overestimation of tropical lightning apparent in this CCM when using the cloud-top approach. This results in less NO emission in the tropical upper troposphere and more in the extratropics when using the ice flux scheme. In the tropical upper troposphere the reduction in ozone concentration is around 5-10 %. Surprisingly, there is only a small reduction in tropospheric ozone burden when using the ice flux approach. The greatest absolute change in ozone burden is found in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that much of the ozone produced in the upper troposphere is transported to higher altitudes. Major differences in the frequency distribution of flash rates for the two approaches are found. The cloud-top height scheme has lower maximum flash rates and more mid-range flash rates than the ice flux scheme. The initial Ox (odd oxygen species) production associated with the frequency distribution of continental lightning is analysed to show that higher flash rates are less efficient at producing Ox; low flash rates initially produce around 10 times more Ox per flash than high-end flash rates. We find that the newly implemented lightning scheme performs favourably compared to the cloud-top scheme with respect to simulation of lightning and tropospheric ozone. This alternative lightning scheme shows spatial and temporal differences in

  1. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Common Asthma Triggers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... t avoid the triggers. Some of the most common triggers are: Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is unhealthy ...

  2. Total Lightning Characteristics and Electric Structure Evolution in a Hailstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dong; ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; LU Weitao; YI Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, total lightning data observed by SAFIR3000 3-D Lightning Locating System was combined with radar data to analyze characteristics of the lightning activity and electric structure of a hailstorm that occurred in Beijing on 31 May 2005. The results indicated that there were two active periods for the lightning activity during the hailstorm process. The hail shooting was found in the first period. After the end of the hail shooting, lightning frequency decreased suddenly. However, more active lightning activities occurred in the second period with lots of them appearing in the cloud anvil region. The peak of the lightning frequency came about 5 rain prior to the hail shooting. Only 6.16% of the total lightning was cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, among which 20% had positive polarity. This percentage was higher than that in normal thunderstorms. In addition, heavier positive CG lightning discharge occurred before rather than after the hail shooting. In the stage of the hail shooting, the electric structure of the hailstorm was inverted, with the main negative charge region located around the -40℃ level and the main positive charge region around the -15℃ level. In addition, a weak negative charge region existed below the positive charge region transitorily. After the hail shooting, the electric structure underwent fast and persistent adjustments and became a normal tripole, with positive charge in the upper and lower levels and negative charge in the middle levels. However, the electric structure was tilted under the influence of the westerly wind in the middle and upper levels. The lightning activity and electric structure were closely related to the dynamic and microphysical processes of the hailstorm. It was believed that severe storms with stronger updrafts were more conducive to an inverted tripolar electric structure than normal thunderstorms, and the inverted distribution could then facilitate more positive CG lightning in the severe storms.

  3. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF LIGHTNING CHARACTERISTICS IN HAIL-PRODUCING CLOUDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-rong; FU Shuang-xi; LI Bao-zi; JIANG Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1 INTRODUCTION Lightning is a phenomenon of atmospheric electricity with convective storms. Since the 1960's, its characteristics during weather processes of torrential rain, hails and tornadoes have been widely studied and a lot of attempts made to probe into the mechanisms responsible for the formation of lightning[1], giving rise to two theories explaining the lightning genesis, from the points of convection and ice-phase precipitation,respectively.

  4. New method for lightning location using optical ground wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyu Qin; Zhaogu Cheng; Zhiping Zhang; Jianqiang Zhu; Feng Li

    2006-01-01

    A new technology of lightning location is described, which is based on detecting the state of polarization(SOP) fluctuation of the laser light in the optic ground wire (OPGW). Compared with the conventional lightning location method, the new method is more accurate, more stable, and cheaper. Theories of Stokes generated by lightning strike can still be accurately identified by detecting the velocity of polarization motion. A new algorithm to quantify the velocity is also introduced.

  5. Fractal model of lightning channel for simulating lightning strikes to transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JinLiang; ZHANG XueWei; DONG Lin; ZENG Rong; LIU ZeHong

    2009-01-01

    How to accurately evaluate the direct-strike lightning protection is one of the key issues in the design of transmission lines.In this paper, three important issues in applying the fractal simulation to the lightning protection of transmission lines were discussed, including the criteria and implementation of upward leader inception, the connection with the magnitude of lightning current, and the calculation and control of fractal dimensions.Then we conducted the simulation iterately, leading to statistical results, which indicate that even if the transmission line satisfies the perfect shielding condition, shielding failure fault remains possible.Furthermore, we calculated the shielding failure fault rates of an EHV line with different ground obliquities and distribution of strike points over the interval between two neighboring towers along a UHV-DC line to find out the weak point of transmission-line lightning protection.This work provides a promising approach for improving the lightning protection property of transmission lines by optimizing the configuration of shielding wires and phase or pole conductors.

  6. Fractal model of lightning channel for simulating lightning strikes to transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    How to accurately evaluate the direct-strike lightning protection is one of the key issues in the design of transmission lines. In this paper, three important issues in applying the fractal simulation to the lightning protection of transmission lines were discussed, including the criteria and implementation of upward leader inception, the connection with the magnitude of lightning current, and the calculation and control of fractal dimensions. Then we conducted the simulation iterately, leading to statistical results, which indicate that even if the transmission line satisfies the perfect shielding condition, shielding failure fault remains possible. Furthermore, we calculated the shielding failure fault rates of an EHV line with different ground obliquities and distribution of strike points over the interval between two neighboring towers along a UHV-DC line to find out the weak point of transmission-line lightning protection. This work provides a promising approach for improving the lightning protection property of transmission lines by optimizing the configuration of shielding wires and phase or pole conductors.

  7. The lightning heart: a case report and brief review of the cardiovascular complications of lightning injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, William F; Simpson, Christopher S; Redfearn, Damian P; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2010-09-05

    Lightning strike is a rare natural phenomenon, which carries a risk of dramatic medical complications to multiple organ systems and a high risk of fatality. The known complications include but are not limited to: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac contusion, stroke, cutaneous burns, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, acute kidney injury and death. We report a case of a healthy young man who suffered a lightning injury and discuss the cardiovascular complications of lightning injury, ranging from ECG changes to death. The patient in our case, a 27-year old previously healthy male, developed a syndrome of rhabdomyolysis and symptomatic cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Electrocardiographic findings included transient T-wave inversions, late transition shift and long QT. His clinical condition improved with supportive measures.Early recognition of lightning injury syndromes and anticipation of complications may help us improve outcomes for these patients. Evaluation of patients having experienced a lightning injury should include a minimum of a detailed history and physical examination, 12-lead ECG and drawing of baseline troponins. Prolonged electrocardiographical monitoring (for monitoring of ventricular arrhythmias) and assessment for signs and symptoms of hemodynamic compromise may be warranted.

  8. Nowcasting of Lightning-Related Accidents in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrlich, Laura; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Tropical Africa is the world capital of thunderstorm activity with the highest density of strikes per square kilometer per year. As a result it is also the continent with perhaps the highest casualties and injuries from direct lightning strikes. This region of the globe also has little lightning protection of rural homes and schools, while many casualties occur during outdoor activities (e.g. farming, fishing, sports, etc.) In this study we investigated two lightning-caused accidents that got wide press coverage: A lightning strike to a Cheetah Center in Namibia which caused a huge fire and great destruction (16 October 2013), and a plane crash in Mali where 116 people died (24 July 2014). Using data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) we show that the lightning data alone can provide important early warning information that can be used to reduce risks and damages and loss of life from lightning strikes. We have developed a now-casting scheme that allows for early warnings across Africa with a relatively low false alarm rate. To verify the accuracy of our now-cast, we have performed some statistical analysis showing relatively high skill at providing early warnings (lead time of a few hours) based on lightning alone. Furthermore, our analysis can be used in forensic meteorology for determining if such accidents are caused by lightning strikes.

  9. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kucienska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible cause of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical thickness are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. In addition, we compare two smaller regions over the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Converge Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other influenced by a continental jet and presenting high rainfall and strong lightning activity over the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Maritime precipitating clouds that develop within the region influenced by offshore winds exhibit similar properties to continental clouds: large content of precipitation ice and an increased height range of coexistence of precipitation ice and cloud water. During the rainy season, monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis strongly suggests that the high lightning activity observed over the Gulf of Tehuantepec is caused by continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean.

  10. Analysis of Conditions favorable for Ball Lightning Creation

    CERN Document Server

    Boerner, H

    2016-01-01

    This report uses a few well documented cases of Ball Lightning (or BL for short) observations to demonstrate a correlation between BL and positive lightning, especially strong positive lightning. This allows to draw conclusions and predictions about future BL observations and the pro- duction of these objects in the laboratory. Contrary to many current BL theories, these objects can be created without direct contact to a lightning channel. Very high electric fields appear to be essential for the creation, together with the proper temporal structure of the field. So far no experiments have been performed along the ideas presented in this report.

  11. Cochlear implantation for severe sensorineural hearing loss caused by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Il-Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Kong, Soo-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Lightning strike can produce an array of clinical symptoms and injuries. It may damage multiple organs and cause auditory injuries ranging from transient hearing loss and vertigo to complete disruption of the auditory system. Tympanic-membrane rupture is relatively common in patients with lightning injury. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of auditory lesions in lightning survivors have not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by a lightning strike, who was successfully rehabilitated after a cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New method for lightning location using optical ground wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhaoyu; Cheng, Zhaogu; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhu, Jianqiang; Li, Feng

    2006-12-01

    A new technology of lightning location is described, which is based on detecting the state of polarization (SOP) fluctuation of the laser light in the optic ground wire (OPGW). Compared with the conventional lightning location method, the new method is more accurate, more stable, and cheaper. Theories of Stokes parameters and Poincare sphere are introduced to analyze the SOP at the lightning strike point. It can be concluded that although the initial points of SOP on the Poincare sphere are random, the SOP fluctuation generated by lightning strike can still be accurately identified by detecting the velocity of polarization motion. A new algorithm to quantify the velocity is also introduced.

  13. Dust cloud lightning in extraterrestrial atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane; Diver, Declan; Witte, Soeren

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is present in all solar system planets which form clouds in their atmospheres. Cloud formation outside our solar system is possible in objects with much higher temperatures than on Earth or on Jupiter: Brown dwarfs and giant extrasolar gas planets form clouds made of mixed materials and a large spectrum of grain sizes. These clouds are globally neutral obeying dust-gas charge equilibrium which is, on short timescales, inconsistent with the observation of stochastic ionization events of the solar system planets. We argue that a significant volume of the clouds in brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets is susceptible to local discharge events and that the upper cloud layers are most suitable for powerful lightning-like discharge events. We discuss various sources of atmospheric ionisation, including thermal ionisation and a first estimate of ionisation by cosmic rays, and argue that we should expect thunderstorms also in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and giant gas planets which contain mineral clouds.

  14. Lightning Strikes and Attribution of Climatic Change

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temp...

  15. Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by lightning discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of lightning radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm. We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.

  16. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N

    2013-05-03

    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  17. An Assessment of Land Surface and Lightning Characteristics Associated with Lightning-Initiated Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, James; Schultz, Christopher J.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    Can we use modeled information of the land surface and characteristics of lightning beyond flash occurrence to increase the identification and prediction of wildfires? Combine observed cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes with real-time land surface model output, and Compare data with areas where lightning did not start a wildfire to determine what land surface conditions and lightning characteristics were responsible for causing wildfires. Statistical differences between suspected fire-starters and non-fire-starters were peak-current dependent 0-10 cm Volumetric and Relative Soil Moisture comparisons were statistically dependent to at least the p = 0.05 independence level for both polarity flash types Suspected fire-starters typically occurred in areas of lower soil moisture than non-fire-starters. GVF value comparisons were only found to be statistically dependent for -CG flashes. However, random sampling of the -CG non-fire starter dataset revealed that this relationship may not always hold.

  18. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  19. Simulation of Meteosat Third Generation-Lightning Imager through tropical rainfall measuring mission: Lightning Imaging Sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Daniele; De Leonibus, Luigi; Laquale, Paolo; Labate, Demetrio; Zauli, Francesco; Melfi, Davide

    2008-08-01

    The Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica recently hosted a fellowship sponsored by Galileo Avionica, with the intent to study and perform a simulation of Meteosat Third Generation - Lightning Imager (MTG-LI) sensor behavior through Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Lightning Imaging Sensor data (TRMM-LIS). For the next generation of earth observation geostationary satellite, major operating agencies are planning to insert an optical imaging mission, that continuously observes lightning pulses in the atmosphere; EUMETSAT has decided in recent years that one of the three candidate mission to be flown on MTG is LI, a Lightning Imager. MTG-LI mission has no Meteosat Second Generation heritage, but users need to evaluate the possible real time data output of the instrument to agree in inserting it on MTG payload. Authors took the expected LI design from MTG Mission Requirement Document, and reprocess real lightning dataset, acquired from space by TRMM-LIS instrument, to produce a simulated MTG-LI lightning dataset. The simulation is performed in several run, varying Minimum Detectable Energy, taking into account processing steps from event detection to final lightning information. A definition of the specific meteorological requirements is given from the potential use in meteorology of lightning final information for convection estimation and numerical cloud modeling. Study results show the range of instrument requirements relaxation which lead to minimal reduction in the final lightning information.

  20. An Optical Lightning Simulator in an Electrified Cloud-Resolving Model to Prepare the Future Space Lightning Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovalo, Christophe; Defer, Eric; Pinty, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The future decade will see the launch of several space missions designed to monitor the total lightning activity. Among these missions, the American (Geostationary Lightning Mapper - GLM) and European (Lightning Imager - LI) optical detectors will be onboard geostationary satellites (GOES-R and MTG, respectively). For the first time, the total lightning activity will be monitored over the full Earth disk and at a very high temporal resolution (2 and 1 ms, respectively). Missions like the French Tool for the Analysis of Radiation from lightNIng and Sprites (TARANIS) and ISS-LIS will bring complementary information in order to better understand the lightning physics and to improve the weather prediction (nowcasting and forecasting). Such missions will generate a huge volume of new and original observations for the scientific community and weather prediction centers that have to be prepared. Moreover, before the launch of these missions, fundamental questions regarding the interpretation of the optical signal property and its relation to cloud optical thickness and lightning discharge processes need to be further investigated. An innovative approach proposed here is to use the synergy existing in the French MesoNH Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM). Indeed, MesoNH is one of the only CRM able to simulate the lifecycle of electrical charges generated within clouds through non-inductive charging process (dependent of the 1-moment microphysical scheme). The lightning flash geometry is based on a fractal law while the electrical field is diagnosed thanks to the Gauss' law. The lightning optical simulator is linked to the electrical scheme as the lightning radiance at 777.4 nm is a function of the lightning current, approximated by the charges neutralized along the lightning path. Another important part is the scattering of this signal by the hydrometeors (mainly ice particles) that is taken into account. Simulations at 1-km resolution are done over the Langmuir Laboratory (New

  1. Acoustic vs Interferometric Measurements of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Erives, H.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Lapierre, J. L.; Stock, M.; Jensen, D.; Morris, K.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer of 2015 we acquired acoustic and RF data on severalflashes from thunderstorms over Fort Morgan CO. and Langmuir Laboratoryin the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico. The acoustic arrayswere located at a distance of roughly 150 m from the interferometers.Lightning mapping array and slow antenna data were also obtained. Theacoustic arrays consist of arrays of five audio-range and six infrasoundmicrophones operating at 50 KHz and 1 KHz respectively. The lightninginterferometer at Fort Morgan CO. consists of three flat-plate, 13" diameterantennas at the vertices of an equilateral 50 m per side triangle. Theinterferometer at Langmuir Laboratory consists of three 13" dishes separatedby about 15 m. Both interferometers, operating at 180 Megasamples persecond, use the analysis software and digitizer hardware pioneered byStanley, Stock et al. The high data rate allows for excellent spatialresolution of high speed (and typically high current) processes such asK-changes, return strokes and dart-leaders. In previous studies, we haveshown the usefulness of acoustic recordings to locate thunder sources aswell as infrasound pulses from lightning. This work will present acomparison of Acoustic and Interferometric measurements from lightning,using some interesting flashes, including a positive cloud to ground,that occurred in these campaigns.

  2. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  3. Lightning flash multiplicity in eastern Mediterranean thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Shalev, S.; Erlich, Z.; Agrachov, A.; Katz, E.; Saaroni, H.; Price, C.; Ziv, B.

    2014-02-01

    Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes usually consist of one or several strokes coming in very short temporal succession and close spatial proximity. A commonly used method for converting stroke data into flashes is using the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) thresholds of maximum temporal separation of 0.5 s and maximum lateral distance of 10 km radius between successive strokes. In the present study, we tested a location-based algorithm with several spatial and temporal ranges, and analyzed stroke data obtained by the Israel Lightning Location System (ILLS) during one year (1.8.2009-31.7.2010). We computed the multiplicity, the percentage of single stroke flashes and the geographical distribution of average multiplicity values for thunderstorms in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Results show that for the NLDN thresholds, the percentage of single stroke flashes in Israel was 37% and the average multiplicity was 1.7. We reanalyzed the data with a spatial range that equals twice the ILLS location error and shorter times. For the new thresholds of maximum distance of 2.5 km and maximum allowed temporal separation of 0.2 s we find that the mean multiplicity of negative CGs is lowered to 1.4 and find a percentage of 58% of single stroke flashes. A unique severe storm from 30 October 2009 is analyzed and compared with the annual average of 2009/2010, showing that large deviations from the mean values can occur in specific events.

  4. Review of the Lightning Shielding Against Direct Lightning Strokes Based on Laboratory Long Air Gap Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    It is one of the most effective ways to use laboratory long air gap discharges tbr investigating the fundamental process involved in the lightning strike. During the 1960s and the 1970s, the electro-geometrical method (EGM) and the rolling sphere method were developed base on the breakdown characteristics of negative long spark discharges, which have been widely used to design the lightning shielding system of transmission lines and structures. In recent years, the scale of the power facilities is increased dramatically with the rising of power grid's voltage level.

