WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy

  1. Metamaterial-Enhanced Nonlinear Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate large nonlinear terahertz responses in the gaps of metamaterial split ring resonators in several materials and use nonlinear THz transmission and THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy to study the nonlinear responses and dynamics. We use the field enhancement in the SRR gaps to initiate high-field phenomena at lower incident fields. In vanadium dioxide, we drive the insulator-to-metal phase transition with high-field THz radiation. The film conductivity increases by over two orders of magnitude and the phase transition occurs on a several picosecond timescale. In gallium arsenide, we observe high-field transport phenomena, including mobility saturation and impact ionization. The carrier density increases by up to ten orders of magnitude at high fields. At the highest fields, we demonstrate THz-induced damage in both vanadium dioxide and gallium arsenide.

  2. Microscopic theory of linear and nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Johannes

    2008-12-09

    This Thesis presents a fully microscopic theory to describe terahertz (THz)-induced processes in optically-excited semiconductors. The formation process of excitons and other quasi-particles after optical excitation has been studied in great detail for a variety of conditions. Here, the formation process is not modelled but a realistic initial many-body state is assumed. In particular, the linear THz response is reviewed and it is demonstrated that correlated quasi-particles such as excitons and plasmons can be unambiguously detected via THz spectroscopy. The focus of the investigations, however, is on situations where the optically-excited many-body state is excited by intense THz fields. While weak pulses detect the many-body state, strong THz pulses control and manipulate the quasi-particles in a way that is not accessible via conventional techniques. The nonlinear THz dynamics of exciton populations is especially interesting because similarities and differences to optics with atomic systems can be studied. (orig.)

  3. Semiconductor Nonlinear Dynamics Study by Broadband Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, I.-Chen

    Semiconductor nonlinearity in the terahertz (THz) frequency range has been attracting considerable attention due to the recent development of high-power semiconductor-based nanodevices. However, the underlying physics concerning carrier dynamics in the presence of high-field THz transients is still obscure. This thesis introduces an ultrafast, time-resolved THz pump/THz probe approach to the study of semiconductor properties in the nonlinear regime. The carrier dynamics regarding two mechanisms, intervalley scattering and impact ionization, is observed for doped InAs on a sub-picosecond time scale. In addition, polaron modulation driven by intense THz pulses is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The observed polaron dynamics verifies the interaction between energetic electrons and a phonon field. In contrast to previous work which reports optical phonon responses, acoustic phonon modulations are addressed in this study. A further understanding of the intense field interacting with solid materials will accelerate the development of semiconductor devices. This thesis starts with the design and performance of a table-top THz spectrometer which has the advantages of ultra-broad bandwidth (one order higher bandwidth compared to a conventional ZnTe sensor) and high electric field strength (>100 kV/cm). Unlike the conventional THz time-domain spectroscopy, the spectrometer integrates a novel THz air-biased-coherent-detection (THz-ABCD) technique and utilizes selected gases as THz emitters and sensors. In comparison with commonly used electro-optic (EO) crystals or photoconductive (PC) dipole antennas, the gases have the benefits of no phonon absorption as existing in EO crystals and no carrier life time limitation as observed in PC dipole antennas. The newly development THz-ABCD spectrometer with a strong THz field strength capability provides a platform for various research topics especially on the nonlinear carrier dynamics of semiconductors. Two mechanisms

  4. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Huabing [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  5. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new...... activities that promise commercial potential for spectroscopic applications in the THz range. This will be illustrated with examples of spectroscopy of liquids inside their bottles as well as sensitive, quantitative spectroscopy in waveguides....

  6. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  7. Nonlinear terahertz coherent excitation of vibrational modes of liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, Marco A; Finneran, Ian A; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-12-21

    We report the first coherent excitation of intramolecular vibrational modes via the nonlinear interaction of a TeraHertz (THz) light field with molecular liquids. A terahertz-terahertz-Raman pulse sequence prepares the coherences with a broadband, high-energy, (sub)picosecond terahertz pulse, that are then measured in a terahertz Kerr effect spectrometer via phase-sensitive, heterodyne detection with an optical pulse. The spectrometer reported here has broader terahertz frequency coverage, and an increased sensitivity relative to previously reported terahertz Kerr effect experiments. Vibrational coherences are observed in liquid diiodomethane at 3.66 THz (122 cm(-1)), and in carbon tetrachloride at 6.50 THz (217 cm(-1)), in exact agreement with literature values of those intramolecular modes. This work opens the door to 2D spectroscopies, nonlinear in terahertz field, that can study the dynamics of condensed-phase molecular systems, as well as coherent control at terahertz frequencies.

  8. Intense Terahertz Sources for 2D Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov

    This Ph.D. thesis covers the development of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy systems for investigating nonlinear vibrational responses in organic biomolecules such as sucrose. First, an add-on module for the DFT-based ab initio software CASTEP is developed to include a THz pulse as an external field...

  9. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz nonlinear...

  10. Nanoscale Terahertz Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    By utilizing plasmonic coupling to an AFM probe, we demonstrate Laser Terahertz Emission Nanoscopy (LTEN) with sub-20 nm resolution. We demonstrate the resolution by imaging a single gold nanorod on an InAs substrate....

  11. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  12. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-11-12

    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  13. Terahertz technology for imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, T. W.; Porterfield, D. W.; Hesler, J. L.; Bishop, W. L.; Kurtz, D. S.; Hui, K.

    2006-05-01

    The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum has unique properties that make it especially useful for imaging and spectroscopic detection of concealed weapons, explosives and chemical and biological materials. However, terahertz energy is difficult to generate and detect, and this has led to a technology gap in this frequency band. Nonlinear diodes can be used to bridge this gap by translating the functionality achieved at microwave frequencies to the terahertz band. Basic building blocks include low-noise mixers, frequency multipliers, sideband generators and direct detectors. These terahertz components rely on planar Schottky diodes and recently developed integrated diode circuits make them easier to assemble and more robust. The new generation of terahertz sources and receivers requires no mechanical tuning, yet achieves high efficiency and broad bandwidth. This paper reviews the basic design of terahertz transmitters and receivers, with special emphasis on the recent development of systems that are compact, easy to use and have excellent performance.

  14. Photoinduced Nonlinear Mixing of Terahertz Dipole Resonances in Graphene Metadevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Chihun; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Min, Bumki; Choi, Hyunyong

    2016-02-17

    The first experimental demonstration of nonlinear terahertz difference-frequency generation in a hybrid graphene metadevice is reported. Decades of research have revealed that terahertz-wave generation is impossible in single-layer graphene. This limitation is overcome and nonlinear terahertz generation by ultra-short optical pulse injection is demonstrated. This device is an essential step toward atomically thin, nonlinear terahertz optoelectronic components. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Terahertz spectroscopy of plasmonic fractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, A; Matsui, T; Zhu, W; Nahata, A; Vardeny, Z V

    2009-03-20

    We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to study the transmission properties of metallic films perforated with aperture arrays having deterministic or stochastic fractal morphologies ("plasmonic fractals"), and compare them with random aperture arrays. All of the measured plasmonic fractals show transmission resonances and antiresonances at frequencies that correspond to prominent features in their structure factors in k space. However, in sharp contrast to periodic aperture arrays, the resonant transmission enhancement decreases with increasing array size. This property is explained using a density-density correlation function, and is utilized for determining the underlying fractal dimensionality, D(fractals relative to the transmission of the corresponding random aperture arrays is obtained, and is shown to be universal.

  16. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...... breathing of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor....

  17. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Novel Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Through the coupling of Synchrotron Radiation and Michelson interferometry, one may obtain in the terahertz (THz) range transmittance and reflectivity spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) up to 103. In this paper we review the application of this spectroscopic technique to novel superconductors with an increasing degree of complexity: the single-gap boron-doped diamond; the isotropic multiband V3Si, where superconductivity opens two gaps at the Fermi energy; the CaAlSi superconductor, i...

  18. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Novel Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lupi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the coupling of Synchrotron Radiation and Michelson interferometry, one may obtain in the terahertz (THz range transmittance and reflectivity spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N up to 103. In this paper we review the application of this spectroscopic technique to novel superconductors with an increasing degree of complexity: the single-gap boron-doped diamond; the isotropic multiband V3Si, where superconductivity opens two gaps at the Fermi energy; the CaAlSi superconductor, isostructural to MgB2, with a single gap in the hexagonal ab plane and two gaps along the orthogonal c axis.

  19. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taday, Philip F

    2004-02-15

    The application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy within the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is considered. As a case study the potency levels in paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) test tablets have been recovered from the terahertz absorption spectra using a multivariate partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration model. Root-mean-square errors of cross-validation (RMSECVs) of 2.85% and 3.90% were obtained for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. Information about other excipients can also be obtained; for example, using the strong lactose absorption lines in the tablets, RMSECVs of 3.65% and 4.30% could be recovered from the paracetamol and aspirin samples, respectively. As active ingredients may also change their solid-state form during formulation processing or storage and as this can adversely affect the final dosage performance, monitoring of pharmaceutical ingredients is essential for a 'right-first-time' philosophy within the industry. Terahertz pulse spectroscopy is a high-throughput technique with many areas of potential exploitation in the pharmaceutical industry; these issues are discussed in this paper.

  20. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik

    This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse...... be signicantly reduced. Besides time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurement, optical transmission, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy experiments on black silicon are presented....

  1. Resonant Dipole Nanoantenna Arrays for Enhanced Terahertz Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-08-04

    Our recent studies on dipole nanoantenna arrays resonating in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 – 10 THz) will be presented. The main near- and far-field properties of these nanostructures will be shown and their application in enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of tiny quantities of nanomaterials will be discussed.

  2. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Crystalline and Non-Crystalline Solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrott, Edward P. J.; Fischer, Bernd M.; Gladden, Lynn F.

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy of crystalline and non-crystalline solids is probably one of the most active research fields within the terahertz community. Many potential applications, amongst which spectral recognition is probably one of the most prominent, have significantly stimulated the development...

  3. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe

    Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult to differ......Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult...... to differentiate between these types of water in subsequent quality controls. This thesis describes terahertz time-domain spectroscopy applied on aqueous food model systems, with particular focus on ethanol-water mixtures and confined water pools in inverse micelles....

  4. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  5. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  6. Drug detection by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Ruixin; Zhu Yiming; Zhao Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Due to unique spectral region, functional imaging ability, excellent penetration and safety characteristics of terahertz radiation, the terahertz technology rapidly becomes a vital method to detect and analyze drugs. In this paper, firstly, we identify the functional groups of anti-diabetic drugs by density functional theory (DFT), HIPHOP models and experimental results from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements. Secondly, we identify four kinds of herbs of radix curcumae by using the support vector machine (SVM) analysis. Besides, we analyze the absorption of anhydrous and hydrous glucose, and determine the state of water in the crystalized D-glucose·H 2 O through the results of differential scanning calorimetry measurement. Finally, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy method in drug detection and analyzing. (authors)

  7. Extending applicability of terahertz spectroscopy for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ramakrishnan

    Terahertz (THz) vibrational resonance spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising technique for fingerprinting biological molecules. Absorption spectra in this frequency range (0.1-10 THz) reflect molecular internal vibrations involving the weakest hydrogen bonds and/or non-bonded interactions, which are species specific. Of prime importance is improving detection sensitivity of molecules with low absorption characteristics in the THz gap. Also of importance is the characterization of biological molecules in the THz gap (10-25 cm-1) by physical parameters (refractive index and absorption coefficient) rather than sample dependent parameters (transmission, reflection) and extending spectroscopy to the low THz range where remote sensing is most viable. To address the sensitivity issue, it is shown that periodic arrays of rectangular slots with subwavelength width provide for local electromagnetic field enhancements due to edge effects in the low frequency range of interest, 10-25 cm-1 (300-750 GHz). Periodic structures of Au, doped Si and InSb were studied. InSb is confirmed to offer the highest results with the local power enhancements on the order of 1100 at frequency 14 cm -1. InSb and Si have large skin depths in the frequency range of interest and so the analysis of their structures was done through the Fourier expansion method of field diffracted from gratings. Au however has small skin depths at these frequencies compared to the thickness. Surface impedance boundary conditions were employed to model the Au structure, for which the Fourier expansion method was unsuitable owing to the huge magnitude of Au permittivity. The applications possibly include development of novel bio-sensors, with the strongly enhanced local electromagnetic fields leading to increased detection sensitivity, and monitoring biophysical processes such as DNA denaturation. Transmission and reflection data from parallel, independent experiments are utilized in the Interference

  8. Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy for Structure-II Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeya, Kei; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao

    2009-01-01

    For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has a charact......For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has...

  9. [Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of Clenbuterol hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-ai; Hou, Di-bo; Huang, Ping-jie; Kang, Xu-sheng; Zhang, Guang-xin; Zhou, Ze-kui

    2011-12-01

    The terahertz spectra of Clenbuterol hydrochloride in the range of 0.2 to 2.6 THz were obtained by THz time-domain spectroscopy, the absorption and refraction spectra of Clenbuterol hydrochloride was got meanwhile. The structure and vibrational frequencies of Clenbuterol molecule, Clenbuterol hydrochloride molecule and Clenbuterol hydrochloride crystal in the THz range were simulated. Based on the difference between experimental and theoretical results, the origin of the vibrational frequencies was analyzed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of time-domain terahertz spectroscopy for the identification of Clenbuterol hydrochloride and provides a new way for the detection of Clenbuterol hydrochloride.

  10. Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Razzari, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas coupled through nanogaps, we present an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  11. Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETS) of semiconductor quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, Andrea

    2015-01-14

    Terahertz spectroscopy has vast potentialities in sensing a broad range of elementary excitations (e.g., collective vibrations of molecules, phonons, excitons, etc.). However, the large wavelength associated with terahertz radiation (about 300 μm at 1 THz) severely hinders its interaction with nano-objects, such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes, and large molecules of biological relevance, practically limiting terahertz studies to macroscopic ensembles of these compounds, in the form of thick pellets of crystallized molecules or highly concentrated solutions of nanomaterials. Here we show that chains of terahertz dipole nanoantennas spaced by nanogaps of 20 nm allow retrieving the spectroscopic signature of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots, a significant portion of the signal arising from the dots located within the antenna nanocavities. A Fano-like interference between the fundamental antenna mode and the phonon resonance of the quantum dots is observed, accompanied by an absorption enhancement factor greater than one million. NETS can find immediate applications in terahertz spectroscopic studies of nanocrystals and molecules at extremely low concentrations. Furthermore, it shows a practicable route toward the characterization of individual nano-objects at these frequencies.

  12. Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETS) of semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Andrea; Tuccio, Salvatore; Prato, Mirko; De Donato, Francesco; Perucchi, Andrea; Di Pietro, Paola; Marras, Sergio; Liberale, Carlo; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; De Angelis, Francesco; Manna, Liberato; Lupi, Stefano; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Razzari, Luca

    2015-01-14

    Terahertz spectroscopy has vast potentialities in sensing a broad range of elementary excitations (e.g., collective vibrations of molecules, phonons, excitons, etc.). However, the large wavelength associated with terahertz radiation (about 300 μm at 1 THz) severely hinders its interaction with nano-objects, such as nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes, and large molecules of biological relevance, practically limiting terahertz studies to macroscopic ensembles of these compounds, in the form of thick pellets of crystallized molecules or highly concentrated solutions of nanomaterials. Here we show that chains of terahertz dipole nanoantennas spaced by nanogaps of 20 nm allow retrieving the spectroscopic signature of a monolayer of cadmium selenide quantum dots, a significant portion of the signal arising from the dots located within the antenna nanocavities. A Fano-like interference between the fundamental antenna mode and the phonon resonance of the quantum dots is observed, accompanied by an absorption enhancement factor greater than one million. NETS can find immediate applications in terahertz spectroscopic studies of nanocrystals and molecules at extremely low concentrations. Furthermore, it shows a practicable route toward the characterization of individual nano-objects at these frequencies.

  13. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Bernd M.; Hoffmann, Matthias; Helm, Hanspeter

    2005-01-01

    We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to measure the far-infrared dielectric function of two artificial RNA single strands, composed of polyadenylic acid (poly-A) and polycytidylic acid (poly-C). We find a significant difference in the absorption between the two types of RNA strands...

  14. Terahertz optical properties of nonlinear optical CdSe crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dexian; Xu, Degang; Li, Jining; Wang, Yuye; Liang, Fei; Wang, Jian; Yan, Chao; Liu, Hongxiang; Shi, Jia; Tang, Longhuang; He, Yixin; Zhong, Kai; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhang, Yingwu; Cheng, Hongjuan; Shi, Wei; Yao, Jianquan; Wu, Yicheng

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the optical properties of cadmium selenide (CdSe) crystals in a wide terahertz (THz) range from 0.2 to 6 THz by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The refractive index, absorption coefficient and transmittance are measured and analyzed. The properties are characterized by several absorption peaks which represent the relevant phonon vibrations modes. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical results. The dispersion and absorption properties of CdSe crystal are analyzed in THz range. These properties indicate a good potential for THz sources and THz modulated devices.

  15. Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Bisgaard, Christer Zoffmann; Novitsky, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are receiving a lot of attention due to their unique optical properties. In this paper we study the optical properties of As2S3 and GaLaS glasses in a broad terahertz (THz) frequency range (0.2-18 THz). Complex dispersion behavior with drastic changes of refractive index and ...

  16. Linearity of Air-Biased Coherent Detection for Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Wrisberg, Emil Astrup

    2016-01-01

    The performance of air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) in a broadband two-color laser-induced air plasma system for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been investigated. Fundamental parameters of the ABCD detection, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range (DR......), and linearity of detection have been characterized. Moreover, the performance of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and an avalanche photodiode (APD) as photodetector in the ABCD have been compared. We have observed nonlinear behavior of PMT detector, which leads to artificial gain factor in TDS spectroscopy. The APD...

  17. Terahertz time-domain transmission and reflection spectroscopy of niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tae Yoon; Choi, Kyu Jin; Park, Byoung Cheol; Ha, Tae Woo; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jea Hoon [Dept. of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Gwang; Chang, Yonuk [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    We have developed a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system for transmission and reflection measurements of metallic thin films. Using our THz-TDS system, we studied the conventional superconductor niobium (Nb) in the normal state in the spectral range from 5 to 50 cm{sup -1}. Both the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity are acquired without Kramers-Kronig analysis. Nb exhibits a nearly frequency independent real conductivity spectrum in the terahertz range, with a very small imaginary part.

  18. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  19. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  20. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  1. Terahertz-Driven Nonlinear Spin Response of Antiferromagnetic Nickel Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierl, S.; Mentink, J. H.; Hohenleutner, M.; Braun, L.; Do, T.-M.; Lange, C.; Sell, A.; Fiebig, M.; Woltersdorf, G.; Kampfrath, T.; Huber, R.

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz magnetic fields with amplitudes of up to 0.4 Tesla drive magnon resonances in nickel oxide while the induced dynamics is recorded by femtosecond magneto-optical probing. We observe distinct spin-mediated optical nonlinearities, including oscillations at the second harmonic of the 1 THz magnon mode. The latter originate from coherent dynamics of the longitudinal component of the antiferromagnetic order parameter, which are probed by magneto-optical effects of second order in the spin deflection. These observations allow us to dynamically disentangle electronic from lattice-related contributions to magnetic linear birefringence and dichroism—information so far only accessible by ultrafast THz spin control. The nonlinearities discussed here foreshadow physics that will become essential in future subcycle spin switching.

  2. Detection of Ionic liquid using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Shangjian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz, THz+1012Hz) spectroscopy is a far-infrared analytical technology with spectral bands locating between microware and infrared ranges. Being of excellent transmission, non-destruction and high discrimination, this technology has been applied in various fields such as physics, chemistry, nondestructive detection, communication, biomedicine public security. Terahertz spectrum is corresponding with vibration and rotation of liquid molecules, which is suitable to identify and study the liquid molecular dynamics. It is as a powerful spectral detection technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is widely used in solution detection. can enable us to extract the material parameters or dielectric spectrum that show material micro-structure and dynamics by measuring amplitude and phase from coherent terahertz pulses. Ionic liquid exists in most biological tissues, and it is very important for life. It has recently been suggested that near-fired terahertz ionic contrast microscopy can be employed to image subtle changes in ionic concentrations arising from neuronal activity. In this paper, we detected Ionic liquid with different concentrations at room temperature by THz-TDS technique in the range of 0.2-1.5 THz. The liquid cell with a thickness of 0.2mm is made of quartz. The absorption coefficient, refractive index and dielectric function of solutions can be extracted based on THz-TDS. We use an expanded model for fitting the dielectric function based on a combination of a Debye relation for the anions and cations. We find A linear increase of the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function compared with pure water with increasing ion concentrations. A good agreement between the model and the experimental results is obtained. By means of dielectric relaxation process, it was found that the characteristic time of molecular movement and the information related to the liquid molecular structure and movement was obtained.

  3. [Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of ractopamine hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-ai; Huang, Ping-jie; Hou, Di-bo; Kang, Xu-sheng; Zhang, Guang-xin; Zhou, Ze-kui

    2011-03-01

    The terahertz spectra of Ractopamine hydrochloride in the range of 0.2 to 2.2 THz was obtained by THz time-domain spectroscopy, and the absorption and refraction spectra of Ractopamine hydrochloride was got meanwhile. The structure and vibrational frequencies of Ractopamine molecule in the THz range were simulated by density functional theory. The difference between experimental and theoretical results was analyzed. And assisted by Gaussian View 3.09, the origin of the vibrational frequencies was recognized. The results show that besides the intramolecular vibrations, THz absorption of Ractopamine hydrochloride originated from the intermolecular hydrogen bond network and Van der Waals force between molecules. This study demonstrated the feasibility of time-domain terahertz spectroscopy for the identification of Ractopamine hydrochloride and provided a new way for the detection of Ractopamine hydrochloride.

  4. Moisture detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-07-01

    The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by moisture or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and moisture ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on moisture detection. There are numerous sources of moisture such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to moisture during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with moisture contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to moisture contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect moisture hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.

  5. Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pashkin, Alexej; Kempa, Martin; Němec, Hynek; Kadlec, Filip; Kužel, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 11 (2003), s. 4711-4716 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032; GA ČR GA202/01/0612 Grant - others: Volkswagen Stiftung(DE) I/75908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * reflectivity * phase-sensitive Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  6. The atomic charge distribution in glasses obtained by terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taraskin, S N; Simdyankin, S I; Elliott, S R

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the width of the uncorrelated atomic charge distribution can be extracted from the frequency dependence of the coupling coefficient for far-infrared absorption measured experimentally by a time-domain terahertz spectroscopy technique. This value for As 2 S 3 glass is found to be 0.12 (e). A density functional theory-based tight-binding molecular dynamics model of As 2 S 3 glass qualitatively supports these findings

  7. Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Xian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Kurihara, Takayuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Nelson, Keith A

    2017-05-19

    We report a demonstration of two-dimensional (2D) terahertz (THz) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using the magnetic fields of two time-delayed THz pulses. We apply the methodology to directly reveal the nonlinear responses of collective spin waves (magnons) in a canted antiferromagnetic crystal. The 2D THz spectra show all of the third-order nonlinear magnon signals including magnon spin echoes, and 2-quantum signals that reveal pairwise correlations between magnons at the Brillouin zone center. We also observe second-order nonlinear magnon signals showing resonance-enhanced second-harmonic and difference-frequency generation. Numerical simulations of the spin dynamics reproduce all of the spectral features in excellent agreement with the experimental 2D THz spectra.

  8. Broadband terahertz spectroscopy of chalcogenide glass As30Se30Te40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Romonova, Elena A.; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Broadband terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) were performed on a 54 μm thick chalcogenide glass (As30Se30Te40) sample using a two-color laser induced air plasma THz system in transmission and reflection configurations, respectively. Two...

  9. The detection of amoxicillin medicines by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kun; Li, Zeren; Liu, Qiao

    2012-03-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new spectroscopic technique, which improve a good complement for other spectroscopic techniques and has broad application prospects in the biomedical field. In this paper, a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system is set up. Using this system, the amoxicillin drugs are detected, and the spectrum are analyzed.

  10. Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Bacteria Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    HIGHLY RESOLVED SUB-TERAHERTZ VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES AND BACTERIA CELLS ECBC...SUBTITLE Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Bacteria Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911SR-14-P...22 4.3 Bacteria THz Study

  11. Terahertz transmission properties of silicon wafers using continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jae Sung; Eom, Joo Beom; Ji, Taeksoo

    2017-01-01

    We present the spectral properties of Si wafers using continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) spectroscopy. By using a tunable laser source and a fixed distributed-feedback laser diode (DFB-LD), a stably tunable beat source for CW-THz spectroscopy system can be implemented. THz radiation is generated in the frequency range of 100 GHz–800 GHz by photomixing in a photoconductive antenna. We also measured CW-THz waveforms by changing the beat frequency and confirmed repeatability through repeated measurement. We calculated the peaks of the THz frequency by taking fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of measured THz waveforms. The feasibility of CW-THz spectroscopy is demonstrated by the THz spectra of Si wafers with different resistivities, mobilities, and carrier concentrations. The results show that Si wafers with a lower resistivity absorb more THz waves. Thus, we expect our CW-THz system to have the advantage of being able to perform fast non-destructive analysis. (paper)

  12. Coherent source terahertz-subterahertz spectroscopy: instrumentation and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshunov, Boris P.; Zhukova, Elena S.

    2014-03-01

    We describe instrumentation and principles of terahertz-subterahertz (THz-subTHz) spectrometers based on continuously frequency tunable coherent radiation sources - backward-wave oscillators (BWOs). The spectrometers cover frequency range from 1 cm-1 (0.03 THz) to 50 cm-1 (1.5 THz) and operate at temperatures from 2 K to 1000 K, also in magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla. We illustrate abilities of the BWO-spectroscopy by presenting some late results on dielectric, conducting, superconducting and magnetic materials.

  13. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrafast Terahertz Nonlinear Optics of Landau Level Transitions in a Monolayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Go; Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Hibino, Hiroki; Shimano, Ryo

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the ultrafast terahertz (THz) nonlinearity in a monolayer graphene under the strong magnetic field using THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy. An ultrafast suppression of the Faraday rotation associated with inter-Landau level (LL) transitions is observed, reflecting the Dirac electron character of nonequidistant LLs with large transition dipole moments. A drastic modulation of electron distribution in LLs is induced by far off-resonant THz pulse excitation in the transparent region. Numerical simulation based on the density matrix formalism without rotating-wave approximation reproduces the experimental results. Our results indicate that the strong light-matter coupling regime is realized in graphene, with the Rabi frequency exceeding the carrier wave frequency and even the relevant energy scale of the inter-LL transition.

  15. Novel concepts for terahertz waveguide spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years there has been a tremendous interest in various waveguides for the THz range. A waveguide offers strong confinement of the field as well as low-loss propagation over significant distances, properties which are important for sensitive spectroscopy. The confinement of the field ...

  16. Transient photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz conductivity of InGaN/GaN MQWs was studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Restoration of the built-in piezoelectric field leads to a nonexponential carrier density decay. Terahertz conductivity spectrum is described by the Drude-Smith......Terahertz conductivity of InGaN/GaN MQWs was studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Restoration of the built-in piezoelectric field leads to a nonexponential carrier density decay. Terahertz conductivity spectrum is described by the Drude-Smith...

  17. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of Debye relaxation in polar liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Cooke, David; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation interacts strongly with the intermolecular hydrogen-bond network in aqueous liquids. The dielectric properties of liquid water and aqueous solutions in the THz spectral region are closely linked to the microscopic dynamics of the liquid solution, and hence THz spectroscopy...... for remote detection of some of the properties of bottled liquids. Here we present a review of THz spectroscopy and modeling of water-ethanol mixtures, and establish a link between the dielectric function of water-ethanol mixtures and some of their thermodynamic properties. We then review how the knowledge...... offers an important insight into fundamental intermolecular interactions in polar liquids. At the same time, the strong and characteristic interaction between THz radiation and liquids offers a methodology for the classification of liquids inside containers, and hence the THz region is suitable...

  18. Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – Modern techniques and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Cooke, David; Koch, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades a new spectroscopic technique with unique possibilities has emerged. Based on coherent and time-resolved detection of the electric field of ultrashort radiation bursts in the far-infrared, this technique has become known as terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz......-TDS). In this review article the authors describe the technique in its various implementations for static and time-resolved spectroscopy, and illustrate the performance of the technique with recent examples from solid-state physics and physical chemistry as well as aqueous chemistry. Examples from other fields...... of research, where THz spectroscopic techniques have proven to be useful research tools, and the potential for industrial applications of THz spectroscopic and imaging techniques are discussed....

  19. Research of biological liquid albumin based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Liu, Shang-jian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2016-11-01

    There is no corresponding fingerprint characteristic spectrum detecting complex ensemble biological samples in liquid, in the paper, such urine of kidney disease patients as samples of the research, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy emphatically explores response characteristics of the urine albumin in the terahertz spectrum characteristics, and combined with stoichiometric method, we find a certain kind of relationship between terahertz spectrum data and the content of urine albumin, which offsets the defects of other spectroscopy in measuring liquid protein, and in accordance with hospital clinical data. This study established a semi-qualitative method of using terahertz spectroscopy in detecting non-purification of biological liquid sample, which provides a simple, nondestructive, cheap and fast reference method in identifying the early nephropathy for medical test.

  20. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  1. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  2. Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Eyal; You, Lixing

    2008-02-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies have great potential for healthcare, plasma diagnostics, and homeland security applications. Terahertz frequencies correspond to energy level transitions of important molecules in biology and astrophysics. Terahertz radiation (T-rays) can penetrate clothing and, to some extent, can also penetrate biological materials. Because of their shorter wavelengths, they offer higher spatial resolution than do microwaves or millimeter waves. We are developing hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer receivers for heterodyne detection at terahertz frequencies. HEB detectors provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at terahertz frequencies. We describe the development of a two-pixel focal plane array (FPA) based on HEB technology. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a fully automated, two-dimensional scanning, passive imaging system based on our HEB technology operating at 0.85 THz. Our high spectral resolution terahertz imager has a total system noise equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) value of better than 0.5 K and a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. HEB technology is becoming the basis for advanced terahertz imaging and spectroscopic technologies for the study of biological and chemical agents over the entire terahertz spectrum.

  3. Model-Based Material Parameter Estimation for Terahertz Reflection Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Gabriel Paul

    Many materials such as drugs and explosives have characteristic spectral signatures in the terahertz (THz) band. These unique signatures imply great promise for spectral detection and classification using THz radiation. While such spectral features are most easily observed in transmission, real-life imaging systems will need to identify materials of interest from reflection measurements, often in non-ideal geometries. One important, yet commonly overlooked source of signal corruption is the etalon effect -- interference phenomena caused by multiple reflections from dielectric layers of packaging and clothing likely to be concealing materials of interest in real-life scenarios. This thesis focuses on the development and implementation of a model-based material parameter estimation technique, primarily for use in reflection spectroscopy, that takes the influence of the etalon effect into account. The technique is adapted from techniques developed for transmission spectroscopy of thin samples and is demonstrated using measured data taken at the Northwest Electromagnetic Research Laboratory (NEAR-Lab) at Portland State University. Further tests are conducted, demonstrating the technique's robustness against measurement noise and common sources of error.

  4. Detection of Water Content in Rapeseed Leaves Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Nie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz (THz spectra of rapeseed leaves with different water content (WC were investigated. The transmission and absorption spectra in the range of 0.3–2 THz were measured by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The mean transmittance and absorption coefficients were applied to analyze the change regulation of WC. In addition, the Savitzky-Golay method was performed to preprocess the spectra. Then, the partial least squares (PLS, kernel PLS (KPLS, and Boosting-PLS were conducted to establish models for predicting WC based on the processed transmission and absorption spectra. Reliable results were obtained by these three methods. KPLS generated the best prediction accuracy of WC. The prediction coefficient correlation (Rval and root mean square error (RMSEP of KPLS based on transmission were Rval = 0.8508, RMSEP = 0.1015, and that based on absorption were Rval = 0.8574, RMSEP = 0.1009. Results demonstrated that THz spectroscopy combined with modeling methods provided an efficient and feasible technique for detecting plant physiological information.

  5. Gelatin embedding: a novel way to preserve biological samples for terahertz imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin; Parrott, Edward P J; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Sample dehydration has traditionally been a challenging problem in ex vivo terahertz biomedical experiments as water content changes significantly affect the terahertz properties and can diminish important contrast features. In this paper, we propose a novel method to prevent sample dehydration using gelatin embedding. By looking at terahertz image data and calculating the optical properties of the gelatin-embedded sample, we find that our method successfully preserves the sample for at least 35 h, both for imaging and spectroscopy. Our novel preservation method demonstrates for the first time the capability to simultaneously maintain sample structural integrity and prevent dehydration at room temperature. This is particularly relevant for terahertz studies of freshly excised tissues but could be beneficial for other imaging and spectroscopy techniques. (paper)

  6. Evaluation of DAST and zinc telluride nonlinear crystals for efficient terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, M.; Chaudhary, A. K., E-mail: akcsp@uohyd.ernet.in [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India-500046 (India); Rao, K. S.

    2015-07-31

    Terahertz (THz) signal is generated from 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (i.e. DAST Crystal) and Zinc telluride (ZnTe) nonlinear crystals by employing 140 fs laser pulses at 800 nm with 80 MHz repetition rate. The semi insulating gallium arsenide photoconductive stripline antennas (gap =5 µm, length = 20 µm) is used as a Terahertz detector. The detected temporal profile of Terahertz radiation generated from DAST crystal is high as compared to ZnTe crystal in terms of amplitude. THz effective bandwidths of these crystals are extended up to 1.1 THz range. The potential of THz generation of DAST and ZnTe crystals are evaluated with respect to incident laser power.

  7. Nonlinear terahertz response of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qinjun [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao, E-mail: czhang@uow.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2015-08-24

    Without breaking the topological order, HgTe/CdTe quantum wells can have two types of bulk band structure: direct gap type (type I) and indirect gap type (type II). We report that the strong nonlinear optical responses exist in both types of bulk states under a moderate electric field in the terahertz regime. Interestingly, for the type II band structure, the third order conductivity changes sign when chemical potentials lies below 10 meV due to the significant response of the hole excitation close to the bottom of conduction band. Negative nonlinear conductivities suggest that HgTe/CdTe quantum wells can find application in the gain medium of a laser for terahertz radiation. The thermal influences on nonlinear optical responses of HgTe/CdTe quantum wells are also studied.

  8. Picosecond charge transport in rutile at high carrier densities studiedby transient terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajac, Vít; Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 115206. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * TiO 2 * rutile * ultrafast spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  9. Far infrared and terahertz spectroscopy of ferroelectric soft modes in thin films: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 503, č. 1 (2016), s. 19-44 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-08389S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : soft mode * central mode * ferroelectric thin film * terahertz spectroscopy * far-infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2016

  10. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of charge carrier dynamics in the chalcogenide glass As30Se30Te40 [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Romanova, Elena A.; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Broadband (1.6-18 THz) terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) were performed on a 54 mu m thick chalcogenide glass (As30Se30Te40) sample with a two-color laser-induced air plasma THz system in transmission and reflection modes, respectively. Two...

  11. Mobile charge generation dynamics in P3HT: PCBM observed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale.......Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale....

  12. Interfacial Electron Transfer and Transient Photoconductivity Studied with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Rebecca Lee

    Terahertz spectroscopy is distinguished from other far infrared and millimeter wave spectroscopies by its inherent phase sensitivity and sub-picosecond time resolution making it a versatile technique to study a wide range of physical phenomena. As THz spectroscopy is still a relatively new field, many aspects of THz generation mechanisms have not been fully examined. Using terahertz emission spectroscopy (TES), THz emission from ZnTe(110) was analyzed and found to be limited by two-photon absorption and free-carrier generation at high excitation fluences. Due to concerns about the continued use of fossil fuels, solar energy has been widely investigated as a promising source of renewable energy. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been developed as a low-cost alternative to conventional photovoltaic solar cells. To solve the issues of the intermittency and inefficient transport associated with solar energy, researchers are attempting to adapt DSSCs for water oxidation and chemical fuel production. Both device designs incorporate sensitizer molecules covalently bound to metal oxide nanoparticles. The sensitizer, which is comprised of a chromophore and anchoring group, absorbs light and transfers an electron from its excited state to the conduction band of the metal oxide, producing an electric current. Using time-resolved THz spectroscopy (TRTS), an optical pump/THz probe technique, the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from sensitizers to metal oxides was evaluated as a function of the chromophore, its anchoring group, and the metal oxide identity. Experiments for studying fully functioning DSSCs and water oxidation devices are also described. Bio-inspired pentafluorophenyl porphyrin chromophores have been designed and synthesized for use in photoelectrochemical water oxidation cells. Influences on the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from the chromophores into TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles due to changes in both the central substituent to

  13. Invisible Security Printing on Photoresist Polymer Readable by Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Jun; Lim, Min-Cheol; Park, Kisang; Kim, Sae-Hyung; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik

    2017-12-06

    We experimentally modulate the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of an SU-8 dry film in the terahertz region by UV light (362 nm) exposure with time dependency. Consequently, the refractive index of SU-8 film is increased by approximately 6% after UV light exposure. Moreover, the absorption coefficient also changes significantly. Using the reflective terahertz imaging technique, in addition, we can read security information printed by UV treatment on an SU-8 film that is transparent in the visible spectrum. From these results, we successfully demonstrate security printing and reading by using photoresist materials and the terahertz technique. This investigation would provide a new insight into anti-counterfeiting applications in fields that need security.

  14. Invisible Security Printing on Photoresist Polymer Readable by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jun Shin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally modulate the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of an SU-8 dry film in the terahertz region by UV light (362 nm exposure with time dependency. Consequently, the refractive index of SU-8 film is increased by approximately 6% after UV light exposure. Moreover, the absorption coefficient also changes significantly. Using the reflective terahertz imaging technique, in addition, we can read security information printed by UV treatment on an SU-8 film that is transparent in the visible spectrum. From these results, we successfully demonstrate security printing and reading by using photoresist materials and the terahertz technique. This investigation would provide a new insight into anti-counterfeiting applications in fields that need security.

  15. Terahertz physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, R A

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz physics covers one of the least explored but richest regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Designed for independent learning, this is the first book to open up this exciting new field to students of science and engineering. Written in a clear and consistent style, the textbook focuses on an understanding of fundamental physical principles at terahertz frequencies and their applications. Part I outlines the foundations of terahertz science, starting with the mathematical representation of oscillations before exploring terahertz-frequency light, terahertz phenomena in matter and the terahertz interactions between light and matter. Part II covers components of terahertz technology, from sources of terahertz frequency radiation, through the manipulation of the radiation, to its detection. Part III deals with applications, including time-domain spectroscopy. Highlighting modern developments and concepts, the book is ideal for self-study. It features precise definitions, clear explanations, instructive...

  16. Charge transport in anodic TiO.sub.2./sub. nanotubes studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krbal, M.; Kuchařík, Jiří; Sopha, H.; Němec, Hynek; Macák, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 9 (2016), s. 691-695 ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * TiO2 nanotubes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.032, year: 2016

  17. Self-referenced ultra-broadband transient terahertz spectroscopy using air-photonics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Angelo, F.; Němec, Hynek; Parekh, S.H.; Kužel, Petr; Bonn, M.; Turchinovich, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 9 (2016), s. 10157-10171 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  18. Study of the ferroelectric phase transition in germanium telluride using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Petzelt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 20 (2011), 205209/1-205209/8 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * phase transition * semiconductor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  19. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Cooke, David G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the numerical analysis of a time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy experiment using a modified finite-difference time-domain method. Using this method, we show that ultrafast carrier dynamics can be extracted with a time resolution smaller than the duration of the THz...

