WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear transmission materials

  1. Organic/Organometallic Hybrids as Broadband Nonlinear Transmission Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    property correlation in organometallic complexes in order to develop broadband nonlinear transmission materials . To realize this goal, we have...platinum complexes and 10 zinc phthalocyanine derivatives provided by collaborators in China. From these studies, we have discovered that in order to...in the near-IR region still limited their application as broadband nonlinear absorbing materials . To solve this problem, two approaches were

  2. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  3. Thermal and Transmission Properties of UV Nonlinear Optical Material-- ZnCd(SCN)4 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Zinc cadmium thiocyanate(ZCTC), ZnCd(SCN)4, has been discovered as a UV second-order nonlinear optical coordination crystal. Its thermal and transmission properties are reported. The thermal decomposition is characterized by using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy at room temperature. The absorptions of intrinsic ions and ZCTC in a solution state are discussed as well as transmission properties of the ZCTC crystal. An effective method of reducing the surface reflection loss of ZCTC crystal is introduced.

  4. Nonlinear transmission sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, I. S.; Sigmund, P.

    1996-05-01

    General expressions have been derived for the nonlinear yield of transmission sputtering for an incident polyatomic ion under the assumption that the molecule breaks up on entering the target and that sputter yields are enhanced due to proximity of atomic trajectories. Special attention is given to the case of negligible Coulomb explosion where projectile atoms penetrate independently. For weakly overlapping trajectories, the yield enhancement factor of a polyatomic molecule can be expressed by that of a diatom, amended with a correction for triple correlations if necessary. This expression is in good agreement with recent experimental findings on phenylalanine targets. Pertinent results on multiple scattering of atomic ions are reviewed and applied to independently-moving fragment atoms. The merits of measurements at variable layer thickness in addition to variable projectile energy are mentioned.

  5. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  6. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  7. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  8. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  9. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  10. Modeling of unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting microstrip transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadzadeh, S. Mohammad Hassan, E-mail: smh_javadzadeh@ee.sharif.edu [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Forouhar; Fardmanesh, Mehdi [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Avoiding of considering just quadratic or modulus nonlinearity. ► Proposing a nonlinear model to predict unusual nonlinear behaviors at low temperatures. ► Description of temperature dependency of nonlinear behaviors in superconducting lines. ► Analytical formulation for each parameter in our proposed model. ► Obtaining very good results which shows this model can predict unusual nonlinear behavior. -- Abstract: There are unusual nonlinear behaviors in superconducting materials, especially at low temperatures. This paper describes the procedure to reliably predict this nonlinearity in superconducting microstrip transmission lines (SMTLs). An accurate nonlinear distributed circuit model, based on simultaneously considering of both quadratic and modulus nonlinearity dependences, is proposed. All parameters of the equivalent circuit can be calculated analytically using proposed closed-form expressions. A numerical method based on Harmonic Balance approach is used to predict nonlinear phenomena like intermodulation distortions and third harmonic generations. Nonlinear analyses of the SMTLs at the different temperatures and the input powers have been presented. This proposed model can describe the unusual behaviors of the nonlinearity at low temperatures, which are frequently observed in the SMTLs.

  11. Nonlinear optics and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1994-07-01

    We shall consider an interesting topic relating nonlinear optics and organic materials: how nonlinear optics can be used to study organic materials. One of the main differences between linear and nonlinear responses of a medium to incoming radiation is in their symmetries. It leads to the possibility that some properties of the medium could be more sensitively probed by nonlinear, rather than linear, optical means, or vise versa. A well-known example is that some vibrational modes of a medium could be Raman-active but infrared-inactive, and would be more readily observed by Raman scattering, which is a two-photon transition process. In this paper, we shall discuss, with the help of three examples, how we can use second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG) to obtain unique information about a material. We shall focus on thin films, surfaces, and interfaces.

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of induced transmission filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel T; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Hales, Joel M; Perry, Joseph W; Kippelen, Bernard

    2010-08-30

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of induced transmission filters (ITFs) based on Ag are experimentally determined using white light continuum pump-probe measurements. The experimental results are supported using simulations based on the matrix transfer method. The magnitude of the NLO response is shown to be 30 times that of an isolated Ag film of comparable thickness. The impacts of design variations on the linear and NLO response are simulated. It is shown that the design can be modified to enhance the NLO response of an ITF by a factor of 2 or more over a perfectly matched ITF structure.

  13. Optically nonlinear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Whittam, A J

    2001-01-01

    susceptibility from 26 pm/V (same film without octadecanoic acid) to 40 pm/V. This increase in the second-order susceptibility occurred even though the amount of NLO-active dye was effectively diluted by the addition of the inactive octadecanoic acid. The wavelength of the absorption maximum ranged from 346-440 nm and there was direct correlation between the susceptibilities and the transparency of the films at the harmonic wavelength. Hemicyanine dyes were synthesised, with the general formulae: - (a) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH-C sub 6 H sub 4] sub x -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I (b) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH] sub y -C sub 6 H sub 4 -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I where A sup + is a pyridinium or isoquinolinium acceptor, and x = 1 or 2, and y = 1 or 2. The optically nonlinear dyes were investigated via the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The dyes all produced isotherm data, with molecular areas of 22-60 A sup 2 per molecule, which are consistent with the cross-sectional areas of the chromo...

  14. Thermal Rectification in Graded Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文; 陈伟中; 陶锋

    2011-01-01

    We consider heat conduction in a nonlinear inductance-capacitance(LC)transmission line with an inductance gradient by adding white-noise signals.It is found that the heat flux in the direction of inductance decrease is larger than that in the direction of inductance increase.When the low-inductance end is at higher temperature,the phonon density decreases due to conversion to high-frequency phonons,which can not move to the high-inductance end due to its lower cutoff frequency.However,when the high-inductance end is at higher temperature,the loss of phonon density can be compensated for because some high-frequency phonons can move to the low-inductance end dur to its higher cutoff frequency.This leads to the asymmetry of energy transfer.Discussion shows that this asymmetry exists in a particular range of temperatures,and increases with the increase of the difference between heat baths and the inductance gradient.%We consider heat conduction in a nonlinear inductance-capacitance (LC) transmission line with an inductance gradient by adding white-noise signals. It is found that the heat flux in the direction of inductance decrease is larger than that in the direction of inductance increase. When the low-inductance end is at higher temperature, the phonon density decreases due to conversion to high-frequency phonons, which can not move to the high-inductance end due to its lower cutoff frequency. However, when the high-inductance end is at higher temperature, the loss of phonon density can be compensated for because some high-frequency phonons can move to the low-inductance end dur to its higher cutoff frequency. This leads to the asymmetry of energy transfer. Discussion shows that this asymmetry exists in a particular range of temperatures, and increases with the increase of the difference between heat baths and the inductance gradient.

  15. New nonlinear optical materials based on ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J P [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Yu, K W [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-01-01

    We exploit theoretically a new class of magneto-controlled nonlinear optical material based on ferrofluids in which ferromagnetic nanoparticles are coated with a nonmagnetic metallic nonlinear shell. Such an optical material can have anisotropic nonlinear optical properties and a giant enhancement of nonlinearity, as well as an attractive figure of merit.

  16. Graphene - a rather ordinary nonlinear optical material

    CERN Document Server

    khurgin, Jacob B

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the nonlinear refractive index of graphene has been derived and used to obtain the performance metrics of third order nonlinear devices using graphene as a nonlinear medium. None of the metrics is found to be superior to the existing nonlinear optical materials.

  17. Variational principles for nonlinear piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, R.; Guinovart-Diaz, R. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Pobedria, B.E. [Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov, Composites Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Padilla, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas (IIMAS), Cd. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Castillero, J. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Campus Estado de Mexico. Division de Arquitectura e Ingenieria, Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Maugin, G.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Case 162, UMR 7607 CNRS, Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, we consider the behavior of nonlinear piezoelectric materials by generalization for this case of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. The new general formulation used here differs from others, because, it gives the possibility to evaluate the upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for specific physical nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials. Geometrical nonlinearities are not considered. (orig.)

  18. Nonlinear system guidance in the presence of transmission zero dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Hunt, L. R.; Su, R.

    1995-01-01

    An iterative procedure is proposed for computing the commanded state trajectories and controls that guide a possibly multiaxis, time-varying, nonlinear system with transmission zero dynamics through a given arbitrary sequence of control points. The procedure is initialized by the system inverse with the transmission zero effects nulled out. Then the 'steady state' solution of the perturbation model with the transmission zero dynamics intact is computed and used to correct the initial zero-free solution. Both time domain and frequency domain methods are presented for computing the steady state solutions of the possibly nonminimum phase transmission zero dynamics. The procedure is illustrated by means of linear and nonlinear examples.

  19. Optimal Transmission Power in a Nonlinear VLC System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shuang; CAI Sunzeng; KANG Kai; QIAN Hua

    2016-01-01

    In a visible light communication (VLC) system, the light emitting diode (LED) is nonlinear for large signals, which limits the trans⁃mission power or equivalently the coverage of the VLC system. When the input signal amplitude is large, the nonlinear distortion creates harmonic and intermodulation distortion, which degrades the transmission error vector magnitude (EVM). To evaluate the impact of nonlinearity on system performance, the signal to noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) is applied, defined as the linear sig⁃nal power over the thermal noise plus the front end nonlinear distortion. At a given noise level, the optimal system performance can be achieved by maximizing the SNDR, which results in high transmission rate or long transmission range for the VLC system. In this paper, we provide theoretical analysis on the optimization of SNDR with a nonlinear Hammerstein model of LED. Simula⁃tion results and lab experiments validate the theoretical analysis.

  20. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  1. Design of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    This project deals with a new approach to designing organic nonlinear optical materials for second harmonic generation based on the use of hydrogen...patterns for even simple organic molecules. For organic nonlinear optical materials this dilemma means that even the most promising organic molecule may

  2. Nonlinear acoustics and honeycomb materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. O.

    2012-05-01

    The scope of research activity that Bruce Thompson embraced was very large. In this talk three different research topics that the author shared with Bruce are reviewed. They represent Bruce's introduction to NDE and include nonlinear acoustics, nondestructive measurements of adhesive bond strengths in honeycomb panels, and studies of flexural wave dispersion in honeycomb materials. In the first of these, four harmonics of a 30 Mhz finite amplitude wave were measured for both fused silica and aluminum single crystals with varying lengths and amounts of cold work using a capacity microphone with heterodyne receiver with a flat frequency response from 30 to 250 Mhz. The results for fused silica with no dislocation structure could be described by a model due to Fubini, originally developed for gases, that depends upon only the second and third order elastic constants and not the fourth and higher order constants. The same was not true for the aluminum with dislocation structures. These results raised some questions about models for harmonic generation in materials with dislocations. In the second topic, experiments were made to determine the adhesive bond strengths of honeycomb panels using the vibrational response of the panels (Chladni figures). The results showed that both the damping characteristics of panel vibrations as a whole and velocity of propagation of elastic waves that travel along the surface and sample the bondline can be correlated with destructively determined bond strengths. Finally, the phase velocity of flexural waves traveling along a 1-inch honeycomb sandwich panel was determined from 170 Hz to 50 Khz, ranging from 2.2×104 cm/sec at the low end to 1.18×105 cm/sec at 40 Khz. The dispersion arises from the finite thickness of the panel and agreed with the results of continuum models for the honeycomb. Above 40 Khz, this was not the case. The paper concludes with a tribute to Bruce for his many wonderful contributions and lessons beyond his

  3. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  4. ON TRANSMISSION PROBLEM FOR KIRCHHOFF TYPE WAVE EQUATION WITH A LOCALIZED NONLINEAR DISSIPATION IN BOUNDED DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Ja Bae

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we consider the global existence and decay rates of solutions for the transmission problem of Kirchhoff type wave equations consisting of two physically different types of materials,one component is a Kirchhoff type wave equation with nonlinear time dependent localized dissipation which is effective only on a neighborhood of certain part of the boundary,while the other is a Kirchhoff type wave equation with nonlinear memory.

  5. Modulational instability in periodic quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the modulational instability of plane waves in quadratic nonlinear materials with linear and nonlinear quasi-phase-matching gratings. Exact Floquet calculations, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that the periodicity can drastically alter the gain spectrum but never complete...

  6. Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-22

    10 SOVRCE Of FUNO#NG NUM#E*S DM J .j PROGRAM PR0jECT TA5. ~ *0. I1I TITLE &Vila* So.Ivety ClaUMC400NJ Development of Organic NonLinear Optical Materials (U...0102-LF-014-6603 UNCLASSIFIED (U) AFOSR Contract: F4962040-C 0097 FINAL REPORT Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials by J. Sounnk IL

  7. Nonlinear transmission of an intense terahertz field through monolayer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hafez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report nonlinear terahertz (THz effects in monolayer graphene, giving rise to transmission enhancement of a single-cycle THz pulse when the incident THz peak electric field is increased. This transmission enhancement is attributed to reduced photoconductivity, due to saturation effects in the field-induced current and increased intraband scattering rates arising from transient heating of electrons. We have developed a tight-binding model of the response using the length gauge interaction Hamiltonian that provides good qualitative agreement. The model fully accounts for the nonlinear response arising from the linear dispersion energy spectrum in graphene. The results reveal a strong dependence of the scattering time on the THz field, which is at the heart of the observed nonlinear response.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    consisting of parallel-plate waveguides in which layers of ferroelectric material (specifically, barium strontium titanate , or BST) alternated with...permits; meanwhile, the basic analysis of the NLTL performance benefits greatly from the feasibility of writing transparent software that is easily...where the parameters t, 0,  and  are used to fit the data. The values of these parameters they found for their particular BST samples

  9. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, C.N.; Feldman, L.C.; Gonella, F.; Haglund, R.F.; Luepke, G.; Magruder, R.H.; Mazzoldi, P.; Osborne, D.H.; Solis, J.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.

  10. Nonlinearities of biopolymer gels increase the range of force transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Safran, Samuel A.

    2015-09-01

    We present a model of biopolymer gels that includes two types of elastic nonlinearities, stiffening under extension and softening (due to buckling) under compression, to predict the elastic anisotropy induced by both external as well as internal (e.g., due to cell contractility) stresses in biopolymer gels. We show how the stretch-induced anisotropy and the strain-stiffening nonlinearity increase both the amplitude and power-law range of transmission of internal, contractile, cellular forces, and relate this to recent experiments.

  11. Laser and nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 21 papers. Some of the titles are: Frequency conversion materials from a device perspective; Recent developments in area; Recent developments in barium borate; Growth of laser crystals at Airtron; Crystal growth and the future of solid state lasers; Faraday rotator materials for laser systems; and Mechanical properties of single crystal ceramics.

  12. Nonlinear properties of the lattice network-based nonlinear CRLH transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正斌; 吴昭质; 高超

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of lattice network-based (LNB) composite right-/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH TLs) with nonlinear capacitors are experimentally investigated. Harmonic generation, subharmonic generation, and parametric excitation are clearly observed in an unbalanced LNB CRLH TL separately. While the balanced design of the novel nonlinear TL shows that the subharmonic generation and parametric processes can be suppressed, and almost the same power level of the higher harmonics can be achieved over a wide bandwidth range, which are difficult to find in the conventional CRLH TLs.

  13. Design of materials with prescribed nonlinear properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    We systematically design materials using topology optimization to achieve prescribed nonlinear properties under finite deformation. Instead of a formal homogenization procedure, a numerical experiment is proposed to evaluate the material performance in longitudinal and transverse tensile tests un....... The numerical examples illustrate optimized materials with rubber-like behavior and also optimized materials with extreme strain-independent Poisson's ratio for axial strain intervals of εi ∈ [0.00,0.30]. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... under finite deformation, i.e. stress-strain relations and Poisson's ratio. By minimizing errors between actual and prescribed properties, materials are tailored to achieve the target. Both two dimensional (2D) truss-based and continuum materials are designed with various prescribed nonlinear properties...

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Structures with Material Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, P.; Wagg, D. J.; Pinna, C.; Whear, R.; Briody, C.

    2016-09-01

    Structures usually experience deterioration during their working life. Oxidation, corrosion, UV exposure, and thermo-mechanical fatigue are some of the most well-known mechanisms that cause degradation. The phenomenon gradually changes structural properties and dynamic behaviour over their lifetime, and can be more problematic and challenging in the presence of nonlinearity. In this paper, we study how the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear system changes as the thermal environment causes certain parameters to vary. To this end, a nonlinear lumped mass modal model is considered and defined under harmonic external force. Temperature dependent material functions, formulated from empirical test data, are added into the model. Using these functions, bifurcation parameters are defined and the corresponding nonlinear responses are observed by numerical continuation. A comparison between the results gives a preliminary insight into how temperature induced properties affects the dynamic response and highlights changes in stability conditions of the structure.

  15. ON TRANSMISSION PROBLEM FOR VISCOELASTIC WAVE EQUATION WITH A LOCALIZED A NONLINEAR DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Ja BAE; Seong Sik KIM

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we consider the global existence and decay rates of solutions for the transmission problem of Kirchhoff type wave equations consisting of two physically different types of materials,one component being a Kirchhoff type wave equation with time dependent localized dissipation which is effective only on a neighborhood of certain part of boundary,while the other being a Kirchhoff type viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear memory.

  16. Nonlinear absorption and transmission properties of Ge, Te and InAs using tuneable IR FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirmadhi, F.; Becker, K.; Brau, C.A. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear absorption properties of Ge, Te and InAs are being investigated using the transmission of FEL optical pulses through these semiconductors (z-scan method). Wavelength, intensity and macropulse dependence are used to differentiate between two-photon and free-carrier absorption properties of these materials. Macropulse dependence is resolved by using a Pockles Cell to chop the 4-{mu}s macropulse down to 100 ns. Results of these experiments will be presented and discussed.

  17. A nonlinear constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin'en Liu; Xiaojing Zheng

    2005-01-01

    A general nonlinear constitutive model is proposed for magnetostrictive materials, based on the important physical fact that a nonlinear part of the elastic strain produced by a pre-stress is related to the magnetic domain rotation or movement and is responsible for the change of the maximum magnetostrictive strain with the pre-stress. To avoid the complicity of determining the tensor function describing the nonlinear elastic strain part, this paper proposes a simplified model by means of linearizing the nonlinear function.For the convenience of engineering applications, the expressions of the 3-D (bulk), 2-D (film) and 1-D (rod) models are, respectively, given for an isotropic material and their applicable ranges are also discussed. By comparison with the experimental data of a Terfenol-D rod, it is found that the proposed model can accurately predict the magnetostrictive strain curves in low, moderate and high magnetic field regions for various compressive pre-stress levels. The numerical simulation further illustrates that, for either magnetostrictive rods or thin films, the proposed model can effectively describe the effects of the pre-stress or residual stress on the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curves, while none of the known models can capture all of them. Therefore, the proposed model enjoys higher precision and wider applicability than the previous models, especially in the region of the high field.

  18. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Interactions in Energetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M A; Moore, D S

    2016-01-01

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for non-ionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional Raman spectra in the terahertz range for planar slabs made of PETN and ammonium nitrate. We discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for stand-off explosive detection.

  19. MACROSCOPIC STRAIN POTENTIALS IN NONLINEAR POROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘熠; 黄筑平

    2003-01-01

    By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.

  20. Energy and Transmissibility in Nonlinear Viscous Base Isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athanasios A.; Manolis, George D.

    2016-09-01

    High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.

  1. Cumulative signal transmission in nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Oyarzún

    Full Text Available Quantifying signal transmission in biochemical systems is key to uncover the mechanisms that cells use to control their responses to environmental stimuli. In this work we use the time-integral of chemical species as a measure of a network's ability to cumulatively transmit signals encoded in spatiotemporal concentrations. We identify a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks in which the time-integrals of some species can be computed analytically. The derived time-integrals do not require knowledge of the solution of the reaction-diffusion equation, and we provide a simple graphical test to check if a given network belongs to the proposed class. The formulae for the time-integrals reveal how the kinetic parameters shape signal transmission in a network under spatiotemporal stimuli. We use these to show that a canonical complex-formation mechanism behaves as a spatial low-pass filter, the bandwidth of which is inversely proportional to the diffusion length of the ligand.

  2. Nonlinear Vibroimpact Characteristics of a Planetary Gear Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the vibroimpact characteristics of a planetary gear transmission system under high speed and lightly loaded conditions, a new modeling method is proposed. In the modeling process, linear spring was used to simulate gear mesh elasticity under heavy load cases, and Hertz contact theory was used to calculate the contact force of gear pair under light load cases. Then, effects of the working conditions on the system vibroimpact characteristics are analyzed. The results show that, with input speed growing, the mesh force produced obvious fluctuations on the resonance frequencies of the sun gear and carrier torsion vibration, ring gear’s transverse vibration under the heavy load. Under light load condition, the collision vibration occurs in the gear pair; the changing trend of the contact force shows strongly nonlinear characteristics. The time of mesh-apart in gears pair decreases gradually as the load is increased; until it reaches collision vibration threshold value, the gear pair is no longer mesh-apart. With increasing of the input speed, the time of mesh-apart is decreased gradually; the fluctuation amplitude of contact force shows a linearly increasing trend. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for planetary gear transmission low-noise design.

  3. Explanation of the inverse Doppler effect observed in nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W

    2005-05-27

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator.

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Fultz, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This book explains concepts of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) that are important for the characterization of materials. The fourth edition adds important new techniques of TEM such as electron tomography, nanobeam diffraction, and geometric phase analysis. A new chapter on neutron scattering completes the trio of x-ray, electron and neutron diffraction. All chapters were updated and revised for clarity. The book explains the fundamentals of how waves and wavefunctions interact with atoms in solids, and the similarities and differences of using x-rays, electrons, or neutrons for diffraction measurements. Diffraction effects of crystalline order, defects, and disorder in materials are explained in detail. Both practical and theoretical issues are covered. The book can be used in an introductory-level or advanced-level course, since sections are identified by difficulty. Each chapter includes a set of problems to illustrate principles, and the extensive Appendix includes la...

  5. Nonlinear Optical Materials for the Smart Filtering of Optical Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Danilo; Calvete, Mário J F; Hanack, Michael

    2016-11-23

    The control of luminous radiation has extremely important implications for modern and future technologies as well as in medicine. In this Review, we detail chemical structures and their relevant photophysical features for various groups of materials, including organic dyes such as metalloporphyrins and metallophthalocyanines (and derivatives), other common organic materials, mixed metal complexes and clusters, fullerenes, dendrimeric nanocomposites, polymeric materials (organic and/or inorganic), inorganic semiconductors, and other nanoscopic materials, utilized or potentially useful for the realization of devices able to filter in a smart way an external radiation. The concept of smart is referred to the characteristic of those materials that are capable to filter the radiation in a dynamic way without the need of an ancillary system for the activation of the required transmission change. In particular, this Review gives emphasis to the nonlinear optical properties of photoactive materials for the function of optical power limiting. All known mechanisms of optical limiting have been analyzed and discussed for the different types of materials.

  6. A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

  7. Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Andres D.; Olivier, Nicolas; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical materials comprise the foundation of modern photonics, offering functionalities ranging from ultrafast lasers to optical switching, harmonic and soliton generation. Optical nonlinearities are typically strong near the electronic resonances of a material and thus provide limited tuneability for practical use. Here we show that in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials, the Kerr-type nonlinearity is not limited by the nonlinear properties of the constituents. Compared with gold's nonlinearity, the measured nonlinear absorption and refraction demonstrate more than two orders of magnitude enhancement over a broad spectral range that can be engineered via geometrical parameters. Depending on the metamaterial's effective plasma frequency, either a focusing or defocusing nonlinearity is observed. The ability to obtain strong and fast optical nonlinearities in a given spectral range makes these metamaterials a flexible platform for the development of low-intensity nonlinear applications. PMID:26195182

  8. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  9. Laser And Nonlinear Optical Materials For Laser Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA remote sensing missions involving laser systems and their economic impact are outlined. Potential remote sensing missions include: green house gasses, tropospheric winds, ozone, water vapor, and ice cap thickness. Systems to perform these measurements use lanthanide series lasers and nonlinear devices including second harmonic generators and parametric oscillators. Demands these missions place on the laser and nonlinear optical materials are discussed from a materials point of view. Methods of designing new laser and nonlinear optical materials to meet these demands are presented.

  10. Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical C: F49620-93-C-0039 Switching and Modulation 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr. Sandip K. Sengupta, Dr...D FINAL REPORT for Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation Prepared for: USAF, AFMC (AFOSR) Air Force...34Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation," contract number F49620-93-C-0039. The work has been performed by Dr

  11. Characterizaticr of Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-02

    materials useful in the different methods for obtaining frequency agility: narrow line emitters with multiple lasing channels and nonlinear optical materials . In...codoped with two or more rare earth ions were studied and computers models developed to explain their spectral dynamics. The nonlinear optical materials investigated

  12. Unsymmetrical squaraines for nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Chen, Chin-Ti (Inventor); Cheng, Lap-Tak (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Compositions for use in non-linear optical devices. The compositions have first molecular electronic hyperpolarizability (.beta.) either positive or negative in sign and therefore display second order non-linear optical properties when incorporated into non-linear optical devices.

  13. Laser and nonlinear optical materials: SPIE volume 681

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers arranged under the following session headings: Nonlinear optical crystals; Laser host crystals; Electro-optic and magneto-optic materials; and Characterization of optical materials.

  14. Investigating nonlinear distortion in the photopolymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    Propagation and diffraction of a light beam through nonlinear materials are effectively compensated by the effect of selftrapping. The laser beam propagating through photo-sensitive polymer PVA/AA can generate a waveguide of higher refractive index in direction of the light propagation. In order to investigate this phenomenon occurring in light-sensitive photopolymer media, the behaviour of a single light beam focused on the front surface of photopolymer bulk is investigated. As part of this work the self-bending of parallel beams separated in spaces during self-writing waveguides are studied. It is shown that there is strong correlation between the intensity of the input beams and their separation distance and the resulting deformation of waveguide trajectory during channels formation. This self-channeling can be modelled numerically using a three-dimension model to describe what takes place inside the volume of a photopolymer media. Corresponding numerical simulations show good agreement with experimental observations, which confirm the validity of the numerical model that was used to simulate these experiments.

  15. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, D V; Bragg, J-W B; Gonsalves, N R; Johnson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2014-05-01

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  16. All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Changjun; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chunchong; Deng, Yan; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Ning, Tingyin; Zhou, Yueliang; Yang, Guozhen

    2008-04-15

    All-optical switching based on a subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials has been proposed and numerically investigated. Metal-dielectric composite material is used in the switching for its larger third-order nonlinear susceptibility (approximately 10(-7)esu) and ultrafast response properties. The calculated dependence of the signal light intensity on the pump light intensity shows a bistable behavior, which results in a significant switch effect. It rests on a surface plasmon's enhanced intensity-dependent change of the effective dielectric constant of Kerr nonlinear media, corresponding to a transition of the far-field transmission from a low- to high-transmission state. The study of this switching structure shows great advantages of smaller size, lower requirement of pump light intensity, and shorter switching time at approximately the picosecond level.

  17. Nonlinear inverse synthesis for high spectral efficiency transmission in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2014-01-01

    In linear communication channels, spectral components (modes) defined by the Fourier transform of the signal propagate without interactions with each other. In certain nonlinear channels, such as the one modelled by the classical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, there are nonlinear modes (nonlinear signal spectrum) that also propagate without interacting with each other and without corresponding nonlinear cross talk; effectively, in a linear manner. Here, we describe in a constructive way how to introduce such nonlinear modes for a given input signal. We investigate the performance of the nonlinear inverse synthesis (NIS) method, in which the information is encoded directly onto the continuous part of the nonlinear signal spectrum. This transmission technique, combined with the appropriate distributed Raman amplification, can provide an effective eigenvalue division multiplexing with high spectral efficiency, thanks to highly suppressed channel cross talk. The proposed NIS approach can be integrated with any...

  18. Electric characterization of a nonlinear dispersive transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.S.; Ricotta, R.M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: ferreira@fatecsp.br, regina@fatecsp.br

    2009-07-01

    A preliminary study of electrical soliton propagation in a nonlinear dispersion electrical line is presented. This is probably the simplest system that allows the observation of such waves whose main characteristic is the perfect balance of nonlinear and dispersive aspects. (author)

  19. Nonlinear phase noise in coherent optical OFDM transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianming; Kumar, Shiva

    2010-03-29

    We derive an analytical formula to estimate the variance of nonlinear phase noise caused by the interaction of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise with fiber nonlinearity such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The analytical results agree very well with numerical simulations, enabling the study of the nonlinear penalties in long-haul coherent OFDM systems without extensive numerical simulation. Our results show that the nonlinear phase noise induced by FWM is significantly larger than that induced by SPM and XPM, which is in contrast to traditional WDM systems where ASE-FWM interaction is negligible in quasi-linear systems. We also found that fiber chromatic dispersion can reduce the nonlinear phase noise. The variance of the total phase noise increases linearly with the bit rate, and does not depend significantly on the number of subcarriers for systems with moderate fiber chromatic dispersion.

  20. All-optical signal processing in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2002-01-01

    of materials with a second order nonlinearity, the so-called X(2) materials, is faster and stronger than that of more conventional materials with a cubic nonlinearity. The X(2) materials support spatial solitons consisting of two coupled components, the fundamental wave (FW) and its second harmonic (SH......). During this project the interaction between such spatial solitons has been investigated theoretically through perturbation theory and experimentally via numerical simulations. The outcome of this research isnew theoretical tools for quantitatively predicting the escape angle, i.e. the angle of incidence...... and exploitation of these cubic nonlinearities in two-period QPM wave-guides has been another area of investigation. Introducing the second period might make practical engineering of the nonlinearities possible. A major result is the discovery that cubic nonlinearities leads to an enhancement of the bandwidth...

  1. Exact Solutions for a Local Fractional DDE Associated with a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, İsmail

    2016-09-01

    Of recent increasing interest in the area of fractional calculus and nonlinear dynamics are fractional differential-difference equations. This study is devoted to a local fractional differential-difference equation which is related to a nonlinear electrical transmission line. Explicit traveling wave solutions (kink/antikink solitons, singular, periodic, rational) are obtained via the discrete tanh method coupled with the fractional complex transform.

  2. Nonlinear Trellis Description for Convolutionally Encoded Transmission Over ISI-channels with Applications for CPM

    CERN Document Server

    Schuh, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a matched decoding scheme for convolutionally encoded transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels and devise a nonlinear trellis description. As an application we show that for coded continuous phase modulation (CPM) using a non-coherent receiver the number of states of the super trellis can be significantly reduced by means of a matched non-linear trellis encoder.

  3. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism,a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material,one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while,the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  4. Intra-Channel Nonlinear Effect on Optical PPM Pulse Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Linghao; Jarmo; Takala

    2003-01-01

    PPM encoded Gaussian pulse sequence shows more immunity than non-PPM schemes on optical fiber intra-channel nonlinearity and demonstrated by a numerical study of IXPM and IFWM effects deploying on 100Gb/s single channelsystem.

  5. Tunable Optical Sources and Synthetic Nonlinear Media: Growth and Characterization of Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-13

    niobate and absolute measurements of nonlinear optical coefficients of six different commonly used nonlinear optical materials. The refractometry data for...applied radiation and is now an established technology for Nd:YAG lasers. Optical parametric oscillation and amplification provide a method of generating...continuously tunable output -3- The relative advantages of nonlinear optical frequency conversion compared to other methods for the generation of near

  6. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  7. Picosecond soliton transmission using concatenated gain-distributed nonlinear amplifying fiber loop mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua Cao; Songhao Liu

    2005-01-01

    Stable picosecond soliton transmission is demonstrated numerically by use of concatenated gain-distributed nonlinear amplifying fiber loop mirrors (NALMs). We show that, as compared with previous soliton transmission schemes that use conventional NALMs or nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and amplifier combinations, the present scheme permits significant increase of loop-mirror (amplifier) spacing. The broad switching window of the present device and the high quality pulses switched from it provide a reasonable stability range for soliton transmission. Soliton-soliton interactions can be reduced efficiently by using lowly dispersive fibers.

  8. Molecular and crystal design of nonlinear optical organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suponitsky, Kirill Yu; Antipin, Mikhail Yu [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Timofeeva, Tatiana V [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Highlands University (United States)

    2006-06-30

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the second-order molecular and crystal nonlinear optical susceptibilities of organic and several classes of organoelement compounds are summarised. Modern methods used in these studies are briefly characterised, their advantages and drawbacks are outlined as regards their application to the systematic search for efficient nonlinear optical materials. Recent achievements and the main challenges in the field are thoroughly discussed and an optimum algorithm of the design of such materials is proposed.

  9. A novel exact solution to transmission problem of electron wave in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chao; Hai, Kuo; Tan, Jintao; Chen, Hao; Hai, Wenhua

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear Kronig-Penney model has been frequently employed to study transmission problem of electron wave in a doped semiconductor superlattice or in a nonlinear electrified chain. Here from an integral equation we derive a novel exact solution of the problem, which contains a simple nonlinear map connecting transmission coefficient with system parameters. Consequently, we propose a scheme to manipulate electronic distribution and transmission by adjusting the system parameters. A new quantum coherence effect is evidenced by the strict expression of transmission coefficient, which results in the aperiodic electronic distributions and different transmission coefficients including the approximate zero transmission and total transmission, and the multiple transmissions. The method based on the concise exact solution can be applied directly to some nonlinear cold atomic systems and a lot of linear Kronig-Penney systems, and also can be extended to investigate electronic transport in different discrete nonlinear systems.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of Nonlinear Frequency Division Multiplexed Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid; Schuh, Karsten; Idler, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an NFDM optical system with modulation over nonlinear discrete spectrum. Particularly, each symbol carries 4-bits from multiplexing two eigenvalues modulated by QPSK constellation. We show a low error performance using NFT detection with 4Gbps rate over 640km.

  11. Control of terahertz nonlinear transmission with electrically gated graphene metadevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Oh, Sang Soon; Hamm, Joachim M.; Pusch, Andreas; Park, Jagang; Lee, Kanghee; Son, Jaehyeon; Jeong, Young U. K.; Hess, Ortwin; Rotermund, Fabian; Min, Bumki

    2017-02-01

    Graphene, which is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has attracted a great amount of attention due to its outstanding mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. Moreover, graphene shows an exceptionally strong tunable light-matter interaction that depends on the Fermi level - a function of chemical doping and external gate voltage - and the electromagnetic resonance provided by intentionally engineered structures. In the optical regime, the nonlinearities of graphene originated from the Pauli blocking have already been exploited for mode-locking device applications in ultrafast laser technology, whereas nonlinearities in the terahertz regime, which arise from a reduction in conductivity due to carrier heating, have only recently been confirmed experimentally. Here, we investigated two key factors for controlling nonlinear interactions of graphene with an intense terahertz field. The induced transparencies of graphene can be controlled effectively by engineering meta-atoms and/or changing the number of charge carriers through electrical gating. Additionally, nonlinear phase changes of the transmitted terahertz field can be observed by introducing the resonances of the meta-atoms.

  12. Control of terahertz nonlinear transmission with electrically gated graphene metadevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Oh, Sang Soon; Hamm, Joachim M.; Pusch, Andreas; Park, Jagang; Lee, Kanghee; Son, Jaehyeon; Jeong, Young U. k.; Hess, Ortwin; Rotermund, Fabian; Min, Bumki

    2017-01-01

    Graphene, which is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has attracted a great amount of attention due to its outstanding mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. Moreover, graphene shows an exceptionally strong tunable light-matter interaction that depends on the Fermi level - a function of chemical doping and external gate voltage - and the electromagnetic resonance provided by intentionally engineered structures. In the optical regime, the nonlinearities of graphene originated from the Pauli blocking have already been exploited for mode-locking device applications in ultrafast laser technology, whereas nonlinearities in the terahertz regime, which arise from a reduction in conductivity due to carrier heating, have only recently been confirmed experimentally. Here, we investigated two key factors for controlling nonlinear interactions of graphene with an intense terahertz field. The induced transparencies of graphene can be controlled effectively by engineering meta-atoms and/or changing the number of charge carriers through electrical gating. Additionally, nonlinear phase changes of the transmitted terahertz field can be observed by introducing the resonances of the meta-atoms. PMID:28216677

  13. Q-factor analysis of nonlinear impairments in ultrahigh-speed Nyquist pulse transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-12-28

    We present detailed analytical and numerical results of the dispersion and nonlinear tolerances of RZ and Nyquist optical pulses in ultrahigh-speed TDM transmissions. From a Q-map analysis, i.e. by numerically calculating the Q-factor distribution as a function of transmission power and fiber dispersion, we found that Nyquist TDM transmission has a substantially larger Q margin as regards both dispersion and optical power thanks to ISI-free overlapped TDM. We also show that the optimum transmission power for Nyquist pulses is 2 dB lower than for RZ pulses. An analytical model is provided to explain the overlap-induced nonlinear impairments in Nyquist TDM transmission in a high power regime, which agrees well with numerical results.

  14. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  15. Nonlinear elastic behavior of phantom materials for elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, Theo Z; Madsen, Ernest L; Frank, Gary R; Hall, Timothy J [Medical Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Room 1005, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Adilton O Carneiro, Antonio, E-mail: tjhall@wisc.ed [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-05-07

    The development of phantom materials for elasticity imaging is reported in this paper. These materials were specifically designed to provide nonlinear stress/strain relationship that can be controlled independently of the small strain shear modulus of the material. The materials are mixtures of agar and gelatin gels. Oil droplet dispersions in these materials provide further control of the small strain shear modulus and the nonlinear parameter of the material. Since these materials are mostly water, they are assumed to be incompressible under typical experimental conditions in elasticity imaging. The Veronda-Westman model for strain energy density provided a good fit to all materials used in this study. Materials with a constant gelatin concentration (3.0% dry weight) but varying agar concentration (0.6-2.8% dry weight) demonstrated the same power law relationship between elastic modulus and agar concentration found for pure agar (1.89 {+-} 0.02), consistent with percolation theory, and provided a consistent nonlinearity parameter of 4.5 {+-} 0.3. The insights provided by this study will form the basis for stable elastography phantoms with stiffness and nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the background that differ from those in the target.

  16. A Strategy for the Development of Macromolecular Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MACROMOLECULAR NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS Braja K. Mandala , Jan-Chan...materials is significantly different from the conventional inorganic NLO materials. The extent of second order (quadratic) NLO effect such as second...is a criterion of paramount importance for a large second order electro-optic effect in organic materials 8 ,9 . The most common approach to obtain

  17. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF NONUNIFORM TRANSMISSION LINES WITH NONLINEAR TERMINAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A semi-analytical method in time domain is presented for analysis of the transient response of nonuniform transmission lines. In this method, the telegraph equations in time domain is differenced in space domain first, and is transformed into a set of first-order differential equations of voltage and current with respect to time. By integrating these differential equations with respect to time, and precise computation, the solution of these differential equations can be obtained. This method can solve the transient response of various kinds of transmission lines with arbitrary terminal networks. Particularly, it can analyze the nonuniform lines with initial conditions, for which there is no existing effective method to analyze the time response so far. The results obtained with this method are stable and accurate. Two examples are given to illustrate the application of this method.

  18. Design of advanced materials for linear and nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Niels Morten Marslev

    The primary catalyst of this PhD project has been an ambition to design advanced materials and structural systems including, and possibly even exploiting, nonlinear phenomena such as nonlinear modal interaction leading to energy conversion between modes. An important prerequisite for efficient...... design is accurate and somewhat simple analysis tools, as well as a fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena responsible for the relevant effects. The emphasis of this work lies primarily in the investigation of various advanced material models, developing the necessary analytical tools...... to reveal the fundamental dynamic characteristics and thus the relevant design parameters.The thesis is built around the characterization of two one-dimensional, periodic material systems. The first is a nonlinear mass-spring chain with periodically varying material properties, representing a simple...

  19. Geometric and material nonlinear analysis of tensegrity structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoang Chi Tran; Jaehong Lee

    2011-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for the large deflection in elastic analysis of tensegrity structures including both geometric and material nonlinearities.The geometric nonlinearity is considered based on both total Lagrangian and updated Lagrangian formulations,while the material nonlinearity is treated through elastoplastic stressstrain relationship.The nonlinear equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative scheme in conjunction with the modified Newton-Raphson method.A computer program is developed to predict the mechanical responses of tensegrity systems under tensile,compressive and flexural loadings.Numerical results obtained are compared with those reported in the literature to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed program.The flexural behavior of the double layer quadruplex tensegrity grid is sufficiently good for lightweight large-span structural applications.On the other hand,its bending strength capacity is not sensitive to the self-stress level.

  20. Application of Novel Nonlinear Optical Materials to Optical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha P.

    1999-01-01

    We describe wave mixing and interactions in nonlinear photorefractive polymers and disodium flourescein. Higher diffracted orders yielding forward phase conjugation can be generated in a two-wave mixing geometry in photorefractive polymers, and this higher order can be used for image edge enhancement and correlation. Four-wave mixing and phase conjugation is studied using nonlinear disodium floureschein, and the nature and properties of gratings written in this material are investigated.

  1. Transmission, reflection and localization of waves in one-dimensional amplifying media with nonlinear gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Phi [Central University of Construction, Tuy Hoa (Viet Nam); Kim, Ki Hong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We study theoretically the influence of nonlinear gain effects on the transmission and the Anderson localization of waves in both uniform and random one-dimensional amplifying media by using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In uniform amplifying media with nonlinear gain, we find that the strong oscillatory behavior of the transmittance and the reflectance for odd and even values of the sample length disappears for large nonlinearities. The exponential decay rate of the transmittance in the asymptotic limit is found to be independent of nonlinear gain. In random amplifying media, we find that the maximum values of the disorder-averaged logarithmic transmittance and reflectance depend nonmonotonically on the strength of nonlinear gain. We also find that the localization length is independent of nonlinear gain. In other words, the Anderson localization is neither enhanced nor weakened due to nonlinear gain. In both the uniform and the random cases, the crossover length, which is the critical length for the amplification to be efficient, is strongly reduced by the nonlinear nature of the gain.

  2. Dielectric and Elastic Characterization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Giordano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the dielectric and elastic characterization of composite materials constituted by dispersions of nonlinear inclusions embedded in a linear matrix. The dielectric theory deals with pseudo-oriented particles shaped as ellipsoids of revolution: it means that we are dealing with mixtures of inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio and arbitrary non-random orientational distributions. The analysis ranges from parallel spheroidal inclusions to completely random oriented inclusions. Each ellipsoidal inclusion is made of an isotropic dielectric material described by means of the so-called Kerr nonlinear relation. On the other hand, the nonlinear elastic characterization takes into consideration a dispersion of nonlinear (spherical or cylindrical inhomogeneities. Both phases are considered isotropic (actually it means polycrystalline or amorphous solids. Under the simplifying hypotheses of small deformation for the material body and of small volume fraction of the embedded phase, we describe a theory for obtaining the linear and nonlinear elastic properties (bulk and shear moduli and Landau coefficients of the overall material.

  3. Nonlinear mechanics of soft fibrous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of the fundamental theories, established models and ongoing research related to the modeling of these materials. Two approaches are conventionally used to develop constitutive relations for highly deformable fibrous materials. According to the phenomenological approach, a strain energy density function can be defined in terms of strain invariants. The other approach is based on kinetic theories, which treats a fibrous material as a randomly oriented inter-tangled network of long molecular chains bridged by permanent and temporary junctions. At the micro-level, these are associated with chemical crosslinks and active entanglements, respectively. The papers include carefully crafted overviews of the fundamental formulation of the three-dimensional theory from several points of view, and address their equivalences and differences. Also included are solutions to boundary-value problems which are amenable to experimental verification. A further aspect is the elasticity...