  5. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Boersma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3-D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2. A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing cloud top height, consistent with a power-law behaviour with power 5±2. Convective production of clouds with the same cloud height are found to produce NO2 with a ratio 1.6/1 for continents compared to oceans. This relation between cloud properties and NO2 is used to construct a 10:30 local time global lightning NO2 production map for 1997. An extensive statistical comparison is conducted to investigate the capability of the TM3 chemistry transport model to reproduce observed patterns of lightning NO2 in time and space. This comparison uses the averaging kernel to relate modelled profiles of NO2 to observed NO2 columns. It exploits a masking scheme to minimise the interference of other NOx sources on the observed total columns. Simulations are performed with two lightning parameterizations, one relating convective preciptation (CP scheme to lightning flash distributions, and the other relating the fifth power of the cloud top height (H5 scheme to lightning distributions. The satellite-retrieved NO2 fields show significant correlations with the simulated lightning contribution to the NO2 concentrations for both parameterizations. Over tropical continents modelled lightning NO2 shows remarkable quantitative agreement with observations. Over the oceans however, the two model lightning parameterizations overestimate the retrieved NO2 attributed to lightning. Possible explanations for these overestimations are discussed. The ratio between satellite-retrieved NO2 and modelled lightning NO2 is used to rescale the original modelled lightning NOx production. Eight estimates of the lightning NOx production in 1997 are obtained from spatial and temporal

  6. Estimates of lightning NOx production from GOME satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kelder

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric NO2 column retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME satellite spectrometer are used to quantify the source strength and 3D distribution of lightning produced nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO2+NO2. A sharp increase of NO2 is observed at convective cloud tops with increasing cloud top height, consistent with a power-law behaviour with power 5±2. Convective production of clouds with the same cloud height are found to produce NO2 with a ratio 1.6/1 for continents compared to oceans. This relation between cloud properties and NO2 is used to construct a 10:30 local time global lightning NO2 production map for 1997. An extensive statistical comparison is conducted to investigate the capability of the TM3 chemistry transport model to reproduce observed patterns of lightning NO2 in time and space. This comparison uses the averaging kernel to relate modelled profiles of NO2 to observed NO2 columns. It exploits a masking scheme to minimise the interference of other NOx sources on the observed total columns. Simulations are performed with two lightning parametrisations, one relating convective preciptation (CP scheme to lightning flash distributions, and the other relating the fifth power of the cloud top height (H5 scheme to lightning distributions. The satellite-retrieved NO2 fields show significant correlations with the simulated lightning contribution to the NO2 concentrations for both parametrisations. Over tropical continents modelled lightning NO2 shows remarkable quantitative agreement with observations. Over the oceans however, the two model lightning parametrisations overestimate the retrieved NO2 attributed to lightning. Possible explanations for these overestimations are discussed. The ratio between satellite-retrieved NO2 and modelled lightning NO2 is used to rescale the original modelled lightning NOx production. Eight estimates of the lightning NOx production in 1997 are obtained from spatial and temporal correlation

  7. Quantification and identification of lightning damage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Gora, Evan M; Burchfield, Jeffrey M; Bitzer, Phillip M; Detto, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although lightning kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of lightning-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of lightning on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of lightning are impossible. We developed a combined electronic sensor/camera-based system for the location and characterization of lightning strikes to the forest canopy in near real time and tested the system in the forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Cameras mounted on towers provided continuous video recordings of the forest canopy that were analyzed to determine the locations of lightning strikes. We used a preliminary version of this system to record and locate 18 lightning strikes to the forest over a 3-year period. Data from field surveys of known lightning strike locations (obtained from the camera system) enabled us to develop a protocol for reliable, ground-based identification of suspected lightning damage to tropical trees. In all cases, lightning damage was relatively inconspicuous; it would have been overlooked by ground-based observers having no knowledge of the event. We identified three types of evidence that can be used to consistently identify lightning strike damage in tropical forests: (1) localized and directionally biased branch mortality associated with flashover among tree and sapling crowns, (2) mortality of lianas or saplings near lianas, and (3) scorched or wilting epiphytic and hemiepiphytic plants. The longitudinal trunk scars that are typical of lightning-damaged temperate trees were never observed in this study. Given the

  8. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.

    2016-09-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).

  9. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  10. International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (ICOLSE) (10th) and the Congres International Aeronautiq (17th) Held in Paris (France) on 10-13 June 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-13

    MATHPAL and 3. RAI.- Ground electrostatic field changes due to lightning 89 1 XII 2B-3 Y. GOTO, K. NARITA, M. NAITO and R. FUNAYAMA.- Electric...t 8 3H2 M.W. Maier et al. Tabla 3. - DIrictlon flndar bearing arror (in dagraaa] for tin triggered flaahsa. I Direction Flndar Flaah 1 Flaah

  11. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

    that a strong electric current indeed traversed the boulder. A few years later a second lightning impacted on a mountaintop close to the first impact. The second lightning left a trail on the rock surface covered by a thin layer of glass. The glass displays spectacular colours ranging from metallic blue, to red...

  12. Designing concept on lightning protection of overhead power distribution line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shigeru [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)], E-mail: yokoyama@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2007-07-01

    The principle is shown for lightning protection of power distribution lines taking the effects of surge arresters, overhead ground wires and their combined use into consideration. Moreover an outline of a rational design method targeting direct lightning hits, induced over voltages and back flow currents from high structures. (author)

  13. Design of Lightning Arresters for Electrical Power Systems Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Abdulwadood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of how the lightning strikes and their effects on power distribution systems can be modeled, where the results give a clear picture of how to eliminate the devastating impact, caused by lightning, by using lightning arresters. The program ATP-Draw (Alternative Transient Program was used to simulate the problem and was applied on a part of a power network.The simulation was done once when the lightning strikes a transmission line and a substation with no lightning arresters in use and once more with their use. The source of the lightning was represented by the ATP models (Type-15 surge function and Type-13 ramp function and the surge arrester was represented by the MOV-Type 92 component. The voltage was recorded at the substation 110/22 kV and at all loads in the electric network, and was drawn by the PlotXWin program. The results obtained indicate that the voltages induced by the lightning can reach values of the order of millions over insulation flashover levels for 22 kV equipment, where is clearly seen in Fig. 12 to 16 and Tab.10, which requires the installation of lightning arresters.

  14. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  15. Integration of Lightning- and Human-Caused Wildfire Occurrence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilar, Lara; Nieto Solana, Hector; Martín, M. Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Fire risk indices are useful tools for fire prevention actions by fire managers. A fire ignition is either the result of lightning or human activities. In European Mediterranean countries most forest fires are due to human activities. However, lightning is still an important fire ignition source ...

  16. 21st Century Lightning Protection for High Altitude Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithil, Richard

    2013-05-01

    One of the first recorded lightning insults to an observatory was in January 1890 at the Ben Nevis Observatory in Scotland. In more recent times lightning has caused equipment losses and data destruction at the US Air Force Maui Space Surveillance Complex, the Cerro Tololo observatory and the nearby La Serena scientific and technical office, the VLLA, and the Apache Point Observatory. In August 1997 NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory at Mauna Loa Observatory was out of commission for a month due to lightning outages to data acquisition computers and connected cabling. The University of Arizona has reported "lightning strikes have taken a heavy toll at all Steward Observatory sites." At Kitt Peak, extensive power down protocols are in place where lightning protection for personnel, electrical systems, associated electronics and data are critical. Designstage lightning protection defenses are to be incorporated at NSO's ATST Hawaii facility. For high altitude observatories lightning protection no longer is as simple as Franklin's 1752 invention of a rod in the air, one in the ground and a connecting conductor. This paper discusses selection of engineered lightning protection subsystems in a carefully planned methodology which is specific to each site.

  17. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.

    2016-06-01

    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  18. Lightning, IT Diffusion and Economic Growth across US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars;

    Empirically, a higher frequency of lightning strikes is associated with slower growth in labor productivity across the 48 contiguous US states after 1990; before 1990 there is no correlation between growth and lightning. Other climate variables (e.g., temperature, rainfall and tornadoes) do not c...

  19. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954 Section 23.954 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged...

  20. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...

  1. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...

  2. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-21

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, oftenresulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods,forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence,etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging stormscan be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF]sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales(using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio wavesemitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuouslydistant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number oflightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightningcharacteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, thepolarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shownthat changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are oftenrelated to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observingsystems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may beused to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility ofsupplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

  3. A Lightning Detector Onboard Austrian Nanosatellite (LiNSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, G.; Koudelka, O.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Eichelberger, H.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents architecture of a lightning detector onboard future Austrian Lightning Nanosatellite (LiNSAT) in low-earth-orbit (LEO) and results of two terrestrial measurement campaigns to geo-locate and discriminate lightning types in presence of noise sources. The LiNSAT is proposed to be launched with three satellites constellation for the purpose of Time-of-Arrival technique. Our main scientific objective is to investigate lightning events by the observation of VHF electromagnetic signals (Sferics) and to derive the signatures of lightning. One of the important parameters is lightning flash rate, which can be used as a proxy for locating severe weather activity. Another objective is to discriminate the discharges of lightning events evaluated by the inherent features and to differentiate cloud discharges (IC; intercloud and Intracloud) from ground discharges (CG; cloud-to-ground), return strokes, leaders and transionospheric pulse pairs. The discrimination is important because the ratio of the two (IC/CG) is a good indicator of convective storm development. We conducted two measurement campaigns; one for artificial lightning produced in high voltage chamber and second natural lightning recorded at urban environment. We focus mainly on envelopes of the received time series including noisy features and narrowband carriers to extract characteristic parameters. We determined the chamber inter-walls distance by considering reflections in the first measurements. Initially the algorithm for the instruments onboard electronics has been developed and verified in Matlab and will be transformed to machine language. Next consideration is to use existing lightning data from previous French mission “DEMETER” to validate the accomplished results. The lightning detector onboard has to perform tasks like determination of pulse-width, pulse-count, pulse rise/fall time etc; we get noise possibly from narrowband carriers and artifacts from satellite itself (EMC) in

  4. Bayesian techniques to analyze and merge lightning locating system data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Phillip M.; Burchfield, Jeffrey C.

    2016-12-01

    As more lightning locating systems (LLSs) become available, there is a growing need to assess how each LLS performs and how to best merge data from multiple LLSs. A Bayesian analysis is used to compare the worldwide data of LLSs from three providers for November 2014 to October 2015: Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN, Earth Networks), the combined data from the Global Lightning Detection 360 and National Lightning Detection Network (Vaisala), and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, University of Washington). By using the union of the data sets we are able to determine an estimate for the upper limit of the absolute detection efficiency of each system. Globally, ENTLN detected 56.8% of the discharges, the combined Vaisala networks detected 59.8%, and WWLLN detected 7.9%. In addition, there were 2.842 × 109 unique discharges detected by these LLSs, an average of 90.1 strokes/s.

  5. General Survey for Lightning Protection Standards Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The introduction of IEC/TC81 Thunderstorms are natural weather phenomena and there are no devices or methods capable of preventing lightning discharges. Lightning flashes striking structures or services entering the structures, or striking earth nearby are hazardous to people, to the structures themselves, their contents and installations, as well as to services.Hence lightning protection is very important for national economic development. The international trade in lightning protection measures integrat ed in plants or buildings is of increasing importance:more than 500 million USD, world wide are estimated today; consequent loss, where protection measures are not provided, is some order of magnitude higher.The number of countries where lightning protection is required either by law or by insurance companies is growing. Some countries have conflicting national rules and many developing countries do not have the relevant international standards, making the need for such standards all the more urgent.

  6. Spatial Variation of the Correlated Color Temperature of Lightning Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Shimoji, Nobuaki; Sakihama, Singo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the spatial variation of the correlated color temperature (CCT) of lightning channel. We also discussed the energy of lightning channels relating to the CCT . First we applied digital image processing techniques to lightning images. In order to reduce the chromatic aberration, we created the reduction technique algorithm of the chromatic aberration on digital still images. We applied the reduction technique of the chromatic aberration to digital still images, and then the obtained results was mapped to the xy-chromaticity diagram. The CCT of the lightning channel was decided on the xy-chromaticity diagram. From results, the spatial variation of the CCT of the lightning channel was confirmed. Then the energy associated with the the CCT was discussed.

  7. Integration of Lightning- and Human-Caused Wildfire Occurrence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilar, Lara; Nieto Solana, Hector; Martín, M. Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Fire risk indices are useful tools for fire prevention actions by fire managers. A fire ignition is either the result of lightning or human activities. In European Mediterranean countries most forest fires are due to human activities. However, lightning is still an important fire ignition source...... in some regions. Integration of lightning and human fire occurrence probability into fire risk indices would be necessary to have a complete picture of the causal agents and their relative importance in fire occurrence. We present two methods for the integration of lightning and human fire occurrence...... probability models at 1 × 1 km grid cell resolution in two regions of Spain: Madrid, which presents a high fire incidence due to human activities; and Aragón, one of the most affected regions in Spain by lightning-fires. For validation, independent fire ignition points were used to compute the Receiver...

  8. Lightning, IT Diffusion and Economic Growth across US States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    Empirically, a higher frequency of lightning strikes is associated with slower growth in labor productivity across the 48 contiguous US states after 1990; before 1990 there is no correlation between growth and lightning. Other climate variables (e.g., temperature, rainfall and tornadoes) do...... not conform to this pattern. A viable explanation is that lightning influences IT diffusion. By causing voltage spikes and dips, a higher frequency of ground strikes leads to damaged digital equipment and thus higher IT user costs. Accordingly, the flash density (strikes per square km per year) should...... adversely affect the speed of IT diffusion. We find that lightning indeed seems to have slowed IT diffusion, conditional on standard controls. Hence, an increasing macroeconomic sensitivity to lightning may be due to the increasing importance of digital technologies for the growth process....

  9. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, B E; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2016-01-01

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mecha...

  10. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  11. Lightning Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and other Meteorological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Larry; Cecil, Dan; Bateman, Monte; Stano, Geoffrey; Goodman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Objective of project is to refine, adapt and demonstrate the Lightning Jump Algorithm (LJA) for transition to GOES -R GLM (Geostationary Lightning Mapper) readiness and to establish a path to operations Ongoing work . reducing risk in GLM lightning proxy, cell tracking, LJA algorithm automation, and data fusion (e.g., radar + lightning).

  12. Observation of Lightning Ball (Ball Lightning): A new phenomenological description of the phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Tar, Domokos

    2009-01-01

    The author (physicist)has observed the very strange,beautiful and frightening Lightning Ball (LB). He has never forgotten this phenomenon. During his working life he could not devote himself to the problem of LB-formation.Only two years ago as he has been reading different unbelievable models of LB-formation, he decided to work on this problem. By studying the literature and the crucial points of his observation the author succeeded in creating a completely new model of Lightning Ball(LB) and Ball Lightning(BL)-formation based on the symmetry breaking of the hydrodynamic vortex ring.This agrees fully with the observation and overcomes the shortcomings of current models of LB formation. This model provides answers to the questions: Why are LBs so rarely observed,why do BLs in rare cases have such a high energy and how can we generate LB in the laboratory? Moreover the author differentiates between LB and BL, the latter having a high energy and occuring in 5 % of the observations. Keywords: ball lightning, hydr...

  13. On the Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning Strikes and Modeled Convective Precipitation Rates Parameterization of Lightning NOx Production in CMAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past dec...

  14. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning?: A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-08-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow, cause the local atmosphere in a thundercloud to transition to a conducting state. In response to this claim, other researchers have published simulations showing that the electron density produced by RREA is far too small to be able to affect the conductivity in the cloud sufficiently to initiate lightning. In this paper, we compare 74 days of cosmic ray air shower data collected in north central Florida during 2013-2015, the recorded CRASs having primary energies on the order of 1016 eV to 1018 eV and zenith angles less than 38°, with Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data, and we show that there is no evidence that the detected cosmic ray air showers initiated lightning. Furthermore, we show that the average probability of any of our detected cosmic ray air showers to initiate a lightning flash can be no more than 5%. If all lightning flashes were initiated by cosmic ray air showers, then about 1.6% of detected CRASs would initiate lightning; therefore, we do not have enough data to exclude the possibility that lightning flashes could be initiated by cosmic ray air showers.

  15. Lightning Location With Single-Station Observation of VLF Spherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, I.; Yagitani, S.; Komonmae, H.; Takezono, N.

    2001-12-01

    Most of the lightning location systems recently available require the simultaneous reception of lightning-generated radio pulses (spherics) at multiple stations. In this work, we develop a lightning location system to determine both the direction and range of a lightning stroke with a single-station observation of VLF spherics. The technique used here is a rather classical one, but we try to improve the ranging accuracy by applying sophisticated signal processing techniques, and our final goal is to develop a portable lightning locator. We observe wave forms of two horizontal magnetic fields and one vertical electric field of VLF spherics, each of which usually consists of a couple of sequential pulses. The first pulse comes directly from a lightning return stroke, and is used for the direction finding of the stroke. On the other hand, the second and later pulses are the multiple reflections of the first pulse inside the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Since the time-of-arrival (ToA) of each pulse is determined by its propagation path length in the waveguide, by using the observed difference in ToA of two or more pulses, we can inversely estimate not only the reflection height at the ionosphere but also the range of the lightning stroke. By installing the developed system at Kanazawa University, we have been observing lightning-generated spherics since April, 2000. Compared with the lightning location data provided by a local power company, preliminary analysis shows that this system can locate each lightning stroke within several hundred km with a sufficient accuracy.

  16. High lightning activity in maritime clouds near Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucienska, B.; Raga, G. B.; Romero-Centeno, R.

    2012-09-01

    Lightning activity detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) over oceanic regions adjacent to Mexico is often as high as that observed over the continent. In order to explore the possible causes of the observed high flash density over those regions, the relationships between lightning, rainfall, vertical hydrometeor profiles, latent heating, wind variability and aerosol optical depth are analyzed. The characteristics of lightning and precipitation over four oceanic zones adjacent to Mexican coastlines are contrasted against those over the continent. The number of flashes per rainfall over some coastal maritime regions is found to be higher than over the continent. The largest number of flashes per rainfall is observed during the biomass burning season. In addition, we compare two smaller areas of the Tropical Pacific Ocean: one located within the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and characterized by high rainfall and weak lightning activity and the other one influenced by a continental wind jet and characterized by high rainfall and strong lightning activity. During the rainy season, the monthly distribution of lightning within the region influenced by the continental wind jet is contrary to that of rainfall. Moreover, the monthly variability of lightning is very similar to the variability of the meridional wind component and it is also related to the variability of aerosol optical depth. The analysis suggests that the high lightning activity observed over coastal Pacific region is linked to the continental cloud condensation nuclei advected over the ocean. Analysis of daily observations indicates that the greatest lightning density is observed for moderate values of the aerosol optical depth, between 0.2 and 0.35.