  20. Simultaneous reference and differential waveform acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David; Fujiwara, Masazumi

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method for data acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments. Our approach is based on simultaneous collection of reference and differential THz scans. Both the optical THz generation beam and the pump beam are modulated at two different frequencies that are no...

  1. TeraHertz Time Domain Spectroscopy of Astrophysical Analog Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Geoffrey

    The section of the electromagnetic spectrum extending roughly from wavelengths of 3 millimeters to 30 microns is commonly known as the far-infrared or TeraHertz (THz) region. It contains the great majority of the photons emitted by the universe, and THz observations of molecules and dust are able penetrate deeply into molecular clouds, thus revealing the full history of star and planet formation. Accordingly, the successful deployments of the Herschel and SOFIA observatories, and the emerging capabilities of ALMA, are both revolutionizing our understanding of THz astrophysics and placing stringent demands on the generation of accurate laboratory data on the relevant gas phase and solid state materials detected. With APRA support, we have constructed a combined high bandwidth and high spectral resolution femtosecond THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz TDS) system and an FT-IR spectrometer, and coupled these instruments to a high vacuum chamber and cryostat and to gas phase cells including a molecular beam system. We have investigated solid materials from room temperature to 10 K, and can examine both refractory matter such as silicates and molecular ices. For the latter, we have demonstrated that the THz bands observed are uniquely sensitive to both the molecular structure of the ice and its thermal history, and thus that THz observations can provide novel insight into the dominant condensable materials in dense, cold regions. In the gas phase we can record doppler-limited data over at least a decade in bandwidth. While quite capable, the high vacuum cryostat can only study thick samples, especially ices, due to the fairly rapid adsorption of gases onto surfaces at low temperature under such conditions. It is therefore not possible to examine highly layered/structured samples or reactive species. We therefore propose here to upgrade the chamber/cryostat to ultrahigh vacuum, and implement additional sample preparation and characterization tools. With such modifications

  2. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Individual Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Probe of Luttinger Liquid Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudow, Joel D; Santavicca, Daniel F; Prober, Daniel E

    2016-08-10

    Luttinger liquid theory predicts that collective electron excitations due to strong electron-electron interactions in a one-dimensional (1D) system will result in a modification of the collective charge-propagation velocity. By utilizing a circuit model for an individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotube as a nanotransmission line, it has been shown that the frequency-dependent terahertz impedance of a carbon nanotube can probe this expected 1D Luttinger liquid behavior. We excite terahertz standing-wave resonances on individual antenna-coupled metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The terahertz signal is rectified using the nanotube contact nonlinearity, allowing for a low-frequency readout of the coupled terahertz current. The charge velocity on the nanotube is determined from the terahertz spectral response. Our measurements show that a carbon nanotube can behave as a Luttinger liquid system with charge-propagation velocities that are faster than the Fermi velocity. Understanding what determines the charge velocity in low-dimensional conductors is important for the development of next generation nanodevices.

  3. Crystallization of amorphous lactose at high humidity studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Alexander I.; Yang, Bin; Goldup, Stephen M.; Watkinson, Michael; Donnan, Robert S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the first use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the hydration and crystallization of an amorphous molecular solid at high humidity. Lactose in its amorphous and monohydrate forms exhibits different terahertz spectra due to the lack of long range order in the amorphous material. This difference allowed the transformation of amorphous lactose to its monohydrate form at high humidity to be studied in real time. Spectral fitting of frequency-domain data allowed kinetic data to be obtained and the crystallization was found to obey Avrami kinetics. Bulk changes during the crystallization could also be observed in the time-domain.

  4. Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Li, Jiang; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren; Zhao, Jian-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy is suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of ultrafast events. However, the study of irreversible or single shot ultrafast events requires ability to record transient properties at multiple time delays, i.e., time resolved at single shot level, which is not available currently. Here by angular multiplexing use of femtosecond laser pulses, we developed and demonstrated a time resolved, transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique, where burst mode THz pulses were generated and then detected in a single shot measurement manner. The burst mode THz pulses contain 2 sub-THz pulses, and the time gap between them is adjustable up to 1 ns with picosecond accuracy, thus it can be used to probe the single shot event at two different time delays. The system can detect the sub-THz pulses at 0.1 THz-2.5 THz range with signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ˜400 and spectrum resolution of 0.05 THz. System design was described here, and optimizations of single shot measurement of THz pulses were discussed in detail. Methods to improve SNR were also discussed in detail. A system application was demonstrated where pulsed THz signals at different time delays of the ultrafast process were successfully acquired within single shot measurement. This time resolved transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique provides a new diagnostic tool for irreversible or single shot ultrafast events where dynamic information can be extracted at terahertz range within one-shot experiment.

  5. [Application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy to explosive and illegal drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Ge, Min; Wang, Wen-Feng

    2008-05-01

    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many explosives and illicit drugs show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons, explosives and illegal drugs, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. Moreover, THz can penetrate many barrier materials, such as clothing and common packaging materials. THz technique has a great potential and advantage in antiterrorism and security inspection of explosives and illegal drugs due to the ability of high-sensitivity, nondestructive and stand-off inspection of many substances. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to explosives and illegal drugs. Studies on RDX are discussed in details and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced.

  6. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  7. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  8. [Identification of Official Rhubarb Samples by Using PLS and Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-rong; Zhang, Zhuo-yong; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Xiang, Yu-hong

    2016-02-01

    The development of terahertz technology is attracting broad intention in recent years. The quality identification is important for the quality control of Chinese medicine production. In the present work, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) were used for the identification model building and studied based on 41 official and unofficial rhubarb samples. First, the THz-TDS spectra of rhubarb samples were collected and were preprocessed by using chemometrics methods rather than transformed to absorption spectra. The identification models were then established based on the processed terahertz time domain spectra. The spectral preprocessing methods include Savitzky-Golay (S-G) first derivative, detrending, standard normal transformation (SNV), autoscaling, and mean centering. The identification accuracy of 90% was accomplished by using proper pretreatment methods, which was higher than the classified accuracy of 80% without any preprocessing for the time domain spectra. The component number of the PLS model was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). The minimum values of the root-mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root-mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.076 6 and 0.169 0 by using mean centering method, respectively. The results of this work showed that the combination of terahertz time domain spectroscopy technology with chemometrics methods, as well as PLS can be applied for the recognition of genuine and counterfeit Chinese herbal medicines, as well as official and unofficial rhubarbs. The advantage of using terahertz time domain spectra directly with no transformation into absorption spectra is: (1) the thickness of samples could not be considered in the model establishment, and (2) the spectral processing was simplified. The proposed method based on the combination of THz-TDS and chemometrics proved to be rapid, simple, non-pollution and solvent free, suitable to be

  9. Terahertz quasi time-domain spectroscopy based on telecom technology for 1550 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Robert B; Rehn, Arno; Nellen, Simon; Koch, Martin; Schell, Martin; Dietz, Roman J B; Balzer, Jan C

    2017-05-29

    We present a fiber-coupled terahertz quasi time-domain spectroscopy system driven by a laser with a central wavelength of 1550 nm. By using a commercially available multimode laser diode in combination with state-of-the-art continuous wave antennas, a bandwidth of more than 1.8 THz is achieved. The peak signal-to-noise ratio is around 60 dB. A simulation based on the optical spectrum of the laser diode and the transfer function of the THz path is in agreement with the experimental results. The system is used to extract the refractive index from two different samples and the results indicate that the performance is up to 1.8 THz comparable to a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system.

  10. Characterization of Temperature Induced Phase Transitions in the Five Polymorphic Forms of Sulfathia-zole by Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitler, J. Axel; Newnham, David A.; Taday, Philip F.

    2006-01-01

    The far-infrared properties of all five described polymorphic forms of the drug sulfathiazole have been studied by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and low frequency Raman spectroscopy. The spectra of the different polymorphs are distinctly different. Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy proves to be a rapid...

  11. Insights into the charge carrier terahertz mobility in polyfluorenes from large-scale atomistic simulations and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vukmirović, N.; Ponseca, C.S.; Němec, Hynek; Yartsev, A.; Sundström, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 37 (2012), s. 19665-1972 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : charge carrier mobility * time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy * multiscale atomistic calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.814, year: 2012

  12. Ultrafast conductivity in a low-band-gap polyphenylene and fullerene blend studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Nienhuys, H.-K.; Perzon, E.; Zhang, F.; Inganäs, O.; Kužel, Petr; Sundström, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 24 (2009), 245326/1-245326/7 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P099; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy * ultrafast conductivity * polymer * solar-cell material Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  13. Quality assessment of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy transmission and reflection modes for graphene conductivity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David M.A.; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Bøggild, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We present a comparative study of electrical measurements of graphene using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in transmission and reflection mode, and compare the measured sheet conductivity values to electrical van der Pauw measurements made independently in three different laboratories. Overall......, while offering the additional advantages associated with contactless mapping, such as high throughput, no lithography requirement, and with the spatial mapping directly revealing the presence of any inhomogeneities or isolating defects. The confirmation of the accuracy of reflection-mode removes...

  14. Broadband terahertz spectroscopy: principles, fundamental research and potential for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouaghi, W; Thomson, M D; Rabia, K; Hahn, R; Blank, V; Roskos, H G

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz radiation (also called T-rays) can be employed for spectroscopy and imaging, from the laboratory to industrial applications. In this paper we give an overview of how broadband optoelectronic THz techniques (i.e. using optical lasers to achieve THz generation and detection) can be implemented, and give examples of their unique use in solid-state physics, and in biological and industrial applications. (paper)

  15. Carrier dynamics in low-temperature grown GaAs studied by terahertz emission spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Pashkin, Alexej; Kužel, Petr; Khazan, M.; Schnüll, S.; Wilke, I.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2001), s. 1303-1306 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ultrafast dynamics of free carriers * GaAs * time-domain terahertz emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.128, year: 2001

  16. Nonlinear THz spectroscopy on n-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaal, Peter

    2008-06-23

    In this thesis, the ultrafast dynamics of conduction band electrons in semiconductors are investigated by nonlinear terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. In particular, n-doped gallium arsenide samples with doping concentrations in the range of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} are studied. A novel source for the generation of intense THz radiation is developed which yields single-cycle THz transients with field amplitudes of more then 400 kV/cm. The THz source uses ultrashort optical laser pulses provided by a Ti:sapphire oscillator. In addition, a two-color THz-pump mid-infrared-probe setup is implemented, which allows for two-dimensional time-resolved experiments in the far-infrared wavelength range. Field ionization of neutral shallow donors in gallium arsenide with intense, ultrashort THz pulses and subsequent coherent radiative recombination of electrons to impurity ground states is observed at room temperature. The superradiant decay of the nonlinear polarization results in the emission of a coherent signal with picosecond lifetimes. Such nonlinear signals, which exhibit a lifetime ten times longer than in the linear regime are observed for the first time. At low temperatures and THz field strengths below 5 kV/cm, Rabi flopping on shallow donor transitions is demonstrated. For the first time, the polar electron-LO phonon interaction is directly measured in the quantum kinetic transport regime. Quasi-instantaneous acceleration of conduction band electrons in the polar gallium arsenide lattice by the electric field of intense THz pulses and subsequent probing of the mid-infrared transmission reveals a modulation of the transmission along the THz-mid-infrared delay coordinate with the frequency of the LO phonon. These modulations directly display the relative phase between the electron motion and its surrounding virtual phonon cloud. Quantum kinetic model calculations fully account for the observed phenomena. (orig.)

  17. Method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stuart B.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Huff, Shawn L.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2015-06-02

    A method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The method includes quantifying the nonlinear response of an electrochemical system by measuring higher-order current or voltage harmonics generated by moderate-amplitude sinusoidal current or voltage perturbations. The method involves acquisition of the response signal followed by time apodization and fast Fourier transformation of the data into the frequency domain, where the magnitude and phase of each harmonic signal can be readily quantified. The method can be implemented on a computer as a software program.

  18. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Reflection Imaging of Acoustic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kilcullen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brewster angle reflection imaging apparatus is demonstrated which is capable of detecting hidden water-filled voids in a rubber tile sample. This imaging application simulates a real-world hull inspection problem for Royal Canadian Navy Victoria-class submarines. The tile samples represent a challenging imaging application due to their large refractive index and absorption coefficient. With a rubber transmission window at approximately 80 GHz, terahertz (THz sensing methods have shown promise for probing these structures in the laboratory. Operating at Brewster’s angle allows for the typically strong front surface reflection to be minimized while also conveniently making the method insensitive to air-filled voids. Using a broadband THz time-domain waveform imaging system (THz-TDS, we demonstrate satisfactory imaging and detection of water-filled voids without complicated signal processing. Optical properties of the tile samples at low THz frequencies are also reported.

  19. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of crystalline and aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Eichhorn, Finn

    2007-01-01

    We use ab-initio density-functional perturbation theory together with THz spectroscopy for precise prediction and assignment of vibrational modes in molecular crystals. We show that THz spectroscopy is useful for analysis of liquids and food products....

  20. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of epoxy resin composite with various carbon inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macutkevic, J.; Seliuta, D.; Valusis, G.; Adomavicius, R.; Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Shuba, M.; Maksimenko, S.; Coderoni, L.; Micciulla, F.; Sacco, I.; Bellucci, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Epoxy resin with carbon inclusions is studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy. ► The resonance dielectric dispersion is observed for all investigated samples. ► Dielectric properties are modeled by Maxwell–Garnett and nanoelectromagnetic formalism. -- Abstract: The propagation properties of terahertz waves through epoxy resin filled with small amounts (0.25–1.5 wt.%) of commercially available carbon black (CB) and CVD made single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy. High electromagnetic attenuation specified substantially with absorption of THz radiation and strongly decreasing with the decrease of frequency from 0.2 to 1.5 THz has been found for both types of CNT fillers starting from 1 wt.% of nanocarbon concentration. At the same time CB in the same concentration does not make any impact to THz transmission spectrum. The resonance dielectric dispersion has been observed for all investigated samples, which can be attributed to phonon resonance in epoxy resin matrix. The availability of Maxwell–Garnett model for epoxy resin filled with 0.25–1.5 wt.% of CNT was also addressed in the paper.

  1. Applications of Nonlinear Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (NLEIS)

    KAUST Repository

    Adler, S. B.

    2013-08-31

    This paper reviews the use of nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (NLEIS) in the analysis of SOFC electrode reactions. By combining EIS and NLEIS, as well as other independent information about an electrode material, it becomes possible to establish quantitative links between electrochemical kinetics and materials properties, even when systems are unstable with time. After a brief review of the method, this paper summarizes recent results analyzing the effects of Sr segregation in thin-film LSC electrodes. © The Electrochemical Society.

  2. Controlled Terahertz Birefringence in Stretched Poly(lactic acid) Films Investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hotsumi; Nakamura, Madoka; Komatsubara, Nozomu; Okano, Makoto; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Sato, Harumi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2017-07-20

    We report a correlation between the dielectric property and structure of stretched poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films, revealed by polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The experiments evidence that the dielectric function of the PLA film becomes more anisotropic with increasing draw ratio (DR). This behavior is explained by a classical Lorentz oscillator model assuming polarization-dependent absorption. The birefringence can be systematically altered from 0 to 0.13 by controlling DR. The combination of terahertz spectroscopy and 2D WAXS measurement reveals a clear correlation between the birefringence in the terahertz frequency domain and the degree of orientation of the PLA molecular chains. These findings imply that the birefringence is a result of the orientation of the PLA chains with anisotropic macromolecular vibration modes. Because of a good controllability of the birefringence, polymer-based materials will provide an attractive materials system for phase retarders in the terahertz frequency range.

  3. Laminated helmet materials characterization by terahertz kinetics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.

    2015-05-01

    High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.

  4. Time domain terahertz electro- and magneto-optic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, G P

    2001-01-01

    sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r = 0 centre dot 19m sub e and m sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l = 0 centre dot 90m sub e. The temperature dependence of the cyclotron resonance was measured over the range 5K to 80 K, and a peak is found at approx 30 K which can be explained in terms of ionised and neutral impurity scattering at temperatures below 30 K and by phonon scattering above 30 K. The measurement of small amplitude ferromagnetic resonance oscillations in the time domain in thin films of permalloy (78), iron and cobalt has been achieved by using the time resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect. A stripline device was fabricated to provide an out of plane broadband magnetic pulse with a peak strength of approx 5 Oe. The observed frequencies are shown to agree well with the established theory. A time domain terahertz spectrometer and a bolometer have been used to study the coherent THz radiation emitted from n- and p-type InAs surfaces illuminated by femtosecond near infrared pulses. The magn...

  5. Subcycle Extreme Nonlinearities in GaP Induced by an Ultrastrong Terahertz Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carlo; Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the experimental observation of extreme laser spectral broadening and a change in optical transmission in gallium phosphite induced by 25 MV /cm terahertz (THz) single-cycle internal field. Such intense THz radiation leads to twofold transient modifications of the optical properties in the electro-optical crystal. First, the electric field provokes extensive cross-phase modulation via the χ(2 ) and χ(3 ) nonlinearities on a copropagating 50 fs near infrared laser pulse which turns into 500% spectral broadening. Second, we observe an instantaneous change of the optical transmission occurring at the THz field which is alleged to interband Zener tunneling and charge carrier density modification by impact ionization turning the semiconductor in a metal-like transient state. The presented scheme displays a pathway to coherently control the optical properties of semiconductors on an ultrafast time scale by a strong THz field.

  6. Graphene hyperlens for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We propose the structured graphene terahertz hyperlens that allows overcoming natural diffraction limit and resolving subwavelength features. The proposed hyperlens can have applications in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.......We propose the structured graphene terahertz hyperlens that allows overcoming natural diffraction limit and resolving subwavelength features. The proposed hyperlens can have applications in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging....

  7. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  8. Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Iyonaga, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Shuko; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-01-22

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10(-7) in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  9. [The error analysis and experimental verification of laser radar spectrum detection and terahertz time domain spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Tao; Li, Jing-Wen; Sun, Zhi-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many chemical agent explosives show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons and chemical agent, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to chemical agent explosives. A kind of device on laser radar detecting and real time spectrum measuring was designed which measures the laser spectrum on the bases of Fourier optics and optical signal processing. Wedge interferometer was used as the beam splitter to wipe off the background light and detect the laser and measure the spectrum. The result indicates that 10 ns laser radar pulse can be detected and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. The combination of laser radar spectrum detecting, THz-TDS, modern pattern recognition and signal processing technology is the developing trend of remote detection for chemical agent explosives.

  10. Anisotropic optical response of optically opaque elastomers with conductive fillers as revealed by terahertz polarization spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Elastomers are one of the most important materials in modern society because of the inherent viscoelastic properties due to their cross-linked polymer chains. Their vibration-absorbing and adhesive properties are especially useful and thus utilized in various applications, for example, tires in automobiles and bicycles, seismic dampers in buildings, and seals in a space shuttle. Thus, the nondestructive inspection of their internal states such as the internal deformation is essential in safety. Generally, industrial elastomers include various kinds of additives, such as carbon blacks for reinforcing them. The additives make most of them opaque in a wide spectral range from visible to mid-infrared, resulting in that the nondestructive inspection of the internal deformation is quite difficult. Here, we demonstrate transmission terahertz polarization spectroscopy as a powerful technique for investigating the internal optical anisotropy in optically opaque elastomers with conductive additives, which are transparent only in the terahertz frequency region. The internal deformation can be probed through the polarization changes inside the material due to the anisotropic dielectric response of the conductive additives. Our study about the polarization-dependent terahertz response of elastomers with conductive additives provides novel knowledge for in situ, nondestructive evaluation of their internal deformation. PMID:28008942

  11. Theory for nonlinear dynamic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnham, Oscar; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information on the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear manner. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work, we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory, we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic, and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found that the nonlinear DFS (NLDFS) theory correctly predicted the numerical results. We also present a protocol suggesting an experimental approach and analysis method of the data to estimate the bond length and the thermal off-rate.

  12. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  13. Mobile Charge Generation Dynamics in P3HT:PCBM Observed by Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale.......Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale....

  14. Plasmonic enhanced terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system for identification of common explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiraǧ, Yiǧit; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a classification algorithm for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy systems (THz-TDS) that can be trained to identify most commonly used explosives (C4, HMX, RDX, PETN, TNT, composition-B and blackpowder) and some non-explosive samples (lactose, sucrose, PABA). Our procedure can be used in any THz-TDS system that detects either transmission or reflection spectra at room conditions. After preprocessing the signal in low THz regime (0.1 - 3 THz), our algorithm takes advantages of a latent space transformation based on principle component analysis in order to classify explosives with low false alarm rate.

  15. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of conjugated polymer/CdSe nanorod composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Lek, Jun Y.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    report ultrafast carrier dynamics in hybrid CdSe nanorod / poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction films measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, and compare to the well studied P3HT/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. Both films show an improved peak...... photoconductivity compared to P3HT alone, consistent with efficient charge transfer. The photoconductivity dynamics show fast, picosecond trapping or recombination in the hybrid blend while the all-organic film shows no such loss of mobile charge over ns time scales. The ac conductivity for all samples is well...

  16. Bacillus spores and their relevant chemicals studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianhua; Yang, Bin; Llewellyn, Ian; Cutler, Ronald R.; Donnan, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy has been used to investigate 0.2-2.2 THz transmission responses of Bacillus spores and their related chemical components. Whilst no THz signatures could be clearly associated with either sporulated cells or their chief chemical components, differing degrees of signal attenuation and frequency-dependent light scattering were observed depending on spore composition and culture media. The observed monotonic increase in absorption by spores over this THz spectral domain is mainly from Mie scattering and also from remnant water bound to the spores.

  17. Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, N.; Tanaka, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The hydration state in living cells is believed to be associated with various cellular activities. Nevertheless, in vivo characterization of intracellular hydration state under physiological condition has not been well documented to date. In this study, the hydration state of an intact HeLa cell monolayer was investigated by terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Combined with the extended theory of Onsager, we found 23.8 ± 7.4% of HeLa intracellular water was hydrated to biomolecules (corresponding to 1.25 g H2O/g solute); exhibiting slower relaxation dynamics than bulk water.

  18. High resolution terahertz spectroscopy of a whispering gallery mode bubble resonator using Hilbert analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dominik Walter; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2017-07-10

    We report on data processing for continuous wave (CW) terahertz (THz) spectroscopy measurements based on a Hilbert spectral analysis to achieve MHz resolution. As an example we investigate the spectral properties of a whispering gallery mode (WGM) THz bubble resonator at critical coupling. The experimental verification clearly demonstrates the significant advantages in relative frequency resolution and required acquisition time of the proposed method over the traditional data analysis. An effective frequency resolution, only limited by the precision and stability of the laser beat signal, can be achieved without complex extensions to a standard commercially available CW THz spectrometer.

  19. Quantitative determination of Auramine O by terahertz spectroscopy with 2DCOS-PLSR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huo; Li, Zhi; Chen, Tao; Qin, Binyi

    2017-09-01

    Residues of harmful dyes such as Auramine O (AO) in herb and food products threaten the health of people. So, fast and sensitive detection techniques of the residues are needed. As a powerful tool for substance detection, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was used for the quantitative determination of AO by combining with an improved partial least-squares regression (PLSR) model in this paper. Absorbance of herbal samples with different concentrations was obtained by THz-TDS in the band between 0.2THz and 1.6THz. We applied two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) to improve the PLSR model. This method highlighted the spectral differences of different concentrations, provided a clear criterion of the input interval selection, and improved the accuracy of detection result. The experimental result indicated that the combination of the THz spectroscopy and 2DCOS-PLSR is an excellent quantitative analysis method.

  20. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    . Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial...... noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows...... copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in contrast with those of the graphene grown on commercial copper foil, which we explain by the absence of extended defects on the microscale...

  1. Insulin amyloid fibrillation studied by terahertz spectroscopy and other biophysical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); He, Mingxia [College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Su, Rongxin, E-mail: surx@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yu, Yanjun [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Assembly and fibrillation of amyloid proteins are believed to play a key role in the etiology of various human diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's and type II diabetes. Insights into conformational changes and formation processes during amyloid fibrillation are essential for the clinical diagnosis and drug discovery. To study the changes in secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures, and the alteration in the collective vibrational mode density of states during the amyloid fibrillation, bovine insulin in 20% acetic acid was incubated at 60 {sup o}C, and its multi-level structures were followed by various biophysical techniques, including circular dichroism (CD), thioflavin T fluorescence (ThT), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron microscopy, and terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy. The experimental data demonstrated a transformation of {alpha}-helix into {beta}-sheet starting at 26 h. This was followed by the aggregation of insulin, as shown by ThT binding, with a transition midpoint at 41 h, and by the bulk formation of mature aggregates after about 71 h. THz is a quick and non-invasive technique, which has the advantage of allowing the study of the conformational state of biomolecules and tissues. We first applied THz spectroscopy to study the amyloid fibrillation. At the terahertz frequency range of 0.2-2.0 THz, there was an apparent increase in both the absorbance and refractive index in THz spectra. Thus, THz is expected to provide a new way of looking into amyloid fibrillation.

  2. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  3. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-15

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  4. Using Terahertz Spectroscopy to Study Systems with Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Rebecca L.; Moore, Gary F.; Martini, Lauren A.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Crabtree, Robert H.; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomimetic solar water oxidation systems are being developed as renewable alternatives to fossil fuels. One possible design incorporates thin-film dye-sensitized nanoparticle photoanades to capture and convert visible light to charge carriers and catalysts to facilitate water oxidation. The physical properties of the dye are important due to its position as the light absorber and electron transfer initiator. Given the role that porphyrins play in photosynthesis and their synthetic tunability, they are promising components for these photoanodes. Time-Resolved THz Spectroscopy (TRTS), an optical pump/THz probe technique, is a non-contact electrical probe with proven usefulness for studying electron transfer and conductivity on a sub-picosecond timescale. Using TRTS, the efficiency and dynamics of electron injection from porphyrin dyes into metal oxide surfaces was found to be strongly influenced by the structure and photophysical properties of the dye.

  5. Sub-terahertz resonance spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana; Sizov, Igor; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-05-01

    Recently we introduced a Sub-THz spectroscopic system for characterizing vibrational resonance features from biological materials. This new, continuous-wave, frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor operates at room temperature between 315 and 480 GHz with spectral resolution of at least 1 GHz and utilizes the source and detector components from Virginia Diode, Inc. In this work we present experimental results and interpretation of spectroscopic signatures from bacterial cells and their biological macromolecule structural components. Transmission and absorption spectra of the bacterial protein thioredoxin, DNA and lyophilized cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as spores of Bacillus subtillis and B. atrophaeus have been characterized. Experimental results for biomolecules are compared with absorption spectra calculated using molecular dynamics simulation, and confirm the underlying physics for resonance spectroscopy based on interactions between THz radiation and vibrational modes or groups of modes of atomic motions. Such interactions result in multiple intense and narrow specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 3 GHz. The results of this study indicate diverse relaxation dynamic mechanisms relevant to sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy, including long-lasting processes. We demonstrate that high sensitivity in resolved specific absorption fingerprints provides conditions for reliable detection, identification and discrimination capability, to the level of strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. Additionally, it creates the basis for the development of new types of advanced biological sensors through integrating the developed system with a microfluidic platform for biomaterial samples.

  6. Discrimination of geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils using terahertz spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Yu, Junjie; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jian; Chen, Ying; Zheng, Lei

    2018-06-15

    Discrimination of geographical origin of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) is of great importance for legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a rapid discrimination of four different geographical origins of EVOOs with terahertz spectroscopy system was examined. Different chemometrics including least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), back propagation neural network (BPNN) and random forest (RF) combined with principal component analysis (PCA), genetic algorithm (GA) were compared to obtain the best discrimination model. The results demonstrated that there were apparent differences among the four different geographical origins of EVOOs in fatty acid compositions and the absorbance spectra, and an excellent classification (accuracy was 96.25% in prediction set) could be achieved using the LS-SVM method combine with GA. It can be concluded that THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to rapid discriminate the geographical origin of EVOOs with high efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Terahertz mechanical vibrations in lysozyme: Raman spectroscopy vs modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Piana, Gianfranco; Bassani, Andrea

    2017-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of proteins is receiving an increasing attention from the scientific community. Recently it has been suggested that mechanical vibrations play a crucial role in controlling structural configuration changes (folding) which govern proteins biological function. The mechanism behind protein folding is still not completely understood, and many efforts are being made to investigate this phenomenon. Complex molecular dynamics simulations and sophisticated experimental measurements are conducted to investigate protein dynamics and to perform protein structure predictions; however, these are two related, although quite distinct, approaches. Here we investigate mechanical vibrations of lysozyme by Raman spectroscopy and linear normal mode calculations (modal analysis). The input mechanical parameters to the numerical computations are taken from the literature. We first give an estimate of the order of magnitude of protein vibration frequencies by considering both classical wave mechanics and structural dynamics formulas. Afterwards, we perform modal analyses of some relevant chemical groups and of the full lysozyme protein. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, obtained from both in-house and literature Raman measurements. In particular, the attention is focused on a large peak at 0.84 THz (29.3 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum obtained analyzing a lyophilized powder sample.

  8. Terahertz spectroscopy of shift currents resulting from asymmetric (110)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyadarshi, Shekhar; Leidinger, Markus; Pierz, Klaus; Racu, Ana M.; Siegner, Uwe; Bieler, Mark; Dawson, Philip

    2009-01-01

    We report the observation and the study of an additional shift current tensor element in (110)-oriented GaAs quantum wells, which arises from an out-of-plane asymmetry of the quantum well structure. The current resulting from this tensor element is optically induced with 150 fs laser pulses and detected by measuring the simultaneously emitted terahertz radiation. This terahertz spectroscopy of shift currents is a powerful technique for symmetry investigations, which shows, for example, that our nominally symmetric (110)-oriented GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy are in reality asymmetric structures with different right and left interfaces.

  9. Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Red Fluorescent Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Patrick Eugene

    Red-emitting homologues (RFPs) of the native Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with emission wavelengths beyond 650 nm are desirable probes for in vivo imaging experiments. They offer the potential for deeper tissue penetration and lower background scatter given a cleaner spectral window. However, bioimaging applications are hindered by poor photophysics ( e.g. low fluorescence quantum yield, high photobleaching), which limits experimental resolution and represents a significant obstacle towards utilization for low copy-number, long-duration imaging applications. In this thesis, a variety of femtosecond nonlinear electronic spectroscopies were employed jointly with site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the photophysical properties of RFPs. In one study, the molecular mechanism of red emission was pursued in two notable RFPs, mPlum and TagRFP675. Solvation dynamics observed with time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy were interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations to indicate that their red-emission is correlated with the ability of specific chromophore-sidechain hydrogen-bonding interactions to interconvert between direct and water-mediated states. In a second set of studies, two-dimensional double quantum coherence spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic transitions of mPlum. It was discovered that it displayed a response distinctly different from an organic dye in bulk solvent. Modeling indicate of these spectra indicate the spectral features may be attributed to the existence of multiple high-lying (n>1) excited states. The results provide new insight into the electronic structure of these widely used fluorescent probes.

  10. Discrimination of Transgenic Rice containing the Cry1Ab Protein using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Ye, Zunzhong; Gao, Weilu; Yao, Yang; Chen, Min; Qin, Jianyuan; Ying, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics methods have proven to be effective tools for the discrimination of objects with similar properties. In this work, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) combined with discriminate analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) with derivative pretreatments was performed to differentiate transgenic rice (Hua Hui 1, containing the Cry1Ab protein) from its parent (Ming Hui 63). Both rice samples and the Cry1Ab protein were ground and pressed into pellets for terahertz (THz) measurements. The resulting time-domain spectra were transformed into frequency-domain spectra, and then, the transmittances of the rice and Cry1Ab protein were calculated. By applying the first derivative of the THz spectra in conjunction with the DA model, the discrimination of transgenic from non-transgenic rice was possible with accuracies up to 89.4% and 85.0% for the calibration set and validation set, respectively. The results indicated that THz spectroscopic techniques and chemometrics methods could be new feasible ways to differentiate transgenic rice. PMID:26154950

  11. Ultrafast Spectral Photoresponse of Bilayer Graphene: Optical Pump-Terahertz Probe Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Srabani; Nguyen, Van Luan; Mohapatra, Dipti R; Lee, Young Hee; Sood, A K

    2018-02-27

    Photoinduced terahertz conductivity Δσ(ω) of Bernal stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) with different dopings is measured by time-resolved optical pump terahertz probe spectroscopy. The real part of photoconductivity Δσ(ω) (Δσ Re (ω)) is positive throughout the spectral range 0.5-2.5 THz in low-doped BLG. This is in sharp contrast to Δσ(ω) for high-doped bilayer graphene where Δσ Re (ω) is negative at low frequency and positive on the high frequency side. We use Boltzmann transport theory to understand quantitatively the frequency dependence of Δσ(ω), demanding the energy dependence of different scattering rates such as short-range impurity scattering, Coulomb scattering, carrier-acoustic phonon scattering, and substrate surface optical phonon scattering. We find that the short-range disorder scattering dominates over other processes. The calculated photoconductivity captures very well the experimental conductivity spectra as a function of lattice temperature varying from 300 to 4 K, without any empirical fitting procedures adopted so far in the literature. This helps us to understand the intraband conductivity of photoexcited hot carriers in 2D materials.

  12. Internal triaxial strain imaging of visibly opaque black rubbers with terahertz polarization spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuto Moriwaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the nondestructive imaging of internal triaxial strain in visibly opaque black rubbers by employing the polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (PS THz-TDS technique. From the sample thickness and the differences in amplitude and phase between orthogonal components of the terahertz wave that passed through the sample, the degree of birefringence and the angle of the slow optic axis were determined. We were able to convert the birefringence data into the amount and orientation of the internal strain through a Monte Carlo simulation that correlates the birefringent properties of the rubber with deformation. By comparing the strain map obtained from the PS THz-TDS measurements with that obtained by conventional digital image correlation, we found that both experimental and spatial distributions of the strain are in overall good agreement, except around the clamped sample regions. The deviations result from the intrinsic difference in the obtained strain information between two experiments and it is confirmed that our method based on PS THz-TDS is suited for evaluating the spatial distribution of the internal strain in black rubbers.

  13. Non-destructive evaluation by terahertz spectroscopy for penetration of acid solutions into epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kusano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resins are used as high-performance thermosetting linings to protect substrates under corrosive environments. However, in a severe corrosive chemical solution, such protective layers may degrade with long time due to penetrations of solvent and solute molecules into resin network. In this regard, the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS is a promising tool for non-destructive evaluation of the penetrant amounts due to high transparency of such plastic materials and high sensitivity to the molecular vibrations in terahertz spectral range. In this work, the complex refractive indexes n and κ of epoxy specimens were measured after immersion into sulfuric acid solutions and compared with penetrated mass fractions of water and acid ions. It was found that n and κ depended linearly with water and sulfuric acid mass fraction in specimens, and κ of sulfuric acid immersed specimens was lager at higher frequency. While the calculated Δκ agreed well with THz-TDS measurement by THz-TDS, the calculated Δn was higher than the measurement. The difference may be attributed to the water and sulfuric states in the specimen.

  14. A review of the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires: insights gained from terahertz conductivity spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Hannah J.; Boland, Jessica L.; Davies, Christopher L.; Baig, Sarwat A.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Accurately measuring and controlling the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires is of paramount importance in the development of novel nanowire-based devices. In light of this, terahertz (THz) conductivity spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal non-contact technique for probing nanowire electrical conductivity and is showing tremendous value in the targeted development of nanowire devices. THz spectroscopic measurements of nanowires enable charge carrier lifetimes, mobilities, dopant concentrations and surface recombination velocities to be measured with high accuracy and high throughput in a contact-free fashion. This review spans seminal and recent studies of the electronic properties of nanowires using THz spectroscopy. A didactic description of THz time-domain spectroscopy, optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy, and their application to nanowires is included. We review a variety of technologically important nanowire materials, including GaAs, InAs, InP, GaN and InN nanowires, Si and Ge nanowires, ZnO nanowires, nanowire heterostructures, doped nanowires and modulation-doped nanowires. Finally, we discuss how THz measurements are guiding the development of nanowire-based devices, with the example of single-nanowire photoconductive THz receivers.

  15. Rotational spectroscopy and dynamics of carbonyl sulphide studied by terahertz free induction decays signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigourd, D.; Mouret, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Fertein, E.; Bocquet, R.

    2008-06-01

    A terahertz time domain spectroscopy experiment is used to study the coherent re-emission after exciting more than 60 energy rotational states of OCS molecules in gas phase. Due to the regular structure of the absorption spectrum of such linear molecules, a set of subsequent pulses separated by 82.6 ps is re-radiated from the vapour and recorded up to 450 ps. A model based on a linear response of the gas and by use of "Maxwell-Bloch" equations has permitted the re-emitted free induced decay to be investigated. Spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constant, centrifugal distortion coefficient and relaxation times are responsible for the temporal shape and so can be evaluated. The influence of the optical thickness to access the relaxation times is discussed.

  16. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  17. Identification of Transgenic Organisms Based on Terahertz Spectroscopy and Hyper Sausage Neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, Zh.; Hu, F.; Chen, T.; Du, Y.; Xin, H.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identifi cation of terahertz (THz) spectra of genetically modifi ed organisms (GMOs) based on hyper sausage neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugarbeet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject nonsimilar samples of the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of genetically modified organisms by using THz spectroscopy.

  18. Far-infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Chen, Wei; Thamizhmani, L; Azad, Abul K; Zhu, Zhiyuan

    2006-02-09

    The optical and dielectric properties of ZnS nanoparticles are studied by use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) over the frequency range from 0.3 to 3.0 THz. The effective medium approach combined with the pseudo-harmonic model of the dielectric response, where nanoparticles are embedded in the host medium, provides a good fit on the experimental results. The extrapolation of the measured data indicates that the absorption is dominated by the transverse optical mode localized at 11.6+/-0.2 THz. Meanwhile, the low-frequency phonon resonance of ZnS nanoparticles is compared with the single-crystal ZnS. The THz-TDS clearly reveals the remarkable distinction in the low-frequency phonon resonances between ZnS nanoparticles and single-crystal ZnS. The results demonstrate that the acoustic phonons become confined in small-size nanoparticles.

  19. Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, B M; Walther, M; Jepsen, P Uhd

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared dielectric function of a wide range of organic molecules is dominated by vibrations involving a substantial fraction of the atoms forming the molecule and motion associated with intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrations. Due to their collective nature such modes are highly sensitive to the intra- and intermolecular structure and thus provide a unique fingerprint of the conformational state of the molecule and effects of its environment. We demonstrate the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for recording the far-infrared (0.5-4.0 THz) dielectric function of the four nucleobases and corresponding nucleosides forming the building blocks of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). We observe numerous distinct spectral features with large differences between the molecules in both frequency-dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction. Assisted by results from density-functional calculations we interpret the origin of the observed resonances as vibrations of hydrogen bonds between the molecules

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy of brain tissue from a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingyan; Shumyatsky, Pavel; Rodríguez-Contreras, Adrián; Alfano, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) absorption and index of refraction of brain tissues from a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a control wild-type (normal) mouse were compared using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Three dominating absorption peaks associated to torsional-vibrational modes were observed in AD tissue, at about 1.44, 1.8, and 2.114 THz, closer to the peaks of free tryptophan molecules than in normal tissue. A possible reason is that there is more free tryptophan in AD brain tissue, while in normal brain tissue more tryptophan is attached to other molecules. Our study suggests that THz-absorption modes may be used as an AD biomarker fingerprint in brain, and that THz-TDS is a promising technique for early diagnosis of AD.