  4. Transmission electron microscopy and diffractometry of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Fultz, Brent

    2001-01-01

    This book teaches graduate students the concepts of trans- mission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) that are important for the characterization of materi- als. It emphasizes themes common to both techniques, such as scattering from atoms and the formation and analysis of dif- fraction patterns. It also describes unique aspects of each technique, especially imaging and spectroscopy in the TEM. The textbook thoroughly develops both introductory and ad- vanced-level material, using over 400 accompanying illustra- tions. Problems are provided at the end of each chapter to reinforce key concepts. Simple citatioins of rules are avoi- ded as much as possible, and both practical and theoretical issues are explained in detail. The book can be used as both an introductory and advanced-level graduate text since sec- tions/chapters are sorted according to difficulty and grou- ped for use in quarter and semester courses on TEM and XRD.

  5. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  6. Experimental demonstration of non-reciprocal transmission in a nonlinear photonic-crystal Fano structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Chen, Yaohui; Hu, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    We suggest and experimentally demonstrate a photonic-crystal structure with more than 30 dB difference between forward and backward transmission levels. The non-reciprocity relies on the combination of ultrafast carrier nonlinearities and spatial symmetry breaking in a Fano structure employing...

  7. Modulational Instability in a Pair of Non-identical Coupled Nonlinear Electrical Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Tala-Tebue; Aurelien Kenfack-Jiotsa; Marius Hervé Tatchou-Ntemfack; Timoléon Crépin Kofané

    2013-01-01

    In this work,we investigate the dynamics of modulated waves non-identical coupled nonlinear transmission lines.Traditional methods for avoiding mode mixing in identical coupled nonlinear electrical lines consist of adding the same number of linear inductors in each branch.Adding linear inductors in a single line leads to asymmetric coupled nonlinear electrical transmission lines which propagate the signal and the mode mixing.On one hand,the difference between the two lines induced the fission for only one mode of propagation.This fission is influenced by the amplitude of the signal and the amount of the input energy as well; it also narrows the width of the input pulse soliton,leading to a possible increasing of the bit rate.On the other hand,the dissymmetry of the two lines converts the network into a good amplifier for the w_ mode which corresponds to the regime admitting low frequencies.

  8. Materials for Nonlinear Optics Chemical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    introduced into LB muldilayers built from 1/1 mixtures with an amphiphilic cyclodextrin . The polyenic chains are again perpendicular to the substrate...molecules in inorganic matrices. The encapsulated molecules can be used to induce new optical properties in the material or to probe the changes at the...glass are discussed here. First, laser dyes including rhodamines and coumarins are encapsulated . The resulting doped gel-glasses exhibit optical gain

  9. Reducing force transmissibility in multiple degrees of freedom structures through anti-symmetric nonlinear viscous damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.-K.Peng; Z.-Q.Lang; G.Meng; S.A.Billings

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,the Volterra series theory is adopted to theoretically investigate the force transmissibility of multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF) structures,in which an isolator with nonlinear anti-symmetric viscous damping is assembled.The results reveal that the anti-symmetric nonlinear viscous damping can significantly reduce the force transmissibility over all resonance regions for MDOF structures with little effect on the transmissibility over non-resonant and isolation regions.The results indicate that the vibration isolators with an anti-symmetric damping characteristic have great potential to solve the dilemma occurring in the design of linear viscously damped vibration isolators where an increase of the damping level reduces the force transmissibility over resonant frequencies but increases the transmissibility over non-resonant frequency regions.This work is an extension of a previous study in which MDOF structures installed on the mount through an isolator with cubic nonlinear damping are considered.The theoretical analysis results are also verified by simulation studies.

  10. A novel class of nonlinear optical materials based on host-guest composites: zeolites as inorganic crystalline hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sung; Pham, Tung Cao Thanh; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2012-05-16

    The demand for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with exceptional NLO properties is very large, and hence the search for such materials should be continued not only to enhance their functions in current applications but also to help expedite the materialization of photonics in which photons instead of electrons are used for signal processing, transmission, and storage. This article summarizes the preparation, characteristics, and the future perspectives of novel second order nonlinear optical (2NLO) materials prepared by orientation-controlled incorporation of 2NLO molecules into zeolite channels and third order nonlinear optical (3NLO) materials prepared by compartmentalization of very small (<1.3 nm) PbS QDs within zeolite nanopores under different environments, and the novel chemistry newly unveiled during the preparation of novel zeolite based NLO materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  11. Enhanced nonlinear imaging through scattering media using transmission matrix based wavefront shaping

    CERN Document Server

    de Aguiar, Hilton B; Brasselet, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progresses in wavefront control through or inside complex scattering media, several limitations prevent reaching practical feasibility for nonlinear imaging in biological tissues. While the optimization of nonlinear signals might suffer from low signal to noise conditions and from possible artifacts at large penetration depths, it has nevertheless been largely used in the multiple scattering regime since it provides a guide star mechanism as well as an intrinsic compensation for spatiotemporal distortions. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of Transmission Matrix (TM) based approaches under broadband illumination conditions, to perform nonlinear imaging. Using ultrashort pulse illumination with spectral bandwidth comparable but still lower than the spectral width of the scattering medium, we show strong nonlinear enhancements of several orders of magnitude, through thicknesses of a few transport mean free paths, which corresponds to millimeters in biological tissues. Linear TM refocusing ...

  12. Capacity estimates for optical transmission based on the nonlinear Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanko, Stanislav A.; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-09-01

    What is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted error-free in fibre-optic communication systems? For linear channels, this was established in classic works of Nyquist and Shannon. However, despite the immense practical importance of fibre-optic communications providing for >99% of global data traffic, the channel capacity of optical links remains unknown due to the complexity introduced by fibre nonlinearity. Recently, there has been a flurry of studies examining an expected cap that nonlinearity puts on the information-carrying capacity of fibre-optic systems. Mastering the nonlinear channels requires paradigm shift from current modulation, coding and transmission techniques originally developed for linear communication systems. Here we demonstrate that using the integrability of the master model and the nonlinear Fourier transform, the lower bound on the capacity per symbol can be estimated as 10.7 bits per symbol with 500 GHz bandwidth over 2,000 km.

  13. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  14. Modeling of Z-scan characteristics for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqi; Zang, Weiping; Schülzgen, Axel; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jianguo; Moloney, Jerome V; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2009-12-01

    We propose a Z-scan theory for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials. The Z-scan characteristics for this material are analyzed. Results show that the Z-scan curves for photonic bandgap materials with nonlinear refraction are similar to those of uniform materials exhibiting both nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption simultaneously. Effects of nonlinear absorption on reflected and transmitted Z-scan results are also discussed.

  15. L1 adaptive control of uncertain gear transmission servo systems with deadzone nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zongyu; Li, Xiao; Shi, Zhiguang

    2015-09-01

    This paper deals with the adaptive control problem of Gear Transmission Servo (GTS) systems in the presence of unknown deadzone nonlinearity and viscous friction. A global differential homeomorphism based on a novel differentiable deadzone model is proposed first. Since there exist both matched and unmatched state-dependent unknown nonlinearities, a full-state feedback L1 adaptive controller is constructed to achieve uniformly bounded transient response in addition to steady-state performance. Finally, simulation results are included to show the elimination of limit cycles, in addition to demonstrating the main results in this paper.

  16. Analysis of Bifurcation and Nonlinear Control for Chaos in Gear Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jingyue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the bifurcation characteristics and control chaotic vibration of the gear transmission system. The complex dynamics characters of gear transmission system are studied. The dynamical equation and the state equation of gear transmission system are established according to Newton's rule. The route to chaos of the system is studied by the bifurcation diagram, phase portrait, time course diagram and Poincaré map. A method of controlling chaos by nonlinear feedback controller is developed to guide chaotic motions towards regular motions. Numerical simulation shows that with the increase of meshing stiffness, gear transmission system will be from the periodic motion to chaotic motion by doubling bifurcation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the strategy to get rid of chaos by stabilizing the related unstable periodic orbit.

  17. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    The high voltage diodes D5 to D10 are used to protect the HV switch against negative back swing voltage, while D4 diode for reverse current ...AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0001 STUDY OF HV DIELECTRICS FOR HIGH FREQUENCY OPERATION IN LINEAR & NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION LINES & SIMULATION & DEVELOPMENT...AFOSR Final Performance Report Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear and Nonlinear Transmission Lines and Simulation

  18. Enhanced nonlinear refractive index in epsilon-near-zero materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspani, L; Clerici, M; Ferrera, M; Roger, T; Di Falco, A; Kim, J; Kinsey, N; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A; Faccio, D

    2016-01-01

    New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a six-fold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index ($n_2$) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics.

  19. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L

    2016-04-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast.

  20. Mitigation of nonlinear transmission effects for OFDM 16-QAM optical signal using adaptive modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidin, Anton S; Sidelnikov, Oleg S; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-12-26

    The impact of the fiber Kerr effect on error statistics in the nonlinear (high power) transmission of the OFDM 16-QAM signal over a 2000 km EDFA-based link is examined. We observed and quantified the difference in the error statistics for constellation points located at three power-defined rings. Theoretical analysis of a trade-off between redundancy and error rate reduction using probabilistic coding of three constellation power rings decreasing the symbol-error rate of OFDM 16-QAM signal is presented. Based on this analysis, we propose to mitigate the nonlinear impairments using the adaptive modulation technique applied to the OFDM 16-QAM signal. We demonstrate through numerical modelling the system performance improvement by the adaptive modulation for the large number of OFDM subcarriers (more than 100). We also show that a similar technique can be applied to single carrier transmission.

  1. Nonlinearity-induced PT-symmetry without material gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Parity-time symmetry has raised a great deal of attention in optics in recent years, yet its application has been so far hindered by the stringent requirements on coherent gain balanced with loss. In this paper, we show that the conditions to enable parity and time symmetry can be simultaneously satisfied for a pair of modes with mixed frequencies interacting in a nonlinear medium, without requiring the presence of material gain. First, we consider a guided wave structure with second order nonlinearity and we derive the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian that governs the interaction of two waves of mixed frequencies when accompanied by a high intensity pump beam at the sum frequency. We also extend the results to an array of coupled nonlinear waveguide channels. It is shown that the evolution dynamics of the low-frequency waves is associated with a periodic PT-symmetric lattice while the phase of the pump beams can be utilized as a control parameter to modify the gain and loss distribution, thus realizing different PT lattices by design. Our results suggest that nonlinear wave mixing processes can form a rich platform to realize PT-symmetric Hamiltonians of arbitrary dimensions in optical systems, without requiring material gain.

  2. The Influence of the Balance of Dispersion and Nonlinearity on the Transmission Quality in Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of the balance of dispersion and nonlinearity on the quality of a transmission system with super Gauss pulse input by altering the input power and adding a section of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The same mechanisms are applied to a 2-channel wave divide multiplex system(WDM) as well. DCF is proved to be a good solution in both situations.

  3. Measurement of nonlinear coefficient of optical fiber based on small chirped soliton transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We measure the waveform and phase curves of short optical pulses before and after transmission over different lengths of fibers by use of the pulse analyzer with the frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG),and numerically simulate pulse evolution under the experimental conditions.The nonlinear coefficient of the fiber is given by comparing the experimental results with the numerical ones.Difference between the experiment and numerical simulation is analyzed.

  4. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Mukaide, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Sievers, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice.

  5. Light Reflection and Transmission in Structured Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Goloborodko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the optical properties of composite material which consist of dielectric plate with a 2D array of silver nanoparticles. The possibility of describing the reflection and transmission of coherent electromagnetic radiation in a dielectric slab with an array of metal rods by effective medium model was analyzed. The coefficients of reflection and transmission depending on rods filling factor for such medium were calculated. The results of calculations by nonlocal homogenization model were compared with the data of the exact T-matrix method calculations.

  6. NONLINEAR BUCKLING CHARACTERISTIC OF GRADED MULTIWEB STRUCTURE OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; ZHANG Zhi-min

    2005-01-01

    The graded multiweb structure of heterogeneous anisotropic materials, which makes full use of the continuous, gradual and changing physical mechanical performance of material properties, has a widespread application in aeroplane aerofoil structure and automobile lightweight structure. On the basis of laminate buckling theory,the equivalent rigidity method is adopted to establish the corresponding constitutive relation and the non-linear buckling governing equation for the graded multiweb structure. In finding the solution, the critical load of buckling under different complicated boundary conditions together with combined loads were obtained and testification of the experimental analysis shows that the calculation results can satisfy the requirements of engineering design in a satisfactory way. Results obtained from the research say that: graded materials can reduce the concentrated stress on the interface in an effective way and weaken the effect of initial defect in materials and thereby improve the strength and toughness of materials.

  7. Nonlinear phase noise mitigation in phase-sensitive amplified transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Samuel L I; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A

    2015-05-04

    We investigate the impact of in-line amplifier noise in transmission systems amplified by two-mode phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) and present the first experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) mitigation in a modulation format independent PSA-amplified transmission system. The NLPN mitigation capability is attributed to the correlated noise on the signal and idler waves at the input of the transmission span. We study a single-span system with noise loading in the transmitter but the results are expected to be applicable also in multi-span systems. The experimental investigation is supported by numerical simulations showing excellent agreement with the experiments. In addition to demonstrating NLPN mitigation we also present a record high sensitivity receiver, enabled by low-noise PSA-amplification, requiring only 4.1 photons per bit to obtain a bit error ratio (BER) of 1 × 10(-3) with 10 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) data.

  8. Nonlinear Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis of Polymer Foam Cored Sandwich Structures including Geometrical and Material Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Taher, Siavash Talebi;

    In this paper, polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads will be analysed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS® incorporating both material and geometrical nonlinearity. Large displacements and rotations ar...... are included in the analysis. The full nonlinear stress-strain curves up to failure will be considered for the polymer foams at different temperatures to study the effect of material nonlinearity in detail....

  9. Intrinsic optical bistability between left-handed material and nonlinear optical materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Hong-Yan; Jiang Yong-Yuan; Sun Xiu-Dong; Guo Ru-Hai; Zhao Yi-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the interface between a left-handed material and a conventional nonlinear material were investigated theoretically and numerically. We found a new phenomenon-optical bistability of the interface.It was shown that the incident intensity, incident angle and permeability ratio between the left-handed and the nonlinear materials could dramatically affect the optical bistable behaviour. We also compared the bistable behaviours of different electromagnetic modes. The results indicated that the TE mode was prior to the TM mode to obtain optical bistability for the same parameter.

  10. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  11. 7 CFR 1726.76 - Substation and transmission line materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line materials and... Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.76 Substation and transmission line materials and equipment. (a... $500,000 and for all materials. (b) Standards and specifications. Substation and transmission line...

  12. Characterizing Dielectric Materials using Monostatic Transmission- and Reflection-Ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowski, Jan; Rolfes, Ilona

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of dielectric materials at microwave frequencies can be done by various measurement principles. Free space methods are a commonly used approach if the material under test (MUT) has to be characterized in-situ or in a non-destructive manner. Since the transmission and reflection parameters of a finite sized dielectric slab typically depend on its thickness, accurate knowledge about this parameter is of high importance. The ellipsometric approach presented in this paper eliminates the thickness dependence and thus allows to reduce a major source of error. This is achieved by performing four measurements. These measure the transmission and reflection factors of the MUT in both polarizations at an incident angle of 45°. The high stability of the measurement allows a simple monostatic setup utilizing a single antenna. The measurements in this paper are performed using Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC) blocks in the frequency range from 22 GHz to 26 GHz.

  13. In situ and operando transmission electron microscopy of catalytic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crozier, Peter A.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic nanomaterials play a major role in chemical conversions and energy transformations. Understanding how materials control and regulate surface reactions is a major objective for fundamental research on heterogeneous catalysts. In situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM......) is a powerful technique for revealing the atomic structures of materials at elevated temperatures in the presence of reactive gases. This approach can allow the structure-reactivity relations underlying catalyst functionality to be investigated. Thus far, ETEM has been limited by the absence of in situ...

  14. Computation of the effective nonlinear mechanical response of lattice materials considering geometrical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNady, Khaled; Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is presently developed in the framework of geometrical nonlinearities to derive the large strains effective elastic response of network materials viewed as repetitive beam networks. This works extends the small strains homogenization method developed with special emphasis on textile structures in Goda et al. (J Mech Phys Solids 61(12):2537-2565, 2013). A systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of these structures in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the chosen equivalent continuum. Internal scale effects of the initially discrete structure are captured by the consideration of a micropolar effective continuum model. Applications to the large strain response of 3D hexagonal lattices and dry textiles exemplify the powerfulness of the proposed method. The effective mechanical responses obtained for different loadings are validated by FE simulations performed over a representative unit cell.

  15. Robust transmission stabilization and dynamic switching in broadband hybrid waveguide systems with nonlinear gain and loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quan M.; Peleg, Avner; Tran, Thinh P.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a method for transmission stabilization and robust dynamic switching for colliding optical soliton sequences in broadband waveguide systems with nonlinear gain and loss. The method is based on employing hybrid waveguides, consisting of spans with linear gain and cubic loss, and spans with linear loss, cubic gain, and quintic loss. We show that the amplitude dynamics is described by a hybrid Lotka-Volterra (LV) model, and use the model to determine the physical parameter values required for enhanced transmission stabilization and switching. Numerical simulations with coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations confirm the predictions of the LV model, and show complete suppression of radiative instability and pulse distortion. This enables stable transmission over distances larger by an order of magnitude compared with uniform waveguides with linear gain and cubic loss. Moreover, multiple on-off and off-on dynamic switching events are demonstrated over a wide range of soliton amplitudes, showing the superiority of hybrid waveguides compared with static switching in uniform waveguides.

  16. Nonlinear phononics and structural control of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankowsky, Roman

    2016-01-20

    Mid-infrared light pulses can be used to resonantly excite infrared-active vibrational modes for the phase control of strongly correlated materials on subpicosecond timescales. As the energy is transferred directly into atomic motions, dissipation into the electronic system is reduced, allowing for the emergence of unusual low energy collective properties. Light-induced superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions and melting of magnetic order demonstrate the potential of this method. An understanding of the mechanism, by which these transitions are driven, is however missing. The aim of this work is to uncover this process by investigating the nonlinear lattice dynamics induced by the excitation and to elucidate their contribution to the modulation of collective properties of strongly correlated materials. The first signature of nonlinear lattice dynamics was reported in the observation of coherent phonon oscillations, resonant with the excitation of an infrared-active phonon mode in a manganite. This nonlinear phononic coupling can be described within a model, which predicts not only oscillatory coherent phonons dynamics but also directional atomic displacements along the coupled modes on average, which could cause the previously observed transitions. We verified this directional response and quantified the anharmonic coupling constant by tracing the atomic motions in a time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction experiment with sub-picometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. In a subsequent study, we investigated the role of nonlinear lattice dynamics in the emergence of superconductivity far above the equilibrium transition temperature, an intriguing effect found to follow lattice excitation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the anharmonic coupling constants with time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments, we identified a structural rearrangement, which appears and decays with the same temporal

  17. EVALUATION OF NONLINEARITY EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE OF DVB-H TRANSMISSION LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. SARWAR MORSHED

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Handheld devices of all kind have gained remarkable popularity in recent years. Choosing receiving end components for these handheld devices are critical. For example, if poorly suited and inexpensive amplifiers are chosen, then they tend to deteriorate signals. On the other hand, cheaper components are feasible for consumer product. This paper evaluates nonlinearity effects on transmission link serving Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds (DVB-H based on the results of software simulator. The system is tested in various receiving scenarios with presence of noise and received signal power varying from sensitivity level up to saturated nonlinear region. Neighboring DVB-H channel and close-by GSM-uplink are considered as distortion sources. The simulation results also analyze the behavior of the system in the presence of interfering signals with variouspower levels.

  18. Simulation of "Tsunami Waves" Propagating along Non-Linear Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares three methods for computer simulation oftransients on transmission lines with losses and nonlinear behavior,namely distributed LC model, FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domainmethod, and a new and very effective Method of Slices. The losses areresponsible for attenuation and shape changes of the waves as functionof time and distance from the source. Special behavior of the line dueto voltage-dependent capacitance of the line is considered in detail.The non-linear nature of the line causes that the higher is the voltagethe higher is the velocity of propagation. Then, the waves tend to tiltover so that their top moves faster than their base. As a result"tsunami waves" are created on the line. Fundamental algorithms arepresented in Matlab language. Several typical situations are solved asan illustration of individual methods.

  19. Optical nonlinearities and enhanced light transmission in soft-matter systems with tunable polarizabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Weining; Fardad, Shima; Zhang, Ze; Prakash, Jai; Lau, Michael; Zhang, Peng; Heinrich, Matthias; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-11-22

    We demonstrate a new class of synthetic colloidal suspensions capable of exhibiting negative polarizabilities, and observe for the first time robust propagation and enhanced transmission of self-trapped light over long distances that would have been otherwise impossible in conventional suspensions with positive polarizabilities. Such light penetration through the strong scattering environment is attributed to the interplay between optical forces and self-activated transparency effects while no thermal effect is involved. By judiciously mixing colloidal particles of both negative and positive polarizabilities, we show that the resulting nonlinear response of these systems can be fine-tuned. Our experimental observations are in agreement with theoretical analysis based on a thermodynamic model that takes into account particle-particle interactions. These results may open up new opportunities in developing soft-matter systems with engineered optical nonlinearities.

  20. Nonlinear and magneto-optical transmission studies on magnetic nanofluids of non-interacting metallic nickel nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reena Mary, A P; Anantharaman, M R [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022 (India); Suchand Sandeep, C S; Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore-560080 (India); Narayanan, T N; Moloney, Padraig; Ajayan, P M, E-mail: reji@rri.res.in, E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX-77005 (United States)

    2011-09-16

    Oxide free stable metallic nanofluids have the potential for various applications such as in thermal management and inkjet printing apart from being a candidate system for fundamental studies. A stable suspension of nickel nanoparticles of {approx} 5 nm size has been realized by a modified two-step synthesis route. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanoparticles are metallic and are phase pure. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties. The magneto-optical transmission properties of the nickel nanofluid (Ni-F) were investigated by linear optical dichroism measurements. The magnetic field dependent light transmission studies exhibited a polarization dependent optical absorption, known as optical dichroism, indicating that the nanoparticles suspended in the fluid are non-interacting and superparamagnetic in nature. The nonlinear optical limiting properties of Ni-F under high input optical fluence were then analyzed by an open aperture z-scan technique. The Ni-F exhibits a saturable absorption at moderate laser intensities while effective two-photon absorption is evident at higher intensities. The Ni-F appears to be a unique material for various optical devices such as field modulated gratings and optical switches which can be controlled by an external magnetic field.

  1. Effect of Initial Chirping and Pulse Shape on 10 Gb/s Optical Pulse Transmission in Birefringent Nonlinear Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical method to solve the problem related with theinteractive effect of dispersion (both chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion) and nonlinearity on optical pulse transmission is present. Evolutions of pulses with various initial chirping and shape at bit-rate of 10 Gb/s are simulated and compared. Gaussian pulse with appropriate prechirping is propitious for high bit-rate transmission.

  2. Nonlinear material behaviour of spider silk yields robust webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven W; Tarakanova, Anna; Pugno, Nicola M; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-02-01

    Natural materials are renowned for exquisite designs that optimize function, as illustrated by the elasticity of blood vessels, the toughness of bone and the protection offered by nacre. Particularly intriguing are spider silks, with studies having explored properties ranging from their protein sequence to the geometry of a web. This material system, highly adapted to meet a spider's many needs, has superior mechanical properties. In spite of much research into the molecular design underpinning the outstanding performance of silk fibres, and into the mechanical characteristics of web-like structures, it remains unknown how the mechanical characteristics of spider silk contribute to the integrity and performance of a spider web. Here we report web deformation experiments and simulations that identify the nonlinear response of silk threads to stress--involving softening at a yield point and substantial stiffening at large strain until failure--as being crucial to localize load-induced deformation and resulting in mechanically robust spider webs. Control simulations confirmed that a nonlinear stress response results in superior resistance to structural defects in the web compared to linear elastic or elastic-plastic (softening) material behaviour. We also show that under distributed loads, such as those exerted by wind, the stiff behaviour of silk under small deformation, before the yield point, is essential in maintaining the web's structural integrity. The superior performance of silk in webs is therefore not due merely to its exceptional ultimate strength and strain, but arises from the nonlinear response of silk threads to strain and their geometrical arrangement in a web.

  3. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.M. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J.A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  4. Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J D

    1994-02-20

    Results of thermal conductivity measurements are reported for several of the more recently developed nonlinear optical crystals. New or substantially revised values of thermal conductivity were obtained in six materials. Notable thermal conductivities measured were those for AgGaS(2) [0.014 W/(cm K) and 0.015 W/(cm K)], AgGaSe(2) [0.010 W/(cm K) and 0.011 W/(cm K)], beta barium borate [0.016 W/(cm K) and 0.012 W/(cm K)], and ZnGeP(2) [0.36 W/(cm K) and 0.35 W/(cm K)], with values quoted for directions respectively parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis for each material. These new data provide necessary input for the design of high-power optical frequency converters.

  5. Thioborates: potential nonlinear optical materials with rich structural chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu-Kun; Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Ling

    2017-03-27

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal materials with good performance are urgently needed. Various compounds have been explored to date. Metal chalcogenides and borates are common sources of potential NLO materials with desirable properties, particularly in the IR and UV regions, respectively. However, these two types of crystals have their specific drawbacks. Thioborates, as an emerging system, have unique advantages by combining the merits of borates and sulfides, i.e., the high laser damage thresholds and rich structural diversity of borates with large optical nonlinearity and the favorable transparency range of sulfides. However, only a limited number of thioborates are known. This paper summarizes the known thioborates according to structural motifs that range from zero-dimension to three-dimension, most of which are formed by sharing corners of the basic building units (BS3)(3-) and (BS4)(5-). Although nearly one-third of the known thioborates are noncentrosymmetric, most of their properties, especially their NLO behaviors, are unexplored. Further attempts and additional investigations are required with respect to design syntheses, property improvements and micro-mechanism studies.

  6. Growth and characterization of an organic nonlinear optical material: L-Histidine malonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, K.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2016-10-01

    L-Histidine malonate is one of the potential organic material for nonlinear optical applications. Single crystals of L-Histidine malonate were grown by the liquid diffusion method. The lattice parameter values were evaluated from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectral studies were employed to identify the different modes of vibrations of molecular groups in the crystal. Optical characterization and the percentage of optical transmission were recorded using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure was established by proton and carbon Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral studies. The thermal behavior of the material has been studied by Thermo gravimetric and Differential thermal plots. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency was found out from the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry.

  7. L-Cystine hydrochloride: A novel semi-organic nonlinear optical material for optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, K.; Valluvan, R.; Kirubavathi, K.; Kumararaman, S.

    2007-01-01

    A new semi-organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material L-cystine hydrochloride (LCHCl) was grown in large size measuring 19 × 5 × 3 mm 3 by slow solvent evaporation technique for the first time in literature. The cell parameter values were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic analysis was carried out on the grown sample to ascertain the fundamental functional groups. Thermal behavior of the grown LCHCl sample was analyzed by TG & DTA analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The optical transmission studies and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency studies justified the device quality of the grown crystal and the SHG study reveals that the grown sample has nearly 1.2 times higher efficiency than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), a well known NLO material.

  8. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aert, S; Chen, J H; Van Dyck, D

    2010-10-01

    A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has

  9. In situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation of nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alducin, Diego

    Due to the remarkable mechanical and electrical properties some nanostructured materials possess, it is important to be able to quantitatively characterize how these materials react under different types of stimulus. In situ transmission electron microscopy is a unique technique that allows the user to fully observe and record the crystallographic behavior of such materials undergoing a variety of tests. The crystallographic orientations silver nanowires were mapped in order to understand the structure and facets due to its geometry. Measuring the toughness and yield of the material led us to understand the anisotropic behavior of AgNWs. Depending on whether a load is applied to either a boundary between facets or on a facet will change the mechanical strength of the nanowire. By measuring the resistivity of the this material during deformation has also led us to understand that the intrinsic defects in the crystal structure of nanowires will change the way the material reacts to an electric potential. We have been also able to completely map the crystallographic orientations of very complex geometries of gold nanoparticles and characterize the weak forces involved in the manipulation if these nanoparticles. Finally, the elasticity of MoS2 was tested and found to be exponentially dependent upon the thickness of the nanosheets. However, the resistivity of this material does not seem to be affected by any type of deformation it is subjected to. The complete categorization of how materials interact with external stimulus while comparing the changes observed in its crystal structure is essential to understanding the underlying properties of nanostructured materials, which would not be possible without in situ transmisison electron microscopy experimentation.

  10. Analysis of speech-based speech transmission index methods with implications for nonlinear operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Ray L.; Greenberg, Julie E.

    2004-12-01

    The Speech Transmission Index (STI) is a physical metric that is well correlated with the intelligibility of speech degraded by additive noise and reverberation. The traditional STI uses modulated noise as a probe signal and is valid for assessing degradations that result from linear operations on the speech signal. Researchers have attempted to extend the STI to predict the intelligibility of nonlinearly processed speech by proposing variations that use speech as a probe signal. This work considers four previously proposed speech-based STI methods and four novel methods, studied under conditions of additive noise, reverberation, and two nonlinear operations (envelope thresholding and spectral subtraction). Analyzing intermediate metrics in the STI calculation reveals why some methods fail for nonlinear operations. Results indicate that none of the previously proposed methods is adequate for all of the conditions considered, while four proposed methods produce qualitatively reasonable results and warrant further study. The discussion considers the relevance of this work to predicting the intelligibility of cochlear-implant processed speech. .

  11. Transmission electron microscopy a textbook for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, David B

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopy has revolutionized our understanding the extraordinary intellectual demands required of the mi­ of materials by completing the processing-structure-prop­ croscopist in order to do the job properly: crystallography, erties links down to atomistic levels. It now is even possible diffraction, image contrast, inelastic scattering events, and to tailor the microstructure (and meso structure ) of materials spectroscopy. Remember, these used to be fields in them­ to achieve specific sets of properties; the extraordinary abili­ selves. Today, one has to understand the fundamentals ties of modem transmission electron microscopy-TEM­ of all of these areas before one can hope to tackle signifi­ instruments to provide almost all of the structural, phase, cant problems in materials science. TEM is a technique of and crystallographic data allow us to accomplish this feat. characterizing materials down to the atomic limits. It must Therefore, it is obvious that any curriculum in modem mate­ be use...

  12. Basic Studies of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Eye and Sensor Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-10

    1 BASIC STUDIES OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS FOR EYE AND SENSOR PROTECTION I. Abstract: We have studied the spectroscopy, kinetics and...study liquid or solid materials from CW to 100x10-15 seconds. Basic Studies of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Eye and Sensor Protection

  13. Interplanetary Radio Transmission Through Serial Ionospheric and Material Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, David [ORNL; Kennedy, Robert G [ORNL; Roy, Kenneth I [ORNL; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A usual first principle in planning radio astronomy observations from the earth is that monitoring must be carried out well above the ionospheric plasma cutoff frequency (~5 MHz). Before space probes existed, radio astronomy was almost entirely done above 6 MHz, and this value is considered a practical lower limit by most radio astronomers. Furthermore, daytime ionization (especially D-layer formation) places additional constraints on wave propagation, and waves of frequency below 10-20 MHz suffer significant attenuation. More careful calculations of wave propagation through the earth s ionosphere suggest that for certain conditions (primarily the presence of a magnetic field) there may be a transmission window well below this assumed limit. Indeed, for receiving extraterrestrial radiation below the ionospheric plasma cutoff frequency, a choice of VLF frequency appears optimal to minimize loss. The calculation, experimental validation, and conclusions are presented here. This work demonstrates the possibility of VLF transmission through the ionosphere and various subsequent material barriers. Implications include development of a new robust communications channel, communications with submerged or subterranean receivers / instruments on or offworld, and a new approach to SETI.

  14. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph.; Magallanes, L.; Müller, R.; Parodi, K.; Schlüter, T.; Voss, B.; Zibell, A.

    2017-02-01

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm2 with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X0. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF4 gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  15. Solution Growth of a Novel Nonlinear Optical Material: L-Histidine Tetrafluoroborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Choi, J.; Wang, W. S.; Bhat, K.; Lal, R. B.; Shields, Angela D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystals of L-Histidine tetrafluoroborate (L-HFB), a semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) material have been successfully grown by the temperature lowering and evaporation methods in our laboratory. Solubility curves of L-HFB have been determined in different solvents, such as water, ethanol and acetone. The solubility of L-HFB is very low in acetone, and ethanol, therefore, it is not feasible to grow L-HFB single crystals using these solvents. Good quality single crystals of a novel nonlinear optical material L-HFB have been grown from aqueous solution. Effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-HFB crystals were studied. The advantages and disadvantage of both the evaporation and the temperature lowering techniques are compared. The single crystals in size 20 x 20 x 10 cubic mm were grown with deionized water as solvent in two weeks with an approximate growth rate of 1.4mm/day. The transmission range for these crystals has been found to be from 250 nm to 1500 nm.

  16. A Suspended Stripline Frequency Tripler Using a Left-Handed Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Bok Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A suspended stripline frequency tripler using a left-handed nonlinear transmission line (LH NLTL is presented. The proposed tripler using the LH NLTL is composed of a series of varactor diodes, shunt inductances, and a high-pass filter implemented with suspended stripline (SSL. An ultrawideband microstrip-to-suspended stripline transition is also utilized. The fabricated LH NLTL provides the minimum insertion loss of 1.7 dB and the maximum insertion loss of 4.7 dB for a wide frequency band from 2.6 to 18 GHz. As a tripler, the measured minimum third harmonic conversion loss is 15.3 dB at an input frequency of 2.4 GHz and typically 17 dB from 2 to 3.1 GHz.

  17. Achievable information rates estimates in optically amplified transmission systems using nonlinearity compensation and probabilistic shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Daniel; Xu, Tianhua; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Paskov, Milen; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-01-01

    Achievable information rates (AIRs) of wideband optical communication systems using a ∼40  nm (∼5  THz) erbium-doped fiber amplifier and ∼100  nm (∼12.5  THz) distributed Raman amplification are estimated based on a first-order perturbation analysis. The AIRs of each individual channel have been evaluated for DP-64QAM, DP-256QAM, and DP-1024QAM modulation formats. The impact of full-field nonlinear compensation (FF-NLC) and probabilistically shaped constellations using a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution were studied and compared to electronic dispersion compensation. It has been found that a probabilistically shaped DP-1024QAM constellation, combined with FF-NLC, yields achievable information rates of ∼75  Tbit/s for the EDFA scheme and ∼223  Tbit/s for the Raman amplification scheme over a 2000 km standard single-mode fiber transmission.

  18. Characteristics of a four element gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line array high power microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Reale, D. V.; Krile, J. T.; Garcia, R. S.; Cravey, W. H.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a solid-state four element array gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave system is presented as well as a detailed description of its subsystems and general output capabilities. This frequency agile S-band source is easily adjusted from 2-4 GHz by way of a DC driven biasing magnetic field and is capable of generating electric fields of 7.8 kV/m at 10 m correlating to 4.2 MW of RF power with pulse repetition frequencies up to 1 kHz. Beam steering of the array at angles of ±16.7° is also demonstrated, and the associated general radiation pattern is detailed.

  19. On the prediction of stress relaxation from known creep of nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, D.; Cederbaum, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    1997-04-01

    A method to predict the nonlinear relaxation behavior from creep experiments of nonlinear viscoelastic materials is presented. It is shown that for given nonlinear creep properties, and creep compliance represented by the Prony series, the Schapery creep model can be transformed into a set of first order nonlinear equations. The solution of these equations enables the obtaining of the nonlinear stress relaxation curves. The strain-dependent constitutive equation can then be constructed for a given nonlinear viscoelastic model, as needed for engineering applications. A comparison example of the calculated stress relaxation curves, with test data for polyurethane demonstrates the very good accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. Efficient time-domain simulation of nonlinear, state-space, transmission-line models of the cochlea (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuokai; Elliott, Stephen J; Teal, Paul D; Lineton, Ben

    2015-06-01

    Nonlinear models of the cochlea are best implemented in the time domain, but their computational demands usually limit the duration of the simulations that can reasonably be performed. This letter presents a modified state space method and its application to an example nonlinear one-dimensional transmission-line cochlear model. The sparsity pattern of the individual matrices for this alternative formulation allows the use of significantly faster numerical algorithms. Combined with a more efficient implementation of the saturating nonlinearity, the computational speed of this modified state space method is more than 40 times faster than that of the original formulation.

  1. Influence of spiral framework on nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-Yang; Sun, Shi-Ling; Tian, Wen-Tao; Tian, Wei Quan; Xu, Hong-Liang; Su, Zhong-Min

    2014-04-04

    A series of spiral donor-π-acceptor frameworks (i.e. 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, and 5-5) based on 4-nitrophenyldiphenylamine with π-conjugated linear acenes (naphthalenes, anthracenes, tetracenes, and pentacenes) serving as the electron donor and nitro (NO2 ) groups serving as the electron acceptor were designed to investigate the relationships between the nonlinear optical (NLO) responses and the spirality in the frameworks. A parameter denoted as D was defined to describe the extent of the spiral framework. The D value reached its maximum if the number of NO2 groups was equal to the number of fused benzene rings contained in the linear acene. A longer 4-nitrophenyldiphenylamine chain led to a larger D value and, further, to a larger first hyperpolarizability. Different from traditional NLO materials with charge transfer occurring in the one-dimensional direction, charge transfer in 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, and 5-5 occur in three-dimensional directions due to the attractive spiral frameworks, and this is of great importance in the design of NLO materials. The origin of such an enhancement in the NLO properties of these spiral frameworks was explained with the aid of molecular orbital analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Non-linear Constitutive Model for the Oligocarbonate Polyurethane Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Pawlikowski

    2014-01-01

    The polyurethane,which was the subject of the constitutive research presented in the paper,was based on oligocarbonate diols Desmophen C2100 produced by Bayer@.The constitutive modelling was performed with a view to applying the material as the inlay of intervertebral disc prostheses.The polyurethane was assumed to be non-linearly viscohyperelastic,isotropic and incompressible.The constitutive equation was derived from the postulated strain energy function.The elastic and rheological constants were identified on the basis of experimental tests,i.e.relaxation tests and monotonic uniaxial tests at two different strain rates,i.e.λ =0.1 min-1 and λ =1.0 min-1.The stiffness tensor was derived and introduced to Abaqus@finite element (FE) software in order to numerically validate the constitutive model.The results of the constants identification and numerical implementation show that the derived constitutive equation is fully adequate to model stress-strain behavior of the polyurethane material.

  3. Nonlinearities tolerant modulation format enabled Tb/s superchannel transmission over 420 km of unrepeated Raman amplified link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Syed Muhammad; Goroshko, Kseniia; Louchet, Hadrien; Koltchanov, Igor; Richter, André

    2017-07-01

    In this work we investigate different nonlinearities compensation and mitigation techniques for an unrepeated Raman-amplified link over 420 km of ultra-low loss (ULL) optical fiber. For such long links (over 400 km) fiber nonlinearities become very significant as high forward pump power is needed to ensure sufficient optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) to acquire a bit-error-rate (BER) not exceeding the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold. Such nonlinearities will significantly limit the performance. Through numerical simulations, we show successful net 200 Gb/s single carrier and 1 Tb/s superchannel transmission using PM-QPSK and symbol-rate-optimization (SRO). First we implement single carrier 200 G transmission either using 28 Gbaud PM-16QAM or 56 Gbaud PM-QPSK. Nonlinearities are compensated by either using digital-back-propagation (DBP) or phase-conjugated twin waves (PCTWs). We compare the performance of DBP and PCTWs based single carrier 28 Gbaud PM-16QAM, at the same transmission distance and capacity, with single carrier PM-QPSK and find that PM-QPSK does not require any nonlinearity compensation to give better performance than 28 Gbaud PM-16QAM. Following this result, we show a successful unrepeated transmission of net 1 Tb/s PM-QPSK Nyquist-spaced superchannel with an intra-superchannel net spectral efficiency (SE) of ∼3.6 b/s/Hz, over 420 km of Raman amplified ULL fiber without using any nonlinearity compensation. To improve the performance of this superchannel we implement nonlinearity mitigation scheme based on SRO. We investigate 5 × 56 Gbaud, 10 × 28 Gbaud, 20 × 14 Gbaud and 40 × 7 Gbaud PM-QPSK channels and found that the best performance is shown by 20 × 14 Gbaud superchannel. For PM-16QAM, successful transmission is only possible either using DBP or PCTWs based transmission link. DBP has a very high computational complexity whereas PCTWs halves the overall link spectral efficiency. Even then both schemes do not outperform PM-QPSK for

  4. Research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of nonlinear optical materials based on the effect of second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Xuan; Wei, Yong; Huang, Cheng-Hui; Zhuang, Feng-Jiang; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the authors report a research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of optical materials in visible and infrared band. Based on the second order nonlinear optic principle and the photoelectric signal detection technology, the authors have proposed a new testing scheme in which a infrared OPO laser and a method for separating the beams arising from frequency matching and the light produced by other optical effects were used. The OPO laser is adopted as light source to avoid the error of measurement caused by absorption because the double frequency signal of the material is in the transmittance band Our research work includes testing system composition, operational principle and experimental method. The experimental results of KTP, KDP, AGS tested by this method were presented. In the experiment several new infrared non-linear materials were found. This method possesses the merits of good stability and reliability, high sensitivity, simple operation and good reproducibility, which can effectively make qualitative and semi-quantitative test for optical material's nonlinear optical properties from visible to infrared. This work provides an important test -method for the research on second order nonlinear optical materials in visible, infrared and ultraviolet bands.

  5. Stress transmission and incipient yield flow in dense granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2010-05-01

    Jammed granular matter transmits stresses non-uniformly like no conventional solid, especially when it is on the verge of failure. Jamming is caused by self-organization of granular matter under external loads, often giving rise to networks of force chains that support the loads non-uniformly. An ongoing debate in the literature concerns the correct way to model the static stress field in such media: good old elasticity theory or newcomer isostaticity theory. The two differ significantly and, in particular in 2D, isostaticity theory leads naturally to force chain solutions. More recently, it has been proposed that real granular materials are made of mixtures of regions, some behaving elastically and some isostatically. The theory to describe these systems has been named stato-elasticity. In this paper, I first present the rationale for stato-elasticity theory. An important step towards the construction of this theory is a good understanding of stress transmission in the regions of pure isostatic states. A brief description is given of recently derived general solutions for 2D isostatic regions with nonuniform structures, which go well beyond the over-simplistic picture of force chains. I then show how the static stress equations are related directly to incipient yield flow and derive the equations that govern yield and creep rheology of dense granular matter at the initial stages of failure. These equations are general and describe strains in granular materials of both rigid and compliant particles.

  6. Nonlinear wave mixing and susceptibility properties of negative refractive index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aref; Tataronis, John A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of second-order and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities and wave-mixing properties of negative refractive index materials. We show that the nonlinear susceptibilities for noncentrosymmetric and centrosymmetric media may be positive or negative and away from resonance depending on the frequency of interest relative to the resonant frequencies of the material. Manipulation of the signs of the nonlinear susceptibilities is important in the field of optics, particularly for solitons and compensation of nonlinear effects. We also show that three- and four-wave mixing can be naturally phase matched in the material.

  7. Imposing nonlinear constraints when estimating genetic and cultural transmission under assortative mating: a simulation study using Mx and BUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the

  8. Imposing Nonlinear Constraints When Estimating Genetic and Cultural Transmission Under Assortative Mating: A Simulation Study Using Mx and BUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the Bayesian-o

  9. Nonlinear impairment compensation for DFT-S OFDM signal transmission with directly modulated laser and direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Pengqi; Wang, Kaihui; Qin, Chaoyi; Yu, Jianjun

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) DFT-spread optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system utilizing a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML) and direct detection. For 20-Gbaud 16QAM-OFDM signal, with the aid of nonlinear equalization (NLE) algorithm, we respectively provide 6.2-dB and 5.2-dB receiver sensitivity improvement under the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3 for the back-to-back (BTB) case and after transmission over 10-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) case, related to only adopt post-equalization scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first time to use dynamic nonlinear equalizer (NLE) based on the summation of the square of the difference between samples in one IM/DD OFDM system with DML to mitigate nonlinear distortion.