  17. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  18. Lightning Magnetic Field Measurements around Langmuir Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Aulich, G. D.; Edens, H. E.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    In the absence of artificial conductors, underground lightning transients are produced by diffusion of the horizontal surface magnetic field of a return stroke vertically downward into the conducting earth. The changing magnetic flux produces an orthogonal horizontal electric field, generating a dispersive, lossy transverse electromagnetic wave that penetrates a hundred meters or more into the ground according to the skin depth of the medium. In turn, the electric field produces currents that flow toward or away from the channel to ground depending on the stroke polarity. The underground transients can produce large radial horizontal potential gradients depending on the distance from the discharge and depth below the surface. In this study we focus on the surface excitation field. The goal of the work is to compare measurements of surface magnetic field waveforms B(t) at different distances from natural lightning discharges with simple and detailed models of the return stroke fields. In addition to providing input to the diffusion mechanism, the results should aid in further understanding return stroke field generation processes. The observational data are to be obtained using orthogonal sets of straightened Rogowski coils to measure magnetic field waveforms in N-S and E-W directions. The waveforms are sampled at 500 kS/s over 1.024 second time intervals and recorded directly onto secure digital cards. The instrument operates off of battery power for several days or weeks at a time in remote, unattended locations and measures magnetic field strengths of up to several tens of amperes/meter. The observations are being made in conjunction with collocated slow electric field change measurements and under good 3-D lightning mapping array (LMA) and fast electric field change coverage.

  19. Detection of lightning in Saturn's Northern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Moghimi, Mohsen Hassanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    During Cassini flyby of Saturn at a radial distance 6.18R_s (Saturn Radius), a signal was detected from about 200 to 430 Hz that had the proper dispersion characteristics to be a whistler. The frequency-time dispersion of the whistler was found to be 81 Hz1/2s. Based on this dispersion constant, we determined, from a travel time computation, that the whistler must have originated from lightning in the northern hemisphere of Saturn. Using a simple centrifugal potential model consisting of water group ions, and hydrogen ions we also determine the fractional concentration and scale height that gave the best fit to the observed dispersion.

  20. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  1. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  2. Sistem Informasi Petir (SIP dengan Metode Lightning Distribution (LD di Wilayah Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kurniawan Vadreas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper mapped 200 locations of lightning strikes in West Sumatra province. Mapping the location of lightning strikes as part of Lightning Information System was designed with the method of Lightning Distribution (LD. To get the location of lightning strikes obtained from the calculation reflection of ionosphere method to determine the distance of a lightning strike from stations of lightning and methods of Magnetic Direction Finding (MDF to get directions from the lightning strike. Direction data obtained processed to generate a lightning incident location, then that location will be displayed on Google Maps. After that in the process of Lightning Distribution method which is a form of lightning strike density mapping by using the "File Format" grid, where each grid was measured to be 1 x 1 km2 called the Local Density Flash (LFD. If there are multiple point strikes on the grid will change the color that is on the map fit how many number of strikes on the grid which is a Probabilistic computation Flash Density (PFD. The depiction of the scale of danger lightning in the form of variations color changes at the point where the bolt of green color represents the minimum number density of lightning strikes that contains a single point and the red color represents the maximum number density of strikes which contains more than ten points strike. Based on the color distribution of lightning strikes and Payakumbuh Agam area has the highest rate of lightning strikes in the study period.

  3. The KLOE trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, E.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B. E-mail: barbara.sciascia@romal.infn.it; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y

    2001-04-01

    A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2 {mu}s decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the detector and an online luminosity measurement.

  4. Beijing Lightning Network (BLNET): Configuration, Function and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, X.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Liu, M.; Tian, Y.; Lu, G.

    2015-12-01

    A regional multi-frequency-band lightning detection network in Beijing (BLNET) has been developed for both research and operational purposes. The network is employed in the experiment of Dynamic-microphysical-electrical Processes in Severe Thunderstorms and Lightning Hazards (Storm973), supported by Ministry of Science and Technology as National Key Basic Research Program of China or 973 Program. The network consisted of 16 stations in 2015 covering most part of The "Jing-Jin-Ji" (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) metropolis zone, one of the most developed areas in China. Four different sensors, including slow antenna, fast antenna, magnetic antenna, and VHF antenna, are integrated in each station to detect lightning radiation signals in different frequency band. The Chan algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt method are adopted jointly in the lightning location algorithm. In addition to locate the lightning radiation pulses in two-dimension or three-dimension in different band, the charge source neutralized by the lightning discharge can be retrieved either. The theoretical horizontal error over the network is less than 200 m and the vertical error is less than 500 m over the network. The comparison of total lightning location results with corresponding radar echoes for thunderstorm cases indicates the good performance of BLNET in the severe convection surveillance. The actual two-dimensional location error in VLF/LF band, compared with a ground truth that acquired with a GPS-synchronized high-speed video camera, is about 250 m.

  5. Extensive air showers, lightning, and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-09-01

    For lightning research, we monitor particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so-called thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) initiated by runaway electrons, and extensive air showers (EASs) originating from high-energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth's atmosphere. We also monitor the near-surface electric field and atmospheric discharges using a network of electric field mills. The Aragats "electron accelerator" produced several TGEs and lightning events in the spring of 2015. Using 1-s time series, we investigated the relationship between lightning and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; in particular, during some TGEs, lightning events would terminate the particle flux thrice after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of a TGE or in its decay phase; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just at the peak of its development. We discuss the possibility of a huge EAS facilitating lightning leader to find its path to the ground.

  6. Lightning flash density in relation to aerosol over Nanjing (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y. B.; Peng, L.; Shi, Z.; Chen, H. R.

    2016-06-01

    Time series data of lightning flash density, aerosol optical depth (AOD), surface temperature, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and thunderstorm days for 10 years (2002-2011), cloud-to-ground lightning (CG), and AOD of 5 years for summer season, i.e., June, July, and August over Nanjing, China, have been analyzed, to investigate the impact of aerosols on lightning. The results indicate that the radiative effect of aerosol may be one of the main reason for the decrease of the lightning flash density in a long period, while the aerosol microphysical effect may be a major role in the increase of the percent of + CG flashes (P+ CG). The dependence of surface temperature, CAPE, and thunderstorm days on AOD (R = - 0.748, - 0.741, - 0.744), and the negative correlation (R = - 0.634) between lightning flash density and AOD may lend support for the radiative effect of aerosol on lightning. In addition, elevated aerosols may change the charge distribution in thundercloud, hence enhancing the positive cloud-to-ground lightning (+ CG) activity, as P+ CG is positively correlated with AOD.

  7. Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Federico

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of a tailored version of a previously published methodology, designed to simulate lightning activity, implemented into the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS. The method gives the flash density at the resolution of the RAMS grid-scale allowing for a detailed analysis of the evolution of simulated lightning activity. The system is applied in detail to two case studies occurred over the Lazio Region, in Central Italy. Simulations are compared with the lightning activity detected by the LINET network. The cases refer to two thunderstorms of different intensity. Results show that the model predicts reasonably well both cases and that the lightning activity is well reproduced especially for the most intense case. However, there are errors in timing and positioning of the convection, whose magnitude depends on the case study, which mirrors in timing and positioning errors of the lightning distribution. To assess objectively the performance of the methodology, standard scores are presented for four additional case studies. Scores show the ability of the methodology to simulate the daily lightning activity for different spatial scales and for two different minimum thresholds of flash number density. The performance decreases at finer spatial scales and for higher thresholds. The comparison of simulated and observed lighting activity is an immediate and powerful tool to assess the model ability to reproduce the intensity and the evolution of the convection. This shows the importance of the use of computationally efficient lightning schemes, such as the one described in this paper, in forecast models.

  8. Event-triggered and self-triggered stabilization of distributed networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Postoyan, Romain; Nesic, Dragan; Anta, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Event-triggered and self-triggered control have recently been proposed as implementation strategies that considerably reduce the resources required for control. Although most of the work so far has focused on closing a single control loop, some researchers have started to investigate how these new implementation strategies can be applied when closing multiple-feedback loops in the presence of physically distributed sensors and actuators. In this paper, we consider a scenario where the distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers communicate via a shared wired channel. We use our recent prescriptive framework for the event-triggered control of nonlinear systems to develop novel policies suitable for the considered distributed scenario. Afterwards, we explain how self-triggering rules can be deduced from the developed event-triggered strategies.

  9. A Lightning Channel Retrieval Algorithm for the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new multi-station VHF time-of-arrival (TOA) antenna network is, at the time of this writing, coming on-line in Northern Alabama. The network, called the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), employs GPS timing and detects VHF radiation from discrete segments (effectively point emitters) that comprise the channel of lightning strokes within cloud and ground flashes. The network will support on-going ground validation activities of the low Earth orbiting Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellite developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. It will also provide for many interesting and detailed studies of the distribution and evolution of thunderstorms and lightning in the Tennessee Valley, and will offer many interesting comparisons with other meteorological/geophysical wets associated with lightning and thunderstorms. In order to take full advantage of these benefits, it is essential that the LMA channel mapping accuracy (in both space and time) be fully characterized and optimized. In this study, a new revised channel mapping retrieval algorithm is introduced. The algorithm is an extension of earlier work provided in Koshak and Solakiewicz (1996) in the analysis of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system. As in the 1996 study, direct algebraic solutions are obtained by inverting a simple linear system of equations, thereby making computer searches through a multi-dimensional parameter domain of a Chi-Squared function unnecessary. However, the new algorithm is developed completely in spherical Earth-centered coordinates (longitude, latitude, altitude), rather than in the (x, y, z) cartesian coordinates employed in the 1996 study. Hence, no mathematical transformations from (x, y, z) into spherical coordinates are required (such transformations involve more numerical error propagation, more computer program coding, and slightly more CPU computing time). The new algorithm also has a more realistic

  10. Lightning and radar observations of hurricane Rita landfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Bradley G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Suszcynsky, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamlin, Timothy E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jeffery, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Kyle C [TEXAS TECH U.; Orville, R E [TEXAS A& M

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) owns and operates an array of Very-Low Frequency (VLF) sensors that measure the Radio-Frequency (RF) waveforms emitted by Cloud-to-Ground (CG) and InCloud (IC) lightning. This array, the Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA), has approximately 15 sensors concentrated in the Great Plains and Florida, which detect electric field changes in a bandwidth from 200 Hz to 500 kHz (Smith et al., 2002). Recently, LANL has begun development of a new dual-band RF sensor array that includes the Very-High Frequency (VHF) band as well as the VLF. Whereas VLF lightning emissions can be used to deduce physical parameters such as lightning type and peak current, VHF emissions can be used to perform precise 3d mapping of individual radiation sources, which can number in the thousands for a typical CG flash. These new dual-band sensors will be used to monitor lightning activity in hurricanes in an effort to better predict intensification cycles. Although the new LANL dual-band array is not yet operational, we have begun initial work utilizing both VLF and VHF lightning data to monitor hurricane evolution. In this paper, we present the temporal evolution of Rita's landfall using VLF and VHF lightning data, and also WSR-88D radar. At landfall, Rita's northern eyewall experienced strong updrafts and significant lightning activity that appear to mark a transition between oceanic hurricane dynamics and continental thunderstorm dynamics. In section 2, we give a brief overview of Hurricane Rita, including its development as a hurricane and its lightning history. In the following section, we present WSR-88D data of Rita's landfall, including reflectivity images and temporal variation. In section 4, we present both VHF and VLF lightning data, overplotted on radar reflectivity images. Finally, we discuss our observations, including a comparison to previous studies and a brief conclusion.

  11. Near ground gamma radiation associated with lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, K.; Greenfield, M. B.; Ikeda, Y.; Kubo, K.

    2004-03-01

    Increases in the atmospheric gamma radiation of 22 to 82above normal background have been observed after the onset of lightning fifteen times since March 2001[1]. Gamma rays have been observed with up to four 12.9 cm3 NaI detectors and recently with a high resolution Ge detector positioned 6-21 m and 15 m above ground, respectively. The tail of the observed background subtracted gamma ray rates GRR were fitted with exponential decay curves yielding typical correlation coefficients of 0.95 to 0.99 and half-lives of 52.7 +/-4.81 min and 52.8+/-10.95 min, without and with precipitation, respectively. The GRR above 300 KeV from radon progeny due to precipitation were subtracted [2]. The 3x3 Ge detector with 2 KeV resolution positioned about 2 m from one of the NaI detectors observed increases in GRR minutes after the onset of lightning with a delayed 50 min exponential decay which was concurrently observed in the NaI detector. [1] M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 3 (2003) pp 1839-1844. [2] M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 9 (2003) pp 5733-5741.

  12. Fast radio bursts as pulsar lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    2017-07-01

    There are striking phenomenological similarities between fast radio bursts (FRBs) and lightning in the Earth's and planetary atmospheres. Both have very low duty factors, ≲10-8-10-5 for FRBs and (very roughly) ˜10-4 for the main return strokes in an active thundercloud. Lightning occurs in an electrified insulating atmosphere when a conducting path is created by and permits current flow. FRBs may occur in neutron star magnetospheres whose plasma is believed to be divided by vacuum gaps. Vacuum is a perfect insulator unless electric fields are sufficient for electron-positron pair production by curvature radiation, a high-energy analogue of electrostatic breakdown in an insulating gas. FRB may be 'electrars' powered by the release of stored electrostatic energy, counterparts to soft gamma repeaters powered by the release of stored magnetostatic energy (magnetars). This frees pulsar FRB models from the constraint that their power not exceeds the instantaneous spin-down power. Energetic constraints imply that the sources of more energetic FRBs have shorter spin-down lifetimes, perhaps even less than the 3 yr over which FRB 121102 has been observed to repeat.

  13. Magnetotelluric distortions directly observed with lightning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Lachlan; Macnae, James

    2017-08-01

    Galvanic distortions complicate magnetotelluric (MT) soundings. In this research, we use lightning network data to identify specific sferics in MT measurements and analyse these events on the basis of the lightning source location. Without source information, identification and removal of galvanic distortion is a fundamentally ill-posed problem, unless data are statistically decomposed into determinable and indeterminable parts. We use realistic assumptions of the earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation velocity to accurately predict the time of arrival, azimuth and amplitude for every significant sferic in our time-series data. For each sferic with large amplitude, we calculate the rotation of the electric field from the measured to the predicted arrival azimuth. This rotation of the electric field is a primary parameter of distortion. Our results demonstrate that a rudimentary model for near-surface galvanic distortion consistently fits observed electric field rotations. When local features rotate regional electric fields, then counter-rotating data to predicted arrival azimuths should correct the directional dependence of static shift. Although we used amplitude thresholds to simplify statistical processing, future developments should incorporate both signal-to-noise improvements and multisite decompositions. Lower amplitude signal may also be useful after the appropriate signal processing for noise reduction. We anticipate our approach will be useful for further work on MT distortion.

  14. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  15. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Peer, J

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced potentials are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  16. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, J. [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kendl, A., E-mail: alexander.kendl@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-06-28

    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100 m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced electric fields are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  17. The effects of lightning on digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Malloy, W. A.; Craft, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Present practices in lightning protection of aircraft deal primarily with the direct effects of lightning, such as structural damage and ignition of fuel vapors. There is increasing evidence of troublesome electromagnetic effects, however, in aircraft employing solid-state microelectronics in critical navigation, instrumentation and control functions. The potential impact of these indirect effects on critical systems such as digital fly by wire (DFBW) flight controls was studied. The results indicate a need for positive steps to be taken during the design of future fly by wire systems to minimize the possibility of hazardous effects from lightning.

  18. Lightning arrester models enabling highly accurate lightning surge analysis; Koseidona kaminari surge kaiseki wo kano ni suru hiraiki model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Funabashi, T.; Hagiwara, T.; Watanabe, H. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-28

    Introduced herein are a dynamic behavior model for lightning arresters designed for power stations and substations and a flashover model for a lightning arresting device designed for transmission, both developed by the author et al. The author et al base their zinc oxide type lightning arrester model on the conventional static V-I characteristics, and supplement them with difference in voltage between static and dynamic characteristics. The model is easily simulated using EMTP (Electromagnetic Transients Program) etc. There is good agreement between the results of calculation performed using this model and actually measured values. Lightning arresting devices for transmission have come into practical use, and their effectiveness is introduced on various occasions. For the proper application of such devices, an analysis model capable of faithfully describing the flashover characteristics of arcing horns installed in great numbers along transmission lines, and of lightning arresting devices for transmission, are required. The author et al have newly developed a flashover model for the devices and uses the model for the analysis of lightning surges. It is found that the actually measured values of discharge characteristics of lightning arresting devices for transmission agree well with the values calculated by use of the model. (NEDO)

  19. A brief review of the problem of lightning initiation and a hypothesis of initial lightning leader formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Danyal; Bailey, Matthew; Beasley, William H.; Hallett, John

    2008-09-01

    A brief review of hypothesized mechanisms of lightning initiation is presented, with the suggestion that these mechanisms provide an incomplete picture of lightning initiation. This is followed by two ideas: (1) a combination of previously hypothesized lightning initiation mechanisms as a means for local intensification of the thundercloud electric field, and (2) a process for the formation of a hot lightning leader channel that is analogous to the space leader phase of the laboratory negative stepped leader. Thundercloud electric field observations have consistently yielded peak values that are an order of magnitude weaker than the dielectric strength of air. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain how lightning can initiate in such weak electric fields, including hydrometeor-initiated positive streamers and cosmic ray-initiated runaway breakdown. The historically favored positive streamer mechanisms are problematic due to requiring electric fields two to three times larger than peak observed fields. The recently favored runaway breakdown mechanisms appear capable of developing in conditions comparable to peak observed fields although it is not clear how these diffuse discharges can lead to creation of a lightning leader. This paper proposes a solution whereby runaway breakdown and hydrometeor-initiated positive streamer systems serve to locally intensify the electric field. Following this local field intensification, it is hypothesized that formation of the initial lightning leader channel is analogous to the formation of a space leader in a laboratory negative stepped leader.