  1. Investigation of Ag2O Thermal Decomposition by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Chen; Li, Wang

    2009-01-01

    Application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is demonstrated to study the process of Ag 2 O thermal decomposition. In the process of decomposition, the time-resolved signals are characterized by broad oscillations and decreased intensity, and THz pulse essentially contains two broad spectral components: one centered at around 0.35 THz and a band with a maximum at around 0.81 THz shift to 0.71 THz. Optical absorption spectra of different specimens are studied in the frequency range 0.3–1.4 THz and the data are analyzed by the relevant theory of the effective medium approach combined with the Drude–Lorentz model. The analysis suggests that optical properties stem from the Drude term for the metallic phase and the Lorentz term for the insulator phase in the complex system. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  2. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  3. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in a parallel-plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    demonstrate such a technique for time-resolved optical pump-THz probe measurements of materials embedded within a parallel plate waveguide. This is made possible by replacing one of the plates with a transparent conducting oxide, which provides sufcient electrical conductivity to guide the THz pulse, yet......The parallel plate waveguide (PPWG), formed by two conducting parallel plates separated by a distance on the order of the wavelength of the propagating light, has shown itself to be a near ideal terahertz interconnect exhibiting low loss and dispersionless propagation.[1] It is also a useful tool...... for enhancing the interaction of THz radiation with thin lms to the point where spectroscopy on 20 nm-thick layers of water have been performed.[2] A natural extension ofthis technique is to examine photoexcited samples inside the waveguide, with the addition of a second femtosecond excitation pulse. Here we...

  4. Quantitative detection of melamine based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Shangjian; Zuo, Jian; Zhou, Zihan; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Melamine is an organic base and a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1, 3, 5-triazine skeleton. It is usually used for the production of plastics, glue and flame retardants. Melamine combines with acid and related compounds to form melamine cyanurate and related crystal structures, which have been implicated as contaminants or biomarkers in protein adulterations by lawbreakers, especially in milk powder. This paper is focused on developing an available method for quantitative detection of melamine in the fields of security inspection and nondestructive testing based on THz-TDS. Terahertz (THz) technology has promising applications for the detection and identification of materials because it exhibits the properties of spectroscopy, good penetration and safety. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a key technique that is applied to spectroscopic measurement of materials based on ultrafast femtosecond laser. In this study, the melamine and its mixture with polyethylene powder in different consistence are measured using the transmission THz-TDS. And we obtained the refractive index spectra and the absorption spectrum of different concentrations of melamine on 0.2-2.8THz. In the refractive index spectra, it is obvious to see that decline trend with the decrease of concentration; and in the absorption spectrum, two peaks of melamine at 1.98THz and 2.28THz can be obtained. Based on the experimental result, the absorption coefficient and the consistence of the melamine in the mixture are determined. Finally, methods for quantitative detection of materials in the fields of nondestructive testing and quality control based on THz-TDS have been studied.

  5. Novel electronic ferroelectricity in an organic charge-order insulator investigated with terahertz-pump optical-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Morimoto, T.; Yada, H.; Kinoshita, Y.; Sotome, M.; Kida, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Iwano, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Shimoi, Y.; Suda, M.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Mori, H.; Okamoto, H.

    2016-01-01

    In electronic-type ferroelectrics, where dipole moments produced by the variations of electron configurations are aligned, the polarization is expected to be rapidly controlled by electric fields. Such a feature can be used for high-speed electric-switching and memory devices. Electronic-type ferroelectrics include charge degrees of freedom, so that they are sometimes conductive, complicating dielectric measurements. This makes difficult the exploration of electronic-type ferroelectrics and the understanding of their ferroelectric nature. Here, we show unambiguous evidence for electronic ferroelectricity in the charge-order (CO) phase of a prototypical ET-based molecular compound, α-(ET)2I3 (ET:bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene), using a terahertz pulse as an external electric field. Terahertz-pump second-harmonic-generation(SHG)-probe and optical-reflectivity-probe spectroscopy reveal that the ferroelectric polarization originates from intermolecular charge transfers and is inclined 27° from the horizontal CO stripe. These features are qualitatively reproduced by the density-functional-theory calculation. After sub-picosecond polarization modulation by terahertz fields, prominent oscillations appear in the reflectivity but not in the SHG-probe results, suggesting that the CO is coupled with molecular displacements, while the ferroelectricity is electronic in nature. The results presented here demonstrate that terahertz-pump optical-probe spectroscopy is a powerful tool not only for rapidly controlling polarizations, but also for clarifying the mechanisms of ferroelectricity. PMID:26864779

  6. Fresnel formulas for the forced electromagnetic pulses and their application for optical-to-terahertz conversion in nonlinear crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunov, M I; Maslov, A V; Bodrov, S B

    2007-11-16

    We show that the usual Fresnel formulas for a free-propagating pulse are not applicable for a forced terahertz electromagnetic pulse supported by an optical pulse at the end of a nonlinear crystal. The correct linear reflection and transmission coefficients that we derive show that such pulses can experience a gain or loss at the boundary. This energy change depends on linear dielectric constants only. We also predict a regime where a complete disappearance of the forced pulse under oblique incidence occurs, an effect that has no counterpart for free-propagating pulses.

  7. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy applied to the rapid discrimination of the botanical origin of honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Yang, Si; Han, Donghai

    2018-05-01

    A new technique to identify the floral resources of honeys is demanded. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was applied to discriminate different categorizes (Medlar honey, Vitex honey, and Acacia honey). Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been used to find information of the botanical origins of honeys. Spectral range also was discussed to increase the precision of PLS-DA model. The accuracy of 88.46% for validation set was obtained, using PLS-DA model in 0.5-1.5 THz. This work indicated terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy was an available approach to evaluate the quality of honey rapidly.

  8. Thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells studied in transient regime by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Skoromets, Volodymyr; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín; Kužel, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 23 (2015), "233901-1"-"233901-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101216 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thin film polycrystalline silicon * terahertz spectroscopy * passivation * Suns-Voc method * defects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  9. Energy-gap dynamics of superconducting NbN thin films studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Matthias; Klammer, M.; Lang, S.; Leiderer, Paul; Kabanov, Viktor V.; Goltsman, Gregory; Demsar, Jure

    2011-01-01

    Using time-domain Terahertz spectroscopy we performed direct studies of the photoinduced suppression and recovery of the superconducting gap in a conventional BCS superconductor NbN. Both processes are found to be strongly temperature and excitation density dependent. The analysis of the data with the established phenomenological Rothwarf-Taylor model enabled us to determine the bare quasiparticle recombination rate, the Cooper pair-breaking rate and the electron-phonon coupling constant, \\la...

  10. Anisotropic percolation conduction in elastomer-carbon black composites investigated by polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Makoto; Fujii, Misako; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the draw ratio (DR) dependence of the anisotropic dielectric function and conductivity of styrene butadiene rubbers (SBRs) with different carbon black (CB) concentrations by polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. From the frequency dependence of the conductivity in the unstretched SBRs ranging from direct current to terahertz frequencies, it is found that the SBR with a CB concentration above 30 wt. % exhibits percolation conductivity. We investigated the spectral shape of the dielectric function and conductivity of the SBR samples below and above the percolation threshold for two representative DRs in the terahertz frequency region. We found that the DR dependence of the spectral shape is well explained by the effective medium approximation, except for the sample with the CB concentration above 30 wt. % under the unstretched condition. The conductivity in that sample remarkably changes in the low terahertz frequency region, which suggests a change in the CB network by deformation. The investigation of the dielectric anisotropy and percolation conductivity using our polarization technique can be applied to a wide range of elastomer composites.

  11. Adaptive sampling dual terahertz comb spectroscopy using dual free-running femtosecond lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Ryuji; Hsieh, Yi-Da; Hayashi, Kenta; Cahyadi, Harsono; Hindle, Francis; Sakaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Minoshima, Kaoru; Inaba, Hajime

    2015-06-02

    Terahertz (THz) dual comb spectroscopy (DCS) is a promising method for high-accuracy, high-resolution, broadband THz spectroscopy because the mode-resolved THz comb spectrum includes both broadband THz radiation and narrow-line CW-THz radiation characteristics. In addition, all frequency modes of a THz comb can be phase-locked to a microwave frequency standard, providing excellent traceability. However, the need for stabilization of dual femtosecond lasers has often hindered its wide use. To overcome this limitation, here we have demonstrated adaptive-sampling THz-DCS, allowing the use of free-running femtosecond lasers. To correct the fluctuation of the time and frequency scales caused by the laser timing jitter, an adaptive sampling clock is generated by dual THz-comb-referenced spectrum analysers and is used for a timing clock signal in a data acquisition board. The results not only indicated the successful implementation of THz-DCS with free-running lasers but also showed that this configuration outperforms standard THz-DCS with stabilized lasers due to the slight jitter remained in the stabilized lasers.

  12. Discrimination and Measurements of Three Flavonols with Similar Structure Using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Liu, Changhong; Qu, Hao; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) technique, a recently developed spectral method, has been researched and used for the rapid discrimination and measurements of food compositions due to its low-energy and non-ionizing characteristics. In this study, THz spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been utilized for qualitative and quantitative analysis of myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol with concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/mL. The qualitative discrimination was achieved by KNN, ELM, and RF models with the spectra pre-treatments. An excellent discrimination (100% CCR in the prediction set) could be achieved using the RF model. Furthermore, the quantitative analyses were performed by partial least square regression (PLSR) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM). Comparing to the PLSR models, the LS-SVM yielded better results with low RMSEP (0.0044, 0.0039, and 0.0048), higher Rp (0.9601, 0.9688, and 0.9359), and higher RPD (8.6272, 9.6333, and 7.9083) for myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. Our results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy technique is a powerful tool for identification of three flavonols with similar chemical structures and quantitative determination of their concentrations.

  13. Design Considerations for Integration of Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy in Microfluidic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Al-Hujazy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic platforms have received much attention in recent years. In particular, there is interest in combining spectroscopy with microfluidic platforms. This work investigates the integration of microfluidic platforms and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS systems. A semiclassical computational model is used to simulate the emission of THz radiation from a GaAs photoconductive THz emitter. This model incorporates white noise with increasing noise amplitude (corresponding to decreasing dynamic range values. White noise is selected over other noise due to its contributions in THz-TDS systems. The results from this semiclassical computational model, in combination with defined sample thicknesses, can provide the maximum measurable absorption coefficient for a microfluidic-based THz-TDS system. The maximum measurable frequencies for such systems can be extracted through the relationship between the maximum measurable absorption coefficient and the absorption coefficient for representative biofluids. The sample thickness of the microfluidic platform and the dynamic range of the THz-TDS system play a role in defining the maximum measurable frequency for microfluidic-based THz-TDS systems. The results of this work serve as a design tool for the development of such systems.

  14. Application of terahertz spectroscopy imaging for discrimination of transgenic rice seeds with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Hu, Xiaohua; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by terahertz spectroscopy imaging system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN), and random forest (RF) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) pre-treatments were applied to classify rice seeds based on genotype. The results demonstrated that differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds did exist, and an excellent classification (accuracy was 96.67% in the prediction set) could be achieved using the RF model combined with the first derivative pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy imaging together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency and without any sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced Measurement of Paper Basis Weight Using Phase Shift in Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengbao Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available THz time-domain spectroscopy has evolved as a noncontact, safe, and efficient technique for paper characterization. Our previous work adopted peak amplitude and delay time as features to determine paper basis weight using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. However, peak amplitude and delay time tend to suffer from noises, resulting in degradation of accuracy and robustness. This paper proposes a noise-robust phase-shift based method to enhance measurements of paper basis weight. Based on Fresnel Formulae, the physical relationship between phase shift and paper basis weight is formulated theoretically neglecting multiple reflections in the case of normal incidence. The established formulation indicates that phase shift correlates linearly with paper basis weight intrinsically. Subsequently, paper sheets were stacked to fabricate the samples with different basis weights, and experimental results verified the developed mathematical formulation. Moreover, a comparison was made between phase shift, peak amplitude, and delay time with respect to linearity, accuracy, and noise robustness. The results show that phase shift is superior to the others.

  16. [Application of terahertz technology in medical testing and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Na; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong; Xiang, Yu-Hong

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz science and technology is increasingly emphasized in science and industry, and has progressed significantly in recent years. There is an important aspect of attention in the application of terahertz technology to medicine. The overview of the terahertz characters, terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging technology is introduced. This paper focuses on reviewing the use of and research progress in terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging technology in medical testing and diagnosis. Furthermore, the problems to be solved and development directions of terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging technology are discussed.

  17. New Frontiers in Optical Science: Terahertz Spectroscopy ot Two Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Shik

    2011-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose frequency lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. Naturally occurring THz radiation fills up the space of everyday life providing warmth, yet this part of the spectrum remains the least explored region mainly due to the technical difficulties. The technological gap, however, has been rapidly diminishing for the last two decades. The new and exciting frontier of the THz science and technology has encroached on many different disciplines producing a broad range of applications such as medical imaging, sensing of biochemical agents, and ultra-high speed communication. Furthermore, the unique and advanced techniques of the THz spectroscopy have been proved to be a powerful tool to investigate the material properties inaccessible until recently. For example, THz waves strongly interact with electrons and holes in two dimensional systems, in which their dynamics are governed mainly by many-body Coulomb interactions. I will present our experimental studies demonstrating remarkable quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures and exotic charge carrier dynamics in graphene.

  18. Observing the temperature dependent transition of the GP2 peptide using terahertz spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Sun

    Full Text Available The GP2 peptide is derived from the Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2/nue, a marker protein for breast cancer present in saliva. In this paper we study the temperature dependent behavior of hydrated GP2 at terahertz frequencies and find that the peptide undergoes a dynamic transition between 200 and 220 K. By fitting suitable molecular models to the frequency response we determine the molecular processes involved above and below the transition temperature (T(D. In particular, we show that below T(D the dynamic transition is dominated by a simple harmonic vibration with a slow and temperature dependent relaxation time constant and that above T(D, the dynamic behavior is governed by two oscillators, one of which has a fast and temperature independent relaxation time constant and the other of which is a heavily damped oscillator with a slow and temperature dependent time constant. Furthermore a red shifting of the characteristic frequency of the damped oscillator was observed, confirming the presence of a non-harmonic vibration potential. Our measurements and modeling of GP2 highlight the unique capabilities of THz spectroscopy for protein characterization.

  19. Charge generation in organic solar cell materials studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Scarongella, M.

    2015-09-09

    We have investigated the photophysics in neat films of conjugated polymer PBDTTPD and its blend with PCBM using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This material has very high efficiency when used in organic solar cells. We were able to identify a THz signature for bound excitons in neat PBDTTPD films, pointing to important delocalization in those excitons. Then, we investigated the nature and local mobility (orders of magnitude higher than bulk mobility) of charges in the PBDTTPPD:PCBM blend as a function of excitation wavelength, fluence and pump-probe time delay. At low pump fluence (no bimolecular recombination phenomena), we were able to observe prompt and delayed charge generation components, the latter originating from excitons created in neat polymer domains which, thanks to delocalization, could reach the PCBM interface and dissociate to charges on a time scale of 1 ps. The nature of the photogenerated charges did not change between 0.5 ps and 800 ps after photo-excitation, which indicated that the excitons split directly into relatively free charges on an ultrafast time scale. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  20. Determination of plane stress state using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyong; Kang, Kai; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin'an; Xu, Ningning; Han, Jiaguang; He, Mingxia; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-01-01

    THz wave has been increasingly applied in engineering practice. One of its outstanding advantages is the penetrability through certain optically opaque materials, whose interior properties could be therefore obtained. In this report, we develop an experimental method to determine the plane stress state of optically opaque materials based on the stress-optical law using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In this method, two polarizers are combined into the conventional THz-TDS system to sense and adjust the polarization state of THz waves and a theoretical model is established to describe the relationship between phase delay of the received THz wave and the plane stress applied on the specimen. Three stress parameters that represent the plane stress state are finally determined through an error function of THz wave phase-delay. Experiments were conducted on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) specimen and a reasonably good agreement was found with measurement using traditional strain gauges. The presented results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method could be further used in nondestructive tests for a wide range of optically opaque materials. PMID:27824112

  1. Monitoring plant drought stress response using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Norman; Behringer, David; Liepelt, Sascha; Beyer, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Koch, Martin

    2014-04-01

    We present a novel measurement setup for monitoring changes in leaf water status using nondestructive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Previous studies on a variety of plants showed the principal applicability of THz-TDS. In such setups, decreasing leaf water content directly correlates with increasing THz transmission. Our new system allows for continuous, nondestructive monitoring of the water status of multiple individual plants each at the same constant leaf position. It overcomes previous drawbacks, which were mainly due to the necessity of relocating the plants. Using needles of silver fir (Abies alba) seedlings as test subjects, we show that the transmission varies along the main axis of a single needle due to a variation in thickness. Therefore, the relocation of plants during the measuring period, which was necessary in the previous THz-TDS setups, should be avoided. Furthermore, we show a highly significant correlation between gravimetric water content and respective THz transmission. By monitoring the relative change in transmission, we were able to narrow down the permanent wilting point of the seedlings. Thus, we established groups of plants with well-defined levels of water stress that could not be detected visually. This opens up the possibility for a broad range of genetic and physiological experiments.

  2. Monitoring Plant Drought Stress Response Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Norman; Behringer, David; Liepelt, Sascha; Beyer, Sarah; Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Koch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel measurement setup for monitoring changes in leaf water status using nondestructive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Previous studies on a variety of plants showed the principal applicability of THz-TDS. In such setups, decreasing leaf water content directly correlates with increasing THz transmission. Our new system allows for continuous, nondestructive monitoring of the water status of multiple individual plants each at the same constant leaf position. It overcomes previous drawbacks, which were mainly due to the necessity of relocating the plants. Using needles of silver fir (Abies alba) seedlings as test subjects, we show that the transmission varies along the main axis of a single needle due to a variation in thickness. Therefore, the relocation of plants during the measuring period, which was necessary in the previous THz-TDS setups, should be avoided. Furthermore, we show a highly significant correlation between gravimetric water content and respective THz transmission. By monitoring the relative change in transmission, we were able to narrow down the permanent wilting point of the seedlings. Thus, we established groups of plants with well-defined levels of water stress that could not be detected visually. This opens up the possibility for a broad range of genetic and physiological experiments. PMID:24501000

  3. Comparative study of boson peak in normal and secondary alcohols with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Sato, Yuki; Nozaki, Ryusuke; Mishina, Tomobumi; Nakahara, Jun'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex permittivity of some normal (1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and secondary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, and 2-pentanol) in the frequency ranges from 0.2 to 2.5 THz at temperatures from 253 to 323 K. For all the samples, the complex permittivity in the THz region includes the following three components: (i) a high frequency side of dielectric relaxation processes, (ii) a broad mode around 1 THz, and (iii) a low frequency side of an intermolecular vibration mode located above 2.5 THz. The mode around 1 THz is recognized as a boson peak which is related to the local structure of disordered materials. The intensity of the boson peak in secondary alcohols is higher than that in normal alcohols. On the other hand, the number of carbon atoms slightly affects the appearance of the boson peak. These observations indicate that the position of an OH group in a molecule has a profound effect on the local structures in monohydric alcohols.

  4. Determination of soluble solids content in apple products by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guohui; Liu, Jianjun; Hong, Zhi

    2011-08-01

    Soluble solids content is an important index for fruit quality. One of the traditional methods in determining soluble solids content of fruits is refractometry which measures the refractive index in visible or near infrared. Here we reported the use of terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy (THz-TDTS) technique for the determination of soluble solids content in apple products. Not only the refractive index, but also the absorption coefficient is used in regression model. In method one, sucrose solutions were for the calibration set , root mean square of validation set (RMSEP) was 0.168% for absorption coefficient model, 0.741% for refractive index model. In method two, apple products were for the calibration set, RMSEP was 0.143% for absorption coefficient model, 0.648% for refractive index model. Less absolute error of 0.2% between predicted and refractometer value has been both obtained from two methods with absorption coefficient model. This result proved the THz-TDS technique is quite potential for nondestructive detection on food quality.

  5. Terahertz-infrared spectroscopy of overdoped manganites La.sub.1-x./sub.Ca.sub.x./sub.MnO.sub.3./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadyrov, L.S.; Zhukova, E.S.; Torgashev, V. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Prokhorov, A. S.; Motovilova, E.A.; Fischgrabe, F.; Moshnyaga, V.; Zhang, T.; Kremer, R.; Pracht, U.; Zapf, S.; Pokorný, Jan; Untereiner, G.; Kamba, Stanislav; Dressel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 460, SI (2015), s. 199-201 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : manganites * terahertz spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2015

  6. Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong; Han, Haewook; Han, Joon; Ahn, Jaewook; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Woong-Yang; Jeong, Young

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological breakthrough in the field of Terahertz radiation has triggered new applications in biology and biomedicine. Particularly, biological applications are based on the specific spectroscopic fingerprints of biological matter in this spectral region. Historically with the discovery of new electromagnetic wave spectrum, we have always discovered new medical diagnostic imaging systems. The use of terahertz wave was not realized due to the absence of useful terahertz sources. Now after successful generation of THz waves, it is reported that a great potential for THz wave exists for its resonance with bio-molecules. There are many challenging issues such as development of THz passive and active instrumentations, understanding of THz-Bio interaction for THz spectroscopy, THz-Bio nonlinear phenomena and safety guideline, and THz imaging systems. Eventually the deeper understanding of THz-Bio interaction and novel THz systems enable us to develop powerful THz biomedical imaging systems which can contr...

  7. Component spectra extraction from terahertz measurements of unknown mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Hou, D B; Huang, P J; Cai, J H; Zhang, G X

    2015-10-20

    The aim of this work is to extract component spectra from unknown mixtures in the terahertz region. To that end, a method, hard modeling factor analysis (HMFA), was applied to resolve terahertz spectral matrices collected from the unknown mixtures. This method does not require any expertise of the user and allows the consideration of nonlinear effects such as peak variations or peak shifts. It describes the spectra using a peak-based nonlinear mathematic model and builds the component spectra automatically by recombination of the resolved peaks through correlation analysis. Meanwhile, modifications on the method were made to take the features of terahertz spectra into account and to deal with the artificial baseline problem that troubles the extraction process of some terahertz spectra. In order to validate the proposed method, simulated wideband terahertz spectra of binary and ternary systems and experimental terahertz absorption spectra of amino acids mixtures were tested. In each test, not only the number of pure components could be correctly predicted but also the identified pure spectra had a good similarity with the true spectra. Moreover, the proposed method associated the molecular motions with the component extraction, making the identification process more physically meaningful and interpretable compared to other methods. The results indicate that the HMFA method with the modifications can be a practical tool for identifying component terahertz spectra in completely unknown mixtures. This work reports the solution to this kind of problem in the terahertz region for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, and represents a significant advance toward exploring physical or chemical mechanisms of unknown complex systems by terahertz spectroscopy.

  8. Non-destructive evaluation of specialty coating degradation using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Carley R.; Cramer, Laura; Fletcher, Alan; Zimdars, David; Iqbal, Zafar; Federici, John F.

    2017-05-01

    The Terahertz Time Domain Reflection Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) method of paint layer diagnostics is a non-contact electromagnetic technique analogous to pulsed-ultrasound with the added capability of spectroscopic characterization. The THz-TDS sensor emits a near-single cycle electromagnetic pulse with a bandwidth from 0.1 to 3 THz. This wide bandwidth pulse is focused on the coating, and echo pulses are generated from each interface (air-coating, layer-layer, coating-substrate). In this paper, the THz-TDS method is applied to specialty aircraft coatings. The THz-TDS method is able to penetrate the whole coating stack and sample the properties of each layer. Because the reflected pulses from individual layers typically overlap in time, the complex permittivity function and thickness of each layer is determined by a best fit of the measured reflection (either in time or frequency domain) to a layered model of the paint. The THz- TDS method is applied to specialty coatings prior to and during accelerated aging on a series of test coupons. The coupons are also examined during aging using ATR (attenuated total reflectance)-FTIR spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to ascertain, quantify, and understand the breakdown mechanisms of the coatings. In addition, the same samples are characterized using THz-TDS techniques to determine if the THz-TDS method can be utilized as a non-destructive evaluation technique to sense degradation of the coatings. Our results suggest that the degradation mechanism begins in the top coat layer. In this layer, 254 nm UV illumination in combination with the presence of moisture works partially with oxides as catalysts to decompose the polymer matrix thereby creating porosity in the top coat layer. Since the catalytic effect is partial, loss of the oxides by chemical reaction can also occur. As the topcoat layer becomes more porous, it allows water vapor to permeate the topcoat layer and interact

  9. Energy-gap dynamics of superconducting NbN thin films studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M; Klammer, M; Lang, S; Leiderer, P; Kabanov, V V; Gol'tsman, G N; Demsar, J

    2011-10-21

    Using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy we performed direct studies of the photoinduced suppression and recovery of the superconducting gap in a conventional BCS superconductor NbN. Both processes are found to be strongly temperature and excitation density dependent. The analysis of the data with the established phenomenological Rothwarf-Taylor model enabled us to determine the bare quasiparticle recombination rate, the Cooper pair-breaking rate and the electron-phonon coupling constant, λ=1.1±0.1, which is in excellent agreement with theoretical estimates. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Ferroelectric phase transition in polycrystalline KTaO.sub.3./sub. thin film revealed by terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skoromets, Volodymyr; Glinšek, S.; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Petzelt, Jan; Kamba, Stanislav; Malič, B.; Kosec, M.; Kužel, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 5 (2011), 052908/1-052908/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100907 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) SVV-2011-263303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : thin film * terahertz spectroscopy * ferroelectric phase transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.844, year: 2011 http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/99/052908

  11. A Non-destructive Terahertz Spectroscopy-Based Method for Transgenic Rice Seed Discrimination via Sparse Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohua; Lang, Wenhui; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xue; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy technique has been researched and developed for rapid and non-destructive detection of food safety and quality due to its low-energy and non-ionizing characteristics. The objective of this study was to develop a flexible identification model to discriminate transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds based on terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. To extract THz spectral features and reduce the feature dimension, sparse representation (SR) is employed in this work. A sufficient sparsity level is selected to train the sparse coding of the THz data, and the random forest (RF) method is then applied to obtain a discrimination model. The results show that there exist differences between transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds in THz spectral band and, comparing with Least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) method, SR-RF is a better model for discrimination (accuracy is 95% in prediction set, 100% in calibration set, respectively). The conclusion is that SR may be more useful in the application of THz spectroscopy to reduce dimension and the SR-RF provides a new, effective, and flexible method for detection and identification of transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds with THz spectral system.

  12. Fast and non-destructive pore structure analysis using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Bawuah, Prince; Ridgway, Cathy; van den Ban, Sander; Goodwin, Daniel J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Gane, Patrick; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Zeitler, J Axel

    2018-02-15

    Pharmaceutical tablets are typically manufactured by the uni-axial compaction of powder that is confined radially by a rigid die. The directional nature of the compaction process yields not only anisotropic mechanical properties (e.g. tensile strength) but also directional properties of the pore structure in the porous compact. This study derives a new quantitative parameter, S a , to describe the anisotropy in pore structure of pharmaceutical tablets based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements. The S a parameter analysis was applied to three different data sets including tablets with only one excipient (functionalised calcium carbonate), samples with one excipient (microcrystalline cellulose) and one drug (indomethacin), and a complex formulation (granulated product comprising several excipients and one drug). The overall porosity, tablet thickness, initial particle size distribution as well as the granule density were all found to affect the significant structural anisotropies that were observed in all investigated tablets. The S a parameter provides new insights into the microstructure of a tablet and its potential was particularly demonstrated for the analysis of formulations comprising several components. The results clearly indicate that material attributes, such as particle size and granule density, cause a change of the pore structure, which, therefore, directly impacts the liquid imbibition that is part of the disintegration process. We show, for the first time, how the granule density impacts the pore structure, which will also affect the performance of the tablet. It is thus of great importance to gain a better understanding of the relationship of the physical properties of material attributes (e.g. intragranular porosity, particle shape), the compaction process and the microstructure of the finished product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy of propylene carbonate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, R.; Roland, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements were carried out on two strongly polar liquids, 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (VPC) and 4-ethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (EPC), having chemical structures differing from propylene carbonate (PC) only by the presence of a pendant group. Despite their polarity, the compounds are all non-associated, "simple" liquids. From the linear component of the dielectric response, the α relaxation peak breadth was found to be invariant at a fixed value of the relaxation time, τα. From spectra from the nonlinear component, the number of dynamically correlated molecules was determined; it was also constant at fixed τα. Thus, two manifestations of dynamic heterogeneity depend only on the time constant for structural reorientation. More broadly, the cooperativity of molecular motions for non-associated glass-forming materials is connected to (i.e., reciprocally governs) the time scale. The equation of state for the two liquids was also obtained from density measurements made over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. Using these data, it was determined that the relaxation times of both liquids conform to density scaling. The effect of density, relative to thermal effects, on the α relaxation increases going from PC < VPC < EPC.

  14. Nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy and acoustic emission in SHM of aircrafts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Chlada, Milan; Krofta, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, SI (2012), s. 36-40 ISSN 1213-3825 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : NDT * structural health monitoring * acoustic emission * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy * time reversal mirrors Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  15. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  16. [The Detection of Ultra-Broadband Terahertz Spectroscopy of InP Wafer by Using Coherent Heterodyne Time-Domain Spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Indium Phosphide (InP) has attracted great physical interest because of its unique characteristics and is indispensable to both optical and electronic devices. However, the optical property of InP in the terahertz range (0. 110 THz) has not yet been fully characterized and systematically studied. The former researches about the properties of InP concentrated on the terahertz frequency between 0.1 and 4 THz. The terahertz optical properties of the InP in the range of 4-10 THz are still missing. It is fairly necessary to fully understand its properties in the entire terahertz range, which results in a better utilization as efficient terahertz devices. In this paper, we study the optical properties of undoped (100) InP wafer in the ultra-broad terahertz frequency range (0.5-18 THz) by using air-biased-coherent-detection (ABCD) system, enabling the coherent detection of terahertz wave in gases, which leads to a significant improvement on the dynamic range and sensitivity of the system. The advantage of this method is broad frequency bandwidth from 0.2 up to 18 THz which is only mainly limited by laser pulse duration since it uses ionized air as terahertz emitter and detector instead of using an electric optical crystal or photoconductive antenna. The terahertz pulse passing through the InP wafer is delayed regarding to the reference pulse and has much lower amplitude. In addition, the frequency spectrum amplitude of the terahertz sample signal drops to the noise floor level from 6.7 to 12.1 THz. At the same time InP wafer is opaque at the frequencies spanning from 6.7 to 12.1 THz. In the frequency regions of 0.8-6.7 and 12.1-18 THz it has relativemy low absorption coefficient. Meanwhile, the refractive index increases monotonously in the 0.8-6.7 THz region and 12.1-18 THz region. These findings will contribute to the design of InP based on nonlinear terahertz devices.

  17. Terahertz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz DES) - ‘ALMA in the Lab’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Auriacombe, Olivier Bruno Jacques; Fraser, Helen; Ellison, Brian; Ioppolo, Sergio; Rea, Simon

    2016-06-01

    ALMA is revolutionising our scope to identify and locate molecules that have been desorbed from ices, particularly complex organic molecules (COMS), which provide a vital link between interstellar and prebiotic chemistry. Explaining the existence of these molecules in star-forming regions relies on an empirical understanding of the chemistry that underpins their formation:- do COMS form predominantly in the solid-phase and then desorb to the gas phase, or do only “smaller” species, radials or ions desorb and then undergo gas-phase chemical reactions to generate larger COMS?-are the rotational state populations in COMS only attributable to equilibrium chemistry, or could their formation mechanisms and desorption processes affect the rotational state occupancy of these molecules, thereby directly tying certain species to solid-state origins?We have developed a novel laboratory method - THz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz-DES) that combines “traditional” laboratory astrophysics high-vacuum ice experiments with a sensitive high-spectral-resolution terahertz total-power heterodyne radiometer 1,2, partially mirroring the spectral range of ALMA band 7 (275- 373 GHz). Ices are grown in situ on a cold-plate, situated in a vacuum cell, then (thermally) desorbed. The sub-mm emission spectra of the resultant gas-phase molecules are detected as a function of time, temperature, or distance from the surface. Our first THz DES results will be shown for pure and binary ice systems including H2O, N2O and CH3OH. They show good correlation with established methods e.g. TPD, with the advantage of exploiting the molecular spectroscopy to unravel surface dynamics, state-occupancy, and unequivocal molecular identification, as well as concurrently measuring desorption barriers and molecular yields. We will extend our technique to a broader frequency range, enabling us to detect radical and ion desorption, to differentiate between A and E populations of CH3OH or ortho

  18. Analysis of fluoroquinolones antibiotic residue in feed matrices using terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuan; Li, Bin; Liu, Huan

    2018-01-20

    As antibiotic residue becomes more and more serious all over the world, a rapid and effective detection method is needed to evaluate the antibiotic residue in feed matrices to ensure food safety for consumers. In this study, three different kinds of fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ofloxacin) in feed matrices were analyzed using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, pure fluoroquinolones and pure feed matrices were also measured in the same way. Then, the absorption spectra of all of the samples were extracted in the transmission mode. Pure norfloxacin has two absorption peaks at 0.825 and 1.187 THz, and they could still be observed when mixing norfloxacin with feed matrices. Also, there was an obvious and strong absorption peak for ofloxacin at 1.044 THz. However, no obvious absorption peak for enrofloxacin was observed, and only a weak absorption peak was located at 0.8 THz. Then, the different models were established with different chemometrics to identify the fluoroquinolones in feed matrices and determined the fluoroquinolones content in the feed matrices. The least squares support vector machines, Naive Bayes, Mahalanobis distance, and back propagation neural network (BPNN) were used to build the identification model with a Savitzky-Golay filter and standardized normal variate pretreatments. The results show that the excellent classification model was acquired with the BPNN combined with no pretreatment. The optimal classification accuracy was 80.56% in the testing set. After that, multiple linear regression and stepwise regression were used to establish the quantitative detection model for different kinds of fluoroquinolones in feed matrices. The optimal correlation coefficients for norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ofloxacin in the prediction set were obtained with multiple linear regression that combined absorption peaks with wavelengths selected by stepwise regression, which were 0.867, 0.828, and 0.964, respectively

  19. Quantitative Identification of the Annealing Degree of Apatite Fission Tracks Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Wu, Shixiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Chang, Jian; Bao, Rima; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Nian; Liu, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis, a widely used low-temperature thermochronology method, can provide details of the hydrocarbon generation history of source rocks for use in hydrocarbon exploration. The AFT method is based on the annealing behavior of fission tracks generated by 238 U fission in apatite particles during geological history. Due to the cumbersome experimental steps and high expense, it is imperative to find an efficient and inexpensive technique to determinate the annealing degree of AFT. In this study, on the basis of the ellipsoid configuration of tracks, the track volume fraction model (TVFM) is established and the fission-track volume index is proposed. Furthermore, terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used for the first time to identify the variation of the AFT annealing degree of Durango apatite particles heated at 20, 275, 300, 325, 450, and 500 ℃ for 10 h. The THz absorbance of the sample increases with the degree of annealing. In addition, the THz absorption index is exponentially related to annealing temperature and can be used to characterize the fission-track volume index. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy can be an ancillary technique for AFT thermochronological research. More work is urgently needed to extrapolate experimental data to geological conditions.

  20. Picosecond Transient Photoconductivity in Functionalized Pentacene Molecular Crystals Probed by Terahertz Pulse Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, F. A.; Tykwinski, R. R.; Lui, K. P.; Bullock, J. E.; Anthony, J. E.

    2002-11-01

    We have measured transient photoconductivity in functionalized pentacene molecular crystals using ultrafast optical pump-terahertz probe techniques. The single crystal samples were excited using 800nm, 100fs pulses, and the change in transmission of time-delayed, subpicosecond terahertz pulses was used to probe the photoconducting state over a temperature range from 10 to 300K. A subpicosecond rise in photoconductivity is observed, suggesting that mobile carriers are a primary photoexcitation. At times longer than 4ps, a power-law decay is observed consistent with dispersive transport.

  1. Beating the wavelength limit: three-dimensional imaging of buried subwavelength fractures in sculpture and construction materials by terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, M; Castro-Camus, E; Krügener, K; Viöl, W; Koch, M

    2013-01-20

    We use reflection terahertz spectroscopy to locate and produce three-dimensional images of air gaps between stones that resemble fractures, even of subwavelength thicknesses. This technique is found to be promising tool for sculpture and building damage evaluation as well as structural quality control in other dielectric materials.

  2. Spectroscopic study of Alzheimer's amyloid fibrils using terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euna; Kim, Jeonghoi; Han, Younho; Moon, Kiwon; Lim, Meehyun; Han, Haewook; Park, Joonhyuck; Kim, Sungjee

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by extensive amyloid deposition. Amyloid deposits contain the abundant fibrils formed by amyloid β protein (Aβ). Because amyloid fibrils are associated with amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, prion disease, Parkinson's disease, senile systemic amyloidosis and Huntington's disease, there has been considerable interest within the biomedical and biochemical research communities. In transmission electron microscopic (TEM)images, amyloid firils are 0.1∼10μm long and approximately 10nm wide. Amyloid fibrils commonly exhibit self assembled filaments, often described as twisted or parallel assemblies of finer protofilaments. They are formed by the spontaneous aggregation of a wide variety of peptides and proteins. Structural studies of amyloid fibrils have revealed that the common structural motif of virtually all amyloid fibrils consists of cross β sheets in which the peptide strands are arranged perpendicular to the long axis of the fiber. But little was known until recently about the molecular level structures of amyloid fibils. Therefore, spectroscopic investigation of both amyloid fibrils and Aβ at the molecular level can provide the significant evidence for the molecular understanding of amyloidogenesis and for the development of innovative therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. We used terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)to investigate both Aβ and amyloid fibril. THz TDS, developed over the last two decades, is a powerful tool to extract the properties of biomaterials and provides unique spectral signatures of biomolecules within 0.1∼10THz, which exists between microwave and infrared frequency range. Current interest in THz radiation arises from its capability of probing the delocalized collective vibrational modes in proteins. Studying the collective modes of proteins in THz frequency range can play an

  3. Spectroscopic study of Alzheimer's amyloid fibrils using terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Euna; Kim, Jeonghoi; Han, Younho; Moon, Kiwon; Lim, Meehyun; Han, Haewook; Park, Joonhyuck; Kim, Sungjee [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by extensive amyloid deposition. Amyloid deposits contain the abundant fibrils formed by amyloid β protein (Aβ). Because amyloid fibrils are associated with amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, prion disease, Parkinson's disease, senile systemic amyloidosis and Huntington's disease, there has been considerable interest within the biomedical and biochemical research communities. In transmission electron microscopic (TEM)images, amyloid firils are 0.1∼10μm long and approximately 10nm wide. Amyloid fibrils commonly exhibit self assembled filaments, often described as twisted or parallel assemblies of finer protofilaments. They are formed by the spontaneous aggregation of a wide variety of peptides and proteins. Structural studies of amyloid fibrils have revealed that the common structural motif of virtually all amyloid fibrils consists of cross β sheets in which the peptide strands are arranged perpendicular to the long axis of the fiber. But little was known until recently about the molecular level structures of amyloid fibils. Therefore, spectroscopic investigation of both amyloid fibrils and Aβ at the molecular level can provide the significant evidence for the molecular understanding of amyloidogenesis and for the development of innovative therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. We used terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)to investigate both Aβ and amyloid fibril. THz TDS, developed over the last two decades, is a powerful tool to extract the properties of biomaterials and provides unique spectral signatures of biomolecules within 0.1∼10THz, which exists between microwave and infrared frequency range. Current interest in THz radiation arises from its capability of probing the delocalized collective vibrational modes in proteins. Studying the collective modes of proteins in THz frequency range can play an

  4. Assessing skin hydration status in haemodialysis patients using terahertz spectroscopy: a pilot / feasibility study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Filip; Berta, Milan; Kužel, Petr; Lopot, F.; Polakovič, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 24 (2008), 7063-7071 ISSN 0031-9155 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz radiation * haemodialysis * skin turgor * epidermis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2008

  5. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in a parallel-plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    The parallel plate waveguide (PPWG), formed by two conducting parallel plates separated by a distance on the order of the wavelength of the propagating light, has shown itself to be a near ideal terahertz interconnect exhibiting low loss and dispersionless propagation.[1] It is also a useful tool...