  10. Composite structures for the enhancement of nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeves, A E; Birnboim, M H

    1988-12-01

    Calculations of the nonlinear optical behavior are developed for model composites consisting of nanospheres with a metallic core and a nonlinear shell suspended in a nonlinear medium. The concept for the enhancement of optical phase conjugation from all these nonlinear regions is that the optical field can be concentrated both inside and in the neighborhood of the metallic core, aided by surface-mediated plasmon resonance. Calculations for gold cores and aluminum cores indicate that phase-conjugate reflectivity enhancements of 10(8) may be possible.

  11. Inclusion Tuning of Nonlinear Optical Materials: KTP (Potassium Titanyl Phosphate) Isomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    o OFCE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-87-K-0457 V R&T Code 4134015-01 0) Technical. Report No. 23 "Inclusion Tuning of Nonlinear Optical Materials : KIP...bry block nuum.ber) see attached #11 Inclusion Tuning of Nonlinear Optical Materials : KTP Isomorphs * Q1 UISTRISUTION/AVAII..ASILITY 00 ABSTRACT 21

  12. Eye/Sensor Protection against Laser Irradiation Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    Recent developments in organic nonlinear optical materials for application to eye and sensor protection are reviewed. This compendium includes a...noteworthy organic third-order nonlinear optical materials is included as an appendix. Lasers are playing an important and increasing role in modern

  13. The Synthesis of Third—order Optical Nonlinear Organic Polyheterocyclic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianRongGAO; LuBaiCHENG; 等

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of the third-order nonlinear materials:bis (1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene) tetrathiafulvalene and bis (1,4-dialkoxylnaphthalene) tetrathiafulvalene has been achieved in four steps, starting from 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthaquinone. The materials exhibit larger third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ.

  14. Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.

  15. Thermally Stable Heterocyclic Imines as New Potential Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Volodymyr V.; Antipin, Mikhail Y.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Moore, Craig E.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a search for new thermostable acentric nonlinear optical crystalline materials, several heterocyclic imine derivatives were designed, with the general structure D-pi-A(D'). Introduction of a donor amino group (D') into the acceptor moiety was expected to bring H-bonds into their crystal structures, and so to elevate their melting points and assist in an acentric molecular packing. Six heterocycle-containing compounds of this type were prepared, single crystals were grown for five of them, and these crystals were characterized by X-ray analysis. A significant melting temperature elevation was found for all of the synthesized compounds. Three of the compounds were also found to crystallize in acentric space groups. One of the acentric compounds is built as a three-dimensional H-bonded molecular network. In the other two compounds, with very similar molecular structure, the molecules form one-dimensional H-bonded head-to-head associates (chains). These chains are parallel in two different crystallographic directions and form very unusual interpenetrating chain patterns in an acentric crystal. Two of the compounds crystallized with centrosymmetric molecular packing.

  16. Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor–acceptor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Pachter, Ruth [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Nguyen, Kiet A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au{sub 2}S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.

  17. Secondary Electron Emission Materials for Transmission Dynodes in Novel Photomultipliers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xia Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary electron emission materials are reviewed with the aim of providing guidelines for the future development of novel transmission dynodes. Materials with reflection secondary electron yield higher than three and transmission secondary electron yield higher than one are tabulated for easy reference. Generations of transmission dynodes are listed in the order of the invention time with a special focus on the most recent atomic-layer-deposition synthesized transmission dynodes. Based on the knowledge gained from the survey of secondary election emission materials with high secondary electron yield, an outlook of possible improvements upon the state-of-the-art transmission dynodes is provided.

  18. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR EFFECTIVE NONLINEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical methods have been reported to deal with nonlinear problems of composite materials but the accuracy is not so good. In the meantime, a lot of nonlinear problems are difficult to be managed by the theoretical methods. The present study aims to use the developed method, the random microstructure finite element method, to deal with these nonlinear problems. In this paper, the random microstructure finite element method is used to deal with all three kinds of nonlinear property problems of composite materials. The analyzed results suggest that the influences of the nonlinear phenomena on the effective properties of composite materials are significant and the random microstructure finite element method is an efficient tool to investigate the nonlinear problems.

  19. Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  20. Design and characterization of nonlinear functions for the transmission of a small signal with non-Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Seiya; Tadokoro, Yukihiro; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2013-12-01

    We design nonlinear functions for the transmission of a small signal with non-Gaussian noise and perform experiments to characterize their responses. Using statistical design theory [A. Ichiki and Y. Tadokoro, Phys. Rev. E 87, 012124 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012124], a static nonlinear function is estimated from the probability density function of the given noise in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the output. Using an electronic system that implements the optimized nonlinear function, we confirm the recovery of a small signal from a signal with non-Gaussian noise. In our experiment, the non-Gaussian noise is a mixture of Gaussian noises. A similar technique is also applied to the optimization of the threshold value of the function. We find that, for non-Gaussian noise, the response of the optimized nonlinear systems is better than that of the linear system.

  1. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torello, David [GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Qu, Jianmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); Jacobs, Laurence J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech and GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  2. Analysis of a Beam Made of Physical Nonlinear Material on Nonlinear Elastic Foundation under a Moving Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mardani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prismatic beam made of a behaviorally nonlinear material was analyzed under a concentrated load moving with a known velocity on a nonlinear elastic foundation with a reaction the vibration equation of motion was derived using Hamilton principle and Euler Lagrange equation. The amplitude of vibration, circular frequency, bending moment, stress and deflection of the beam can be calculated by the presented solution. Considering the response of the beam, in the sense of its resonance, it was found that there is no critical velocity when the behavior of the beam and foundation material is assumed to be physically nonlinear and there are finite values for the deflection, stress and bending moment of the beam when

  3. High-accuracy acoustic detection of nonclassical component of material nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Rivière, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Johnson, Paul A; Laugier, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    The aim is to assess the nonclassical component of material nonlinearity in several classes of materials with weak, intermediate, and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, an optimized nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples is described. The protocol is used to overcome the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic nonlinearity. External temperature fluctuation is identified as a primary source of measurement contamination. For instance, a variation of 0.1 °C produced a frequency variation of 0.01%, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to overcome environmental effects, the reference frequency measurements are repeated before each excitation level and then used to compute nonlinear parameters. Using this approach, relative resonant frequency shifts of 10(-5) can be measured, which is below the limit of 10(-4) often considered as the limit of NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Due to enhanced sensitivity resulting from the correction procedure applied in this work, nonclassical nonlinearity in materials that before have been assumed to only be classically nonlinear in past work (steel, brass, and aluminum) is reported.

  4. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchenko, I. V., E-mail: riv@lfe.hcei.tsc.ru; Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu. [Institute of high current electronics SB RAS, Akademichesky 2/3, 634055, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  5. Solid-State Radio Frequency Plasma Heating Using a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth; Ziemba, Timothy; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2015-11-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems, which typically require high power gyrotrons or klystrons, associated power supplies, waveguides and vacuum systems. The cost and complexity of these systems can potentially be reduced with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) based system. In the past, NLTLs have lacked a high voltage driver that could produce long duration high voltage pulses with fast rise times at high pulse repetition frequency. Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. (EHT) has created new high voltage nanosecond pulser, which combined with NLTL technology will produce a low-cost, fully solid-state architecture for the generation of the RF frequencies (0.5 to 10 GHz) and peak power levels (~ 10 MW) necessary for plasma heating and diagnostic systems for the validation platform experiments within the fusion science community. The proposed system does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. Design details and initial bench testing results for the new RF system will be presented. This work is supported under DOE Grant # DE-SC0013747.

  6. Imposing nonlinear constraints when estimating genetic and cultural transmission under assortative mating: a simulation study using Mx and BUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2009-01-01

    Modeling both genetic and cultural transmission in parent-offspring data in the presence of phenotypic assortment requires the imposition of nonlinear constraints. This article reports a simulation study that determined how well the structural equation modeling software package Mx and the Bayesian-oriented BUGS software package can handle such nonlinear constraints under various conditions. Results generally showed good and comparable results for Mx and BUGS, although BUGS was much slower than Mx. However, since BUGS uses Markov-chain Monte Carlo estimation it could be used for parent-offspring models with non-normal data and/or item-response theory models.

  7. Quantitative Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.

    Electronic and nanostructured materials have been investigated using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques. The first topic is the microstructure of Ga and Sb-doped ZnO. Ga-doped ZnO is a candidate transparent conducting oxide material. The microstructure of GZO thin films grown by MBE under different growth conditions and different substrates were examined using various electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The microstructure, prevalent defects, and polarity in these films strongly depend on the growth conditions and substrate. Sb-doped ZnO nanowires have been shown to be the first route to stable p-type ZnO. Using Z-contrast STEM, I have showed that an unusual microstructure of Sb-decorated head-to-head inversion domain boundaries and internal voids contain all the Sb in the nanowires and cause the p-type conduction. InGaN thin films and InGaN / GaN quantum wells (QW) for light emitting diodes are the second topic. Low-dose Z-contrast STEM, PACBED, and EDS on InGaN QW LED structures grown by MOCVD show no evidence for nanoscale composition variations, contradicting previous reports. In addition, a new extended defect in GaN and InGaN was discovered. The defect consists of a faceted pyramid-shaped void that produces a threading dislocation along the [0001] growth direction, and is likely caused by carbon contamination during growth. Non-rigid registration (NRR) and high-precision STEM of nanoparticles is the final topic. NRR is a new image processing technique that corrects distortions arising from the serial nature of STEM acquisition that previously limited the precision of locating atomic columns and counting the number of atoms in images. NRR was used to demonstrate sub-picometer precision in STEM images of single crystal Si and GaN, the best achieved in EM. NRR was used to measure the atomic surface structure of Pt nanoacatalysts and Au nanoparticles, which revealed new bond length variation phenomenon of surface atoms. In

  8. Finding the Next Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Material: NH4B4O6F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Bingbing; Yang, Zhihua; Hou, Xueling; Pan, Shilie; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2017-08-09

    Nonlinear optical materials are essential for the development of solid-state lasers. KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) is a unique nonlinear optical material for generation of deep-ultraviolet coherent light; however, its industrial application is limited. Here, we report a new material NH4B4O6F, which exhibits a wide deep-ultraviolet transparent range and suitable birefringence that enables frequency doubling below 200 nm. NH4B4O6F possesses large nonlinear coefficients about 2.5 times that of KBBF. In addition, it is easy to grow bulk crystals and does not contain toxic elements.

  9. Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials by the Z-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials (vegetable oil, juice, wine, cognac, Coca-Cola and Fanta drinks, Nescafé coffee, tea, gasoline, clock oil, glycerol, and polyphenyl ether) that are used in everyday life. Their nonlinearities have been studied by the Z-scan method in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. We have shown that the majority of samples possess a nonlinear absorption; however, some of the studied materials show a strong saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction. Red wine and glycerol proved to be the most interesting materials. For these samples, we have observed a change in the sign of the nonlinear absorption with increasing laser intensity, which was attributed to the competition between two-photon absorption and saturated absorption.

  10. A review of recent theoretical studies in nonlinear crystals: towards the design of new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Eleonora; Véniard, Valérie

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear optics is an important and exciting field of fundamental and applied research, with applications in many different disciplines such as physics chemistry, material science and biology. In the recent years, nonlinear optical phenomena started to be also widely used in technological applications for optoelectronics and photovoltaics. This coincided with an important experimental and theoretical search for new materials with an efficient and exploitable nonlinear optical response. Here, starting from the discovery of nonlinear optics, we review the most important theoretical formalisms developed to understand, interpret and predict the nonlinear optical phenomena. We show the different level of approximation of the many-electrons interactions that these formalisms can describe which are fundamental in the interpretation of the experiments. The impact of the theory is then analyzed on different classes of new materials particularly studied in these years: silicon bulk to nano, compound semiconductors, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide, hexagonal boron nitride and borate crystals.

  11. Long-distance pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klofai, Yerima [Department of Physics, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua (Cameroon); Essimbi, B Z [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, PO Box 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Jaeger, D, E-mail: bessimb@yahoo.fr [ZHO, Optoelectronik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Pulse propagation on high-frequency dissipative nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs)/resonant tunneling diode line cascaded maps is investigated for long-distance propagation of short pulses. Applying perturbative analysis, we show that the dynamics of each line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. Moreover, it is found by computer experiments that the soliton developed in NLTLs experiences an exponential amplitude decay on the one hand and an exponential amplitude growth on the other. As a result, the behavior of a pulse in special electrical networks made of concatenated pieces of lines is closely similar to the transmission of information in optical/electrical communication systems.

  12. The Synthesis of Third-order Optical Nonlinear Organic Polyheterocyclic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of the third-order nonlinear materials: bis (l,4-dihydroxynaphthalene)tetrathiafulvalene and bis (1,4-dialkoxylnaphthalene) tetrathiafulvalene has been achieved in four steps, starting from 2,3-dichloro-l,4-naphthaquinone. The matcrials exhibit larger third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities X(3).

  13. Exact solutions of optical pulse propagation in nonlinear meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2017-01-01

    An analytical and simulation based method has been used to exactly solve the nonlinear wave propagation in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability. The method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material with negative refractive index where both ɛ and μ are dispersive and negative in nature.

  14. The effect of non-linear capacitances in the localization properties of aperiodic dual electric transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Edmundo; Garrido, Alejandro; Neira, Félix

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the localization properties of dual electric transmission lines with non-linear capacitances. The VC,n voltage across each capacitor is selected as a non-linear function of the electric charge qn, i.e., VC,n = qn(1/Cn -ɛn|qn|2) where Cn is the linear part of the capacitance and ɛn the amplitude of the non-linear term. We follow a binary distribution of values of ɛn, according to the Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. The localization behavior of this non-linear case indicates that the case m = 2 does not belong to the m ≥ 3, family because when m changes from m = 2 to m = 3, the number of extended states diminishes dramatically. This proves the topological difference of the m = 2 and m = 3 families. However, by increasing m values, localization behavior of the m-tupling family resembles that of the m = 2, case because the system begins to regain its extended states. The exact same result was obtained recently in the study of linear direct transmission lines with m-tupling distribution of inductances. Consequently, we state that the localization behavior of the m-tupling family as a function of the m value is independent of both the linear and the non-linear system under study, but independent of the kind of transmission line (dual or direct). This is curious behavior of the m-tupling family and thus deserves more scholarly attention.

  15. Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P.; Remillieux, M. C.; Saleh, T. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.

  16. Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan, C. [LMA UPR CNRS 7051, Aix Marseille Université, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille (France); Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Remillieux, M. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, EES-17, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Saleh, T. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-16, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.

  17. A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A framework for the multiscale design and analysis of composite materials and structures is presented. The ImMAC software suite, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, embeds efficient, nonlinear micromechanics capabilities within higher scale structural analysis methods such as finite element analysis. The result is an integrated, multiscale tool that relates global loading to the constituent scale, captures nonlinearities at this scale, and homogenizes local nonlinearities to predict their effects at the structural scale. Example applications of the multiscale framework are presented for the stochastic progressive failure of a SiC/Ti composite tensile specimen and the effects of microstructural variations on the nonlinear response of woven polymer matrix composites.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a friction-limited drive: Application to a chain continuously variable transmission (CVT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nilabh; Haque, Imtiaz

    2009-03-01

    Over the past two decades, extensive research has been conducted on developing vehicle transmissions that meet the goals of reduced exhaust emissions and increased vehicle efficiency. A continuously variable transmission is an emerging automotive transmission technology that offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. A chain CVT is a friction-limited drive whose dynamic performance and torque capacity rely significantly on the friction characteristic of the contact patch between the chain and the pulley. Although a CVT helps to maximize the vehicle fuel economy, its complete potential has not been accomplished in a mass-production vehicle. The present research focuses on developing models to analyze friction-induced nonlinear dynamics of a chain CVT drive and identify possible mechanisms that cause degradation of the overall dynamic performance by inducing chaos and self-sustained vibrations in the system. Two different mathematical models of friction, which characterize different operating or loading conditions, are embedded into a detailed planar multibody model of chain CVT in order to capture the various friction-induced effects in the system. Tools such as stick-slip oscillator dynamics, Lyapunov exponents, phase-space reconstruction, and recurrence plotting are incorporated to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of such a friction-limited system. The mathematical models, the computational scheme, and the results corresponding to different loading scenarios are discussed. The results discuss the influence of friction characteristics on the nonlinear dynamics and torque transmitting capacity of a chain CVT drive.

  19. Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials for Photonic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program targets the development of new highly anisotropic nonlinear optical nanocomposite materials for NASA and non-NASA applications in advanced photonic and...

  20. Spatial localization of nonlinear waves spreading in materials in the presence of dislocations and point defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, V. I.; Leontieva, A. V.; Malkhanov, A. O.

    2017-06-01

    Within the framework of self consistent dynamic problems, the impact of dislocations and point defects on the spatial localization of nonlinear acoustic waves propagating in materials has been studied.

  1. Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic bandgap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ishella S.; Bendickson, Jon M.; Tocci, Michael D.; Bloemer, Mark J.; Scalora, Michael; Bowden, Charles M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1998-03-01

    We summarize and review our theoretical and experimental work on spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in one-dimensional, photonic bandgap (PBG) structures. We present a new result: a method for calculating the normal-mode solutions - and hence the spontaneous emission of embedded emitters - in an arbitrary, linear, lossless, one-dimensional, PBG structure.

  2. Non-Linear Optical Studies of IR Materials with Infrared Femtosecond Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0055 TR-2016-0055 NON-LINEAR OPTICAL STUDIES OF IR MATERIALS WITH INFRARED FEMTOSECOND LASER Enam...ANDREAS SCHMITT-SODY, DR-III ERIN PETTYJOHN, DR-III Program Manager Deputy Chief, High Power Electromagnetics Division This...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Non-Linear Optical Studies of IR Materials with Infrared Femtosecond Laser 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9451-14-1

  3. Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for Applications in Power Limiting and Photorefractive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/01/2007 to 11/30/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0307 Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for...Hybrid  Nonlinear   Optical   Materials  for Applications in Power  Limiting and Photorefractive devices      Prime Contract: FA95500710307

  4. Microcrack Identification in Cement-Based Materials Using Nonlinear Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Qu, J.; Kurtis, K. E.; Wu, S. C.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents results from tests that use nonlinear acoustic waves to distinguish microcracks in cement-based materials. Portland cement mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive aggregate were exposed to an aggressive environment to induce cracking were compared to control samples, of the same composition, but which were not exposed to aggressive conditions. Two nonlinear ultrasonic methods were used to characterize the samples, with the aim of identifying the time and extent of microcracking; these techniques were a nonlinear acoustical modulation (NAM) method and a harmonic amplitude relation (HAR) method. These nonlinear acoustic results show that both methods can distinguish damaged samples from undamaged ones, demonstrating the potential of nonlinear acoustic waves to provide a quantitative evaluation of the deterioration of cement-based materials.

  5. Electrets in soft materials: nonlinearity, size effects, and giant electromechanical coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Development of soft electromechanical materials is critical for several tantalizing applications such as soft robots and stretchable electronics, among others. Soft nonpiezoelectric materials can be coaxed to behave like piezoelectrics by merely embedding charges and dipoles in their interior and assuring some elastic heterogeneity. Such so-called electret materials have been experimentally shown to exhibit very large electromechanical coupling. In this work, we derive rigorous nonlinear expressions that relate effective electromechanical coupling to the creation of electret materials. In contrast to the existing models, we are able to both qualitatively and quantitatively capture the known experimental results on the nonlinear response of electret materials. Furthermore, we show that the presence of another form of electromechanical coupling, flexoelectricity, leads to size effects that dramatically alter the electromechanical response at submicron feature sizes. One of our key conclusions is that nonlinear deformation (prevalent in soft materials) significantly enhances the flexoelectric response and hence the aforementioned size effects.

  6. Homogeneous solutions for elliptically polarized light in a cavity containing materials with electric and magnetic nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, D A

    2015-01-01

    We study evolution equations and stationary homogeneous solutions for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with flat mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative refraction index material with third order Kerr-like electric nonlinearities and also magnetic nonlinearities, which can be relevant in metamaterials. We consider the degree of freedom of polarization in the incident beam. It is found that considering a magnetic nonlinearity increases the variety of possible qualitatively different solutions. A classification of solutions is proposed in terms of the number of bifurcations. The analysis can be useful for the implementation of optical switching or memory storage using ring cavities with non linear materials.

  7. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  8. A donor-nanotube paradigm for nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dequan; Bulat, Felipe A; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

    2008-09-01

    Studies of the nonlinear electronic response of donor/acceptor substituted nanotubes suggest a behavior that is both surprising and qualitatively distinct from that in conventional conjugated organic species. We find that the carbon nanotubes serve as both electronic bridges and acceptors, leading to a donor-nanotube paradigm for the effective design of large first hyperpolarizabilities. We also find that tuning the donor orientation, relative to the nanotube, can significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability.

  9. Optical phase conjugation for nonlinearity compensation in WDM PDM 16-QAM transmission over dispersion-compensated and dispersion-uncompensated links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Sackey, I.; Jazayerifar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Kerr nonlinearity compensation by optical phase conjugation is demonstrated in a WDM PDM 16-QAM system. Improved received signal quality is reported for both dispersion-compensated and dispersion-uncompensated transmission and a comparison with digital backpropagation is provided....

  10. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  11. Transmission gaps in one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure containing epsilon-negative materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadi Rahimi; Abdolrahman Namdar; Samad Roshan Entezar; Habib Tajalli

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure consisting of dispersive and lossless epsilon-negative (ENG) materials. It is found that for both TE and TM polarizations with normal and oblique incidences, there exist transmission gaps which are invariant with a change of scale and sensitive to incident angles. Analytical methods based on transfer matrices and effective medium theory have been used to explain the properties of transmission gaps.

  12. Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Shahar; Therien, Michael J; Beratan, David N; Yang, Weitao

    2008-11-27

    Nonlinear optical chromophores containing (porphyrinato)Zn(II), proquinoid, and (terpyridyl)metal(II) building blocks were optimized in a library containing approximately 10(6) structures using the linear combination of atomic potentials (LCAP) methodology. We report here the library design and molecular property optimizations. Two basic structural types of large beta(0) chromophores were examined: linear and T-shaped motifs. These T-shaped geometries suggest a promising NLO chromophoric architecture for experimental investigation and further support the value of performing LCAP searches in large chemical spaces.

  13. Transvision: A light transmission measurement system for greenhouse covering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: For determining the optical performance of greenhouse covering materials other than standard float glass the current Dutch NEN 2675 norm is no longer appropriate. The emergence of a new generation of materials (diffuse, layered) resulted in a new measuring protocol developed by TNO and Wag

  14. A fuzzy-theory-based method for studying the effect of information transmission on nonlinear crowd dispersion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lo, Siuming

    2017-01-01

    Emergencies involved in mass events are related to a variety of factors and processes. An important factor is the transmission of information on danger that has an influence on nonlinear crowd dynamics during the process of crowd dispersion. Due to much uncertainty in this process, there is an urgent need to propose a method to investigate the influence. In this paper, a novel fuzzy-theory-based method is presented to study crowd dynamics under the influence of information transmission. Fuzzy functions and rules are designed for the ambiguous description of human states. Reasonable inference is employed to decide the output values of decision making such as pedestrian movement speed and directions. Through simulation under four-way pedestrian situations, good crowd dispersion phenomena are achieved. Simulation results under different conditions demonstrate that information transmission cannot always induce successful crowd dispersion in all situations. This depends on whether decision strategies in response to information on danger are unified and effective, especially in dense crowds. Results also suggest that an increase in drift strength at low density and the percentage of pedestrians, who choose one of the furthest unoccupied Von Neumann neighbors from the dangerous source as the drift direction at high density, is helpful in crowd dispersion. Compared with previous work, our comprehensive study improves an in-depth understanding of nonlinear crowd dynamics under the effect of information on danger.

  15. Creep characterization of gels and nonlinear viscoelastic material model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotaka; Fujikawa, Masaki; Makabe, Chobin; Tanaka, Kou

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we examine gel creep behavior and develop a material model for useful and simple numerical simulation of this behavior. This study has three stages and aims: (1) gel creep behavior is examined; (2) the material model is determined and the material constants are identified; and (3) the versatility of the material model and the constants are evaluated. The creep behavior is found to be independent of the initial stress level in the present experiment. Thus, the viscoelastic model proposed by Simo is selected, and its material constants are identified using the results of creep tests. Moreover, from the results of numerical calculations and experiments, it is found that the chosen material model has good reproducibility, predictive performance and high versatility.

  16. Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-17

    0IJUN93 to 31MAY94 4. 1I1Lk ANDLSUBI1ILIE D. ?-UNUING NUMBERS •’• Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based On C:N00014-90-J-1148...release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. I Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based On Interpenetrating Polymer Networks S... Optical Materials Based On Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by S. Marturunkakul, J. I. Chen, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, R. J. Jeng, S. K. Sengupta, J. Kumar

  17. A thermodynamic approach to nonlinear ultrasonics for material state awareness and prognosis

    CERN Document Server

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We develop a thermodynamic framework for modeling nonlinear ultrasonic damage sensing and prognosis in materials undergoing progressive damage. The framework is based on the internal variable approach and relies on the construction of a pseudo-elastic strain energy function that captures the energetics associated with the damage progression. The pseudo-elastic strain energy function is composed of two energy functions - one that describes how a material stores energy in an elastic fashion and the other describes how material dissipates energy or stores it in an inelastic fashion. Experimental motivation for the choice of the above two functionals is discussed and some specific choices pertaining to damage progression during fatigue and creep are presented. The thermodynamic framework is employed to model the nonlinear response of material undergoing stress relaxation and creep-like degradation. For each of the above cases, evolution of the nonlinearity parameter with damage as well as with macroscopic measura...

  18. {open_quotes}Quadrupoled{close_quotes} materials for second-order nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, S.F.; Petschek, R.G.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new approach to second-order nonlinear optical materials, namely quadrupoling. This approach is valid in the regime of Kleinman (full permutation) symmetry breaking, and thus requires a two- or three dimensional microscopic nonlinearity at wavelengths away from material resonances. This {open_quotes}quadrupolar{close_quotes} nonlinearity arises from the second rank pseudotensor of the rotationally invariant representation of the second-order nonlinear optical tensor. We have experimentally investigated candidate molecules comprised of chiral camphorquinone derivatives by measuring the scalar invariant associated with the rank two pseudotensor using hyper-Rayleigh scattering. We have found sizable scalar figures of merit for several compounds using light for which the second harmonic wavelengths are greater than 100 nm longer than the absorption peak location. At these wavelengths, the quadrupolar scalar is as large as the polar (EFISH) scalar of p-nitroaniline. Prospects for applications are discussed.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and third-order nonlinear optical properties of symmetrical ferrocenyl Schiff base materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguo; Jia, Jianhong; Gao, Jianrong; Han, Liang; Li, Yujin

    2015-03-01

    Six symmetrical ferrocenyl Schiff base materials were synthesized and characterized by UV, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and elemental analysis. Their off-resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties were measured using femtosecond laser and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) were 1.961-6.363 × 10-13 esu. The nonlinear refractive indexes n2 were 3.609-11.716 × 10-12 esu. The second-order hyperpolarizabilities γ of these molecules were 1.967-6.388 × 10-31 esu. The response time were 45.759-73.079 fs. The results indicate that these materials have potential nonlinear optical applications.

  20. Non-Linear Noise Contributions in Highly Dispersive Optical Transmission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an analytical investigation, confirmed by numerical simulations, about the non-linear noise contribution in single-channel systems adopting generic modulation-detection formats in long links with both managed and unmanaged dispersion compensation and its impact in system performance. This noise contribution is expressed in terms of a pulse non-linear interaction length and permits a simple calculation of the Q-factor. Results point out the dependence of this non-linear noise on the number of amplifiers spans, N, according to the adopted chromatic dispersion compensation scheme, the modulation-detection format, and the signal baud rate. It is also shown how the effects of polarization multiplexing can be taken into account and how this single-channel non-linear noise contribution can be used in a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) environment.

  1. Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.C.; Driessen, A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Schoot, J.B.P.; van Schoot, Jan B.P.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the long trajectory from the synthesis of organic nonlinear optical materials to the completed all-optical device it is highly desirable to be able to concentrate already in an early state on only a few promising materials. Third harmonic generation (THG) is a very convenient method as it allows

  2. Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Freek C.; Driessen, Alfred; Hoekstra, Hugo J.W.M.; Schoot, van Jan B.P.; Popma, Th.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the long trajectory from the synthesis of organic nonlinear optical materials to the completed all-optical device it is highly desirable to be able to concentrate already in an early state on only a few promising materials. Third harmonic generation (THG) is a very convenient method as it allows

  3. Analytical study of dynamics of matter-wave solitons in lossless nonlinear discrete bi-inductance transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, E; Lakhssassi, A

    2015-03-01

    We consider a lossless one-dimensional nonlinear discrete bi-inductance electrical transmission line made of N identical unit cells. When lattice effects are considered, we use the reductive perturbation method in the semidiscrete limit to show that the dynamics of modulated waves can be modeled by the classical nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equation, which describes the modulational instability and the propagation of bright and dark solitons on a continuous-wave background. Our theoretical analysis based on the CNLS equation predicts either two or four frequency regions with different behavior concerning the modulational instability of a plane wave. With the help of the analytical solutions of the CNLS equation, we investigate analytically the effects of the linear capacitance CS on the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the network. Our results reveal that the linear parameter CS can be used to manipulate the motion of bright, dark, and kink soliton in the network.

  4. Modeling of the wave transmission properties of large arteries using nonlinear elastic tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythoud, F; Stergiopulos, N; Meister, J J

    1994-11-01

    We propose a new, simple way of constructing elastic tubes which can be used to model the nonlinear elastic properties of large arteries. The tube models are constructed from a silicon elastomer (Sylgard 184, Dow Corning), which exhibits a nonlinear behavior with increased stiffness at high strains. Tests conducted on different tube models showed that, with the proper choice of geometric parameters, the elastic properties, in terms of area-pressure relation and compliance, can be similar to that of real arteries.

  5. An exact approach to intensity analysis of optical pulses in nonlinear meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2016-05-01

    The nonlinear pulse propagation has been analytically studied by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric permittivity(ɛ) and magnetic permeability(μ). The exact solutions obtained are shown to be of trigonometric & localized types. The analytical and simulation based method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material which behaves as a negative refractive medium (NRM), where both ɛ and μ are shown to be dispersive and negative in nature.

  6. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  7. Photon interaction study of organic nonlinear optical materials in the energy range 122-1330 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasarmol, Vishal V.; Gaikwad, Dhammajyot K.; Raut, Siddheshwar D.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mass attenuation coefficient (μm) of six organic nonlinear optical materials has been calculated in the energy range 122-1330 keV and compared with the obtained values from the WinXCOM program. It is found that there is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental values (<3%). The linear attenuation coefficients (μ) total atomic cross section (σt, a), and total electronic cross section (σt, el) have also been calculated from the obtained μm values and their variations with photon energy have been plotted. From the present work, it is observed that the variation of obtained values of μm, μ, σt, a, and σt, el strongly depends on the photon energy and decreases or increases due to chemical composition and density of the sample. All the samples have been studied extensively using transmission method with a view to utilize the material for radiation dosimetry. Investigated samples are good material for radiation dosimetry due their low effective atomic number. The mass attenuation coefficient (μm), linear attenuation coefficients (μ), total atomic cross section (σt, a), total electronic cross section (σt, el), effective atomic numbers (Zeff), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective atomic energy absorption cross section (σa, en) of all sample materials have been carried out and transmission curves have been plotted. The transmission curve shows that the variation of all sample materials decreases with increasing photon energy.

  8. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy of High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Software and hardware updates to further extend the capability of the electron microscope were carried out. A range of materials such as intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix composites, ceramics and intermetallic compounds, based on refractory elements were examined under this research. Crystal structure, size, shape and volume fraction distribution of various phases which constitute the microstructures were examined. Deformed materials were studied to understand the effect of interfacial microstructure on the deformation and fracture behavior of these materials. Specimens tested for a range of mechanical property requirements, such as stress rupture, creep, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, etc. were examined. Microstructural and microchemical stability of these materials exposed to simulated operating environments were investigated. The EOIM Shuttle post-flight samples were also examined to understand the influence of low gravity processing on microstructure. In addition, fractographic analyses of Nb-Zr-W, titanium aluminide, molybdenum silicide and silicon carbide samples were carried out. Extensive characterization of sapphire fibers in the fiber-reinforced composites made by powder cloth processing was made. Finally, pressure infiltration casting of metal-matrix composites was carried out.

  9. Mathematical modeling of materially nonlinear problems in structural analyses, Part II: Application in contemporary software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of nonlinear material models in the software package Ansys. The development of the model theory is presented in the paper of the mathematical modeling of material nonlinear problems in structural analysis (part I - theoretical foundations, and here is described incremental-iterative procedure for solving problems of nonlinear material used by this package and an example of modeling of spread footing by using Bilinear-kinematics and Drucker-Prager mode was given. A comparative analysis of the results obtained by these modeling and experimental research of the author was made. Occurrence of the load level that corresponds to plastic deformation was noted, development of deformations with increasing load, as well as the distribution of dilatation in the footing was observed. Comparison of calculated and measured values of reinforcement dilatation shows their very good agreement.

  10. Material and Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Functionally Graded Plate-Shell Type Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, J. S.; Araújo, A. L.; Mota Soares, C. M.; Mota Soares, C. A.; Herskovits, J.

    2016-08-01

    A nonlinear formulation for general Functionally Graded Material plate-shell type structures is presented. The formulation accounts for geometric and material nonlinear behaviour of these structures. Using the Newton-Raphson incremental-iterative method, the incremental equilibrium path is obtained, and in case of snap-through occurrence the automatic arc-length method is used. This simple and fast element model is a non-conforming triangular flat plate/shell element with 24 degrees of freedom for the generalized displacements. It is benchmarked in the solution of some illustrative plate- shell examples and the results are presented and discussed with numerical alternative models. Benchmark tests with material and geometrically nonlinear behaviour are also proposed.

  11. Materials characterisation by angle-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Caspary, Knut; Oppermann, Oliver; Grieb, Tim; Krause, Florian F.; Rosenauer, Andreas; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin; Potapov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Solid-state properties such as strain or chemical composition often leave characteristic fingerprints in the angular dependence of electron scattering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is dedicated to probe scattered intensity with atomic resolution, but it drastically lacks angular resolution. Here we report both a setup to exploit the explicit angular dependence of scattered intensity and applications of angle-resolved STEM to semiconductor nanostructures. Our method is applied to measure nitrogen content and specimen thickness in a GaNxAs1‑x layer independently at atomic resolution by evaluating two dedicated angular intervals. We demonstrate contrast formation due to strain and composition in a Si- based metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with GexSi1‑x stressors as a function of the angles used for imaging. To shed light on the validity of current theoretical approaches this data is compared with theory, namely the Rutherford approach and contemporary multislice simulations. Inconsistency is found for the Rutherford model in the whole angular range of 16–255 mrad. Contrary, the multislice simulations are applicable for angles larger than 35 mrad whereas a significant mismatch is observed at lower angles. This limitation of established simulations is discussed particularly on the basis of inelastic scattering.

  12. Equalization of nonlinear transmission impairments by maximum-likelihood-sequence estimation in digital coherent receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuzzaman, Md; Zhang, Chao; Igarashi, Koji; Katoh, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2010-03-01

    We describe a successful introduction of maximum-likelihood-sequence estimation (MLSE) into digital coherent receivers together with finite-impulse response (FIR) filters in order to equalize both linear and nonlinear fiber impairments. The MLSE equalizer based on the Viterbi algorithm is implemented in the offline digital signal processing (DSP) core. We transmit 20-Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals through a 200-km-long standard single-mode fiber. The bit-error rate performance shows that the MLSE equalizer outperforms the conventional adaptive FIR filter, especially when nonlinear impairments are predominant.

  13. ANALYSIS OF AN SI EPIDEMIC MODEL WITH NONLINEAR TRANSMISSION AND STAGE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆忠华; 高淑京; 陈兰荪

    2003-01-01

    A disease transmission model of SI type with stage structure is formulated.The stability of disease free equilibrium, the existence and uniqueness of an endemic equi-librium, the existence of a global attractor are investigated.

  14. Growth and Study of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Frequency Conversion Devices with Applications in Defense and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2015-0068 GROWTH AND STUDY OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS FOR FREQUENCY CONVERSION DEVICES WITH APPLICATIONS IN DEFENCE AND...2015 Technical Paper 1 August 2013 – 1 August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GROWTH AND STUDY OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS FOR FREQUENCY CONVERSION...SUBJECT TERMS hydride vapor phase epitaxy, nonlinear optical materials , quasi-phase matching 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. On the Prediction of the Nonlinear Absorption in Reverse Saturable Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A.; Day, Paul N.; Kennel, Joshua C.

    2001-03-01

    In our continuing efforts to design materials that exhibit reverse saturable absorption (RSA), we systematically examine the ability of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method using local, nonlocal, and hybrid functionals, to predict the experimental nonlinear absorption for a variety of organic and organometallic molecular systems, including a number of free-base porphyrins, phthalocyanine and their metal complexes. The ground and triplet-triplet excitation energies, as well as the oscillator strengths are calculated, indicating good agreement with experiment. We conclude that the TDDFT approach with a hybrid functional provides good estimates for the nonlinear absorption of RSA materials.

  16. Wave propagation in parallel-plate waveguides filled with nonlinear left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burhan Zamir; Rashid Ali

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of field components for transverse electric mode in the parallel-plate waveguides has been studied. In this analysis two different types of waveguide structures have been discussed, i.e., (a) normal good/perfect conducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material and (b) high-temperature-superconducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material. The dispersion relations of transverse electric mode have also been discussed for these two types of waveguide structures.

  17. Analysis of transmission efficiency of the superconducting resonance coil according the materials of cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Kyeong; Hwang, Jun Won; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The wireless power transfer (WPT) system using a magnetic resonance was based on magnetic resonance coupling of the transmission and the receiver coils. In these system, it is important to maintain a high quality-factor (Q-factor) to increase the transmission efficiency of WPT system. Our research team used a superconducting coil to increase the Q-factor of the magnetic resonance coil in WPT system. When the superconductor is applied in these system, we confirmed that transmission efficiency of WPT system was higher than normal conductor coil through a preceding study. The efficiency of the transmission and the receiver coil is affected by the magnetic shielding effect of materials around the coils. The magnetic shielding effect is dependent on the type, thickness, frequency, distance, shape of materials. Therefore, it is necessary to study the WPT system on the basis of these conditions. In this paper, the magnetic shield properties of the cooling system were analyzed using the High-Frequency Structure Simulation (HFSS, Ansys) program. We have used the shielding materials such as plastic, aluminum and iron, etc. As a result, when we applied the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), the transmission efficiency of WPT was not affected because electromagnetic waves went through the FRP. On the other hand, in case of a iron and aluminum, transmission efficiency was decreased because of their electromagnetic shielding effect. Based on these results, the research to improve the transmission efficiency and reliability of WPT system is continuously necessary.

  18. A nonlinear programming approach for estimation of transmission parameters in childhood infectious disease using a continuous time model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Word, Daniel P; Cummings, Derek A T; Burke, Donald S; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Laird, Carl D

    2012-08-07

    Mathematical models can enhance our understanding of childhood infectious disease dynamics, but these models depend on appropriate parameter values that are often unknown and must be estimated from disease case data. In this paper, we develop a framework for efficient estimation of childhood infectious disease models with seasonal transmission parameters using continuous differential equations containing model and measurement noise. The problem is formulated using the simultaneous approach where all state variables are discretized, and the discretized differential equations are included as constraints, giving a large-scale algebraic nonlinear programming problem that is solved using a nonlinear primal-dual interior-point solver. The technique is demonstrated using measles case data from three different locations having different school holiday schedules, and our estimates of the seasonality of the transmission parameter show strong correlation to school term holidays. Our approach gives dramatic efficiency gains, showing a 40-400-fold reduction in solution time over other published methods. While our approach has an increased susceptibility to bias over techniques that integrate over the entire unknown state-space, a detailed simulation study shows no evidence of bias. Furthermore, the computational efficiency of our approach allows for investigation of a large model space compared with more computationally intensive approaches.

  19. Chip scale low dimensional materials: optoelectronics & nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingyi

    The CMOS foundry infrastructure enables integration of high density, high performance optical transceivers. We developed integrated devices that assemble resonators, waveguide, tapered couplers, pn junction and electrodes. Not only the volume standard manufacture in silicon foundry is promising to low-lost optical components operating at IR and mid-IR range, it also provides a robust platform for revealing new physical phenomenon. The thesis starts from comparison between photonic crystal and micro-ring resonators based on chip routers, showing photonic crystal switches have small footprint, consume low operation power, but its higher linear loss may require extra energy for signal amplification. Different designs are employed in their implementation in optical signal routing on chip. The second part of chapter 2 reviews the graphene based optoelectronic devices, such as modulators, lasers, switches and detectors, potential for group IV optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC). In chapter 3, the highly efficient thermal optic control could act as on-chip switches and (transmittance) tunable filters. Local temperature tuning compensates the wavelength differences between two resonances, and separate electrode is used for fine tuning of optical pathways between two resonators. In frequency domain, the two cavity system also serves as an optical analogue of Autler-Towns splitting, where the cavity-cavity resonance detuning is controlled by the length of pathway (phase) between them. The high thermal sensitivity of cavity resonance also effectively reflects the heat distribution around the nanoheaters, and thus derives the thermal conductivity in the planar porous suspended silicon membrane. Chapter 4 & 5 analyze graphene-silicon photonic crystal cavities with high Q and small mode volume. With negligible nonlinear response to the milliwatt laser excitation, the monolithic silicon PhC turns into highly nonlinear after transferring the single layer graphene with

  20. Structural analysis of composite wind turbine blades nonlinear mechanics and finite element models with material damping

    CERN Document Server

    Chortis, Dimitris I

    2013-01-01

    This book concerns the development of novel finite elements for the structural analysis of composite beams and blades. The introduction of material damping is also an important aspect of composite structures and it is presented here in terms of their static and dynamic behavior. The book thoroughly presents a new shear beam finite element, which entails new blade section mechanics, capable of predicting structural blade coupling due to composite coupling and/or internal section geometry. Theoretical background is further expanded towards the inclusion of nonlinear structural blade models and damping mechanics for composite structures. The models effectively include geometrically nonlinear terms due to large displacements and rotations, improve the modeling accuracy of very large flexible blades, and enable the modeling of rotational stiffening and buckling, as well as, nonlinear structural coupling. Validation simulations on specimen level study the geometric nonlinearities effect on the modal frequencies and...

  1. Comment on "Nonlinear refraction measurements of materials using the moiré deflectometry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian Vaziri, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    In an influential paper Jamshidi-Ghaleh and Mansour [1] (Opt. Commun. 234 (2004) 419), have reported on a new method for measuring the nonlinear refractive index of materials using the rotational moiré deflectometry technique. In the cited work, the authors apply the ray matrix theory for finding the beam deflection angle on the plane of the first grating in the used geometry. To this end, using the parabolic approximation, the exponential term in the beam irradiance is expanded and retaining the first two resultant terms, the nonlinear sample is treated as a thin lens with a position dependent focal length. In this comment, the effective focal length of the nonlinear sample has been rederived in detail using the Gaussian beam theory and it is shown that it must contain a correction factor. The relative error introduced by ignoring this factor can be as large as 73.5-84.4% in determining the nonlinear refractive index of thin samples.

  2. Nonlinear impairment compensation using expectation maximization for dispersion managed and unmanaged PDM 16-QAM transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show numerically and experimentally that expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is a powerful tool in combating system impairments such as fibre nonlinearities, inphase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator imperfections and laser linewidth. The EM algorithm is an iterative algorithm...