  20. Adaptive signal processing of on-orbit radio frequency lightning recordings using overcomplete chirplet dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D. I.; Smith, D. A.; Light, T. E.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Heavner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing research at Los Alamos National Laboratory studies the Earth's radio frequency (RF) transient background utilizing satellite-based RF observations of terrestrial lightning. Such impulsive signals are dispersed as they travel through the ionosphere and appear as nonlinear chirps at a receiver on-orbit. Signals of interest are typically observed in the presence of additive noise and structured clutter, including gated and continuous-wave (CW) sources. Detection and classification of such non-stationary signals against a complex, non-stationary background can present challenges for standard physics-based approaches. The FORTE satellite provided a rich satellite lightning database that has been previously used for some event classification. We now develop and implement new event classification capability on the FORTE database using state-of-the-art adaptive signal processing combined with compressive sensing and machine learning techniques. The focus of our work is improved feature extraction using representations in overcomplete analytical dictionaries. We choose a dictionary based on Gabor chirplets, which is designed to represent both pulses (chirping or non-chirping) and CW signals in very few representative elements from the dictionary. One feature extraction approach is based on obtaining sparse representations of our data using a matching pursuit search of the dictionary. A second approach is based on using a frame operator on the dictionary to obtain a dense representation of our data. We explore robustness of extracted features to changes in background clutter and noise levels. Both feature extraction algorithms will be used in conjunction with statistical classifiers to explore classification performance of major lightning types. Performance will be evaluated both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively using a small validated test set. We present preliminary results of our work and discuss future areas of development.

  1. Production of Ionospheric Perturbations by Cloud-to-Ground Lightning and the Recovery of the Lower Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    The fact that lightning/thunderstorm activities can directly modify the lower ionosphere has long been established by observations of the perturbations of very low frequency (VLF) signals propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. These perturbations are known as early VLF events [Inan et al., 2010, JGR, 115, A00E36, 2010]. More recently discovered transient luminous events caused by the lightning/thunderstorm activities only last ~1-100 ms, but studies of the early VLF events show that the lightning ionospheric effects can persist much longer, >10s min [Cotts and Inan, GRL, 34, L14809, 2007; Haldoupis et al., JGR, 39, L16801, 2012; Salut et al., JGR, 117, A08311, 2012]. It has been suggested that the long recovery is caused by long-lasting conductivity perturbations in the lower ionosphere, which can be created by sprites/sprite halos which in turn are triggered by cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning [Moore et al., JGR, 108, 1363, 2003; Haldoupis et al., 2012]. We recently developed a two-dimensional fluid model with simplified ionospheric chemistry for studying the quasi-electrostatic effects of lightning in the lower ionosphere [Liu, JGR, 117, A03308, 2012]. The model chemistry captures major ion species and reactions in the lower ionosphere. Additional important features of the model include self-consistent background ion density profiles and full description of electron and ion transport. In this talk, we present the simulation results on the dynamics of sprite halos caused by negative CG lightning. The modeling results indicate that electron density around 60 km altitude can be enhanced in a region as wide as 80 km. The enhancement reaches its full extent in ~1 s and recovers in 1-10 s, which are on the same orders as the durations of slow onset and post-onset peaks of some VLF events, respectively. In addition, long-lasting electron and ion density perturbations can occur around 80 km altitude due to negative halos as well as positive halos, which can explain

  2. Synoptic patterns associated with wildfires caused by lightning in Castile and Leon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García-Ortega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula presents the highest number of wildfires in Europe. In the NW of Spain in particular, wildfires are the natural risk with the greatest economic impact in this region. Wildfires caused by lightning are closely related to the triggering of convective phenomena. The prediction of thunderstorms is a very complex task because these weather events have a local character and are highly dependent on mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The development of convective storms is directly linked to the existence of a synoptic environment favoring convection. The aim of this study is to classify the atmospheric patterns that provide favorable environments for the occurrence of wildfires caused by lightning in the region of Castile and Leon, Spain. The database used for the study contains 376 wildfire days from the period 1987–2006. NCEP data reanalysis has been used. The atmospheric fields used to characterise each day were: geopotential heights and temperatures at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, relative humidity and the horizontal wind at 850 hPa. A Principal Component Analysis in T-mode followed by a Cluster Analysis resulted in a classification of wildfire days into five clusters. The characteristics of these clusters were analysed and described, focusing particularly on the study of those wildfire days in which more than one wildfire was detected. In these cases the main feature observed was the intensification of the disturbance typical of the cluster to which the wildfire belongs.

  3. The NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Application to Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Wang, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Recent improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) and its application to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are discussed. The LNOM analyzes Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and National Lightning Detection Network(TradeMark)(NLDN) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of lightning NO(x) (= NO + NO2). The latest LNOM estimates of lightning channel length distributions, lightning 1-m segment altitude distributions, and the vertical profile of lightning NO(x) are presented. The primary improvement to the LNOM is the inclusion of non-return stroke lightning NOx production due to: (1) hot core stepped and dart leaders, (2) stepped leader corona sheath, K-changes, continuing currents, and M-components. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of lightning NO(x) for an August 2006 run of CMAQ is discussed.

  4. Lightning related fatalities in livestock: veterinary expertise and the added value of lightning location data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, E; Weyens, P; Poelman, D R; Chiers, K; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2015-01-01

    Although lightning strike is an important cause of sudden death in livestock on pasture and among the main reasons why insurance companies consult an expert veterinarian, scientific information on this subject is limited. The aim of the present study was to provide objective information on the circumstantial evidence and pathological findings in lightning related fatalities (LRF), based on a retrospective analysis of 410 declarations, examined by a single expert veterinarian in Flanders, Belgium, from 1998 to 2012. Predictive logistic models for compatibility with LRF were constructed based on anamnestic, environmental and pathological factors. In addition, the added value of lightning location data (LLD) was evaluated. Pathognomonic singe lesions were present in 84/194 (43%) confirmed reports. Factors which remained significantly associated with LRF in the multivariable model were age, presence of a tree or open water in the near surroundings, tympany and presence of feed in the oral cavity at the time of investigation. This basic model had a sensitivity (Se) of 53.8% and a specificity (Sp) of 88.2%. Relying only on LLD to confirm LRF in livestock resulted in a high Se (91.3%), but a low Sp (41.2%), leading to a high probability that a negative case would be wrongly accepted as an LRF. The best results were obtained when combining the model based on the veterinary expert investigation (circumstantial evidence and pathological findings), together with the detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning at the time and location of death (Se 89.1%; Sp 66.7%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lightning Attachment to Wind Turbines in Central Kansas: Video Observations, Correlation with the NLDN and in-situ Peak Current Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Cummins, K. L.; Hutchinson, M.; Nag, A.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning attachment to tall objects has been studied for decades. The attachment of lightning to electric power transmission towers in elevated terrain has driven much of the quantitative assessment of lightning characteristics in the 1970's and 80's. This has led to the understanding that in flat terrain, the probability of upward-initiated lightning is negligible for tower heights less than 100 m. For tower heights greater than 100, the probability increases roughly linearly with the log of height, reaching 100% at a height of 400 m. Additionally, the probability of upward initiation increases when the object resides on locally-elevated terrain. Over the last decade, there has been renewed interest in the study of lightning attachment to tall objects in general, and wind turbines in particular, following the establishment of large "wind farms" in lightning-prone regions. In this study, we present video observations, radiation magnetic field, and in-situ peak current measurements of lightning from an ongoing field program in a large wind farm in north-central Kansas, located in the U.S. Central Great Plains. The terrain variations within the wind farm are small rolling hills with peak variations on the order of 25 m. All turbines had a turbine hub height of 80 m, and a blade tip maximum height of 125 m. Two digital video camera systems (60 fields-per-second) were configured to self-trigger 2-second video sequences using a sequential-field-subtraction scene analysis (ufo-Capture). The two cameras had a common field of view that included 8 of the wind turbines. Nearby NLDN sensors were configured to record information that allows reconstruction of magnetic field waveforms within the bandwidth of the NLDN sensors. Some of the turbines were equipped with semi-quantitative in-situ peak current measuring devices. To date, more than 100 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes have terminated within the perimeter of the wind farm. Video observations of flashes that attached to

  6. Simulation of quasi-linear mesoscale convective systems in northern China: Lightning activities and storm structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanli; Qie, Xiushu; Fu, Shenming; Su, Debin; Shen, Yonghai

    2016-01-01

    Two intense quasi-linear mesoscale convective systems (QLMCSs) in northern China were simulated using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model and the 3D-Var (three-dimensional variational) analysis system of the ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) model. A new method in which the lightning density is calculated using both the precipitation and non-precipitation ice mass was developed to reveal the relationship between the lightning activities and QLMCS structures. Results indicate that, compared with calculating the results using two previous methods, the lightning density calculated using the new method presented in this study is in better accordance with observations. Based on the calculated lightning densities using the new method, it was found that most lightning activity was initiated on the right side and at the front of the QLMCSs, where the surface wind field converged intensely. The CAPE was much stronger ahead of the southeastward progressing QLMCS than to the back it, and their lightning events mainly occurred in regions with a large gradient of CAPE. Comparisons between lightning and non-lightning regions indicated that lightning regions featured more intense ascending motion than non-lightning regions; the vertical ranges of maximum reflectivity between lightning and non-lightning regions were very different; and the ice mixing ratio featured no significant differences between the lightning and non-lightning regions.

  7. Spatially adaptive probabilistic computation of a sub-kilometre resolution lightning climatology for New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Thomas R.; Perry, George L. W.

    2017-01-01

    Lightning is a key component of the Earth's atmosphere and climate systems, and there is a potential positive feedback between a warming climate and increased lightning activity. In the biosphere, lightning is important as the main natural ignition source for wildfires and because of its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. Therefore, it is important to develop lightning climatologies to characterise and monitor lightning activity. While traditional methods for constructing lightning climatologies are suitable for examining lightning's influence on atmospheric processes, they are less well suited for examining questions about biosphere-lightning interactions. For example, examining the interaction between lightning and wildfires requires linking atmospheric processes to finer scale terrestrial processes and patterns. Most wildfires ignited by lightning are less than one hectare in size, and so require lightning climatologies at a comparable spatial resolution. However, such high resolution lightning climatologies cannot be derived using the traditional cell-count methodology. Here we present a novel geocomputational approach for analysing lightning data at high spatial resolutions. Our approach is based on probabilistic computational methods and is capable of producing a sub-kilometre lightning climatology that honours the spatial accuracy of the strike locations and is adaptive to underlying spatial patterns. We demonstrate our methods by applying them to the mid-latitude oceanic landmass of New Zealand, an area with geographic conditions that are under-represented in existing lightning climatologies. Our resulting lightning climatology has unparalleled spatial resolution, and the spatial and temporal patterns we observe in it are consistent with other continental and tropical lightning climatologies. To encourage further use and development of our probabilistic approach, we provide Python scripts that demonstrate the method alongside our resulting New Zealand

  8. Analysis on Lightning Surge Propagation in Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Yoh; Hara, Takehisa; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Wind power generation is expected to become more important in the future distribution system. Although several prospective reports such as IEC 61400-24 and NREL SR-500-31115 indicate on insulation scheme and grounding design for lightning protection, it still seems that there are not many investigations on the problems. This paper therefore discusses lightning surge analysis using wind farm model with 2 or 10 ideal wind turbines. Changing parameters such as grounding resistance and lightning strike points, several cases were studied. As the result of the analysis using digital simulator ARENE, it is clear that the surge tends to propagate toward the end of a distribution line in a wind farm and there is possibility of insulation accidents at the other wind turbines when lightning attacks a wind turbine.

  9. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  10. Lightning and middle atmospheric discharges in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, Sarvan; Dharmaraj, T.; Singh, Abhay K.; Singh, Ashok K.; Patil, M. N.; Singh, Shubha

    2015-11-01

    Recent development in lightning discharges including transient luminous events (TLEs) and global electric circuit are discussed. Role of solar activity, convective available potential energy, surface temperature and difference of land-ocean surfaces on convection process are discussed. Different processes of discharge initiation are discussed. Events like sprites and halos are caused by the upward quasi-electrostatic fields associated with intense cloud-to-ground discharges while jets (blue starter, blue jet, gigantic jet) are caused by charge imbalance in thunderstorm during lightning discharges but they are not associated with a particular discharge flash. Elves are generated by the electromagnetic pulse radiated during lightning discharges. The present understanding of global electric circuit is also reviewed. Relation between lightning activity/global electric circuit and climate is discussed.

  11. High-altitude electrical discharges associated with thunderstorms and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningyu; McHarg, Matthew G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce electrical discharge phenomena known as transient luminous events above thunderstorms to the lightning protection community. Transient luminous events include the upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms known as starters, jets, and gigantic jets, and electrical discharges initiated in the lower ionosphere such as sprites, halos, and elves. We give an overview of these phenomena with a focus on starters, jets, gigantic jets, and sprites, because similar to ordinary lightning, streamers and leaders are basic components of these four types of transient luminous events. We present a few recent observations to illustrate their main properties and briefly review the theories. The research in transient luminous events has not only advanced our understanding of the effects of thunderstorms and lightning in the middle and upper atmosphere, but also improved our knowledge of basic electrical discharge processes critical for sparks and lightning.

  12. Lightning protection of flap system for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Madsen, Søren Find

    The aim of this PhD project was to investigate the behaviour of a Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) in a wind turbine blade when it is exposed to lightning discharges, and find the best technical solution to protect the CRTEF and the controlling system against lightning, based...... on the results of simulation models and high voltage tests. Wind turbines are a common target of lightning due to their height and location, and blades are the components most exposed to direct discharges. Protecting the blades against lightning is specially challenging, mainly because of the combination...... of a broader, EUDP funded project, whose overall objective was to develop a prototype active trailing edge flap system for a wind turbine blade which constitutes a complete, reliable and robust load control flap system for a full scale turbine, ready for prototype testing....

  13. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  14. A Simple Lightning Assimilation Technique For Improving Retrospective WRF Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain...

  15. Effects of Lightning Injection on Power-MOSFETs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightning induced damage is one of the major concerns in aircraft health monitoring. Such short-duration high voltages can cause significant damage to electronic...

  16. An unusual case of late ocular changes after lightning injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datta Himadri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of late ocular changes after lightning injury. One year after the injury, complete ankyloblepharon, severe dry eye, corneal opacity, healed iritis and mature cataracts were noted in both eyes of the patient.

  17. Direct Write Lightning Protection and Damage Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to improve conventional lightning strike protection in composite aircraft and proposes a novel method to monitor structures for damage upon...

  18. A simple lightning assimilation technique for improving retrospective WRF simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain-F...

  19. Convective Induced Turbulence (CIT) Detection via Total Lightning Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposes to build a prototype Convective-Induced Turbulence (CIT) hazard detection system based on total lightning sensing as an indicator of the location and...

  20. Electromagnetic computation methods for lightning surge protection studies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to consolidate current research and to examine the theories of electromagnetic computation methods in relation to lightning surge protection. The authors introduce and compare existing electromagnetic computation methods such as the method of moments (MOM), the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC), the finite element method (FEM), the transmission-line modeling (TLM) method, and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The application of FDTD method to lightning protection studies is a topic that has matured through many practical applications in the past decade, and the authors explain the derivation of Maxwell's equations required by the FDTD, and modeling of various electrical components needed in computing lightning electromagnetic fields and surges with the FDTD method. The book describes the application of FDTD method to current and emerging problems of lightning surge protection of continuously more complex installations, particularly in critical infrastructures of e...

  1. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo; Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification, triggered pain is an essential criterion for the diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia but no study to date has been designed to address this issue directly. In this study, we set out to determine, in patients with trigeminal neuralgia, how frequently triggers are present, which manoeuvres activate them and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136 of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all patients and supports the use of triggers as an essential diagnostic feature of trigeminal neuralgia.

  2. Study on coupling effect between lightning electromagnetic field and unshielded multi-core cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the terminating load voltage of the unshielded multi-core cable coupled with lightning electromagnetic pulse(LEMP, we simulate LEMP within the bounded-wave transmission line which is input with a lightning surge signal produced by WU-800-type MARX generator and conduct the relevant experiments towards multi-core cable lines radiated by LEMP. We can get the respond laws of induced voltage of the load by changing the length of unshielded multi-core cable, angles between LEMP and cable, waveforms of LEMP as well as cable terminal loads including linear and non-linear loads. Results show that the amplitude of induced voltage is mainly determined by rising part of electromagnetic field waveforms and the pulse width has little effect on the induced voltage. The respond amplitude and the respond frequency are obviously affected by the length of cable. The polarization direction of the electric field has a great impact on the amplitude of terminal response, but it does not change the waveforms of the induced voltage. With the termination of test side increasing, the induced voltage is gradually increased, but the load in the other side has no effect on the induced voltage.

  3. Model estimate of NO{sub x} production during the cooling of a lightning flash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Since discrepancies of two orders of magnitude are detected in current estimations, the question of NO{sub x} production by lightning has been addressed, and a new theoretical estimate is proposed. The new model deals with a unit length of an evanescent cooling branch of lightning supposed to be cylindrical and axisymmetrical, 1 mm in radius. The kinetics of five chemical species (N, O, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO) has been coupled to the full set of hydrodynamic equations expressing the conservation of momentum and energy together with an equation of state. This highly nonlinear system is completed by suitable boundary conditions in subsonic regime and then time-integrated by finite differences. It appears that the amount of NO produced in a cross section of channel reaches a maximum at 4,6.10{sup -7} mol/m after 50 {mu}s cooling. At that moment the average temperature is about 3000 K, at which NO is most easily formed. The net yield of NO is found to be 10{sup 16} molecules per Joule, which is one order of magnitude smaller than other theoretical results. (author) 4 refs.