  6. Terahertz Frequency-Domain Spectroscopy of Low-Pressure Acetonitrile Gas by a Photomixing Terahertz Synthesizer Referenced to Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.

  7. Linear and nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glasses in the terahertz frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Popescu, A.

    2014-01-01

    components have greatly been developed in recent years. However there is still no any non-linear device available. This is mainly due to the lack of the rigorous investigation of non-linear characteristics of materials in the THz range. We chose to investigate chalcogenide glasses due to their high nonlinear...... used a standard THz-TDS setup based on photoconductive switches while in the higher frequency domain we used an air biased coherent detection (ABCD) setup. This allowed for a wide frequency range (from 0.2 to 18 THz) investigation of the refractive index of the glasses. The nonlinear coefficient...

  8. Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Mingkun; Wei, Dongshan; Wang, Yunxia; Yan, Shihan; Liu, Mengwan; Yang, Xiang; Yang, Ke; Cui, Hong-Liang; Fu, Weiling

    2017-10-01

    The aptamer and target molecule binding reaction has been widely applied for construction of aptasensors, most of which are labeled methods. In contrast, terahertz technology proves to be a label-free sensing tool for biomedical applications. We utilize terahertz absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the variation of binding-induced collective vibration of hydrogen bond network in a mixed solution of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer. The results show that binding-induced alterations of hydrogen bond numbers could be sensitively reflected by the variation of terahertz absorption coefficients of the mixed solution in a customized fluidic chip. The minimal detectable concentration is determined as 1 pmol/μL, which is approximately equal to the optimal immobilized concentration of aptasensors.

  9. Nondestructive evaluation of crystallized-particle size in lactose-powder by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Sakura; Imai, Yoh; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to evaluate crystallized lactose particle of size below 30 μm, which is far too small compared to the wavelength of incident terahertz (THz)-wave. The THz-absorption spectrum of lactose is successfully deconvoluted by Lorentzian to two spectra with peaks at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz) derived from α-lactose monohydrate, and a spectrum at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) from anhydrous β-lactose after removal of the broad-band spectrum by polynomial cubic function. Lactose is mainly crystallized into α-lactose monohydrate from the supersaturated solution at room temperature with a small amount of anhydrous β-lactose below 4%. The absorption feature is dependent on the crystallized particle size and the integrated intensity ratio of the two absorptions due to α-lactose monohydrate is correlated in linear for the size.

  10. Physical Approaches to Designing a Two-Cascade Terahertz Laser Generating Difference-Frequency Radiation in a Nonlinear Optical ZnGeP2 Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribenyukov, A. I.; Dyomin, V. V.; Polovtsev, I. G.; Yudin, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    An optical layout of a two-cascade frequency converter of the mid-IR laser radiation into the terahertz (THz) radiation is proposed. In the first stage it is assumed to convert the Tm:YLF-laser frequency in a Cr+2:ZnSe polycrystal into the radiation with the wavelength 2-3 μm. The second cascade can be presented as a parametric conversion of the frequencies of two laser sources operating in the 2-3 μm range into the THz radiation via the difference-frequency mixing in a nonlinear optical ZnGeP2 crystal. The estimates of the terahertz output signal are reported.

  11. On the regularization for nonlinear tomographic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jinghang; Yu, Tao; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    Tomographic absorption spectroscopy (TAS) has attracted increased research efforts recently due to the development in both hardware and new imaging concepts such as nonlinear tomography and compressed sensing. Nonlinear TAS is one of the emerging modality that bases on the concept of nonlinear tomography and has been successfully demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. However, all the previous demonstrations were realized using only two orthogonal projections simply for ease of implementation. In this work, we examine the performance of nonlinear TAS using other beam arrangements and test the effectiveness of the beam optimization technique that has been developed for linear TAS. In addition, so far only smoothness prior has been adopted and applied in nonlinear TAS. Nevertheless, there are also other useful priors such as sparseness and model-based prior which have not been investigated yet. This work aims to show how these priors can be implemented and included in the reconstruction process. Regularization through Bayesian formulation will be introduced specifically for this purpose, and a method for the determination of a proper regularization factor will be proposed. The comparative studies performed with different beam arrangements and regularization schemes on a few representative phantoms suggest that the beam optimization method developed for linear TAS also works for the nonlinear counterpart and the regularization scheme should be selected properly according to the available a priori information under specific application scenarios so as to achieve the best reconstruction fidelity. Though this work is conducted under the context of nonlinear TAS, it can also provide useful insights for other tomographic modalities. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the self-phase modulation (SPM) of a single-cycle terahertz pulse in a semiconductor, using bulk n-GaAs as a model system. The SPM arises from the heating of free electrons in the electric field of the terahertz pulse, leading to an ultrafast reduction of the plasma frequency...

  13. Terahertz radiation from a nonlinear slab traversed by an optical pulse.

    OpenAIRE

    Zinov’ev, N. N.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.; Chamberlain, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the theoretical calculations considering collinear electromagnetic radiation at the propagation of an optical pulse through a slab of nonlinear material. Calculated waveforms of the radiated field fit well to the experimental dependencies showing the remarkable similarities between the radiation at nonlinear wave interaction and the radiation phenomena of moving external charges, similarly to discussed in the Tamm Problem and transition radiation of moving external ch...

  14. Photoionization of atmospheric gases studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mics, Zoltan; Kužel, Petr; Jungwirth, Pavel; Bradforth, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 465, 1-3 (2008), s. 20-24 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : terahertz * pump -probe * atmospheric gases * photoionization * plasma Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.169, year: 2008

  15. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in microcrystalline silicon probed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fekete, Ladislav; Kužel, Petr; Němec, Hynek; Kadlec, Filip; Deyneka, Alexander; Stuchlík, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 11 (2009), 115306/1-115306/13 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : microcrystalline silicon * amorphous silicon * terahertz * ultrafast * photoconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  16. Wavelength Selection Method Based on Differential Evolution for Precise Quantitative Analysis Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Chen, Weidong; Lian, Feiyu; Ge, Hongyi; Guan, Aihong

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of component mixtures is an important application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and has attracted broad interest in recent research. Although the accuracy of quantitative analysis using THz-TDS is affected by a host of factors, wavelength selection from the sample's THz absorption spectrum is the most crucial component. The raw spectrum consists of signals from the sample and scattering and other random disturbances that can critically influence the quantitative accuracy. For precise quantitative analysis using THz-TDS, the signal from the sample needs to be retained while the scattering and other noise sources are eliminated. In this paper, a novel wavelength selection method based on differential evolution (DE) is investigated. By performing quantitative experiments on a series of binary amino acid mixtures using THz-TDS, we demonstrate the efficacy of the DE-based wavelength selection method, which yields an error rate below 5%.

  17. Optical Properties and Crystallization of Natural Waxes at Several Annealing Temperatures: a Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Xinlong

    2018-03-01

    The thermal analysis and optical properties of paraffin wax, beeswax, and liquid paraffin annealed at variable temperatures have been conducted using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) coupled with SEM methods. The characteristic optical properties of natural waxes can be used to analyze natural wax adulteration. The lamellar structure of paraffin wax and beeswax grew by a sheet of chain expansion. Furthermore, the crystallization process of paraffin wax can be assigned: rotator-solid transition and liquid-solid ones. According to the temperature-dependent refractive index curves, the refractive index of paraffin wax varies from large to small followed by rotator-liquid transition, untreated one, and liquid-solid one, respectively. The results indicated that THz-TDS has been proved to be of great potential in identification the crystallization of waxes.

  18. Investigation of pharmaceutical drugs and caffeine-containing foods using Fourier and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaraliÅ«nas, Mindaugas; Venckevičius, Rimvydas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Puc, Uroš; Abina, Andreja; Jeglič, Anton; Zidanšek, Aleksander; Valušis, Gintaras

    2015-08-01

    Several pharmaceutical drugs, such as alprazolam, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, activated carbon and others, and caffeine-containing foods were tested using terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy in the range from 0.3 to 2 THz. The dry powder of pharmaceutical drugs was mixed with HDPE and pressed into the pellets using hydraulic press. The coffee grounds were also pressed into the pellets after ball-milling and mixing with HDPE. The caffeine containing liquid foods were dried out on the paper strips of various stacking. Experiments allow one to determine characteristic spectral signatures of the investigated substances within THz range caused by active pharmaceutical ingredients, like in the case of caffeine, as well as supporting pharmaceutical ingredients. Spectroscopic THz imaging approach is considered as a possible option to identify packaged pharmaceutical drugs. The caffeine spectral features in the tested caffeine containing foods are difficult to observed due to the low caffeine concentration and complex caffeine chemical surrounding.

  19. Robust mapping of electrical properties of graphene from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with timing jitter correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Wang, Ruizhi

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for reliably determining the electrical properties of graphene including the carrier scattering time and carrier drift mobility from terahertz timedomain spectroscopy measurements (THz-TDS). By comparing transients originating from directly transmitted pulses and the echoes...... from internal reflections in a substrate, we are able to extract electrical properties irrespective of random time delays between pulses emitted in a THz-TDS setup. If such time delays are not accounted for they can significantly influence the extracted properties of the material. The technique...... is useful for a robust determination of electrical properties from THz-TDS measurements and is compatible with substrate materials where transients from internal reflections are well-separated in time....

  20. Measuring tryptophan concentrations of aqueous solutions for cancer research using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with metal parallel-plate waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giertzuch, Peter-Lasse; Khodaei, Yashar; Schubert, Maik-Hendrik; Hens, Korbinian; Sprenger, Thorsten; Opitz, Christiane; Beigang, René

    2017-02-01

    Recently the essential amino acid tryptophan has attracted attention in cancer research, as its metabolism regulates antitumor immune responses and tumor-intrinisic properties. Measurement techniques to determine tryptophan concentrations of aqueous solutions are therefore vastly important for ongoing research in this field. Recently, Terahertz spectroscopy has illustrated its high potential to be utilized for the characterization of bio-crystals and bio-molecules. We have developed a method to detect and quantify tryptophan based on the parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) technology together with a commercially available terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) system called "T-SPECTRALYZER F" providing a spectral bandwidth from 0.1 THz to 5 THz. As Terahertz waves are strongly absorbed by water, a measurement of aqueous solutions is a challenging task. In our setup, parallel-plate waveguides are used to detect low tryptophan concentrations, in principle, in solution. Drop-casting the solution into the waveguide forms a dry homogeneous film after evaporation of the solvent. A spectroscopic analysis of the transmission spectrum of the waveguide allows for a determination of the tryptophan concentration as the detection limit is drastically improved by the use of waveguides. In order to increase the detection sensitivity of this measurement technique the terahertz setup was encapsulated in a dry air box to reduce water vapor effects. Here we introduce the working mechanism of "TSPECTRALYZER F" and present the spectral evaluation procedures applied. Finally, we show the improvement of the detection sensitivity using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system together with PPWG technology.

  1. Terahertz plasmonic Bessel beamformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnai, Yasuaki; Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Jahn, David; Koch, Martin; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate terahertz Bessel beamforming based on the concept of plasmonics. The proposed planar structure is made of concentric metallic grooves with a subwavelength spacing that couple to a point source to create tightly confined surface waves or spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Concentric scatterers periodically incorporated at a wavelength scale allow for launching the surface waves into free space to define a Bessel beam. The Bessel beam defined at 0.29 THz has been characterized through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. This approach is capable of generating Bessel beams with planar structures as opposed to bulky axicon lenses and can be readily integrated with solid-state terahertz sources

  2. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-01

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Rosita

    2010-12-15

    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  4. Recognition of genetically modified product based on affinity propagation clustering and terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, based on the terahertz spectrum, a new identification method of genetically modified material by support vector machine (SVM) based on affinity propagation clustering is proposed. This algorithm mainly uses affinity propagation clustering algorithm to make cluster analysis and labeling on unlabeled training samples, and in the iterative process, the existing SVM training data are continuously updated, when establishing the identification model, it does not need to manually label the training samples, thus, the error caused by the human labeled samples is reduced, and the identification accuracy of the model is greatly improved.

  5. Terahertz spectroscopy of graphene complementary split ring resonators with gate tunability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Kumakura, Kazuhide

    2017-09-01

    Polarized transmission and reflection spectra in the terahertz region were obtained from a graphene complementary split ring resonator device. The complementary structure combined with an ion gel gate electrode rendered the optical properties of the device tuneable. The oscillator strength at the intraband plasmon resonance was largely enhanced with the gate-voltage-induced doping, and absorption exceeded 2.3%/layer of the interband transition. The resonance frequency could also be largely increased with the gate voltage. These results suggest the possibility of graphene-based metamaterials with tuneable permeability or permittivity and tuneable resonance frequencies.

  6. Determination of carrier concentration dependent electron effective mass and scattering time of n-ZnO thin film by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Tay, C. B.; Deng, L. Y.; Zhang, X. H.; Chai, J. W.; Qin, H.; Liu, H. W.; Venkatesan, T.; Chua, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel and widely accessible method for determining the electron effective mass and scattering time of ZnO films with different carrier concentrations by combining terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with Hall measurement. The terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) transmission spectra (0.1–2THz) were well described by Drude model. It is found that electron effective mass varied from 0.23m 0 to 0.26m 0 as the electron concentration changes from 5.9 × 10 17  cm −3 to 4.0 × 10 19  cm −3 . The carrier concentration dependent characteristic is ascribed to the non-parabolicity of conduction band. Free carrier localization mechanism explained the discrepancy in mobilities obtained from THz-TDS and Hall measurements

  7. Charge transport in TiO.sub.2./sub. films with complex percolation pathways investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Zajac, Vít; Rychetský, Ivan; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.; Mandlmeier, B.; Bein, T.; Mics, Zoltan; Kužel, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 302-313 ISSN 2156-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * TiO 2 nanoparticles Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.342, year: 2013

  8. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy reveals the influence of charged sensitizing quantum dots on the electron dynamics in ZnO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamini, S.N.; Němec, Hynek; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Chábera, P.; Ponseca, C.; Zheng, K.; Pullerits, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2017), s. 6006-6012 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03662S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : sensitized semiconductors * ultrafast dynamics * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  9. Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy of SrBi.sub.2./sub.Ta.sub.2./sub.O.sub.9./sub

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, Petr; Pashkin, Alexej; Kempa, Martin; Kadlec, Filip; Kamba, Stanislav; Petzelt, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 300, - (2004), s. 125-129 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010213; GA ČR GA202/01/0612; GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : terahertz time-domain spectroscopy * soft mode * central mode * ferroelectric * strontium bismuth tantalate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.517, year: 2004

  10. Microscopic investigations of the terahertz and the extreme nonlinear optical response of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Daniel

    2010-06-22

    In the major part of this Thesis, we discuss the linear THz response of semiconductor nanostructures based on a microscopic theory. Here, two different problems are investigated: intersubband transitions in optically excited quantum wells and the THz plasma response of two-dimensional systems. In the latter case, we analyze the response of correlated electron and electron-hole plasmas. Extracting the plasma frequency from the linear response, we find significant deviations from the commonly accepted two-dimensional plasma frequency. Besides analyzing the pure plasma response, we also consider an intermediate regime where the response of the electron-hole plasma consists of a mixture of plasma contributions and excitonic transitions. A quantitative experiment-theory comparison provides novel insights into the behavior of the system at the transition from one regime to the other. The discussion of the intersubband transitions mainly focuses on the coherent superposition of the responses from true THz transitions and the ponderomotively accelerated carriers. We present a simple method to directly identify ponderomotive effects in the linear THz response. Apart from that, the excitonic contributions to intersubband transitions are investigated. The last part of the present Thesis deals with a completely different regime. Here, the extreme nonlinear optical response of low-dimensional semiconductor structures is discussed. Formally, extreme nonlinear optics describes the regime of light-matter interaction where the exciting field is strong enough such that the Rabi frequency is comparable to or larger than the characteristic transition frequency of the investigated system. Here, the Rabi frequency is given by the product of the electrical field strength and the dipole-matrix element of the respective transition. Theoretical investigations have predicted a large number of novel nonlinear effects arising for such strong excitations. Some of them have been observed in

  11. Josephson spectroscopy of terahertz losses in [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divin, Y; Lyatti, M

    2008-01-01

    Terahertz losses in the [100]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x grain-boundary junctions were studied using admittance Josephson spectroscopy. The I-Vcurves of the [100]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x junctions, when annealed in atomic oxygen, were described by the resistively shunted junction model (RSJ) with an accuracy of better than 0.5% at the temperature range, where the characteristic voltage I c R n n -1 . At low temperatures, where I c R n >> kT/2e, the absorption of Josephson radiation by optical phonon modes in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x was found to be reflected in the I-V curve of the [100]-tilt junctions. The most prominent structure is situated at the voltages V ∼ 9.5 mV, which gives the corresponding Josephson frequency of 4.6 THz in good agreement with the frequency of the strongest IR active optical phonon mode in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Assignment of additional lines in the derived losses is discussed according to available data on lattice dynamic calculations and experimental data for a dynamic conduction Reσ 1 (f) of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Josephson spectroscopy might be useful for study of low-energy excitations in high-T c materials

  12. Characterizing the hydration state of L-threonine in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huachuan; Liu, Qiao; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren

    2018-01-01

    The hydration of biomolecules is closely related to the dynamic process of their functional expression, therefore, characterizing hydration phenomena is a subject of keen interest. However, direct measurements on the global hydration state of biomolecules couldn't have been acquired using traditional techniques such as thermodynamics, ultrasound, microwave spectroscopy or viscosity, etc. In order to realize global hydration characterization of amino acid such as L-threonine, terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (THz-TDS-ATR) was adopted in this paper. By measuring the complex permittivity of L-threonine solutions with various concentrations in the THz region, the hydration state and its concentration dependence were obtained, indicating that the number of hydrous water decreased with the increase of concentration. The hydration number was evaluated to be 17.8 when the molar concentration of L-threonine was 0.34 mol/L, and dropped to 13.2 when the molar concentration increased to 0.84 mol/L, when global hydration was taken into account. According to the proposed direct measurements, it is believed that the THz-TDS-ATR technique is a powerful tool for studying the picosecond molecular dynamics of amino acid solutions.

  13. Transient Optical and Terahertz Spectroscopy of Nanoscale Films of RuO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Adam; Compton, Ryan; DeSario, Paul A; Weidinger, Daniel; Spann, Bryan T; Pala, Irina R; Chervin, Christopher N; Rolison, Debra R; Bussmann, Konrad; Cunningham, Paul; Melinger, Joseph S; Alberding, Brian G; Heilweil, Edwin J; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C

    2017-06-01

    Solution-deposited nanoscale films of RuO 2 ("nanoskins") are effective transparent conductors once calcined to 200 °C. Upon heating the nanoskins to higher temperature the nanoskins show increased transmission at 550 nm. Electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction show that the changes in the optical spectrum are accompanied by the formation of rutile RuO 2 nanoparticles. The mechanism for the spectral evolution is clearly observed with ultrafast optical measurements. Following excitation at 400 nm, nanoskins calcined at higher temperatures show increased transmission above 650 nm, consistent with the photobleaching of a surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) band. Calculations based on the optical constants of RuO 2 substantiate the presence of SPR absorption. Sheet resistance and transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements establish that the nanoskins electrically de-wire into separated particles. The plasmonic behavior of the nanoskins has implications their use in a range of optical and electrochemical applications.

  14. 6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light detection using fast terahertz quantum well photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wan, Wen-Jian; Tan, Zhi-Yong; Fu, Zhang-Long; Wang, Hai-Xia; Zhou, Tao; Li, Zi-Ping; Wang, Chang; Guo, Xu-Guang; Cao, Jun-Cheng

    2017-06-14

    The fast detection of terahertz radiation is of great importance for various applications such as fast imaging, high speed communications, and spectroscopy. Most commercial products capable of sensitively responding the terahertz radiation are thermal detectors, i.e., pyroelectric sensors and bolometers. This class of terahertz detectors is normally characterized by low modulation frequency (dozens or hundreds of Hz). Here we demonstrate the first fast semiconductor-based terahertz quantum well photodetectors by carefully designing the device structure and microwave transmission line for high frequency signal extraction. Modulation response bandwidth of gigahertz level is obtained. As an example, the 6.2-GHz modulated terahertz light emitted from a Fabry-Pérot terahertz quantum cascade laser is successfully detected using the fast terahertz quantum well photodetector. In addition to the fast terahertz detection, the technique presented in this work can also be used for optically characterizing the frequency stability of terahertz quantum cascade lasers, heterodyne detections and photomixing applications.

  15. Nonlinear Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeev, Victor V.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.

    Principles of nonlinear laser fluorescence spectroscopy of complicated organic compounds and of the method capable of determining photophysical parameters are considered in this chapter. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the method connected with specific photophysical processes in natural organic compounds, especially in proteins, and to the major role of intramolecular energy transfer and presence of localized donor-acceptor pairs (LDAP) of fluorophores within single macromolecules. These facts stimulated the development of models based on the collective states formalism describing fluorescent response of LDAP to pulsed laser excitation. Unique features of the method are illustrated by the example of proteins (proteins with intrinsic fluorescence (HSA, BSA) and fluorescent protein mRFP1) that can be used as fluorescent tags of intracellular processes while their photophysical parameters can be used as the information channel.

  16. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...... states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse...

  17. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy combined with fuzzy rule-building expert system and fuzzy optimal associative memory applied to diagnosis of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Na; Zhang, Zhuoyong; Xiang, Yuhong; Yang, Yuping; Harrington, Peter de B

    2015-01-01

    Combined with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, the feasibility of fast and reliable diagnosis of cervical carcinoma by a fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) and a fuzzy optimal associative memory (FOAM) had been studied. The terahertz spectra of 52 specimens of cervix were collected in the work. The original data of samples were preprocessed by Savitzky-Golay first derivative (χderivative), principal component orthogonal signal correction (PC-OSC) and emphatic orthogonal signal correction to improve the performance of FuRES and FOAM models. The effect of the different pretreating methods to improve prediction accuracy was evaluated. The FuRES and FOAM models were validated using bootstrapped Latin-partition method. The obtained results showed that the FuRES and FOAM model optimized with the combination S-G first derivative and PC-OSC method had the better predictive ability with classification rates of 92.9 ± 0.4 and 92.5 ± 0.4 %, respectively. The proposed procedure proved that terahertz spectroscopy combined with fuzzy classifiers could supply a technology which has potential for diagnosis of cancerous tissue.

  18. Extreme nonlinear terahertz electro-optics in diamond for ultrafast pulse switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Shalaby

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polarization switching of picosecond laser pulses is a fundamental concept in signal processing [C. Chen and G. Liu, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 203 (1986; V. R. Almeida et al., Nature 431, 1081 (2004; and A. A. P. Pohl et al., Photonics Sens. 3, 1 (2013]. Conventional switching devices rely on the electro-optical Pockels effect and work at radio frequencies. The ensuing gating time of several nanoseconds is a bottleneck for faster switches which is set by the performance of state-of-the-art high-voltage electronics. Here we show that by substituting the electric field of several kV/cm provided by modern electronics by the MV/cm field of a single-cycle THz laser pulse, the electro-optical gating process can be driven orders of magnitude faster, at THz frequencies. In this context, we introduce diamond as an exceptional electro-optical material and demonstrate a pulse gating time as fast as 100 fs using sub-cycle THz-induced Kerr nonlinearity. We show that THz-induced switching in the insulator diamond is fully governed by the THz pulse shape. The presented THz-based electro-optical approach overcomes the bandwidth and switching speed limits of conventional MHz/GHz electronics and establishes the ultrafast electro-optical gating technology for the first time in the THz frequency range. We finally show that the presented THz polarization gating technique is applicable for advanced beam diagnostics. As a first example, we demonstrate tomographic reconstruction of a THz pulse in three dimensions.

  19. Extreme nonlinear terahertz electro-optics in diamond for ultrafast pulse switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Vicario, Carlo; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2017-03-01

    Polarization switching of picosecond laser pulses is a fundamental concept in signal processing [C. Chen and G. Liu, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 203 (1986); V. R. Almeida et al., Nature 431, 1081 (2004); and A. A. P. Pohl et al., Photonics Sens. 3, 1 (2013)]. Conventional switching devices rely on the electro-optical Pockels effect and work at radio frequencies. The ensuing gating time of several nanoseconds is a bottleneck for faster switches which is set by the performance of state-of-the-art high-voltage electronics. Here we show that by substituting the electric field of several kV/cm provided by modern electronics by the MV/cm field of a single-cycle THz laser pulse, the electro-optical gating process can be driven orders of magnitude faster, at THz frequencies. In this context, we introduce diamond as an exceptional electro-optical material and demonstrate a pulse gating time as fast as 100 fs using sub-cycle THz-induced Kerr nonlinearity. We show that THz-induced switching in the insulator diamond is fully governed by the THz pulse shape. The presented THz-based electro-optical approach overcomes the bandwidth and switching speed limits of conventional MHz/GHz electronics and establishes the ultrafast electro-optical gating technology for the first time in the THz frequency range. We finally show that the presented THz polarization gating technique is applicable for advanced beam diagnostics. As a first example, we demonstrate tomographic reconstruction of a THz pulse in three dimensions.

  20. Theoretical investigation of nonlinear ultrasonic wave modulation spectroscopy at crack interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, January (2014), s. 10-15 ISSN 0963-8695 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ultrasonic testing * nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy * classical nonlinearity * hysteretic nonlinearity * crack characterization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.225, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963869513001175

  1. Energy-gap dynamics of a superconductor NbN studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Matthias; Leiderer, Paul [Dept. of Physics and Center for Appl. Photonics, Univ. of Konstanz (Germany); Kabanov, Viktor V. [Zukunftskolleg, Univ. of Konstanz, (Germany); Gol' tsman, Gregory [Moscow State Ped. Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation); Helm, Manfred [Helmholtz-Zentrum, Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Demsar, Jure [Dept. of Physics and Center for Appl. Photonics, Univ. of Konstanz (Germany); Zukunftskolleg, Univ. of Konstanz, (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Using time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy we performed direct studies of the photoinduced suppression and recovery of the SC gap in a conventional SC NbN. Both processes are found to be strongly temperature and excitation density dependent. The analysis of the data with the established phenomenological Rothwarf-Taylor model enabled us to determine the important microscopic constants: the Cooper pair-breaking rate via phonon absorption and the bare quasiparticle recombination rate. From the latter we were able to extract the dimensionless electron-phonon coupling constant, {lambda}=1.1{+-}0.1, in excellent agreement with theoretical estimates. The technique also allowed us to determine the absorbed energy required to suppress SC, which in NbN equals the thermodynamic condensation energy (in cuprates the two differ by an order of magnitude). Finally, we present the first studies of dynamics following resonant excitation with intense narrow band THz pulses tuned to above and below the superconducting gap. These suggest an additional process, particularly pronounced near T{sub c}, that could be attributed to amplification of SC via effective quasiparticle cooling.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron-hole pairs: probing Mott physics of magneto-excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gao, Weilu; Watson, John; Manfra, Michael; Kono, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    Density-dependent Coulomb interactions can drive electron-hole (e - h) pairs in semiconductors through an excitonic Mott transition from an excitonic gas into an e - h plasma. Theoretical studies suggest that these interactions can be strongly modified by an external magnetic field, including the absence of inter-exciton interactions in the high magnetic field limit in two dimensions, due to an e - h charge symmetry, which results in ultrastable magneto-excitons. Here, we present a systematic experimental study of e - h pairs in photo-excited undoped GaAs quantum wells in magnetic fields with ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy. We simultaneously monitored the dynamics of the intraexcitonic 1 s-2 p transition (which splits into 1 s-2p+ and 1 s-2p- transitions in a magnetic field) and the cyclotron resonance of unbound electrons and holes up to 10 Tesla. We found that the 1 s-2p- absorption feature is robust at high magnetic fields even under high excitation fluences, indicating magnetically enhanced stability of excitons. We will discuss the Mott physics of magneto-excitons as a function of temperature, e - h pair density, optical pump delay time, as well as magnetic field, and also compare two-dimensional excitons in GaAs quantum wells with three-dimensional excitons in bulk GaAs.

  3. Quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits using enhanced-spatial-resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Asadizanjani, Navid

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of techniques for quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits (IC) using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is developed. By material characterization, the presence of unexpected materials in counterfeit components is revealed. Blacktopping layers are detected using THz time-of-flight tomography, and thickness of hidden layers is measured. Sanded and contaminated components are detected by THz reflection-mode imaging. Differences between inside structures of counterfeit and authentic components are revealed through developing THz transmission imaging. For enabling accurate measurement of features by THz transmission imaging, a novel resolution enhancement technique (RET) has been developed. This RET is based on deconvolution of the THz image and the THz point spread function (PSF). The THz PSF is mathematically modeled through incorporating the spectrum of the THz imaging system, the axis of propagation of the beam, and the intensity extinction coefficient of the object into a Gaussian beam distribution. As a result of implementing this RET, the accuracy of the measurements on THz images has been improved from 2.4 mm to 0.1 mm and bond wires as small as 550 μm inside the packaging of the ICs are imaged.

  4. Characterizing the Structure and Phase Transformation of Poly(ethylene Oxide)-Urea Complexes Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hai-Mu; Li, Han; Yao, Shu-Fang

    2017-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was employed to characterize the structure and α→β phase transformation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-urea complexes. While the THz responses of α- and β-form complexes are both originated from hydrogen bonding interactions, they possess different THz absorption bands. The α-form PEO-urea complex shows two bands at 1.12 and 1.24 THz, which are vibration modes due to the hydrogen bonding among urea and between PEO and urea, respectively; the β-form PEO-urea complex shows a band at 1.48 THz, which is a vibration mode due to the hydrogen bonding among urea. A polarized THz-TDS study demonstrates that the urea-urea hydrogen bonding direction rotates 90° during the β→α transformation process. This study reveals the great potential of THz-TDS for investigating polymer-small molecule complexes.

  5. Determination of the optical properties of melanin-pigmented human skin equivalents using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Dawn; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2013-02-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) methods have been utilized in previous studies in order to characterize the optical properties of skin and its primary constituents (i.e., water, collagen, and keratin). However, similar experiments have not yet been performed to investigate whether melanocytes and the melanin pigment that they synthesize contribute to skin's optical properties. In this study, we used THz-TDS methods operating in transmission geometry to measure the optical properties of in vitro human skin equivalents with or without normal human melanocytes. Skin equivalents were cultured for three weeks to promote gradual melanogenesis, and THz time domain data were collected at various time intervals. Frequency-domain analysis techniques were performed to determine the index of refraction (n) and absorption coefficient (μa) for each skin sample over the frequency range of 0.1-2.0 THz. We found that for all samples as frequency increased, n decreased exponentially and the μa increased linearly. Additionally, we observed that skin samples with higher levels of melanin exhibited greater n and μa values than the non-pigmented samples. Our results indicate that melanocytes and the degree of melanin pigmentation contribute in an appreciable manner to the skin's optical properties. Future studies will be performed to examine whether these contributions are observed in human skin in vivo.

  6. Rapid and precise determination of zero-field splittings by terahertz time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Ozel, I Ozge; Belvin, Carina A; Li, Xian; Skorupskii, Grigorii; Sun, Lei; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Dincă, Mircea; Gedik, Nuh; Nelson, Keith A

    2017-11-01

    Zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters are fundamentally tied to the geometries of metal ion complexes. Despite their critical importance for understanding the magnetism and spectroscopy of metal complexes, they are not routinely available through general laboratory-based techniques, and are often inferred from magnetism data. Here we demonstrate a simple tabletop experimental approach that enables direct and reliable determination of ZFS parameters in the terahertz (THz) regime. We report time-domain measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals associated with THz-frequency ZFSs in molecular complexes containing high-spin transition-metal ions. We measure the temporal profiles of the free-induction decays of spin resonances in the complexes at zero and nonzero external magnetic fields, and we derive the EPR spectra via numerical Fourier transformation of the time-domain signals. In most cases, absolute values of the ZFS parameters are extracted from the measured zero-field EPR frequencies, and the signs can be determined by zero-field measurements at two different temperatures. Field-dependent EPR measurements further allow refined determination of the ZFS parameters and access to the g -factor. The results show good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The simplicity of the method portends wide applicability in chemistry, biology and material science.

  7. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  8. Peculiar Bi-ion dynamics in Na.sub.1/2./sub.Bi.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub. from terahertz and microwave dielectric spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Pasciak, Marek; Kamba, Stanislav; Dittmer, R.; Svirskas, Š.; Banys, J.; Rödel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 953-965 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : sodium bismuth titanate * terahertz spectroscopy * broadband dielectric spectroscopy * phase-transition dynamics * Bi-ion dynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  9. Terahertz technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Ali; Baghban, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    This book presents information about Terahertz science, Terahertz photodetectors and Terahertz Lasers. A special emphasis is given to room temperature operation of long wavelength photodetectors based on novel quantum dots (Centered Defect Spherical Quantum Dots). Moreover, a complete analysis of systems based on Quantum Cascade structures to detect far infrared wavelengths is provided. Finally, the book presents Terahertz laser principles considering multi-color lasers in this range of wavelengths. It is written as a background for graduate students in the Optics field.

  10. Terahertz Spectroscopy for Proximal Soil Sensing: An Approach to Particle Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Dworak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatially resolved soil parameters are some of the most important pieces of information for precision agriculture. These parameters, especially the particle size distribution (texture, are costly to measure by conventional laboratory methods, and thus, in situ assessment has become the focus of a new discipline called proximal soil sensing. Terahertz (THz radiation is a promising method for nondestructive in situ measurements. The THz frequency range from 258 gigahertz (GHz to 350 GHz provides a good compromise between soil penetration and the interaction of the electromagnetic waves with soil compounds. In particular, soil physical parameters influence THz measurements. This paper presents investigations of the spectral transmission signals from samples of different particle size fractions relevant for soil characterization. The sample thickness ranged from 5 to 17 mm. The transmission of THz waves was affected by the main mineral particle fractions, sand, silt and clay. The resulting signal changes systematically according to particle sizes larger than half the wavelength. It can be concluded that THz spectroscopic measurements provide information about soil texture and penetrate samples with thicknesses in the cm range.

  11. Terahertz Absorption Spectroscopy of Benzamide, Acrylamide, Caprolactam, Salicylamide, and Sulfanilamide in the Solid State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz absorption spectra of the similarly structured molecules with amide groups including benzamide, acrylamide, caprolactam, salicylamide, and sulfanilamide in the solid phase at room temperature and 7.8 K for salicylamide are reported and compared to infrared vibrational spectral calculations using density functional theory. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2–2.6 THz (~7–87 cm−1. THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with amide groups. In the THz region benzamide has three bands at 0.83, 1.63, and 1.73 THz; the bands are located at 1.44 and 2.00 THz for acrylamide; the bands at 1.24, 1.66 and 2.12 THz are observed for caprolactam. The absorption bands are located at 1.44, 1.63, and 2.39 THz at room temperature, and at 1.22, 1.46, 1.66, and 2.41 THz at low temperature for salicylamide. The bands at 1.63, 1.78, 2.00, and 2.20 THz appear for sulfanilamide. These bands in the THz region may be related to torsion, rocking, wagging, and other modes of different groups in the molecules.

  12. Ultrafast terahertz conductivity and transient optical absorption spectroscopy of silicon nanocrystal thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titova, Lyubov V.; Harthy, Rahma Al; Cooke, David

    We use time-resolved THz spectroscopy and transient optical absorption spectroscopy as two complementary techniques to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in silicon nanocrystal thin films. We find that the photoconductive dynamics in these materials is dominated by interface trapping, and we observ...

  13. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of amorphous and crystalline aluminum oxide nanostructures synthesized by thermal decomposition of AACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, Shoaib, E-mail: smehboob@pieas.edu.pk [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Mushtaq [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Jamil; Tanvir, Muhammad Tauseef [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Izhar [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hassan, Syed Mujtaba ul [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this work is to study the changes in optical and dielectric properties with the transformation of aluminum ammonium carbonate hydroxide (AACH) to α-alumina, using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The nanostructured AACH was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the raw chemicals at 140 °C for 12 h. This AACH was then calcined at different temperatures. The AACH was decomposed to amorphous phase at 400 °C and transformed to δ* + α-alumina at 1000 °C. Finally, the crystalline α-alumina was achieved at 1200 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed to identify the phases formed after calcination. The morphology of samples was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed that the AACH sample had rod-like morphology which was retained in the calcined samples. THz-TDS measurements showed that AACH had lowest refractive index in the frequency range of measurements. The refractive index at 0.1 THZ increased from 2.41 for AACH to 2.58 for the amorphous phase and to 2.87 for the crystalline α-alumina. The real part of complex permittivity increased with the calcination temperature. Further, the absorption coefficient was highest for AACH, which reduced with calcination temperature. The amorphous phase had higher absorption coefficient than the crystalline alumina. - Highlights: • Aluminum oxide nanostructures were obtained by thermal decomposition of AACH. • Crystalline phases of aluminum oxide have higher refractive index than that of amorphous phase. • The removal of heavier ionic species led to the lower absorption of THz radiations.

  14. 3D measurements of live cells via digital holographic microscopy and terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Yong; Oser, Dorian; Iapozzuto, Peter; Norbury, Sean; Mahajan, Supriya; Khmaladze, Alexander; Sharikova, Anna

    2016-03-01

    This is a study of the central nervous system (CNS) cells, including brain micro vascular endothelial cells (BMV) that constitute the blood brain barrier, and C6 glial cells that are the predominant cell in the brain. The cells are exposed to various chemicals by non-invasive, label-free methods. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a technique that records an interference pattern between an object and reference waves, so that the computationally reconstructed holographic image contains both amplitude and phase information, and 3D images are obtained. The measurement of cell cultures by digital holographic microscopy yields information about cell death mechanisms, since these processes are correlated with individual cell volume. Our in-house DHM combines a visible (red) laser source with a conventional microscope base, and LabVIEW-run data processing. Terahertz spectral signatures are associated with structural changes in molecules and provide complementary information about cells. Both CNS cells BMV and C6 cells are treated with the drug "Methamphetamine" (METH), which induces apoptosis in neuronal cells and exhibits decrease in cell volume, a characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis (induced cell death). METH can cause CNS cell death by cross-talk between mitochondria-, endoplasmic reticulum-, and receptor-mediated apoptotic events, all of which results in drug induced changes in neuroplasticity and significant neuropathology. Doxorubicin (DOX), a popular anticancer drug, is used as a control. We observe that METH treatment resulted in more pronounced cell volume shrinkage in both the BMV and C6 cells, as compared to DOX-induced cell apoptosis.