  3. Organic nonlinear optical materials: where we have been and where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R

    2006-01-14

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials can be useful for a variety of applications varying from modulation of optical signals facilitated by the electro-optic effect-the effect whereby the refractive index of a material changes in response to an applied electric field-to microfabrication, sensing, imaging, and cancer therapy facilitated by multiphoton absorption, wherein molecules simultaneously absorb two or more photons of light. This short Focus article is a brief personal perspective of some of the key advances in second-order NLO materials and in multiphoton-absorbing materials, and of how and why these advances have led to renewed interest in organic NLO materials.

  4. Nonlinear Localization due to a Double Negative Defect Layer in a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Containing Single Negative Material Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munazza Zulfiqar Ali; Tariq Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of introducing a defect layer in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing single negative material layers on the transmission properties.The width of the defect layer js taken to be the same or smaller than the period of the structure.Different cases of the defect layer being linear or nonlinear and double positive or double negative are discussed.It is found that only a nonlinear double negative layer givas rises to a localized mode within the zero-φeff gap in this kind of structure.It is also shown that the important characteristics of the nonlinear defect mode such as its frequency,its FWHM and the threshold of the associated bistability can be controlled by changing the widths of the defect layer and the host layers.

  5. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-07-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  6. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-08-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  7. Detailed discussion of the optimum baud rate of nonlinearity in WDM transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanli; Qiao, Yaojun; Yang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Different numbers of sub-channels correspond to different baud rates per sub-channel when the total baud rate is fixed. The optimum baud rate of nonlinearity in WDM systems is investigated in this paper. We find that the phase matching effect produces an optimum baud rate of nonlinearity, which is related to the chromatic dispersion accumulation of a single span. Then other factors that influence the optimum baud rate are analyzed. By mathematical derivation and simulation verification, larger number of spans and larger spectrum gap between sub-channels both make the optimum value decrease. We also find that different modulation formats barely change the optimum baud rate if other system settings are the same and all sub-channels have the same modulation format.

  8. Non-linear processes in thin titanium nitride transmission lines for parametric amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Michael; Gao, Jiansong; Chaudhuri, Suptarshi; Bockstiegel, Clint; Sandberg, Martin; Pappas, David P.

    2013-03-01

    Nitride superconductors, such as titanium nitride and niobium titanium nitride, are a non-linear, low dissipation medium at microwave frequencies. The lossless nonlinearity may be probed and utilized. Important applications include generation of higher harmonics, e.g. 3f, and a microwave version of the optical paramagnetic amplifier, i.e. the degenerate-pump case of four-photon mixing (FPM). An amplifier based on these principles should allow for very wide bandwidth, low noise (quantum limited) and high dynamic range devices. These measurements are performed via a single layer, 3 meter long TiN spiral and measured at temperatures below 100 mK. Initial results of the design, fabrication, testing, and impedance optimization of a titanium nitride based parametric amplifier are presented.

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Impairment Compensation in Coherent Optical Transmission with Digital Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has become one of the main enabling technologies for the physical layer of coherent optical communication networks. The DSP subsystems are used to implement several functionalities in the digital domain, from synchronization to channel equalization. Flexibility...... nonlinearity compensation, (II) spectral shaping, and (III) adaptive equalization. For (I), original contributions are presented to the study of the nonlinearity compensation (NLC) with digital backpropagation (DBP). Numerical and experimental performance investigations are shown for different application...... scenarios. Concerning (II), it is demonstrated how optical and electrical (digital) pulse shaping can be allied to improve the spectral confinement of a particular class of optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) signals that can be used as a building block for fast signaling single-carrier transceivers...

  10. Non-linear modeling of active biohybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Paetsch, C.

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in engineered muscle tissue attached to a synthetic substrate motivate the development of appropriate constitutive and numerical models. Applications of active materials can be expanded by using robust, non-mammalian muscle cells, such as those of Manduca sexta. In this study, we propose a model to assist in the analysis of biohybrid constructs by generalizing a recently proposed constitutive law for Manduca muscle tissue. The continuum model accounts (i) for the stimulation of muscle fibers by introducing multiple stress-free reference configurations for the active and passive states and (ii) for the hysteretic response by specifying a pseudo-elastic energy function. A simple example representing uniaxial loading-unloading is used to validate and verify the characteristics of the model. Then, based on experimental data of muscular thin films, a more complex case shows the qualitative potential of Manduca muscle tissue in active biohybrid constructs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermodynamics and nonlinear mechanics of materials with photoresponsive microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, William S.; Bin, Jonghoon

    2014-03-01

    The ability to directly convert visible light radiation into useful mechanical work provides many opportunities in the field of smart materials and adaptive structures ranging from biomedical applications to control of heliostat mirrors for solar harvesting. The complexities associated with coupling time-dependent Maxwell's equations with linear momentum and mechanics is discussed by introducing a set of electronic order parameters that govern the coupling between electromagnetic radiation and mechanics of a deformable solid. Numerical examples are given illustrating how this methodology is applied to a special class of liquid crystal polymer networks containing azobenzene. The dynamics associated with light absorption and its effect on deformation of the polymer are solved in three dimensions using finite difference methods and compared to experimental results. Particular emphasis is placed on the effect of polarized light on microstructure evolution and stresses that occur during photoisomerization of the optically active microstructure.

  12. Mesomorphic glass nanocomposites made of metal alkanoates and nanoparticles as emerging nonlinear-optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbovskiy, Y.; Klimusheva, G.; Mirnaya, T.

    2016-09-01

    Mesomorphic metal alkanoates is very promising yet overlooked class of nonlinear-optical materials. Metal alkanoates can exhibit a broad variety of condensed states of matter including solid crystals, plastic crystals, lyotropic and thermotropic ionic liquid crystals, liquids, mesomorphic glasses, and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Glass-forming properties of metal alkanoates combined with their use as nano-reactors and anisotropic host open up simple and efficient way to design various photonic nanomaterials. Despite very interesting physics, the experimental data on optical and nonlinearoptical properties of such materials are scarce. The goal of the present paper is to fill the gap by discussing recent advances in the field of photonic materials made of metal alkanoates, organic dyes, and nanoparticles. Optical and nonlinear-optical properties of the following materials are reviewed: (i) mesomorphic glass doped with organic dyes; (ii) smectic glass composed of cobalt alkanoates; (iii) semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a glassy host; (iv) metal nanoparticles - glass (the cobalt octanoate) nanocomposites.

  13. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  14. A new approach of binary addition and subtraction by non-linear material based switching technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archan Kumar Das; Partha Partima Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-02-01

    Here, we refer a new proposal of binary addition as well as subtraction in all-optical domain by exploitation of proper non-linear material-based switching technique. In this communication, the authors extend this technique for both adder and subtractor accommodating the spatial input encoding system.

  15. Predicting the dielectric nonlinearity of anisotropic composite materials via tensorial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Rocchia, W [NEST CNR-INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2006-11-29

    The discovery of new materials with peculiar optical properties as well as the prediction of their behaviour given the microstructure is a matter of remarkable interest in the community of material scientists. A complete theory allowing such a prediction is not yet available. We have formulated a theory able to analytically predict the effective second- and third-order nonlinear electrical behaviour of a dilute dispersion of randomly oriented anisotropic nonlinear spheres in a linear host. The inclusion medium has non-vanishing second- and third-order nonlinear hypersusceptibilities. As a result, the overall composite material is nonlinear but isotropic because of the random orientation of the inclusions. We derive the expressions for the equivalent permittivity and for the Kerr equivalent hypersusceptibility in terms of the characteristic electric tensors describing the electrical behaviour of the spheres. The complete averaging over inclusion positions and orientations led to general results in the dilute limit. We show that these results are consistent with earlier theories and that they provide null second-order hypersusceptibility as expected in a macroscopically isotropic medium. This theory generalizes the well-known Maxwell-Garnett formula and it can be easily specialized to any of the 32 crystallographic symmetry classes. Despite this study assuming static conditions, it can be generalized to the sinusoidal regime, pointing at an interesting way to engineer optically active materials with desired behaviour.

  16. Experimental observations of the characteristics of hot electron and nonlinear processes produced in special material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Making use of disk targets composed of several peculiar materials (foam Au, foam C8H8)and hohlraum with a special structure, experiments have been done at"Xing Guang - II" laser facility,which study the characteristics of hot electrons and therelated nonlinear processes such as StimulatedRaman Scattering (SRS), Two Plasma Decay (TPD), StimulatedBrillouin Scattering (SBS), etc.

  17. Effect of carbonation on the linear and nonlinear dynamic properties of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Jesus N.; Kundu, Tribikram; Popovics, John S.; Monzó, José; Borrachero, María V.; Payá, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation causes a physicochemical alteration of cement-based materials, leading to a decrease of porosity and an increase of material hardness and strength. However, carbonation will decrease the pH of the internal pore water solution, which may depassivate the internal reinforcing steel, giving rise to structural durability concerns. Therefore, the proper selection of materials informed by parameters sensitive to the carbonation process is crucial to ensure the durability of concrete structures. The authors investigate the feasibility of using linear and nonlinear dynamic vibration response data to monitor the progression of the carbonation process in cement-based materials. Mortar samples with dimensions of 40×40×160 mm were subjected to an accelerated carbonation process through a carbonation chamber with 55% relative humidity and >95% of CO2 atmosphere. The progress of carbonation in the material was monitored using data obtained with the test setup of the standard resonant frequency test (ASTM C215-14), from a pristine state until an almost fully carbonated state. Linear dynamic modulus, quality factor, and a material nonlinear response, evaluated through the upward resonant frequency shift during the signal ring-down, were investigated. The compressive strength and the depth of carbonation were also measured. Carbonation resulted in a modest increase in the dynamic modulus, but a substantive increase in the quality factor (inverse attenuation) and a decrease in the material nonlinearity parameter. The combined measurement of the vibration quality factor and nonlinear parameter shows potential as a sensitive measure of material changes brought about by carbonation.

  18. Porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric smart material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Wang, Yan; Zu, Jean W.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates by using both analytical and numerical methods. The FGPM plates contain porosities owing to the technical issues during the preparation of FGPMs. Two types of porosity distribution, namely, even and uneven distribution, are considered. A modified power law model is adopted to describe the material properties of the porous FGPM plates. Using D’Alembert’s principle, the out-of-plane equation of motion is derived by taking into account the Kármán nonlinear geometrical relations. After that, the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, resulting in a set of ordinary differential equations with respect to time. These ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by employing the harmonic balance method. The approximate analytical results are verified by using the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. By means of the perturbation technique, the stability of approximate analytical solutions is examined. An interesting nonlinear broadband vibration phenomenon is detected in the FGPM plates with porosities. Nonlinear frequency-response characteristics of the present smart structures are investigated for various system parameters including the porosity type, the porosity volume fraction, the electric potential, the external excitation, the damping and the constituent volume fraction. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the nonlinear vibration characteristics of porous FGPM plates.

  19. Self-consistent photonic band structure of dielectric superlattices containing nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousse, V; Vigneron, J P

    2001-02-01

    The theory of photonic crystals is extended to include the optical Kerr effect taking place in weak third-order, nonlinear materials present in the unit cell. The influence on the dispersion relations of the illumination caused by a single Bloch mode transiting through the crystal structure is examined. Special attention is given to the modification of the photonic gap width and position. Assuming an instantaneous change of refractive index with illumination, the nonlinear band structure problem is solved as a sequence of ordinary, linear band structure calculations, carried out in a plane-wave field representation.

  20. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties of semi-organic nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Gunasekaran; G Anand; R Arun Balaji; J Dhanalakshmi; S Kumaresan

    2010-10-01

    Single crystals of urea thiourea mercuric sulphate (UTHS) and urea thiourea mercuric chloride (UTHC), semi-organic nonlinear optical materials, were grown by low-temperature solution growth technique by slow evaporation method using water as the solvent. Good quality single crystals were grown within three weeks. The nonlinear nature of the crystals was confirmed by SHG test. The UV–Vis spectrum showed the transmitting ability of the crystals in the entire visible region. FTIR spectrum was recorded and vibrational assignments were made. The degree of dopant inclusion was ascertained by AAS. The TGA–DTA studies showed the thermal properties of the crystals.

  1. Cavity equations for a positive- or negative-refraction-index material with electric and magnetic nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártin, Daniel A.; Hoyuelos, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    We study evolution equations for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with plane mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative-refraction-index material with third-order effective electric and magnetic nonlinearities. Two coupled nonlinear equations for the electric and magnetic amplitudes are obtained. We prove that the description can be reduced to one Lugiato-Lefever equation with generalized coefficients. A stability analysis of the homogeneous solution, complemented with numerical integration, shows that any combination of the parameters should correspond to one of three characteristic behaviors.

  2. Multilevel adaptive solution procedure for material nonlinear problems in visual programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Ghanem, R. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid solution technique to solve a material nonlinear problem in a visual programming environment using the finite element method is discussed. The nonlinear equation of equilibrium is linearized to incremental form using Newton-Rapson technique, then multigrid solution technique is used to solve linear equations at each Newton-Rapson step. In the process, adaptive mesh refinement, which is based on the bisection of a pair of triangles, is used to form grid hierarchy for multigrid iteration. The solution process is implemented in a visual programming environment with distributed computing capability, which enables more intuitive understanding of solution process, and more effective use of resources.

  3. Nonreciprocal transmission in a nonlinear photonic-crystal Fano structure with broken symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Chen, Yaohui; Hu, Hao;

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructures that feature nonreciprocal light trans- mission are highly desirable building blocks for realizing photonic integrated circuits. Here, a simple and ultracompact photonic-crystal structure, where a waveguide is coupled to a single nanocavity, is proposed and experimentally demon- st...... tunability. The nonlinearity of the device relies on ultrafast carrier dynamics, rather than the thermal effects usually considered, allowing the demonstration of nonreciprocal operation at a bit-rate of 10 Gbit s − 1 with a low energy consumption of 4.5 fJ bit − 1...

  4. An adaptive linearizer for 16-QAM transmission over non-linear satellite channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, K. Sam; Ruggles, M. J.

    An adaptive nonlinear equalization scheme that consists of a predistorter located at the transmitting earth station and a linear equalizer at the receiving earth station is described. Algorithms for automatically adjusting the predistorter and the linear equalizer are presented. The effectiveness of the scheme is evaluated using simulations. It is shown that the scheme improves the performance of a 16-queued access memory system operating over a typical satellite channel by minimizing degradations in the signal as it is transmitted over a band-limited satellite channel.

  5. Nonlinear observer for synchronization of chaotic systems with application to secure data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Perez-Pinacho, Claudia A.

    2014-06-01

    The main issue of this work is related with the design of a class of nonlinear observer in order to synchronize chaotic dynamical systems in a master-slave scheme, considering different initial conditions. The oscillator of Chen is proposed as a benchmark model and a bounded-type observer is proposed to reach synchronicity between both two chaotic systems. The proposed observer contains a proportional and sigmoid form of a bounded function of the synchronization error in order to provide asymptotic synchronization with a satisfactory performance. Some numerical simulations were carrying out in order to show the operation of the proposed methodology, with possible applications to secure data communications issues.

  6. Nonlinear wave transmission and pressure on the fixed truncated breakwater using NURBS numerical wave tank

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasnia,Arash; Ghiasi,Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Fully nonlinear wave interaction with a fixed breakwater is investigated in a numerical wave tank (NWT). The potential theory and high-order boundary element method are used to solve the boundary value problem. Time domain simulation by a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) formulation and high-order boundary integral method based on non uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) formulation is employed to solve the equations. At each time step, Laplace equation is solved in Eulerian frame and fully non-l...

  7. One size does not fit all. A non-linear analysis of European monetary transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Cifarelli; Giovanna Paladino

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interest rate pass-through in eight European countries analyzing their short-run and long-run monetary transmission mechanisms. We investigate the relationship between the Euribor and the long-run interest rate on loans to non-financial corporations and allow for a mark-up which can be affected by country specific funding conditions and/or stochastic structural breaks. We detect significant differences across countries. Cointegration between the Euribor and the lon...

  8. Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of Edge Cracked Timoshenko Beams Composed of Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically nonlinear static analysis of edge cracked cantilever Timoshenko beams composed of functionally graded material (FGM subjected to a nonfollower transversal point load at the free end of the beam is studied with large displacements and large rotations. Material properties of the beam change in the height direction according to exponential distributions. The cracked beam is modeled as an assembly of two subbeams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. In the study, the finite element of the beam is constructed by using the total Lagrangian Timoshenko beam element approximation. The nonlinear problem is solved by using incremental displacement-based finite element method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The convergence study is performed for various numbers of finite elements. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, and various material distributions on the nonlinear static response of the FGM beam are investigated in detail. Also, the difference between the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of edge cracked FGM beam is investigated in detail.

  9. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Guang Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.

  10. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao, E-mail: zhouhm@cjlu.edu.cn [College of Information Engineering, China Jiliang University, 310018, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-10-15

    For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.

  11. A stable numerical solution method in-plane loading of nonlinear viscoelastic laminated orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the tremendous growth in the development of advanced materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials, a new numerical method is developed to analyze and predict the time-dependent properties of these materials. Basic concepts in viscoelasticity, laminated composites, and previous viscoelastic numerical methods are presented. A stable numerical method, called the nonlinear differential equation method (NDEM), is developed to calculate the in-plane stresses and strains over any time period for a general laminate constructed from nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic plies. The method is implemented in an in-plane stress analysis computer program, called VCAP, to demonstrate its usefulness and to verify its accuracy. A number of actual experimental test results performed on Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates are compared to predictions calculated from the numerical method.

  12. A non-linear homogeneous model for bone-like materials under compressive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, M; Voide, R; de Bien, C; Freichels, H; Jérôme, C; Léonard, A; Toye, D; Müller, R; van Lenthe, G H; Ponthot, J P

    2012-02-01

    Finite element (FE) models accurately compute the mechanical response of bone and bone-like materials when the models include their detailed microstructure. In order to simulate non-linear behavior, which currently is only feasible at the expense of extremely high computational costs, coarser models can be used if the local morphology has been linked to the apparent mechanical behavior. The aim of this paper is to implement and validate such a constitutive law. This law is able to capture the non-linear structural behavior of bone-like materials through the use of fabric tensors. It also allows for irreversible strains using an elastoplastic material model incorporating hardening. These features are expressed in a constitutive law based on the anisotropic continuum damage theory coupled with isotropic elastoplasticity in a finite strain framework. This material model was implemented into metafor (LTAS-MNNL, University of Liège, Belgium), a non-linear FE software. The implementation was validated against experimental data of cylindrical samples subjected to compression. Three materials with bone-like microstructure were tested: aluminum foams of variable density (ERG, Oakland, CA, USA), polylactic acid foam (CERM, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium), and cancellous bone tissue of a deer antler (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium).

  13. Metal-organic frameworks as competitive materials for non-linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingabudinova, L R; Vinogradov, V V; Milichko, V A; Hey-Hawkins, E; Vinogradov, A V

    2016-09-26

    The last five years have witnessed a huge breakthrough in the creation and the study of the properties of a new class of compounds - metamaterials. The next stage of this technological revolution will be the development of active, controllable, and non-linear metamaterials, surpassing natural media as platforms for optical data processing and quantum information applications. However, scientists are constantly faced with the need to find new methods that can ensure the formation of quantum and non-linear metamaterials with higher resolution. One such method of producing metamaterials in the future, which will provide scalability and availability, is chemical synthesis. Meanwhile, the chemical synthesis of organized 3D structures with a period of a few nanometers and a size of up to a few millimeters is not an easy task and is yet to be resolved. The most promising avenue seems to be the use of highly porous structures based on metal-organic frameworks that have demonstrated their unique properties in the field of non-linear optics (NLO) over the past three years. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine current progress and the possibilities of using metal-organic frameworks in the field of non-linear optics as chemically obtained metamaterials of the future. The review begins by presenting the theoretical principles of physical phenomena represented by mathematical descriptions for clarity. Major attention is paid to the second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. In this section we compare inorganic single crystals, which are most commonly used to study the effect in question, to organic materials, which also possess the required properties. Based on these data, we present a rationale for the possibility of studying the non-linear optical properties of metal-organic structures as well as describing the use of synthetic approaches and the difficulties associated with them. The second part of the review explicitly acquaints the reader with a new class of materials

  14. Time-Dependent Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility of an Out-of-Equilibrium Soft Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofraniha, Neda; Conti, Claudio; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Zamponi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the time-dependent nonlinear optical absorption of a clay dispersion (Laponite) in an organic dye (rhodamine B) water solution displaying liquid-arrested state transition. Specifically, we determine the characteristic time τD of the nonlinear susceptibility buildup due to the Soret effect. By comparing τD with the relaxation time provided by standard dynamic light scattering measurements we report on the decoupling of the two collective diffusion times at the two very different length scales during the aging of the out-of-equilibrium system. With this demonstration experiment we also show the potentiality of nonlinear optics measurements in the study of the late stage of arrest in soft materials.

  15. Grain neighbour effects on twin transmission in hexagonal close-packed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul Kumar, M.; Beyerlein, I. J.; McCabe, R. J.; Tomé, C. N.

    2016-12-01

    Materials with a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure such as Mg, Ti and Zr are being used in the transportation, aerospace and nuclear industry, respectively. Material strength and formability are critical qualities for shaping these materials into parts and a pervasive deformation mechanism that significantly affects their formability is deformation twinning. The interaction between grain boundaries and twins has an important influence on the deformation behaviour and fracture of hcp metals. Here, statistical analysis of large data sets reveals that whether twins transmit across grain boundaries depends not only on crystallography but also strongly on the anisotropy in crystallographic slip. We show that increases in crystal plastic anisotropy enhance the probability of twin transmission by comparing the relative ease of twin transmission in hcp materials such as Mg, Zr and Ti.

  16. Modeling of nonlinear optic and ESR response of CDW MX materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, A.; Gammel, J.T.; Bishop, A.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shuai, Z.; Bredas, J.L. [Center de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moleculaires, Universite de Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Batistic, I. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Alouani, M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-09-01

    We report results on the nonlinear optic and ESR response of the PtX MX chain materials calculated using a discrete, 3/4-filled, two-band, tight-binding Peierls-Hubbard model. We calculated electroabsorption (EA) spectra for the three PtX (X=Cl, Br, 1) charge-density-wave (CDW) materials and find good agreement with the experimental data. We also obtain EA spectra for localized defects in PtBr. In addition, the field orientation dependence of the electron spin resonance spectra associated with the spin carrying defects is calculated for PtX materials and compared with ESR data on photoinduced defects.

  17. Non-linear model of impurity diffusion in nanoporous materials upon ultrasonic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Peleshchak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear theory of diffusion of impurities in porous materials upon ultrasonic treatment is described. It is shown that at a defined value of deformation amplitude, an average concentration of vacancies and temperature as a result of the effect of ultrasound possibly leads to the formation of nanoclusters of vacancies and to their periodic educations in porous materials. It is shown that at a temperature smaller than some critical value, a significant growth of a diffusion coefficient is observed in porous materials.

  18. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Helical Face-Gear Transmission System with Multi-Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic analysis of the dynamics of a helical face-gear system with 8 degree of freedom is performed in this study under complex excitation. The nonlinear dynamic system is solved by the Runge-Kutta method. The bifurcation and dynamic load characteristics of the system is identified from a series of diagrams. The effect of multi-factor on bifurcation diagrams is also analysed. The results real that with the increase of dimensionless frequency, the system undergoes the process of periodic, chaotic and periodic motions. The amplitude of the dynamic load gradually increases in a certain range and begins to decrease at a certain value. A higher mesh damping coefficient or a higher input torque or a lower gear backlash can reduce the vibration or eliminate chaotic responses.

  19. Experimental study of transmission of a pulsed focused beam through a skull phantom in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsysar, S. A., E-mail: sergey@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Yuldashev, P. V. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Svet, V. D. [Andreyev Acoustics Institute, 4, Shvernik Street, Moscow 117036 (Russian Federation); Sapozhnikov, O. A. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    In the paper the use of receiving and radiating system, which allows to determine the parameters of bone by nonlinear pulse-echo technique and to image of brain structures through the skull bones, was proposed. Accuracy of the skull bone characterization is due to higher measured harmonic and is significantly better than in linear case. In the experimental part focused piezoelectric transducer with diameter 100 mm, focal distance 100 mm, the frequency of 1.092 MHz was used. It was shown that skull bone profiling can be performed with the use of 3rd harmonic since 1st harmonic can be used for visualization of the underlying objects. The use of wideband systems for both skull profiling and brain visualization is restricted by skull attenuation and resulting low effective sensitivity.

  20. Transmission Techniques for Ultra Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing By Using Two Optical Amplifiers in Nonlinear Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Naser A. Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the problem amplification techniques of ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM in nonlinear optical networks are investigated through five transmission techniques. The impact of tailoring of chirped pulses of different temporal waveforms is investigated in a normal dispersion fiber. The set of multiplexed signals are tailored in a different a subset to assure approximately the same output level of power to hold the signal-to-noise ratio at the same level. Moreover, three different transmission techniques, namely, soliton propagation, maximum time division multiplexing (MTDM and ìShannonî capacity, are employed where successive section of alternating dispersion are used as a technique to manage the dispersion. Distributed ìRamanî amplifiers as well as Erbium doped fiber amplifier are engaged to maximize the repeater spacing. We have succeeded to multiplex 2400 (UDWDM channels in the optical range 1.45  1.65 µm with channel spacing ranging from 0.3 up to 0.6 nm where each channel has its own characteristic parameters of loss, dispersion, and amplification. The channels are divided into sub-groups ( each of 4, 5, 6, 7,Ö.,24 where the technique of space division multiplexing (SDM is applied. The multispan effects of ìKerrî nonlinearity and amplifier noise on ìShannonî channel capacity of dispersion-free nonlinear fiber is considered as a ceiling value for the sake of comparison. The case of soliton with modified Raman amplification via parametric gain also is investigated. Each link has special chemical structure, optical signals power, and optical Raman pumping. The cable contains {4, 5, 6, 7,Ö. , 24} links in SDM. It has been shown that the modified Raman gain yields higher effects on the variable under consideration if compared with the conventional Raman gain. The number of links is in positive correlations with the set of effects {Repeater spacing, Soliton product, MTDM product}. In general

  1. Solid-state repetitive generator with a gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line operating as a peak power amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, experiments were made in which gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) operates as a peak power amplifier of the input pulse. At such an operating regime, the duration of the input pulse is close to the period of generated oscillations, and the main part of the input pulse energy is transmitted only to the first peak of the oscillations. Power amplification is achieved due to the voltage amplitude of the first peak across the NLTL output exceeding the voltage amplitude of the input pulse. In the experiments, the input pulse with an amplitude of 500 kV and a half-height pulse duration of 7 ns is applied to the NLTL with a natural oscillation frequency of ˜300 MHz. At the output of the NLTL in 40 Ω coaxial transmission line, the pulse amplitude is increased to 740 kV and the pulse duration is reduced to ˜2 ns, which correspond to power amplification of the input pulse from ˜6 to ˜13 GW. As a source of input pulses, a solid-state semiconductor opening switch generator was used, which allowed carrying out experiments at pulse repetition frequency up to 1 kHz in the burst mode of operation.

  2. Low Frequency Material Characterization of Thin Substrates in a Coaxial Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Captain, USAF Approved: _________// SIGNED //________________ _ 7 Mar 2012___ Dr. Michael J. Havrilla (Chairman) Date...of the modal method. vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my appreciation to my faculty advisor, Dr. Michael Havrilla , for...Electromagnetic Fields, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1961 [11] Hyde, Milo W. IV, M.J. Havrilla , and E.J. Rothwell, “A Transmission-Based Material

  3. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  4. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  5. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  6. Current transmission and nonlinear effects in un-gated thermionic cathode RF guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P. [Fermilab; Harris, J. R. [Air Force Weapons Lab

    2017-05-03

    Un-gated thermionic cathode RF guns are well known as a robust source of electrons for many accelerator applications. These sources are in principle scalable to high currents without degradation of the transverse emittance due to control grids but they are also known for being limited by back-bombardment. While back-bombardment presents a significant limitation, there is still a lack of general understanding on how emission over the whole RF period will affect the nature of the beams produced from these guns. In order to improve our understanding of how these guns can be used in general we develop analytical models that predict the transmission efficiency as a function of the design parameters, study how bunch compression and emission enhancement caused by Schottky barrier lowering affect the output current profile in the gun, and study the onset of space-charge limited effects and the resultant virtual cathode formation leading to a modulation in the output current distribution.

  7. Modeling Granular Materials as Compressible Non-Linear Fluids: Heat Transfer Boundary Value Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss three boundary value problems in the flow and heat transfer analysis in flowing granular materials: (i) the flow down an inclined plane with radiation effects at the free surface; (ii) the natural convection flow between two heated vertical walls; (iii) the shearing motion between two horizontal flat plates with heat conduction. It is assumed that the material behaves like a continuum, similar to a compressible nonlinear fluid where the effects of density gradients are incorporated in the stress tensor. For a fully developed flow the equations are simplified to a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed where the effects of various dimensionless numbers representing the effects of heat conduction, viscous dissipation, radiation, and so forth are presented.

  8. The effect of large deformation and material nonlinearity on gel indentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Duan; Yonghao An; Jiaping Zhang; Hanqing Jiang

    2012-01-01

    A gel,an aggregate of polymers with solvents,has dual attributes of solid and liquid as solvent migrates in and out of the polymer network.Indentation has recently been used to characterize the mechanical properties of gels.This paper evaluates the effects of large deformation and material nonlinearity on gel indentation through theoretical modeling and finite element analysis.It is found that large deformation significantly affects the interpretation of the experimental observations and the classical relation between indentation force and depth has limitations for large deformation.The material nonlinearity does not play a very important role on indentation experiment so that the poroelasticity is a good approximation.Based on these observations,this paper proposes an alternative approach to measure the mechanical properties of gels,namely,uniaxial compression experiment.

  9. (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear propagation equation for ultrashort pulsed beam in left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yong-Hua; Fu Xi-Quan; Wen Shuang-Chun; Su Wen-Hua; Fan Dian-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a comprehensive framework for treating the nonlinear propagation of ultrashort pulse in metamaterial with dispersive dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability is presented. Under the slowly-evolving-wave approximation, a generalized (3+1)-dimensional wave equation first order in the propagation coordinate and suitable for both right-handed material (RHM) and left-handed material (LHM) is derived. By the commonly used Drude dispersive model for LHM, a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation describing ultrashort pulsed beam propagation in LHM is obtained, and its difference from that for conventional RHM is discussed. Particularly, the self-steeping effect of ultrashort pulse is found to be anomalous in LHM.

  10. Beyond the perturbative description of the nonlinear optical response of low-index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Orad; Giese, Enno; Zahirul Alam, M; De Leon, Israel; Upham, Jeremy; Boyd, Robert W

    2017-08-15

    We show that standard approximations in nonlinear optics are violated for situations involving a small value of the linear refractive index. Consequently, the conventional equation for the intensity-dependent refractive index, n(I)=n0+n2I, becomes inapplicable in epsilon-near-zero and low-index media, even in the presence of only third-order effects. For the particular case of indium tin oxide, we find that the χ((3)), χ((5)), and χ((7)) contributions to refraction eclipse the linear term; thus, the nonlinear response can no longer be interpreted as a perturbation in these materials. Although the response is non-perturbative, we find no evidence that the power series expansion of the material polarization diverges.

  11. Third-order nonlinear optical materials: practical issues and theoretical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoć, Marek

    2011-09-01

    The renewed interest in all-optical switching has led to more detailed experimental investigations of nonlinear optical properties of materials within wide wavelength ranges. The objectives of these studies are discussed here in the context of the availability of suitable computational data that might be compared with the results of the experimental research. It is concluded that the currently available data are insufficient and should be augmented to provide better guidance for experimental work.

  12. Understanding of Materials State and its Degradation using Non-Linear Ultrasound (NLU) Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    at Ultrasonic Frequencies, Journal of Applied Physics 105, 043520, Hikata A., Chick B. B., and Elbaum C., (1965) Dislocation Contribution to the...Second Harmonic Generation of ultrasonic waves, Journal of Applied Physics Vol. 36 Number1 Hikata A. and Elbaum C., (1966) Generation of...Material Damage in a Nickel-base Superalloy using Nonlinear Rayleigh Surface Waves, Journal of Applied Physics 99, 124913 Hurley D. C., Balzar D

  13. Implementation of tristate logic based all optical flip-flop with nonlinear material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Partha Ghosh; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    @@ The advantages of multivalued logic in optical parallel computation need no introduction. There are lots of proposals, already reported, where tristate, quarternary state logic operations can be performed with optics. Here we report a new approach to implement tristate logic based all optical flip-flop using optical nonlinear material. The concept and the principle of operation of this type of flip-flop are different from that of the conventional binary one.

  14. Achieving low-emissivity materials with high transmission for broadband radio-frequency signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chang, Huiting; Xu, Tao; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Chi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Hu, Xinhua

    2017-07-07

    The use of low-emissivity (low-e) materials in modern buildings is an extremely efficient way to save energy. However, such materials are coated by metallic films, which can strongly block radio-frequency signals and prevent indoor-outdoor wireless communication. Here, we demonstrate that, when specially-designed metallic metasurfaces are covered on them, the low-e materials can remain low emissivity for thermal radiation and allow very high transmission for a broad band of radio-frequency signals. It is found that the application of air-connected metasurfaces with subwavelength periods is critical to the observed high transmission. Such effects disappear if periods are comparable to wavelengths or metal-connected structures are utilized. The conclusion is supported by both simulations and experiments. Advantages such as easy to process, low cost, large-area fabrication and design versatility of the metasurface make it a promising candidate to solve the indoor outdoor communication problem.

  15. A contribution to the development of wide band-gap nonlinear optical laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Sundberg, Jennifer Leigh

    The primary focus of this work is on examining structure-property relationships of interest for high-power nonlinear optical and laser crystals. An intuitive and simply illustrated method for assessing the nonlinear optical potential of structurally characterized noncentrosymmetric materials is introduced. This method is applied to materials including common quartz and tourmaline and then extended to synthetic materials including borates, silicates, aluminates, and phosphates. Particularly, the contributions of symmetric tetrahedral and triangular anionic groups are inspected. It is shown that both types of groups significantly contribute to the optical frequency converting abilities of noncentrosymmetric crystals. In this study, several known materials are included as well as several new materials. The roles of the orientation, composition, and packing density of these anionic groups are also discussed. The structures and optical properties of the known materials BPO 4, NaAlO2, LaCa4O(BO3)3, and tourmaline; the new compounds La0.8Y0.2Sc3 (BO3)4 and Ba2B10O 17; and the laser host Sr3Y0.75Yb0.25(BO 3)3 are described.

  16. Step-size selection for split-step based nonlinear compensation with coherent detection in 112-Gb/s 16-QAM transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chien-Yu Lin; Rameez Asif; Michael Holtmannspoetter; Bernhard Schmauss

    2012-01-01

    Non-uniform step-size distribution is implemented for split-step based nonlinear compensation in single-channel 112-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmission. Numerical simulations of the system including a 20x80 km uncompensated link are performed using logarithmic step size distribution to compensate signal distortions. 50% of reduction in number of steps with respect to using constant step sizes is observed. The performance is further improved by optimizing nonlinear calculating position (NLCP) in case of using constant step sizes while NLCP optimization becomes unnecessary when using logarithmic step sizes, which reduces the computational effort due to uniformly distributed nonlinear phase for all successive steps.%Non-uniform step-size distribution is implemented for split-step based nonlinear compensation in singlechannel 112-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmission.Numerical simulations of the system including a 20×80 km uncompensated link are performed using logarithmic step size distribution to compensate signal distortions.50% of reduction in number of steps with respect to using constant step sizes is observed.The performance is further improved by optimizing nonlinear calculating position (NLCP) in case of using constant step sizes while NLCP optimization becomes unnecessary when using logarithmic step sizes,which reduces the computational effort due to uniformly distributed nonlinear phase for all successive steps.

  17. Cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in conjugated energetic materials: A TD-DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifain, Andrew E; Tadesse, Loza F; Bjorgaard, Josiah A; Chavez, David E; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Scharff, R Jason; Tretiak, Sergei

    2017-03-21

    Conjugated energetic molecules (CEMs) are a class of explosives with high nitrogen content that posses both enhanced safety and energetic performance properties and are ideal for direct optical initiation. As isolated molecules, they absorb within the range of conventional lasers. Crystalline CEMs are used in practice, however, and their properties can differ due to intermolecular interaction. Herein, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of monomers and dimers obtained from experimentally determined crystal structures of CEMs. OPA scales linearly with the number of chromophore units, while TPA scales nonlinearly, where a more than 3-fold enhancement in peak intensity, per chromophore unit, is calculated. Cooperative enhancement depends on electronic delocalization spanning both chromophore units. An increase in sensitivity to nonlinear laser initiation makes these materials suitable for practical use. This is the first study predicting a cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in energetic materials composed of relatively small molecules. The proposed model quantum chemistry is validated by comparison to crystal structure geometries and the optical absorption of these materials dissolved in solution.

  18. Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy Applications in Nano-Materials and Nano-Technology Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Nano-technology development is nowadays a very hot topics in many research fields. Nano-materials are the foundations for developing this new technology. In order to fully understand the basic material science problems behind this topics, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) becomes the must and one of the most important technique to analyze the nano-size structure and composition using the most advanced high resolution TEM technique with nano-beam EDS and energy filter EELS to study the fine structures, crystallography, chemical composition, and optical properties of many different nano-materials in different industries applications.

  19. Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy Applications in Nano-Materials and Nano-Technology Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAI; J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nano-technology development is nowadays a very hot topics in many research fields. Nano-materials are the foundations for developing this new technology. In order to fully understand the basic material science problems behind this topics, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) becomes the must and one of the most important technique to analyze the nano-size structure and composition using the most advanced high resolution TEM technique with nano-beam EDS and energy filter EELS to study the fine structures, crystallography, chemical composition, and optical properties of many different nano-materials in different industries applications.  ……

  20. Secondary electron imaging of monolayer materials inside a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretu, Ovidiu, E-mail: cretu.ovidiu@nims.go.jp; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazutomo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)

    2015-08-10

    A scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a backscattered and secondary electron detector is shown capable to image graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. Secondary electron contrasts of the two lightest monolayer materials are clearly distinguished from the vacuum level. A signal difference between these two materials is attributed to electronic structure differences, which will influence the escape probabilities of the secondary electrons. Our results show that the secondary electron signal can be used to distinguish between the electronic structures of materials with atomic layer sensitivity, enhancing its applicability as a complementary signal in the analytical microscope.

  1. Metal-nanocluster composites made by ion implantation: A novel third-order nonlinear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Yang, L.; Magruder, R.H. III; Becker, K.; Wittig, J.E. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); White, C.W.; Zhur, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yang, L.; Dorsinville, R.; Alfano, R.R. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)

    1993-03-01

    We describe our recent studies of metal-insulator nanocluster composites made by ion implantation in such substrates as glass and sapphire. The metal clusters have diameters ranging from 3 to 30 nm. The composites exhibit an electronic nonlinear optical response which is fast on the picosecond time scale. In addition to possibilities for technological application, these materials also offer a way of studying unusual properties of composite materials, such as the quantum confinement of conduction-band electrons and the transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} as a function of cluster size.

  2. Metal-nanocluster composites made by ion implantation: A novel third-order nonlinear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Yang, L.; Magruder, R.H. III; Becker, K.; Wittig, J.E. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); White, C.W.; Zhur, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Yang, L.; Dorsinville, R.; Alfano, R.R. (City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    We describe our recent studies of metal-insulator nanocluster composites made by ion implantation in such substrates as glass and sapphire. The metal clusters have diameters ranging from 3 to 30 nm. The composites exhibit an electronic nonlinear optical response which is fast on the picosecond time scale. In addition to possibilities for technological application, these materials also offer a way of studying unusual properties of composite materials, such as the quantum confinement of conduction-band electrons and the transverse relaxation time T[sub 2] as a function of cluster size.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Properties of a MMA-Silica Nanohybrid Material Doped with Rhodamine 6G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanohybrid material based on MMA-Silica has been synthesized with an organic dye dopant (R6G to tailor the optical properties. This novel material can be used on several devices such as active laser media for an organic solid state laser, OLEDs, or as a characterization media for new organic dye molecules. Thin films were deposited by dip-coating and characterized by absorption and reflection UV-VIS, photoluminescence, SEM, and Z-scan technique to verify their nonlinear behavior. R6G dye dopant has been used to verify that the nanohybrid matrix does not inhibit its optical properties.

  4. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinearities on the Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1997-01-01

    Previously developed analytical formulations for piezoelectric composite plates are extended to account for the nonlinear effects of temperature on material properties. The temperature dependence of the composite and piezoelectric properties are represented at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. In addition to capturing thermal effects from temperature dependent material properties, this formulation also accounts for thermal effects arising from: (1) coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the various composite and piezoelectric plies and (2) pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric material. The constitutive equations are incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory to provide a unified representation of the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of smart structures. Corresponding finite element equations are derived and implemented for a bilinear plate element with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of piezoelectric composite laminates. Numerical studies are conducted on a simply supported composite plate with attached piezoceramic patches under thermal gradients to investigate the nonlinear effects of material property temperature dependence on the displacements, sensory voltages, active voltages required to minimize thermal deflections, and the resultant stress states.

  5. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  6. Emerging Low-Dimensional Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Guo, Qiangbing; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-02-22

    Low-dimensional (LD) materials demonstrate intriguing optical properties, which lead to applications in diverse fields, such as photonics, biomedicine and energy. Due to modulation of electronic structure by the reduced structural dimensionality, LD versions of metal, semiconductor and topological insulators (TIs) at the same time bear distinct nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as compared with their bulk counterparts. Their interaction with short pulse laser excitation exhibits a strong nonlinear character manifested by NLO absorption, giving rise to optical limiting or saturated absorption associated with excited state absorption and Pauli blocking in different materials. In particular, the saturable absorption of these emerging LD materials including two-dimensional semiconductors as well as colloidal TI nanoparticles has recently been utilized for Q-switching and mode-locking ultra-short pulse generation across the visible, near infrared and middle infrared wavelength regions. Beside the large operation bandwidth, these ultrafast photonics applications are especially benefit from the high recovery rate as well as the facile processibility of these LD materials. The prominent NLO response of these LD materials have also provided new avenues for the development of novel NLO and photonics devices for all-optical control as well as optical circuits beyond ultrafast lasers.

  7. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  8. Metal-organic frameworks for electronics: emerging second order nonlinear optical and dielectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Shruti; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Usman, Muhammad; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2015-10-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been intensively studied over the past decade because they represent a new category of hybrid inorganic-organic materials with extensive surface areas, ultrahigh porosity, along with the extraordinary tailorability of structure, shape and dimensions. In this highlight, we summarize the current state of MOF research and report on structure-property relationships for nonlinear optical (NLO) and dielectric applications. We focus on the design principles and structural elements needed to develop potential NLO and low dielectric (low-κ) MOFs with an emphasis on enhancing material performance. In addition, we highlight experimental evidence for the design of devices for low-dielectric applications. These results motivate us to develop better low-dielectric and NLO materials and to perform in-depth studies related to deposition techniques, patterning and the mechanical performance of these materials in the future.

  9. Growth and characterization of dexterous nonlinear optical material: Dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol (DMAPNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.

    2016-08-01

    The crystals (dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol [DMAPNP] suitable for NLO applications were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of DMAPNP specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of P212121. The ocular precision in the intact visible region was found to be good for non-linear optical claim. Quality of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of DMAPNP sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The third order nonlinear optical properties of DMAPNP crystals were premeditated by Z-scan method. Birefringence and optical homogeneity of the crystal were evaluated using modified channel spectrum method. The half wave voltage of the grown crystal deliberate from the elector optic experimentation. Photoconductivity measurement specified consummate of inducing dipoles owing to brawny incident radiation and also disclose the nonlinear activities of the grown specimen.