  4. Challenge of lightning detection with LAC on board Akatsuki spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Sato, Mitsutero; Imai, Masataka; Yair, Yoav; Fischer, Georg; Aplin, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Even after extensive investigations with spacecraft and ground-based observations, there is still no consensus on the existence of lightning in Venus. It has been reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be lightning discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. On the other hand, with an infrared sensor, VIRTIS of Venus Express, does not show the positive indication of lightning flashes. In order to identify the optical flashes caused by electrical discharge in the atmosphere of Venus, at least, with an optical intensity of 1/10 of the average lightning in the Earth, we built a high-speed optical detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), on board Akatsuki spacecraft. The unique performance of the LAC compared to other instruments is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for all 32 pixels, enabling us to distinguish the optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises. Though, unfortunately, the first attempt of the insertion of Akatsuki into the orbit around Venus failed in December 2010, the second one carried out in December 7 in 2015 was quite successful. We checked out the condition of the LAC on January 5, 2016, and it is healthy as in 2010. Due to some elongated orbit than that planned originally, we have umbra for ~30 min to observe the lightning flash in the night side of Venus every ~10 days, starting on April 2016. Here we would report the instrumental status of LAC and the preliminary results of the first attempt to observe optical lightning emissions.

  5. Usage of Lightning Arrester Line to Feed Light Electrical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani B. Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In remote areas, light loads (tens of kilowatts are scattered and situated in the field of high voltage lines (66KV and above. These loads are very far from the main feeders/sub-stations (33KV-0.380KV. Feeding such loads in the traditional ways like provision of Diesel-Powered Stations, installation of new distribution lines from the Feeding Centers, or building new Sub-Stations are not practical ways from the economical point of view, because it requires huge additional expenses and will increase electrical power losses. These expenses are not worthy for such loads and therefore, it is necessary to search for other methods to supply them. One of these methods is to use the lightning arrester line as capacitive divider to supply the light loads. In this research, the induced voltage of the lightning arrester line was calculated when it is isolated from the earth. We found the capacitance between lightning arrester line versus the phases and lightning arrester. It was also found the selective power out of the lightning arrester line and the required length which is to be isolated from the earth keeping the main function of the lightning arrester line. When economically comparing between supplying the light electrical loads by traditional ways and the method of lightning arrester, it was found the advantage of using lightning arresters to supply such loads. Also, by using the traditional methods, it was noted that there is a power loss in the power transmission lines by a percentage of 1.8%.

  6. Reliability of lightning resistant overhead distribution lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.; Cleveland, J.T.; Degenhardt, L.J.

    1995-04-01

    An assessment of the 32 year historical reliability of the 13.8 kV electrical distribution system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee has yielded several conclusions useful In the planning of Industrial power Systems. The system configuration at ORNL has essentially remained unchanged in the last 32 years which allows a meaningful comparison of reliability trends for the plant`s eight overhead distribution lines, two of which were built in the 1960`s with lightning resistant construction techniques. Meticulous records indicating the cause, duration, and location of 135 electric outages in the plant`s distribution system have allowed a reliability assessment to be performed. The assessment clearly shows how differences in voltage construction class, length, age, and maximum elevation above a reference elevation influence the reliability of overhead power distribution lines. Comparisons are also made between the ORNL historical data and predicted failure rates from ANSI and IEEE industry surveys.

  7. Brazil Lightning Bolts Set Shocking World Record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞小翩

    2002-01-01

    巴西是世界上最大的地处热带地区的国家,因此,它就成了世界“雷电之国”。让我们吃惊的是,10%of all lightning-rylated deaths in the world竟然发生在巴西!文章出现一个名词词组 power blackouts,而擅长使用词汇connotation的英语也常常“活用”此词。 He had had a blackout after the accident./事故发生后,他晕过去一阵子。

  8. Greased Lightning (GL-10) Flight Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, William J.; McSwain, Robert G.; Beaton, Brian F.; Klassman, David W.; Theodore, Colin R.

    2017-01-01

    Greased Lightning (GL-10) is an aircraft configuration that combines the characteristics of a cruise efficient airplane with the ability to perform vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). This aircraft has been designed, fabricated and flight tested at the small unmanned aerial system (UAS) scale. This technical memorandum will document the procedures and findings of the flight test experiments. The GL-10 design utilized two key technologies to enable this unique aircraft design; namely, distributed electric propulsion (DEP) and inexpensive closed loop controllers. These technologies enabled the flight of this inherently unstable aircraft. Overall it has been determined thru flight test that a design that leverages these new technologies can yield a useful VTOL cruise efficient aircraft.

  9. Sprites, Elves and Intense Lightning Discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Füllekrug, Martin; Rycroft, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Particularly intense lightning discharges can produce transient luminous events above thunderclouds, termed sprites, elves and jets. These short lived optical emissions in the mesosphere can reach from the tops of thunderclouds up to the ionosphere; they provide direct evidence of coupling from the lower atmosphere to the upper atmosphere. Sprites are arguably the most dramatic recent discovery in solar-terrestrial physics. Shortly after the first ground based video recordings of sprites, observations on board the Space Shuttle detected sprites and elves occurring all around the world. These reports led to detailed sprite observations in North America, South America, Australia, Japan, and Europe. Subsequently, sprites were detected from other space platforms such as the International Space Station and the ROCSAT satellite. During the past 15 years, more than 200 contributions on sprites have been published in the scientific literature to document this rapidly evolving new research area.

  10. Prediction of Lightning Inception by Large Ice Particles and Extensive Air Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinova, Anna; Rutjes, Casper; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia Thi Ngoc

    2015-07-03

    We derive that lightning can start if the electric field is 15% of the breakdown field, and if elongated ice particles of 6 cm length and 100 free electrons per cm3 are present. This is one particular example set from a parameter range that we discuss as well. Our simulations include the permittivity ε(ω) of ice. 100 free electrons per cm3 exist at 5.5 km altitude in air showers created by cosmic particles of at least 5×10(15)  eV. If the electric field zone is 3 m high and 0.2  km2 in the horizontal direction, at least one discharge per minute can be triggered. The size distribution of the ice particles is crucial for our argument; more detailed measurements would be desirable.

  11. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  12. Modeling of overhead transmission lines for lightning overvoltage calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Velasco, J.A.; Castro-Aranda, F.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed the modelling of overhead transmission lines for lightning overvoltage calculations. Such a model must include those parts of the line that get involved when a lightning return stroke hits a wire or a tower and that have some influence on the voltage developed across insulator strings. Modelling guidelines differ depending on whether the goal is to estimate overvoltages or to determine arrester energy stresses. Modelling guidelines were summarized for each component, including shield wires and phase conductors; transmission line towers; insulators; phase voltages at the instant lightning hits the line; surge arresters; and the lightning stroke. The applied Monte Carlo procedure was summarized. For line span models, a constant-parameter model generally suffices when the goal is to calculate overvoltages across insulators or to obtain the flashover rate, but a frequency-dependent parameter model is necessary to estimate the energy discharged by arresters. The model selected for representing towers can have some influence on both flashover rates and arrester energy stresses. The representation of footing impedances is critical for calculating overvoltages and arrester energy stresses, but different modelling techniques produce significantly different results. The models are limited in that the corona effect is not included in the line models, the voltages induced by the electric and magnetic fields of lightning channels to shield wires and phase conductors are neglected, and the footing models are too simple, but they are nonetheless realistic approaches for simulating lightning effects. 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  13. Lightning and 85-GHz MCSs in the Global Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toracinta, E. Richard; Zipser, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous observations of tropical convection show that tropical continental mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are much more prolific lightning producers than their oceanic counterparts. Satellite-based climatologies using 85-GHz passive microwave ice-scattering signatures from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) indicate that MCSs of various size and intensity are found throughout the global tropics. In contrast, global lightning distributions show a strong land bias with an order of magnitude difference between land and ocean lightning. This is somewhat puzzling, since 85-GHz ice-scattering and the charge separation processes that lead to lightning are both thought to depend upon the existence of large graupel particles. The fact that low 85-GHz brightness temperatures are observed in tropical oceanic MCSs containing virtually no lightning leads to the postulate that tropical oceanic and tropical continental MCSs have fundamentally different hydrometeor profiles through the mixed phase region of the cloud (0 C mind, this research undertakes a systematic comparison of 85-GHz-defined MCSs and lightning over the global tropics for a full year, as an initial step toward quantifying differences between land and ocean convective systems.

  14. The spectra and temperature of cloud lightning discharge channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Spectra of seven cloud lightning discharges are reported for the first time after captured with a Slit-less Spectrograph on Chinese Tibet Plateau. The structural characters are analyzed and compared with the spectra of cloud-to-ground lightning, and the results indicate that the spectra of cloud lightning show two different kinds of structure characteristics. One has the similar structure as those of cloud-to-ground lightning discharge, and the other is absolutely different. Meanwhile, more lines of OII with high excited energy are recorded in the spectra of cloud lightning discharge in comparison with that of cloud-to-ground lighting happening in the same region. Temperatures at different positions are calculated and temperature characteristics of these two sorts are analyzed, based to the wavelength, relative intensities and other transition parameters. We suggest that the physical process in the cloud discharge channels changes with much more rapid velocity and wider range compared to cloud-to-ground lightning. The differences between the two types of cloud discharge also reflect some discrepancies between the discharge characteristics.

  15. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 2. Appendix A: Resistance measurements. Appendix B: Lightning test data plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Resistance measurements are given in graphical for when a simulated lightning discharge strikes on an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was to measure the electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case.

  16. A History of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and the Lightning Advisory Panel for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Willett, John C.; Christian, Hugh J.; Dye, James E.; Krider, E. Phillip; Madura, John T.; OBrien, T. Paul; Rust, W. David; Walterscheid, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The history of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) used at all spaceports under the jurisdiction of the United States is provided. The formation and history of the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) that now advises NASA, the Air Force and the Federal Aviation Administration on LLCC development and improvement is emphasized. The period covered extends from the early days of space flight through 2010. Extensive appendices provide significant detail about important aspects that are only summarized in the main text.

  17. Relationship between lightning activity and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide and the estimation of lightning-produced nitrogen oxides over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fengxia; Ju, Xiaoyu; Bao, Min; Lu, Ganyi; Liu, Zupei; Li, Yawen; Mu, Yijun

    2017-02-01

    To better understand the relationship between lightning activity and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) in the troposphere and to estimate lightning-produced NO X (LNO X ) production in China more precisely, spatial and temporal distributions of vertical column densities of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 VCDs) and lightning activity were analyzed using satellite measurements. The results showed that the spatial distribution of lightning activity is greater in the east than in the west of China, as with NO2 VCDs. However, the seasonal and annual variation between lightning and NO2 density show different trends in the east and west. The central Tibetan Plateau is sparsely populated without modern industry, and NO2 VCDs across the plateau are barely affected by anthropogenic sources. The plateau is an ideal area to study LNO X . By analyzing 15 years of satellite data from that region, it was found that lightning density is in strong agreement with annual, spatial and seasonal variations of NO2 VCDs, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 from the linear fit. Combining Beirle's method and the linear fit equation, LNO X production in the Chinese interior was determined to be 0.07 (0.02-0.27) TgN yr-1 for 1997-2012, within the range of 0.016-0.384 TgN yr-1 from previous estimates.

  18. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  19. TRAMWAY SYSTEM VULNERABILITIES CAUSED BY STORM. CASE STUDY: LIGHTNING IN ORADEA, 10-TH JUNE 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUZI I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Short history, theoretical presentation, risk analysis of damage probability of extreme weather effects, lightning and storm, technical and economic aspects, recommendation for public transport operators. Case study: example of a lightning damage effects in Oradea.

  20. International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity. 1984 technical papers. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The indirect effects of lightning on digital systems, ground system protection, and the corrosion properties of conductive materials are addressed. The responses of a UH-60A helicopter and tactical shelters to lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulses are discussed.

  1. (Super)alkali atoms interacting with the σ electron cloud: a novel interaction mode triggers large nonlinear optical response of M@P₄ and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Yu, Guangtao; Huang, Xuri; Chen, Wei; Niu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Under high-level ab initio calculations, the geometrical structures and nonlinear optical properties of M@P₄ (M=Li, Na, K and Li₃O) and M@C₃H₆ (M=Li and Li₃O) were investigated; all were found to exhibit considerable first hyperpolarizabilities (18110, 1440, 22490, 50487, 2757 and 31776 au, respectively). The computational results revealed that when doping the (super)alkali atom M into the tetrahedral P₄ molecule, the original dual spherical aromaticity of the P₄ moiety is broken and new σ electron cloud is formed on the face of P₄ part interacting with the M atom. It was found that interaction of the (super)alkali atom with the σ electron cloud is a novel mode to produce diffuse excess electrons effectively to achieve a considerable β₀ value. Further, beyond the alkali atom, employing the superalkali unit can be a more effective approach to significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability of the systems, due to the much lower vertical ionization potential. These results were further supported by the case of the (super)alkali atom interacting with the cyclopropane C₃H₆ molecule with its typical σ aromatic electron cloud. Moreover, the β₀ values of the M@P₄ series are nonmonotonic dependent on alkali atomic number, namely, 1440 au (M = Na) alkali atom and the interacting surface with the σ electron cloud in P4 is a crucial geometrical factor in determining their first hyperpolarizabilities. These intriguing findings will be advantageous for promoting the design of novel high-performance nonlinear optical materials.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 417 - Natural and Triggered Lightning Flight Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transfer of electrical charge from ice particles to the launch vehicle when the ice particles rub the... surface electrification if (1) All surfaces of the launch vehicle susceptible to ice particle impact are... (including dielectric surfaces that have been treated with conductive coatings) are bonded to the...

  3. Third level trigger for the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.; Asch, T.; Gemmeke, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleifges, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: Matthias.Kleifges@ipe.fzk.de; Mathes, H.-J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik (FZK-IK), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Menchikov, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuessler, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik (FZK-IK), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tcherniakhovski, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-04-01

    The trigger system for the Auger fluorescence telescopes is implemented in hard- and software for an efficient selection of fluorescence light tracks induced by high-energy extensive air showers. The algorithm of the third stage uses the multiplicity signal of the hardware for fast rejection of lightning events with above 99% efficiency. In a second step direct muon hits in the camera and random triggers are rejected by analyzing the space-time correlation of the pixels. The trigger algorithm was tested with measured and simulated showers and implemented in the electronics of the fluorescence telescopes. A comparison to a prototype trigger without multiplicity shows the superiority of this approach, e.g. the false rejection rate is a factor 10 lower.

  4. Third Level Trigger for the Fluorescence Telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, A; Gemmeke, H; Kleifges, M; Mathes, H -J; Menchikov, A; Schüssler, F; Tcherniakhovski, D

    2008-01-01

    The trigger system for the Auger fluorescence telescopes is implemented in hard- and software for an efficient selection of fluorescence light tracks induced by high-energy extensive air showers. The algorithm of the third stage uses the multiplicity signal of the hardware for fast rejection of lightning events with above 99% efficiency. In a second step direct muon hits in the camera and random triggers are rejected by analyzing the space-time correlation of the pixels. The trigger algorithm was tested with measured and simulated showers and implemented in the electronics of the fluorescence telescopes. A comparison to a prototype trigger without multiplicity shows the superiority of this approach, e.g. the false rejection rate is a factor 10 lower.

  5. Lightning Detection Efficiency Analysis Process: Modeling Based on Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, John T.

    2005-01-01

    A ground based lightning detection system employs a grid of sensors, which record and evaluate the electromagnetic signal produced by a lightning strike. Several detectors gather information on that signal s strength, time of arrival, and behavior over time. By coordinating the information from several detectors, an event solution can be generated. That solution includes the signal s point of origin, strength and polarity. Determination of the location of the lightning strike uses algorithms based on long used techniques of triangulation. Determination of the event s original signal strength relies on the behavior of the generated magnetic field over distance and time. In general the signal from the event undergoes geometric dispersion and environmental attenuation as it progresses. Our knowledge of that radial behavior together with the strength of the signal received by detecting sites permits an extrapolation and evaluation of the original strength of the lightning strike. It also limits the detection efficiency (DE) of the network. For expansive grids and with a sparse density of detectors, the DE varies widely over the area served. This limits the utility of the network in gathering information on regional lightning strike density and applying it to meteorological studies. A network of this type is a grid of four detectors in the Rondonian region of Brazil. The service area extends over a million square kilometers. Much of that area is covered by rain forests. Thus knowledge of lightning strike characteristics over the expanse is of particular value. I have been developing a process that determines the DE over the region [3]. In turn, this provides a way to produce lightning strike density maps, corrected for DE, over the entire region of interest. This report offers a survey of that development to date and a record of present activity.

  6. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: methodology and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigotsi, Jean; Soula, Serge; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The global climatology of lightning issued from space observations (OTD and LIS) clearly showed the maximum of the thunderstorm activity is located in a large area of the Congo Basin, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The first goal of the present study is to compare observations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) over a 9-year period (2005-2013) in this 2750 km × 2750 km area. The second goal is to analyse the lightning activity in terms of time and space variability. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN relative to LIS has increased between 2005 and 2013, typically from about 1.70 % to 5.90 %, in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. The mean monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a maximum between November and March and a minimum between June and August, associated with the ICTZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, depending on the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world. The annual flash density shows a sharp maximum localized in eastern DRC regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. This annual maximum systematically located west of Kivu Lake corresponds to that previously identified by many authors as the worldwide maximum which Christian et al. (2013) falsely attributed to Rwanda. Another more extended region within the Congo Basin exhibits moderately large values, especially during the beginning of the period analyzed. A comparison of both patterns of lightning density from the WWLLN and from LIS allows to validate the representativeness of this world network and to restitute the total lightning activity in terms of lightning density and rate.