  15. Nonlinear spectroscopy of excitons and biexcitons in ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, L.I.; Paskov, P.P.; Lalov, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Four- photon spectroscopy on exciton and biexciton states in ZnS is reported at T = 10 K. The Nd:YAG laser is used as a fundamental source in the experimental setup. Second harmonic radiation ω 2 pumps the dye laser of ω 1 tunable frequency. The ZnS single crystal is placed in an optical cryostat for resonant spectroscopy at low temperature. Four-photon mixing ω 3 = 2ω 1 -ω 2 signal is separated by MDR-23 monochromator and is registered by a laser photometer. The hexagonal ZnS crystal is experimentally investigated when the waves ω 1 and ω 2 propagate colinear with the optical axis. The crystal is cut along the (1120) plane. The photon 2ℎω 1 energy scans over the range 3.895-3.940 eV. The dispersion of I 3 (ω 3 ) upon 2ℎω 1 is obtained. Three resonances are registered E M = 3.8964, E B 1 = 3.9010 and E B 2 = 3.9311 eV. The recorded low temperature resonance in dispersion of nonlinearity χ (3) are identified with B 1 s and B 2 s excitons as well as with biexciton in ZnS which is observed for the first time in this crystal. An experimental dependence of the signal I 3 (ω 3 ) intensity upon the pump I 1 (ω 1 ) is obtained. The E M resonance is saturated with the I 1 (ω 1 ) enhancement while the E B 1 resonance increases. Authors explain such a behaviour by the fact that the recombination probability of the biexcitons to excitons increases with the pump level growth. Estimations for the exciton density and the bounding energy are given. (author)

  16. Charge transport in thin layer Na.sub.x./sub.CoO.sub.2./sub. (x similar to 0.63) studied by terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Knížek, Karel; Jirák, Zdeněk; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Soroka, Miroslav; Buršík, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 35 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 355601. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S; GA ČR GA13-03708S; GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : cobaltates * thermoelectrics * Na x CoO 2 * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  17. Accurate Determination of Geographical Origin of Tea Based on Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a structured model for the identification of green tea, as well as tracing its geographical origins. Considering that the features of different types of green tea are similar under THz time-domain spectroscopy, we designed a program to perform principal component analysis (PCA of the spectroscopic data of various green tea samples and to determine the data sequences of principal components. We then established a training set for the principal components to train a support vector machine (SVM model via a genetic algorithm (GA. We used this model to optimize the parameters and develop a GA-based SVM model with an identification rate of 96.25% for the tested samples. Taken together, our results confirm that THz time-domain spectroscopy combined with GA-SVM can be effectively applied to rapidly identify types of green tea with different geographical origins.

  18. Optimization of a coherent synchrotron radiation source in the Tera-hertz range for high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform spectroscopy is the most used multiplex tool for high-resolution measurements in the infrared range. Its extension to the Tera-hertz domain is of great interest for spectroscopic studies of interstellar molecules. This application is however hampered by the lack of dedicated, broadband sources with a sufficient intensity and stability. In this work, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) was used as a source for molecular spectroscopy at high resolution on the AILES infrared and Tera-hertz beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron. The beamline being optimized for far-infrared, we could characterize the properties of CSR and compare them to the incoherent synchrotron radiation. A double detection system allowed to correct the effect of the source-related instabilities, hence to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Pure rotational spectra were measured using these developments. The case of the propynal molecule, for which a refined set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants was calculated, proves the complementarity between CSR and the classical microwave or infrared sources. (author)

  19. Direct observation of the superconducting gap in thin films of titanium nitride using terahertz spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracht, Uwe Santiago; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Baturina, Tatyana [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS (Russian Federation); Kalok, David; Strunk, Christoph [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Thin films of superconducting titanium nitride (TiN) have recently gained attention for both applications (such as single-photon detectors) and fundamental research (as model system for the superconductor-insulator transition which is accompanied by uncommon superconducting properties). TiN has been studied comprehensively with (magneto-)transport studies, but only little is known about it's electrodynamical properties. We report on the charge carrier dynamics of TiN thin films with critical temperatures of 3.4 K and below, which we study with THz spectroscopy in the frequency range 90-510 GHz. Our analysis provides access to superconducting properties like the real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity, energy gap and penetration depth. These findings as well as the normal-state properties strongly suggest conventional weak-coupling BCS superconductivity.

  20. Microfluidic Devices for Terahertz Spectroscopy of Live Cells Toward Lab-on-a-Chip Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Liang, Min; Lu, Yi; Wong, Pak Kin; Wilmink, Gerald J; Zhang, Donna; Xin, Hao

    2016-04-04

    THz spectroscopy is an emerging technique for studying the dynamics and interactions of cells and biomolecules, but many practical challenges still remain in experimental studies. We present a prototype of simple and inexpensive cell-trapping microfluidic chip for THz spectroscopic study of live cells. Cells are transported, trapped and concentrated into the THz exposure region by applying an AC bias signal while the chip maintains a steady temperature at 37 °C by resistive heating. We conduct some preliminary experiments on E. coli and T-cell solution and compare the transmission spectra of empty channels, channels filled with aqueous media only, and channels filled with aqueous media with un-concentrated and concentrated cells.

  1. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter...... the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window....

  2. Application of emitter-sample hybrid terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate temperature-dependent optical constants of doped InAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J W; Kim, M S; Song, M S; Kang, B Y; Cho, B K; Lee, J S

    2017-03-20

    We investigate temperature-dependent carrier dynamics of InAs crystal by using reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, particularly with a recently developed emitter-sample hybrid structure. We successfully obtain the optical conductivity in a terahertz frequency of bulk InAs whose dc conductivity is in the range of 100-150  Ω-1 cm-1. We find that both real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity can be fit well with the simple Drude model, and the free-carrier density and the scattering rate obtained from the fit are in good agreement with corresponding values obtained by using other techniques, such as the Hall measurement and the dc-resistivity measurement. These results clearly demonstrate that the proposed technique of adopting the emitter-sample hybrid structure can be exploited to determine temperature-dependent optical constants in a reflection geometry and hence to investigate electrodynamics of bulk metallic systems.

  3. Nonlinear upconversion based infrared spectroscopy on ZSM-5 zeolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Beato, Pablo; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic measurement of zeolite ZSM-5 in the mid-IR following the methanol attachment to active sites at 200 °C. The spectra are measured using nonlinear frequency upconversion to the near-IR spectral region.......We present a spectroscopic measurement of zeolite ZSM-5 in the mid-IR following the methanol attachment to active sites at 200 °C. The spectra are measured using nonlinear frequency upconversion to the near-IR spectral region....

  4. Terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Xomalin Guaiuli; Brener, Igal; O'Hara, John; Azad, Abul; Smirnova, Evgenya; Williams, John D.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2014-08-12

    Terahertz metamaterials comprise a periodic array of resonator elements disposed on a dielectric substrate or thin membrane, wherein the resonator elements have a structure that provides a tunable magnetic permeability or a tunable electric permittivity for incident electromagnetic radiation at a frequency greater than about 100 GHz and the periodic array has a lattice constant that is smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Microfabricated metamaterials exhibit lower losses and can be assembled into three-dimensional structures that enable full coupling of incident electromagnetic terahertz radiation in two or three orthogonal directions. Furthermore, polarization sensitive and insensitive metamaterials at terahertz frequencies can enable new devices and applications.

  5. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald

    2012-01-01

    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  6. Optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy of dyes in solutions: Probing the synamics of liquid solvent or solid precipitate?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Slavíček, Petr; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2004), s. 912-917 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Grant - others: Volkswagen Stiftung(DE) I/75908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : solvation dynamics * terahertz * pump probe Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.105, year: 2004

  7. Superconductor terahertz metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jianqiang; Singh, Ranjan; Tian, Zhen; Cao, Wei; Xing, Qirong; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the behaviour of split ring resonators made up of high-transition temperature YBCO superconductor using terahertz time domain spectroscopy. The superconductor metamaterial shows sharp change in the transmission spectrum at the fundamental inductive-capacitive resonance and the dipole resonance as the temperature dips below the transition temperature. Our results reveal that the high performance of such a metamaterial is limited by material imperfections and defects such as cra...

  8. The effect of the flexibility of hydrogen bonding network on low-frequency motions of amino acids. Evidence from Terahertz spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Lukács, András; Bordács, Sándor; Móczár, János; Nyitrai, Miklós; Hebling, János

    2018-02-01

    Low-frequency modes of L-Asp and L-Asn were studied in the range from 0.1 to 3.0 THz using time-domain Terahertz spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation. The results show that PBE-D2 shows more success than BLYP-D2 in prediction of THz absorption spectra. To compare their low-frequency modes, we adopted ;vibrational character ID strips; proposed by Schmuttenmaer and coworkers [Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 117, 10444(2013)]. We found that the most intense THz absorption peaks of two compounds both involve severe distortion of their hydrogen bonding networks. Due to less rigid hydrogen bonding network in L-Asp, the side chain (carboxyl group) of L-Asp exhibits larger motions than that (carboxamide group) of L-Asn in low-frequency modes.

  9. Characterization of the Pore Structure of Functionalized Calcium Carbonate Tablets by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and X-Ray Computed Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Wang, Parry; Ridgway, Cathy; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bawuah, Prince; Pääkkönen, Pertti; Gane, Patrick; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Zeitler, J Axel

    2017-06-01

    Novel excipients are entering the market to enhance the bioavailability of drug particles by having a high porosity and, thus, providing a rapid liquid uptake and disintegration to accelerate subsequent drug dissolution. One example of such a novel excipient is functionalized calcium carbonate, which enables the manufacture of compacts with a bimodal pore size distribution consisting of larger interparticle and fine intraparticle pores. Five sets of functionalized calcium carbonate tablets with a target porosity of 45%-65% were prepared in 5% steps and characterized using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and X-ray computed microtomography. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was used to derive the porosity using effective medium approximations, that is, the traditional and an anisotropic Bruggeman model. The anisotropic Bruggeman model yields the better correlation with the nominal porosity (R 2  = 0.995) and it provided additional information about the shape and orientation of the pores within the powder compact. The spheroidal (ellipsoids of revolution) shaped pores have a preferred orientation perpendicular to the compaction direction causing an anisotropic behavior of the dielectric porous medium. The results from X-ray computed microtomography confirmed the nonspherical shape and the orientation of the pores, and it further revealed that the anisotropic behavior is mainly caused by the interparticle pores. The information from both techniques provides a detailed insight into the pore structure of pharmaceutical tablets. This is of great interest to study the impact of tablet microstructure on the disintegration and dissolution performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamical interactions between solute and solvent studied by nonlinear infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, K.; Tominaga, K.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between solute and solvent play an important role in chemical reaction dynamics and in many relaxation processes in condensed phases. Recently third-order nonlinear infrared (IR) spectroscopy has shown to be useful to investigate solute-solvent interaction and dynamics of the vibrational transition. These studies provide detailed information on the energy relaxation of the vibrationally excited state, and the time scale and the magnitude of the time correlation functions of the vibrational frequency fluctuations. In this work we have studied vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of solutions and molecular complexes by nonlinear IR spectroscopy, especially IR pump-probe method, to understand the microscopic interactions in liquids. (authors)

  11. [Terahertz Spectroscopic Identification with Deep Belief Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai; Shen, Tao; Wang, Rui-qi; Lai, Hua; Yu, Zheng-tao

    2015-12-01

    Feature extraction and classification are the key issues of terahertz spectroscopy identification. Because many materials have no apparent absorption peaks in the terahertz band, it is difficult to extract theirs terahertz spectroscopy feature and identify. To this end, a novel of identify terahertz spectroscopy approach with Deep Belief Network (DBN) was studied in this paper, which combines the advantages of DBN and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier. Firstly, cubic spline interpolation and S-G filter were used to normalize the eight kinds of substances (ATP, Acetylcholine Bromide, Bifenthrin, Buprofezin, Carbazole, Bleomycin, Buckminster and Cylotriphosphazene) terahertz transmission spectra in the range of 0.9-6 THz. Secondly, the DBN model was built by two restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) and then trained layer by layer using unsupervised approach. Instead of using handmade features, the DBN was employed to learn suitable features automatically with raw input data. Finally, a KNN classifier was applied to identify the terahertz spectrum. Experimental results show that using the feature learned by DBN can identify the terahertz spectrum of different substances with the recognition rate of over 90%, which demonstrates that the proposed method can automatically extract the effective features of terahertz spectrum. Furthermore, this KNN classifier was compared with others (BP neural network, SOM neural network and RBF neural network). Comparisons showed that the recognition rate of KNN classifier is better than the other three classifiers. Using the approach that automatic extract terahertz spectrum features by DBN can greatly reduce the workload of feature extraction. This proposed method shows a promising future in the application of identifying the mass terahertz spectroscopy.

  12. Far infrared (terahertz) spectroscopy of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and application to structure interpretation of asphaltenes and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-07-01

    A series of 33 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied by far infrared spectroscopy (terahertz spectroscopy) in the spectral range comprised between 600 and 50 cm-1. In addition to common PAHs like naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, picene, pyrene, benzo[α]pyrene, and perylene, also quite unusual PAHs were studied like tetracene, pentacene, acenaphtene, acenaphtylene, triphenylene, and decacyclene. A series of alkylated naphthalenes and anthracenes were studied as well as methypyrene. Partially or totally hydrogenated PAHs were also object of the present investigation, ranging from tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) to decahydronaphthalene (decalin), 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, hexahydropyrene, and dodecahydrotriphenylene. Finally, the large and quite rare PAHs coronene, quaterrylene, hexabenzocoronene, and dicoronylene were studied by far infrared spectroscopy. The resulting reference spectra were used in the interpretation of the chemical structure of asphaltenes (as extracted from a heavy petroleum fraction and from bitumen), the chemical structures of other petroleum fractions known as DAE (distillate aromatic extract) and RAE (residual aromatic extract), and a possible interpretation of components of the chemical structure of anthracite coal. Asphaltenes, heavy petroleum fractions, and coal were proposed as model compounds for the interpretation of the emission spectra of certain proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) with a good matching in the mid infrared between the band pattern of the PPNe emission spectra and the spectra of these oil fractions or coal. Although this study was finalized in an astrochemical context, it may find application also in the petroleum and coal chemistry.

  13. A wavefront analyzer for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, E.; Brossard, M.; Fauche, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the development of a terahertz wavefront sensor able to determine the optical aberrations of a terahertz time-domain spectrometer. The system measures point-by-point the amplitude and phase of the terahertz electric field in a given plane. From this measurement, we reconstruct...... the terahertz wavefront and calculate its Zernike coefficients. In particular, we especially show that the focus spot of the spectrometer suffers from optical aberrations such as remaining defocus, first and second order astigmatisms, as well as spherical aberration. This opens a route to wavefront correction...... for improved terahertz imaging and spectroscopy....

  14. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    frustrating business because it involves working in a region where established solid-state technologies fail. Nevertheless, researchers are fascinated by terahertz radiation, not least because it has many potential applications for sensing, imaging and spectroscopy across the physical, medical and biological sciences, and perhaps ultimately in communications too. (U.K.)

  15. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  16. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  17. Direct comparison of time-resolved Terahertz spectroscopy and Hall Van der Pauw methods for measurement of carrier conductivity and mobility in bulk semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberding, Brian G; Thurber, W Robert; Heilweil, Edwin J

    2017-07-01

    Charge carrier conductivity and mobility for various semiconductor wafers and crystals were measured by ultrafast above bandgap, optically excited Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy (TRTS) and Hall Van der Pauw contact methods to directly compare these approaches and validate the use of the non-contact optical approach for future materials and in-situ device analyses. Undoped and doped silicon (Si) wafers with resistances varying over six orders of magnitude were selected as model systems since contact Hall measurements are reliably made on this material. Conductivity and mobility obtained at room temperature by terahertz transmission and TRTS methods yields the sum of electron and hole mobility which agree very well with either directly measured or literature values for corresponding atomic and photo-doping densities. Careful evaluation of the optically-generated TRTS frequency-dependent conductivity also shows it is dominated by induced free-carrier absorption rather than small probe pulse phase shifts, which is commonly ascribed to changes in the complex conductivity from sample morphology and evaluation of carrier mobility by applying Drude scattering models. Thus, in this work, the real-valued, frequency-averaged conductivity was used to extract sample mobility without application of models. Examinations of germanium (Ge), gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP) and zinc telluride (ZnTe) samples were also made to demonstrate the general applicability of the TRTS method, even for materials that do not reliably make good contacts (e.g., GaAs, GaP, ZnTe). For these cases, values for the sum of the electron and hole mobility also compare very favorably to measured or available published data.

  18. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of surfactants at liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Paulo B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-14

    Surfactants are widely used to modify physical and chemical properties of interfaces. They play an important role in many technological problems. Surfactant monolayer are also of great scientific interest because they are two-dimensional systems that may exhibit a very rich phase transition behavior and can also be considered as a model system for biological interfaces. In this Thesis, we use a second-order nonlinear optical technique (Sum-Frequency Generation - SFG) to obtain vibrational spectra of surfactant monolayer at Iiquidhapor and solid/liquid interfaces. The technique has several advantages: it is intrinsically surface-specific, can be applied to buried interfaces, has submonolayer sensitivity and is remarkably sensitive to the confirmational order of surfactant monolayers.

  19. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to the measurement of strengths and self-broadening coefficients for high- J lines of OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, S.; Rohart, F.; Bocquet, R.; Mouret, G.; Bigourd, D.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.

    2006-10-01

    A spectrometer operating in the 100-2000 GHz range and allowing for absolute line strength measurements has been developed. The continuous wave terahertz radiation is generated by mixing two Ti:Sapphire laser beams in a vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) photomixer. Pure rotational lines of 16O 12C 32S in the ground vibrational state have been considered for J values up to 90. Observed self-broadening parameters are in agreement with those deduced from infrared experiments. For the first time in the submillimeter range, absolute line strengths have been determined, allowing for a determination of the electric dipole moment in good agreement with the value previously obtained from Stark effect measurements.

  1. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Wu, Judy; Zhang, Weili

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate a superconductor array of subwavelength holes with active thermal control over the resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons. The array was lithographically fabricated on a high-temperature yttrium barium copper oxide superconductor and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from a virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to a real surface plasmon mode. The highly controllable superconducting plasmonic crystals may find promising applications in the design of low-loss, large- dynamic-range amplitude modulation and surface-plasmon-based terahertz devices.

  2. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs

  3. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of surfactants at liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Paulo Barbeitas

    Surfactants are widely used to modify physical and chemical properties of interfaces. They play an important role in many technological problems. Surfactant monolayers are also of great scientific interest because they are two-dimensional systems that may exhibit a very rich phase transition behavior and can also be considered as a model system for biological interfaces. In this Thesis, we use a second-order nonlinear optical technique (Sum-Frequency Generation - SFG) to obtain vibrational spectra of surfactant monolayers at liquid/vapor and solid/liquid interfaces. The technique has several advantages: it is intrinsically surface-specific, can be applied to buried interfaces, has submonolayer sensitivity and is remarkably sensitive to the conformational order of surfactant monolayers. The first part of the Thesis is concerned with surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface (Langmuir films). Surface crystallization of an alcohol Langmuir film and of liquid alkanes are studied and their phase transition behaviors are found to be of different nature, although driven by similar intermolecular interactions. The effect of crystalline order of Langmuir monolayers on the interfacial water structure is also investigated. It is shown that water forms a well-ordered hydrogen-bonded network underneath an alcohol monolayer, in contrast to a fatty acid monolayer which induces a more disordered structure. In the latter case, ionization of the monolayer becomes more significant with increase of the water pH value, leading to an electric-field-induced ordering of interfacial water molecules. We also show that the orientation and conformation of fairly complicated molecules in a Langmuir monolayer can be completely mapped out using a combination of SFG and second harmonic generation (SHG). For a quantitative analysis of molecular orientation at an interface, local-field corrections must be included. The second part is a study of self-assembled surfactant monolayers at the

  4. Far infrared (terahertz) spectroscopy of a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and application to structure interpretation of asphaltenes and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco; Angelini, Giancarlo; García-Hernández, D Aníbal; Manchado, Arturo

    2013-07-01

    A series of 33 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied by far infrared spectroscopy (terahertz spectroscopy) in the spectral range comprised between 600 and 50 cm(-1). In addition to common PAHs like naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, picene, pyrene, benzo[α]pyrene, and perylene, also quite unusual PAHs were studied like tetracene, pentacene, acenaphtene, acenaphtylene, triphenylene, and decacyclene. A series of alkylated naphthalenes and anthracenes were studied as well as methypyrene. Partially or totally hydrogenated PAHs were also object of the present investigation, ranging from tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) to decahydronaphthalene (decalin), 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, hexahydropyrene, and dodecahydrotriphenylene. Finally, the large and quite rare PAHs coronene, quaterrylene, hexabenzocoronene, and dicoronylene were studied by far infrared spectroscopy. The resulting reference spectra were used in the interpretation of the chemical structure of asphaltenes (as extracted from a heavy petroleum fraction and from bitumen), the chemical structures of other petroleum fractions known as DAE (distillate aromatic extract) and RAE (residual aromatic extract), and a possible interpretation of components of the chemical structure of anthracite coal. Asphaltenes, heavy petroleum fractions, and coal were proposed as model compounds for the interpretation of the emission spectra of certain proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) with a good matching in the mid infrared between the band pattern of the PPNe emission spectra and the spectra of these oil fractions or coal. Although this study was finalized in an astrochemical context, it may find application also in the petroleum and coal chemistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

    2009-01-01

    The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ∼0.3 THz to ∼10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

  6. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  7. Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy in symbiosis with time reversal for localization of defects: TR-NEWS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 14-14 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * ESAM * time reversal (TR) * TR-NEWS imaging * tomography * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  8. Nonlinear spectroscopy of photon-dressed Dirac electrons in a quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.

    2013-01-01

    We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short-lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross-peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional photon-echo spectra are discussed.

  9. Synthesis, structure, terahertz spectroscopy and luminescent properties of copper (I) complexes with bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and N-donor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Wei; Li, Zhong-Feng; Li, Jiao-Bao; Yang, Yu-Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Han-Qin; Gao, Ling-Xiao; Jin, Qiong-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Zhang, Cun-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The reactions of copper(I) salts CuX [X = Cl, OTf (OTf = CF3SO3) and ClO4] and bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) with 4,4-bipyridine (4,4-bipy), 2,2-bipyridine (2,2-bipy), isoquinoline (i-C9H7N) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) lead to five new copper(I) complexes: [CuCl(dppm)(i-C9H7N)]2 (1), {[CuCl(dppm)(phen)]2•5H2O}n (2), [Cu2Cl2(dppm)2(4,4-bipy)]•4CH3CN (3), [Cu(dppm)(2,2-bipy)]2(OTf)2 (4), {[Cu2Cl(dppm)2(4,4-bipy)](ClO4)}n (5). Complexes 1, 3 and 4 are of dinuclear structure with eight-membered Cu2P4C2 rings. The structure of compound 2 can be simplified as three-dimensional topology. Complex 5 is of infinite chain structure linked by 4,4-bipy. All these complexes are characterized by IR, elemental analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, luminescence, NMR and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

  10. Lifetime, Mobility, and Diffusion of Photoexcited Carriers in Ligand-Exchanged PbSe Nanocrystal Films Measured by Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siming; Guglietta, Glenn; Wu, Yaoting; Gogotsi, Natalie; Murray, Christopher; Baxter, Jason

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have been used as building blocks for electronic and optoelectronic devices ranging from field effect transistors to solar cells. Properties of the nanocrystal films depend sensitively on the choice of capping ligand to replace the insulating synthesis ligands. Thus far, ligands leading to the best performance in transistors result in poor solar cell performance, and vice versa. To understand this dichotomy, we used time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to study the mobility and lifetime of PbSe nanocrystal films with five common ligand-exchange reagents. The films treated with different displacing ligands show more than an order of magnitude difference in the peak conductivities and a bifurcation of time-dynamics. Inorganic chalcogenide ligand-exchanges with Na2S or NH4SCN show high mobilities but nearly complete decay of transient photocurrent in 1.4 ns. In contrast, ligand exchanges with EDA, EDT, and TBAI show lower mobilities but longer lifetimes, resulting in longer diffusion lengths. This bifurcated behavior may explain the divergent performance of field-effect transistors and photovoltaics constructed from nanocrystal building blocks with different ligand exchanges. Ref: Guglietta et al., ACS Nano, 2015. NSF

  11. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  12. Infrared, terahertz, and microwave spectroscopy of the soft and central modes in Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhnyy, D.; Petzelt, J.; Bovtun, V.; Kempa, M.; Kamba, S.; Hlinka, J.; Hehlen, B.

    2017-11-01

    From the new infrared (IR) reflectivity and time-domain terahertz spectra combined with available high-frequency dielectric data above the megahertz range in a broad temperature range of 10 to 900 K, a full picture of the soft- and central-mode behavior in the classical relaxor ferroelectric Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3 (PMN) is suggested. A detailed comparison is made with the recent hyper-Raman spectroscopy data [Hehlen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 155501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.155501] and also with other available experiments based on inelastic light and neutron scattering. It is revealed that each type of experiment provides slightly different data. The closest agreement is with the hyper-Raman data: both techniques yield the same number of soft-mode components and the same high-temperature softening towards the temperature T*≈400 K . In addition to evaluation of the IR-terahertz data using fitting with the standard factorized form of the dielectric function, we performed a successful fitting of the same data using the effective medium approach (EMA), originally based on the assumption that the mesoscopic structure of PMN consists of randomly oriented uniaxially anisotropic polar nanodomains (PNDs) with somewhat harder transverse optical polar modes in the direction along the local PND dipole [Hlinka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 027601 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.027601]. Evaluation using Bruggeman EMA modeling has been successfully applied in the entire investigated temperature range. These results suggest that the response perpendicular to the local dipole moment, at high temperatures induced by random fields rather than PNDs, undergoes a classical softening from high temperatures with permittivity obeying the Curie-Weiss law, ɛ⊥=C /(T -TC) , where C =1.7 ×105K and TC=380 K , whereas the response parallel to it shows no softening. Below the Burns temperature, ˜620 K , a gigahertz relaxation ascribed to flipping of the PNDs emerges from the soft

  13. Terahertz ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valzania, Lorenzo; Feurer, Thomas; Zolliker, Peter; Hack, Erwin

    2018-02-01

    We realized a phase retrieval technique using terahertz (THz) radiation as an alternative to THz digital holography, named THz ptychography. Ptychography has been used in x-ray imaging as a groundbreaking improvement of conventional coherent diffraction imaging. Here we show that ptychography can be performed at THz frequencies too. We reconstructed an amplitude and a phase object with both simulated and real data. Lateral resolution accounts to <2λ, while depth variations as low as λ/30 can be assessed.

  14. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-01

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  15. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-15

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  16. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220–0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity

  17. Sub-terahertz spectroscopy reveals that proteins influence the properties of water at greater distances than previously detected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushko, Oleksandr; Dubrovka, Rostyslav; Donnan, Robert S., E-mail: r.donnan@qmul.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-07

    The initial purpose of the study is to systematically investigate the solvation properties of different proteins in water solution by terahertz (THz) radiation absorption. Transmission measurements of protein water solutions have been performed using a vector network analyser-driven quasi-optical bench covering the WR-3 waveguide band (0.220–0.325 THz). The following proteins, ranging from low to high molecular weight, were chosen for this study: lysozyme, myoglobin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Absorption properties of solutions were studied at different concentrations of proteins ranging from 2 to 100 mg/ml. The concentration-dependent absorption of protein molecules was determined by treating the solution as a two-component model first; then, based on protein absorptivity, the extent of the hydration shell is estimated. Protein molecules are shown to possess a concentration-dependent absorptivity in water solutions. Absorption curves of all three proteins sharply peak towards a dilution-limit that is attributed to the enhanced flexibility of protein and amino acid side chains. An alternative approach to the determination of hydration shell thickness is thereby suggested, based on protein absorptivity. The proposed approach is independent of the absorption of the hydration shell. The derived estimate of hydration shell thickness for each protein supports previous findings that protein-water interaction dynamics extends beyond 2-3 water solvation-layers as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations and other techniques such as NMR, X-ray scattering, and neutron scattering. According to our estimations, the radius of the dynamic hydration shell is 16, 19, and 25 Å, respectively, for lysozyme, myoglobin, and BSA proteins and correlates with the dipole moment of the protein. It is also seen that THz radiation can serve as an initial estimate of the protein hydrophobicity.

  18. Linear and non-linear spectroscopy of microparticles: basic principles, new techniques and promising applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Richard K; Pan, Yong-Le

    2008-01-01

    In the introduction a brief recollection is made of how one of us (RKC), accidentally, got into this field of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy of a dielectric micro-particle that can be treated as a micro-cavity or a micro-resonator. The basic principles of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) and their relationship with electromagnetic theory are presented. To simplify the mathematics, we only discuss an example from a 2-d case of light illumination perpendicular to the fiber axis. This 2-d example has relevance to semiconductor circular disk lasers, nonlinear optics in torroids, fibers and spheres at the tip of a fiber. The internal and near-field distribution of a WGM are graphically plotted to give the reader a chance to get a physical understanding of the spatial distribution as well as spectral distribution of WGMs. Several new techniques that enable the measurements of: (1) nanometer changes in the cladding diameter over a centimeter length of fiber; (2) some aspects of the morphology of micro-particles by elastic scattering; and (3) biochemical reactions at the interface of liquid media with a sphere at the end of a fiber. A few interesting nonlinear optical experimental results pertaining to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are touched upon. We present some preliminary results for promising applications in the area of bioaerosols. These include ambient aerosol characterization and identification with elastic scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and other optical and/or biochemical identifiers.

  19. Cooper Pair Breakup in YBCO under Strong Terahertz Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Glossner, Andreas; Zhang, Caihong; Kikuta, Shinya; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Müller, Paul; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We show that strong electric fields of ~ 30 kV cm^(-1) at terahertz frequencies can significantly weaken the superconducting characteristics of cuprate superconductors. High-power terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to investigate the in-plane conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) with highly intense single-cycle terahertz pulses. Even though the terahertz photon energy (~ 1.5 meV) was significantly smaller than the energy gap in YBCO (~ 20-30 meV), the optical conductivity...

  20. Effects of nonlinear forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soma; Sreeram, P A; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the effects of nonlinear tip-sample forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy. The jumps and hysteresis observed in the vibration amplitude (A) versus tip-sample distance (h) curves have been traced to bistability in the resonance curve. A numerical analysis of the basic dynamic equation was used to explain the hysteresis in the experimental curve. It has been found that the location of the hysteresis in the A-h curve depends on the frequency of the forced oscillation relative to the natural frequency of the cantilever.

  1. Communication: atomic force detection of single-molecule nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Prasoon; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-04-28

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows for a highly sensitive detection of spectroscopic signals. This has been first demonstrated for NMR of a single molecule and recently extended to stimulated Raman in the optical regime. We theoretically investigate the use of optical forces to detect time and frequency domain nonlinear optical signals. We show that, with proper phase matching, the AFM-detected signals closely resemble coherent heterodyne-detected signals. Applications are made to AFM-detected and heterodyne-detected vibrational resonances in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (χ((3))) and sum or difference frequency generation (χ((2))).

  2. Conductivity peak, relaxation dynamics, and superconducting gap of YBa2Cu3O7 studied by terahertz and femtosecond optical spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.; Gao, F.; Liu, Y.; Whitaker, J.F.; Uher, C.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Recent measurements at microwave, terahertz (THz), and infrared frequencies have revealed a peak in σ 1 below T c . Based on our THz measurements, which were performed on high quality, single crystal films of YBCO (900 and 500 A), we have found that σ 1 features a peak which increases in amplitude and shifts to lower temperatures as frequency changes from 1.2 to 0.4 THz. Although the quasiparticle relaxation time extracted from these results using the two-fluid Drude model exhibits an enhancement below T c , the analysis may not be adequate to account for the strong frequency dependence of the conductivity peak by the competition between the drop in scattering rate and the decreasing normal fluid density with temperature. On the contrary, we were able to account for the frequency dependent σ 1 by fitting with Mattis-Bardeen theory (modified to include scattering) using a slower average rate of increase of the anisotropic gap than for the BCS case as temperature decreases below T c . This is consistent with the higher normal fluid density (higher than Gorter-Casimir values) from the two-fluid model interpretation of our THz results. Thus, we have found evidence of BCS coherence factors in a high-T c superconductor with a slower than BCS gap increase below T c . We have discussed the role of coherence factors to account for the presence of the conductivity peak and the absence of the peak in NMR relaxation rate. Furthermore, we have presented a model for the quasiparticle relaxation time measured by the femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. This model allowed us to find a fit to the temperature-dependent energy gap function which is also consistent with the slower gap increase below T c

  3. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applicatio...

  4. Nonlinear terahertz conductivity in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; Bonn, Mischa; Tielrooij, Klaas Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a unique conductor, where charge is transported by massless carriers. Remarkably, the THz response of carriers strongly depends on the driving field.......Graphene is a unique conductor, where charge is transported by massless carriers. Remarkably, the THz response of carriers strongly depends on the driving field....

  5. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-infrared to terahertz spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Willaert, Fabrice; Landsheere, Xavier; Flaud, Jean-Marie [LISA, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC) et Université Paris-Diderot (UPD), 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Lago, Leatitia; Chapuis, Mylène; Herbeaux, Christian; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent [High Vacuum Group and Beamline AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-15

    A new cell has been designed for accurate spectroscopic measurements in the 80–400 K temperature range with variable path lengths from 3 to more than 141 m. The spectral coverage at these temperatures ranges from the visible to less than 10 cm{sup −1}, thanks to the use of diamond windows. The design of the cryostat and vacuum setups allows vibration-free operation. The equipment provides temperature homogeneity and pressure control to better than 2% over the 100–400 K and the 0.1–1000 mbar ranges. Remote-controlled opto-mechanical systems enable in situ adjustments as well as changes of the optical path length within half an hour, in order to optimize measurement time in an open user facility. It allows then to meet the specific requirements of high resolution measurements on the Far-Infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL as well at the LISA facility, in Créteil, in the mid-IR. This new instrument opens up the way for many experiments in the field of high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy, in particular, in quantitative spectroscopy for atmospheric applications: measurements of absorption line parameters (absolute intensities, cross sections, and pressure-induced widths) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The design and performance of the equipment are briefly presented and illustrated on spectroscopic examples.

  6. Charge transport and localization in nanocrystalline CdS films: A time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mics, Zoltan; Němec, Hynek; Rychetský, Ivan; Kužel, Petr; Formánek, P.; Malý, P.; Němec, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2011), "155326-1"-"155326-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P099; GA ČR GA202/09/0430; GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : time-resolved THz spectroscopy * CdS nanoparticles * electron transport * chemical bath deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  7. Charge carrier mobility in poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene] studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy and molecular modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Kratochvílová, Irena; Kužel, Petr; Šebera, Jakub; Kochalska, Anna; Nožár, Juraj; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2011), s. 2850-2856 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P099; GA ČR GA203/08/1594; GA AV ČR KAN401770651; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : molecular electronics * THz spectroscopy * charge carrier mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  8. Ultrabright continuously tunable terahertz-wave generation at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Nawata, Kouji; Taira, Takunori; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Kawase, Kodo; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2014-06-05

    The hottest frequency region in terms of research currently lies in the 'frequency gap' region between microwaves and infrared: terahertz waves. Although new methods for generating terahertz radiation have been developed, most sources cannot generate high-brightness terahertz beams. Here we demonstrate the generation of ultrabright terahertz waves (brightness ~0.2 GW/sr·cm(2), brightness temperature of ~10(18) K, peak power of >50 kW) using parametric wavelength conversion in a nonlinear crystal; this is brighter than many specialized sources such as far-infrared free-electron lasers (~10(16) K, ~2 kW). We revealed novel parametric wavelength conversion using stimulated Raman scattering in LiNbO3 without stimulated Brillouin scattering using recently-developed microchip laser. Furthermore, nonlinear up-conversion techniques allow the intense terahertz waves to be visualized and their frequency determined. These results are very promising for extending applied research into the terahertz region, and we expect that this source will open up new research fields such as nonlinear optics in the terahertz region.

  9. Direct Measurements of Terahertz Meta-atoms with Near-Field Emission of Terahertz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serita, Kazunori; Darmo, Juraj; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2017-09-01

    We present the direct measurements of terahertz meta-atoms, an elementary unit of metamaterials, by using locally generated terahertz waves in the near-field region. In contrast to a conventional far-field terahertz spectroscopy or imaging, our technique features the localized emission of coherent terahertz pulses on a sub-wavelength scale, which has a potential for visualizing details of dynamics of each meta-atom. The obtained data show the near-field coupling among the meta-atoms and the impact of the electric field distribution from the excited meta-atom to neighbor meta-atoms. The observable LC resonance response is enhanced with an increase of numbers of meta-atoms. Furthermore, our approach also has a potential for visualizing the individual mode of meta-atom at different terahertz irradiation spots. These data can help us to understand the important role of the meta-atom in metamaterials and develop the novel terahertz components and devices such as active terahertz metamaterial and compact, high-sensitive bio-sensor devices.

  10. Excitations and relaxation dynamics in multiferroic GeV4S8 studied by terahertz and dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, S.; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, F.; Ruff, E.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on THz time-domain spectroscopy on multiferroic GeV4S8 , which undergoes orbital ordering at a Jahn-Teller transition at 30.5 K and exhibits antiferromagnetic order below 14.6 K. The THz experiments are complemented by dielectric experiments at audio and radio frequencies. We identify a low-lying excitation close to 0.5 THz, which is only weakly temperature dependent and probably corresponds to a molecular excitation within the electronic level scheme of the V4 clusters. In addition, we detect complex temperature-dependent behavior of a low-lying phononic excitation, closely linked to the onset of orbitally driven ferroelectricity. In the high-temperature cubic phase, which is paramagnetic and orbitally disordered, this excitation is of relaxational character becomes an overdamped Lorentzian mode in the orbitally ordered phase below the Jahn-Teller transition, and finally appears as well-defined phonon excitation in the antiferromagnetic state. Abrupt changes in the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric permittivity show that orbital ordering appears via a structural phase transition with strong first-order character and that the onset of antiferromagnetic order is accompanied by significant structural changes, which are of first-order character, too. Dielectric spectroscopy documents that at low frequencies, significant dipolar relaxations are present in the orbitally ordered, paramagnetic phase only. In contrast to the closely related GaV4S8 , this relaxation dynamics that most likely mirrors coupled orbital and polar fluctuations does not seem to be related to the dynamic processes detected in the THz regime.

  11. Ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Lab. for Ultrafast Materials Optical Science (LUMOS)

    2016-05-02

    These are a set of slides on ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses. A few of the topics covered in these slides are: How fast is a femtosecond (fs), Different frequencies probe different properties of molecules or solids, What can a THz pulse do to a material, Ultrafast spectroscopy, Generating and measuring ultrashort THz pulses, Tracking ultrafast spin dynamics in antiferromagnets through spin wave resonances, Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy, and Probing vibrational dynamics at a surface. Conclusions are: Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy: a powerful approach for studying coherence and dynamics of low energy resonances. Applying this to graphene we investigated the very strong THz light mater interaction which dominates over scattering. Useful for studying coupled excitations in multiferroics and monitoring chemical reactions. Also, THz-pump, SHG-probe spectoscopy: an ultrafast, surface sensitive probe of atomic-scale symmetry changes and nonlinear phonon dymanics. We are using this in Bi2Se3 to investigate the nonlinear surface phonon dynamics. This is potentially very useful for studying catalysis.

  12. Ultrafast release and capture of carriers in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots observed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Daghestani, N.

    2009-01-01

    We observe ultrafast release and capture of charge carriers in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots in a room-temperature optical pump-terahertz probe experiment sensitive to the population dynamics of conducting states. In case of resonant excitation of the quantum dot ground state, the maximum conductivity...

  13. Nonlinear Dielectric Spectroscopy as an Indirect Probe of Metabolic Activity in Thylakoid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NDS is a non-invasive probe of cellular metabolic activity with potential application in the development of whole-cell biosensors. However, the mechanism of NDS interaction with metabolic membrane proteins is poorly understood, partly due to the inherent complexity of single cell organisms. Here we use the light-activated electron transport chain of spinach thylakoid membrane as a model system to study how NDS interacts with metabolic activity. We find protein modification, as opposed to membrane pump activity, to be the dominant source of NDS signal change in this system. Potential mechanisms for such protein modifications include reactive oxygen species generation and light-activated phosphorylation.