  10. Second harmonic generation of near millimeter wave radiation by nonlinear bulk material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B. H.

    1980-06-01

    Bulk crystals have been used frequently to obtain second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of radiation from the fundamental input frequency, particularly in the optical region. For example ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, semiconductor materials, and ferroelectric materials were used for the SHG of input laser beams. SHG and THG have also been realized in the microwave region. Boyd, et. al., reported on the nonlinear coefficients and other important parameters at 55 GHz. Later, Boyd and Pollack published a comprehensive paper on the nonlinear coefficients of LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 in the microwave region. DiDomenico, Jrl, et. al., obtained a 9 GHz TH output with an efficiency of 8.5% from a 2200 watt 3 GHz source by use of a 73% BaTiO3 - 27% SrTiO3 ceramic in a coaxial cavity configuration. Impetus for bulk harmonic generation in the microwave region was given by the discovery that some ferroelectric crystals have very large nonlinear coefficients, large enough to compensate for the lower frequencies of the microwave region in comparison to those of the optical region.

  11. In-situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy of catalytic materials under reaction conditions

    OpenAIRE

    E. Smit; Creemer, J.F.; Zandbergen, H. W.; Weckhuysen, B. M.; Groot, F.M.F. de

    2009-01-01

    In-situ Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) allows the measurement of the soft X-ray absorption spectra with 10 to 30 nm spatial resolution under realistic reaction conditions. We show that STXM-XAS in combination with a micromachined nanoreactor can image a catalytic system under relevant reaction conditions, and provide detailed information on the morphology and composition of the catalyst material. The nanometer resolution combined with powerful chemical speciation by XAS and the...

  12. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  13. A computer program for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Thompson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program was developed for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic constitutive models. Four specific models, i.e., those due to Miller, Walker, Krieg-Swearengen-Rhode, and Robinson, are included. Any other unified model is easily implemented into the program in the form of subroutines. Analysis features include stress-strain cycling, creep response, stress relaxation, thermomechanical fatigue loop, or any combination of these responses. An outline is given on the theoretical background of uniaxial constitutive models, analysis procedure, and numerical integration methods for solving the nonlinear constitutive equations. In addition, a discussion on the computer program implementation is also given. Finally, seven numerical examples are included to demonstrate the versatility of the computer program developed.

  14. Three-dimensional Material and Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narasimhan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 3-D viscoplastic analysis of adhesively bonded single lap joint considering material and geometric nonlinearity. Total Lagrangian formulation is used to develop a 3-D finite element for geometric nonlinear analysis. The overall geometry of the single lap joint, the loading, and the boundary conditions has been considered, both according to the ASTM testing standards and from those adopted in earlier investigations. The constitutive relations for the adhesive are developed using a pressure-dependant (modified von Mises yield function and Ramberg-Osgood idealisation for the experimental stress-strain curve. The adherends and adhesive layers are both modelled using 20-noded solid elements. However, observations have been made, in particular, on peel and shear stresses in the adhesive layer, which provide useful insight into the 3-D nature of the problem.

  15. Crystal growth and characterizations of L-cystine dihydrobromide—A semiorganic nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2010-02-01

    Single crystal of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-cystine dihydrobromide, was grown successfully from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to determine the cell parameters. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the structure of the grown title compound. The functional groups and vibrational frequencies have been identified using FTIR and FT Raman spectral data. Transmittance of the title compound was analyzed using UV-Vis spectrum. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was found using Vickers microhardness measurement. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was determined with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behavior of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test and its SHG efficiency was found as deff=0.38 deff (KDP).

  16. Crystal growth and characterizations of L-cystine dihydrobromide-A semiorganic nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M. [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203, Chennai (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.co [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Chennai (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Chennai (India)

    2010-02-15

    Single crystal of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-cystine dihydrobromide, was grown successfully from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to determine the cell parameters. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the structure of the grown title compound. The functional groups and vibrational frequencies have been identified using FTIR and FT Raman spectral data. Transmittance of the title compound was analyzed using UV-Vis spectrum. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was found using Vickers microhardness measurement. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was determined with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behavior of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test and its SHG efficiency was found as d{sub eff}=0.38d{sub eff} (KDP).

  17. A nonlinear manifold-based reduced order model for multiscale analysis of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Satyaki; Matouš, Karel

    2016-05-01

    A new manifold-based reduced order model for nonlinear problems in multiscale modeling of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials is presented. The model relies on a global geometric framework for nonlinear dimensionality reduction (Isomap), and the macroscopic loading parameters are linked to the reduced space using a Neural Network. The proposed model provides both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution in the context of computational homogenization. To construct the manifold, we perform a number of large three-dimensional simulations of a statistically representative unit cell using a parallel finite strain finite element solver. The manifold-based reduced order model is verified using common principles from the machine-learning community. Both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution are demonstrated on a large three-dimensional example and the local microscopic fields as well as the homogenized macroscopic potential are obtained with acceptable engineering accuracy.

  18. Nonlinear constitutive law for ferroelectric/ ferroelastic material and its finite element realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YaoChen

    2007-01-01

    The hysteresis phenomena of ferroelectric/ferroelastic material in polarization procedure are investigated.Some assumptions are presented based on the published experimental data.The electrical yielding criterion,mechanical yielding criterion and isotropic hardening model are established.The flow theory in incremental forms in polarization procedure is presented.The nonlinear constitutive law for electrical-mechanical coupling is proposed phenomenologically.Finally,the nonlinear constitutive law expressed in a form of matrices and vectors,which is immediately associated with finite element analysis,is formulated.In the example problem of a rectangular specimen subjected to a uniaxial electric field,the procedure from virgin state to fully polarized state is simulated.Afterward,a uniaxial compressive loading is applied to depolarizing the specimen.Results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Nonlinear constitutive law for ferroelectric/ferroelastic material and its finite element realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hysteresis phenomena of ferroelectric/ferroelastic material in polarization procedure are investigated. Some assumptions are presented based on the published experimental data. The electrical yielding criterion, mechanical yielding criterion and isotropic hardening model are established. The flow theory in incremental forms in polarization procedure is presented. The nonlinear constitutive law for electrical-mechanical coupling is proposed phenomenologically. Finally, the nonlinear constitutive law expressed in a form of matrices and vectors, which is immediately associated with finite element analysis, is formulated. In the example problem of a rectangular specimen subjected to a uniaxial electric field, the procedure from virgin state to fully polarized state is simulated. Afterward, a uniaxial compressive loading is applied to depolarizing the specimen. Results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  20. In-situ Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy of catalytic materials under reaction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smit, Emiel; Creemer, J. Fredrik; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; de Groot, Frank M. F.

    2009-11-01

    In-situ Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) allows the measurement of the soft X-ray absorption spectra with 10 to 30 nm spatial resolution under realistic reaction conditions. We show that STXM-XAS in combination with a micromachined nanoreactor can image a catalytic system under relevant reaction conditions, and provide detailed information on the morphology and composition of the catalyst material. The nanometer resolution combined with powerful chemical speciation by XAS and the ability to image materials under realistic conditions opens up new opportunities to study many chemical processes.

  1. In-situ Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy of catalytic materials under reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Emiel de; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Groot, Frank M F de [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis group, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Creemer, J Fredrik [DIMES-ECTM, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GB Delft (Netherlands); Zandbergen, Henny W, E-mail: e.desmit@uu.n [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, National Centre for High Resolution Electron Microscopy, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In-situ Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) allows the measurement of the soft X-ray absorption spectra with 10 to 30 nm spatial resolution under realistic reaction conditions. We show that STXM-XAS in combination with a micromachined nanoreactor can image a catalytic system under relevant reaction conditions, and provide detailed information on the morphology and composition of the catalyst material. The nanometer resolution combined with powerful chemical speciation by XAS and the ability to image materials under realistic conditions opens up new opportunities to study many chemical processes.

  2. Comment on "Compact envelope dark solitary wave in a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line" [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3801-3809

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamgoué, Serge Bruno; Pelap, François Beceau

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the equation modeling envelope waves in a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line (NLTL) considered a few years back in Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 3801-3809. Using a combination of rotating wave approximation and the Gardner-Morikawa transformation, we show that the modulated waves are described by a new type of extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In addition the expressions of several coefficients of this equation are found to be strongly different from those given earlier. As a consequence, key relationships between these coefficients that sustained the previous analysis are broken.

  3. Ultrafast Z-scan measurements of nonlinear optical constants of window materials at 772, 1030, and 1550 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Steven R; Beadie, Guy; Bayya, Shyam S; Shaw, Brandon; Auxier, Jason M

    2015-11-01

    Femtosecond Z-scan measurements have been performed on six window materials at 772, 1030, and 1550 nm. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index are presented for reference materials, fused silica and BK7 and four near-infrared window materials, multispectral ZnS (CLEARTRAN), aluminum oxynitride (AlON), spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic, and barium gallogermanate (BGG) glass.

  4. Cracks and pores - Their roles in the transmission of water confined in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo, H. N.; Aldridge, L. P.; Wuttke, J.; Fernando, K.; Bertram, W. K.; Pardo, L. C.

    2010-10-01

    Cement paste is formed through a process called hydration by combining water with a cementitious material. Concrete, the worlds most versatile and most widely used material, can then be obtained when aggregates (sand, gravel, crushed stone) are added to the paste. The quality of hardened concrete is greatly influenced by the water confined in the cementitious materials and how it is transmitted through cracks and pores. Here we demonstrate that the water transport in cracks and capillary pores of hardened cement pastes can be approximately modeled by simple equations. Our findings highlight the significance of arresting the development of cracks in cementitious materials used in repository barriers. We also show that neutron scattering is an advantageous technique for understanding how water transmission is effected by gel pore structures. Defining measurable differences in gel pores may hold a key to prediction of the reduction of water transport through cement barriers.

  5. Measurement of nonlinear optical refraction of composite material based on sapphire with silver by Kerr-lens autocorrelation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-xiang; Wang, Yu-hua

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n(2) = -1.1 × 10(-15) cm(2)W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

  6. MODAL ANALYSIS OF HEAVY VEHICLE TRUCK TRANSMISSION GEARBOX HOUSING MADE FROM DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWANI KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy vehicle truck transmission gearbox housing is subjected to load fluctuations, harmonic excitation, gear meshing excitation, gear defects, varying speed and torque conditions. Transmission errors and internal excitations are the root cause of vibration and noise. The main objective of this research work is weight calculation and modal analysis of gearbox housing. For weight calculation four different materials have been selected, apart from weight calculation the material mechanical properties influence on natural frequency and mode shape of transmission gearbox housing was also simulated using modal analysis. Grey cast iron FG260, Grey cast iron HT200, structural steel and Al alloys are the four materials used for the weight calculation process. Zero displacement constraint based boundary condition was applied for simulation. FEA based numerical simulation method was used to find the natural frequency, mode shapes and weight calculation of housing. The FEA simulation results show that the natural frequency of all materials varies (1669-4655 Hz. In weight calculation the weight of Al alloys housing is minimum (21.102 kg.The housing weight of Grey cast iron HT200 and FG260 is same, 54.85 kg. The density of structural steel is high, which increases the weight of housing as 59.80 kg. The modal analysis results show the lateral vibration, axial bending vibration, torsional vibration, and axial bending with torsional vibration. The vibration signature patterns for first twenty modes were studied for four different materials. Solid Edge and Pro-E software have good feature suited for complex geometric modeling. FEA based software Ansys 14.5 is used for modal analysis. The result of this research work has been verified with experimental result available in literature.

  7. A review of predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matouš, Karel; Geers, Marc G. D.; Kouznetsova, Varvara G.; Gillman, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial age, material performance and design have been in the midst of innovation of many disruptive technologies. Today's electronics, space, medical, transportation, and other industries are enriched by development, design and deployment of composite, heterogeneous and multifunctional materials. As a result, materials innovation is now considerably outpaced by other aspects from component design to product cycle. In this article, we review predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials. Deeper attention is given to multiscale modeling in space and to computational homogenization in addressing challenging materials science questions. Moreover, we discuss a state-of-the-art platform in predictive image-based, multiscale modeling with co-designed simulations and experiments that executes on the world's largest supercomputers. Such a modeling framework consists of experimental tools, computational methods, and digital data strategies. Once fully completed, this collaborative and interdisciplinary framework can be the basis of Virtual Materials Testing standards and aids in the development of new material formulations. Moreover, it will decrease the time to market of innovative products.

  8. A review of predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matouš, Karel, E-mail: kmatous@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Geers, Marc G.D.; Kouznetsova, Varvara G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gillman, Andrew [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial age, material performance and design have been in the midst of innovation of many disruptive technologies. Today's electronics, space, medical, transportation, and other industries are enriched by development, design and deployment of composite, heterogeneous and multifunctional materials. As a result, materials innovation is now considerably outpaced by other aspects from component design to product cycle. In this article, we review predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials. Deeper attention is given to multiscale modeling in space and to computational homogenization in addressing challenging materials science questions. Moreover, we discuss a state-of-the-art platform in predictive image-based, multiscale modeling with co-designed simulations and experiments that executes on the world's largest supercomputers. Such a modeling framework consists of experimental tools, computational methods, and digital data strategies. Once fully completed, this collaborative and interdisciplinary framework can be the basis of Virtual Materials Testing standards and aids in the development of new material formulations. Moreover, it will decrease the time to market of innovative products.

  9. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  10. Prediction of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. General theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, B.; Moore, C.; Zutaut, S.

    1993-01-01

    The prediction of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials is geared to assist materials scientists in the selection of good candidate molecules. A brief summary of the quantum mechanical methods used for estimating hyperpolarizabilities will be presented. The advantages and limitations of each technique will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the finite-field method for calculating first and second order hyperpolarizabilities, since this method is better suited for large molecules. Corrections for dynamic fields and bulk effects will be discussed in detail, focusing on solvent effects, conformational isomerization, core effects, dispersion, and hydrogen bonding. Several results will be compared with data obtained from third-harmonic-generation (THG) and dc-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) measurements. These comparisons will demonstrate the qualitative ability of the method to predict the relative strengths of hyperpolarizabilities of a class of compounds. The future application of molecular mechanics, as well as other techniques, in the study of bulk properties and solid state defects will be addressed. The relationship between large values for nonlinear optical properties and large conjugation lengths is well known, and is particularly important for third-order processes. For this reason, the materials with the largest observed nonresonant third-order properties are conjugated polymers. An example of this type of polymer is polydiacetylene. One of the problems in dealing with polydiacetylene is that substituents which may enhance its nonlinear properties may ultimately prevent it from polymerizing. A model which attempts to predict the likelihood of solid-state polymerization is considered, along with the implications of the assumptions that are used. Calculations of the third-order optical properties and their relationship to first-order properties and energy gaps will be discussed. The relationship between monomeric and

  11. First principles crystal engineering of nonlinear optical materials. I. Prototypical case of urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E.; Tannu, Arman; Dyakov, Alexander A.; Matveeva, Anastasia D.; Freidzon, Alexandra Ya.; Odinokov, Alexey V.; Bagaturyants, Alexander A.

    2017-06-01

    The crystalline materials with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are critically important for several technological applications, including nanophotonic and second harmonic generation devices. Urea is often considered to be a standard NLO material, due to the combination of non-centrosymmetric crystal packing and capacity for intramolecular charge transfer. Various approaches to crystal engineering of non-centrosymmetric molecular materials were reported in the literature. Here we propose using global lattice energy minimization to predict the crystal packing from the first principles. We developed a methodology that includes the following: (1) parameter derivation for polarizable force field AMOEBA; (2) local minimizations of crystal structures with these parameters, combined with the evolutionary algorithm for a global minimum search, implemented in program USPEX; (3) filtering out duplicate polymorphs produced; (4) reoptimization and final ranking based on density functional theory (DFT) with many-body dispersion (MBD) correction; and (5) prediction of the second-order susceptibility tensor by finite field approach. This methodology was applied to predict virtual urea polymorphs. After filtering based on packing similarity, only two distinct packing modes were predicted: one experimental and one hypothetical. DFT + MBD ranking established non-centrosymmetric crystal packing as the global minimum, in agreement with the experiment. Finite field approach was used to predict nonlinear susceptibility, and H-bonding was found to account for a 2.5-fold increase in molecular hyperpolarizability to the bulk value.

  12. An isogeometric Reissner-Mindlin shell element for dynamic analysis considering geometric and material nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Paul; Dornisch, Wolfgang; Klinkel, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The present approach deals with the dynamical analysis of thin structures using an isogeometric Reissner-Mindlin shell formulation. Here, a consistent and a lumped mass matrix are employed for the implicit time integration method. The formulation allows for large displacements and finite rotations. The Rodrigues formula, which incorporates the axial vector is used for the rotational description. It necessitates an interpolation of the director vector in the current configuration. Two concept for the interpolation of the director vector are presented. They are denoted as continuous interpolation method and discrete interpolation method. The shell formulation is based on the assumption of zero stress in thickness direction. In the present formulation an interface to 3D nonlinear material laws is used. It leads to an iterative procedure at each integration point. Here, a J2 plasticity material law is implemented. The suitability of the developed shell formulation for natural frequency analysis is demonstrated in numerical examples. Transient problems undergoing large deformations in combination with nonlinear material behavior are analyzed. The effectiveness, robustness and superior accuracy of the two interpolation methods of the shell director vector are investigated and are compared to numerical reference solutions.

  13. Effects of transverse profile of pump field on second harmonic generation in periodic nonlinear materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJin-Yue; ZhangHan-Zhuang; YangJian-Bing

    2003-01-01

    We report on a theoreticalanalysis of the effects of a converging pump field of Gaussian transverse profile on second harmonic generation in a periodic nonlinear material with quasi-phase-matching. The outputs of the centre intensity and the intensity flux for second harmonic generation are derived by simulation, based on the parameters of quasi-phase-mismatch, the waist and focus positions of the input pump beam. The results show that when the transverse profile of the pump field is taken into account, the quasi-phase-match value and focus position of input beam for maximal second harmonic generation flollow new criteria.

  14. Effects of transverse profile of pump field on second harmonic generation in periodic nonlinear materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉壮; 杨建冰; 高锦岳

    2003-01-01

    We report on a theoretical analysis of the effects of a converging pump field of Gaussian transverse profile on second harmonic generation in a periodic nonlinear material with quasi-phase-matching. The outputs of the centre intensity and the intensity flux for second harmonic generation are derived by simulation, based on the parameters of quasi-phase-mismatch, the waist and focus positions of the input pump beam. The results show that when the transverse profile of the pump field is taken into account, the quasi-phase-match value and focus position of input beam for maximal second harmonic generation follow new criteria.

  15. Experimental parameter estimation method for nonlinear viscoelastic composite material models: an application on arterial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun; Toprak, Tuncer; Islak, Civan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at setting a method of experimental parameter estimation for large-deforming nonlinear viscoelastic continuous fibre-reinforced composite material model. Specifically, arterial tissue was investigated during experimental research and parameter estimation studies, due to medical, scientific and socio-economic importance of soft tissue research. Using analytical formulations for specimens under combined inflation/extension/torsion on thick-walled cylindrical tubes, in vitro experiments were carried out with fresh sheep arterial segments, and parameter estimation procedures were carried out on experimental data. Model restrictions were pointed out using outcomes from parameter estimation. Needs for further studies that can be developed are discussed.

  16. An all-optical matrix multiplication scheme with non-linear material based switching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archan Kumar Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a potential candidate in information, data, and image processing. In all-optical data and information processing, optics has been used as information carrying signal because of its inherent advantages of parallelism. Several optical methods are proposed in support of the above processing. In many algebraic,arithmetic, and image processing schemes fundamental logic and memory operations are conducted exploring all-optical devices. In this communication we report an all-optical matrix multiplication operation with non-linear material based switching circuit.

  17. Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.

  18. Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.

  19. Nonlinear waves in lattice materials: Adaptively augmented directivity and functionality enhancement by modal mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, R.; Gonella, S.

    2017-02-01

    The motive of this work is to understand the complex spatial characteristics of finite-amplitude elastic wave propagation in periodic structures and leverage the unique opportunities offered by nonlinearity to activate complementary functionalities and design adaptive spatial wave manipulators. The underlying assumption is that the magnitude of wave propagation is small with respect to the length scale of the structure under consideration, albeit large enough to elicit the effects of finite deformation. We demonstrate that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity and modal complexity involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary wave packets that feature multiple characteristics, one of which conforms to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. This provides an opportunity to engineer desired wave characteristics through a geometric and topological design of the unit cell, and results in the ability to activate complementary functionalities, typical of high frequency regimes, while operating at low frequencies of excitation - an effect seldom observed in linear periodic structures. The ability to design adaptive switches is demonstrated here using lattice configurations whose response is characterized by geometric and/or material nonlinearities.

  20. The formation and interpretation of defect images from crystalline materials in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, D M; Joy, D C

    1976-06-01

    The technique of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been employed usefully in studies of amorphous materials, and the theory of image formation and interpretation in this case has been well developed. Less attention has been given to the practical and theoretical problems associated with the use of STEM for the examination of crystalline materials. In this case the contrast mechanisms are dominated by Bragg diffraction and so they are quite different from those occurring in amorphous substances. In this paper practical techniques for the observation and interpretation of contrast from defects in crystalline materials are discussed. It is shown that whilst images of defects are obtained readily under all typical STEM operating conditions, the form of the image and the information it contains varies with the angle subtended at the specimen by the detector. If this angle is too large significant image modifications relative to the "conventional" transmission electron microscope case may occur and the resolution of the image may degrade. If this angle is too small, then signal to noise considerations make an interpretation of the image difficult. In this paper we indicate how the detector angle may be chosen correctly, and also present techniques for setting up a STEM instrument for imaging a crystalline material containing lattice defects.

  1. X-ray transmission through nanostructured and microstructured CuO materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, M.Z. [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano, Rua dos Andradas, 1614, CEP 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kuenzel, R., E-mail: roselikunzel@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Okuno, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Levenhagen, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Rua Arthur Ridel, 275, Jardim Eldorado, CEP 09941-510 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Basegio, T.; Bergmann, C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Materiais, Avenida Osvaldo Aranha, 99, CEP 90035-190 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents a comparison of the X-ray transmission through microsized and nanosized materials. For this purpose CuO nanoparticles, with 13.4 nm average grain size, and CuO microparticles, with a mean particle size of 56{mu}m, were incorporated separately to beeswax in a concentration of 5%. Results show that the transmission through the above material plates with microsized and nanosized CuO was almost the same for X-ray beams generated at 60 and 102 kV tube voltages. However, for the radiation beams generated at 26 and 30 kV tube voltages the X-rays are more attenuated by the nanostructured CuO plates by a factor of at least 14%. Results suggest that the difference in the low energy range may be due to the higher number of particles/gram in the plates designed with CuO nanoparticles and due to the grain size effect on the X-ray transmission.

  2. Quantifying representative elementary volume of connectivity for translucent granular materials by light transmission micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Cheng, Zhou; Wu, Jianfeng; Wu, Jichun

    2017-02-01

    Aquifers composed of granular materials are major repositories of groundwater resource in which water can flow freely and be stored abundantly. Undoubtedly, exploring connectivity of granular materials is essential to understand the mechanism of water and contaminant migration in subsurface environment, while characterizing the connectivity remains a difficult task currently. This study proposes a new light transmission micro-tomography (LTM) with high resolution to address this problem. The new approach relies on scanning micro-structure by light transmission through translucent granular materials in given thickness. An experiment of light transmission through a two dimensional (2D) sandbox packed by heterogeneous translucent silica is conducted to examine the efficiency of LTM in capturing all the features of connectivity including porosity (n), density (ρ), solid phase-pores interface area (Asp), and tortuosity (τ). Considering the importance of representative elementary volume (REV) in characterizing the representativeness and reliability of connectivity, associated REV scales of characteristic variables are also estimated using a criterion of relative gradient error (εgi). Results suggest that the frequencies of minimum REV sizes of connectivity are close to Gaussian distribution in 0.0-12.0 mm and the REV size of approximately 10.0 mm is available to represent connectivity of translucent silica. Then the quantification of connectivity and the corresponding REV estimates are significant for accurate simulation of fluid migration and for associated optimal design of contaminant remediation in subsurface environment. More important, this study provides the possibility of rapid, handy and economical on-site measurements of connectivity for translucent materials.

  3. Environmental transmission electron microscopy for catalyst materials using a spherical aberration corrector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Seiji, E-mail: takeda@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kuwauchi, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hideto

    2015-04-15

    Atomic resolution has been obtained using environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) by installing a spherical aberration corrector (Cs-corrector) on the objective lens. Simultaneously, the technology for controlling the environment around a specimen in ETEM has advanced significantly in the past decade. Quantification methodology has recently been established for deriving relevant experimental data in catalyst materials from substantial and systematic ETEM observation at the atomic scale. With this background, this paper summarizes aspects of the evolutional microscopy technique: necessary conditions for atomic resolution in ETEM; reduction of the scattering of electrons by the medium surrounding a specimen; and an environmental cell for structural imaging of a crystalline specimen. The high spatial resolution of a Cs-corrected ETEM is demonstrated for different observation conditions. After statistical analysis combined with numerical image analysis of ETEM data is briefly described, the recent applications of the Cs-corrected ETEM to catalyst materials are reviewed. For gold nanoparticulate catalysts, the structural information on the reaction sites and adsorption sites are deduced. For Pt nanoparticulate catalysts, ETEM studies elucidate the correlation between the catalytic activity and the morphology of the nanoparticles. These studies also reveal oxidation and reduction on the topmost Pt surface layer at the atomic scale. Finally, current issues and the future perspectives of Cs-corrected ETEM are summarized, including the reproducibility of ETEM observation data, the control of environments, the critical evaluation of electron irradiation effects, the full implementation of transmission electron microscopy technology in ETEM, and the safety issues for an ETEM laboratory. - Highlights: • Advancement of Cs corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy. • Structural determination of catalyst materials in reaction environments.

  4. Fluorooxoborates: Beryllium-Free Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials without Layered Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingbing; Shi, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhihua; Zhang, Fangfang; Pan, Shilie

    2017-03-27

    Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical (DUV NLO) crystals are the key materials to extend the output range of solid-state lasers to below 200 nm. The only practical material KBe2 BO3 F2 suffers high toxicity through beryllium and strong layered growth. Herein, we propose a beryllium-free material design and synthesis strategy for DUV NLO materials. Introducing the (BO3 F)(4-) , (BO2 F2 )(3-) , and (BOF3 )(2-) groups in borates could break through the fixed 3D B-O network that would produce a larger birefringence without layering and simultaneously keep a short cutoff edge down to DUV. The theoretical and experimental studies on a series of fluorooxoborates confirm this strategy. Li2 B6 O9 F2 is identified as a DUV NLO material with a large second harmonic generation efficiency (0.9×KDP) and a large predicted birefringence (0.07) without layering. This study provides a feasible way to break down the DUV wall for NLO materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Performance Analysis of High-speed Optical Pulse Transmission in Dispersion-managed Nonlinear Birefringent Fiber Using Quantum Well Laser Diode Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhui; CHEN Jianping

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the high bit-rate optical pulse trasmission in single mode optical fiber with chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (small random birefringence) and nonlinearity. Numerical method employed can precisely describe their interactive effect on transmission performance. Different dispersion maps and the related performance are analysed. Various simulation results and discussion are given. The results show that chromatic dispersion compensation should be carefully designed. Appropriate dispersion management can also alleviate the effect of polarization mode dispersion.

  6. Transmission and Reflection Terahertz Spectroscopy of Insensitive Melt-Cast High-Explosive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Norbert; Szala, Mateusz

    2016-10-01

    Currently, artillery shells and grenades that are introduced into the market are based on melt-castable insensitive high explosives (IHEs), which do not explode while they run a risk of impact, heat or shrapnel. Particles of explosives (such as hexogen, nitroguanidine and nitrotriazolone) are suspended in different proportions in a matrix of 2.4-dinitroanisole. In this paper, we investigated samples of commonly used IHEs: PAX-41, IMX-104 and IMX-101, whose internal structures were determined by a scanning electron microscope. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy was applied in both transmission and reflection configurations. At first, the complex refraction indices of four pure constituents creating IHEs were determined and became the basis of further calculations. Next, the experimentally determined transmission and reflection spectra of IHEs and pure constituents were compared with theoretical considerations. The influence of the grain size of constituent material and scattering on the reflection spectra was analysed, and good agreement between the experimental and theoretical data was achieved.

  7. DNA-based polymers as chiral templates for second-order nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapun, Duangporn; Hall, Victoria J; Begue, Nathan J; Grote, James G; Simpson, Garth J

    2009-10-19

    The unique symmetry properties of chiral systems allow the emergence of coherent second harmonic generation in polymeric materials lacking polar order. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) treated with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) was drop-cast to spontaneously form films that are active for coherent second harmonic generation (SHG). SHG images acquired as a function of incident and exigent polarization are in good agreement with theoretical predictions assuming nonpolar D(infinity) symmetry for the double-stranded DNA chains. Doping the DNA films with crystal violet substantially increases the efficiency of SHG, but does not significantly alter the polarization-dependence, suggesting that the SHG generated upon doping arises from the same chiral-specific origin, presumably templated by the DNA. These results raise the possibility of new design strategies for organic nonlinear optical materials based on soft chiral polymers that do not require polar order.

  8. Non-linear, visual-rich supplemental material designed for an introductory course in veterinary anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Doris H

    2003-01-01

    A possible reason for superficial learning in an introductory anesthesia course was considered to be a lack of visual reinforcement at the time of examination preparation. Students had limited access to live animal laboratories and clinical cases during the course, reducing their ability to depend on experiential learning. In an attempt to improve student learning, simple presentation software was used to develop a supplemental CD. The design involved multiple PowerPoint presentations that incorporated text, pictures, videos, and self-assessments. Non-linear exploration of the topics covered was made possible by extensive use of hyperlinks within and between presentations, moving the student to definitions, background material, videos, advanced details, and previously covered information. Comments received from students on a prototype were positive overall, and improvements were made related to their feedback. Other supplemental materials and lecture presentations can easily incorporate the techniques described here.

  9. Performance analysis of flow lines with non-linear flow of material

    CERN Document Server

    Helber, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Flow line design is one of the major tasks in production management. The decision to install a set of machines and buffers is often highly irreversible. It determines both cost and revenue to a large extent. In order to assess the economic impact of any possible flow line design, production rates and inventory levels have to be estimated. These performance measures depend on the allocation of buffers whenever the flow of material is occasionally disrupted, for example due to machine failures or quality problems. The book describes analytical methods that can be used to evaluate flow lines much faster than with simulation techniques. Based on these fast analytical techniques, it is possible to determine a flow line design that maximizes the net present value of the flow line investment. The flow of material through the line may be non-linear, for example due to assembly operations or quality inspections.

  10. Dynamic acousto-elastic test using continuous probe wave and transient vibration to investigate material nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J N; Vu, Q A; Lott, M; Payá, J; Garnier, V; Payan, C

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of the dynamic acousto-elastic effect of a continuous high frequency wave for investigating the material nonlinearity upon transient vibration. The approach is demonstrated on a concrete sample measuring 15×15×60cm(3). Two ultrasonic transducers (emitter and receiver) are placed at its middle span. A continuous high frequency wave of 500kHz propagates through the material and is modulated with a hammer blow. The position of the hammer blow on the sample is configured to promote the first bending mode of vibration. The use of a continuous wave allows discrete time extraction of the nonlinear behavior by a short-time Fourier transform approach, through the simultaneous comparison of a reference non-modulated signal and an impact-modulated signal. The hammer blow results in phase shifts and variations of signal amplitude between reference and perturbed signals, which are driven by the resonant frequency of the sample. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the relaxation mechanisms (modulus and attenuation recovery) is conducted to untangle the coupled fast and slow hysteretic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A nonlinear dynamical system approach for the yielding behaviour of a viscoplastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Teodor; Moyers-Gonzalez, Miguel; Sainudiin, Raazesh

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear dynamical system model that approximates a microscopic Gibbs field model for the yielding of a viscoplastic material subjected to varying external stresses recently reported in R. Sainudiin, M. Moyers-Gonzalez and T. Burghelea, Soft Matter, 2015, 11(27), 5531-5545 is presented. The predictions of the model are in fair agreement with microscopic simulations and are in very good agreement with the micro-structural semi-empirical model reported in A. M. V. Putz and T. I. Burghelea, Rheol. Acta, 2009, 48, 673-689. With only two internal parameters, the nonlinear dynamical system model captures several key features of the solid-fluid transition observed in experiments: the effect of the interactions between microscopic constituents on the yield point, the abruptness of solid-fluid transition and the emergence of a hysteresis of the micro-structural states upon increasing/decreasing external forces. The scaling behaviour of the magnitude of the hysteresis with the degree of the steadiness of the flow is consistent with previous experimental observations. Finally, the practical usefulness of the approach is demonstrated by fitting a rheological data set measured with an elasto-viscoplastic material.

  12. Simulations of heart valves by thin shells with non-linear material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Hedayat, Mohammadali

    2016-11-01

    The primary function of a heart valve is to allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart. Triangular thin-shell finite element formulation is implemented, which considers only translational degrees of freedom, in three-dimensional domain to simulate heart valves undergoing large deformations. The formulation is based on the nonlinear Kirchhoff thin-shell theory. The developed method is intensively validated against numerical and analytical benchmarks. This method is added to previously developed membrane method to obtain more realistic results since ignoring bending forces can results in unrealistic wrinkling of heart valves. A nonlinear Fung-type constitutive relation, based on experimentally measured biaxial loading tests, is used to model the material properties for response of the in-plane motion in heart valves. Furthermore, the experimentally measured liner constitutive relation is used to model the material properties to capture the flexural motion of heart valves. The Fluid structure interaction solver adopts a strongly coupled partitioned approach that is stabilized with under-relaxation and the Aitken acceleration technique. This work was supported by American Heart Association (AHA) Grant 13SDG17220022 and the Center of Computational Research (CCR) of University at Buffalo.

  13. Study on the nonlinear electromagnetic acoustic resonancee method for th evaluation of hidden damage in a metallic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Choon Su; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Wan [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunngkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, much attention has been paid to nonlinear ultrasonic technology as a potential tool to assess hidden damages that cannot be detected by conventional ultrasonic testing. One nonlinear ultrasonic technique is measurement of the resonance frequency shift, which is based on the hysteresis of the material elasticity. Sophisticated measurement of resonance frequency is required, because the change in resonance frequency is usually quite small. In this investigation, the nonlinear electromagnetic acoustic resonance (NEMAR) method was employed. The NEMAR method uses noncontact electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in order to minimize the effect of the transducer on the frequency response of the object. Aluminum plate specimens that underwent three point bending fatigue were tested witha shear wave EMAT. The hysteretic nonlinear parameter α, a key indicator of damage, was calculated from the resonance frequency shift at several levels of input voltage. The hysteretic nonlinear parameter of a damaged sample was compared to that of an intact one, showing a difference in the values.

  14. Fluororeflectometer for measuring the emission, excitation, reflection and transmission of materials doped with active ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Duverger, Aldo S., E-mail: aldo@cifus.uson.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, México (Mexico); García-Llamas, Raúl, E-mail: ragal@cifus.uson.mx [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, México (Mexico); Aceves, R., E-mail: raceves@cifus.uson.mx [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, México (Mexico)

    2013-04-15

    The design and construction of a new hybrid instrument, which is named a fluororeflectometer, for measuring the radiation from materials doped with rare earth atoms is presented. This instrument operates in two modes. In the XL-λ mode, the instrument measures the luminescence and excitation spectra of the samples. In the RT-λ mode, the instrument measures the specular reflection and transmission spectra of thick or thin films. A photomultiplier (UV-enhanced photodiode) is used when the XL-λ (RT-λ) mode is in operation. The angle of incidence on the sample and the angle of the detected emission can be changed in both modes; the first one is changed manually and the last one is changed automatically. The reflection and transmission spectra from slabs of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} were measured to test the RT-λ mode. These data were fitted using Lorentz-type dispersion for the material, and the densities for each Eu absorption bands were obtained. In the XL-λ mode, the luminescence and excitation spectra from a slab and thin film of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} were obtained. The sensitivity of the instrument enables the luminescence from thin films with thicknesses as low as 3 μm to be measured; in this case, the signal barely exceeded the noise. The emission spectra from a slab of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} for several angles of incidence were measured in the direction parallel to the interfaces of the slab. -- Highlights: ► Develops an instrument for measuring optical properties of phosphors materials. ► Emission, excitation, transmission and reflectance are measured in KCl:Eu{sup 2+} slabs. ► The angular distribution for the emission, measured in situ, is also characterized. ► Its performance was compared with other instruments and good agreement is found. ► Capabilities are found superior to those offered by commercial fluorometers.

  15. Optical transmission radiation damage and recovery stimulation of DSB: Ce3+ inorganic scintillation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, A.; Dormenev, V.; Korjik, M.; Kozlov, D.; Mechinsky, V.; Novotny, R. W.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, a new scintillation material DSB: Ce3+ was announced. It can be produced in a form of glass or nano-structured glass ceramics with application of standard glass production technology with successive thermal annealing. When doped with Ce3+, material can be applied as scintillator. Light yield of scintillation is near 100 phe/MeV. Un-doped material has a wide optical window from 4.5eV and can be applied to detect Cherenkov light. Temperature dependence of the light yield LY(T) is 0.05% which is 40 times less than in case of PWO. It can be used for detectors tolerant to a temperature variation between -20° to +20°C. Several samples with dimensions of 15x15x7 mm3 have been tested for damage effects on the optical transmission under irradiation with γ-quanta. It was found that the induced absorption in the scintillation range depends on the doping concentration and varies in range of 0.5-7 m-1. Spontaneous recovery of induced absorption has fast initial component. Up to 25% of the damaged transmission is recuperated in 6 hours. Afterwards it remains practically constant if the samples are kept in the dark. However, induced absorption is reduced by a factor of 2 by annealing at 50°C and completely removed in a short time when annealing at 100°C. A significant acceleration of the induced absorption recovery is observed by illumination with visible and IR light. This effect is observed for the first time in a Ce-doped scintillation material. It indicates, that radiation induced absorption in DSB: Ce scintillation material can be retained at the acceptable level by stimulation with light in a strong irradiation environment of collider experiments.

  16. Non-linear states of a positive or negative refraction index material in a cavity with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártin, D. A.; Hoyuelos, M.

    2010-06-01

    We study a system composed by a cavity with plane mirrors containing a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. The aim of the work is to present a general picture of possible non-linear states in terms of the relevant parameters of the system. The parameters are the ones that appear in a reduced description that has the form of the Lugiato-Lefever equation. This equation is obtained from two coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations for the electric and magnetic field amplitudes.

  17. An Experimental Research to Study the Microwaves Transmission Characteristics of Ablating Material in Arc-Heated Plasma Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental research the effect of ablating material on the reflection and the transmission of microwaves in arc-heated plasma flow is presented by using the C band microwave measuring system. The results show that the ablating material with accidented surface and its high temperature have remarkably affected the reflection and the transmission of microwaves. The experiment proves that the system has outstanding precision and reliability.

  18. Optimization of Sound Transmission Loss through a Thin Functionally Graded Material Cylindrical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximizing of sound transmission loss (TL across a functionally graded material (FGM cylindrical shell has been conducted using a genetic algorithm (GA. To prevent the softening effect from occurring due to optimization, the objective function is modified based on the first resonant frequency. Optimization is performed over the frequency range 1000–4000 Hz, where the ear is the most sensitive. The weighting constants are chosen here to correspond to an A-weighting scale. Since the weight of the shell structure is an important concern in most applications, the weight of the optimized structure is constrained. Several traditional materials are used and the result shows that optimized shells with aluminum-nickel and aluminum-steel FGM are the most effective at maximizing TL at both stiffness and mass control region, while they have minimum weight.

  19. Enhanced nonlinear optical response of one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeshkin, Nick N; Schweinsberg, Aaron; Piredda, Giovanni; Bennink, Ryan S; Boyd, Robert W

    2004-09-17

    We describe a new type of artificial nonlinear optical material composed of a one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystal. Because of the resonant nature of multiple Bragg reflections, the transmission within the transmission band can be quite large, even though the transmission through the same total thickness of bulk metal would be very small. This procedure allows light to penetrate into the highly nonlinear metallic layers, leading to a large nonlinear optical response. We present experimental results for a Cu/SiO(2) crystal which displays a strongly enhanced nonlinear optical response (up to 12X) in transmission.

  20. Perturbations of flows of incompressible nonlinearly viscous and viscoplastic fluids caused by variations in material functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievskii, D. V.

    2007-06-01

    Material functions are necessary element of the constitutive relations determining any model of continuum. These functions can be defined as a collection of objects from which the operator of constitutive relations can be reconstructed completely. The material functions are found in test experiments and show the differences between a given medium and other media in the framework of the same model [1]. The "test experiment theory" is an important part of modern experimental mechanics. Just as in any experiment, from determining the viscosity coefficient by using the rotational viscosimeters to constructing the yield surface by using machines combined loading, the material functions are determined with an unavoidable error. For example, experimenters know that, in experiments with arbitrary accuracy, the moduli of elasticity can only be measured with an unimprovable tolerance of about 7%. Starting already from [2], the investigators' attention has been repeatedly drawn to the fact that it is necessary to take into account this tolerance in determining the material constants, functions, and functionals in problems of mechanics and especially in analyzing the stability of deformation processes. Mathematically, this means that problems of stability under perturbations of the initial data, external constantly acting forces, domain boundaries, etc. should be supplemented with the assumption that the material functions have unknown perturbations of a certain class [3]. The variations of material functions in the framework of the linearized stability theory were considered in [2, 4, 5]. In what follows, we study isotropic tensor functions in the most general case of scalar and tensor nonlinearity. These functions are assigned the meaning of constitutive relations between the stress and strain rate tensors in continuum. These constitutive relations contain scalar material functions of invariants on which, as follows from the above, some variations proportional to a small

  1. Efficient split field FDTD analysis of third-order nonlinear materials in two-dimensionally periodic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Bej, Subhajit; Tervo, Jani; Navarro-Fuster, Víctor; Fenoll, Sandra; Martínez-Gaurdiola, Francisco J.; Neipp, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    In this work the split-field finite-difference time-domain method (SF-FDTD) has been extended for the analysis of two-dimensionally periodic structures with third-order nonlinear media. The accuracy of the method is verified by comparisons with the nonlinear Fourier Modal Method (FMM). Once the formalism has been validated, examples of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear gratings are analysed. Regarding the 2D case, the shifting in resonant waveguides is corroborated. Here, not only the scalar Kerr effect is considered, the tensorial nature of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is also included. The consideration of nonlinear materials in this kind of devices permits to design tunable devices such as variable band filters. However, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is usually small and high intensities are needed in order to trigger the nonlinear effect. Here, a one-dimensional CBG is analysed in both linear and nonlinear regime and the shifting of the resonance peaks in both TE and TM are achieved numerically. The application of a numerical method based on the finite- difference time-domain method permits to analyse this issue from the time domain, thus bistability curves are also computed by means of the numerical method. These curves show how the nonlinear effect modifies the properties of the structure as a function of variable input pump field. When taking the nonlinear behaviour into account, the estimation of the electric field components becomes more challenging. In this paper, we present a set of acceleration strategies based on parallel software and hardware solutions.

  2. Numerical estimation of 3D mechanical forces exerted by cells on non-linear materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, J; Jorge-Peñas, A; Muñoz-Barrutia, A; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C; de Juan-Pardo, E; García-Aznar, J M

    2013-01-04

    The exchange of physical forces in both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play a significant role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell migration, cancer metastasis, inflammation and wound healing. Therefore, great interest exists in accurately quantifying the forces that cells exert on their substrate during migration. Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is the most widely used method for measuring cell traction forces. Several mathematical techniques have been developed to estimate forces from TFM experiments. However, certain simplifications are commonly assumed, such as linear elasticity of the materials and/or free geometries, which in some cases may lead to inaccurate results. Here, cellular forces are numerically estimated by solving a minimization problem that combines multiple non-linear FEM solutions. Our simulations, free from constraints on the geometrical and the mechanical conditions, show that forces are predicted with higher accuracy than when using the standard approaches.