  7. Nearshore regional behavior of lightning interaction with wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert A. Malinga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of lightning strikes on offshore wind turbines built along coastal and nearshore regions can pose safety concerns that are often overlooked. In this research study the behavior of electrical discharges for wind turbines that might be located in the nearshore regions along the East Coast of China and Sea of Japan were characterized using a physics-based model that accounted for a total of eleven different geometrical and lightning parameters. Utilizing the electrical potential field predicted using this model it was then possible to estimate the frequency of lightning strikes and the distribution of electrical loads utilizing established semi-empirical relationships and available data. The total number of annual lightning strikes on an offshore wind turbine was found to vary with hub elevation, extent of cloud cover, season and geographical location. The annual lightning strike rate on a wind turbine along the nearshore region on the Sea of Japan during the winter season was shown to be moderately larger compared to the lightning strike frequency on a turbine structure on the East Coast of China. Short duration electrical discharges, represented using marginal probability functions, were found to vary with season and geographical location, exhibiting trends consistent with the distribution of the electrical peak current. It was demonstrated that electrical discharges of moderately long duration typically occur in the winter months on the East Coast of China and the summer season along the Sea of Japan. In contrast, severe electrical discharges are typical of summer thunderstorms on the East Coast of China and winter frontal storm systems along the West Coast of Japan. The electrical charge and specific energy dissipated during lightning discharges on an offshore wind turbine was found to vary stochastically, with severe electrical discharges corresponding to large electrical currents of long duration.

  8. Lightning safety awareness of visitors in three California national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Lori; Allen, Jacoby; Davis, Kyle P; Campagne, Danielle; Snowden, Brandy; Hughes, Susan

    2011-09-01

    To assess the level of lightning safety awareness among visitors at 3 national parks in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. A 12-question, short answer convenience sample survey was administered to participants 18 years of age and over concerning popular trails and points of interest with known lightning activity. There were 6 identifying questions and 5 knowledge-based questions pertaining to lightning that were scored on a binary value of 0 or 1 for a total of 10 points for the survey instrument. Volunteers in Fresno, California, were used as a control group. Participants were categorized as Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park (SEKI), frontcountry (FC), or backcountry (BC); Yosemite National Park (YNP) FC or BC; and Fresno. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between groups. 467 surveys were included for analysis: 77 in Fresno, 192 in SEKI, and 198 in YNP. National park participants demonstrated greater familiarity with lightning safety than individuals from the metropolitan community (YNP 5.84 and SEKI 5.65 vs Fresno 5.14, P = .0032). There were also differences noted between the BC and FC subgroups (YNP FC 6.07 vs YNP BC 5.62, P = .02; YNP FC 6.07 vs SEKI FC 5.58, P = .02). Overall results showed that participants had certain basic lightning knowledge but lacked familiarity with other key lightning safety recommendations. While there are statistically significant differences in lightning safety awareness between national parks and metropolitan participants, the clinical impact of these findings are debatable. This study provides a starting point for providing educational outreach to visitors in these national parks. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  10. Simulation of lightning attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnamahilan, P.; Hoole, P. (Univ. of Technology, Lae (Papua New Guinea). Dept. of Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering); Ratnajeevan, S.; Hoole, H. (Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA (United States). Dept. of Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    The characteristics of lightning waveforms are important in taking protective measures against it. However, many of these characteristics cannot be measured. This paper employs a mathematical model of lightning currents to write a software package to simulate all manner of lightning flashes. The capabilities available to us through this are demonstrated by extracting the behavior of lightning waveforms following attachment to open ground, tall towers and aircraft.

  11. Lightning Observations from the International Space Station (ISS) for Science Research and Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    There exist several core science applications of LIS lightning observations, that range from weather and climate to atmospheric chemistry and lightning physics due to strong quantitative connections that can be made between lightning and other geophysical processes of interest. The space-base vantage point, such as provided by ISS LIS, still remains an ideal location to obtain total lightning observations on a global basis.

  12. Laboratory Calibration of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.; Stewart, Mike F.; Christian, Hugh J.; Bergstrom, James W.; Hall, John M.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    We present in detail the laboratory apparatus and techniques that were used to complete a full radiometric calibration of two space-based lightning detectors developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). A discussion of the methods applied to geolocate lightning and to estimate lightning detection efficiency are provided.

  13. 30 CFR 77.508-1 - Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508-1 Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings. Lightning arresters protecting exposed telephone wires entering buildings shall be provided...

  14. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VHF radiation source produced by lightning in supercell thunderstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; P. R. Krehbiel; LIU Xinsheng; ZHOU Xiuji

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional temporal and spatial characteristics of VHF radiation events produced by lightning discharges in three supercell thunderstorms have been analyzed based on the data measured by the lightning mapping array system with high time and space resolution. The results indicate that lightning hole (lighting free region) with about 5-6 km in diameter or lighting ring (annular lighting free region) is associated with the strong updraft in thunderstorm. The lasting time of lightning holes is either short or long, being about 20 min in a tornado-producing thunderstorm. The lightning holes appear before the occurrence of tornado. The lightning hole is the most obvious during the occurrence of tornado and some self-existent lighting radiation events appear at a height of 15-16 km. The lightning channels of inter-cloud (IC) lightning discharge exhibit clockwise rotary structures and do not have clear bilevel structures in the vicinity of the tornado. The lightning holes are corresponding to the strong updraft region. The temporal and spatial distribution of lightning radiation events reveals the structure of strong updraft in supercell thunderstorms.Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharges dominate in these thunderstorms and the peak of positive CG lightning flash rate appears, with the maximum of 6 per minute, after or before the occurrence of tornado.

  15. Global lightning and severe storm monitoring from GPS orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszcynsky, D. M. (David M.); Jacobson, A. R.; Linford, J (Justin); Pongratz, M. B. (Morris B.); Light, T. (Tracy E.); Shao, X. (Xuan-Min)

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been a growing interest to develop and deploy an automated and continuously operating satellite-based global lightning mapper [e.g. Christian et al., 1989; Weber et al., 1998; Suszcynsky et al., 2000]. Lightning is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. Satellite-based lightning mappers are designed to exploit this relationship by using lightning detection as a proxy for remotely identifying, locating and characterizing strong convective activity on a global basis. Global lightning and convection mapping promises to provide users with (1) an enhanced global severe weather monitoring and early warning capability [e.g. Weber et al., 1998] (2) improved ability to optimize aviation flight paths around convective cells, particularly over oceanic and remote regions that are not sufficiently serviced by existing weather radar [e.g. Weber et al., 1998], and (3) access to regional and global proxy data sets that can be used for scientific studies and as input into meteorological forecast and global climatology models. The physical foundation for satellite-based remote sensing of convection by way of lightning detection is provided by the basic interplay between the electrical and convective states of a thundercloud. It is widely believed that convection is a driving mechanism behind the hydrometeor charging and transport that produces charge separation and lightning discharges within thunderclouds [e.g. see chapter 3 in MacGorman and Rust, 1998]. Although cloud electrification and discharge processes are a complex function of the convective dynamics and microphysics of the cloud, the fundamental relationship between convection and electrification is easy to observe. For example, studies have shown that the strength of the convective process within a thundercell can be loosely parameterized (with large variance) by the intensity of the

  16. Direct satellite observation of lightning-produced NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning is an important source of NOx in the free troposphere, especially in the tropics, with high impact on ozone production. However, estimates of lightning NOx (LNOx production efficiency (LNOx per flash are still quite uncertain. In this study we present a systematic analysis of NO2 column densities from SCIAMACHY measurements over active thunderstorms, as detected by the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, where the WWLLN detection efficiency was estimated using the flash climatology of the satellite lightning sensors LIS/OTD. Only events with high lightning activity are considered, where corrected WWLLN flash rate densities inside the satellite pixel within the last hour are above 1 /km2/h. For typical SCIAMACHY ground pixels of 30×60 km2, this threshold corresponds to 1800 flashes over the last hour, which, for literature estimates of lightning NOx production, should result in clearly enhanced NO2 column densities. From 2004–2008, we find 287 coincidences of SCIAMACHY measurements and high WWLLN flash rate densities. For some of these events, a clear enhancement of column densities of NO2 could be observed, indeed. But overall, the measured column densities are below the expected values by more than one order of magnitude, and in most of the cases, no enhanced NO2 could be found at all. Our results are in contradiction to the currently accepted range of LNOx production per flash of 15 (2–40×1025 molec/flash. This probably partly results from the specific conditions for the events under investigation, i.e. events of high lightning activity in the morning (local time and mostly (for 162 out of 287 events over ocean. Within the detected coincidences, the highest NO2 column densities were observed around the US Eastcoast. This might be partly due to interference with ground sources of NOx being uplifted by the convective systems. However, it could also indicate that flashes in this region are particularly productive. We

  17. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  18. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-01-01

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Key Points Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations PMID:26664815

  19. Response of global lightning activity to air temperature variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ming; TAO Shanchang; ZHU Baoyou; L(U) Weitao; TAN Yongbo

    2005-01-01

    It is an issue of great attention but yet not very clear whether lightning activities increase or decrease on a warmer world. Reeve et al. presented that lightning activities in global land and the Northern Hemisphere land have positive response to the increase of wet bulb temperature at 1000hPa. Is this positive response restricted only to wet bulb temperature or in land? What is the response of global lightning activities (in both land and ocean) to the global surface air temperature variation like? This paper, based on the 5-year or 8-year OTD/LIS satellite-based lightning detecting data and the NCEP reanalysis data, makes a reanalysis of the response of the global and regional lightning activities to temperature variations. The results show that on the interannual time scale the global total flash rate has positive response to the variation in global surface air temperature, with the sensitivity of 17±7% K-1. Also, the seasonal mean flash rate of continents all over the world and that of continents in the Northern Hemisphere have sensitive positive response to increase of global surface air temperature and wet bulb temperature, with the sensitivity of about 13±5% K-1, a bit lower than estimation of 40% K-1 in Reeve et al. However, the Southern Hemisphere and other areas like the tropics show no significant correlation.

  20. Lightning-based propagation of convective rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dietrich

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for continuously monitoring convective rain cells. It exploits lightning data from surface networks to propagate rain fields estimated from multi-frequency brightness temperature measurements taken by the AMSU/MHS microwave radiometers onboard NOAA/EUMETSAT low Earth orbiting operational satellites. Specifically, the method allows inferring the development (movement, morphology and intensity of convective rain cells from the spatial and temporal distribution of lightning strokes following any observation by a satellite-borne microwave radiometer. Obviously, this is particularly attractive for real-time operational purposes, due to the sporadic nature of the low Earth orbiting satellite measurements and the continuous availability of ground-based lightning measurements – as is the case in most of the Mediterranean region. A preliminary assessment of the lightning-based rainfall propagation algorithm has been successfully made by using two pairs of consecutive AMSU observations, in conjunction with lightning measurements from the ZEUS network, for two convective events. Specifically, we show that the evolving rain fields, which are estimated by applying the algorithm to the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the first AMSU overpass, show an overall agreement with the satellite-based rainfall estimates for the second AMSU overpass.

  1. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-06-16

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations.

  2. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  3. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  4. Ice multiplication by mechanical breakup and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Vaughan; Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory studies have proven the existence of several pathways for fragmentation of ice. One of these is the rime-splintering of graupel or hail in the -3 to -8 degC region (the Hallett-Mossop process). In some clouds, however, the cloud-base is too cold for this process to be active. Instead, breakup can occur by fragmentation of ice mechanically in re-bounding collisions between crystals, snow, graupel or hail. A new theoretical formulation of this mechanical breakup process of multiplication is presented for these types of ice. A numerical scheme is derived by simulation of published laboratory experiments. The role of such breakup in clouds is quantified by 3D simulations with a cloud-resolving aerosol-cloud model with emulated bin microphysics, detailed treatment of ice morphology and 7 chemical species of aerosol. Graupel-graupel collisions are predicted to produce copious numbers of ice crystals in the cold-base convective cloud simulated over Kansas. Implications for lightning from such multiplication, also simulated numerically, are discussed.

  5. Mechanism for Triggered Waves in Atrial Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Yohannes; Aistrup, Gary L; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2017-08-08

    Excitation-contraction coupling in atrial cells is mediated by calcium (Ca) signaling between L-type Ca channels and Ryanodine receptors that occurs mainly at the cell boundary. This unique architecture dictates essential aspects of Ca signaling under both normal and diseased conditions. In this study we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy, along with an experimentally based computational model, to understand the Ca cycling dynamics of an atrial cell subjected to rapid pacing. Our main finding is that when an atrial cell is paced under Ca overload conditions, Ca waves can then nucleate on the cell boundary and propagate to the cell interior. These propagating Ca waves are referred to as "triggered waves" because they are initiated by L-type Ca channel openings during the action potential. These excitations are distinct from spontaneous Ca waves originating from random fluctuations of Ryanodine receptor channels, and which occur after much longer waiting times. Furthermore, we argue that the onset of these triggered waves is a highly nonlinear function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca load. This strong nonlinearity leads to aperiodic response of Ca at rapid pacing rates that is caused by the complex interplay between paced Ca release and triggered waves. We argue further that this feature of atrial cells leads to dynamic instabilities that may underlie atrial arrhythmias. These studies will serve as a starting point to explore the nonlinear dynamics of atrial cells and will yield insights into the trigger and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  7. Aspartame-Triggered Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with known aspartame-triggered and rizatriptan-responsive migraine had their headaches worsened following use of an aspartame-containing formulation of rizatriptan (Maxalt-MLT), in a report from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

  8. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  9. Lightning protection design for hydrological automatic measurement system of for middle and small rivers%中小河流水文自动测报系统防雷工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄余文

    2014-01-01

    In the consideration of environmental factors and lightning activity in the surrounding area of the central station of hydrological automatic measurement system for middle and small rivers in Wenshan Prefecture of Yunnan Province, the approach of artificial-triggered lightning for the system is systematically analyzed, and based on the principles of safety, economy, practi-cability and compliance with national standards, the feasible lightning protection schemes of external and internal structures are put forward. The external lightning protection is mainly realized by lightning rod (belt, network), down lead, grounding grid while the inner lightning protection is mainly realized by electromagnetic shielding, equipotential connection, lightning arrester ( SPD) . In addition, a common grounding body scheme shared with lightning protection body, work exchange ground body, static electricity ground, shielding ground, insulating ground is put forward, which not only safeguard the safety of lightning protection device, but also save the investment.%结合云南省文山州中小河流水文监测系统中心站周围的环境因素、雷电活动规律等,系统分析了水文自动测报系统的引雷途径,本着安全、经济、实用的原则,在遵循国家有关防雷标准的基础上,提出了切实可行的建筑物外部防雷和内部防雷设计方案。水文自动测报系统外部防雷设计侧重考虑避雷针(带、网)、引下线、接地网等方面,内部防雷设计则主要考虑电磁屏蔽、等电位连接、避雷器(SPD)3部分。并且,参考IEC国际电工委员会的有关防雷技术标准,提出了水文自动测报系统设备防雷地、工作交流地(N线)、静电地、屏蔽地、绝缘地等共用一个接地体的方案,既保证了防雷设备的安全性,又节约了工程投资。

  10. A novel lightning protection technique of wind turbine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abd-Allah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lightning energy can be very harmful to wind turbine (WT farm components; therefore an effective lightning protection technique is required. In this study, a novel technique for WT components protection is presented. This technique used ferromagnetic rings placed around the WT blade roots. Ferrite ring was moulded into particular shapes from the powder of compounds of ferric oxide, manganese, and zinc, and then sintered. The dimensions of rings used are 990 mm (inner diameter, 1030 mm (outer diameter, and 100 mm (thickness. The effectiveness of the novel technique in overvoltage mitigation during lightning strokes is presented and discussed. The results show that the overvoltage is effectively damped with using this technique. The transient overvoltage at control devices is reduced to 16% of its original value, while at distribution system; it is reduced to 5% of its original value.

  11. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  12. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  13. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  14. Estimation of the Current Peak Value Distribution of All Lightning to the Ground by Electro-Geometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sekioka, Shozo; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    When we examine the lightning frequency and the lightning shielding effect by EGM (electro-geometric model), we need the current distribution of all lightning to the ground. The lightning current distribution to structures is different from this distribution, but it has been used in EGM conventionally. We assumed the lightning striking distance coefficient related to height of structures for getting the result which corresponds to observed lightning frequency to structures, and estimated the current distribution of all lightning to the ground from data listed in IEC 62305 series by EGM. The estimated distribution adjusted by detection efficiency of LLS almost corresponded to observed distribution by LLS.

  15. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

  16. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  17. Lightning Damage to Wind Turbine Blades From Wind Farms in the U.S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Madsen, Søren Find; Nissim, Maya;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents statistical data about lightning damage on wind turbine blades reported at different wind farms in the U.S. The analysis is based on 304 cases of damage due to direct lightning attachment on the blade surface. This study includes a large variety of blades with different lengths......, laminate structure, and lightning protection systems. The statistics consist of the distribution of lightning damage along the blade and classify the damage by severity. In addition, the frequency of lightning damage to more than one blade of a wind turbine after a thunderstorm is assessed. The results...

  18. Fire Environment Mechanism of Lightning-groundfire for Daxing anling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ground fire is an igniting phenomenon that is difficult to control and lightning is the main cause of ground fire. The mechanism of lightning-ground fire is very complex. Daxing'anling Mountains forest region is the place that lighting-groundfire occurs more often and regularly. Our study on lightning-groundfire of this zone in 2002 shows: much more soil near the surface and the ground fuel is the matter preconditions of lightning-groundfire, and the weather conditions hasten the occurrence of lightning...

  19. First results of the Colombia Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jesus; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Romero, David; Fabró, Ferran; Taborda, John; Aranguren, Daniel; Torres, Horacio

    2016-04-01

    In April 2015 the 3D Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA) network was installed on Santa Marta area (north of Colombia). The COLMA maps VHF radio emissions of lightning leaders in three dimensions by the time-of-arrival technique (Rison et al., 1999). This array has six sensors with base lines between 5 km to 20 km. The COLMA is the first VHF 3D network operating in the tropics and it has been installed in the frame of ASIM (Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor) ESA's mission in order to investigate the electrical characteristics of tropical thunderstorms favorable for the production of Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGF). In this paper we present COLMA data of several storms. We discuss lightning activity, lightning leader altitudes and thunderstorm charge structures compared to data form our ELMA (Ebro Lightning Mapping Array) at the north-east coast of Spain. The data confirm what we expected, lightning leaders can propagate at higher altitudes compared to mid latitude thunderstorms because the higher vertical development of tropical thunderstorms. A simple inspection of a ten minute period of the 16th of November of 2015 storm shows a tripolar electric charge structure. In that case, the midlevel negative charge region was located between 7 to 9 km. The structure presented a lower positive charge below the midlevel negative and centred at 6.5 km and an upper positive charge region extending from 9 km to slightly more than 15 km. This vertical extension of the upper positive charge where negative leaders evolve is significantly larger compared to the storms at the ELMA area in Spain. COLMA has shown frequent activity of negative leaders reaching altitudes of more than 15 km.