  14. Highly efficient broadband terahertz generation from ultrashort laser filamentation in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Indranuj; Jana, Kamalesh; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Koulouklidis, Anastasios D; Mondal, Angana; Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Sarkar, Deep; Lad, Amit D; Tzortzakis, Stelios; Couairon, Arnaud; Kumar, G Ravindra

    2017-10-30

    Generation and application of energetic, broadband terahertz pulses (bandwidth ~0.1-50 THz) is an active and contemporary area of research. The main thrust is toward the development of efficient sources with minimum complexities-a true table-top setup. In this work, we demonstrate the generation of terahertz radiation via ultrashort pulse induced filamentation in liquids-a counterintuitive observation due to their large absorption coefficient in the terahertz regime. The generated terahertz energy is more than an order of magnitude higher than that obtained from the two-color filamentation of air (the most standard table-top technique). Such high terahertz energies would generate electric fields of the order of MV cm -1 , which opens the doors for various nonlinear terahertz spectroscopic applications. The counterintuitive phenomenon has been explained via the solution of nonlinear pulse propagation equation in the liquid medium.

  15. Preparation, characterization, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy study on carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-sheets, and onion like carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouelsayed, A.; Anis, Badawi; Hassaballa, Safwat; Khalil, Ahmed S.G.; Rashed, Usama M.; Eid, Kamal A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; El hotaby, W.

    2017-01-01

    We present the optical properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene nanosheets, and onion like carbon (OLC) samples with different cages size in wide frequency range from 0.06 to 1650 THz. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman, and UV–Vis-IR-THz spectroscopy. The broad absorption bands centered at around 10, 3, 2.5, 1.5, and 1.8 THz for SWCNTs, MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, large cages (OLC 1 ), and small cages (OLC 2 ) samples, respectively, are assigned to plasmon resonance due to the localization of free carriers in a finite length. For SWCNTs, both the plasmon band position and the Drude weight (D) are located at higher values as compared with MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, and OLC sample, suggesting that the dimensionality of the system plays a major role regarding the carrier mobility of the graphene structure. The differences in the estimated values of D, the Fermi energy (E f ), and density of carriers (N) in case of OLC samples can be due to the variation in sizes of the cages and the variation of the defects in the structure of the outermost layers of cages, where each cages consist of multi-layers of graphene enclosed one into another. - Highlights: • Preparation and spectroscopic studies on carbonaceous materials were performed. • Drude-Lorentz model were used for fitting the optical conductivity spectra. • The plasmonic resonances have been observed in THz frequency range. • The charge density N has been effected by disordered of the grapheme structure. • The σ DC values is decreased in case of 2D carbonaceous materials.

  16. Preparation, characterization, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy study on carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-sheets, and onion like carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelsayed, A., E-mail: as.abouelsayed@gmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Anis, Badawi [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Hassaballa, Safwat [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884 (Egypt); Khalil, Ahmed S.G. [Center for Environmental and Smart Technology, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Egypt Nanotechnology Center, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Smart Village Campus, Giza (Egypt); Rashed, Usama M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884 (Egypt); Eid, Kamal A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; El hotaby, W. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-03-01

    We present the optical properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene nanosheets, and onion like carbon (OLC) samples with different cages size in wide frequency range from 0.06 to 1650 THz. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman, and UV–Vis-IR-THz spectroscopy. The broad absorption bands centered at around 10, 3, 2.5, 1.5, and 1.8 THz for SWCNTs, MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, large cages (OLC{sub 1}), and small cages (OLC{sub 2}) samples, respectively, are assigned to plasmon resonance due to the localization of free carriers in a finite length. For SWCNTs, both the plasmon band position and the Drude weight (D) are located at higher values as compared with MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, and OLC sample, suggesting that the dimensionality of the system plays a major role regarding the carrier mobility of the graphene structure. The differences in the estimated values of D, the Fermi energy (E{sub f}), and density of carriers (N) in case of OLC samples can be due to the variation in sizes of the cages and the variation of the defects in the structure of the outermost layers of cages, where each cages consist of multi-layers of graphene enclosed one into another. - Highlights: • Preparation and spectroscopic studies on carbonaceous materials were performed. • Drude-Lorentz model were used for fitting the optical conductivity spectra. • The plasmonic resonances have been observed in THz frequency range. • The charge density N has been effected by disordered of the grapheme structure. • The σ{sub DC} values is decreased in case of 2D carbonaceous materials.

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. PMID:28336857

  18. Linear and nonlinear frequency- and time-domain spectroscopy with multiple frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Rouxel, Jeremy R.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2017-09-01

    Two techniques that employ equally spaced trains of optical pulses to map an optical high frequency into a low frequency modulation of the signal that can be detected in real time are compared. The development of phase-stable optical frequency combs has opened up new avenues to metrology and spectroscopy. The ability to generate a series of frequency spikes with precisely controlled separation permits a fast, highly accurate sampling of the material response. Recently, pairs of frequency combs with slightly different repetition rates have been utilized to down-convert material susceptibilities from the optical to microwave regime where they can be recorded in real time. We show how this one-dimensional dual comb technique can be extended to multiple dimensions by using several combs. We demonstrate how nonlinear susceptibilities can be quickly acquired using this technique. In a second class of techniques, sequences of ultrafast mode locked laser pulses are used to recover pathways of interactions contributing to nonlinear susceptibilities by using a photo-acoustic modulation varying along the sequences. We show that these techniques can be viewed as a time-domain analog of the multiple frequency comb scheme.

  19. Manifold Learning in MR spectroscopy using nonlinear dimensionality reduction and unsupervised clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Raschke, Felix; Barrick, Thomas R; Howe, Franklyn A

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether nonlinear dimensionality reduction improves unsupervised classification of (1) H MRS brain tumor data compared with a linear method. In vivo single-voxel (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (55 patients) and (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) (29 patients) data were acquired from histopathologically diagnosed gliomas. Data reduction using Laplacian eigenmaps (LE) or independent component analysis (ICA) was followed by k-means clustering or agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for unsupervised learning to assess tumor grade and for tissue type segmentation of MRSI data. An accuracy of 93% in classification of glioma grade II and grade IV, with 100% accuracy in distinguishing tumor and normal spectra, was obtained by LE with unsupervised clustering, but not with the combination of k-means and ICA. With (1) H MRSI data, LE provided a more linear distribution of data for cluster analysis and better cluster stability than ICA. LE combined with k-means or AHC provided 91% accuracy for classifying tumor grade and 100% accuracy for identifying normal tissue voxels. Color-coded visualization of normal brain, tumor core, and infiltration regions was achieved with LE combined with AHC. The LE method is promising for unsupervised clustering to separate brain and tumor tissue with automated color-coding for visualization of (1) H MRSI data after cluster analysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Intelligent sensing sensory quality of Chinese rice wine using near infrared spectroscopy and nonlinear tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Zhao, Jiewen

    2016-02-05

    The approach presented herein reports the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in contrast with human sensory panel, as a tool for estimating Chinese rice wine quality; concretely, to achieve the prediction of the overall sensory scores assigned by the trained sensory panel. Back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) combined with adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm, namely BP-AdaBoost, as a novel nonlinear algorithm, was proposed in modeling. First, the optimal spectra intervals were selected by synergy interval partial least square (Si-PLS). Then, BP-AdaBoost model based on the optimal spectra intervals was established, called Si-BP-AdaBoost model. These models were optimized by cross validation, and the performance of each final model was evaluated according to correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in prediction set. Si-BP-AdaBoost showed excellent performance in comparison with other models. The best Si-BP-AdaBoost model was achieved with Rp=0.9180 and RMSEP=2.23 in the prediction set. It was concluded that NIR spectroscopy combined with Si-BP-AdaBoost was an appropriate method for the prediction of the sensory quality in Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyan, Adham

    2013-01-01

    The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB 6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB 6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at T MI and T C . Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

  2. Terahertz-induced Kerr effect in amorphous chalcogenide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the terahertz-induced third-order (Kerr) nonlinear optical properties of the amorphous chalcogenide glasses As2S3 and As2Se3. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their high optical Kerr nonlinearities which can be several hundred times greater than those of fused silica. We us...

  3. Nano metamaterials for ultrasensitive Terahertz biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Ji-Hun; Kwon, Junghoon; Lee, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok Ha; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2017-01-01

    As a candidate for a rapid detection of biomaterials, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy system can be considered with some advantage in non-destructive, label-free, and non-contact manner. Because protein-ligand binding energy is in the THz range, especially, most important conformational information in molecular interactions can be captured by THz electromagnetic wave. Based on the THz time-domain spectroscopy system, THz nano-metamaterial sensing chips were prepared for great enhancing of detect...

  4. Bulk-like transverse electron mobility in an array of heavily n-doped InP nanowires probed by terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponseca jr., C.S.; Němec, Hynek; Wallentin, J.; Anttu, N.; Beech, J.P.; Iqbal, A.; Borgström, M.; Pistol, M.-E.; Samuelson, L.; Yartsev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2014), "085405-1"-"085405-7" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : time-resolved terahertz spectrocopy * semiconductor nanostructures * mobility * effective medium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  5. People screening using terahertz technology (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin; Tribe, William R.; Lo, Thomas; Cole, Bryan E.; Chandler, Simon; Kemp, Michael C.

    2005-05-01

    There is a need for ever more effective security screening to detect an increasing variety of threats. Many techniques employing different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio up to X- and gamma-ray are in use. Terahertz radiation, which lies between microwave and infrared, is the last part to be exploited for want, until the last few years, of suitable sources and detectors. Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy has been shown to have the potential to use very low levels of this non-ionising radiation to detect and identify objects hidden under clothing. This paper describes recent work on the development of prototype systems using terahertz to provide new capabilities in people screening, both at security checkpoints and stand-off detection for remote detection of explosives and both metallic and non-metallic weapons.

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  7. Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Barman, Ishan; Kang, Jeon Woong; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    While Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for noninvasive and real time diagnostics of biological samples, its translation to the clinical setting has been impeded by the lack of robustness of spectroscopic calibration models and the size and cumbersome nature of conventional laboratory Raman systems. Linear multivariate calibration models employing full spectrum analysis are often misled by spurious correlations, such as system drift and covariations among constituents. In addition, such calibration schemes are prone to overfitting, especially in the presence of external interferences that may create nonlinearities in the spectra-concentration relationship. To address both of these issues we incorporate residue error plot-based wavelength selection and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR). Wavelength selection is used to eliminate uninformative regions of the spectrum, while SVR is used to model the curved effects such as those created by tissue turbidity and temperature fluctuations. Using glucose detection in tissue phantoms as a representative example, we show that even a substantial reduction in the number of wavelengths analyzed using SVR lead to calibration models of equivalent prediction accuracy as linear full spectrum analysis. Further, with clinical datasets obtained from human subject studies, we also demonstrate the prospective applicability of the selected wavelength subsets without sacrificing prediction accuracy, which has extensive implications for calibration maintenance and transfer. Additionally, such wavelength selection could substantially reduce the collection time of serial Raman acquisition systems. Given the reduced footprint of serial Raman systems in relation to conventional dispersive Raman spectrometers, we anticipate that the incorporation of wavelength selection in such hardware designs will enhance the possibility of miniaturized clinical systems for disease diagnosis in the near future. PMID:21895336

  8. Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuqi; Huang, Pingjie; Li, Xian; Ge, Weiting; Hou, Dibo; Zhang, Guangxin

    2018-02-01

    At present, many researchers are exploring biological tissue inspection using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) techniques. In this study, based on a modified hard modeling factor analysis method, terahertz spectral unmixing was applied to investigate the relationships between the absorption spectra in THz-TDS and certain biomarkers of gastric cancer in order to systematically identify gastric cancer. A probability distribution and box plot were used to extract the distinctive peaks that indicate carcinogenesis, and the corresponding weight distributions were used to discriminate the tissue types. The results of this work indicate that terahertz techniques have the potential to detect different levels of cancer, including benign tumors and polyps.

  9. Terahertz Spectrum Analysis Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yunpeng; Zheng, Xiaoping; Deng, Xiaojiao

    2017-08-01

    Precise identification of terahertz absorption peaks for materials with low concentration and high attenuation still remains a challenge. Empirical mode decomposition was applied to terahertz spectrum analysis in order to improve the performance on spectral fingerprints identification. We conducted experiments on water vapor and carbon monoxide respectively with terahertz time domain spectroscopy. By comparing their absorption spectra before and after empirical mode decomposition, we demonstrated that the first-order intrinsic mode function shows absorption peaks clearly in high-frequency range. By comparing the frequency spectra of the sample signals and their intrinsic mode functions, we proved that the first-order function contains most of the original signal's energy and frequency information so that it cannot be left out or replaced by high-order functions in spectral fingerprints detection. Empirical mode decomposition not only acts as an effective supplementary means to terahertz time-domain spectroscopy but also shows great potential in discrimination of materials and prediction of their concentrations.

  10. Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM; Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-23

    A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. An antenna connected to the Schottky diode receives a terahertz signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

  11. Uncovering Molecular Relaxation Processes with Nonlinear Spectroscopies in the Deep UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brantley Andrew

    Conical intersections mediate internal conversion dynamics that compete with even the fastest nuclear motions in molecular systems. Traditional kinetic models do not apply in this regime of commensurate electronic and nuclear motion because the surroundings do not maintain equilibrium throughout the relaxation process. This dissertation focuses on uncovering the physics associated with vibronic interactions at conical intersections. Of particular interest are coherent nuclear motions driven by steep excited state potential energy gradients. Technical advances have only recently made these dynamics accessible in many systems including DNA nucleobases and cyclic polyene molecules. Optical analogues of multidimensional NMR spectroscopies have recently yielded transformative insight in relaxation processes ranging from energy transfer in photosynthesis to bond making and breaking in liquids. Prior to the start of this research, such experiments had only been conducted at infrared and visible wavelengths. Applications in the ultraviolet were motivated by studies of numerous biological systems (e.g., DNA, proteins), but had been challenged by technical issues. The work presented in this dissertation combines pulse generation techniques developed in the optical physics community with spectroscopic techniques largely pioneered by physical chemists to implement two-dimensional ultraviolet spectroscopy (2DUV). This technique is applied at the shortest wavelengths and with the best signal-to-noise ratios reported to date. Sub-picosecond excited state deactivation processes provide photo stability to the DNA double helix. Vibrational energy transfer from the solute to surrounding solvent enables relaxation of the highly non-equilibrium ground state produced by fast internal conversion. In this dissertation, nonlinear spectroscopies carried out at cryogenic temperatures are used to uncover the particular nuclear modes in the solvent that primarily accept vibrational energy from

  12. The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Calvin; Fan, Shuting; Sun, Yiwen; Pickwell-Macpherson, Emma

    2012-03-01

    The terahertz region lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such that it is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Terahertz radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. Because of these characteristic properties, there has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for biological applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported, including spectroscopic studies of cancer. The presence of cancer often causes increased blood supply to affected tissues and a local increase in tissue water content may be observed: this acts as a natural contrast mechanism for terahertz imaging of cancer. Furthermore the structural changes that occur in affected tissues have also been shown to contribute to terahertz image contrast. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques. In particular investigations relating to the potential of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.

  13. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  14. Towards terahertz microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Terahertz (=1012 Hz) radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation that is at this moment used rarely for imaging purposes. However, there are indeed reasons to assume that imaging with terahertz radiation could be very useful. First, many materials, such as paper, plastics and clothing are

  15. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  16. Probing Exciton and Charge Dynamics in Organic Thin Films and Photovoltaics with Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Thomas J.

    Emerging organic solar cell technologies offer unique advantages over silicon solar cells, such as solution processability and the use of flexible substrates, but the efficiencies of these devices do not yet match the efficiency of silicon. Ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopies can probe the fates of photoexcited species on timescales in which these species are lost to channels that do not result in electric current. In the first study, I compare the ultrafast dynamics of singlet fission and charge generation in pentacene films grown on glass and graphene. The molecular orientation is different on the two substrates: the long axis of the pentacene molecules are "standing-up" (normal to the surface) on glass and "lying-down" (parallel to the surface) on graphene. By studying the fluence and polarization dependence of the transient absorption of pentacene on these two substrates, I am able to clarify previous spectral assignments. I identify a broad, isotropic absorption at 853 nm as due in significant part to hole absorption, in contrast to this feature's typical assignment to T1-T2 absorption. At high fluence, additional peaks at 614 and 688 (on glass) nm appear, whose kinetics and anisotropies are not explained by heating, which I assign to charge generation. In the second study, I utilize two-dimensional white-light spectroscopy to study the morphology dependence of exciton diffusion in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. I analyze the spectral diffusion of the S 1-S1 2D-WL lineshape via the center line slope method to separate the homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the lineshape in each sample. I determine a morphology independent homogeneous linewidth of 10 meV, but I find that the inhomogeneous linewidth is sensitive to the particular sample environment. I model our experimental spectra with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of exciton diffusion in a 1D potential. I also present preliminary bias-dependent transient absorption and 2D-WL measurements of

  17. Reduction of effective terahertz focal spot size by means of nested concentric parabolic reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, V.A.; Laurita, N.J.; Pan, LiDong; Armitage, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    An ongoing limitation of terahertz spectroscopy is that the technique is generally limited to the study of relatively large samples of order 4 mm across due to the generally large size of the focal beam spot. We present a nested concentric parabolic reflector design which can reduce the terahertz

  18. Salt effects on the picosecond dynamics of lysozyme hydration water investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and an insight into the Hofmeister series for protein stability and solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Katsuyoshi; Shiraki, Kentaro; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2016-06-01

    The addition of salts into protein aqueous solutions causes changes in protein solubility and stability, whose ability is known to be ordered in the Hofmeister series. We investigated the effects of Hofmeister salts on the picosecond dynamics of water around a lysozyme molecule using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The change in the absorption coefficient for 200 mg mL(-1) lysozyme aqueous solution by the addition of salts was found to depend on the salts used, whereas that for pure water was almost independent of salts. From the difference in the salt concentration dependence for various salts, it has been found that chaotropic anions make the dynamics of water around the lysozyme molecule slower, whereas kosmotropic anions make the dynamics faster. The ability of an anion to slow down the water dynamics was found to have the following order: SCN(-) > Cl(-) > H2PO4(-) > NO3(-) ≈ SO4(2-). This result indicates that the effects of anions on the dynamics of water around the lysozyme molecule are the opposite of those for bulk water. This finding agrees with a prediction from a molecular model proposed by Collins [K. D. Collins, Methods, 2004, 34, 300]. The results presented here are compared with the results from preferential interaction studies and the results from sum frequency generation spectroscopy. These discussions have led to the conclusion that the picosecond dynamics of protein hydration water strongly contributes to protein stability, whereas electrostatic interactions between protein molecules contribute to protein solubility.

  19. Nonlinear optical THz generation and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kodo

    2012-03-01

    We have suggested a wide range of real-life applications using novel terahertz imaging techniques. A high-resolution terahertz tomography was demonstrated by ultra short terahertz pulses using optical fiber and a nonlinear organic crystal. We also report on the thickness measurement of very thin films using high-sensitivity metal mesh filter. Further we have succeeded in a non-destructive inspection that can monitor the soot distribution in the ceramic filter using millimeter-to-terahertz wave computed tomography. These techniques are directly applicable to the non-destructive testing in industries.

  20. Imaging with terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W L; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2007-01-01

    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies

  1. Ultrafast Terahertz Conductivity of Photoexcited Nanocrystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; MacDonald, A. Nicole; Hryciw, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described by a class......The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described...... by a classical Drude–Smith model, suitable for disorder-driven metal–insulator transitions. In this work, we explore the time evolution of the frequency dependent complex conductivity after optical injection of carriers on a picosecond time scale. Furthermore, we show the lifetime of photoconductivity...

  2. Tunable terahertz metamaterials with negative permeability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr; Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Yahiaoui, R.; Mounaix, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 24 (2009), 241108/1-241108/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100907; GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk MEB020742 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : tunable metamaterial * effective magnetic permeability * incipient ferroelectrics * strontium titanate * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  3. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Jiusheng, E-mail: forever-li@126.com [Centre for THz Research, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2{approx}1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-li, Zhao; Jiu-sheng, Li

    2011-02-01

    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. A High-Power Broadband Terahertz Source Enabled by Three-Dimensional Light Confinement in a Plasmonic Nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Hemmati, Soroosh; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-06-23

    The scope and potential uses of time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy are mainly limited by the low optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency of photoconductive terahertz sources. State-of-the-art photoconductive sources utilize short-carrier-lifetime semiconductors to recombine carriers that cannot contribute to efficient terahertz generation and cause additional thermal dissipation. Here, we present a novel photoconductive terahertz source that offers a significantly higher efficiency compared with terahertz sources fabricated on short-carrier-lifetime substrates. The key innovative feature of this source is the tight three-dimensional confinement of the optical pump beam around the terahertz nanoantennas that are used as radiating elements. This is achieved by means of a nanocavity formed by plasmonic structures and a distributed Bragg reflector. Consequently, almost all of the photo-generated carriers can be routed to the terahertz nanoantennas within a sub-picosecond time-scale. This results in a very strong, ultrafast current that drives the nanoantennas to produce broadband terahertz radiation. We experimentally demonstrate that this terahertz source can generate 4 mW pulsed terahertz radiation under an optical pump power of 720 mW over the 0.1-4 THz frequency range. This is the highest reported power level for terahertz radiation from a photoconductive terahertz source, representing more than an order of magnitude of enhancement in the optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency compared with state-of-the-art photoconductive terahertz sources fabricated on short-carrier-lifetime substrates.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Magnesium in Soil by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Coupled with Nonlinear Multivariate Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongcheng, J.; Wen, S.; Baohua, Z.; Dong, L.

    2017-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with the nonlinear multivariate regression method was applied to analyze magnesium (Mg) contents in soil. The plasma was generated using a 100 mJ Nd:YAG pulsed laser, and the spectra were acquired using a multi-channel spectrometer integrated with a CCD detector. The line at 383.8 nm was selected as the analysis line for Mg. The calibration model between the intensity of characteristic line and the concentration of Mg was constructed. The traditional calibration curve showed that the concentration of Mg was not only related to the line intensity of itself, but also to other elements in soil. The intensity of characteristic lines for Mg (Mg I 383.8 nm), manganese (Mn) (Mn I 403.1 nm), and iron (Fe) (Fe I 407.2 nm) were used as input data for nonlinear multivariate calculation. According to the results of nonlinear regression, the ternary nonlinear regression was the most appropriate of the studied models. A good agreement was observed between the actual concentration provided by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the predicted value obtained using the nonlinear multivariate regression model. The correlation coefficient between predicted concentration and the measured value was 0.987, while the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were reduced to 0.017% and 0.014%, respectively. The ratio of the standard deviation of the validation to the RMSEP increased to 8.79, and the relative error was below 1.21% for nine validation samples. This indicated that the multivariate model can obtain better predicted accuracy than the calibration curve. These results also suggest that the LIBS technique is a powerful tool for analyzing the micro-nutrient elements in soil by selecting calibration and validation samples with similar matrix composition.

  7. Terahertz dielectric measurements of household powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman A.; Afsar, Mohammed N.

    2007-09-01

    The dielectric properties of common household powders from 0.6 to 1.2 THz are presented in this paper. Terahertz Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy was used to yield the dielectric properties of powders as a continuous function of frequency. Tests were conducted using a polarized interferometer and two cryogenically-cooled high frequency detectors. Dielectric spectroscopy was utilized to provide high-resolution and precise information on the dielectric spectra of powders including the powder's unique resonance signature. This signature can be employed to detect the presence of a hoax or harmful powder within a baggage or mail package.

  8. Terahertz Radiation Heterodyne Detector Using Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a GaN Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Crawford, Timothy J.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Mitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy is important for studying atmospheric and interstellar molecular gaseous species. It typically uses heterodyne receivers where an unknown (weak) signal is mixed with a strong signal from the local oscillator (LO) operating at a slightly different frequency. The non-linear mixer devices for this frequency range are unique and are not off-the-shelf commercial products. Three types of THz mixers are commonly used: Schottky diode, superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB), and superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) junction. A HEB mixer based on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of two slightly dissimilar semiconductors was developed. This mixer can operate at temperatures between 100 and 300 K, and thus can be used with just passive radiative cooling available even on small spacecraft.

  9. Strong coupling and stimulated emission in single parabolic quantum well microcavity for terahertz cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimis, A.; Savvidis, P. G.; Trifonov, A. V.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Christmann, G.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We report observation of strong light-matter coupling in an AlGaAs microcavity (MC) with an embedded single parabolic quantum well. The parabolic potential is achieved by varying aluminum concentration along the growth direction providing equally spaced energy levels, as confirmed by Brewster angle reflectivity from a reference sample without MC. It acts as an active region of the structure which potentially allows cascaded emission of terahertz (THz) light. Spectrally and time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy reveals characteristic quantum beats whose frequencies range from 0.9 to 4.5 THz, corresponding to energy separation between relevant excitonic levels. The structure exhibits strong stimulated nonlinear emission with simultaneous transition to weak coupling regime. The present study highlights the potential of such devices for creating cascaded relaxation of bosons, which could be utilized for THz emission

  10. Terahertz wave generation from spontaneously formed nanostructures in silver nanoparticle ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kosaku; Takano, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate terahertz pulse generation from silver nanoparticle ink, originally developed for printed electronics, under irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses. Using metal nanoparticle ink, metallic nanostructures can be easily made in a large area without lithographic techniques. Terahertz pulses were emitted from the baked ink, having spontaneously formed nanostructures of ∼100  nm. From the results of the baking temperature dependence and the polarization measurement, the terahertz generation is attributed to the nonlinear polarization induced by the enhanced local fields around these nanostructures. This study paves the way for the future development of terahertz emitters which have resonances in both the near-infrared light and the terahertz wave, by combining micrometer-scale structures drawn by an inkjet printer and nanometer-scale structures formed during the baking process.

  11. An effective way to reduce water absorption to terahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaxiong; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Since many vibrations and rotational levels of biomolecules fall within the THz band, THz spectroscopy can be used to identify biological samples. In addition, most biomolecules need to maintain their biological activity in a liquid environment, but water as polar substance has strong absorption to the THz wave. Thus, it is difficult to detect the sample information in aqueous solution using THz wave. In order to prevent the information of biological samples were masked in the solution, many research methods were used to explore how to reduce the water absorption of terahertz. In this paper, we have developed a real-time chemical methodology through transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. The material of Zeonor 1020r is used as substrate and cover plate, and PDMS as channel interlayer. The transmission of the empty microfluidic chip is more than 80% in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz by THz-TDS system. Then, experiments were carried out using chips, which were filled with different volumes of 1, 2- propanediol, and it has been proved that the microfluidic chip could reduce the water absorption of terahertz. Finally, in order to further explore the reduction of terahertz to water absorption, we inject different concentrations of electrolyte to the chip. The results show that with the addition of different electrolytes, terahertz transmission line has evident changes. It can be taken into account that the electrolyte has different effects about the hydrogen bonds in the aqueous solution. Some of them can promote water molecules clusters, while others destroy them. Based on the basis of microfluidic chip, the discovery of this phenomenon can provide a way that reduces water absorption of terahertz. This work has laid a solid foundation for the subsequent study in reducing water absorption of terahertz.

  12. TiO.sub.2./sub. microsphere-based metamaterials exhibiting effective magnetic response in the terahertz regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yahiaoui, R.; Němec, Hynek; Kadlec, Christelle; Kadlec, Filip; Kužel, Petr; Chung, U.-C.; Elissalde, C.; Maglione, M.; Mounaix, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 4 (2012), s. 891-894 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz metamaterials * dielectric resonators * time-domain terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.545, year: 2012

  13. Intense Plasma Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz Probe Science with Ultrafast Lasers for Solid State Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    fabricated hollow core fibres . Using the OPA we have also studied high intensity THz generation in an organic crystal and optical nonlinearities in graphene... optical fibres (MOFs) recently developed in Bath for use at wavelengths of a few microns but made on a larger scale because of the much longer...Summary 2 1. Introduction 2. Two colour excitation of intense terahertz radiation in MOFs 2 3. Terahertz optical nonlinearities in

  14. Spectral distribution of the efficiency of terahertz difference frequency generation upon collinear propagation of interacting waves in semiconductor crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Polivanov, Yurii N

    2007-01-01

    Dispersion phase matching curves and spectral distributions of the efficiency of difference frequency generation in the terahertz range are calculated for collinear propagation of interacting waves in zinc blende semiconductor crystals (ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, GaAs). The effect of the pump wavelength, the nonlinear crystal length and absorption in the terahertz range on the spectral distribution of the efficiency of difference frequency generation is analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Terahertz heterodyne technology for astronomy and planetary science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Heterodyne detection techniques play an important role in high-resolution spectroscopy in astronomy and planetary science. In particular, heterodyne technology in the Terahertz range has rapidly evolved in recent years. Cryogenically cooled receivers approaching quantum-limited sensitivity have been

  16. Scattering of terahertz radiation from oriented carbon nanotube films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Schroeder, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Session title: IThC-THz Interactions with Condensed Matter. We report on the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to measure scattering from multi-walled carbon nanotubes aligned normal to the film plane. Measurements indicate scattering from the nanotubes is significantly stronger than...

  17. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...

  18. Super-terahertz heterodyne spectrometer using a quantum cascade laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy at super-terahertz frequencies (2-6 THz) can play a vital role in astronomical observation and atmospheric remote sensing. It provides unique and important information on the history of our universe and its evolution, by getting into the insight of the physical and

  19. Calculation of terahertz conductivity spectra in semiconductors with nanoscale modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrozek, J.; Němec, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 7 (2012), "075308-1"-"075308-7" ISSN 1098-0121 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * semiconductor nanostructures * far-infrared conductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  20. Bulk magnetic terahertz metamaterials based on dielectric microspheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindler, Michal; Kadlec, Christelle; Dominec, Filip; Kužel, Petr; Elissalde, C.; Kassas, A.; Lesseur, J.; Bernard, D.; Mounaix, P.; Němec, Hynek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 16 (2016), 18340-18345 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25639S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metamaterials * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  1. Charge transport in silicon nanocrystal superlattices in the terahertz regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Zajac, Vít; Kužel, Petr; Malý, P.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 19 (2015), "195443-1"-"195443-10" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * charge transport * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  2. Optically active Babinet planar metamaterial film for terahertz polarization manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, C.

    2013-01-01

    are characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, revealing anisotropic transmission with high optical activity. A simple coupled resonator model is applied to explain the principal optical features of the dimers, with predictive power of positions and number of resonances through a parametrical model...

  3. Wideband Integrated Lens Antennas for Terahertz Deep Space Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurduseven, O.

    2016-01-01

    The Terahertz (THz) band is the portion of the spectrum that covers a frequency range from 300 GHz to 3 THz. The potential of this band has been proven for numerous type of applications including medical imaging, non-destructive testing, space observation, spectroscopy and security screening, thanks

  4. Terahertz radiation mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Allen, S James [Santa Barbara, CA; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  5. Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures with multiple resonances in metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Singh, Leena; Xu, Ningning; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Weili; Xie, Lijuan

    2017-06-26

    Terahertz sensing of highly absorptive aqueous solutions remains challenging due to strong absorption of water in the terahertz regime. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective metamaterial-based sensor integrated with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for highly absorptive water-methanol mixture sensing. This metamaterial has simple asymmetric wire structures that support multiple resonances including a fundamental Fano resonance and higher order dipolar resonance in the terahertz regime. Both the resonance modes have strong intensity in the transmission spectra which we exploit for detection of the highly absorptive water-methanol mixtures. The experimentally characterized sensitivities of the Fano and dipole resonances for the water-methanol mixtures are found to be 160 and 305 GHz/RIU, respectively. This method provides a robust route for metamaterial-assisted terahertz sensing of highly absorptive chemical and biochemical materials with multiple resonances and high accuracy.

  6. Tunable terahertz radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

    2014-01-21

    Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

  7. Nonlinear optics and spectroscopy at the nanoscale with a hollow-pyramid aperture SNOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, P; Celebrano, M; Polli, D; Labardi, M; Zavelani-Rossi, M; Cerullo, G; Finazzi, M; Duo, L

    2007-01-01

    We report on a novel near-field microscope in which ultrashort laser pulses are coupled into hollow-pyramid cantilever probes. The high throughput, absence of polarization pinning and absence of chirping, which are premium features of such probes, enable obtaining sufficient peak power in the near-field to perform nonlinear optical experiments. We show experimental results on second-harmonic generation from metal nanostructures and two-photon excitation of fluorescent conjugated polymers on the subwavelength scale

  8. Numerical investigation of a scalable setup for efficient terahertz generation using a segmented tilted-pulse-front excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfalvi, László; Tóth, György; Tokodi, Levente; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Fülöp, József András; Almási, Gábor; Hebling, János

    2017-11-27

    A hybrid-type terahertz pulse source is proposed for high energy terahertz pulse generation. It is the combination of the conventional tilted-pulse-front setup and a transmission stair-step echelon-faced nonlinear crystal with a period falling in the hundred-micrometer range. The most important advantage of the setup is the possibility of using plane parallel nonlinear optical crystal for producing good-quality, symmetric terahertz beam. Another advantage of the proposed setup is the significant reduction of imaging errors, which is important in the case of wide pump beams that are used in high energy experiments. A one dimensional model was developed for determining the terahertz generation efficiency, and it was used for quantitative comparison between the proposed new hybrid setup and previously introduced terahertz sources. With lithium niobate nonlinear material, calculations predict an approximately ten-fold increase in the efficiency of the presently described hybrid terahertz pulse source with respect to that of the earlier proposed setup, which utilizes a reflective stair-step echelon and a prism shaped nonlinear optical crystal. By using pump pulses of 50 mJ pulse energy, 500 fs pulse length and 8 mm beam spot radius, approximately 1% conversion efficiency and 0.5 mJ terahertz pulse energy can be reached with the newly proposed setup.

  9. High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz...

  10. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay А.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  11. Multiphoton Absorption Order of CsPbBr3 As Determined by Wavelength-Dependent Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouma, Felix O; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Kim, Yong Soo; Jang, Joon I

    2017-10-05

    CsPbBr 3 is a direct-gap semiconductor where optical absorption takes place across the fundamental bandgap, but this all-inorganic halide perovskite typically exhibits above-bandgap emission when excited over an energy level, lying above the conduction-band minimum. We probe this bandgap anomaly using wavelength-dependent multiphoton absorption spectroscopy and find that the fundamental gap is strictly two-photon forbidden, rendering it three-photon absorption (3PA) active. Instead, two-photon absorption (2PA) commences when the two-photon energy is resonant with the optical gap, associated with the level causing the anomaly. We determine absolute nonlinear optical dispersion over this 3PA-2PA region, which can be explained by two-band models in terms of the optical gap. The polarization dependence of 3PA and 2PA is also measured and explained by the relevant selection rules. CsPbBr 3 is highly luminescent under multiphoton absorption at room temperature with marked polarization and wavelength dependence at the 3PA-2PA crossover and therefore has potential for nonlinear optical applications.

  12. Linear and nonlinear surface spectroscopy of supported size selected metal clusters and organic adsorbates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaemer, Martin Georg

    2012-03-08

    The spectroscopic investigation of supported size selected metal clusters over a wide wavelength range plays an important role for understanding their outstanding catalytic properties. The challenge which must be overcome to perform such measurements is the difficult detection of the weak spectroscopic signals from these samples. As a consequence, highly sensitive spectroscopic methods are applied, such as surface Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and surface Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy. The spectroscopic apparatus developed is shown to have a sensitivity which is high enough to detect sub-monolayer coverages of adsorbates on surfaces. In the measured spectra of small supported silver clusters of the sizes Ag{sub 4}2, Ag{sub 2}1, Ag{sub 9}, and Ag atoms a stepwise transition from particles with purely metallic character to particles with molecule-like properties can be observed within this size range.

  13. Terahertz Radome Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Friederich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radomes protecting sensitive radar, navigational, and communications equipment of, e.g., aircraft, are strongly exposed to the environment and have to withstand harsh weather conditions and potential impacts. Besides their significance to the structural integrity of the radomes, it is often crucial to optimize the composite structures for best possible radio performance. Hence, there exists a significant interest in non-destructive testing techniques, which can be used for defect inspection of radomes in field use as well as for quality inspection during the manufacturing process. Contactless millimeter-wave and terahertz imaging techniques provide millimeter resolution and have the potential to address both application scenarios. We report on our development of a three-dimensional (3D terahertz imaging system for radome inspection during industrial manufacturing processes. The system was designed for operation within a machining center for radome manufacturing. It simultaneously gathers terahertz depth information in adjacent frequency ranges, from 70 to 110 GHz and from 110 to 170 GHz by combining two frequency modulated continuous-wave terahertz sensing units into a single measurement device. Results from spiraliform image acquisition of a radome test sample demonstrate the successful integration of the measurement system.

  14. Terahertz Wave Approach and Application on FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Hee Im

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz applications have emerged as one of the most new powerful nondestructive evaluation (NDE techniques. A new T-ray time-domain spectroscopy system was utilized for detecting and evaluating orientation influence in carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs composite laminates. Investigation of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS was made, and reflection and transmission configurations were studied as a nondestructive evaluation technique. Here, the CFRP composites derived their excellent mechanical strength, stiffness, and electrical conductivity from carbon fibers. Especially, the electrical conductivity of the CFRP composites depends on the direction of unidirectional fibers since carbon fibers are electrically conducting while the epoxy matrix is not. In order to solve various material properties, the index of refraction (n and the absorption coefficient (α are derived in reflective and transmission configurations using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Also, for a 48-ply thermoplastic polyphenylene-sulfide-(PPS- based CFRP solid laminate and nonconducting materials, the terahertz scanning images were made at the angles ranged from 0° to 180° with respect to the nominal fiber axis. So, the images were mapped out based on the electrical field (E-field direction in the CFRP solid laminates. It is found that the conductivity (σ depends on the angles of the nominal axis in the unidirectional fiber.

  15. Dielectric characterization of glasses at millimeter wavelength and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Afsar, Mohammed N.

    2007-09-01

    Dielectric characterization of glasses and amorphous materials has been done with two terahertz time-domain spectroscopies at millimeter wavelength and terahertz frequencies. A quasi-optical free-space spectrometer is equipped with a backward-wave oscillator as a high power tunable source of coherent radiation and utilized in this research. The measurement technique is based on the transverse magneto-optical effect to enable the determination of the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric permittivity of various glass specimens from 70 to 120 GHz. Above 120 GHz dispersive Fourier transform spectrometer is more effective to provide high resolution continuous spectra of dielectric permittivity up to 800 GHz. The real part of permittivity can be reproduced to 1 part in 100,000. The complex dielectric spectra of high purity fused silica glasses clearly show the existence of boson peaks at terahertz frequencies.