  3. Graphene Oxides as Tunable Broadband Nonlinear Optical Materials for Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Neo, Shu Ting; Venkatesan, T; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2012-03-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films on glass and plastic substrates were found to display interesting broadband nonlinear optical properties. We have investigated their optical limiting activity for femtosecond laser pulses at 800 and 400 nm, which could be tuned by controlling the extent of reduction. The as-prepared GO films were found to exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting behaviors, which were significantly enhanced upon partial reduction by using laser irradiation or chemical reduction methods. The laser-induced reduction of GO resulted in enhancement of effective two-photon absorption coefficient at 400 nm by up to ∼19 times and enhancement of effective two- and three-photon absorption coefficients at 800 nm by ∼12 and ∼14.5 times, respectively. The optical limiting thresholds of partially reduced GO films are much lower than those of various previously reported materials. Highly reduced GO films prepared by using the chemical method displayed strong saturable absorption behavior.

  4. New approaches for the fabrication of photonic structures of nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, J.J., E-mail: joanjosep.carvajal@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pena, A.; Kumar, R.; Pujol, M.C.; Mateos, X.; Aguilo, M. [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Diaz, F., E-mail: f.diaz@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Vazquez de Aldana, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Moreno, P.; Roso, L. [Servicio Laser, Univ. Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Trifonov, T.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Kral, Z.; Ferre-Borrull, J.; Pallares, J.; Marsal, L.F. [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Di Finizio, S.; Macovez, R. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We revisited two different strategies to fabricate 1D photonic crystals of nonlinear optical dielectric materials based on ultrafast laser ablation of the surface of an RbTiOPO{sub 4} crystal, and selective etching of ferroelectric domains of the surface of a periodically poled LiNbO{sub 4} crystal. We evaluated their behaviour as Bragg diffraction gratings. We also presented the recent advances we developed in a new procedure of fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic crystals of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) grown on the surface of a KTP substrate by liquid phase epitaxial means within the pores of a silicon macroporous template. Optical, structural, morphological, and compositional characterization for the photonic crystals produced through this technique are presented.

  5. Growth and characterization of proficient second order nonlinear optical material: L-asparaginium picrate (LASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Senthil, A.; Rajasekar, S. Abraham

    2016-09-01

    Good optical quality, potential second order nonlinear optical crystal L-asparaginium picrate (LASP) was grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width of LASP specimen was studied. The LASP crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. UV-Visible-NIR transmittance spectrum determines the optical band gap of LASP. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of LASP sample was investigated at different temperatures. The piezoelectric nature, Photoconductive nature and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for various particle sizes) of the material were also studied. Birefringence and ocular (optical) homogeneity of the crystal were assessed using modified channel spectrum method.

  6. First Example of Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Nanoconjugates of Sandwich Phthalocyanines with Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, David O; Yagodin, Alexey V; Mkhize, Nhlakanipho C; Sekhosana, Kutloano E; Martynov, Alexander G; Gorbunova, Yulia G; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-02-24

    We report original, selective, and efficient approaches to novel nonlinear optical (NLO) materials, namely homoleptic double- and triple-decker europium(III) complexes 2 and 3 with the A3 B-type phthalocyanine ligand (2,3-bis[2'-(2''-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexa-n-butoxyphthalocyanine 1) bearing two anchoring diethyleneglycol chains terminated with OH groups. Their covalently linked nanoconjugates with mercaptosuccinic acid-capped ternary CdSeTe/CdTeS/ZnSeS quantum dots are prepared in the presence of an ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide activating agent. Optical limiting (OL) properties of the obtained low-symmetry complexes and their conjugates with quantum dots (QDs) are measured for the first time by the open-aperture Z-scan technique (532 nm laser and pulse rate of 10 ns). For comparison, symmetrical double- and triple-decker Eu(III) octa-n-butoxyphthalocyaninates 5 and 6 and their mixtures with trioctylphosphine oxide-capped QDs are also synthesized and studied. It is revealed that both lowering of molecular symmetry and expansion of the π-electron system upon moving from double- to triple-decker complexes significantly improves the OL characteristics, making the low-symmetry triple-decker complex 3 the most efficient optical limiter in the studied family of sandwich complexes, affording 50 % lowering of light transmittance below 0.5 J cm(-2) input fluence. Conjugation (both covalent and noncovalent) with QDs affords further enhancement of the OL properties of both double- and triple-decker complexes. Altogether, the obtained results contribute to the development of novel nonlinear optical materials for future nanoelectronic and optical device applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Organized chromophoric assemblies for nonlinear optical materials: towards (sub)wavelength scale architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialiang; Semin, Sergey; Rasing, Theo; Rowan, Alan E

    2015-03-01

    Photonic circuits are expected to greatly contribute to the next generation of integrated chips, as electronic integrated circuits become confronted with bottlenecks such as heat generation and bandwidth limitations. One of the main challenges for the state-of-the-art photonic circuits lies in the development of optical materials with high nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities, in particular in the wavelength and subwavelength dimensions which are compatible with on-chip technologies. In this review, the varied approaches to micro-/nanosized NLO materials based on building blocks of bio- and biomimetic molecules, as well as synthetic D-π-A chromophores, have been categorized as supramolecular self-assemblies, molecular scaffolds, and external force directed assemblies. Such molecular and supramolecular NLO materials have intrinsic advantages, such as structural diversities, high NLO susceptibilities, and clear structure-property relationships. These "bottom-up" fabrication approaches are proposed to be combined with the "top-down" techniques such as lithography, etc., to generate multifunctionality by coupling light and matter on the (sub)wavelength scale. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Crystal growth of an organic non-linear optical material from the vapour phase

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, W

    1999-01-01

    Due to the potential applications of organic non-linear optical materials in the areas of optical processing and communication, the investigation of the crystal growth of new organic NLO materials has been an active field for the last 20 years. For such uses it is necessary to produce single crystals of high quality and perfection, free of strain and defects. When crystals are grown from the solution and the melt, solvent and the decomposition component in the melt can introduce impurities and imperfection to the as-grown crystals. For crystals grown from vapour phase, in the absence of the solvent, this cannot occur and the method promises to yield single crystals of higher quality. Despite this attraction, little attention has been paid to the vapour phase growth of organic NLO crystals. It was with this in mind that the following investigation was carried out. Using Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (p-MHB), a potential organic NLO material, a comparison investigation was made of its crystal growth from both the va...

  9. Photonic surfaces for designable nonlinear power shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Roshni, E-mail: rbiswas@usc.edu; Povinelli, Michelle L. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    We propose a method for designing nonlinear input-output power response based on absorptive resonances of nanostructured surfaces. We show that various power transmission trends can be obtained by placing a photonic resonance mode at the appropriate detuning from the laser wavelength. We demonstrate our results in a silicon photonic crystal slab at a laser wavelength of 808 nm. We quantify the overall spectral red shift as a function of laser power. The shift results from absorptive heating and the thermo-optic effect. We then demonstrate devices with increasing, decreasing, and non-monotonic transmission as a function of laser power. The transmission changes are up to 7.5 times larger than in unpatterned silicon. The strong nonlinear transmission is due to a combination of resonantly enhanced absorption, reduced thermal conductivity, and the resonant transmission lineshape. Our results illustrate the possibility of designing different nonlinear power trends within a single materials platform at a given wavelength of interest.

  10. Study of novel nonlinear optical material based on Poly(aryl ether ketone) and its application in SHG imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Hui; Qin, Guangjiong; Gui, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhimao; Liu, Jialei

    2017-10-01

    Novel nonlinear optical polymer based on poly(aryl ether ketone) was designed and prepared. Such kind of materials showed excellent water solubility and thermal properties, its onset decomposition temperature can reach 314 °C; glass transition temperature can reach 170 °C. Though the nonlinear optical coefficients (d33) is not very large at 1310 nm, just about 13.9 pm/V; such kind of materials show us a low absorption spectral window at red and infrared light area (wavelength longer than 650 nm). Under the laser of 1310 nm, the morphology of the poled films can be detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) scanning microscopy.

  11. The diffusivity-mobility ratio in heavily doped nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Pahari, S. [Administrative Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sarkar, R. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF-142, Salt Lake City, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, S. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711 103 (India); Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Achryya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)], E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.in

    2008-10-01

    We study the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in heavily doped nonlinear compounds forming band tails on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law and III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The complex nature of the energy spectrum and creation of a new forbidden zone is the consequence of anisotropic energy band constants and the interaction of the impurity atoms in the tails with spin-orbit splitting of valence bands for the other compounds. Analytically, the presence of non-removable poles in the dispersion relation of the undoped material creates the complex energy spectrum for the corresponding heavily doped sample. The DMR for the heavily doped II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials has been studied. It has been found taking n-type CdGeAs{sub 2,}, Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}, InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe, Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with the increasing electron concentration with different numerical values and the nature of variations are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in heavily doped materials for arbitrary dispersion relations together with three applications in the area of material science in general has been suggested.

  12. Three-Dimensional Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Novel Imaging and Characterization Technique with Nanometer Scale Resolution for Materials Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.J.; Ziese, Ulrike; Verkleij, A.J.; Janssen, A.H.; Jong, K.P. de

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3D-TEM), effectuated by multiple imaging of a sample combined with image analysis, offers a new approach in materials science to obtain 3D information of complex solid materials. Here we report first-of-its-kind results that have been obtained with

  13. Simultaneous dispersion and non-linearity compensation with mid-span optical phase conjugation and distributed Raman amplifier for a sub-carrier multiplexed optical transmission link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Vardhanan, A. Vishnu; Gangopadhyay, R.

    2007-11-01

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) and distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) combination (OPC-DRA) is demonstrated as a potential enabling solution for simultaneous reduction of fiber non-linearities and dispersion compensation of a sub-carrier multiplexed (SCM) optical transmission link. The present work is focused on the use of OPC-DRA combination for system performance improvement in terms of composite second order distortion (CSO) and carrier to noise ratio (CNR) of the SCM link. The analysis further shows that, introduction of DRA with proper pumping scheme significantly reduce fiber non-linearity resulting in improvement of the system performance in terms of CNR, compared to the situation where only mid-way optical phase conjugation is used.

  14. A comparative study for different shielding material composition and beam geometry applied to PET facilities: simulated transmission curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Gabriela [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Grupo de Experimentacao e Simulacao Computacional em Fisica Medica; Costa, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear. Lab. de Dosimetria das Radiacoes e Fisica Medica

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this work is to simulate transmission data for different beam geometry and material composition in order to evaluate the effect of these parameters on transmission curves. The simulations are focused on outgoing spectra for shielding barriers used in PET facilities. The behavior of the transmission was evaluated as a function of the shielding material composition and thickness using Geant4 Monte Carlo code, version 9.2 p 03.The application was benchmarked for barited mortar and compared to The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) data for lead. Their influence on the transmission curves as well the study of the influence of the shielding material composition and beam geometry on the outgoing spectra were performed. Characteristics of transmitted spectra, such as shape, average energy and Half-Value Layer (HVL), were also evaluated. The Geant4 toolkit benchmark for the energy resulting from the positron annihilation phenomena and its application in transmission curves description shown good agreement between data published by American Association on Physicists in Medicine task group 108 and experimental data published by Brazil. The transmission properties for different material compositions were also studied and have shown low dependency with the considered thicknesses. The broad and narrow beams configuration presented significant differences on the result. The fitting parameter for determining the transmission curves equations, according to Archer model is presented for different material. As conclusion were defined that beam geometry has significant influence and the composition has low influence on transmission curves for shielding design for the range of energy applied to PET. (author)

  15. Detection of Shielded Special Nuclear Material With a Cherenkov-Based Transmission Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul; Erickson, Anna; Mayer, Michael; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material, SSNM, while in transit, offers a unique challenge. Typical cargo imaging systems are Bremsstrahlung-based and cause an abundance of unnecessary signal in the detectors and doses to the cargo contents and surroundings. Active interrogation with dual monoenergetic photons can unveil the illicit material when coupled with a high-contrast imaging system while imparting significantly less dose to the contents. Cherenkov detectors offer speed, resilience, inherent energy threshold rejection, directionality and scalability beyond the capability of most scintillators. High energy resolution is not a priority when using two well separated gamma rays, 4.4 and 15.1 MeV, generated from low energy nuclear reactions such as 11B(d,n- γ)12C. These gamma rays offer a measure of the effective atomic number, Z, of the cargo by taking advantage of the large difference in photon interaction cross sections, Compton scattering and pair production. This imaging system will be coupled to neutron detectors to provide unique signature of SNM by monitoring delayed neutrons. Our experiments confirm that the Cherenkov imaging system can be used with the monoenergetic source to relate transmission and atomic number of the scanned material.

  16. Energy analysis of the basic materials utilized in electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-30

    The energy content per mile of installed underground and overhead power transmission systems has been calculated for the following types of systems: self-contained oil-filled cables; HPOF pipe-type cables; extruded dielectric cables; compressed-gas-insulated systems; overhead lines (ac and dc) and two proposed superconducting systems (ac and dc). The system operating voltages analyzed included 138, 230, 345, 500, 765 and 1,200 kV for ac systems, but all systems were not analyzed at the higher voltages. The dc overhead lines operated at +-200, +-400, +-600 and +-800 kV. Total installed energy content for these systems ranged from 4 x 10/sup 9/ to 1.2 x 10/sup 11/ Btu per mile. Installation energy requirements were generally 10% or less of the inherent system energy content based on the materials used in each system. Most of the energy content in each system can be attributed to the metallic components; plastic and insulating oil also contribute significantly. The energy content of 36 materials and basic products, in terms of Btu per ton, was calculated as part of this study. Substitution of conductor materials (e.g., aluminum for copper) in cable systems resulted in changes in the total system energy content on the order of 15%.

  17. Mixed-Metal Carbonate Fluorides as Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T Thao; Young, Joshua; Rondinelli, James M; Halasyamani, P Shiv

    2017-01-25

    Noncentrosymmetric mixed-metal carbonate fluorides are promising materials for deep-ultraviolet (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. We report on the synthesis, characterization, structure-property relationships, and electronic structure calculations on two new DUV NLO materials: KMgCO3F and Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5. Both materials are noncentrosymmetric (NCS). KMgCO3F crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar NCS space group P6̅2m, whereas Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5 is found in the polar space group Pmn21. The compounds have three-dimensional structures built up from corner-shared magnesium oxyfluoride and magnesium oxide octahedra. KMgCO3F (Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5) exhibits second-order harmonic generation (SHG) at both 1064 and 532 nm incident radiation with efficiencies of 120 (20) × α-SiO2 and 0.33 (0.10) × β-BaB2O4, respectively. In addition, short absorption edges of <200 and 208 nm for KMgCO3F and Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5, respectively, are observed. We compute the electron localization function and density of states of these two compounds using first-principles density functional theory, and show that the different NLO responses arise from differences in the denticity and alignment of the anionic carbonate units. Finally, an examination of the known SHG active AMCO3F (A = alkali metal, M = alkaline earth metal, Zn, Cd, or Pb) materials indicates that, on average, smaller A cations and larger M cations result in increased SHG efficiencies.

  18. Gamma ray interaction studies of organic nonlinear optical materials in the energy range 122 keV-1330 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasarmol, V. V.; Gaikwad, D. K.; Raut, S. D.; Pawar, P. P.

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μm) for organic nonlinear optical materials measured at 122-1330 keV photon energies were investigated on the basis of mixture rule and compared with obtained values of WinXCOM program. It is observed that there is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental values of the samples. All samples were irradiated with six radioactive sources such as 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, 137Cs, 54Mn and 60Co using transmission arrangement. Effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities (Zeff and Neff), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective atomic energy absorption cross section (σa,en) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μm values for investigated samples and graphs have been plotted. The graph shows that the variation of all samples decreases with increasing photon energy.

  19. Material strategies for black-to-transmissive window-type polymer electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Svetlana V; Beaujuge, Pierre M; Wang, Shujun; Babiarz, Joseph E; Ballarotto, Vincent W; Reynolds, John R

    2011-04-01

    Black-to-transmissive switching polymer electrochromic devices (ECDs) were designed using a set of spray-processable cathodically coloring polymers, a non-color-changing electroactive polymer poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA) as the charge-compensating counter electrode, and a highly conducting gel electrolyte (6.5 mS cm(-1)). The color "black" was obtained by utilizing (1) individual copolymers absorbing across the visible spectrum, and (2) blends and bilayers of several polymer electrochromes with complementary spectral absorption. Neutral-state black and ink-like dark purple-blue (or "ink-black") donor-acceptor (DA) copolymers composed of the electron-donor 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) and the electron-acceptor 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) building units, which possess relatively homogeneous absorption profiles across the visible spectrum, were chosen for their propensity to switch to transmissive states upon electrochemical oxidation. A blend of magenta and cyan polymers (PProDOT-(CH(2)OEtHx)(2) and P(ProDOT-BTD-ProDOT), respectively) was produced with the goal of generating the same dark purple-blue color as that obtained with the "ink-black" DA copolymer. While the multi-polymer ECDs demonstrate high contrasts (up to 50%T), and switch from a saturated purple-blue color (L*=32, a*=13, b*=-46) to a light green-blue transmissive state (L*=83, a*=-3, b*=-6), devices made with the DA electrochromic copolymers switch more than two times faster (0.7 s to attain 95% of the full optical change) than those involving the polymer blends (1.6 s), and exhibit more neutral achromatic colors (L*=38, a*=5, b*=-25 for the colored state and L*=87, a*=-3, b*=-2 for the bleached state, correspondingly). The results obtained suggest that these materials should prove to be applicable in both transmissive- (window-type) and reflective-type ECDs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Evaluation of frost damage in cement-based materials by a nonlinear elastic wave technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance of concrete is a major concern in cold regions. RILEM (International union of laboratories and experts in construction materials, systems and structures) recommendations provide two alternatives for evaluating frost damage by nondestructive evaluation methods for concrete like materials. The first method is based on the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement, while the second alternative technique is based on the resonant vibration test. In this study, we monitor the frost damage in Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5 and aggregate to cement ratio of 3. The samples are completely saturated by water and are frozen for 24 hours at -25°C. The frost damage is monitored after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 freezing-thawing cycles by nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS). The results obtained are compared with those obtained by resonant vibration tests, the second alternative technique recommended by RILEM. The obtained results show that NIRAS is more sensitive to early stages of damage than the standard resonant vibration tests.

  1. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  2. Vertical and dual-axis vibration of the seated human body: Nonlinearity, cross-axis coupling, and associations between resonances in transmissibility and apparent mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangtai; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical apparent mass of the human body exhibits nonlinearity, with the principal resonance frequency reducing as the vibration magnitude increases. Measures of the transmission of vibration to the spine and the pelvis have suggested complex modes are responsible for the dominant resonance during vertical excitation, but the modes present with dual-axis excitation have not been investigated. This study was designed to examine how the apparent mass and transmissibility of the human body depend on the magnitude of vertical excitation and the addition of fore-and-aft excitation, and the relation between the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the body. The movement of the body (over the first, fifth and twelfth thoracic vertebrae, the third lumbar vertebra, and the pelvis) in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions (and in pitch at the pelvis) was measured in 12 male subjects sitting with their hands on their laps during random vertical vibration excitation (over the range 0.25-20 Hz) at three vibration magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m s-2 rms). At the highest magnitude of vertical excitation (1.0 m s-2 rms) the effect of adding fore-aft vibration (at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 m s-2 rms) was investigated. The forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions on the seat surface were also measured so as to calculate apparent masses. Resonances in the apparent mass and transmissibility to the spine and pelvis in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions, and pitch transmissibility to the pelvis, shifted to lower frequencies as the magnitude of vertical excitation increased and as the magnitude of the additional fore-and-aft excitation increased. The nonlinear resonant behaviour of the apparent mass and transmissibility during dual-axis vibration excitation suggests coupling between the principal mode associated with vertical excitation and the cross-axis influence of fore-and-aft excitation. The transmissibility measures are consistent with complex modes

  3. Revealing dynamic processes of materials in liquids using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai-Yang; Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2012-12-20

    The recent development for in situ transmission electron microscopy, which allows imaging through liquids with high spatial resolution, has attracted significant interests across the research fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. The key enabling technology is a liquid cell. We fabricate liquid cells with thin viewing windows through a sequential microfabrication process, including silicon nitride membrane deposition, photolithographic patterning, wafer etching, cell bonding, etc. A liquid cell with the dimensions of a regular TEM grid can fit in any standard TEM sample holder. About 100 nanoliters reaction solution is loaded into the reservoirs and about 30 picoliters liquid is drawn into the viewing windows by capillary force. Subsequently, the cell is sealed and loaded into a microscope for in situ imaging. Inside the TEM, the electron beam goes through the thin liquid layer sandwiched between two silicon nitride membranes. Dynamic processes of nanoparticles in liquids, such as nucleation and growth of nanocrystals, diffusion and assembly of nanoparticles, etc., have been imaged in real time with sub-nanometer resolution. We have also applied this method to other research areas, e.g., imaging proteins in water. Liquid cell TEM is poised to play a major role in revealing dynamic processes of materials in their working environments. It may also bring high impact in the study of biological processes in their native environment.

  4. 80 Gb/s transmission over 80 km and demultiplexing using a highly non-linear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kim Skaalum; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Siahlo, Andrei;

    2002-01-01

    We report on, transmission of an 80 Gb/s signal over 80 km of standard single mode fibre with subsequent demultiplexing to 10 Gb/s in a NOLM containing a novel photonic crystal fibre......We report on, transmission of an 80 Gb/s signal over 80 km of standard single mode fibre with subsequent demultiplexing to 10 Gb/s in a NOLM containing a novel photonic crystal fibre...

  5. Influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of composite base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Tarek A; Garoushi, Sufyan; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2017-06-01

    Bulk-fill resin composites (BFCs) are gaining popularity in restorative dentistry due to the reduced chair time and ease of application. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of different BFCs and a new discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite. One hundred eighty extracted sound human molars were prepared for a shear bond strength (SBS) test. The teeth were divided into four groups (n = 45) according to the resin composite used: regular particulate filler resin composite: (1) G-ænial Anterior [GA] (control); bulk-fill resin composites: (2) Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [TEBF] and (3) SDR; and discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite: (4) everX Posterior [EXP]. Each group was subdivided according to increment thickness (2, 4, and 6 mm). The irradiance power through the material of all groups/subgroups was quantified (MARC® Resin Calibrator; BlueLight Analytics Inc.). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. SBS and light irradiance decreased as the increment's height increased (p composite used. EXP presented the highest SBS in 2- and 4-mm-thick increments when compared to other composites, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Light irradiance mean values arranged in descending order were (p composites. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest value of curing light transmission, which was also seen in improved bonding strength to the underlying dentin surface. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite can be applied safely in bulks of 4-mm increments same as other bulk-fill composites, although, in 2-mm thickness, the investigated composites showed better performance.

  6. Scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, T.; Seal, S.; Shin, H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The brightness of the Advanced Light Source will be exploited by several new instruments for materials science spectromicroscopy over the next year or so. The first of these to become operational is a scanning transmission x-ray microscope with which near edge x-ray absorption spectra (NEXAFS) can be measured on spatial features of sub-micron size. Here the authors describe the instrument as it is presently implemented, its capabilities, some studies made to date and the developments to come. The Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope makes use of a zone plate lens to produce a small x-ray spot with which to perform absorption spectroscopy through thin samples. The x-ray beam from ALS undulator beamline 7.0 emerges into the microscope vessel through a silicon nitride vacuum window 160nm thick and 300{mu}m square. The vessel is filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. The zone plate lens is illuminated 1mm downstream from the vacuum window and forms an image in first order of a pinhole which is 3m upstream in the beamline. An order sorting aperture passes the first order converging light and blocks the unfocused zero order. The sample is at the focus a few mm downstream of the zone plate and mounted from a scanning piezo stage which rasters in x and y so that an image is formed, pixel by pixel, by an intensity detector behind the sample. Absorption spectra are measured point-by-point as the photon energy is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating in the monochromator and changing the undulator gap.

  7. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  8. Pyrene-Based Small Molecular Nonlinear Optical Materials Modified by ``Click-Reaction''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengxia; Li, Zhengqiang; Mi, Yongsheng; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Dong; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai

    2015-08-01

    Two pyrene derivatives were successfully synthesized via an efficient copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The photophysical and electrochemical properties were characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammograms and density functional theory modulations. These results showed that the symmetry structure of these derivatives formed an electron-delocalized organic system, which have larger effects in achieving a third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The third-order nonlinear properties including the nonlinear absorption and the nonlinear susceptibilities investigated by Z-scan technique indicate that the title compounds can serve as a promising candidate for third-order NLO applications.

  9. Cavity equations for a positive or negative refraction index material with electric and magnetic non-linearities

    CERN Document Server

    Mártin, Daniel A; 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.056601

    2012-01-01

    We study evolution equations for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with plane mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. Two coupled non-linear equations for the electric and magnetic amplitudes are obtained. We prove that the description can be reduced to one Lugiato Lefever equation with generalized coefficients. A stability analysis of the homogeneous solution, complemented with numerical integration, shows that any combination of the parameters should correspond to one of three characteristic behaviors.

  10. Linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}-doped ZnSe crystals at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20–220 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' ichev, N N; Pashinin, P P; Gulyamova, E S; Bufetova, G A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shapkin, P V; Nasibov, A S [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-28

    The linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals is measured at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20 – 220 °C. It is found that, with increasing temperature from 20 °C to 150 – 220 °C, the transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals decreases in the case of incident radiation with an intensity of ∼5.5 MW cm{sup -2} and increases in the case of radiation with an intensity of 28 kW cm{sup -2}. At a temperature of 220 °C, the linear transmission almost coincides with the nonlinear transmission. The transmission spectra of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals at temperatures of 22 and 220 °C in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm are presented. (active media)

  11. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  12. Growth of thin films of organic nonlinear optical materials by vapor growth processes - An overview and examination of shortfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Penn, B. G.; Witherow, W. K.; Paley, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    Research on the growth of second- and third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic thin film by vapor deposition is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the experimental methods for growing thin films of p-chlorophenylurea, diacetylenes, and phthalocyanines; characteristics of the resulting films; and approaches for advancing thin film technology. It is concluded that the growth of NLO thin films by vapor processes is a promising method for the fabrication of planar waveguides for nonlinear optical devices. Two innovative approaches are proposed including a method of controlling the input beam frequency to maximize nonlinear effects in thin films and single crystals, and the alternate approach to the molecular design of organic NLO materials by increasing the transition dipole moment between ground and excited states of the molecule.

  13. On the response of nonlinear viscoelastic materials in creep and stress relaxation experiments in the lubricated squeeze flow setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řehoř, Martin; Pr&oring; ša, Vít; T&oring; ma, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Rigorous analysis of the response of nonlinear materials to step inputs requires one to simultaneously handle the discontinuity, differentiation, and nonlinearity. This task is however beyond the reach of the standard theories such as the classical theory of distributions and presents a considerable mathematical difficulty. New advanced mathematical tools are necessary to handle the challenge. An elegant and relatively easy-to-use framework capable of accomplishing the task is provided by the Colombeau algebra, which is a generalisation of the classical theory of distributions to the nonlinear setting. We use the Colombeau algebra formalism and derive explicit formulae describing the response of incompressible Maxwell viscoelastic fluid subject to step load/deformation in the lubricated squeeze flow setting.

  14. Non-linear wave propagation in acoustically lined circular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the nonlinear effects of the gas motion as well as of the acoustic lining material on the transmission and attenuation of sound in a circular duct with a uniform cross-section and no mean flow. The acoustic material is characterized by an empirical, nonlinear impedance in which the instantaneous resistance is a nonlinear function of both the frequency and the acoustic velocity. The results show that there exist frequency bandwidths around the resonant frequencies in which the nonlinearity decreases the attenuation rate, and outside which the nonlinearity increases the attenuation rate, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. Moreover, the effect of the gas nonlinearity increases with increasing sound frequency, whereas the effect of the material nonlinearity decreases with increasing sound frequency.

  15. Influence of the Extinction Ratio on the Intrachannel Nonlinear Distortion of 40-Gb/s Return-to-Zero Transmission Systems Over Standard Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Daniel; Cartaxo, Adolfo V. T.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    The impact of the extinction ratio (ER) on the performance of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero transmission system over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) is presented. Several dispersion maps are analyzed in order to minimize the distortion due to the intrachannel nonlinear effects, namely, intrachannel cross-phase modulation and intrachannel four wave mixing (IFWM). The decrease of the ER until a specific value leads to an increase of the intensity distortion, which is mainly due to IFWM. As a consequence, two distinct transmission regimes are identified, depending on the input average power of each section and the ER of the optical signals. The first regime has previously been called the pseudolinear regime in the literature and occurs when high ERs are considered. The optimum dispersion map of this regime has a given optical precompensation and a total residual dispersion near zero. The second regime occurs with the decrease of the ER. Under such a circumstance, the optimum dispersion map obtained in the pseudolinear regime leads to significant degradation, which is mainly due to ghost pulses appearing in the symbol “0.” This effect can be reduced by a system with residual dispersion that is significantly different from zero, leading to a detected eye pattern with low degradation in the symbol “0” but high timing jitter, which limits the use of such signals in feasible transmission systems. We call this new regime pseudosolitonic as the intrachannel nonlinear effects are apparently reduced by the residual group velocity dispersion (as it is observed in the solitonic regime occurring at lower bit rates), but strong waveform degradation occurs along the SSMF transmission. The exact value of ER for which the change between the two transmission regimes is observed depends on the optical average power at the input of each section. A simple expression to predict the system conditions (namely, ER, input average power of each section, and number of sections) for which

  16. High-order nonlinear optical processes in ablated carbon-containing materials: Recent approaches in development of the nonlinear spectroscopy using harmonic generation in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    The nonlinear spectroscopy using harmonic generation in the extreme ultraviolet range became a versatile tool for the analysis of the optical, structural and morphological properties of matter. The carbon-contained materials have shown the advanced properties among other studied species, which allowed both the definition of the role of structural properties on the nonlinear optical response and the analysis of the fundamental features of carbon as the attractive material for generation of coherent short-wavelength radiation. We review the studies of the high-order harmonic generation by focusing ultrashort pulses into the plasmas produced during laser ablation of various organic compounds. We discuss the role of ionic transitions of ablated carbon-containing molecules on the harmonic yield. We also show the similarities and distinctions of the harmonic and plasma spectra of organic compounds and graphite. We discuss the studies of the generation of harmonics up to the 27th order (λ = 29.9 nm) of 806 nm radiation in the boron carbide plasma and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this target compared with the ingredients comprising B4C (solid boron and graphite) by comparing plasma emission and harmonic spectra from three species. We also show that the coincidence of harmonic and plasma emission wavelengths in most cases does not cause the enhancement or decrease of the conversion efficiency of this harmonic.

  17. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A. P., E-mail: aph@mcmaster.ca; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; Cooper, G. [Chemistry & Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); West, M. M.; Berejnov, V. [Faculty of Health Sciences Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J. [Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp., Burnaby BC V5J 5J8 (Canada)

    2016-01-28

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  18. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, A. P.; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; West, M. M.; Cooper, G.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  19. Heterogeneous Distribution of Carbonaceous Material in Murchison Matrix: In Situ Observations Using Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy filtered TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) has been used to study the location of carbonaceous material in situ in Murchison matrix. Carbon occurs frequently as narrow rims around sulfide grains, but is rare in regions of matrix that are dominated by phyllosilicates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. A new method of binary addition scheme with massive use of non-linear material based system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuladeep Roy Chowdhury; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    The limitations in electronics in arithmetic, algebraic & logic processing are well known. Very high speedperformance (above GHz) are not expected at all in conventional electronic mechanism. To achieve highspeed performance we may think on the introduction of optics instead of electronics for information pro-cessing and computing. Non-linear optical material is a successful candidate in this regard to play a majorrole in the optically controlled switching systems and therefore in all-optical parallel computation thesematerials can show a very good potential aspect. In this paper, we have proposed a new method of anoptical half adder as well as full adder circuit for binary addition using non-linear and linear optical ma-terials.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL RELATIONS BEETWEEN RAW MATERIAL PRODUCERS AND PROCESSORS BASED ON NONLINEAR DEMAND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers interested in marketing of raw materials, whereas processing companies are interested in the establishment of raw material zones, providing capacity utilization; therefore, the establishment of sustainable linkages between producers and processors of raw materials is an objective necessity. In the article, with the help of mathematical methods we examine the conditions of mutually beneficial economic relations between agricultural producers and processing enterprises. Mathematical model for estimating the profits of the company is built of the following conditions: producers sell processing plants raw materials, determined by the coefficient of the interest in the partnership at an agreed purchase price, and the remaining raw materials are processed, so they can sell their products independently. Profit of the processing plant is determined by the mathematical model. To describe the nonlinear market-based sales of goods from its retail price we used a hyperbolic demand function

  2. Growth and characterization of benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH) single crystal: A proficient second order nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Abraham Rajasekar, S.

    2016-04-01

    The crystals (benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH)) appropriate for NLO appliance were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of BPH specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of Cc. The optical precision in the whole visible region was found to be excellent for non-linear optical claim. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of BPH sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The dielectric studies were executed at varied temperatures and frequencies to investigate the electrical properties. Photoconductivity measurement enumerates consummate of inducing dipoles due to strong incident radiation and also divulge the nonlinear behaviour of the material. The third order nonlinear optical properties of BPH crystals were deliberate by Z-scan method.

  3. Emission and transmission tomography systems to be developed for the future needs of Jules Horowitz material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)], E-mail: petri.kotiluoto@vtt.fi; Wasastjerna, Frej; Kekki, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Sipilae, Heikki; Banzuzi, Kukka [Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy, Nihtisillankuja 5, P.O.Box 85, FI-02631 Espoo (Finland); Kinnunen, Petri; Heikinheimo, Liisa [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2009-08-01

    The new 100 MW Jules Horowitz material testing reactor will be built in Cadarache, France. It will support, for instance, research on new types of innovative nuclear fuel. As a Finnish in-kind contribution, 3D emission and transmission tomography equipment will be delivered for both the reactor and the active component storage pool. The image reconstruction of activities inside the used nuclear fuel will be based on gamma spectrometry measurements. A new type of underwater digital X-ray linear detector array is under development for transmission imaging, based on GaAs and direct conversion of X-rays into an electrical signal. A shared collimator will be used for both emission and transmission measurements. Some preliminary design has been performed. For the current design, the expected gamma spectrometric response of a typical high-purity germanium detector has been simulated with MCNP for minimum and maximum source activities (specified by CEA) to be measured in future.

  4. Sound radiation and transmission loss characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich panel with composite facings: Effect of inherent material damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, M. P.; Jagadeesh, M.; Pitchaimani, Jeyaraj; Gangadharan, K. V.; Babu, M. C. Lenin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical studies carried out on vibro-acoustic and sound transmission loss behaviour of aluminium honeycomb core sandwich panel with fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) facings. Layered structural shell element with equivalent orthotropic elastic properties of core and orthotropic properties of FRP facing layer is used to predict the free and forced vibration characteristics. Followed by this, acoustic response and transmission loss characteristics are obtained using Rayleigh integral. Vibration and acoustic characteristics of FRP sandwich panels are compared with aluminium sandwich panels. The result reveals that FRP panel has better vibro-acoustic and transmission loss characteristics due to high stiffness and inherent material damping associated with them. Resonant amplitudes of the response are fully controlled by modal damping factors calculated based on modal strain energy. It is also demonstrated that FRP panel can be used to replace the aluminium panel without losing acoustic comfort with nearly 40 percent weight reduction.

  5. Aberration corrected and monochromated environmental transmission electron microscopy: challenges and prospects for materials science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The latest generation of environmental transmission electron microscopes incorporates aberration correctors and monochromators, allowing studies of chemical reactions and growth processes with improved spatial resolution and spectral sensitivity. Here, we describe the performance of such an instr......The latest generation of environmental transmission electron microscopes incorporates aberration correctors and monochromators, allowing studies of chemical reactions and growth processes with improved spatial resolution and spectral sensitivity. Here, we describe the performance...

  6. Sound transmission through a double-panel construction lined with poroelastic material in the presence of mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Bhaskar, Atul; Zhang, Xin

    2013-08-01

    This paper investigates the sound transmission characteristics through a system of double-panel lined with poroelastic material in the core. The panels are surrounded by external and internal fluid media where a uniform external mean flow exists on one side. Biot's theory is used to model the porous material. Three types of constructions—bonded-bonded, bonded-unbonded and unbonded-unbonded—are considered. The effect of Mach number of the external flow on the sound transmission over a wide frequency range in a diffuse sound field is examined. External mean flow is shown to give a modest increase in transmission loss at low frequency, but a significant increase at high frequency. It is brought out that calculations based on static air on the incidence side provide a conservative estimate of sound transmission through the sandwich structure. The acoustic performance of the sandwich panel for different configurations is presented. The effect of curvature of the panel is also brought out by using shallow shell theory.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, growth, optical and third order nonlinear optical studies of 8HQ2C5N single crystal - An efficient third-order nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya Bharathi, M.; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005 (India); Chakkaravarthi, G. [Department of Physics, CPCL Polytechnic College, Chennai 600068 (India); Anbalagan, G., E-mail: anbu24663@yahoo.co.in [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-05-01

    A neoteric organic third order nonlinear optical material 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate dihydrate (8HQ2C5N) was grown by slow cooling technique using ethanol: water (1:1) mixed solvent. The calculated low value of average etch pit solidity (4.12 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup −2}) indicated that the title crystal contain less defects. From the single crystal X-ray diffraction data, it was endowed that 8HQ2C5N crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}/c and the cell parameters values, a = 9.6546 (4) Ǻ, b = 7.1637(3) Ǻ, c = 24.3606 (12) Ǻ, α = γ = 90°, β = 92.458(2)° and volume = 1683.29(13) Ǻ{sup 3}. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum were used to affirm the functional group of the title compound. The chemical structure of 8HQ2C5N was scrutinized by {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectral analysis and thermal stability through the differential scanning calorimetry study. Using optical studies the lower cut-off wavelength and optical band gap of 8HQ2C5N were found to be 364 nm and 3.17 eV respectively. Using the single oscillator model suggested by Wemple – Didomenico, the oscillator energy (E{sub o}), the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) and static dielectric constant (ε{sub o}) were estimated. The third-order susceptibility were determined as Im χ{sup (3)} = 2.51 × 10{sup −5} esu and Re χ{sup (3)} = 4.46 × 10{sup −7} esu. The theoretical third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} was calculated and the results were compared with experimental value. Photoluminescence spectrum of 8HQ2C5N crystal showed the yellow emission. The crystal had the single shot laser damage threshold of 5.562 GW/cm{sup 2}. Microhardness measurement showed that 8HQ2C5N belongs to a soft material category. - Highlights: • A new organic single crystals were grown and the crystal structure was reported. • Crystal possess, good transmittance, thermal and mechanical stability. • Single shot LDT value is found to be

  8. Numerical scheme for non-linear model of supercritical fluid extraction from polydisperse ground plant material: single transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Numerical algorithm is developed for modelling non-linear mass transfer process in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The ground raw material is considered as polydisperse, characterized by discrete number of effective particle fractions. Two continuous interacting counterparts separated by permeable membrane are distinguished in plant material build-up. The apoplast plays role of transport channels during extraction, and symplast contains extractable oil. The complete SFE model is non-linear as a result of non-linearity of oil dissolution kinetics. The computational scheme is based on the finite-volume approximation method and Thomas elimination procedure. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. Special attention is paid to polydisperse substrates, when particle scale characteristics of all fractions interact with each other through pore phase concentration on the vessel scale. Stability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated in numerical tests. Special iterative procedure guarantees a monotonic decrease of oil content in individual particles of substrate. It is also shown that in the limit of the so-called shrinking core approach the number of mesh nodes on a particle scale should be increased.

  9. Extremely low material loss and dispersion flattened TOPAS based circular porous fiber for long distance terahertz wave transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Sultana, Jakeya; Rana, Sohel; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Faisal, Mohammad; Kaijage, Shubi F.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber (PC-CPCF) with ultra-low material loss for efficient terahertz wave transmission. The full vector finite element method with an ideally matched layer boundary condition is used to characterize the wave guiding properties of the proposed fiber. At an operating frequency of 1 THz, simulated results exhibit an extremely low effective material loss of 0.043 cm-1, higher core power fraction of 47% and ultra-flattened dispersion variation of 0.09 ps/THz/cm. The effects of important design properties such as single mode operation, confinement loss and effective area of the fiber are investigated in the terahertz regime. Moreover, the proposed fiber can be fabricated using the capillary stacking or sol-gel technique and be useful for long distance transmission of terahertz waves.

  10. Chiral pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines as second-order nonlinear optical materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, E.; Kelderman, E.; Verboom, Willem; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Heesink, G.J.T.; Heesink, G.J.T.; Lehmusvaara, E.; van Hulst, N.F.; Reinhoudt, David; Derhaeg, L.; Persoons, A.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of a series of chiral pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines la-e is presented. The microscopic hyperpolarizabilities (beta(z)) were determined by EFISH measurements and the macroscopic susceptibilities (X2) were estimated by the Kurtz powder test. A small fixed

  11. Simple setup for rapid testing of third-order nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, P; Blau, W; Byrne, H; Berglund, P

    1990-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive and versatile degenerate four-wave mixing setup is described utilizing a nitrogen laser pumped dye laser. Samples can be screened rapidly, which is demonstrated with the example of a semiconductor doped glass having a nonlinear susceptibility x((3)) ~ 10(-11)-10(-10) esu.

  12. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials: Some structure-function correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sabapathi Gokulnath; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear optical properties of representative core-modified expanded porphyrins have been investigated with an emphasis on the structure-property relationship between the aromaticity and conformational behaviour. It has been shown that the measured two-photon absorption cross section (2) values depend on the structure of macrocycle, its aromaticity and the number of -electrons in conjugation.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  14. Asymmetric induced cubic nonlinearities in homogeneous and quasi-phase-matched quadratic materials: signature and importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Corney, Joel Frederick

    2001-01-01

    In continuous-wave operation asymmetric induced nonlinearities induce an intensity-dependent phase mismatch that implies a nonzero so-called separatrix intensity, the crossing of which changes the one-period phase shift of the fundamental by Pi , with obvious use in switching applications.We deri...

  15. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  16. Sound transmission of an active acoustic structure with porous materials based on the (u,p) formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ying; CHEN Ke'an; M. A. Galland; C. Batifol

    2012-01-01

    A method based on the combination of the (u,p) formulation and finite element method was applied to calcu~ati~g the acoust~cM performance of a double-wall active acoustic structure with porous materials. The (u, p) formulation based on the displacement in solid phase and the pressure in fluid phase was developed to investigate the sound propagation in porous materials. The acoustic performance of the double-wM1 active acoustic structure having porous materials was calculated and the measurement was taken. The numerical results matched well with the measured data. More than 10 dB transmission loss of the double-wall active acoustic structure can be improved in the resonance frequency with active control, and its absorption coefficient is up to 0.6 over 500 Hz. The relative error between the prediction and measurement is less than 5% at the resonance frequency of the porous materials.

  17. Updated Lagrangian finite element formulations of various biological soft tissue non-linear material models: a comprehensive procedure and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications.

  18. Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-12-08

    We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  19. Wheeled Vehicle Clutches, Transmissions, and Transfers. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle clutches, transmissions, and transfer cases. It provides the basic…

  20. Muscle as a collagen fiber reinforced composite material: force transmission in muscle and whole limbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Even though no direct physiologic evidence proving that myo-tendinous junctions at the end of myofibers are sites of force transmission is available, these locations are accepted to support this function, because its specialized morphology resembles that of load-bearing membranes in structure and lo

  1. In-situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy of catalytic materials under reaction conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smit, E.; Creemer, J.F.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; de Groot, F.M.F.