  20. Recent Developments With the New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.

    2005-12-01

    Lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) are being operated by NASA in northern Alabama, by the University of Oklahoma and National Severe Storms Laboratory in central Oklahoma, and at Langmuir Laboratory and most recently at White Sands Missile Range in central and south-central New Mexico. In addition we have been developing a portable mapping system for use in field and demonstration programs. Data from the permanently-installed systems are being processed in real time and, in addition to research studies, are being used or are starting to be used in weather nowcasting applications. New metric-based code and algorithms have been developed for optimally processing the time-of-arrival measurements, which provide better solutions in less time than our previous code and have given us new insights into the basic processing issues. We are continuing to develop new techniques and approaches for analyzing the mapping data, such as using them to infer storm charge structure and for determining the direction and speed of initial breakdown of individual flashes, and combining the results with simple theoretical models for electrification and lightning initiation studies. We have also been working to obtain detailed pictures of individual lightning discharges using a compact array having 10-microsecond time resolution at Langmuir Laboratory and to combine these data with slow and fast electric field change measurements to advance our understanding of basic breakdown processes. Finally, the portable LMA will provide new and unique opportunities for studies of convective storms and lightning, such as fully mobile field campaigns, studies of lightning initiation in conjunction with cosmic ray and high energy particle observations, and the development of techniques and systems for monitoring lightning in urban and noisy metropolitan areas.

  1. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  2. Relationship between lightning activity and vertical airflow characteristics in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Liping

    2017-07-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data, wind field data derived from dual-Doppler radars, and radar reflectivity data are combined to investigate the relationships between CG lightning and the parameters associated with vertical airflow. A new method for the identification of thunderstorm cells based on the aggregation of flashes is developed. It is found that approximately 79.1% of CG flashes are located in the region featuring weak vertical velocity at the 0 °C level, ranging from - 5 to 5 m s- 1, with the majority in the weak updraft region, especially for negative CG lightning and the CG lightning in the initial stage of thunderstorms. The CG lightning rate is correlated with the volume of updraft for vertical velocities within certain limits. The sum of absolute precipitation ice mass flux in the region from 7 to 11 km is more significantly correlated with the CG flash rate, with correlation coefficients of 0.73, 0.71, and 0.74 for the initial, mature, and dissipating stages of thunderstorms, respectively. On average, the updraft in the thunderstorm at the stage when the last CG flash occurs accounts for a much smaller ratio to the whole volume of the thunderstorm than that corresponding to the first CG flash. The maximum updraft and maximum height of the 10 and 20 m s- 1 updraft speeds are close for the first and last CG flashes, indicating the dependence of the lightning on strength of updraft. It is deduced that layered large-range charges may be more conducive to the generation of CG flashes than charge pockets in the thunderstorm.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Lightning Performance of Overhead Power Distribution Line with Varied Ground Obliquity%不同地形条件下架空配电线路的防雷分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘靖; 刘明光; 屈志坚; 刘铁

    2011-01-01

    In order to take lightning problem into consideration comprehensively, we introduced a new model for calculating the lightning outage rate of overhead power distribution line due to direct and indirect lightning strokes. By establishing an improved EGM model of overhead distribution line based on striking distance theory, combining with probability density function of lightning current, we solved the attract range of overhead line, which possesses a nonlinear relationship with line height for different district. Taking the Rusck's formula into consideration, basing on Generalized Integral method, we put forward a new arithmetic for calculating the lightning outage rate which includes indirect lightning. By calculation of two real 10 kV power distribution line, the new method is practical and accurate. The results show that indirect strokes are the main cause of lightning trip out, and for analyzing the lightning performance of overhead power distribution lines, the indirect lightning must be taken into consideration.%雷电活动直接影响到架空电力线路的安全稳定运行,为全面分析架空配电线路的雷害问题,提出了一种计入地形条件影响的分析新方法.先基于雷电的击距理论建立架空配电线路的引雷模型,结合雷电流的概率密度函数,求出了线路在不同高度和不同地形条件下的引雷范围与线路高度呈非线性关系;在确定线路引雷范围的基础上,分别计算了我国不同地域的架空线路直接雷击跳闸率;在对Rusck感应雷过电压研究成果分析的基础上,利用广义积分法得出了不同地形和地域的感应雷击跳闸率计算公式,而且架空配电线路中感应雷击跳闸次数占总雷击跳闸次数能达到83%,在架空线路的防雷分析中应该计入感应雷击的影响.2条10 kV架空线路算例与实际运行情况的对比验证了该计算方法的正确性.

  4. Electromagnetic calorimeter trigger at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Cheon, B G; Lee, S H; Won, E; Park, I C; Hur, T W; Park, C S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Chu, T H; Usov, Y V; Aulchenko, V M; Kuzmin, A S; Bondar, A E; Shwartz, B A; Eidelman, S; Krokovnyi, P P; Hayashii, H; Sagawa, H; Fukushima, M

    2002-01-01

    The performance of CsI(Tl) electromagnetic calorimeter trigger system in the Belle experiment is described. Two kinds of trigger schemes have been taken into account, namely a total energy trigger and a cluster counting trigger which are complementary to each other. In addition, the system has provided the online/offline luminosity information using the Bhabha event trigger scheme. An upgrade of the trigger is discussed.

  5. A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009

    CERN Document Server

    B., Felix Pereira; Girish, T E

    2010-01-01

    Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

  6. TVA's experience with the SUNYA lightning detection network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.; Driggans, R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Since 1987 the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has had access to real-time data on cloud-to-ground lightning strikes in its service area through the Lightning Detection Network (LDN) operated by the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA). Lightning data are displayed in real-time on personal computer workstations connected to SUNYA via satellite link and are recorded for later analysis. TVA is using these data to analyze transmission line outages (real-time and historical), provide warning of approaching lightning to line crews, develop ground flash density maps to replace isokeraunic maps previously used in designing transmission lines for lightning protection, and to learn more about lightning and its effect on TVA's transmission system. Lightning flashes that cause particular line outages have been identified and their current and multiplicity characteristics studied. This information may be used to allow more cost-effective transmission line design in the future.

  7. Evaluation of Horizontal Electric Field Under Different Lightning Current Models by Perfect Ground Assumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jianfeng; LI Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Lightning electromagnetics can affect the reliability of the power system or communication system.Therefore,evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning return stroke is indispensable.Arnold sommerfeld proposed a model to calculate the electromagnetic field,but it involved the time-consuming sommerfeld integral.However,perfect conductor ground assumption can account for fast calculation,thus this paper reviews the perfect ground equation for evaluation of lightning electromagnetic fields,presents three engineering lightning return stroke models,and calculates the horizontal electric field caused by three lightning return stroke models.According to the results,the amplitude of lightning return stroke has a strong impact on horizontal electric fields,and the steepness of lightning return stroke influences the horizontal electric fields.Moreover,the perfect ground method is faster than the sommerfeld integral method.

  8. Thunderbolt in biogeochemistry: galvanic effects of lightning as another source for metal remobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Weiske, Arndt; Berger, Frank

    2013-11-04

    Iron and manganese are relevant constituents of the earth's crust and both show increasing mobility when reduced by free electrons. This reduction is known to be controlled by microbial dissimilation processes. Alternative sources of free electrons in nature are cloud-to-ground lightning events with thermal and galvanic effects. Where thermal effects of lightning events are well described, less is known about the impact of galvanic lightning effects on metal mobilization. Here we show that a significant mobilization of manganese occurs due to galvanic effects of both positive and negative lightning, where iron seems to be unaffected with manganese being abundant in oxic forms in soils/sediments. A mean of 0.025 mmol manganese (negative lightning) or 0.08 mmol manganese (positive lightning) mobilization may occur. We suggest that lightning possibly influences biogeochemical cycles of redox sensitive elements in continental parts of the tropics/subtropics on a regional/local scale.

  9. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  10. Potential of convective rainfall estimation from lightning data in the context of the "Simulation of Meteosat Third Generation - Lightning Imager through Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Lightning Imaging Sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, D.; de Leonibus, L.; Zauli, F.; Melfi, D.; Laquale, P.; Labate, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica recently hosted a fellowship sponsored by Selex Galileo, with the intent to study and perform a simulation of Meteosat Third Generation - Lightning Imager (MTG-LI) sensor behavior through Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Lightning Imaging Sensor data (TRMM-LIS). For the next generation of earth observation geostationary satellite, major operating agencies are planning to insert an optical imaging mission, that continuously observes lightning pulses in the atmosphere; EUMETSAT has decided in recent years that one of the candidate mission to be flown on MTG is LI, a Lightning Imager. MTG-LI mission has no Meteosat Second Generation heritage, but users need to evaluate the possible real time data output of the instrument to agree in inserting it on MTG payload. Authors took the expected LI design from MTG Mission Requirement Document, and reprocess real lightning dataset, acquired from space by TRMM-LIS instrument, to produce a simulated MTG-LI lightning dataset. The simulation is performed in several run, varying Minimum Detectable Energy, taking into account processing steps from event detection to final lightning information. A definition of the specific meteorological requirements is given from the potential use in meteorology of lightning final information for convection estimation and numerical cloud modeling. Study results show the range of instrument requirements relaxation which lead to minimal reduction in the final lightning information. Potential in convective rainfall estimation over ocean from space lightning observation is addressed and a retrieval example making use of lightning ground network data is reported both with validation by radar observation.

  11. Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader

  12. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  13. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  14. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  15. Does a sixth mechanism exist to explain lightning injuries?: investigating a possible new injury mechanism to determine the cause of injuries related to close lightning flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Ryan; Jandrell, Ian R; West, Nicholas J

    2012-09-01

    Five mechanisms have been described in the literature regarding lightning injury mechanisms. A sixth mechanism is proposed in this article, namely, lightning barotrauma. A simple laboratory experiment was conducted using ordnance gelatin for ballistic studies. Lightning was simulated in a high-voltage laboratory using an 8/20-microsecond current impulse generator and discharged through ballistic gel. Temporary and permanent cavity formations were confirmed. The cavities formed were directly proportional to the currents used. Findings suggest that a sixth mechanism of lightning injury, namely, barotrauma, should be considered.

  16. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  17. Aerosols and lightning activity: The effect of vertical profile and aerosol type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proestakis, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Amiridis, V.; Marinou, E.; Price, C.; Kazantzidis, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite has been utilized for the first time in a study regarding lightning activity modulation due to aerosols. Lightning activity observations, obtained by the ZEUS long range Lightning Detection Network, European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) data and Cloud Fraction (CF) retrieved by MODIS on board Aqua satellite have been combined with CALIPSO CALIOP data over the Mediterranean basin and for the period March to November, from 2007 to 2014. The results indicate that lightning activity is enhanced during days characterized by higher Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values, compared to days with no lightning. This study contributes to existing studies on the link between lightning activity and aerosols, which have been based just on columnar AOD satellite retrievals, by performing a deeper analysis into the effect of aerosol profiles and aerosol types. Correlation coefficients of R = 0.73 between the CALIPSO AOD and the number of lightning strikes detected by ZEUS and of R = 0.93 between ECMWF CAPE and lightning activity are obtained. The analysis of extinction coefficient values at 532 nm indicates that at an altitudinal range exists, between 1.1 km and 2.9 km, where the values for extinction coefficient of lightning-active and non-lightning-active cases are statistically significantly different. Finally, based on the CALIPSO aerosol subtype classification, we have investigated the aerosol conditions of lightning-active and non-lightning-active cases. According to the results polluted dust aerosols are more frequently observed during non-lightning-active days, while dust and smoke aerosols are more abundant in the atmosphere during the lightning-active days.

  18. The CMS trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-09-08

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  19. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; 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Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  20. Cygnus Trigger System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  1. Climatology of lightning activity in South China and its relationships to precipitation and convective available potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Meng, Qing; Chen, Luwen; Dan, Jianru

    2016-03-01

    This study examined lightning activity and its relationship to precipitation and convective available potential energy (CAPE) in South China during 2001-12, based on data from the Guangdong Lightning Location System, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite, and the ERA-Interim dataset. Two areas of high lightning density are identified: one over the Pearl River Delta, and the other to the north of Leizhou Peninsula. Large peak-current cloud-to-ground (LPCCG) lightning (>75 kA) shows weaker land-offshore contrasts than total CG lightning, in which negative cloud-to-ground (NCG) lightning occurs more prominently than positive cloud-to-ground (PCG) lightning on land. While the frequency of total CG lightning shows a main peak in June and a second peak in August, the LPCCG lightning over land shows only a single peak in June. The ratio of positive LPCCG to total lightning is significantly greater during February-April than during other times of the year. Diurnally, CG lightning over land shows only one peak in the afternoon, whereas CG lightning offshore shows morning and afternoon peaks. The rain yield per flash is on the order of 107-108 kg per flash across the analysis region, and its spatial distribution is opposite to that of lightning density. Our data show that lightning activity over land is more sensitive than that over offshore waters to CAPE. The relationships between lightning activity and both precipitation and CAPE are associated with convection activity in the analysis region.

  2. Evolution of the Total Lightning Activity in a Leading-Line and Trailing Stratiform Mesoscale Convective System over Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dongxia; QIE Xiushu; XIONG Yajun; FENG Guili

    2011-01-01

    Data from the Beijing SAFIR 3000 lightning detection system and Doppler radar provided some insights into the three-dimensional lightning structure and evolution of a leading-line and trailing-stratiform (LLTS) mesoscale convective system (MCS) over Beijing on 31 July 2007. Most of the lightning in the LLTS-MCSwas intracloud (IC) lightning, while the mean ratio of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning to -CG lightning was 1:4, which was higher than the average value from previous studies. The majority of CG limhtning occurred in the convective region of the radar echo, particularly at the leading edge of the front.Little IC lightning and little +CG lightning occurred in the stratiform region. The distribution of the CG lightning indicated that the storm had a tilted dipole structure given the wind shear or the tripole charge structure. During the storm's development, most of the IC lightning occurred at an altitude of ~9.5 km;the lightning rate reached its maximum at 10.5 kmn, the altitude of IC lightning in the mature stage of the storm. When the thunderstorm began to dissipate, the altitude of the IC lightning decreased gradually. The spatial distribution of lightning was well correlated with the rainfall on the ground, although the peak value of rainfall appeared 75 min later than the peak lightning rate.

  3. Effects of Nonlinearities on Induced Voltages across Lumped Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Mazloom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies on induced currents and voltages along overhead conductors due to lightning flashes. In most of these studies lumped loads and components are connected only as line terminations [1]-[4]. In studies where series and shunt connected components are connected along the lines the effects of nonlinear components and effects are disregarded [5]-[8]. This is not always correct as nonlinear effects will introduce high frequencies in the system and affect the current and voltage wave distribution. In this paper the effects of series and shunt components and nonlinear phenomenon on a system representative of the Swedish electrified railway system will be investigated. It is seen how introduction of different linear and nonlinear components affect the propagating voltage wave forms.

  4. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  5. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  6. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  7. Using Flow Regime Lightning and Sounding Climatologies to Initialize Gridded Lightning Threat Forecasts for East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Volkmer, Matthew; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Each morning, the forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) produce an experimental cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning threat index map for their county warning area (CWA) that is posted to their web site (httl://www.srh.weather.gov/mlb/ghwo/lightning.shtml) . Given the hazardous nature of lightning in East Central Florida, especially during the warm season months of May September, these maps help users factor the threat of lightning, relative to their location, into their daily plans. The maps are color-coded in five levels from Very Low to Extreme, with threat level definitions based on the probability of lightning occurrence and the expected amount of CG activity. On a day in which thunderstorms are expected, there are typically two or more threat levels depicted spatially across the CWA. The locations of relative lightning threat maxima and minima often depend on the position and orientation of the low-level ridge axis, forecast propagation and interaction of sea/lake/outflow boundaries, expected evolution of moisture and stability fields, and other factors that can influence the spatial distribution of thunderstorms over the CWA. The lightning threat index maps are issued for the 24-hour period beginning at 1200 UTC each day with a grid resolution of 5 km x 5 km. Product preparation is performed on the AWIPS Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE), which is the standard NWS platform for graphical editing. Until recently, the forecasters created each map manually, starting with a blank map. To improve efficiency of the forecast process, NWS MLB requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) create gridded warm season lightning climatologies that could be used as first-guess inputs to initialize lightning threat index maps. The gridded values requested included CG strike densities and frequency of occurrence stratified by synoptic-scale flow regime. The intent was to improve consistency between forecasters while allowing them to focus on the

  8. Using Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Climatologies to Initialize Gridded Lightning Threat Forecasts for East Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winnie; Sharp, David; Spratt, Scott; Volkmer, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Each morning, the forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourn, FL (NWS MLB) produce an experimental cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning threat index map for their county warning area (CWA) that is posted to their web site (http://www.srh.weather.gov/mlb/ghwo/lightning.shtml) . Given the hazardous nature of lightning in central Florida, especially during the warm season months of May-September, these maps help users factor the threat of lightning, relative to their location, into their daily plans. The maps are color-coded in five levels from Very Low to Extreme, with threat level definitions based on the probability of lightning occurrence and the expected amount of CG activity. On a day in which thunderstorms are expected, there are typically two or more threat levels depicted spatially across the CWA. The locations of relative lightning threat maxima and minima often depend on the position and orientation of the low-level ridge axis, forecast propagation and interaction of sea/lake/outflow boundaries, expected evolution of moisture and stability fields, and other factors that can influence the spatial distribution of thunderstorms over the CWA. The lightning threat index maps are issued for the 24-hour period beginning at 1200 UTC (0700 AM EST) each day with a grid resolution of 5 km x 5 km. Product preparation is performed on the AWIPS Graphical Forecast Editor (GFE), which is the standard NWS platform for graphical editing. Currently, the forecasters create each map manually, starting with a blank map. To improve efficiency of the forecast process, NWS MLB requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) create gridded warm season lightning climatologies that could be used as first-guess inputs to initialize lightning threat index maps. The gridded values requested included CG strike densities and frequency of occurrence stratified by synoptic-scale flow regime. The intent is to increase consistency between forecasters while enabling them to focus on

  9. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuz Turan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  10. Protecting electronic equipment in composite structures against lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, Mihai Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Damage resulting from an interaction with lightning current in a military naval vessel, especially in a conflict zone and at the time of a conflict, which leads to the incapacitation of vital activities on the ship, is unacceptable. Because many potential conflict zones are in littoral areas, and be

  11. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  12. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasts for East-Central Florida Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winfred C.