  16. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marazzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (polypeptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes—often drugs or pollutants—that can (photosensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photosensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  17. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes-often drugs or pollutants-that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  18. [Terahertz and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation of Cellulose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo-hua; Zhang, Le; Shentu, Nan-ying

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the Terahertz's application prospect, corn, wheat husk and reed were used to detect their Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy, and be compared with that of cellulose powder. The experimental results show that all of their absorption peaks exist at 1.75, 1.62, 1.1, and 0.7 THz. Absorption intensity of cellulose powder, corn, wheat husk and reed were compared in some frequencies points. It finds that corn, wheat husk and reed have higher absorption intensity than cellulose powder in early frequency domain. However, absorption intensity of cellulose powder is the strongest at 1.62 THz. Cellulose content in corn, wheat husk and reed were detected by using the method of chemical analysis. The peaks of absorption coefficient are related to their cellulose content at this frequency. It shows that plant cellulose occur lattice vibration in the frequency. Deformation, bending, flexing, and other changes appear to their functional keys. Quantum chemical calculation was carried out by using density functional theory to cellulose and the structure diagram of cellulose molecular formula was obtained. It also finds some absorption peaks exist at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.75 THz. Characterization of cellulose clusters mainly includes CH2, OH, CH, and so on. Glucose hydroxyl radical on the ring is active in the cellulose chain. Where hydroxyl related chemical reaction can occur, Hydroxyl can also be integrated into the intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bond. Terahertz wave can promote hydrogen bond vibration. This kind of vibration is weak in the intermolecular interaction. The vibration and rotating happen in dipole transition. The crystal lattice rotates and is absorptive in low frequency, and large molecular skeleton vibrates. All of them can show different intensity and position of the absorption peak in the terahertz band. Corn and cellulose were analyzed by infrared spectrum. The reverse and vibration mode of cellulose was discussed. The absorption peak is

  19. Broadband, Spectrally Flat, Graphene-based Terahertz Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fenghua; Chen, Yihang; Han, Peng; Tassin, Philippe

    2015-12-02

    Advances in the efficient manipulation of terahertz waves are crucial for the further development of terahertz technology, promising applications in many diverse areas, such as biotechnology and spectroscopy, to name just a few. Due to its exceptional electronic and optical properties, graphene is a good candidate for terahertz electro-absorption modulators. However, graphene-based modulators demonstrated to date are limited in bandwidth due to Fabry-Perot oscillations in the modulators' substrate. Here, a novel method is demonstrated to design electrically controlled graphene-based modulators that can achieve broadband and spectrally flat modulation of terahertz beams. In our design, a graphene layer is sandwiched between a dielectric and a slightly doped substrate on a metal reflector. It is shown that the spectral dependence of the electric field intensity at the graphene layer can be dramatically modified by optimizing the structural parameters of the device. In this way, the electric field intensity can be spectrally flat and even compensate for the dispersion of the graphene conductivity, resulting in almost invariant absorption in a wide frequency range. Modulation depths up to 76% can be achieved within a fractional operational bandwidth of over 55%. It is expected that our modulator designs will enable the use of terahertz technology in applications requiring broadband operation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dibo; Li, Xian; Cai, Jinhui; Ma, Yehao; Kang, Xusheng; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin

    2014-09-21

    Human dehydrated normal and cancerous gastric tissues were measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Based on the obtained terahertz absorption spectra, the contrasts between the two kinds of tissue were investigated and techniques for automatic identification of cancerous tissue were studied. Distinctive differences were demonstrated in both the shape and amplitude of the absorption spectra between normal and tumor tissue. Additionally, some spectral features in the range of 0.2~0.5 THz and 1~1.5 THz were revealed for all cancerous gastric tissues. To systematically achieve the identification of gastric cancer, principal component analysis combined with t-test was used to extract valuable information indicating the best distinction between the two types. Two clustering approaches, K-means and support vector machine (SVM), were then performed to classify the processed terahertz data into normal and cancerous groups. SVM presented a satisfactory result with less false classification cases. The results of this study implicate the potential of the terahertz technique to detect gastric cancer. The applied data analysis methodology provides a suggestion for automatic discrimination of terahertz spectra in other applications.

  1. Homeland Security, Medical, Pharmaceutical and Non-destructive Testing Applications of Terahertz Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael

    2005-03-01

    The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (300GHz-10THz) spans the region between radio and light. Recent advances in terahertz source, detector and systems technology are enabling new applications across a number of fields, based on both terahertz imaging and spectroscopy. This paper reviews our recent work on the development of practical systems and applications in security screening for the detection of explosives and non-metallic weapons; in medical imaging for cancer detection; as well as applications in non-destructive testing and the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Gripe water-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their applications in nonlinear optics and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubha, E.; Vishista, K.; Palanisamy, P. K.

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple, eco-friendly and `green' method using gripe water as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. Control over the dispersity of silver (Ag) nanoparticles was attained by altering the synthesis process. The size and morphology of the particles were perceived using high-resolution transmission electron microscope and the surface plasmon resonance of the prepared nanoparticles was observed by UV-VIS spectrum. Herein, we report the nonlinear optical behavior and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of silver nanoparticles with different particle size and dispersity. The nonlinear optical behavior was studied by single beam Z-scan technique using tunable Ti: Sapphire mode-locked femtosecond laser as source. The nonlinear optical parameters such as the nonlinear refractive index, nonlinear absorption coefficient β and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ 3 of the prepared Ag nanoparticles were obtained for various wavelengths by tuning the wavelength of the laser from 700 to 950 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an inspiring phenomenon especially in the case of silver nanoparticles. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles show huge enhancements in the order of 109 in the Raman spectrum of rhodamine 6G dye.

  3. Development of broad bandwidth nonlinear spectroscopies for characterization of electronic states in materials systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlenbacher, Randy D.

    Carbon nanotubes are an interesting class of materials with many exceptional properties that make them appealing for optoelectronic devices. Their optical properties, particularly when cast in thin films, are not well understood. In this thesis, I describe the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring energy and charge transport processes in thin films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, I observe energy transport on two time scales in these films, with 20% of nanotubes transferring energy to smaller bandgap nanotubes within 300 fs. After 3 ps, 70% of the photoexcitation resides on small bandgap nanotubes. To study the complete landscape of energy transport in thin films of carbon nanotubes, I developed two dimensional white light spectroscopy (2D-WL). In 2D-WL spectroscopy, a broadband, white light supercontinuum is used to both excite and probe the sample. This technique has a bandwidth spanning > 500-1500 nm, a far broader bandwidth than previously reported in 2D electronic spectra. I take advantage of this large bandwidth to study the interactions and evolution of S1 and S2 excitons in a thin film of carbon nanotubes. I find that energy transfers between S1 excitons on a 2 ps time scale and occurs by a non-Forster energy transfer mechanism. In contrast, the energy in the S2 states redistributes on an ultrafast time scale, films of bare, semiconducting carbon nanotubes. In these films, energy transfer occurs in <100 fs between bare carbon nanotubes and this energy transfer is between parallel nanotubes. By taking advantage of the laser pulse polarization for each interaction, I resolve otherwise difficult to observe couplings between electronic states. To facilitate data interpretation, the orientational response for isotropic two dimensional samples to polarized electric fields is developed. Using polarization control 2D-WL spectroscopy, I measure the coupling between nanotube S1 transitions and radial

  4. Terahertz birefringence of potassium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsygin, V. D.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Nikolaev, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present terahertz optical properties (refractive indices and absorption coefficients) of potassium niobate crystals measured by time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.2-2.0 THz. We observe average refractive indices nx = 5.25, ny = 4.8, nz = 5.9 for corresponding optical axes X, Y, Z with the large birefringence of Δn = nz - ny = 1.1. We report rising absorption coefficient at higher frequencies (α ∼ 50 cm-1 at 1 THz for all three axes) while the dichroism is not pronounced. Somewhat higher absorption compared to the previous results could be attributed to some polydomain structure remaining in the crystal.

  5. Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P

    2012-01-01

    Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.

  6. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  7. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  8. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Broadband terahertz dynamics of propylene glycol monomer and oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Shota; Mori, Tatsuya; Kojima, Seiji

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the broadband terahertz spectra (0.1-5.0 THz) of glass-forming liquids, propylene glycol (PG), its oligomers poly (propylene glycol)s (PPGs), and poly (propylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PPG-de) using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman scattering. The numerical value of the dielectric loss at around 1.5 THz, which is the peak position of broad peaks in all samples, decreased as the molecular weight increased. Furthermore, the peak at around 1.5 THz is insensitive to the molecular weight. For PPGs, the side chain effect of the oligomer was observed in the terahertz region. Based on the experimental and calculation results for the PPGs and PPG-de, whose end groups are epoxy groups, the beginnings of the increases in the observed dielectric loss above 3.5 THz of the PPGs are assigned to the OH bending vibration. The higher value of the dielectric loss in the terahertz region for the PPG-de can be the tail of a broad peak located in the MHz region. The difference between the Raman susceptibility and dielectric loss reflects the difference in the observable molecular dynamics between the infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  10. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenov, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Nenov@unibo.it; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K. [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Rivalta, Ivan [Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Cerullo, Giulio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States); Garavelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.garavelli@unibo.it, E-mail: marco.garavelli@ens-lyon.fr [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-06-07

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040–1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  11. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, Artur; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040-1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  12. Intense terahertz excitation of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ganichev, S D

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive treatment of high-power terahertz applications to semiconductors and low-dimensional semiconductor structures. Terahertz properties of semiconductors are in the centre of scientific activities because of the need of high-speed electronics.

  13. Nonlinearly Additive Forces in Multivalent Ligand Binding to a Single Protein Revealed with Force Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, T V; Rudd, R E; Langry, K C; Balhorn, R L; McElfresh, M W

    2005-07-15

    We present evidence of multivalent interactions between a single protein molecule and multiple carbohydrates at a pH where the protein can bind four ligands. The evidence is based not only on measurements of the force required to rupture the bonds formed between ConcanavalinA (ConA) and {alpha}-D-mannose, but also on an analysis of the polymer-extension force curves to infer the polymer architecture that binds the protein to the cantilever and the ligands to the substrate. We find that although the rupture forces for multiple carbohydrate connections to a single protein are larger than the rupture force for a single connection, they do not scale additively with increasing number. Specifically, the most common rupture forces are approximately 46, 66, and 85 pN, which we argue corresponds to 1, 2, and 3 ligands being pulled simultaneously from a single protein as corroborated by an analysis of the linkage architecture. As in our previous work polymer tethers allow us to discriminate between specific and non-specific binding. We analyze the binding configuration (i.e. serial versus parallel connections) through fitting the polymer stretching data with modified Worm-Like Chain (WLC) models that predict how the effective stiffness of the tethers is affected by multiple connections. This analysis establishes that the forces we measure are due to single proteins interacting with multiple ligands, the first force spectroscopy study that establishes single-molecule multivalent binding unambiguously.

  14. Efficient Vibrational Energy Transfer through Covalent Bond in Indigo Carmine Revealed by Nonlinear IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemei; Yu, Pengyun; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianping

    2017-10-12

    Ultrafast vibrational relaxation and structural dynamics of indigo carmine in dimethyl sulfoxide were examined using femtosecond pump-probe infrared and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopies. Using the intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded C═O and delocalized C═C stretching modes as infrared probes, local structural and dynamical variations of this blue dye molecule were observed. Energy relaxation of the vibrationally excited C═O stretching mode was found to occur through covalent bond to the delocalized aromatic vibrational modes on the time scale of a few picoseconds or less. Vibrational quantum beating was observed in magic-angle pump-probe, anisotropy, and 2D IR cross-peak dynamics, showing an oscillation period of ca. 1010 fs, which corresponds to the energy difference between the C═O and C═C transition frequency (33 cm -1 ). This confirms a resonant vibrational energy transfer happened between the two vibrators. However, a more efficient energy-accepting mode of the excited C═O stretching was believed to be a nearby combination and/or overtone mode that is more tightly connected to the C═O species. On the structural aspect, dynamical-time-dependent 2D IR spectra reveal an insignificant inhomogeneous contribution to time-correlation relaxation for both the C═O and C═C stretching modes, which is in agreement with the generally believed structural rigidity of such conjugated molecules.

  15. Terahertz field control of interlayer transport modes in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Dietrich, Anastasia S. D.; Kiffner, Martin; Cavalleri, Andrea; Jaksch, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    We theoretically show that terahertz pulses with controlled amplitude and frequency can be used to switch between stable transport modes in layered superconductors, modeled as stacks of Josephson junctions. We find pulse shapes that deterministically switch the transport mode between superconducting, resistive, and solitonic states. We develop a simple model that explains the switching mechanism as a destabilization of the center-of-mass excitation of the Josephson phase, made possible by the highly nonlinear nature of the light-matter coupling.

  16. Nonlinear optical response of a gold surface in the visible range: A study by two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy. I. Experimental determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstein, L; Revel, A; Humbert, C; Busson, B

    2018-04-07

    We experimentally determine the effective nonlinear second-order susceptibility of gold over the visible spectral range. To reach that goal, we probe by vibrational two-color sum-frequency generation spectroscopy the methyl stretching region of a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer adsorbed on a gold film. The sum-frequency generation spectra show a remarkable shape reversal when the visible probe wavelength is tuned from 435 to 705 nm. After correcting from Fresnel effects, the methyl stretching vibrations serve as an internal reference, allowing to extract the dispersion of the absolute phase and relative amplitude of the effective nonlinear optical response of gold in the visible range.

  17. All-integrated terahertz modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Kindness, Stephen J.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (0.1-10 THz corresponding to vacuum wavelengths between 30 μm and 3 mm) research has experienced impressive progress in the last few decades. The importance of this frequency range stems from unique applications in several fields, including spectroscopy, communications, and imaging. THz emitters have experienced great development recently with the advent of the quantum cascade laser, the improvement in the frequency range covered by electronic-based sources, and the increased performance and versatility of time domain spectroscopic systems based on full-spectrum lasers. However, the lack of suitable active optoelectronic devices has hindered the ability of THz technologies to fulfill their potential. The high demand for fast, efficient integrated optical components, such as amplitude, frequency, and polarization modulators, is driving one of the most challenging research areas in photonics. This is partly due to the inherent difficulties in using conventional integrated modulation techniques. This article aims to provide an overview of the different approaches and techniques recently employed in order to overcome this bottleneck.

  18. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  19. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  20. Terahertz wave techniques using a metal mesh for evaluating the components of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukoshi, Koji; Yonekura, Kazuki; Ogura, Hidehiro; Guan, Yu; Kawase, Kodo

    2013-02-01

    Terahertz waves are located in the region of the spectrum between milliwaves and infrared. We analyzed the feasibility of terahertz spectroscopy to inspect the compositional variations of the stratum corneum (SC). We used a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the metal mesh technique. To investigate whether terahertz can inspect compositional variation of SC, we measured the terahertz frequency spectra of the SC sheet that was treated with chloroform-methanol, lipid mixture, a denaturation agent, and heating with hot air. The chloroform-methanol treatment of the SC shifted the dip position, which represents a convex downward shape of the spectra, to a higher frequency. This dip shift was reversed to an untreated position by the dose-dependent application of a lipid mixture. The heating treatment of the SC shifted the dip position to a higher frequency. The same dip shift was also induced by the application of a denaturation agent to the SC. The technique using terahertz waves with a metal mesh is effective because of its simplicity and its high degree of accuracy in detecting the amount of lipid and the protein conformation state. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Superiority of terahertz over infrared transmission through bandages and burn wound ointments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Jonathan Y., E-mail: j.suen@duke.edu; Padilla, Willie J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Terahertz electromagnetic waves have long been proposed to be ideal for spectroscopy and imaging through non-polar dielectric materials that contain no water. Terahertz radiation may thus be useful for monitoring burn and wound injury recovery, as common care treatments involve application of both a clinical dressing and topical ointment. Here, we investigate the optical properties of typical care treatments in the millimeter wave (150–300 GHz), terahertz (0.3–3 THz), and infrared (14.5–0.67 μm) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find that THz radiation realizes low absorption coefficients and high levels of transmission compared to infrared wavelengths, which were strongly attenuated. Terahertz imaging can enable safe, non-ionizing, noninvasive monitoring of the healing process directly through clinical dressings and recovery ointments, minimizing the frequency of dressing changes and thus increasing the rate of the healing process.

  2. Ultralow temperature terahertz magnetic thermodynamics of perovskite-like SmFeO3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Wang, Dongyang; Chi Zhang, Hao; Han, Jiaguang; Jun Cui, Tie

    2015-01-01

    The terahertz magnetic properties of perovskite-like SmFeO3 ceramic are investigated over a broad temperature range, especially at ultralow temperatures, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It is shown that both resonant frequencies of quasi-ferromagnetic and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes have blue shifts with the decreasing temperature due to the enhancement of effective magnetic field. The temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy constants are further estimated using the resonant frequencies, under the approximation of omitting the contribution of Sm3+ magnetic moments to the effective field. Specially, the effective anisotropy constants in the ca and cb planes at 3 K are 6.63 × 105 erg/g and 8.48 × 105 erg/g, respectively. This thoroughly reveals the terahertz magnetic thermodynamics of orthoferrites and will be beneficial to the application in terahertz magnetism. PMID:26424488

  3. Ultralow temperature terahertz magnetic thermodynamics of perovskite-like SmFeO3 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Wang, Dongyang; Chi Zhang, Hao; Han, Jiaguang; Jun Cui, Tie

    2015-10-01

    The terahertz magnetic properties of perovskite-like SmFeO3 ceramic are investigated over a broad temperature range, especially at ultralow temperatures, using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It is shown that both resonant frequencies of quasi-ferromagnetic and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes have blue shifts with the decreasing temperature due to the enhancement of effective magnetic field. The temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy constants are further estimated using the resonant frequencies, under the approximation of omitting the contribution of Sm(3+) magnetic moments to the effective field. Specially, the effective anisotropy constants in the ca and cb planes at 3 K are 6.63 × 10(5) erg/g and 8.48 × 10(5) erg/g, respectively. This thoroughly reveals the terahertz magnetic thermodynamics of orthoferrites and will be beneficial to the application in terahertz magnetism.

  4. Optical bistability of graphene in the terahertz range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Bludov, Yu V.; Santos, Jaime E.

    2014-01-01

    We use an exact solution of the relaxation-time Boltzmann equation in a uniform ac electric field to describe the nonlinear optical response of graphene in the terahertz (THz) range. The cases of monolayer, bilayer, and ABA-stacked trilayer graphene are considered, and the monolayer species...... is shown to be the most appropriate one to exploit the nonlinear free electron response. We find that a single layer of graphene shows optical bistability in the THz range, within the electromagnetic power range attainable in practice. The current associated with the third harmonic generation is also...

  5. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  6. Practical microstructured and plasmonic terahertz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Andrey

    The terahertz frequency range, with frequencies lying between 100 GHz and 10 THz, has strong potential for various technological and scientific applications such as sensing, imaging, communications, and spectroscopy. Most terahertz (THz) sources are immobile and THz systems use free-space propagation in dry air where losses are minimal. Designing efficient THz waveguides for flexible delivery of broadband THz radiation is an important step towards practical applications of terahertz techniques. THz waveguides can be very useful on the system integration level when used for connection of the diverse THz point devices, such as sources, filters, sensor cells, detectors, etc. The most straightforward application of waveguides is to deliver electromagnetic waves from the source to the point of detection. Cumbersome free-space optics can be replaced by waveguides operating in the THz range, which could lead to the development of compact THz time domain spectroscopy systems. Other promising applications of THz waveguides are in sensing and imaging. THz waveguides have also been shown to operate in subwavelength regimes, offering mode confinement in waveguide structures with a size smaller than the diffraction limit, and thus, surpassing the resolution of free-space THz imaging systems. In order to design efficient terahertz waveguides, the frequency dependent loss and dispersion of the waveguide must be minimized. A possible solution would be to increase the fraction of mode power propagating through air. In this thesis, the usage of planar porous air/dielectric waveguides and metal wire/dielectric hybrid terahertz fibers will be discussed. First, I present a novel design of a planar porous low-loss waveguide, describe its fabrication, and characterize it in view of its potential applications as a low-loss waveguide and sensor in the THz spectral range. The waveguide structure features a periodic sequence of layers of thin (25-50 mum) polyethylene film that are separated

  7. Terahertz substance imaging by waveform shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Minwoo; Kim, Hyosub; Jin, Kyong Hwan; Ye, Jong Chul; Ahn, Jaewook

    2012-08-27

    Terahertz pulse shaping technique is used to adaptively design terahertz waveforms of enhanced spectral correlation to particular materials among a given set of materials. In a proof-of-principle experiment performed with a two-dimensional image target consisted of meta-materials of distinctive resonance frequencies, the as-designed waveforms are used to demonstrate terahertz substance imaging. It is hoped that this material-specific terahertz waveforms may enable single- or few-shot terahertz material classification when being used in conjunction with terahertz power measurement.

  8. Quantum behavior of terahertz photoconductivity in silicon nanocrystals networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pushkarev, Vladimir; Ostatnický, T.; Němec, Hynek; Chlouba, T.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.; Zacharias, M.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Kužel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 125424. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03662S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 607521 - NOTEDEV Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * charge transport * silicon nanocrystals * linear response theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  9. Terahertz imaging for styrofoam inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradarutti, B.; Riehemann, S.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.

    2007-09-01

    Imaging of styrofoam with the help of ultrashort Terahertz pulses is investigated. With a combination of pulse amplitude and time delay imaging it is possible to speed up the measurement about two orders of magnitudes.

  10. Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shur, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...

  11. [Identification of adulterants in adulterated milks by near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Jun; Zhong, Lin; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Li-Guo; Huang, Shi-Xinz

    2014-10-01

    correlative analysis between the discrimination accuracy rate and the content levels of the adulterants indicated that near infrared spectroscopy combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods can distinguish dextrin and starch in milks with higher concentration levels (> 0.15%), but do not work well on identifying the adulterants with lower concentrations such as melamine (365.5 to 1,096.5 mg kg(-1)), urea (524 to 1,572 mg · kg(-1)), ammonium nitrate (700 to 2,100 mg · kg(-1)). Therefore near Infrared Spectroscopy is not suitable for identifying the adulterants with concentrations are below 0.1%.

  12. Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-22

    This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.

  13. Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.

  14. spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-14

    Oct 14, 2015 ... Full Length Research Paper. Determination of lactic acid bacteria in Kaşar cheese and identification by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. İlkay Turhan1* and Zübeyde Öner2. 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetic, School of Health Sciences, T.C.Istanbul Arel University, 34537 Buyukcekmece /.

  15. Terahertz Rotational Spectroscopy of the so Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Eliet, S.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Sulfur monoxide SO (X^3Σ^-) is a well-known interstellar radical identified in a wide variety of astrophysical environments. Due to its high reactivity and its role in chemical reactions involving O and S atoms, SO is also a reaction intermediate in combustion processes and chemistry of the Earth atmosphere. We have recorded pure rotational transitions of SO in the THz spectral range using synchrotron-based Fourier-Transform (FT) FIR and continous wave (CW) THz techniques. A FT-FIR spectrum of SO has been recorded at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron in the spectral range 44-93 wn using a resolution of 0.001 wn allowing an accuracy on line position of 0.00007 wn (≃ 2 MHz). A multipass absorption discharge cell aligned to an absorption path length of 24 m has been used. A continuous electrical discharge (1 A / 980 V) in a flowing mixture of H_2S, He, H_2 and air (respectively at pressure of 0.01, 1.15, 0.14 and 0.06 mbar) was used to produce SO. On this spectrum, 102 transitions of SO have been identified with N=31 to 65. Among the observed lines, 99 are detected for the first time (22 new transitions belong to the HIFI spectral windows). Due to our limited instrumental resolution, transitions involving N ranging from 31 to 43 show unresolved fine structure triplets. Recently, in order to observe all fine structure components in the HIFI spectral windows, we have recorded a high resolution CW-THz spectrum of SO. At the time of the writing, this spectrum was under analysis. C. A. Gottlieb and J. A. Ball, Astrophys. J. 184, L59 (1973) G.A. Blake et al., Astrophys. J. 315, 621 (1987) J. B. Burkholder et al., J. Mol. Spectrosc. 124, 379 (1987) M. A. Martin-Drumel et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 113106 (2011) S. Eliet et al., J. Mol. Struct. 1006, 13 (2011)

  16. Quasi-near field terahertz spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkittakandy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday we see around us many materials that are different from one another. We identify them on the basis of their shape, texture, smell, taste, color, etc with the help of our senses. Many times it is almost impossible to identify materials only with our senses. Then, one has to look into more

  17. Ultrabroadband terahertz spectroscopy of a liquid crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieweg, N.; Fischer, B. M.; Reuter, M.

    2012-01-01

    present the frequency dependent index of refraction and the absorption coefficients of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB over a frequency range from 0.3 THz to 15 THz using a dispersion-free THz time-domain spectrometer system based on two-color plasma generation and air biased coherent detection (ABCD). We...

  18. Third-harmonic terahertz generation from graphene in a parallel-plate waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaeipour, Parvin; Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Dignam, Marc M.

    2018-01-01

    Graphene as a zero-band-gap two-dimensional semiconductor with a linear electron band dispersion near the Dirac points has the potential to exhibit very interesting nonlinear optical properties. In particular, third-harmonic generation of terahertz radiation should occur due to the nonlinear relationship between the crystal momentum and the current density. In this work, we investigate the terahertz nonlinear response of graphene inside a parallel-plate waveguide. We optimize the plate separation and Fermi energy of the graphene to maximize third-harmonic generation, by maximizing the nonlinear interaction while minimizing the loss and phase mismatch. The results obtained show an increase by more than a factor of 100 in the power efficiency relative to a normal-incidence configuration for a 2.0-THz incident field.

  19. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  20. Terahertz time-domain reflectometry of multilayered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. Bianca

    Presented in this work are applications of terahertz pulse ranging, spectroscopy and imaging to the nondestructive evaluation of three disparate multilayer systems for the detection and measurement of hidden layers, as well as the extraction of system information that will aid in its maintenance, repair or replacement. Thermal protection systems for turbine engine components were investigated. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and thermally-grown oxide (TGO) thicknesses were determined with 10 micron resolution using time-of-flight and refractive index calculations. Two alternative methods of monitoring TGO growth using reflection amplitudes and spectral shifts were proposed for the prediction of TBC failure. Laser-machined defects as narrow as 50 microns were resolved in one- and two-dimensional images. The light and dark rings of trees, which reflect the changes in tree growth density over the course of a year, are measurable using pulsed terahertz beams. Tree-rings of bare and painted wood specimen were laterally and axially tomographically imaged in order to facilitate the dendrochronological cross-dating of artifacts. Comparisons were made between photographs and terahertz images to demonstrate the reliability of the technique. Historically, numerous unique artworks have been lost through the act of being covered over time. Samples of paintings, drawings and mosaics were imaged beneath layers of paint and plaster using pulsed-terahertz techniques to demonstrate the efficacy of the technique for art history and restoration. Sketch materials and pigments were measured, between 0.05 and 1.0 THz, to help identify colors in spectroscopic images. Other computational and processing methods were used to optimize the distinction between color domains. Additional time-domain terahertz applications for the examination of artwork and other artifacts were proposed.

  1. A hierarchical spectral clustering and nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme for detection of prostate cancer from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been shown to have great clinical potential as a supplement to magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer (CaP). MRS provides functional information in the form of changes in the relative concentration of specific metabolites including choline, creatine, and citrate which can be used to identify potential areas of CaP. With a view to assisting radiologists in interpretation and analysis of MRS data, some researchers have begun to develop computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes for CaP identification from spectroscopy. Most of these schemes have been centered on identifying and integrating the area under metabolite peaks which is then used to compute relative metabolite ratios. However, manual identification of metabolite peaks on the MR spectra, and especially via CAD, is a challenging problem due to low signal-to-noise ratio, baseline irregularity, peak overlap, and peak distortion. In this article the authors present a novel CAD scheme that integrates nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) with an unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithm to automatically identify suspicious regions on the prostate using MRS and hence avoids the need to explicitly identify metabolite peaks. The methodology comprises two stages. In stage 1, a hierarchical spectral clustering algorithm is used to distinguish between extracapsular and prostatic spectra in order to localize the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to the prostate. Once the prostate ROI is localized, in stage 2, a NLDR scheme, in conjunction with a replicated clustering algorithm, is used to automatically discriminate between three classes of spectra (normal appearing, suspicious appearing, and indeterminate). The methodology was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated on a total of 18 1.5 T in vivo prostate T2-weighted (w) and MRS studies obtained from the multisite, multi-institutional American College of Radiology (ACRIN) trial. In the

  2. A hierarchical spectral clustering and nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme for detection of prostate cancer from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been shown to have great clinical potential as a supplement to magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of prostate cancer (CaP). MRS provides functional information in the form of changes in the relative concentration of specific metabolites including choline, creatine, and citrate which can be used to identify potential areas of CaP. With a view to assisting radiologists in interpretation and analysis of MRS data, some researchers have begun to develop computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes for CaP identification from spectroscopy. Most of these schemes have been centered on identifying and integrating the area under metabolite peaks which is then used to compute relative metabolite ratios. However, manual identification of metabolite peaks on the MR spectra, and especially via CAD, is a challenging problem due to low signal-to-noise ratio, baseline irregularity, peak overlap, and peak distortion. In this article the authors present a novel CAD scheme that integrates nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) with an unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithm to automatically identify suspicious regions on the prostate using MRS and hence avoids the need to explicitly identify metabolite peaks. The methodology comprises two stages. In stage 1, a hierarchical spectral clustering algorithm is used to distinguish between extracapsular and prostatic spectra in order to localize the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to the prostate. Once the prostate ROI is localized, in stage 2, a NLDR scheme, in conjunction with a replicated clustering algorithm, is used to automatically discriminate between three classes of spectra (normal appearing, suspicious appearing, and indeterminate). The methodology was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated on a total of 18 1.5 T in vivo prostate T2-weighted (w) and MRS studies obtained from the multisite, multi-institutional American College of Radiology (ACRIN) trial. In the

  3. 36th Annual International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittleman, Daniel M. [Rice University

    2011-12-31

    The Major Topic List of the 2011 conference featured a category entitled “IR, millimeter-wave, and THz spectroscopy,” another entitled “Gyro-Oscillators and Amplifiers, Plasma Diagnostics,” and a third called “Free Electron Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation.” Topical areas of interest to meeting participants include millimeter-wave electronics, high-power sources, high-frequency communications systems, and terahertz sensing and imaging, all of which are prominent in the research portfolios of the DOE. The development and study of new materials, components, and systems for use in the IR, THz, and MMW regions of the spectrum are of significant interest as well. a series of technical sessions were organized on the following topics: terahertz metamaterials and plasmonics; imaging techniques and applications; graphene spectroscopy; waveguide concepts; gyrotron science and technology; ultrafast terahertz measurements; and quantum cascade lasers.

  4. Active terahertz metamaterial devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Houtong; Padilla, Willie John; Averitt, Richard Douglas; O'Hara, John F.; Lee, Mark

    2010-11-02

    Metamaterial structures are taught which provide for the modulation of terahertz frequency signals. Each element within an array of metamaterial (MM) elements comprises multiple loops and at least one gap. The MM elements may comprise resonators with conductive loops and insulated gaps, or the inverse in which insulated loops are present with conductive gaps; each providing useful transmissive control properties. The metamaterial elements are fabricated on a semiconducting substrate configured with a means of enhancing or depleting electrons from near the gaps of the MM elements. An on to off transmissivity ratio of about 0.5 is achieved with this approach. Embodiments are described in which the MM elements incorporated within a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) to provide surface emitting (SE) properties.

  5. Terahertz imaging applied to cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, M.-A.; Formanek, F.; Yasuda, A.; Sekine, M.; Ando, N.; Eishii, Y.

    2010-08-01

    We report on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy imaging of 10 µm thick histological sections. The sections are prepared according to standard pathological procedures and deposited on a quartz window for measurements in reflection geometry. Simultaneous acquisition of visible images enables registration of THz images and thus the use of digital pathology tools to investigate the links between the underlying cellular structure and specific THz information. An analytic model taking into account the polarization of the THz beam, its incidence angle, the beam shift between the reference and sample pulses as well as multiple reflections within the sample is employed to determine the frequency-dependent complex refractive index. Spectral images are produced through segmentation of the extracted refractive index data using clustering methods. Comparisons of visible and THz images demonstrate spectral differences not only between tumor and healthy tissues but also within tumors. Further visualization using principal component analysis suggests different mechanisms as to the origin of image contrast.

  6. Polymer fiber waveguides for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian

    profile, while the hollow core fibers hold the promise for lowest loss but at the cost of lower bandwidth. In both cases the fabrication and characterization of the fibers is presented. The fibers are also investigated numerically and the numerical results are held up against the experimental results......Terahertz radiation offers many exciting applications noticeably in spectroscopy and it is showing promising results in imaging, mainly for security applications. In this project the study of using structured polymer fibers for THz waveguiding is presented. The inspiration for the THz fiber...... is taken from microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) used at optical wavelengths for sensing and communication. The fibers investigated can be divided into two groups, the solid core fibers and the hollow core fibers. The solid core fibers offer the broadest bandwidth with the best dispersion...

  7. EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, when reading newspapers and journals or watching TV, one has been able to find feature presentations dealing with the prospects of terahertz (THz) technology and its potential impact on market applications. THz technology aims to fill the THz gap in the electro-magnetic spectrum in order to make the THz frequency regime, which spans the two orders of magnitude from 100 GHz to 10 THz, accessible for applications. From the lower-frequency side, electronics keeps pushing upwards, while photonic approaches gradually improve our technological options at higher frequencies. The popular interest reflects the considerable advances in research in the THz field, and it is mainly advances in the photonic branch, with the highlight being the development of the THz quantum cascade laser, which in recent years have caught the imagination of the public, and of potential users and investors. This special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides an overview of key scientific developments which currently represent the cutting edge of THz photonic technology. In order to be clear about the implications, we should define exactly what we mean by 'THz photonic technology', or synonymously 'THz photonics'. It is characterized by the way in which THz radiation (or a guided THz wave) is generated, namely by the use of lasers. This may be done in one of two fundamentally different schemes: (i) by laser action in the terahertz frequency range itself (THz lasers), or (ii) by down-conversion processes (photomixing) involving the radiation of lasers which operate in the visible, near-infrared or infrared spectral ranges, either in pulsed or continuous-wave mode. The field of THz photonics has grown so considerably that it is out of the question to cover all its aspects in a single special issue of a journal. We have elected, instead, to focus our attention on two types of development with a potentially strong impact on the THz field: first, on significant advances

  8. Single-cycle terahertz pulses with >0.2 V/A field amplitudes via coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daranciang, Dan; Goodfellow, John; Fuchs, Matthias; Ghimire, Shambhu; Wen, Haidan; Reis, David A.; Loos, Henrik; Fisher, Alan S.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 0.2 V/A generated by coherent transition radiation. Femtosecond, relativistic electron bunches generated at the Linac Coherent Light Source are passed through a beryllium foil, and the emitted radiation is characterized as a function of the bunch duration and charge. Broadband pulses centered at a frequency of 10 THz with energies of 140 μJ are measured. These far-below-bandgap pulses drive a nonlinear optical response in a silicon photodiode, with which we perform nonlinear autocorrelations that yield information regarding the terahertz temporal profile. Simulations of the spatiotemporal profile agree well with experimental results.

  9. Stack emission monitoring using non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy with an optimized nonlinear absorption cross interference correction algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Sun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an optimized analysis algorithm for non-dispersive infrared (NDIR to in situ monitor stack emissions. The proposed algorithm simultaneously compensates for nonlinear absorption and cross interference among different gases. We present a mathematical derivation for the measurement error caused by variations in interference coefficients when nonlinear absorption occurs. The proposed algorithm is derived from a classical one and uses interference functions to quantify cross interference. The interference functions vary proportionally with the nonlinear absorption. Thus, interference coefficients among different gases can be modeled by the interference functions whether gases are characterized by linear or nonlinear absorption. In this study, the simultaneous analysis of two components (CO2 and CO serves as an example for the validation of the proposed algorithm. The interference functions in this case can be obtained by least-squares fitting with third-order polynomials. Experiments show that the results of cross interference correction are improved significantly by utilizing the fitted interference functions when nonlinear absorptions occur. The dynamic measurement ranges of CO2 and CO are improved by about a factor of 1.8 and 3.5, respectively. A commercial analyzer with high accuracy was used to validate the CO and CO2 measurements derived from the NDIR analyzer prototype in which the new algorithm was embedded. The comparison of the two analyzers show that the prototype works well both within the linear and nonlinear ranges.

  10. High-resolution reconstruction for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Min; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liu, Jia

    2014-11-20

    We present a high-resolution (HR) reconstruction model and algorithms for terahertz imaging, taking advantage of super-resolution methodology and algorithms. The algorithms used include projection onto a convex sets approach, iterative backprojection approach, Lucy-Richardson iteration, and 2D wavelet decomposition reconstruction. Using the first two HR reconstruction methods, we successfully obtain HR terahertz images with improved definition and lower noise from four low-resolution (LR) 22×24 terahertz images taken from our homemade THz-TDS system at the same experimental conditions with 1.0 mm pixel. Using the last two HR reconstruction methods, we transform one relatively LR terahertz image to a HR terahertz image with decreased noise. This indicates potential application of HR reconstruction methods in terahertz imaging with pulsed and continuous wave terahertz sources.

  11. Effect of Fe doping on the terahertz conductivity of GaN single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Filip; Kadlec, Christelle; Paskova, T.; Evans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 14 (2010), 145401/1-145401/5 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : gallium nitride * terahertz spectroscopy * iron doping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010

  12. Electron and hole contributions to the terahertz photoconductivityof a conjugated polymer:Fullerene blend identified

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponseca, C.S.; Němec, Hynek; Vukmirović, N.; Fusco, S.; Wang, E.; Andersson, M.R.; Chábera, P.; Yartsev, A.; Sundström, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 17 (2012), s. 2442-2446 ISSN 1948-7185 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : charge transport in organic semiconductors * time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.585, year: 2012

  13. Tunable dielectric properties of KTaO3 single crystals in the terahertz range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skoromets, Volodymyr; Kadlec, Christelle; Němec, Hynek; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.; Kužel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 065306. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25639S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectrics * tunable properties * terahertz spectroscopy * thin-film electrodes * anharmonicity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  14. Terahertz and M4PP conductivity mapping of large area CVD grown graphene films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    We demonstrate mapping of magnitude and variation of the electrical conductance of large area CVD graphene films by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and micro four-point-probe (M4PP). Non-trivial correlations between results obtained with the two techniques are discussed in relation...... to electrical properties of the graphene films....

  15. Terahertz Science & Technology: Sensing Bio-Molecular Nanostructures & Photoinduces Transitions Between Metastable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Sizov, Marina Lvovska, Tatyana Khromova, Boris Gelmont Subject terms: Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy, biomolecules, bacterial cells, absorption...E. Rodriguez -Saona, F. M. Khambaty, F.S. Fry, and E.M. Calvey, Rapid Detection and Identification of Bacterial Strains By Fourier Transform Near

  16. Precise Ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Clark, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    We use a combination of experimental THz time-domain spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional perturbative theory to accurately predict the terahertz vibrational spectrum of molecules in the crystalline phase. Our calculations show that distinct vibrational modes found in solid-state materials...

  17. Resonant magnetic response of TiO.sub.2./sub. microspheres at terahertz frequencies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Kadlec, Christelle; Kadlec, Filip; Kužel, Petr; Yahiaoui, R.; Chung, U.-C.; Elissalde, C.; Maglione, M.; Mounaix, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2012), "061107-1"-"014104-4" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : metamaterials * terahertz spectroscopy * effective magnetic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012

  18. Anisotropic dielectric response of lead zirconate crystals in the terahertz and infrared range at low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Kroupa, Jan; Železný, Vladimír; Hlinka, Jiří; Petzelt, Jan; Dec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 1129-1137 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferroelectrics * infrared and terahertz spectroscopy * lead zirconate * phonons * complex dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  19. Generation of high-field terahertz pulses in an HMQ-TMS organic crystal pumped by an ytterbium laser at 1030 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Andrea; Jeong, Young-Gyun; Piccoli, Riccardo; Lee, Seung-Heon; Lee, Seung-Chul; Kwon, O-Pil; Jazbinsek, Mojca; Morandotti, Roberto; Razzari, Luca

    2018-02-05

    We present the generation of high-peak-electric-field terahertz pulses via collinear optical rectification in a 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyryl)-1-methilquinolinium-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonate (HMQ-TMS) organic crystal. The crystal is pumped by an amplified ytterbium laser system, emitting 170-fs-long pulses centered at 1030 nm. A terahertz peak electric field greater than 200 kV/cm is obtained for 420 µJ of optical pump energy, with an energy conversion efficiency of 0.26% - about two orders of magnitude higher than in common inorganic crystals collinearly pumped by amplified femtosecond lasers. An open-aperture Z-scan measurement performed on an n-doped InGaAs thin film using such terahertz source shows a nonlinear increase in the terahertz transmission of about 2.2 times. Our findings demonstrate the potential of this terahertz generation scheme, based on ytterbium laser technology, as a simple and efficient alternative to the existing intense table-top terahertz sources. In particular, we show that it can be readily used to explore nonlinear effects at terahertz frequencies.