    2009-01-01

    In-situ Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) allows the measurement of the soft X-ray absorption spectra with 10 to 30 nm spatial resolution under realistic reaction conditions. We show that STXM-XAS in combination with a micromachined nanoreactor can image a catalytic system under relevant

  2. Muscle as a collagen fiber reinforced composite material: force transmission in muscle and whole limbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Even though no direct physiologic evidence proving that myo-tendinous junctions at the end of myofibers are sites of force transmission is available, these locations are accepted to support this function, because its specialized morphology resembles that of load-bearing membranes in structure and

  3. An analytical and explicit multi-field coupled nonlinear constitutive model for Terfenol-D giant magnetostrictive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Da-Guang

    2016-08-01

    For a giant magnetostrictive rod under the action of multiple physical loads, such as an external magnetic field, temperature and axial pre-stress, this paper proposes a general one-dimensional nonlinear magneto-thermo-mechanical coupled constitutive model. This model is based on the Taylor expansion of the elastic Gibbs free energy of giant magnetostrictive material and thermodynamic relations from the perspective of macro continuum mechanics. Predictions made using this model are in good agreement with experimental data for magnetization and the magnetostrictive strain curve under the collective effect of pre-stress and temperature. Additionally, the model overcomes the drawback of the existing magneto-thermo-mechanical constitutive model that cannot accurately predict the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curve for different temperatures and pre-stresses. Furthermore, the constitutive model does not contain an implicit function and is compact, and can thus be applied in both situations of tensile and compressive stress and to both positive and negative magnetostrictive materials, and it is thus appropriate for engineering applications. Comprehensive analysis shows that the model fully describes the nonlinear coupling properties of a magnetic field, magnetostrictive strain and elasticity of a magnetostrictive material subjected to stress, a magnetic field and heat.

  4. Measurement of Temperature Change in Nonlinear Optical Materials by Using the Z-Scan Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shu-Guang; YANG Jun-Yi; SHUI Min; YI Chuan-Xiang; LI Zhong-Guo; SONG Ying-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Spatial and temporal changes of temperature in a novel polymer are investigated by using the Z-scan technique under ns laser pulse excitation.According to the open aperture Z-scan experimental results, the nonlinear absorption coefficient of the polymer is determined.By solving the diffusion equation of heat conduction induced by optical absorption, the spatial and temporal changes in temperature are obtained.This change in temperature drives the photo-acoustic and electromagnetic wave propagating in the polymer and induces the change in refractive index, which serves as a negative lens, and the closed aperture Z-scan shows a peak and valley profile.Based on the numerical calculation, we achieve a good fit to the closed-aperture Z-scan curve with an optimized nonlinear refractive index.This consistency attests the existence of temperature change in the solution, and the Z-scan technique is suitable to investigate this change in temperature.

  5. Music from chaos: nonlinear dynamical systems as generators of musical materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bidlack, Rick Aaron

    1990-01-01

    A body of scientific/mathematical theory arising from a description of the behavior of complex dynamical systems is explored in terms of its pertinence to and utility in musical schemes for the generation of melodic lines and textures. Such systems are known to model significant behavioral features of real-world phenomena, including turbulent or chaotic behavior. Many of the features of nonlinear dynamical systems that are intriguing from a mathematical point of view, especially the propertie...

  6. Backward phase-matching for nonlinear optical generation in negative-index materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shoufeng; Kang, Lei; Schoen, David T.; Rodrigues, Sean P.; Cui, Yonghao; Brongersma, Mark L.; Cai, Wenshan

    2015-08-01

    Metamaterials have enabled the realization of unconventional electromagnetic properties not found in nature, which provokes us to rethink the established rules of optics in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. One of the most intriguing phenomena in nonlinear metamaterials is `backward phase-matching', which describes counter-propagating fundamental and harmonic waves in a negative-index medium. Predicted nearly a decade ago, this process is still awaiting a definitive experimental confirmation at optical frequencies. Here, we report optical measurements showing backward phase-matching by exploiting two distinct modes in a nonlinear plasmonic waveguide, where the real parts of the mode refractive indices are 3.4 and -3.4 for the fundamental and the harmonic waves respectively. The observed peak conversion efficiency at the excitation wavelength of ~780 nm indicates the fulfilment of the phase-matching condition of k2ω = 2kω and n2ω = -nω, where the coherent harmonic wave emerges along a direction opposite to that of the incoming fundamental light.

  7. GEOMETRIC AND MATERIAL NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS AT FIRE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad A. Abdul -Razzak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a nonlinear finite element analysis is presented  to predict the fire resistance of reinforced concrete slabs at fire environment. An eight node layered degenerated shell element utilizing Mindlin/Reissner thick plate theory is employed. The proposed model considered cracking, crushing and yielding of concrete and steel at elevated temperatures. The layered approach is used to represent the steel reinforcement and discretize the concrete slab through the thickness. The reinforcement steel is represented as a smeared layer of equivalent thickness with uniaxial strength and rigidity properties.Geometric nonlinear analysis may play an important role in the behavior of reinforced concrete slabs at high temperature. Geometrical nonlinearity in the layered approach is considered in the mathematical model, which is based on the total Lagrangian approach taking into account Von Karman assumptions.Finally two examples for which experimental results are available are analyzed, using the proposed model .The comparison showed good agreement with experimental results. 

  8. Characterization of imprinted gratings based on transparent materials by transmission scatterometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pietroy, David

    2013-06-01

    Transmission scatterometry is studied as a characterization tool for gratings nanoimprinted in a resist layer spincoated on the top of a transparent substrate. In this case, the larger part of the incident signal is transmitted which can make the reflection analysis harder. Although the backward reflections in the substrate induce an error which is difficult to correct, results are shown to be in good agreement with SEM measurements and reflection mode scatteromerty. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation transmission data for radionuclides and materials relevant to brachytherapy facility shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P; Baltas, D; Granero, D; Pérez-Calatayud, J; Gimeno, J; Ballester, F; Venselaar, J L M

    2008-11-01

    To address the limited availability of radiation shielding data for brachytherapy as well as some disparity in existing data, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate radiation transmission data for 60Co, 137CS, 198Au, 192Ir 169Yb, 170Tm, 131Cs, 125I, and 103pd photons through concrete, stainless steel, lead, as well as lead glass and baryte concrete. Results accounting for the oblique incidence of radiation to the barrier, spectral variation with barrier thickness, and broad beam conditions in a realistic geometry are compared to corresponding data in the literature in terms of the half value layer (HVL) and tenth value layer (TVL) indices. It is also shown that radiation shielding calculations using HVL or TVL values could overestimate or underestimate the barrier thickness required to achieve a certain reduction in radiation transmission. This questions the use of HVL or TVL indices instead of the actual transmission data. Therefore, a three-parameter model is fitted to results of this work to facilitate accurate and simple radiation shielding calculations.

  10. Radiation transmission data for radionuclides and materials relevant to brachytherapy facility shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papagiannis, P.; Baltas, D.; Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Gimeno, J.; Ballester, F.; Venselaar, J. L. M. [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University Hospital, E46009 Valencia (Spain); FIVO, Fundacion Instituto Valenciano, de Oncologia, E46009 Valencia (Spain); Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia and IFIC-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot (Spain); Department of Medical Physics, Dr. B. Verbeeten Instituut, P.O. Box 90120, 5000 LA, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    To address the limited availability of radiation shielding data for brachytherapy as well as some disparity in existing data, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate radiation transmission data for {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 198}Au, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 169}Yb, {sup 170}Tm, {sup 131}Cs, {sup 125}I, and {sup 103}Pd photons through concrete, stainless steel, lead, as well as lead glass and baryte concrete. Results accounting for the oblique incidence of radiation to the barrier, spectral variation with barrier thickness, and broad beam conditions in a realistic geometry are compared to corresponding data in the literature in terms of the half value layer (HVL) and tenth value layer (TVL) indices. It is also shown that radiation shielding calculations using HVL or TVL values could overestimate or underestimate the barrier thickness required to achieve a certain reduction in radiation transmission. This questions the use of HVL or TVL indices instead of the actual transmission data. Therefore, a three-parameter model is fitted to results of this work to facilitate accurate and simple radiation shielding calculations.

  11. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepak

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of

  12. Nonlinear I-V characteristics of nanoparticle compacts and nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herth, Simone [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, Xiaoping; Hugener, Teresa; Schadler, Linda; Siegel, Richard [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Hillborg, Henrik; Auletta, Tommaso [ABB AB, Corporate Research, Schweden (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Materials with nonlinear I-V characteristics are commonly used as field grading materials. In many cases, the non-linearity is achieved through the addition of equiaxed fillers to a polymer matrix. These composite field grading materials are optimized in terms of nonlinearity, conductivity, and breakdown strength. One limitation in designing new field grading materials is a robust understanding of the relationship between powder morphology, composition and electrical characteristics of the powder, as well as a robust understanding of the relationship between powder conductivity and non-linearity and composite non-linearity. In this work, treatment of ZnO powder with a SnF{sub 2} solution resulted in a powder that yielded highly non-linear behavior. The highest non-linearity was achieved for powders with at least two different phases and a rough surface, as indicated by transmission electron micrographs. In contrast, the non-linearity of the nanocomposite conductivity is mainly determined by the conductivity of the nanofiller. The electrical behavior of the non-linear powder can be understood by a polarization of the nanoparticles at the interfaces, whereas the nonlinearity of the nanocomposites can be explained by a tunnelling mechanism between two particles.

  13. Research on a Nonlinear Robust Adaptive Control Method of the Elbow Joint of a Seven-Function Hydraulic Manipulator Based on Double-Screw-Pair Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaosheng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive control method with full-state feedback is proposed based on the fact that the elbow joint of a seven-function hydraulic manipulator with double-screw-pair transmission features the following control characteristics: a strongly nonlinear hydraulic system, parameter uncertainties susceptible to temperature and pressure changes of the external environment, and unknown outer disturbances. Combined with the design method of the back-stepping controller, the asymptotic stability of the control system in the presence of disturbances from uncertain systematic parameters and unknown external disturbances was demonstrated using Lyapunov stability theory. Based on the elbow joint of the seven-function master-slave hydraulic manipulator for the 4500 m Deep-Sea Working System as the research subject, a comparative study was conducted using the control method presented in this paper for unknown external disturbances. Simulations and experiments of different unknown outer disturbances showed that (1 the proposed controller could robustly track the desired reference trajectory with satisfactory dynamic performance and steady accuracy and that (2 the modified parameter adaptive laws could also guarantee that the estimated parameters are bounded.

  14. On the Anionic Group Approximation to the Borate Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukang Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this mini-review type of article, a brief summary of the anionic group approximation as it relates to the borate nonlinear optical (NLO crystals, an idea firstly proposed by Professor Chen, is presented.The basic idea, calculation method, tabulated coefficients of various common borate, as well as nitrate or carbonate groups, in their ideal geometries will be presented. New practices reveal that those parameters can still give very accurate predicted NLO coefficients for recently found NLO crystals without any adjustment of parameters.

  15. An Approximate Method for Analysis of Solitary Waves in Nonlinear Elastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushchitsky, J. J.; Yurchuk, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    Two types of solitary elastic waves are considered: a longitudinal plane displacement wave (longitudinal displacements along the abscissa axis of a Cartesian coordinate system) and a radial cylindrical displacement wave (displacements in the radial direction of a cylindrical coordinate system). The basic innovation is the use of nonlinear wave equations similar in form to describe these waves and the use of the same approximate method to analyze these equations. The distortion of the wave profile described by Whittaker (plane wave) or Macdonald (cylindrical wave) functions is described theoretically

  16. Photochemical stability of nonlinear optical chromophores in polymeric and crystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Daniele; Kwon, Seong-Ji; Figi, Harry; Kwon, O-Pil; Jazbinsek, Mojca; Günter, Peter

    2008-03-28

    We compare the photochemical stability of the nonlinear optical chromophore configurationally locked polyene 2-{3-[2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)vinyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene} malononitrile (DAT2) embedded in a polymeric matrix and in a single-crystalline configuration. The results show that, under resonant light excitations, the polymeric compound degrades through an indirect process, while the DAT2 crystal follows a slow direct process. We show that chromophores in a crystalline environment exhibit three orders of magnitude better photostability as compared to guest-host polymer composites.

  17. L-Histidinium thiocyanurate: Experimental and theoretical studies of a new nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Gonçalves, Mauro A.; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Paixão, José A.

    2017-02-01

    A new organic compound, L-histidinium thiocyanurate thiocyanuric acid dihydrate, has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and nonlinear optical measurements. The efficiency of the second-harmonic generation was evaluated with the Kurtz and Perry powder method at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. By using the experimental structure, the molecular first hyperpolarizability tensor was determined with Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The second-order susceptibility tensor of the crystal was evaluated using the oriented gas model with the Lorenz-Lorentz and the Wortmann-Bishop local-field corrections.

  18. Non-Linear Optical Phenomena in Detecting Materials as a Possibility for Fast Timing in Detectors of Ionizing Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Korjik, M. V.; Buganov, O.; Fedorov, A. A.; Emelianchik, I.; Griesmayer, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Nargelas, S.; Sidletskiy, O.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tikhomirov, S. N.; Vaitkevicius, A.

    2016-01-01

    The time resolution of the detectors currently in use is limited by 50-70 ps due to the spontaneous processes involved in the development of the response signal, which forms after the relaxation of carriers generated during the interaction. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of exploiting sub-picosecond phenomena occurring after the interaction of scintillator material with ionizing radiation by probing the material with ultra-short laser pulses. One of the phenomena is the elastic polarization due to the local lattice distortion caused by the displacement of electrons and holes generated by ionization. The key feature of the elastic polarization is its short response time, which makes it prospective for using as an optically detectable time mark. The nonlinear optical absorption of femtosecond light pulses of appropriate wavelength is demonstrated to be a prospective tool to form the mark. This study was aimed at searching for inorganic crystalline media combining scintillation properties and non-...

  19. Tightness and Material Aspects of Bolted Flange Connections With Gaskets of Nonlinear Properties Exposed to Variable Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems regarding bolted flange connections with gaskets used in chemical, petrochemical and energy industry. The aim of the research is to present state of knowledge regarding pipelines and apparatus in industrial installations and rules and regulations regarding flange connections tightness. Additionally a calculation example regarding flange connection according to ASME VIII DIV 1 requirement and then detailed Finite Element Analysis presented; impact of nonlinear material properties (gasket loading unloading curves on the connection tightness for complex loading programme is shown. It is finally concluded that in addition to usual design calculations more precise calculation is needed to fully verify behaviour of sealed connection at complex extreme variable loadings. Material aspect is very important at designing, testing, service and maintenance; taking it into consideration may avoid many problems related to safe exploitation.

  20. Issues associated with the use of Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model in Advanced High Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming F.; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xinhai

    2016-08-01

    The Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model is often selected in forming simulations where an accurate springback prediction is required. Many successful application cases in the industrial scale automotive components using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been reported to give better springback predictions. Several issues have been raised recently in the use of the model for higher strength AHSS including the use of two C vs. one C material parameters in the Armstrong and Frederick model (AF model), the original Yoshida model vs. Original Yoshida model with modified hardening law, and constant Young's Modulus vs. decayed Young's Modulus as a function of plastic strain. In this paper, an industrial scale automotive component using 980 MPa strength materials is selected to study the effect of two C and one C material parameters in the AF model on both forming and springback prediction using the Yoshida model with and without the modified hardening law. The effect of decayed Young's Modulus on the springback prediction for AHSS is also evaluated. In addition, the limitations of the material parameters determined from tension and compression tests without multiple cycle tests are also discussed for components undergoing several bending and unbending deformations.

  1. Variational principles for linear and nonlinear mixtures: New derivations and application to bilinear materials and yield behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaraleh, Sahar Mubarak

    2006-04-01

    We study in this paper the effective energy potential of nonlinear composites in terms of the corresponding energy potential for linear material. We study this for power law material using Suquet's variational principle, for bilinear material using Ponte Castaneda variational principle, and we studied the yield behavior as limiting cases of both. We show that three established variational principles can be derived from the Cauchy-Buniakowski-Schwartz inequality; these variational principles (bounds) are: (a) bounds on yield behavior of mixtures, (b) The Hashin-Shtrikman variational principle for linear materials, (c) The Debotton and Ponte Castaneda bound for power-law polycrystals. We also compute the actual stress and strain fields for laminate material for two choices of the average strain, and compute a bound on the effective potential for spherical inclusions using Hashin's linear bound, as well as for spheroidal inclusions using Willis's linear bound. We obtained bounds sharper than the established bounds for both laminate and aligned ellipsoids geometry, and we investigate also how the bound depends on the specified geometry and on specific parameters of the problem.

  2. Etching, micro hardness and laser damage threshold studies of a nonlinear optical material L-valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Kanakam, C. C.; Singh, S. P.; Pal, P. K.; Datta, P. K.

    2012-04-01

    A nonlinear optical crystal of L-valine was grown from an aqueous solution containing a small amount of phosphoric acid by the slow evaporation method. The grown crystal was characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the unit cell parameters. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirmed the lattice parameters to be a = 9.6687(7) Å, b = 5.2709(4) Å, c = 12.0371(10) Å and β = 90.805(4)°. The results of the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) indicate the presence of a small amount of phosphorus in the grown crystal. The Vickers micro hardness test was performed to study the mechanical strength of the crystals. Chemical etching studies were carried out to analyze the dislocation structure. The laser damaged threshold of the grown crystal was measured to be 11.11 GW/cm2 for 10 ns pulse at 1064 nm, which is higher than that of the standard nonlinear optical crystals like KDP. Second harmonic generation of the grown crystals was also 1.44 times that of KDP.

  3. Transmission properties of one-dimensional Photonic crystals containing double-negative and single-negative materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Kang Xie; Haiming Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals containing double-negative and singlenegative materials are studied theoretically.A special kind of photonic band gap is found in this structure.This gap is invariant with scaling and insensitive to thickness fluctuation.But when changing the ratio of the thickness of two media.the width of the gap could be enlarged.The defect modes are analyzed by inducing a linear defect layer in the structure.It is found that the number of defect modes will increase when the thickness of the defect layer becomes larger.

  4. 剪式齿轮传动机构非线性动力学特性研究%Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a scissor gear transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文运; 张俊红; 马梁

    2015-01-01

    考虑齿侧间隙、时变啮合刚度和摩擦力等因素,建立7自由度剪式齿轮传动系统非线性动力学模型,采用Runge-Kutta 法对转速、啮合齿隙、扭簧刚度、预紧力矩等对系统振动特性的影响进行了研究。结果表明,随着转速的升高系统逐渐进入混沌状态,中等转速区间系统的非线性动力学行为对转速的变化更为敏感;随着齿侧间隙的增大,混沌区间增大,混沌特性加强;扭簧刚度影响系统的非线性运动状态,但对冲击现象的影响较小,较小的扭簧刚度更有利于消除冲击现象;扭簧的预紧力矩影响系统啮合状态,最小预紧力矩的大小受负载力矩的影响且近似呈正比例关系。%Considering backlash of gear pairs,time-varying mesh stiffness and friction,a nonlinear dynamic model of a scissor gear transmission system with 7-DOF was established with the analytical mechanics theory.An example of such a system was used to investigate the effects of rotational speed,backlash,stiffness and preload of torsional spring on the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system with Runge-Kutta method.The results showed that the system enters a chaotic state with increase in rotating speed,the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the system in the medium rotating speed range is more sensitive to the change of rotating speed;the larger the backlash,the bigger the rotating speed interval of chaos,the stronger the chaotic characteristics;the torsional stiffness of spring has an effect on the non-linear dynamic behavior of the system,but it has a smaller effect on the impact phenomenon,the smaller torsional stiffness is more helpful to avoiding separating and impacting states of the gear pair;preload of torsional spring affects meshing states of the system,the minimum preload torque is almost proportional to the effect of the load torque.

  5. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  6. Advanced scanning transmission stereo electron microscopy of structural and functional engineering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo Jacome, L., E-mail: leonardo.agudo@bam.de [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Eggeler, G., E-mail: gunther.eggeler@ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dlouhy, A., E-mail: dlouhy@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-11-15

    Stereo transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides a 3D impression of the microstructure in a thin TEM foil. It allows to perform depth and TEM foil thickness measurements and to decide whether a microstructural feature lies inside of a thin foil or on its surface. It allows appreciating the true three-dimensional nature of dislocation configurations. In the present study we first review some basic elements of classical stereo TEM. We then show how the method can be extended by working in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) mode of a modern analytical 200 kV TEM equipped with a field emission gun (FEG TEM) and a high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector. We combine two micrographs of a stereo pair into one anaglyph. When viewed with special colored glasses the anaglyph provides a direct and realistic 3D impression of the microstructure. Three examples are provided which demonstrate the potential of this extended stereo TEM technique: a single crystal Ni-base superalloy, a 9% Chromium tempered martensite ferritic steel and a NiTi shape memory alloy. We consider the effect of camera length, show how foil thicknesses can be measured, and discuss the depth of focus and surface effects. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The advanced STEM/HAADF diffraction contrast is extended to 3D stereo-imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The advantages of the new technique over stereo-imaging in CTEM are demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new method allows foil thickness measurements in a broad range of conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that features associated with ion milling surface damage can be beneficial for appreciating 3D features of the microstructure.

  7. Exciton Dynamics and Many Body Interactions in Layered Semiconducting Materials Revealed with Non-linear Coherent Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasenjit

    understanding the basic unexplored science as well as creating technological developments. The dephasing dynamics in semiconductors typically occur in the picosecond to femtosecond timescale, thus the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a potential route to probe such excitonic responses. The focus of this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, to develop the necessary instrumentation to accurately probe the aforementioned parameters and secondly, to explore the quantum dynamics and the underlying many-body interactions in different layered semiconducting materials. A custom-built multidimensional optical non-linear spectrometer was developed in order to perform two-dimensional spectroscopic (2DFT) measurements. The advantages of this technique are multifaceted compared to regular one-dimensional and non-linear incoherent techniques. 2DFT technique is based on an enhanced version of Four wave mixing experiments. This powerful tool is capable of identifying the resonant coupling, probing the coherent pathways, unambiguously extracting the homogeneous linewidth in the presence of inhomogeneity and decomposing a complex spectra into real and imaginary parts. It is not possible to uncover such crucial features by employing one dimensional non-linear technique. Monolayers as well as bulk TMDs and group III-VI bulk layered materials are explored in this dissertation. The exciton quantum dynamics is explored with three pulse four-wave mixing whereas the phase sensitive measurements are obtained by employing two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy. Temperature and excitation density dependent 2DFT experiments unfold the information associated with the many-body interactions in the layered semiconducting samples.

  8. Method for Non-Intrusively Identifying a Contained Material Utilizing Uncollided Nuclear Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, John L.; Stephens, Alan G.; Grover Blaine S.

    1999-02-26

    An improved nuclear diagnostic method identifies a contained target material by measuring on-axis, mono-energetic uncollided particle radiation transmitted through a target material for two penetrating radiation beam energies, and applying specially developed algorithms to estimate a ratio of macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a neutron beam, or a ratio of linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two energies, where the penetrating radiation is a gamma-ray beam. Alternatively, the measurements are used to derive a minimization formula based on the macroscopic neutron cross-sections for the uncollided particle radiation at the two neutron beam energies, or the linear attenuation coefficients for the uncollided particle radiation at the two gamma-ray beam energies. A candidate target material database, including known macroscopic neutron cross-sections or linear attenuation coefficients for target materials at the selected neutron or gamma-ray beam energies, is used to approximate the estimated ratio or to solve the minimization formula, such that the identity of the contained target material is discovered.

  9. Nonlinear oscillations of laminated plates using an accurate four-node rectangular shear flexible material finite element

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gajbir Singh; G Venkateswara Rao

    2000-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the large amplitude vibratory behaviour of unsymmetrically laminated plates. For this purpose, an efficient and accurate four-node shear flexible rectangular material finite element(MFE) with six degrees offreedom per node (three displacements $(u;v;w)$ along the $x, y$ and axes, two rotations ($\\theta_x$ and $\\theta_y$) about and axes and twist $(\\theta_{xy})$) is developed. The element assumes bi-cubic polynomial distribution with sixteen generalized undetermined coefficients for the transverse displacement. The fields for section rotations $\\theta_x$ and $\\theta_y$, and in-plane displacements and are derived using moment-shear equilibrium and in-plane equilibrium equations of composite strips along the - and -axes. The displacement field so derived not only depends on the element coordinates but is a function of extensional, bending-extensional coupling, bending and transverse shear stiffness as well. The element stiffness and mass matrices are computed numerically by employing 3 × 3 Gauss-Legendre product rules. The element is found to be free of shear locking and does not exhibit any spurious modes. In orderto compute the nonlinearfrequencies, linear mode shape corresponding to the fundamental frequency is assumed as the spatial distribution and nonlinear finite element equations are reduced to a single nonlinear second-order differential equation. This equation is solved by employing the direct numerical integration method. A series of numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed element.

  10. Fundamental-Solution-Based Hybrid Element Model for Nonlinear Heat Conduction Problems with Temperature-Dependent Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The boundary-type hybrid finite element formulation coupling the Kirchhoff transformation is proposed for the two-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems in solids with or without circular holes, and the thermal conductivity of material is assumed to be in terms of temperature change. The Kirchhoff transformation is firstly used to convert the nonlinear partial differential governing equation into a linear one by introducing the Kirchhoff variable, and then the new linear system is solved by the present hybrid finite element model, in which the proper fundamental solutions associated with some field points are used to approximate the element interior fields and the conventional shape functions are employed to approximate the element frame fields. The weak integral functional is developed to link these two fields and establish the stiffness equation with sparse and symmetric coefficient matrix. Finally, the algorithm is verified on several examples involving various expressions of thermal conductivity and existence of circular hole, and numerical results show good accuracy and stability.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-STRUCTURES IN MATERIALS BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tomokiyo, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We will introduce the usefulness of convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) in nano-characterization of materials: (1) Determination of local lattice strain in Si, (2) Determination of polarity of GaN of wurtzite structure, (3) Measurement of local oxygen concentration of the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy. Keywords: convergent beam electron diffraction

  12. A natural neighbour method based on Fraeijs de Veubeke variational principle for materially non-linear problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Li; Serge Cescotto; Barbara Rossi

    2009-01-01

    The natural neighbour method can be considered as one of many variants of the meshless methods. In the present paper, a new approach based on the Fraeijs de Veubeke (FdV) functional, which is initially developed for linear elasticity, is extended to the case of geometrically linear but materially non-linear solids. The new approach provides an original treatment to two classical problems: the numerical evaluation of the integrals over the domain A and the enforcement of boundary conditions of the type ui = uion Su. In the absence of body forces (Fi = 0), it will be shown that the calculation of integrals of the type fA .dA can be avoided and that boundary conditions of the type ui = ui on Su can be imposed in the average sense in general and exactly if ui is linear between two contour nodes, which is obviously the case for ui = 0.

  13. Springback Analysis in Sheet Metal Forming of Non-linear Work-Hardening material Under Pure Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Radha Krishna; Dwivedi, Jai Prakash; Bhagat, Manish Kumar; Singh, Virendra Pratap

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the springback analysis in sheet metal forming for non-linear work-hardening material under pure bending. Using the deformation theory of plasticity, formulation of the problem and spring back ratio is derived using Ramberg-Osgood stress strain relationship with Tresca and Von-Mises yielding criteria. The results have been representing the effect of different value of Y/E or σo/E ratio, different values of strain hardening index (n), Poisson's ratio (ν) and thickness on springback ratio (R0/Rf). The main aim of this paper is to study the effects of the thickness, Y/E ratio, n and Poisson's ratio in spring back ratio.

  14. Monitoring and analysis of nonlinear dynamic damage of transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials in Linglong Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study concentrates mainly on the development of failure process in composite rock mass. By use of acoustic emission(AE), convergence inspection, pressure monitoring, level measurement techniques and the modem signal analysis technology, as wellas scan electron microscopy (SEM) experiment, various aspects of nonlinear dynamic damage of composite rock mass surroundingthe transport roadway in Linglong gold mine are discussed. According to the monitoring results, the stability of the rock mass can besynthetically evaluated, and the intrinsic relation between the damage and the characteristic parameters of acoustic emission can bedetermined. The location of the damage of rock mass can also be detected based on the acoustic emission couple monitoring signals.Finally, the key factors which influence the stability of the transport roadway supported by composite hard rock materials are foundout.

  15. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Kida, Akiko; Noma, Yukio; Terazono, Atsushi; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47-170×10(-6) f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  16. Synthesis of Novel Arylazothiazolyl-thiophene Dyes for Solar Cell and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed E; Al-Amoudi, Muhammed S; Gobouri, Adil A; Merazga, Amar; Fadda, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and investigation of new donor-acceptor conjugated N-(5-arylazothiazol-2-yl)-2-aminothiophene derivatives with the aim to elucidate the contribution of their interaction with solvent molecules upon intramolecular charge transfer for their potential solar cells application. The UV-visible and emission spectra measurements indicated that the properties of the synthesized dyes had a significant effect on the visible absorption and emission maxima. The effect of the donor and acceptor groups were studied for the nonlinearity based on their HOMO-LUMO band gap energy. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the newly synthesized aryl thiazolyl-thiophene dyes as sensitizers. The promising results of J(SC) (2.46 × 10(-2) and 4.07 × 10(-2) mA/cm(2)), the V(OC) (0.429 V and 0.426 V) and the FF (0.66 %) values obtained comparing with other organic and natural sensitizer were due to the better interaction between the carboxyl and carbonyl groups of aryl azo molecule attached to the thiazolyl nucleus and the surface of TiO(2) porous film.

  17. On the potential importance of non-linear viscoelastic material modelling for numerical prediction of brain tissue response: test and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Dave W A; Bovendeerd, Peter H M; Wismans, Jac S H M

    2002-11-01

    In current Finite Element (FE) head models, brain tissue is commonly assumed to display linear viscoelastic material behaviour. However, brain tissue behaves like a non-linear viscoelastic solid for shear strains above 1%. The main objective of this study was to study the effect of non-linear material behaviour on the predicted brain response. We used a non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model, developed on the basis of experimental shear data presented elsewere. First we tested the numerical implementation of the constitutive model by simulating the response of a silicone gel (Sylgard 572 A&B) filled cylindrical cup, subjected to a transient rotational acceleration. The experimental results could be reproduced within 9%. Subsequently, the effect of non-linear material modelling on computed brain response was investigated in an existing three-dimensional head model subjected to an eccentric rotation. At the applied external load strains in the brain were approximately ten times larger than was expected on the basis of published data. This is probably caused by the values of the shear moduli applied in the model. These are at least a factor of ten lower than the ones used in head models in literature but comparable to material data in recent literature. Non-linear material behaviour was found to influence the levels of predicted strains (+20%) and stresses (-11%) but not their temporal and spatial distribution. The pressure response was independent of non-linear material behaviour. In fact it could be predicted by the equilibrium of momentum, and thus it is independent of the choice of the brain constitutive model.

  18. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of a Complex Nonlinear Optical Material: Cadmium Mercury Thiocyanate Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Duo-Rong; XU Dong; ZHANG Guang-Hui; LIU Ming-Guo; GUO Shi-Yi; MENG Fan-Qing; LU Meng-Kai; FANG Qi; JIANG Min-Hua

    2000-01-01

    Institute of Crystal Materials and State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100 (Received 18 March 2000) The data of the thermal expansion and specific heat of cadmium mercury thiocyanate crystal have been obtained. The specific heat is 0.7588J/g℃ at room temperature. The thermal expansion occurs in the direction parallel to the c-axis, and the thermal contraction occurs in the direction parallel to the a-axis. The thermal expansion is the same as the thermal contraction at 353 K. The relationship between thermal properties and crystal structure is discussed.

  19. Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical characterization of an organic nonlinear optical material: 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, M. Divya; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Organic single crystals of 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid (4M3N) have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4M3N crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The crystalline perfection of the crystal was analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. The functional groups present in 4M3N have been identified from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The lower cut-off wavelength of 4M3N is found to be 404 nm and the optical band gap is calculated as 2.91 eV. The refractive index shows normal behavior with wavelength. The physio chemical changes, decomposition and stability of the 4M3N compound were established by TG-DTA studies. Vickers microhardness measurement concludes that 4M3N belongs to soft material (n=2.5) category. The LDT value is found to be higher than that of KDP and some of the important organic NLO materials. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the 4M3N have been measured by Z-scan studies. The imaginary and real parts of the third-order susceptibility values were determined as Im χ3=9.129×10-11 esu and Re χ3=1.4034×10-9 esu respectively. The dislocation density was calculated to be 3.0448×106 cm-2 which indicates the quality of the crystal.

  20. Analysis of contributions of nonlinear material constants to temperature-induced velocity shifts of quartz surface acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Kosinski, John A; Zuo, Lei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we examine the significance of the various higher-order effects regarding calculating temperature behavior from a set of material constants and their temperature coefficients. Temperature-induced velocity shifts have been calculated for quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators and the contributions of different groups of nonlinear material constants (third-order elastic constants (TOE), third-order piezoelectric constants (TOP), third-order dielectric constants (TOD) and electrostrictive constants (EL)) to the temperature-induced velocity shifts have been analyzed. The analytical methodology has been verified through the comparison of experimental and analytical results for quartz resonators. In general, the third-order elastic constants were found to contribute most significantly to the temperature-induced shifts in the SAW velocity. The contributions from the third-order dielectric constants and electrostrictive constants were found to be negligible. For some specific cases, the third-order piezoelectric constants were found to make a significant contribution to the temperature-induced shifts. The significance of each third-order elastic constant as a contributor to the temperature-velocity effect was analyzed by applying a 10% variation to each of the third-order elastic constants separately. Additionally, we have considered the issues arising from the commonly used thermoelastic expansions that provide a good but not exact description of the temperature effects on frequency in piezoelectric resonators as these commonly used expansions do not include the effects of higher-order material constants.

  1. A mixed finite element formulation for a non-linear, transversely isotropic material model for the cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, Tom; Osnes, Harald; Sundnes, Joakim

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we present a mixed finite element method for modeling the passive properties of the myocardium. The passive properties are described by a non-linear, transversely isotropic, hyperelastic material model, and the myocardium is assumed to be almost incompressible. Single-field, pure displacement-based formulations are known to cause numerical difficulties when applied to incompressible or slightly compressible material cases. This paper presents an alternative approach in the form of a mixed formulation, where a separately interpolated pressure field is introduced as a primary unknown in addition to the displacement field. Moreover, a constraint term is included in the formulation to enforce (almost) incompressibility. Numerical results presented in the paper demonstrate the difficulties related to employing a pure displacement-based method, applying a set of physically relevant material parameter values for the cardiac tissue. The same problems are not experienced for the proposed mixed method. We show that the mixed formulation provides reasonable numerical results for compressible as well as nearly incompressible cases, also in situations of large fiber stretches. There is good agreement between the numerical results and the underlying analytical models.

  2. Transmission FTIR derivative spectroscopy for estimation of furosemide in raw material and tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Gallignani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A Fourier transform infrared derivative spectroscopy (FTIR-DS method has been developed for determining furosemide (FUR in pharmaceutical solid dosage form. The method involves the extraction of FUR from tablets with N,N-dimethylformamide by sonication and direct measurement in liquid phase mode using a reduced path length cell. In general, the spectra were measured in transmission mode and the equipment was configured to collect a spectrum at 4 cm−1 resolution and a 13 s collection time (10 scans co-added. The spectra were collected between 1400 cm−1 and 450 cm−1. Derivative spectroscopy was used for data processing and quantitative measurement using the peak area of the second order spectrum of the major spectral band found at 1165 cm−1 (SO2 stretching of FUR with baseline correction. The method fulfilled most validation requirements in the 2 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL range, with a 0.9998 coefficient of determination obtained by simple calibration model, and a general coefficient of variation <2%. The mean recovery for the proposed assay method resulted within the (100±3% over the 80%–120% range of the target concentration. The results agree with a pharmacopoeial method and, therefore, could be considered interchangeable.

  3. Quantifying Transient States in Materials with the Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G; LaGrange, T; Kim, J; Reed, B; Browning, N

    2009-09-21

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) offers a means of capturing rapid evolution in a specimen through in-situ microscopy experiments by allowing 15 ns electron micrograph exposure times. The rapid exposure time is enabled by creating a burst of electrons at the emitter by ultraviolet pulsed laser illumination. This burst arrives a specified time after a second laser initiates the specimen reaction. The timing of the two Q-switched lasers is controlled by high-speed pulse generators with a timing error much less than the pulse duration. Both diffraction and imaging experiments can be performed, just as in a conventional TEM. The brightness of the emitter and the total current control the spatial and temporal resolutions. We have demonstrated 7 nm spatial resolution in single 15 ns pulsed images. These single-pulse imaging experiments have been used to study martensitic transformations, nucleation and crystallization of an amorphous metal, and rapid chemical reactions. Measurements have been performed on these systems that are possible by no other experimental approaches currently available.

  4. Nonlinear absorption and optical damage threshold of carbon-based nanostructured material embedded in a protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, K. A.; Hapiddin, A.; Joseph, D.; Geckeler, K. E.; Sung, J. H.; Nickles, P. V.

    2014-12-01

    Physical processes in laser-matter interaction used to be determined by generation of fast electrons resulting from efficient conversion of the absorbed laser radiation. Composite materials offer the possibility to control the absorption by choice of the host material and dopants. Reported here strong absorption of ultrashort laser pulse in a composite carbon-based nanomaterial including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) or multilayer graphene was measured in the intensity range between 1012 and 1016 W cm-2. A protein (lysozyme) was used as the host. The maximum absorption of femtosecond laser pulse has reached 92-96 %. The optical damage thresholds of the coatings were registered at an intensity of (1.1 ± 0.5) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded SWCNTs and at (3.4 ± 0.3) × 1013 W cm-2 for the embedded graphene. Encapsulated variant of the dispersed nanomaterial was investigated as well. It was found that supernatant protein in the coating material tends to dominate the absorption process, independently of the embedded nanomaterial. The opposite was observed for the encapsulated material.

  5. Nonlinear equations of ribbed shells motion taking into account the different properties of the material. II

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is known that in the process of deformation of shells depending on the level and duration of external influences may appear different properties of the material of construction: elasticity, plasticity, creep, etc. The manifestation of plasticity or creep leads to irreversible consequences. To design is an obviously strong and stable construction, it is necessary to exclude the possibility of manifestation of these properties.That is why urgent and important tasks are the development of bet...

  6. Gamma-ray double-layered transmission exposure buildup factors of some engineering materials, a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kulwinder Singh; Heer, Manmohan Singh; Rani, Asha

    2016-08-01

    Comparative study on various deterministic methods and formulae of double layered transmission exposure buildup factors (DLEBF) for point isotropic gamma-ray sources has been performed and the results are provided here. This investigation has been performed on some commonly available engineering materials for the purpose of gamma-ray shielding. In reality, the presence of air around the gamma-ray shield motivated to focus this study on exposure buildup factor (EBF). DLEBF have been computed at four energies viz. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV for various combinations of the chosen five samples taken two at a time with combined optical thickness up to 8 mean free path (mfp). For the necessary computations for DLEBF, a computer program (BUF-toolkit) has been designed. Comparison of Monte Carlo (EGS4-code) and Geometric Progression (G.P.) fitting point kernel methods were done for DLEBF computation. It is concluded that empirical formula given by Lin and Jiang using EBF computed by G.P. fitting formula is the most accurate and easiest method for DLEBF computations. It was observed that DLEBF values at selected energies for two layered slabs with an orientation (low-Z material followed by high-Z material) were lower than the opposite orientation. For optical thickness up to 8 mfp and chosen energy range (0.5-3.0 MeV), Aluminum-Lime Stone shield, appears to provide the best protection against the gamma-rays.

  7. Affinity mesh screen materials for selective extraction and analysis of antibiotics using transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel H; Wang, Evelyn H; Gurak, John A; Bhawal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rajendrasing; Wijeratne, Aruna B; Edwards, Brian L; Foss, Frank W; Timmons, Richard B; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-06-25

    The extraction of active compounds from natural sources has shown to be an effective approach to drug discovery. However, the isolation and identification of natural products from complex extracts can be an arduous task. A novel approach to drug discovery is presented through the use of polymer screens functionalized with an l-lysine-d-alanine-d-alanine (Kaa) peptide to create new affinity capture mesh screen materials. The Kaa sequence is a well-characterized specific binding site for antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. The detailed synthesis and characterization of these novel screen materials are presented in this work. Polypropylene mesh screens were first coated with a poly(acrylic acid) film by pulsed plasma polymerization. The synthesized Kaa peptide was then covalently attached to carboxylic acid groups through a condensation reaction. An analysis of captured compounds was performed in a rapid fashion with transmission-mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) mass spectrometry. A proof of principle was demonstrated to show the ability of the novel affinity capture materials to select for a macrocyclic antibiotic, vancomycin, over a negative control compound, spectinomycin. With further development, this method may provide a rapid screening technique for new antibacterial compounds, for example, those extracted from natural product sources having a limited supply. Here, we show that the screen can capture vancomycin preferentially over spectinomycin in a spiked extract of tea leaves.

  8. Development of a testing method for asbestos fibers in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takashi, E-mail: tyama@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Kida, Akiko [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Noma, Yukio [Department of Environmental Science, Fukuoka Womens University, 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashiku, Fukuoka 813-8529 (Japan); Terazono, Atsushi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Sakai, Shin-ichi [Environmental Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A high sensitive and selective testing method for asbestos in treated materials of asbestos containing wastes was developed. • Asbestos can be determined at a limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg g{sup −1}. • High temperature melting treatment samples were determined by this method. Asbestos fiber concentration were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup 6} g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Appropriate treatment of asbestos-containing wastes is a significant problem. In Japan, the inertization of asbestos-containing wastes based on new treatment processes approved by the Minister of the Environment is promoted. A highly sensitive method for testing asbestos fibers in inertized materials is required so that these processes can be approved. We developed a method in which fibers from milled treated materials are extracted in water by shaking, and are counted and identified by transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of this method by using asbestos standards and simulated slag samples confirmed that the quantitation limits are a few million fibers per gram and a few μg/g in a sample of 50 mg per filter. We used this method to assay asbestos fibers in slag samples produced by high-temperature melting of asbestos-containing wastes. Fiber concentrations were below the quantitation limit in all samples, and total fiber concentrations were determined as 47–170 × 10{sup −6} f/g. Because the evaluation of treated materials by TEM is difficult owing to the limited amount of sample observable, this testing method should be used in conjunction with bulk analytical methods for sure evaluation of treated materials.

  9. Single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s-525 km DQPSK transmission using ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation and nonlinear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Tomiyama, Yutaro

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s-525 km transmission using OTDM of subpicosecond DQPSK signals. In order to cope with transmission impairments due to time-varying higherorder PMD, which is one of the major limiting factors in such a longhaul ultrahigh-speed transmission, we newly...

  10. Terahertz imaging of composite materials in reflection and transmission mode with a time-domain spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørgârd, Trygve R.; van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Haakestad, Magnus W.

    2016-02-01

    A fiber-coupled Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system based on photoconductive antennas, pumped by a 100-fs fiber laser, has been used to characterize materials in transmission and reflection mode. THz images are acquired by mounting the samples under investigation on an x-y stage, which is stepped through the beam while the transmitted or reflected THz waveform is captured. The samples include a carbon fiber epoxy composite and a sandwich-structured composite panel with an aramid fiber honeycomb core in between two skin layers of fiberglass reinforced plastic. The former has an artificially induced void, and from a comparison of recorded reflected time-domain signals, with and without the void, a simple model for the structure of the composite is proposed that describes the time-domain signals reasonably well.