    2013-01-01

    The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL, (NWS MLB) identified a need to make more accurate lightning forecasts to help alleviate delays due to thunderstorms in the vicinity of several commercial airports in central Florida at which they are responsible for issuing terminal aerodrome forecasts. Such forecasts would also provide safer ground operations around terminals, and would be of value to Center Weather Service Units serving air traffic controllers in Florida. To improve the forecast, the AMU was tasked to develop an objective lightning probability forecast tool for the airports using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The resulting forecast tool is similar to that developed by the AMU to support space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for use by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in previous tasks (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). The lightning probability forecasts are valid for the time periods and areas needed by the NWS MLB forecasters in the warm season months, defined in this task as May-September.

  13. Modeling Lightning Impact Thermo-Mechanical Damage on Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Delgado, Sofía; González, Carlos; López-Romano, Bernardo; Wang, De-Yi; LLorca, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers, used in primary structures for aircraft due to an excellent strength-to-weight ratio when compared with conventional aluminium alloy counterparts, may nowadays be considered as mature structural materials. Their use has been extended in recent decades, with several aircraft manufacturers delivering fuselages entirely manufactured with carbon composites and using advanced processing technologies. However, one of the main drawbacks of using such composites entails their poor electrical conductivity when compared with aluminium alloy competitors that leads to lightning strikes being considered a significant threat during the service life of the aircraft. Traditionally, this problem was overcome with the use of a protective copper/bronze mesh that added additional weight and reduced the effectiveness of use of the material. Moreover, this traditional sizing method is based on vast experimental campaigns carried out by subjecting composite panels to simulated lightning strike events. While this method has proven its validity, and is necessary for certification of the structure, it may be optimized with the aid provided by physically based numerical models. This paper presents a model based on the finite element method that includes the sources of damage observed in a lightning strike, such as thermal damage caused by Joule overheating and electromagnetic/acoustic pressures induced by the arc around the attachment points. The results of the model are compared with lightning strike experiments carried out in a carbon woven composite.

  14. The role of charged ice hydrometeors in lightning initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    In connection with the lightning initiation problem, we consider positive streamer formation around charged, needle-shaped ice hydrometeors in an external electric field. We present results of numerical simulations of the streamer discharges that include the ice dielectric polarization and conduc...

  15. Investigation of the Prediction of Lightning Strikes Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-11

    1989: Artificial intelligence and lightning prediction. Final report to Universal Energy Systems on research Acronyms conducted during the summer of 1989...K’ Shuritle Sunway 31 - K Weather Tow 12 14-K Comera SitelS 17 - K Weather Twor 40S 18 - K CorencCoo Sit e 19 - K Weir, Twrg Aea 2K Cae,l 22K CameraS

  16. Global Patterns of Lightning Properties Derived by OTD and LIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirle, Steffen; Koshak, W.; Blakeslee, R.; Wagner, T.

    2014-01-01

    The satellite instruments Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) provide unique empirical data about the frequency of lightning flashes around the globe (OTD), and the tropics (LIS), which 5 has been used before to compile a well received global climatology of flash rate densities. Here we present a statistical analysis of various additional lightning properties derived from OTD/LIS, i.e. the number of so-called "events" and "groups" per flash, as well as 10 the mean flash duration, footprint and radiance. These normalized quantities, which can be associated with the flash "strength", show consistent spatial patterns; most strikingly, oceanic flashes show higher values than continental flashes for all properties. Over land, regions with high (Eastern US) 15 and low (India) flash strength can be clearly identified. We discuss possible causes and implications of the observed regional differences. Although a direct quantitative interpretation of the investigated flash properties is difficult, the observed spatial patterns provide valuable information for the 20 interpretation and application of climatological flash rates. Due to the systematic regional variations of physical flash characteristics, viewing conditions, and/or measurement sensitivities, parametrisations of lightning NOx based on total flash rate densities alone are probably affected by regional biases.

  17. High-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning with LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Brandt, S; Briggs, M S; Budtz-Jørgensen, C; Campana, R; Carlson, B E; Celestin, S; Connaughton, V; Cummer, S A; Dwyer, J R; Fishman, G J; Fullekrug, M; Fuschino, F; Gjesteland, T; Neubert, T; Østgaard, N; Tavani, M

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of high-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  18. Global patterns of lightning properties derived by OTD and LIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The satellite instruments Optical Transient Detector (OTD and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS provide unique empirical data about the frequency of lightning flashes around the globe (OTD, and the tropics (LIS, which have been used before to compile a well received global climatology of flash rate densities. Here we present a statistical analysis of various additional lightning properties derived from OTD/LIS, i.e. the number of so-called "events" and "groups" per flash, as well as the mean flash duration, footprint and radiance. These normalized quantities, which can be associated with the flash "strength", show consistent spatial patterns; most strikingly, oceanic flashes show higher values than continental flashes for all properties. Over land, regions with high (Eastern US and low (India flash strength can be clearly identified. We discuss possible causes and implications of the observed regional differences. Although a direct quantitative interpretation of the investigated flash properties is difficult, the observed spatial patterns provide valuable information for the interpretation and application of climatological flash rates. Due to the systematic regional variations of physical flash characteristics, viewing conditions, and/or measurement sensitivities, parametrisations of lightning NOx based on total flash rate densities alone are probably affected by regional biases.

  19. Lightning protection of ships in maritime and costal environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    An electromagnetic pulse due to a nearby lightning stroke generates a high intensity magnetic field. Thin metal layers as applied in composite structures cannot shield such a magnetic field. Electronic equipment inside such structures will suffer from high-induced voltages and damage and interferenc

  20. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lightning and Gunpowder in the 18th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, E. P.

    2006-12-01

    On or before June, 1751, Benjamin Franklin and co-workers showed that gunpowder could be ignited by a small electric spark, and subsequently people used gunpowder to enhance the explosions of "thunder houses" to demonstrate that grounded metallic rods would protect model structures against lightning damage. Even before the sentry box and kite experiments proved that thunderclouds are electrified and that lightning is an electrical discharge in 1752, Franklin had hypothesized that a tall, well-grounded conductor might reduce or prevent lightning damage by silently discharging the cloud, and if a discharge did occur, then the tall rod would offer a preferred place for the lightning to strike, and the grounding conductors would guide the current into the ground in a harmless fashion. Over the next 10 years, experience gained through practice showed that grounded rods did indeed protect ordinary structures from lightning damage, but a question remained about the best way to protect gunpowder magazines. In 1762, Franklin recommended a tall "mast not far from it, which may reach 15 or 20 feet above the top of it, with a thick iron rod in one piece fastened to it, pointed at the highest end, and reaching down through the earth till it comes to water," and in 1772 he made a similar recommendation for protecting the British powder magazine at Purfleet. In 1780, Jan Ingenhousz asked Franklin to "communicate to me some short hints, which may occur to you about the most convenient manner of constructing gun powder magazines, the manner of preserving the powder from moisture and securing the building in the best manner from the effects of lightning." In his reply, Franklin detailed a method of protection that is almost perfect, "they should be constructed in the Ground; that the Walls should be lin'd with Lead, the Floor Lead, all 1/4 Inch thick & the Joints well solder'd; the Cover Copper; with a little Scuttle to enter, the whole in the Form of a Canister for Tea. If the

  2. Radio signatures of lightning discharges in exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodosán, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane; Vorgul, Irena

    2014-05-01

    Lightning related signatures can be found in the whole spectral range from radio to gamma-rays. While for example UV, visible or IR molecular emission (as the lightning discharge causes changes in the local chemistry) depends on the composition of the atmosphere of the extrasolar body, radio signatures do not have this limitation, which means they may give us a universal tool for lightning observations outside the Solar System, both on exoplanets and brown dwarfs. Lightning induced radio signatures have three main types. Sferics emit in the low-frequency (LF) range with a power density peak at 10 kHz on Earth. (Aplin, K. L., 'Electrifying atmospheres', Springer 2013) Whistlers are electromagnetic waves propagating along magnetic field lines and emitting in the very low-frequency (VLF) range. (Desch, S. J. et al. 2002, Rep. Prog. Phys. 65, 955) While Schumann-resonances are VLF lightning discharge-induced electromagnetic oscillations of the earth-ionosphere cavity. (Simões, F. et al. 2012, LPICo 1683, 1052) There are certain factors that limit the observability of radio signatures. Every object with an ionosphere has a low cutoff frequency. This means radio waves with frequencies below this peak-frequency cannot propagate through the atmosphere. For Earth this value is about 5-10 MHz. However, the values for extrasolar atmospheres remain to be determined. Besides that, natural background noises like the galactic radio background or photo-electron noises give a limitation. (Zarka et al. 2012, PSS 74, 156) Putting all together, radio signatures with frequency below 10 MHz might only be observable from space. Waves below 30 kHz would not be able to reach the inner Solar System. (Zarka et al. 2012, PSS 74, 156) We show a general summary of radio signatures and their properties. A table of other lightning discharge signatures that have been observed either on Earth or other Solar System planets is also included. This table, also contains a list of different instruments

  3. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of

  4. Effect of Multiple Lightning Strikes on .the Performance of ZnOLightning Arrester Block%Effect of Multiple Lightning Strikes on .the Performance of ZnOLightning Arrester Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haryono T; Sirait K T; Tumiran; Hamzah Berahim

    2011-01-01

    A lightning arrester is used for electrical equipment protection against damage due to lightning strikes. One example of protected electrical equipment is electrical power transformer. If there is no lightning arrester installed to the transformer, when a lightning strike happens, it may receive a very high lightning overvoltage, which is certainly resulted in the transformer damage at its insulation. Usually, a lightning arrester specification data attached to a light- ning arrester contains the rating data of the lightning arrester current and voltage. In the use of lightning arrester, the possibility of receiving multiple lightning strikes is not taken into account sometimes. In fact, in some places, the number of multiple strikes in short duration is quiet high in number. This condition makes the lightning arrester being stroked by multiple lightning strikes. Therefore, it may change the lightning arrester's properties, and then the arrester may not be able to provide good electrical equipment protection against lightning strike anymore. This condition will result in great loss to electrical companies and electrical consumers. Therefore, this research studied the effect of applying multiple lightning strikes to ZnO lightning arrester block. Every time a group of lightning impulse current is applied to the ZnO lightning arrester block, it is followed by the measuring of its 50 Hz voltage and current characteristic. The changing in the ZnO lightning arrester block 50 Hz characteristic then can be analyzed. It was found that by applying more numbers of lightning strikes which made the arrester becoming worse, even though, actually, the lightning impulse peak current was still under the rating of the lightning arrester current. In this ease for a 5 kA, 24 kV lightning arrester, even though the lightning impulse peak current flowing through the ZnO lightning arrester block was still 2500 A, the lightning arrester ZnO block had already been damaged. Having been

  5. Lightning Reporting at 45th Weather Squadron: Recent Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Frank C.; Roeder, William P.; Buchanan, Michael D.; McNamara, Todd M.; McAllenan, Michael; Winters, Katherine A.; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2010-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) provides daily lightning reports to space launch customers at CCAFS/KSC. These reports are provided to assess the need to inspect the electronics of satellite payloads, space launch vehicles, and ground support equipment for induced current damage from nearby lightning strokes. The 45 WS has made several improvements to the lightning reports during 2008-2009. The 4DLSS, implemented in April 2008, provides all lightning strokes as opposed to just one stroke per flash as done by the previous system. The 45 WS discovered that the peak current was being truncated to the nearest kilo amp in the database used to generate the daily lightning reports, which led to an up to 4% underestimate in the peak current for average lightning. This error was corrected and led to elimination of this underestimate. The 45 WS and their mission partners developed lightning location error ellipses for 99% and 95% location accuracies tailored to each individual stroke and began providing them in the spring of 2009. The new procedure provides the distance from the point of interest to the best location of the stroke (the center of the error ellipse) and the distance to the closest edge of the ellipse. This information is now included in the lightning reports, along with the peak current of the stroke. The initial method of calculating the error ellipses could only be used during normal duty hours, i.e. not during nights, weekends, or holidays. This method was improved later to provide lightning reports in near real-time, 24/7. The calculation of the distance to the closest point on the ellipse was also significantly improved later. Other improvements were also implemented. A new method to calculate the probability of any nearby lightning stroke. being within any radius of any point of interest was developed and is being implemented. This may supersede the use of location error ellipses. The 45 WS is pursuing adding data from nine NLDN sensors into 4DLSS in

  6. Lightning Initiation Forecasting: An Operational Dual-Polarimetric Radar Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Crystal J.; Carey, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Roeder, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this NASA MSFC and NOAA CSTAR funded study is to develop and test operational forecast algorithms for the prediction of lightning initiation utilizing the C-band dual-polarimetric radar, UAHuntsville's Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR). Although there is a rich research history of radar signatures associated with lightning initiation, few studies have utilized dual-polarimetric radar signatures (e.g., Z(sub dr) columns) and capabilities (e.g., fuzzy-logic particle identification [PID] of precipitation ice) in an operational algorithm for first flash forecasting. The specific goal of this study is to develop and test polarimetric techniques that enhance the performance of current operational radar reflectivity based first flash algorithms. Improving lightning watch and warning performance will positively impact personnel safety in both work and leisure environments. Advanced warnings can provide space shuttle launch managers time to respond appropriately to secure equipment and personnel, while they can also provide appropriate warnings for spectators and players of leisure sporting events to seek safe shelter. Through the analysis of eight case dates, consisting of 35 pulse-type thunderstorms and 20 non-thunderstorm case studies, lightning initiation forecast techniques were developed and tested. The hypothesis is that the additional dual-polarimetric information could potentially reduce false alarms while maintaining high probability of detection and increasing lead-time for the prediction of the first lightning flash relative to reflectivity-only based techniques. To test the hypothesis, various physically-based techniques using polarimetric variables and/or PID categories, which are strongly correlated to initial storm electrification (e.g., large precipitation ice production via drop freezing), were benchmarked against the operational reflectivity-only based approaches to find the best compromise between

  7. Global distribution of winter lightning: a threat to wind turbines and aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanyà, Joan; Fabró, Ferran; van der Velde, Oscar; March, Víctor; Rolfe Williams, Earle; Pineda, Nicolau; Romero, David; Solà, Glòria; Freijo, Modesto

    2016-06-01

    Lightning is one of the major threats to multi-megawatt wind turbines and a concern for modern aircraft due to the use of lightweight composite materials. Both wind turbines and aircraft can initiate lightning, and very favorable conditions for lightning initiation occur in winter thunderstorms. Moreover, winter thunderstorms are characterized by a relatively high production of very energetic lightning. This paper reviews the different types of lightning interactions and summarizes the well-known winter thunderstorm areas. Until now comprehensive maps of global distribution of winter lightning prevalence to be used for risk assessment have been unavailable. In this paper we present the global winter lightning activity for a period of 5 years. Using lightning location data and meteorological re-analysis data, six maps are created: annual winter lightning stroke density, seasonal variation of the winter lightning and the annual number of winter thunderstorm days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the maps confirmed Japan to be one of the most active regions but other areas such as the Mediterranean and the USA are active as well. In the Southern Hemisphere, Uruguay and surrounding area, the southwestern Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea experience the highest activity. The maps provided here can be used in the development of a risk assessment.

  8. Lightning Detection by LAC Onboard the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter, Planet-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, J.; Yair, Y.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.

    2008-06-01

    Lightning activity in Venus has been a mystery for a long period, although many studies based on observations both by spacecraft and by ground-based telescope have been carried out. This situation may be attributed to the ambiguity of these evidential measurements. In order to conclude this controversial subject, we are developing a new type of lightning detector, LAC (Lightning and Airglow Camera), which will be onboard Planet-C (Venus Climate Orbiter: VCO). Planet-C will be launched in 2010 by JAXA. To distinguish an optical lightning flash from other pulsing noises, high-speed sampling at 50 kHz for each pixel, that enables us to investigate the time variation of each lightning flash phenomenon, is adopted. On the other hand, spatial resolution is not the first priority. For this purpose we developed a new type of APD (avalanche photo diode) array with a format of 8×8. A narrow band interference filter at wavelength of 777.4 nm (OI), which is the expected lightning color based on laboratory discharge experiment, is chosen for lightning measurement. LAC detects lightning flash with an optical intensity of average of Earth’s lightning or less at a distance of 3 Rv. In this paper, firstly we describe the background of the Venus lightning study to locate our spacecraft project, and then introduce the mission details.

  9. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  10. Location of lightning stroke on OPGW by use of distributed optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lidong; Liang, Yun; Li, Binglin; Guo, Jinghong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuping

    2014-12-01

    A new method based on a distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) to locate the position of lightning stroke on the optical fiber ground wire (OPGW) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the method, the lightning stroke process is considered to be a heat release process at the lightning stroke position, so Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) with spatial resolution of 2m is used as the distributed temperature sensor. To simulate the lightning stroke process, an electric anode with high pulsed current and a negative electrode (the OPGW) are adopted to form a lightning impulse system with duration time of 200ms. In the experiment, lightning strokes with the quantity of electric discharge of 100 Coul and 200 Coul are generated respectively, and the DOFS can sensitively capture the temperature change of the lightning stroke position in the transient electric discharging process. Experimental results show that DOFS is a feasible instrument to locate the lightning stroke on the OPGW and it has excellent potential for the maintenance of electric power transmission line. Additionally, as the range of lightning stroke is usually within 10cm and the spatial resolution of a typical DOFS is beyond 1m, the temperature characteristics in a small area cannot be accurately represented by a DOFS with a large spatial resolution. Therefore, for further application of distributed optical fiber temperature sensors for lightning stroke location on OPGW, such as BOTDR and ROTDR, it is important to enhance the spatial resolution.

  11. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  12. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... irritants include perfumes and aerosol (say: AIR-uh-sol) sprays, such as hair spray and cleaners. Other irritants include wood and tobacco smoke, the smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an