  11. Effects of nonlinearity in the materials used for the semi-rigid pedicle screw systems on biomechanical behaviors of the lumbar spine after surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun; Lee, Sung-Jae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Hyung [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan 331825 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hyun-Ju [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 363951 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwon-Yong, E-mail: sjl@bme.inje.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, various types of semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation systems have been developed for the surgical treatment of the lumbar spine. They were introduced to address the adverse issues commonly found in traditional rigid spinal fusion--abnormally large motion at the adjacent level and subsequent degeneration. The semi-rigid system uses more compliant materials (nitinol or polymers) and/or changes in rod design (coiled or twisted rods) as compared to the conventional rigid straight rods made of Ti alloys (E = 114 GPa, {upsilon} = 0.32). However, biomechanical studies on the semi-rigid pedicle screw systems were usually limited to linear modeling of the implant and anatomic elements, which may not be capable of reflecting realistic post-operative motions of the spine. In this study, we evaluated the effects of nonlinearity in materials used for semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation systems to evaluate the changes in biomechanical behaviors using finite element analysis. Changes in range of motion (ROM) and center of rotation (COR) were assessed at the operated and adjacent levels. Actual load-displacement results of the semi-rigid rod from mechanical test were carried out to reflect the nonlinearity of the implant. In addition, nonlinear material properties of various spinal ligaments studies were used for the finite element modeling. The post-operative models were constructed by modifying the previously validated intact model of the L1-S1 spine. Eight different post-operative models were made to address the effects of nonlinearity-with a traditional stiffness modulus rod (with linear ligaments, case 1; with nonlinear ligaments, case 5), with a rigid rod (with linear ligaments, case 2; with nonlinear ligaments, case 6), with a soft rod (with linear ligaments, case 3; with nonlinear ligaments, case 7), and with a nonlinear rod (with linear ligaments, case 4; with nonlinear ligaments, case 8). To simulate the load on the lumbar spine in a neutral posture, follower load

  12. Experiment on Nonlinear Properties Coupling Electromagnetism with Mechanics of Giant Rare Earth Magnetostrictive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Huiqun; Sun Huagang

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic and mechanical coupling properties of giant rare earth giant magnetostriction material TbxDy1 -xFe2 -z (0. 27 ≤x ≤ 0.3, 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.1 ) alloys were investigated by means of self-fabricated test apparatus. The effect of coupling mechanical with electromagnetic on magnetostrictive strain coefficient was discussed. The physical model of the coupling system was established. Based on the equivalent circuit of the coupling system, the magnetomechanical coupling coefficient was derived by means of impedance resistance analysis method.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a confluence transmission geared rotor bearing system%汇流传动齿轮-转子-轴承系统非线性动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜浩冬; 张以都; 吴琼; 高相胜

    2013-01-01

    考虑齿侧间隙、传动误差和时变啮合刚度等非线性因素,并同时考虑滑动轴承非线性油膜力和齿轮啮合力的耦合影响,建立了汇流传动齿轮-转子-轴承系统的动力学模型.从转速方面出发,研究了齿轮系统的非线性动态响应,分析了齿轮啮合力和非线性油膜力之间的耦合作用,判断了转速变化下的油膜稳定性.结果表明:随着转速变化,系统表现出周期一运动、周期二运动、拟周期运动,混沌等丰富的动力学特性,并发现了拟周期分岔通向混沌的道路;随着转速升高,非线性啮合力和菲线性油膜力先后对系统振动起到主要作用;油膜振动通过半频涡动失去了稳定性.%Considering nonlinear facters of backlash, transmission error,and time-varying mesh stiffness in a gear system, nonlinear mesh force of gear pairs and nonlinear oil film force of a journal bearing were considered synchronously, the dynamic model of a confluence transmission geared rotor bearing system was proposed. Starting from the variation of rotating speed, the nonlinear dynamic response of the gear system was studied, the coupling between the nonlinear gear mesh force and the nonlinear oil film force was discussed, the oil film's stability with the change of rotating speed was judged. The results indicated that with increase in rotating speed, the system reveals period one motion, period two motion,quasi- periodic motion and chaos motion, the way from quasi- periodic bifurcation to chaos was found; with increase in rotating speed, the nonlinear gear mesh force and the nonlinear oil film force affect the system vibration significantly; the oil film vibration loses stability through half frequency whirling motion.

  14. Growth and characterization of Bis(L-threonine) copper (II) monohydrate single crystals: A semiorganic second order nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashini, R.; Sathya, D.; Sivashankar, V.; Latha Mageshwari, P. S.; Arjunan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Highly transparent solitary nonlinear semiorganic optical material Bis(L-threonine) copper (II) monohydrate [BLTCM], was synthesized by a conventional slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to structural, optical, electrical, thermal, mechanical, SHG and Laser damage threshold studies. Single crystal XRD shows that the material crystallizes in monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. FT-IR and FT-RAMAN analyses confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transparency range of BLTCM was determined by UV-vis-NIR studies and various optical constants such as extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity and electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. Dielectric studies of the crystal were carried out at different frequencies and temperatures to analyze the electrical properties. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to study the thermal behaviour of the sample. The hardness stability of the grown specimen was investigated by Vickers microhardness test. The output intensity of second harmonic generation was confirmed using the Kurtz and Perry powder method. The laser induced surface damage threshold of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser.

  15. Dimerization of merocyanine dyes. Structural and energetic characterization of dipolar dye aggregates and implications for nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würthner, Frank; Yao, Sheng; Debaerdemaeker, Tony; Wortmann, Rüdiger

    2002-08-14

    Aggregation of polar merocyanine dyes has been identified as an important problem in the fabrication of organic materials for photonic applications. In this work, a series of merocyanine dyes is synthesized, and their aggregation is investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques to reveal structure-property relationships. These studies provide clear evidence for the formation of centrosymmetric dimers for all investigated merocyanines in concentrated solution and in the solid state. The thermodynamics of dimerization in liquid solution is studied by concentration-dependent permittivity measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrooptical absorption experiments. A centrosymmetric dimer structure with antiparallel ordering of the dipole moments is observed in solution by 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as in the solid state by X-ray crystallography and interpreted in terms of dipolar and pi-pi interactions. The optical properties of the dimer aggregates are satisfactorily explained by an excitonic coupling model. The effect of an external electric field on the dimerization equilibrium is considered and quantitatively determined by electrooptical absorption measurements. Implications of the observed findings on the design of nonlinear optical and photorefractive materials are discussed.

  16. An experimentally verified model for thermal microactuators including nonlinear material properties, vacuum, and intra-device heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Keegan; Naraghi, Mohammad; Boyd, James G.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a model and computational method to predict the steady-state performance of thermal flexure microactuators at high input powers and various levels of partial vacuum. The model accounts for nonlinear temperature dependence of material properties, heat loss due to radiation, and intra-device heat transfer by conduction across an air gap. The model is validated by comparing the model predictions with the experimentally measured voltage, current, and displacement at standard conditions, prior to adjusting for partial vacuum. In order to understand the effect of nonlinearities on model reliability, the predictions of six additional hypothetical models are considered where (1) intra-device heat transfer is neglected, (2) radiation is neglected, (3) the thermal conductivity of silicon is assumed to be temperature-independent, (4) the thermal conductivity of air is assumed to be temperature-independent, (5) the electrical resistivity of silicon is assumed to be linear in temperature, and (6) the thermal expansion coefficient of silicon is assumed to be temperature-independent. All factors except radiation were shown to have a significant influence on the device performance especially at high input powers. The experimentally validated full model is then employed to predict the effect of reduced air pressure on the displacement and heat transfer properties of the actuator. This aspect of the study targets applications of thermal actuators in controlled environments such as space applications, actuators used for in situ micropositioning and tensile testing inside electron microscopy chambers, or actuators incorporated into the design of MEMS resonators. It was demonstrated that the maximum actuator displacement is not a linear function of reduced pressure and that it reaches a maximum at a certain partial vacuum level.

  17. [Transmission and development of foreign medicinal materials in the Tang and Song Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Hua; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Cao, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Many foreign medicinal materials that were imported to China via the Silk Road and maritime trade have enriched Chinese medicine. Imported foreign medicines reached a high point by the Tang and Song Dynasties, particularly in the case of aromatic medicines, which supplemented domestic Chinese aromatics and were widely employed in official dispensaries in the Song Dynasty. This study investigated historical records related to imported Chinese medicines in the Tang and Song periods, focusing on their varieties, quantity, use, and localization trends. Foreign medicines were assimilated as Chinese medical theory was applied to interpret their effects, and aromatics such as frankincense that were extremely expensive in the Tang Dynasty became accessible to common people by the Song Dynasty. By the Song Dynasty, some foreign medicines began to be domestically cultivated and the boundary between foreign and traditional Chinese medicines became blurred; foreign medicines gradually transformed into Chinese medicines. The importation of foreign medicines during the Tang and Song Dynasties was a historical turning point that contributed greatly to the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Role of a singlet diradical character in carbon nanomaterials: a novel hot spot for efficient nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shabbir; Nakano, Masayoshi; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Irfan, Ahmad; Chaudhry, Aijaz R; Kishi, Ryohei; Ito, Soichi; Yoneda, Kyohei; Fukuda, Kotaro

    2016-10-27

    Carbon atoms have the potential to produce a variety of fascinating all-carbon structures with amazing electronic and mechanical properties. Over the last few decades, several efforts have been made using experimental and computational techniques to functionalize graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes for potential use in modern hi-tech electronic, medicinal, optical and nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Since photons replaced electrons as a carrier of information, the field of NLO material design has drawn immense interest in contemporary materials science. There have been several reports of bridging the gap between the exciting fields of carbon nanomaterials and NLO materials by functionalizing carbon nanomaterials for potential NLO applications. In contrast to previous reports of the design of third-order NLO materials using conventional closed-shell materials, a novel strategy using open-shell diradical molecular systems has recently been proposed. Quantum chemically, diradical character is explained in terms of the instability of the chemical bonds in open-shell molecular systems. Interestingly, several carbon nanomaterials, which naturally possess open-shell singlet configurations, have recently gained momentum in the design of these classes of open-shell NLO materials with excellent NLO properties, stability and diversity. The present review establishes a systematic sequence of different studies (spanning over two decades of intense research efforts), starting from the simplest theoretical two-site diradical model, continuing to its experimental and theoretical realization in actual chemical systems, and finally applying the abovementioned model/rule to novel carbon nanomaterials to tune their NLO properties, particularly their second hyperpolarizability (γ). In the present report, we highlight several recent efforts to functionalize carbon nanomaterials by exploiting their open-shell diradical character to achieve efficient third-order NLO

  19. Bidirectional axial transmission can improve accuracy and precision of ultrasonic velocity measurement in cortical bone: a validation on test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossy, Emmanuel; Talmant, Maryline; Defontaine, Marielle; Patat, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The axial transmission technique uses a linear arrangement of ultrasonic emitters and receivers placed on a same side of a cortical bone site in contact with the skin, involving ultrasonic propagation along the axis of bone. The velocity of the waves radiated from bone has been shown to reflect bone status. The thickness and composition of soft tissue may vary along the length of the bone, between different skeletal sites, or between subjects. Hence, accurate estimates of velocity require first to eliminate the effect of the overlying soft tissue that is traversed by the ultrasound wave. To correct for such bias without measuring soft tissue properties, we designed new ultrasonic probes in the 1-2 MHz frequency range. It is based on propagation along the bone surface in two opposite directions from two sources placed on both sides of a unique group of receivers. The aim is to obtain an unbiased estimate of the velocity without any intermediate calculation of soft tissue properties, such as thickness variation or velocity. Validation tests were performed on academic material such as Perspex or aluminum. We found that head wave velocity values could be biased by more than 10% for inclination of a few degrees between the test specimen surface and the probe. On test materials, the compensation procedure implemented in our probe led to a relative precision error on velocity measurement lower than 0.2 to 0.3%. These results suggest that the correction procedure allows measuring in vivo velocities independently of soft tissue properties.

  20. Growth and study of nonlinear optical materials for frequency conversion devices with applications in defence and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassev, V.; Snure, M.; Vangala, S.; Kimani, M.; Peterson, R.; Schunemann, P.

    2014-10-01

    A series of nonlinear materials including GaAs, GaP, and ZnSe have been examined to determine their suitability for non-linear frequency conversion devices (FCD) and more specifically their use as high power, compact and broadly tunable IR and THz sources for defense and security applications. The more mature GaAs was investigated to reveal the causes for the optical losses that restrict achievement of higher conversion efficiency in quasi-phasematched FCD, while the efforts with GaP were oriented in developing simple, cost effective techniques for fabrication of orientation patterned (OP) templates and optimizing the subsequent thick HVPE growth on these templates. Thus, average growth rates of 50- 70 μm/h were achieved in up to 8-hour long experiments. High optical layer quality was achieved by suitable control of the process parameters. The optimal orientation of the pattern was determined and used as essential feedback aiming to improve the template preparation. This led to the production of the first 300-400 μm thick device quality OPGaP. Efforts to suppress the parasitic nucleation during growths with longer duration or to achieve thicker layers by a 2 step growth process were also made. The main challenge with the newer candidate, OPZnSe, was to establish suitable regimes for hydrothermal growth on plain (001) ZnSe seeds grown by chemical vapor deposition. Two different temperature ranges, 330-350 °C and 290-330 °C, were investigated. The mineralized concentration was also manipulated to accelerate the growth in (111) direction and, thus, to improve the growth in (001) direction. The next material in the line is GaN. The traditional HVPE approach will be combined with a growth at low reactor pressure. Growths will be performed in the next sequence: growth on thin GaN layers grown by MOCVD on sapphire wafers, growth on half-patterned GaN templates with different orientations and, finally, growth on OPGaN templates.

  1. Fiber nonlinearity compensation by repeated phase conjugation in 2.048-Tbit/s WDM transmission of PDM 16-QAM channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate compensation of fiber nonlinearities using repeated optical phase conjugation (OPC) in a WDM system with eight 32-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM channels, showing improved performance over a single mid-span OPC and no OPC....

  2. Supra-transmission and bistability in nonlinear media with a photonic and electronic forbidden band gap; Supratransmission et bistabilite nonlineaire dans les milieux a bandes interdites photoniques et electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevriaux, D

    2007-06-15

    We study wave scattering in different nonlinear media possessing a natural forbidden band gap. In particular, we show the existence of a bistable behavior in media governed by the sine-Gordon equation (short pendular chain, Josephson junction array, quantum Hall bilayer), or the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (Kerr and Bragg media), in discrete and continuous models. These different media are submitted to periodic boundary conditions with a frequency in the forbidden band gap and an amplitude that determines their stability states. Indeed, for a sufficient amplitude (supra-transmission), the medium switches from reflector to transmitter, hence allowing the output signal to jump from evanescent to large values. We give a complete analytical description of the bistability that allows to understand the different stationary states observed and to predict the switch of one state to the other. (author)

  3. Synthesis, growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical material: N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivanan, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of the organic nonlinear optical compound N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) was carried out in a newer chemical environment using the mixture of benzyl chloride and 2-methl-4-nitroaniline by a preferred laboratory synthesis process. The synthesized BNA compound was separated by column chromatography (CC) with low pressure silica gell using petrollium benzine and purity of the separated resultant product was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Further, the material was recrystallized atleast four times in methanol and the highly purified BNA was used for the growth of single crystals from solutions with selected solvents by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystals having natural growth morphology were harvested and their different growth faces were identified by optical goniometry. The grown crystals were subjected to different characterization techniques such as powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-vis-Near IR spectroscopy. Further, the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown BNA crystal was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser as fundamental source and found to be twice that of inorganic standard KDP.

  4. Na₄La₂(CO₃)₅ and CsNa₅Ca₅(CO₃)₈: two new carbonates as UV nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Wang, GenXiang; Lin, Chensheng; Ye, Ning; Zhou, Yuqiao; Cheng, Wendan

    2014-08-04

    Two nonlinear optical crystal carbonates (Na4La2(CO3)5 and CsNa5Ca5(CO3)8 were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method, and both of them crystallized in the same noncentrosymmetric hexagonal space group P63mc (No. 186). The structure of Na4La2(CO3)5 consists of a three-dimensional network made up of [CO3] triangles as well as irregular [Na(0.67)La(0.33)O10] and [NaO8] polyhedra. The structure of CsNa5Ca5(CO3)8 can be described as the standing-on-edge [CO3] groups connect the adjacent infinite [CaCO3]∞ layers in the ab plane to construct a framework with four types of channels running parallel to [010]. The Na, Cs, and [Na(0.67)Ca(0.33)] atoms reside in these channels. The measurement of second harmonic generation (SHG) by the method adapted from Kurtz and Perry indicated that Na4La2(CO3)5 and CsNa5Ca5(CO3)8 were phase-matchable in the visible region and exhibited SHG responses of approximately 3 and 1 × KH2PO4 (KDP). Meanwhile, they exhibited wide transparent region with short UV cutoff edge at about 235 and 210 nm, respectively, suggesting that these crystals as NLO materials may have potential applications in the UV region.

  5. Ln3GaS6 (Ln = Dy, Y): new infrared nonlinear optical materials with high laser induced damage thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Li, Bing-Xuan; Liu, Bin-Wen; Fan, Yu-Hang; Li, Xiao-Guo; Zeng, Hi-Yi; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-10-21

    Two new ternary rare earth chalcogenides, Dy3GaS6 (1) and Y3GaS6 (2), are reported here. They both crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmc21 (no. 36). Both are synthesized in pure phase and show phase-matchable second harmonic generation (SHG) of about 0.2 and 0.5 times, respectively for 1 and 2, as strong as that of KTiOPO4 (KTP) based on the powder SHG measurement at the wavelength of 1910 nm. They possess high powder laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs), respectively, about 14 and 18 times that of AgGaS2 (AGS) based on the powder LIDT measurements under 1064 nm laser irradiation. They both exhibit wide transparency in the IR region (2.5–25 μm). It is believed that the title compounds are new candidates for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials in the IR region. To gain further insights into the NLO and LIDT properties of 1 and 2, the calculations of second-order NLO susceptibility and lattice energy density (LED) were also performed to explain their SHG efficiencies and high LIDTs.

  6. Studies on growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical and ferroelectric material - N,N-dimethylurea picrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, A.; Krishnan, C.; Selvarajan, P.

    2014-05-01

    A novel organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material viz. N,N-dimethylurea picrate (NNDMP) was grown by the slow evaporation technique using N,N-dimethyl formamide as a solvent. The solubility of the grown sample has been estimated for various temperatures. The XRD study reveals that the grown crystal crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system and the corresponding lattice parameters were determined. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the NNDMP was found to be 1.045 times that of KDP by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. FTIR and FT-Raman spectral analyses explain the various functional groups present in the sample. The optical spectral analysis of the grown crystal has been performed by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and the band gap energy was found out. The thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) reveal that the NNDMP crystal is stable at up to 172 °C. A prominent first-order ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition at 323 K has been observed and activation energy was determined for the AC conduction process in the sample.

  7. Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Hesthaven

    2012-02-06

    Final report for DOE Contract DE-FG02-98ER25346 entitled Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences. Principal Investigator Jan S. Hesthaven Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University, Box F Providence, RI 02912 Jan.Hesthaven@Brown.edu February 6, 2012 Note: This grant was originally awarded to Professor David Gottlieb and the majority of the work envisioned reflects his original ideas. However, when Prof Gottlieb passed away in December 2008, Professor Hesthaven took over as PI to ensure proper mentoring of students and postdoctoral researchers already involved in the project. This unusual circumstance has naturally impacted the project and its timeline. However, as the report reflects, the planned work has been accomplished and some activities beyond the original scope have been pursued with success. Project overview and main results The effort in this project focuses on the development of high order accurate computational methods for the solution of hyperbolic equations with application to problems with strong shocks. While the methods are general, emphasis is on applications to gas dynamics with strong shocks.

  8. Growth and characterization studies of sodium Di(L-Malato) borate bulk single crystal: A promising nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, A.; Loganayaki, M.; Lenin, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-06-01

    A semi-organic nonlinear optical material, sodium di(L-malato) borate (NaDMB) has been synthesized. Optically good quality bulk single crystal of NaDMB was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method at 36 °C. Transparent, colourless crystal of size 22 mm X 8 mm X 6 mm with well defined morphology was grown by SEST and oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 48 mm length and 16 mm diameter was grown by SR method. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal belongs to monoclinic structure with space group P21. The grown crystals were characterized by UV-vis studies. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements. The differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis traces reveal the thermal stability of the sample. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was estimated by Kurtz and Perry powder technique.

  9. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  10. Trigonal Planar [HgSe3](4-) Unit: A New Kind of Basic Functional Group in IR Nonlinear Optical Materials with Large Susceptibility and Physicochemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Yin, Wenlong; Gong, Pifu; Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhou, Molin; Mar, Arthur; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng; Chen, Chuangtian

    2016-05-18

    A new mercury selenide BaHgSe2 was synthesized. This air-stable compound displays a large nonlinear optical (NLO) response and melts congruently. The structure contains chains of corner-sharing [HgSe3](4-) anions in the form of trigonal planar units, which may serve as a new kind of basic functional group in IR NLO materials to confer large NLO susceptibilities and physicochemical stability. Such trigonal planar units may inspire a path to finding new classes of IR NLO materials of practical utility that are totally different from traditional chalcopyrite materials.

  11. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Phased Array Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. N.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  12. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A.J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging t...

  13. Nonlinear ultrasonic phased array imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J N; Croxford, A J; Wilcox, P D

    2014-10-03

    This Letter reports a technique for the imaging of acoustic nonlinearity. By contrasting the energy of the diffuse field produced through the focusing of an ultrasonic array by delayed parallel element transmission with that produced by postprocessing of sequential transmission data, acoustic nonlinearity local to the focal point is measured. Spatially isolated wave distortion is inferred without requiring interrogation of the wave at the inspection point, thereby allowing nonlinear imaging through depth.

  14. Explorations of new second-order nonlinear optical materials in the K(I)-M(II)-I(V)-O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Xin; Hu, Chun-Li; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Rui-Yao; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2010-05-17

    Explorations of new second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials in the K(I)-M(II) -I(V)-O systems led to four novel mixed metal iodates, namely, K(2)M(IO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2) (M = Mn, Co, Zn, Mg). The four compounds are isostructural and crystallize in space group I2 which is in the chiral and polar crystal class 2. Their structure features zero-dimensional {M(IO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2)}(2-) anions that are separated by K(+) cations. The M(II) centers are ligated by two aqua ligands in trans fashion and four monodentate iodate anions. The K(+) cation is eight-coordinated by two iodate anions in bidentate chelating fashion and four other iodates in a unidentate fashion. Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements indicate that K(2)Zn(IO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2) and K(2)Mg(IO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2) display moderate SHG responses that are approximately 2.3 and 1.4 times of KH(2)PO(4) (KDP), respectively, and they are also phase-matchable. The SHG response of K(2)Co(IO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2) is much weaker (about 0.3 x KDP), and no obvious SHG signal was detected for K(2)Mn(IO(3))(4)(H(2)O)(2). Results of optical property calculations for the Zn and Mg phases revealed SHG responses of approximately 5.3 and 4.7 times of KDP, respectively, the order of Zn > Mg is in good agreement with the experiment data.

  15. Simulating cultural transmission: preliminary results and their implications for the study of formal variability of material culture in the Central Balkan Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Porčić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we adopt the theoretical framework of evolutionary archaeology in order to model and simulate cultural transmission between hypothetical Neolithic sites in Balkans. We simulate neutral cultural transmission in order to compare the simulation results with empirically observed patterns of material culture variability such as traditional archaeological cultures. Our preliminary results show that a series of random local interactions can result in spatial groupings of typologically similar assemblages that correspond to the spatial distributions of traditional archaeological cultures, even in the absence of any other ‘external’ factor such as an overarching regional political structure or shared collective identity.

  16. [?]Nonlinear Issues in the Aerothermochemistry of Gases and Materials and the Associated Physics and Dynamics of Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1996-01-01

    Our research and technology are focused on nonlinear issues in the aerothermochemistry of gases and materials and the associated physics and dynamics of interfaces. Our program is now organized to aggressively support the NASA Aeronautics Enterprise so as to: (a) develop a new generation of environmentally compatible, economic subsonic aircraft; (b) develop the technology base for an economically viable and environmentally compatible high-speed civil transport; (c) develop the technology options for new capabilities in high-performance aircraft; (d) develop hypersonic technologies for air-breathing flight; and (e) develop advanced concepts, understanding of physical phenomena, and theoretical, experimental, and computational tools for advanced aerospace systems. The implications from our research for aeronautical and aerospace technology have been both broad and deep. For example, using advanced computational techniques, we have determined exact solutions for the Schrodinger equation in electron-molecule scattering allowing us to evaluate atmospheric models important to reentry physics. We have also found a new class of exact solutions for the Navier Stokes equations. In experimental fluid dynamics, we have found explicit evidence of turbulence modification of droplet sizes in shock tube flow with condensation. We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the direct estimation of flow velocities at MHz sampling rates in quasi-one dimensional turbulent flow. This procedure suggests an unexpected confirmation of the possibility of 'natural' closure in Reynolds stresses with deep implications for the development of turbulent models. A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of the expected relaminarization. A unique diamond-shaped nozzle has been

  17. Determining large deflections in rectangular combined loaded cantilever beams made of non-linear Ludwick type material by means of different arc length assumptions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Eren

    2008-02-01

    In this study, large deflection of cantilever beams of Ludwick type material subjected to a combined loading consisting of a uniformly distributed load and one vertical concentrated load at the free end was investigated. In calculations, both material and geometrical non-linearity have been considered. Horizontal and vertical deflections magnitudes were calculated throughout Euler–Bernoulli curvature-moment relationship assuming different arc lengths. Vertical deflections were calculated by using Runge–Kutta method. More simple and easily understandable results have been obtained compared to the previous studies about the issue and compatible values have been obtained for most of the compared values.

  18. Polyhedral-based nonlinear optical materials. 2. Theoretical investigation of some new high nonlinear optical response compounds involving polyhedral bridges with charged aromatic donors and acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, D G; Spencer, J T

    2001-07-02

    A theoretical study of several new classes of polyhedral-based molecules has shown that these species display large calculated nonlinear optical responses. These new classes of molecules are based on charged aromatic subunits connected through polyhedral cluster bridges, such as closo-[1-(C(7)H(6))-12-(C(5)Me(4))C(2)B(10)H(10)]. These compounds show calculated first hyperpolarizabilities (beta) ranging from 6.5 to 8413.9 x 10(-30) cm(5) esu(-1). A basis for understanding the origin of these large responses is proposed based on the two-state model and consideration of the orbital and electronic features of the molecules. In general, the highest occupied molecular orbitals for these species are localized on the aromatic donor rings, such as the cyclopentadienyl system, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are largely on the aromatic acceptor rings, such as the tropylium system. The electronic properties of these polyhedral-based systems appear to be significantly different from the analogous organic [5.6.7]quinarene system (tropyliumcyclopentadienylbenzene). The organic quinarene appears to behave as a completely electron-delocalized system over all three rings while the polyhedral-based compounds can best be described as consisting of two relatively independent, highly polarized regions.

  19. CsB4O6F: A Congruent-melting Deep-ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Material with Superior Functional Units Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Fangfang; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-09-12

    The discovery of new nonlinear optical (NLO) materials for coherent light generation in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV, wavelength below 200 nm) region is essential for the development of laser technologies. Herein, we report a new material CsB4O6F (CBF), which combines the superior structural genes of two famous NLO materials-β-BaB2O4 (BBO) and KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF). CBF exhibits excellent DUV optical properties including a short cutoff edge (155 nm), a large SHG response (~1.9 × KDP), and a suitable birefringence that enables frequency doubling down to 171.6 nm. Remarkably, CBF melts congruently and show an improved growth habit. In addition, our rational design strategy will contribute to the discovery of DUV NLO materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Single-channel 1.28 Tbit/s-525 km DQPSK transmission using ultrafast time-domain optical Fourier transformation and nonlinear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Tomiyama, Yutaro

    2011-01-01

    developed an ultrafast timedomain optical Fourier transformation technique in a round-trip configuration. By applying this technique to subpicosecond pulses, transmission impairments were greatly reduced, and BER performance below FEC limit was obtained with increased system margin. Copyright © 2011...

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Response Analysis of the Transmission Tower-Line System under Earthquake%输电塔线体系非线性地震反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯景鹏; 陈加宝; 雷俊方

    2012-01-01

    With the 5A-ZM4 cat-head transmission tower as an example, a finite element model of transmission tower-line system consisting of two towers and three lines is established by using ANASYS software. The dynamic characteristics of natural frequencies and vibration modes of the system are calculated and the influencing factors are analyzed. Based on 3 typical seismic records of Tianjin wave, El-Centro wave and Shanghai artificial seismic wave, the peak values of the accelerations are scaled up to consider the nonlinear behaviors and plastic limit of transmission towers. The results show that the largest displacements on top of the tower are mainly concentrated between H/200-/100 (H is the height of tower) in the nonlinear ultimate limit state under earthquake; and that the bars between the second and the third diaphragms of the tower fall first into elastic-plastic limit state and produce large plastic deformation, indicating a strong nonlinear characteristics of the system.%地震对输电塔线的安全运行产生了威胁.选择输电线路工程中常用的5A-ZM4猫头塔为研究对象,利用ANSYS软件建立两塔三线输电塔线体系有限元模型,计算塔线体系的自振频率和振型并分析影响其动力特性的主要因素.选用天津波、EI-Centro波、上海人工波3条典型地震波,通过调整加速度峰值的方法研究塔线体系的位移响应非线性行为以及弹塑性极限状态.分析结果表明,强震作用下塔线体系进入非线性极限状态时,塔顶最大位移主要集中在H/200~H/100(H为塔高)之间;塔身第2至第3横隔之间杆件将率先进入弹塑性极限状态,产生较大塑性变形,使体系表现出较强的非线性特征.

  2. Supplementary examination of alternative materials in a model steam generator: Volume 3, tube characterization by metallography and transmission electron microscopy: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupowicz, J.J.; Stubbins, J.F.; Mehler, M.

    1988-10-01

    The microstructural characteristics of current and candidate alloys for steam generator heat transfer tubing were determined utilizing a variety of techniques. Mill annealed heats of Alloys 690 and 800NG were examined as well as heats of Alloy 600 in the mill annealed, process stabilized, sensitized and thermally treated conditions. Characterization included optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy of these materials in their pre- and post-test conditions (i.e., archive and exposure for 11,328 hours to 621/degree/F primary temperature). The results were utilized to elicit comparisons of these materials to stress corrosion cracking resistance in sulfate faulted secondary environments. 83 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Low reflection and high transmission by a layered structure containing diamond-like carbon, porous silicon, and left-handed material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeid, Muin F.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Altanany, Sameh M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and theoretically analyze a stratified waveguide structure comprised of diamond-like carbon (DLC), porous silicon (PS), and left-handed material (LHM) subjected to incident light in order to achieve low reflection and high transmission. The proposed waveguide structure is situated between two half free spaces and a TE polarized plane wave incident on it. The main parameters of each material are given and the required equations for the electromagnetic plane wave propagation are presented. Transfer matrix method is implemented to find out the characteristics of the reflected and transmitted powers. In the numerical results, the mentioned powers are computed and illustrated as a function of the incidence angle, the frequency, and the slab thickness to demonstrate the main parameters for low reflection and high transmission. These theoretical parameters could be useful to the researchers and designers working in the area of solar cells and optical sensors.

  4. Supramolecular step in design of nonlinear optical materials: Effect of π...π stacking aggregation on hyperpolarizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suponitsky, Kyrill Yu; Masunov, Artëm E

    2013-09-07

    Theoretical estimation of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties is an important step in systematic search for optoelectronic materials. Density functional theory methods are often used to predict first molecular hyperpolarizability for compounds in advance of their synthesis. However, design of molecular NLO materials require an estimation of the bulk properties, which are often approximated as additive superposition of molecular tensors. It is therefore important to evaluate the accuracy of this additive approximation and estimate the extent by which intermolecular interactions influence the first molecular hyperpolarizability β. Here we focused on the stacking aggregates, including up to 12 model molecules (pNA and ANS) and observed enhancement and suppression of molecular hyperpolarizability relative to the additive sum. We found that degree of nonadditivity depends on relative orientation of the molecular dipole moments and does not correlate with intermolecular interaction energy. Frenkel exciton model, based on dipole-dipole approximation can be used for qualitative prediction of intermolecular effects. We report on inaccuracy of this model for the molecules with long π-systems that are significantly shifted relative to each other, when dipole-dipole approximation becomes inaccurate. To obtain more detailed information on the effect of intermolecular interactions on β we proposed electrostatic approach which accounts for the mutual polarization of the molecules by each other. We measure the induced polarization of each molecule in the aggregate by the charge of its donor (or acceptor) group. The proposed approach demonstrates linear correlation β(FF) vs β(elm) (estimated by finite field theory and electrostatic model, respectively) and allows decomposition of the hyperpolarizability for a molecular aggregate into separate molecular contributions. We used this decomposition to analyze the reasons of deviation of aggregate β from additivity, as well as the

  5. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25

    mission. This workshop built on previous workshops and included three breakout sessions identifying scientific challenges in biology, biogeochemistry, catalysis, and materials science frontier areas of fundamental science that underpin energy and environmental science that would significantly benefit from ultrafast transmission electron microscopy (UTEM). In addition, the current status of time-resolved electron microscopy was examined, and the technologies that will enable future advances in spatio-temporal resolution were identified in a fourth breakout session.

  6. Intramolecular charge transfer and Z-scan studies of a semiorganic nonlinear optical material sodium acid phthalate hemihydrate: a vibrational spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajan, D; Vijayan, N; Safakath, K; Philip, Reji; Joe, I Hubert

    2011-07-28

    FT-IR and Raman spectra of the nonlinear optical material sodium acid phthalate hemihydrate crystal have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features, and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers have been investigated with the help of the B3LYP density functional theory method. A detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra was carried out with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. The natural bond orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the molecule. Nonlinear optical absorption of the sample has been studied at 532 nm using single 5 ns laser pulses, employing the open-aperture Z-scan technique. It is found that the NaAPH molecule is a potential candidate for optical limiting applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Imaging through Turbulent Media Based on Phase Conjugation in Resonantly-Enhanced Second-Order Nonlinear Materials: A Novel Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    the nonlinear parametric processes in the AFB KTP plates, see Fig. 3. The pump beam at 539 nm is an output generated by a MOPO system (10 Hz, 5 ns...ps pulse width) is from an output of Master Oscillator/Power Oscillator ( MOPO ), with wide range wavelength tenability. The pump beam is split into

  8. Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-25

    t ,, A FILE C’D AD-A2 23 855 Sixth Quarterly Technical Report Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical...the back surface of a transparent support and place an absorbing beam dump behind and at an angle to that of the reflective coating . In this

  9. Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials and Devices Symposium Held in San Francisco, California on 6-9 April 1999. Volume 561

    Science.gov (United States)

    electroluminescent materials and devices for displays. The symposium highlighted developments in materials chemistry and physics relevant to such devices and struck a balance between basic science and technology.

  10. Kerr nonlinearity mitigation in 5 × 28-GBd PDM16-QAM signal transmission over a dispersion-uncompensated link with backward-pumpeddistributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sackey, I.; Da Ros, Francesco; Jazayerifar, M.;

    2014-01-01

    inversion of 5 × 28-GBd polarization-multiplexed 16- QAM signals. Signal quality factor (Q-factor) improvements of 1.1 dB and 0.8 dB were obtained in the cases of a single-channel and a five-channel wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) system, respectively. The experimental results are compared......We present experimental and numerical investigations of Kerr nonlinearity compensation in a 400-km standard single-mode fiber link with distributed Raman amplification with backward pumping. A dual-pump polarization-independent fiber-based optical parametric amplifier is used for mid-link spectral...

  11. Kerr Nonlinearity Mitigation: Mid-Link Spectral Inversion Versus Digital Backpropagation in 5×28-GBd PDM 16-QAM Signal Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sackey, Isaac; Da Ros, Francesco; Karl Fischer, Johannes;

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Kerr nonlinearity mitigation of a 28-GBd polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM signal in a five-channel 50-GHz spaced wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) system. Optical phase conjugation (OPC) employing the mid-link spectral inversion technique is implemented by using...... a dual-pump polarization-independent fiber-optic parametric amplifier and compared to digital backpropagation (DBP) compensation over up to 800-km in a dispersion-managed link. In the single-channel case, the use of the DBP algorithm outperformed the OPC with a Q-factor improvement of 0.9 dB after 800-km...

  12. Kerr Nonlinearity Mitigation: Mid-Link Spectral Inversion Versus Digital Backpropagation in 5×28-GBd PDM 16-QAM Signal Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sackey, Isaac; Da Ros, Francesco; Karl Fischer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    a dual-pump polarization-independent fiber-optic parametric amplifier and compared to digital backpropagation (DBP) compensation over up to 800-km in a dispersion-managed link. In the single-channel case, the use of the DBP algorithm outperformed the OPC with a Q-factor improvement of 0.9 dB after 800-km......We experimentally investigate Kerr nonlinearity mitigation of a 28-GBd polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM signal in a five-channel 50-GHz spaced wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) system. Optical phase conjugation (OPC) employing the mid-link spectral inversion technique is implemented by using...

  13. Nonlinear graphene metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Ze Xiang; De Angelis, Francesco; Boden, Stuart A; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that the broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through hybridization with a plasmonic metamaterial,while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps. Transmission modulation close to ~1% is seen at a pump uence of ~0.03 mJ/cm^2 at the wavelength of ~1600 nm. This approach allows to engineer and enhance graphene's nonlinearity within a broad wavelength range enabling applications in optical switching, mode-locking and pulse shaping.

  14. A nonlinear Hermitian transfinite element method for transient behavior analysis of hollow functionally graded cylinders with temperature-dependent materials under thermo-mechanical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariyat, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_shariyat@yahoo.com

    2009-04-15

    In the present paper, an algorithm for nonlinear transient behavior analysis of thick functionally graded cylindrical vessels or pipes with temperature-dependent material properties under thermo-mechanical loads is presented. In contrast to researches presented so far, a Hermitian transfinite element method is proposed to improve the accuracy and to prevent artificial interference or cohesion formation at the mutual boundaries of the elements. Time variations of the temperatures, displacements, and stresses are obtained through a numerical Laplace inversion. Another novelty of the present research is using the transfinite element method to solve nonlinear problems. A sensitivity analysis includes investigating effects of the volume fraction index, dimensions, and temperature-dependency of the material properties is performed. Results confirm the efficiency of the present algorithm and reveal the significant effects of the temperature-dependency of the material properties and the elastic wave reflections and interferences on the responses. In comparison to other techniques, the present technique may be used to obtain relatively accurate and stable results in a less computational time.

  15. Nonlinear transient heat transfer and thermoelastic analysis of thick-walled FGM cylinder with temperature-dependent material properties using Hermitian transfinite element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Mohammad [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadi, Mahboobeh [Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Nonlinear transient heat transfer and thermoelastic stress analyses of a thick-walled FGM cylinder with temperature dependent materials are performed by using the Hermitian transfinite element method. Temperature-dependency of the material properties has not been taken into account in transient thermoelastic analysis, so far. Due to the mentioned dependency, the resulting governing FEM equations of transient heat transfer are highly nonlinear. Furthermore, in all finite element analysis performed so far in the field, Lagrangian elements have been used. To avoid an artificial local heat source at the mutual boundaries of the elements, Hermitian elements are used instead in the present research. Another novelty of the present paper is simultaneous use of the transfinite element method and updating technique. Time variations of the temperature, displacements, and stresses are obtained through a numerical Laplace inversion. Finally, results obtained considering the temperature-dependency of the material properties are compared with those derived based on temperature independency assumption. Furthermore, the temperature distribution and the radial and circumferential stresses are investigated versus time, geometrical parameters and index of power law. Results reveal that the temperature-dependency effect is significant

  16. Theoretical Evaluation of Terahertz Sources Generated From SnGa4 Q7 (Q=S, Se) as Infrared Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Dan; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Chai, Guo-Liang

    2017-03-03

    We theoretically evaluated the integrated knowledge that contributes to conversion efficiency, including the phonon, photon, and electron properties of infrared nonlinear optical materials such as SnGa4 Q7 (Q=S, Se), which are terahertz (THz) sources. Specifically, we developed a new formula to calculate the susceptibility of the difference frequency generation (DFG) optical process. By evaluating the characteristics of the materials themselves in the THz region, we found that a larger nonlinear susceptibility or a large figure of merit resulted in a large efficiency of the THz source by comparing the findings of SnGa4 Se7 and SnGa4 S7 under the same experimental conditions; furthermore, THz absorption was found to reduce the efficiency of the THz source for the two SnGa4 Q7 (Q=S, Se) materials. The efficiency of the THz source also depended on the experimental conditions. A large crystal size, strong pump intensity, and small THz wavelength resulted in better efficiency of the THz source based on the DFG process. The efficiency was found to be a comprehensive index to evaluate the THz source based on the DFG process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Double lens device for tunable harmonic generation of laser beams in KBBF/RBBF crystals or other non-linear optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus to generate harmonically related laser wavelengths includes a pair of lenses at opposing faces of a non-linear optical material. The lenses are configured to promote incoming and outgoing beams to be normal to each outer lens surface over a range of acceptance angles of the incoming laser beam. This reduces reflection loss for higher efficiency operation. Additionally, the lenses allow a wider range of wavelengths for lasers for more universal application. Examples of the lenses include plano-cylindrical and plano-spherical form factors.

  18. New Materials Directions for the Realization of Ultra-High Performance 3rd Order Non-Linear Optical Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-13

    number and part number, if applicable. On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER. Enter all...Enter security classification in accordance with security classification regulations, e.g. U, C, S, etc. If this form contains classified ...enhancement of the Cy-TICT nonlinear response. Orbital hybridization also resulted in spectral shifts of the resonances, so there is an exciting

  19. Non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media: from long-range correlated percolation to fracture and materials breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimi, Muhammad

    1998-12-01

    We review and discuss recent progress in modelling non-linear and non-local transport processes in heterogeneous media. The non-locality that we consider is caused by long-range correlations that either exist in the morphology of the media, or are caused by the transport processes themselves. The interplay between the non-linearity and non-locality is discussed in depth with the aim of establishing that, often non-linearity and non-locality are “two sides of the same coin”, such that one may have no meaning without the presence of the other one. First, we discuss linear and scalar, but non-local transport processes and, in particular, consider those in percolation systems with long-range correlations. It appears that there are significant differences between percolative transport processes in which the long-range correlations (or the covariance function) decrease with the distance r between two points, and those in which they increase as r does. Application of this problem to flow and transport in geological formations is discussed. We then consider linear vector percolation, one type of which, the rigidity percolation, provides an example of a non-local vector transport in heterogeneous media. Applications of vector percolation to modelling elastic properties of glasses, composite solids and rock, mechanical and viscoelastic properties of polymers, and vibrations and dynamical properties of heterogeneous materials are discussed. Non-linear and non-local scalar transport processes are discussed next, including various breakdown phenomena in disordered composites, power-law transport, piecewise linear transport characterized by a threshold, and non-linear processes that arise as a result of imposing a large external potential gradient on a heterogeneous medium. Their relevance to flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media, to electrical currents and dielectric breakdown in composite solids and doped polycrystalline semiconductors, and several other problems is

  20. Porosity measurement of amorphous materials by gamma ray transmission; Medida de porosidade de materiais amorfos por transmissao de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettker, Walmir Eno

    2000-07-01

    In this work it is presented the measurement of the total porosity of TRe soil, Sandstone Berea rocks and porous ceramics samples. For the determination of the total porosity, the Arquimedes method (conventional) and the gamma ray transmission methodology were employed. The porosity measurement using the gamma methodology has a significant advantage respect to the conventional method due to the fast and non-destructive determination, and also for supplying results with a greater characterization in small scales, in relation to the heterogeneity of the porosity. The conventional methodology presents good results only for homogeneous samples. The experimental set up for the gamma ray transmission technique consisted of a {sup 241} Am source (59,53 keV), a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ, micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyser. (author)