  20. Terahertz Science, Technology, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    The term "terahertz" has been ubiquitous in the arena of technology over the past couple of years. New applications are emerging every day which are exploiting the promises of terahertz - its small wavelength; capability of penetrating dust, clouds, and fog; and possibility of having large instantaneous bandwidth for high-speed communication channels. Until very recently, space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary science, and Earth science missions have been the primary motivator for the development of terahertz sensors, sources, and systems. However, in recent years the emerging areas such as imaging from space platforms, surveillance of person-borne hidden weapons or contraband from a safe stand-off distance and reconnaissance, medical imaging and DNA sequencing, and in the world high speed communications have been the driving force for this area of research.

  1. Subwavelength micropillar array terahertz lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Michael; Brandstetter, Martin; Deutsch, Christoph; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2014-01-13

    We report on micropillar-based terahertz lasers with active pillars that are much smaller than the emission wavelength. These micropillar array lasers correspond to scaled-down band-edge photonic crystal lasers forming an active photonic metamaterial. In contrast to photonic crystal lasers which use significantly larger pillar structures, lasing emission is not observed close to high-symmetry points in the photonic band diagram, but in the effective medium regime. We measure stimulated emission at 4 THz for micropillar array lasers with pillar diameters of 5 µm. Our results not only demonstrate the integration of active subwavelength optics in a terahertz laser, but are also an important step towards the realization of nanowire-based terahertz lasers.

  2. Terahertz-radiation generation and detection in low-temperature-grown GaAs epitaxial films on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B.; Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Buriakov, A. M.; Bilyk, V. R.; Mishina, E. D. [Moscow Technological University “MIREA” (Russian Federation); Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh-Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The efficiency of the generation and detection of terahertz radiation in the range up to 3 THz by LT-GaAs films containing equidistant Si doping δ layers and grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) and (111)Ga substrates is studied by terahertz spectroscopy. Microstrip photoconductive antennas are fabricated on the film surface. Terahertz radiation is generated by exposure of the antenna gap to femtosecond optical laser pulses. It is shown that the intensity of terahertz radiation from the photoconductive antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga is twice as large as the intensity of a similar antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) and the sensitivity of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs (111)Ga as a terahertz-radiation detector exceeds that of the antenna on LT-GaAs/GaAs(100) by a factor of 1.4.

  3. Broadband terahertz fiber directional coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber by micro......We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber...

  4. Nanoscale Laser Terahertz Emission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight into the phys......Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight...

  5. Narrow-band tunable terahertz emission from ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3-x}Ga thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awari, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Kovalev, S., E-mail: s.kovalev@hzdr.de, E-mail: c.fowley@hzdr.de, E-mail: rodek@tcd.ie; Fowley, C., E-mail: s.kovalev@hzdr.de, E-mail: c.fowley@hzdr.de, E-mail: rodek@tcd.ie; Green, B.; Yildirim, O.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.; Gensch, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Rode, K., E-mail: s.kovalev@hzdr.de, E-mail: c.fowley@hzdr.de, E-mail: rodek@tcd.ie; Lau, Y.-C.; Betto, D.; Thiyagarajah, N.; Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN, AMBER and School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Gallardo, R. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparíso (Chile)

    2016-07-18

    Narrow-band terahertz emission from coherently excited spin precession in metallic ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3-x}Ga Heusler alloy nanofilms has been observed. The efficiency of the emission, per nanometer film thickness, is comparable or higher than that of classical laser-driven terahertz sources based on optical rectification. The center frequency of the emission from the films can be tuned precisely via the film composition in the range of 0.20–0.35 THz, making this type of metallic film a candidate for efficient on-chip terahertz emitters. Terahertz emission spectroscopy is furthermore shown to be a sensitive probe of magnetic properties of ultra-thin films.

  6. Nonlinear Hamiltonian mechanics applied to molecular dynamics theory and computational methods for understanding molecular spectroscopy and chemical reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Farantos, Stavros C

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents numerical methods for describing and calculating invariant phase space structures, as well as solving the classical and quantum equations of motion for polyatomic molecules. Examples covered include simple model systems to realistic cases of molecules spectroscopically studied. Vibrationally excited and reacting molecules are nonlinear dynamical systems, and thus, nonlinear mechanics is the proper theory to elucidate molecular dynamics by investigating invariant structures in phase space. Intramolecular energy transfer, and the breaking and forming of a chemical bond have now found a rigorous explanation by studying phase space structures.

  7. High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz...

  8. Analysis of the hydration water around bovine serum albumin using terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jordan W; Meliga, Stefano; Ferachou, Denis; Cinque, Gianfelice; Zeitler, J Axel; Falconer, Robert J

    2014-01-09

    Terahertz spectroscopy was used to study the absorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water. The Diamond Light Source operating in a low alpha mode generated coherent synchrotron radiation that covered a useable spectral bandwidth of 0.3-3.3 THz (10-110 cm(-1)). As the BSA concentration was raised, there was a nonlinear change in absorption inconsistent with Beer's law. At low BSA concentrations (0-1 mM), the absorption remained constant or rose slightly. Above a concentration of 1 mM BSA, a steady decrease in absorption was observed, which was followed by a plateau that started at 2.5 mM. Using a overlapping hydration layer model, the hydration layer was estimated to extend 15 Å from the protein. Calculation of the corrected absorption coefficient (αcorr) for the water around BSA by subtracting the excluded volume of the protein provides an alternative approach to studying the hydration layer that provides evidence for complexity in the population of water around BSA.

  9. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  10. Inspection of plastic weld joints with terahertz imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Krumbholz, N.; Jördens, C.; Baudrit, B.; Bastian, M.; Koch, M.

    2007-06-01

    Polymers cover the whole range from commodities to high-tech applications. Plastic products have also gained in importance for construction purposes. This draws the attention to joining techniques like welding. Common evaluation of the weld quality is mostly mechanical and destructive. Existing non-destructive techniques are mostly not entirely reliable or economically inefficient. Here, we demonstrate the potential of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy imaging as a non-destructive testing tool for the inspection of plastic weld joints. High-density polyethylene sheets welded in a lap joint with varying quality serve as samples for terahertz transmission measurements. Imperfections within the weld contact area can clearly be detected by displaying the transmitted intensity in a limited frequency range. Contaminations such as metal or sand are identified since they differ significantly from the polymer in the terahertz image. Furthermore, this new and promising technique is capable of detecting the boundaries of a weld contact area. Aside from revealing a contrast between a proper weld joint and no material connection, the size of an air gap between two plastic sheets can be determined by considering the characteristic frequency-dependent transmission through the structure: The spectral positions of the maxima and minima allow for the calculation of the air layer thickness.

  11. Terahertz dielectric properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, K. V.; Dunaevsky, G. E.; Sarkisov, S. Yu; Suslyaev, V. I.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Sarkisov, Yu S.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Moseenkov, S. I.; Semikolenova, N. V.; Zakharov, V. A.; Atuchin, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The terahertz dielectric properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyethylene (MWCNT/PE) composites prepared in different ways and with various contents of carbon nanotubes have been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The experimental dielectric susceptibilities were modeled within effective medium approximation. The MWCNTs with average diameter of 9 nm produced by ethylene decomposition over FeCo catalyst were used in the experiments. Two types of composites were prepared by various mechanical mixing of MWCNT and polyethylene powders. The other two types of composites were fabricated employing ethylene polymerization on the MWCNTs before mechanical mixing with polyethylene powder. The samples with MWCNT concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 4 wt. % were prepared for each composite type. The measured dielectric susceptibilities were higher for composites made of nanotubes with preliminary polymerization of ethylene as compared to the composites produced by just mechanical mixing at equal concentrations of MWCNTs. It was also found that the dielectric susceptibilities of the MWCNT/PE composites can be satisfactory described within Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation at sufficient levels (>0.5–1 wt. %) of MWCNT contents. The obtained results confirm the possibility to produce MWCNT/PE composite materials with desired dielectric properties in terahertz range.

  12. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  13. Terahertz antenna technology for space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book explores the terahertz antenna technology towards implementation of compact, consistent and cheap terahertz sources, as well as the high sensitivity terahertz detectors. The terahertz EM band provides a transition between the electronic and the photonic regions thus adopting important characteristics from these regimes. These characteristics, along with the progress in semiconductor technology, have enabled researchers to exploit hitherto unexplored domains including satellite communication, bio-medical imaging, and security systems. The advances in new materials and nanostructures such as graphene will be helpful in miniaturization of antenna technology while simultaneously maintaining the desired output levels. Terahertz antenna characterization of bandwidth, impedance, polarization, etc. has not yet been methodically structured and it continues to be a major research challenge. This book addresses these issues besides including the advances of terahertz technology in space applications worldwide,...

  14. Terahertz wafer-scale mobility mapping of graphene on insulating substrates without a gate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Due; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    spectroscopy. sigma(dc) and tau(SC) are directly extracted from Drude model fits to terahertz conductance spectra obtained in each pixel of 10 x 10 cm(2) maps with a 400 mu m step size. sigma(dc)- and tau(SC)-maps are translated into mu(drift) and N-S maps through Boltzmann transport theory for graphene charge......We demonstrate wafer-scale, non-contact mapping of essential carrier transport parameters, carrier mobility (mu(drift)), carrier density (N-S), DC sheet conductance (sigma(dc)), and carrier scattering time (tau(SC)) in CVD graphene, using spatially resolved terahertz time-domain conductance...... carriers and these parameters are directly compared to van der Pauw device measurements on the same wafer. The technique is compatible with all substrate materials that exhibit a reasonably low absorption coefficient for terahertz radiation. This includes many materials used for transferring CVD graphene...

  15. Polarization-resolved terahertz third-harmonic generation in a single-crystal superconductor NbN: Dominance of the Higgs mode beyond the BCS approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Tsuji, Naoto; Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka; Aoki, Hideo; Shimano, Ryo

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy have unveiled that resonantly enhanced strong THz third-harmonic generation (THG) mediated by the collective Higgs amplitude mode occurs in s -wave superconductors, where charge-density fluctuations (CDFs) have been shown to also contribute to the nonlinear third-order susceptibility. It has been theoretically proposed that the nonlinear responses of Higgs and CDF exhibit essentially different polarization dependences. Here we experimentally discriminate the two contributions by polarization-resolved intense THz transmission spectroscopy for a single-crystal NbN film. The result shows that the resonant THG in the transmitted light always appears in the polarization parallel to that of the incident light with no appreciable polarization-angle dependence relative to the crystal axis. When we compare this with the theoretical calculation here with the BCS approximation and the dynamical mean-field theory for a model of NbN constructed from first principles, the experimental result strongly indicates that the Higgs mode rather than the CDF dominates the THG resonance in NbN. A possible mechanism for this is the retardation effect in the phonon-mediated pairing interaction beyond BCS.

  16. Hydrophilic Solvation Dominates the Terahertz Fingerprint of Amino Acids in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Alexander; Forbert, Harald; Sebastiani, Federico; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina; Marx, Dominik

    2018-02-01

    Spectroscopy in the terahertz frequency regime is a sensitive tool to probe solvation-induced effects in aqueous solutions. Yet, a systematic understanding of spectral lineshapes as a result of distinct solvation contributions remains terra incognita. We demonstrate that modularization of amino acids in terms of functional groups allows us to compute their distinct contributions to the total terahertz response. Introducing the molecular cross-correlation analysis method provides unique access to these site-specific contributions. Equivalent groups in different amino acids lead to look-alike spectral contributions, whereas side chains cause characteristic but additive complexities. Specifically, hydrophilic solvation of the zwitterionic groups in valine and glycine leads to similar terahertz responses which are fully decoupled from the side chain. The terahertz response due to H-bonding within the large hydrophobic solvation shell of valine turns out to be nearly indistinguishable from that in bulk water in direct comparison to the changes imposed by the charged functional groups that form strong H-bonds with their hydration shells. Thus, the hydrophilic groups and their solvation shells dominate the terahertz absorption difference, while on the same intensity scale, the influence of hydrophobic water can be neglected.

  17. Non-linear effects in the radiolysis-optically detected ESR of radical-ion pairs in liquid and glassy solutions. Reactions and motion of organic radicals as studied by ESR and OD ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antzutkin, O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections. The first part covers an introduction to the Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance (OD ESR) spectroscopy and a short description of the OD ESR spectrometer built in Linkoeping University in 1991. In the second section the following topics are discussed: Non-linear effects in OD ESR spectroscopy and Reactions and motion of organic radicals trapped in freon matrices. (19 refs.)

  18. Nano metamaterials for ultrasensitive Terahertz biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Ji-Hun; Kwon, Junghoon; Lee, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deok Ha; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2017-08-15

    As a candidate for a rapid detection of biomaterials, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy system can be considered with some advantage in non-destructive, label-free, and non-contact manner. Because protein-ligand binding energy is in the THz range, especially, most important conformational information in molecular interactions can be captured by THz electromagnetic wave. Based on the THz time-domain spectroscopy system, THz nano-metamaterial sensing chips were prepared for great enhancing of detection sensitivity. A metamaterial sensing chip was designed for increasing of absorption cross section of the target sample, related to the transmitted THz near field enhancement via the composition of metamaterial. The measured THz optical properties were then analyzed in terms of refractive index and absorption coefficient, and compared with simulation results. Also, virus quantification regarding various concentrations of the viruses was performed, showing a clear linearity. The proposed sensitive and selective THz detection method can provide abundant information of detected biomaterials to help deep understanding of fundamental optical characteristics of them, suggesting rapid diagnosis way especially useful for such dangerous and time-sensitive target biomaterials.

  19. Spatial and temporal ultrafast imaging and control of terahertz wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Richard Michael

    Some polar optical phonons couple strongly to far- infrared electromagnetic radiation and move at light-like speeds through dielectric media. These phonon-polaritons retain both ionic and electromagnetic character. One of the fruitful implications of this mixing is that vibrational and electronic nonlinearities in ferroelectric and other highly anharmonic media interact with traveling electromagnetic waves spanning several frequency regimes, permitting nonlinear wave mixing at infrared and optical frequencies. Nonlinear optical mixing techniques are well-developed because optical light is easy to produce, but the lack of similar far- infrared sources has stymied similar efforts at terahertz frequencies. Nonlinear interactions in this frequency regime provide information about vibrational potential energy surfaces and are very strong when the lattice vibration is associated with a phase transition. In this thesis, I review methods based on a well known nonlinear optical technique, impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS), to monitor the progress of coherent phonon polaritons in a highly nonlinear ferroelectric, lithium tantalate. I also advance multiple-pulse ISRS optical techniques to attempt to elucidate information about the ferroelectric's vibrational potential energy surface, and I discuss significant recent progress that has been made in the development of ultrafast optical tools to generate far-infrared radiation through ISRS at specified times and spatial locations and control the interactions of coherent phonon-polariton wavepackets. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  20. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and Fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, John Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of ∼ 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm -1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach

  1. Femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy at surfaces: Second-harmonic probing of hole burning at the Si(111)7x7 surface and fourier-transform sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, John Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-11-24

    The high temporal resolution and broad bandwidth of a femtosecond laser system are exploited in a pair of nonlinear optical studies of surfaces. The dephasing dynamics of resonances associated with the adatom dangling bonds of the Si(111)7 x 7 surface are explored by transient second-harmonic hole burning, a process that can be described as a fourth-order nonlinear optical process. Spectral holes produced by a 100 fs pump pulse at about 800 nm are probed by the second harmonic signal of a 100 fs pulse tunable around 800 nm. The measured spectral holes yield homogeneous dephasing times of a few tens of femtoseconds. Fits with a Lorentzian spectral hole centered at zero probe detuning show a linear dependence of the hole width on pump fluence, which suggests that charge carrier-carrier scattering dominates the dephasing dynamics at the measured excitation densities. Extrapolation of the deduced homogeneous dephasing times to zero excitation density yields an intrinsic dephasing time of {approx} 70 fs. The presence of a secondary spectral hole indicates that scattering of the surface electrons with surface optical phonons at 570 cm-1 occurs within the first 200 fs after excitation. The broad bandwidth of femtosecond IR pulses is used to perform IR-visible sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy. By implementing a Fourier-transform technique, we demonstrate the ability to obtain sub-laser-bandwidth spectral resolution. FT-SFG yields a greater signal when implemented with a stretched visible pulse than with a femtosecond visible pulse. However, when compared with multichannel spectroscopy using a femtosecond IR pulse but a narrowband visible pulse, Fourier-transform SFG is found to have an inferior signal-to-noise ratio. A mathematical analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio illustrates the constraints on the Fourier-transform approach.

  2. Sub-Doppler and Doppler Spectroscopy of DCN Isotopomers in the Terahertz Region: Ground and First Excited Bending States (.nu.1 .nu.2 .nu.3) =0 1ef O)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brünken, S.; Fuchs, U.; Lewen, F.; Urban, Štěpán; Giesen, T.; Winnewisser, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 2 (2004), s. 152-161 ISSN 0022-2852 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/1274; GA MŠk ME 445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : molecular spectroscopy * sub-Doppler spectroscopy * high-resolution spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.292, year: 2004

  3. Rapid identification of adulterated cow milk by non-linear pattern recognition methods based on near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Guo; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Li-Jun; Xue, Zhi-Bin; Gu, Xin; Huang, Shi-Xin

    2014-02-15

    More than 800 representative milk samples, which consisted of 287 raw cow milk samples from different pastures surrounding Shanghai of China and 526 adulteration milk samples containing different pseudo proteins and thickeners, were collected and designed to demonstrate a method for rapidly discriminating adulterated milks based on near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR classification models were built by two non-linear supervised pattern recognition methods of improved support vector machine (I-SVM) and improved and simplified K nearest neighbours (IS-KNN). Uniform design theory was applied to optimize the parameters of SVM and thus the computation amount was reduced 90%. Both two methods exhibit good adaptability in discriminating adulterated milks from raw cow milks. Further investigation showed that the correction ratio for discriminating milk samples increased with the increasing of adulteration solutions' level in the adulterated milk. The concentration of adulterants is an important factor of influencing milk discrimination results of the NIR pattern recognition models. The results demonstrated the usefulness of NIR spectra combined with non-linear pattern recognition methods as an objective and rapid method for the authentication of complicated raw cow milks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  5. Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-17-10 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release...customary unit. Grant #  HDTRA 1-12-1-0044 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release Final Report PI: Keith A. Nelson 617-253-1423 kanelson

  6. High efficiency optoelectronic terahertz sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampin, Jean-François; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, G.; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael

    2010-08-01

    We have developed a new generation of optoelectronic large bandwidth terahertz sources based on TEM horn antennas monolithically integrated with several types of photodetectors: low-temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) planar photoconductors, vertically integrated LTG-GaAs photoconductors on silicon substrate and uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes. Results of pulsed (time-domain) and photomixing (CW, frequency domain) experiments are presented.

  7. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional rad...... information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm....

  8. Multi-Step Deep Reactive Ion Etching Fabrication Process for Silicon-Based Terahertz Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Kubiak, Cecile (Inventor); Reck, Theodore (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Perez, Jose Vicente Siles (Inventor); Lin, Robert H. (Inventor); Mehdi, Imran (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Cooper, Ken B. (Inventor); Peralta, Alejandro (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-step silicon etching process has been developed to fabricate silicon-based terahertz (THz) waveguide components. This technique provides precise dimensional control across multiple etch depths with batch processing capabilities. Nonlinear and passive components such as mixers and multipliers waveguides, hybrids, OMTs and twists have been fabricated and integrated into a small silicon package. This fabrication technique enables a wafer-stacking architecture to provide ultra-compact multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the THz range.

  9. Terahertz sensing of chlorpyrifos-methyl using metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Zhu, Jianfei; Wang, Wei; Ye, Zunzhong; Ma, Yungui; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Chen, Suming; Ying, Yibin

    2017-03-01

    By squeezing electromagnetic energy into small volumes near a metal-dielectric interface, plasmonics provide many routes to enhance and manipulate light-matter interactions, which presents new strategies for signal enhancing technologies. As an extension of the ideas of plasmonics to the terahertz (THz) range, metamaterials have shown great potential in sensing applications. In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) combined with metamaterials was used to detect chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM), which is one type of the broad-spectrum organophosphorus pesticides. The results demonstrate that sensitivity is greatly improved using THz metamaterials, with the limit of detection (LOD) of CM reaching 0.204mgL -1 , which is lower than the World Health Organization's provisional guideline limit for CM in vegetables (1mgL -1 ). The results indicated that THz spectroscopy combined with metamaterials could be a valuable method for highly sensitive THz applications, presenting a new strategy for food quality and safety control in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research progress of terahertz wave technology in food inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhanke; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hongjian; Yu, Haiyan

    2006-10-01

    Food safety and quality concern have become more and more significant in recent years. There is therefore an increasing focus on new technologies that can be applied to food quality evaluation or safety inspection, either to simplify or speed up the checking process, or to provide additional functionality. For example, the technique of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used for the authentication of agricultural products and food samples. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, is electromagnetic wave lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. The main two applications in which THz fields involved are THz spectroscopy and THz imaging. Terahertz wave technology, as a new area of research, has shown its wide prospects in imaging, diagnosis, detection, and monitoring, etc. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the progress of THz techqiues in the field of food inspection. The properties of THz wave, its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications, and the prospect of this novel technology in food industry were discussed.

  11. 50 years of nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuanrang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the birth and early investigations of nonlinear optics, such as second harmonic generation,sum and difference frequency generation, stimulated Raman scattering,and self-action of light etc. Several important research achievements and applications of nonlinear optics are presented as well, including nonlinear optical spectroscopy, phase conjugation and adaptive optics, coherent nonlinear optics, and high-order harmonic generation. In the end, current and future research topics in nonlinear optics are summarized. (authors)

  12. Coherent Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Eesley, G L

    1981-01-01

    Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter

  13. Optical nonlinearity and electric conductivity origin study on sucrose crystal by using IR, Raman, INS, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, M Magdalena; Piela, Katarzyna; Hołderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna; Natkaniec, Ireneusz; Bidzińska, Ewa

    2014-08-18

    The supposed importance of hydrogen bonds toward the origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) and electric conductivity in crystalline sucrose was investigated by IR (4000-10cm(-1)), INS (2000-10cm(-1), at 35K), polarized Raman (3600-50cm(-1)) spectra, and (1)H NMR second moment line records in the temperature range 450-80K. The temperature dependence of NIR (7000-5500cm(-1)) polarized spectra gave information about -CH2 motions complementary to NMR results concerning -CH2OH group rearrangements. The EPR spectra were applied to study the generation of radical ions by exposure to NIR radiation. Density functional theory quantum chemical calculations were performed to reproduce the vibrational spectra in order to complete as far as possible the assignments of bands observed by us and in the literature in sucrose crystals, and to throw more light on the possible reasons of sucrose electric conductivity and optical nonlinearity by the knowledge of theoretical values of dipole moments, polarizabilities, first order hyperpolarizabilities of sucrose molecule and clusters as well as ionization energy and electron affinity. The proton transfer in one specific hydrogen bond parallel to the helical axis b is proposed to be the most important in SHG and conductivity origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New Light on the Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2: A Terahertz Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Fischer, Bernd M.; Thoman, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the metal-insulator (MI) transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), thin films with Terahertz Time-Domains Spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The capability of detecting both amplitude and phase of the transmission characteristics as the phase of the transmitted THz signal switches at a markedly...

  15. Electric-field-tunable defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystal operating in the terahertz range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skoromets, Volodymyr; Němec, Hynek; Kadlec, Christelle; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.; Kužel, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 24 (2013), "241106-1"-"241106-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : terahertz spectroscopy * strontium titanate * dielectric properties * photonic crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.515, year: 2013

  16. Tuning a microcavity-coupled terahertz laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Vezio; Vitiello, Miriam S., E-mail: miriam.vitiello@sns.it [NEST, CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Li, Lianhe; Zhu, Jingxuan; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Tredicucci, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 6, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-12-28

    Tunable oscillators are a key component of almost all electronic and photonic systems. Yet, a technology capable of operating in the terahertz (THz)-frequency range and fully suitable for widescale implementation is still lacking. This issue is significantly limiting potential THz applications in gas sensing, high-resolution spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, and optical communications. The THz quantum cascade laser is arguably the most promising solution in terms of output power and spectral purity. In order to achieve reliable, repeatable, and broad tunability, here we exploit the strong coupling between two different cavity mode concepts: a distributed feedback one-dimensional photonic resonator (providing gain) and a mechanically actuated wavelength-size microcavity (providing tuning). The result is a continuously tunable, single-mode emitter covering a 162 GHz spectral range, centered on 3.2 THz. Our source has a few tens of MHz resolution, extremely high differential efficiency, and unprecedented compact and simple design architecture. By unveiling the large potential that lies in this technique, our results provide a robust platform for radically different THz systems exploiting broadly tunable semiconductor lasers.

  17. High density terahertz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, S.; Pirali, O.; Roy, P.; Lampin, J.-F.; Ducournau, G.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.

    2015-07-01

    Frequency combs have enabled significant progress in frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy extending the achievable resolution while increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. In its coherent mode, synchrotron radiation is accepted to provide an intense terahertz continuum covering a wide spectral range from about 0.1 to 1 THz. Using a dedicated heterodyne receiver, we reveal the purely discrete nature of this emission. A phase relationship between the light pulses leads to a powerful frequency comb spanning over one decade in frequency. The comb has a mode spacing of 846 kHz, a linewidth of about 200 Hz, a fractional precision of about 2 × 10-10 and no frequency offset. The unprecedented potential of the comb for high-resolution spectroscopy is demonstrated by the accurate determination of pure rotation transitions of acetonitrile.

  18. Tutorial: Terahertz beamforming, from concepts to realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Daniel; Monnai, Yasuaki; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2018-05-01

    The terahertz range possesses significant untapped potential for applications including high-volume wireless communications, noninvasive medical imaging, sensing, and safe security screening. However, due to the unique characteristics and constraints of terahertz waves, the vast majority of these applications are entirely dependent upon the availability of beam control techniques. Thus, the development of advanced terahertz-range beam control techniques yields a range of useful and unparalleled applications. This article provides an overview and tutorial on terahertz beam control. The underlying principles of wavefront engineering include array antenna theory and diffraction optics, which are drawn from the neighboring microwave and optical regimes, respectively. As both principles are applicable across the electromagnetic spectrum, they are reconciled in this overview. This provides a useful foundation for investigations into beam control in the terahertz range, which lies between microwaves and infrared light. Thereafter, noteworthy experimental demonstrations of beam control in the terahertz range are discussed, and these include geometric optics, phased array devices, leaky-wave antennas, reflectarrays, and transmitarrays. These techniques are compared and contrasted for their suitability in applications of terahertz waves.

  19. Nonlinear optical crystals a complete survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nikogosyan, David N

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in modern optical science and technology for frequency conversion of laser light, i.e. to generate laser radiation at any specific wavelength in visible, UV or IR spectral regions. This unrivalled reference book contains the most complete and up-to-date information on properties of nonlinear optical crystals. It includes: * Database of 63 common and novel nonlinear optical crystals * Periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials * Full description of linear and nonlinear optical properties * Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information * 7 mini-reviews on novel applications, such as deep-UV light generation, terahertz-wave generation, ultrashort laser pulse compression, photonic band-gap crystals, x3 nonlinearity, etc. * More than 1500 different references with full titles It is a vital source of information for scientists and engineers dealing with modern applications of nonlinear opti...

  20. Magneto-optical properties of InSb for terahertz applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Chochol

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-optical permittivity tensor spectra of undoped InSb, n-doped and p-doped InSb crystals were determined using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS and the Fourier transform far-infrared spectroscopy (far-FTIR. A Huge polar magneto-optical (MO Kerr-effect (up to 20 degrees in rotation and a simultaneous plasmonic behavior observed at low magnetic field (0.4 T and room temperature are promising for terahertz nonreciprocal applications. We demonstrate the possibility of adjusting the the spectral rage with huge MO by increase in n-doping of InSb. Spectral response is modeled using generalized magneto-optical Drude-Lorentz theory, giving us precise values of free carrier mobility, density and effective mass consistent with electric Hall effect measurement.

  1. Terahertz field-induced ionization and perturbed free induction decay of excitons in bulk GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murotani, Yuta; Takayama, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Fumiya; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Shimano, Ryo

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the interaction between an intense terahertz (THz) pulse and excitons in bulk GaAs by using THz pump near-infrared (NIR) optical probe spectroscopy. We observed a clear spectral oscillation in the NIR transient absorption spectra at low temperature, which is interpreted as the THz pump-induced perturbed free induction decay (PFID) of the excitonic interband polarization. We performed a numerical simulation based on a microscopic theory and identified that the observed PFID signal originates from the THz field-induced ionization of excitons. Using a real-space representation of the excitonic wave function, we visualized how the ionization of an exciton proceeds under the intense single-cycle THz electric field. We also calculated the nonlinear susceptibility with the lowest-order perturbation theory assuming a weak THz pump, which showed a similar spectral feature with that obtained by the full treatment to field-induced ionization process. This coincidence is attributed to the fact that 1s-excitonic interband polarization is modified predominantly through interactions with the p-wave component of the excitonic wave function. A simple phenomenological expression of the PFID signal is presented to discuss effects of the THz pump pulse duration on the spectral oscillation.

  2. Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

  3. Handbook of terahertz technologies devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Ho-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves, which lie in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz, have long been investigated in a few limited fields, such as astronomy, because of a lack of devices for their generation and detection. Several technical breakthroughs made over the last couple of decades now allow us to radiate and detect terahertz waves more easily, which has triggered the search for new uses of terahertz waves in many fields, such as bioscience, security, and information and communications technology. The book covers some of the technical breakthroughs in terms of device technologies. It discusses not only th

  4. Switching terahertz wave with grating-coupled Kretschmann configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li

    2017-08-07

    We present a terahertz wave switch utilizing Kretschmann configuration which consists of high-refractive-index prism-liquid crystal-periodically grooved metal grating. The switching mechanism of the terahertz switch is based on spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) excitation in the attenuated total reflection regime by changing the liquid crystal refractive index. The results highlighted the fact that the feasibility to "tune" the attenuated total reflection terahertz wave intensity by using the external applied bias voltage. The extinction ratio of the terahertz switch reaches 31.48dB. The terahertz switch has good control ability and flexibility, and can be used in potential terahertz free space device systems.

  5. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  6. Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling based terahertz holography image denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghao; Li, Qi

    2015-05-10

    Terahertz digital holography has attracted much attention in recent years. This technology combines the strong transmittance of terahertz and the unique features of digital holography. Nonetheless, the low clearness of the images captured has hampered the popularization of this imaging technique. In this paper, we perform a digital image denoising technique on our multiframe superposed images. The noise suppression model is concluded as Bayesian least squares estimation and is solved with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. In this algorithm, a weighted mean filter with a Gaussian kernel is first applied to the noisy image, and then by nonlinear contrast transform, the contrast of the image is restored to the former level. By randomly walking on the preprocessed image, the MCMC-based filter keeps collecting samples, assigning them weights by similarity assessment, and constructs multiple sample sequences. Finally, these sequences are used to estimate the value of each pixel. Our algorithm shares some good qualities with nonlocal means filtering and the algorithm based on conditional sampling proposed by Wong et al. [Opt. Express18, 8338 (2010)10.1364/OE.18.008338OPEXFF1094-4087], such as good uniformity, and, moreover, reveals better performance in structure preservation, as shown in numerical comparison using the structural similarity index measurement and the peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Magnetoresistance oscillations induced by high-intensity terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, T.; Kvon, Z. D.; Dmitriev, I. A.; Kozlov, D. A.; Jentzsch, B.; Schneider, M.; Schell, L.; Bel'kov, V. V.; Bayer, A.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Kuczmik, T.; Oltscher, M.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    We report on observation of pronounced terahertz radiation-induced magnetoresistivity oscillations in AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron systems, the terahertz analog of the microwave induced resistivity oscillations (MIRO). Applying high-power radiation of a pulsed molecular laser we demonstrate that MIRO, so far observed at low power only, are not destroyed even at very high intensities. Experiments with radiation intensity ranging over five orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 104W/cm 2 reveal high-power saturation of the MIRO amplitude, which is well described by an empirical fit function I /(1+I /Is) β with β ˜1 . The saturation intensity Is is of the order of tens of watts per square centimeter and increases by a factor of 6 by increasing the radiation frequency from 0.6 to 1.1 THz. The results are discussed in terms of microscopic mechanisms of MIRO and compared to nonlinear effects observed earlier at significantly lower excitation frequencies.

  8. Molecular structure of hybrid imino-chalcone in the solid state: X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy study and third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, J. M. F.; Santos, F. G.; Vaz, W. F.; Cunha, C. E. P.; Silveira, R. G.; Anjos, M. M.; Campos, C. E. M.; Oliveira, G. R.; Martins, F. T.; da Silva, C. C.; Valverde, C.; Baseia, B.; Napolitano, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive structural study of the compound (2E)-1-((E)-4-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)phenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one was carried out in this work. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), NMR, Raman and Infrared spectroscopies, and DFT calculations were performed for characterization of this iminochalcone hybrid. Intermolecular interactions were described by Hirshfeld surface analysis derived from crystal structure. Reactivity and intramolecular charge transfer were investigated using the frontier molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potential. In addition, we have calculated the Nonlinear Optical Properties at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+g(d) level of theory in the presence of different solvents (gas-phase, acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, methanol, and water), being found meaningful NLO parameters for our compound. At last, there is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, allowing the assignment of some of normal vibrational modes of the iminochalcone hybrid.

  9. Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat Hei; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2008-09-29

    We present novel designs for aspheric lenses used in terahertz (THz) imaging. As different surfaces result in different beam shaping properties and in different losses from reflection and absorption, the resultant imaging resolution (i.e. the focal spot size) depends critically on the design approach. We evaluate the different lens designs using Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory, and test the predictions experimentally. We also show that our lenses can achieve sub-wavelength resolution. While our lens designs are tested with THz radiation, the design considerations are applicable also to other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum.

  10. Terahertz sensing in corneal tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, David B.; Taylor, Zachary D.; Tewari, Pria; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Sassoon, Daniel J.; Johnson, R. Duncan; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott R.

    2011-01-01

    This work introduces the potential application of terahertz (THz) sensing to the field of ophthalmology, where it is uniquely suited due to its nonionizing photon energy and high sensitivity to water content. Reflective THz imaging and spectrometry data are reported on ex-vivo porcine corneas prepared with uniform water concentrations using polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions. At 79% water concentration by mass, the measured reflectivity of the cornea was 20.4%, 14.7%, 11.7%, 9.6%, and 7.4% a...

  11. Graphene hyperlens for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a graphene hyperlens for the terahertz (THz) range. We employ and numerically examine a structured graphene-dielectric multilayered stack that is an analog of a metallic wire medium. As an example of the graphene hyperlens in action, we demonstrate an imaging of two point sources...... separated by a distance λ0/5. An advantage of such a hyperlens as compared to a metallic one is the tunability of its properties by changing the chemical potential of graphene. We also propose a method to retrieve the hyperbolic dispersion, check the effective medium approximation, and retrieve...

  12. Terahertz-range polar modes in domain-engineered BiFeO.sub.3./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Pasciak, Marek; Körbel, S.; Márton, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 5 (2017), 1-6, č. článku 057604. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric domain walls * bismuth ferrite * terahertz spectroscopy * phonons * dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  13. Terahertz depolarization effects in colloidal TiO.sub.2./sub. films reveal particle morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jensen, S.A.; Tielrooij, K.-J.; Hendry, E.; Bonn, M.; Rychetský, Ivan; Němec, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 1191-1197 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S; GA MŠk LD12025 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy * TiO 2 nanoparticles * effective medium theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  14. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter...

  15. Characterisation of weak magnetic field effects in an aqueous glutamic acid solution by nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy and voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazur, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Background Previous reports indicate altered metabolism and enzyme kinetics for various organisms, as well as changes of neuronal functions and behaviour of higher animals, when they were exposed to specific combinations of weak static and alternating low frequency electromagnetic fields. Field strengths and frequencies, as well as properties of involved ions were related by a linear equation, known as the formula of ion cyclotron resonance (ICR, abbreviation mentioned first by Liboff). Under certain conditions already a aqueous solution of the amino acid and neurotransmitter glutamate shows this effect. Methods An aqueous solution of glutamate was exposed to a combination of a static magnetic field of 40 μT and a sinusoidal electromagnetic magnetic field (EMF) with variable frequency (2–7 Hz) and an amplitude of 50 nT. The electric conductivity and dielectric properties of the solution were investigated by voltammetric techniques in combination with non linear dielectric spectroscopy (NLDS), which allow the examination of the dielectric properties of macromolecules and molecular aggregates in water. The experiments target to elucidate the biological relevance of the observed EMF effect on molecular level. Results An ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) effect of glutamate previously reported by the Fesenko laboratory 1998 could be confirmed. Frequency resolution of the sample currents was possible by NLDS techniques. The spectrum peaks when the conditions for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) of glutamate are matched. Furthermore, the NLDS spectra are different under ICR- and non-ICR conditions: NLDS measurements with rising control voltages from 100–1100 mV show different courses of the intensities of the low order harmonics, which could possibly indicate "intensity windows". Furthermore, the observed magnetic field effects are pH dependent with a narrow optimum around pH 2.85. Conclusions Data will be discussed in the context with recent published models for the

  16. Complex extraordinary dielectric function of Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals at terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, K. A.; Kitaeva, G. Kh.; Kovalev, S. P.; Germansky, S. A.; Buryakov, A. M.; Tuchak, A. N.; Penin, A. N.

    2016-08-01

    We study the dispersion of the extraordinary dielectric function real and imaginary parts in the wide terahertz-frequency range of the lowest polariton branch for bulk LiNbO3 and Mg:LiNbO3 crystals. At frequencies 0.1-2.5 THz, both dispersion parts are measured by means of standard time-domain terahertz spectroscopy, and at higher frequencies up to 5.5 THz, the dielectric function real part is determined using a common scheme of spontaneous parametric down-conversion under near-forward Raman scattering by phonon polaritons. A special approach is applied for measuring of the dielectric function imaginary part at frequencies 1-3 THz, based on the analysis of visibility of three-wave second-order interference under spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The generalized approximate expressions are obtained for complex dielectric function dispersion within the lower polariton branches of LiNbO3 and Mg:LiNbO3. It is shown that the well-known decrease in terahertz-wave absorption of lithium niobate crystals under Mg-doping is caused by changes in the defect structure and reduction of coupling of the terahertz-frequency polaritons with Debye relaxational mode.

  17. Terahertz meets sculptural and architectural art: Evaluation and conservation of stone objects with T-ray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügener, K; Schwerdtfeger, M; Busch, S F; Soltani, A; Castro-Camus, E; Koch, M; Viöl, W

    2015-10-07

    Conservation of cultural heritage is an area where novel scientific techniques are having enormous impact. Given the value and uniqueness of art pieces, non-invasive diagnostic methods are highly appreciated by conservators. Terahertz radiation has shown enormous potential as non-contact probe that can be used for the three-dimensional reconstruction of internal structure of stone-made objects. In this article we report the evaluation of the internal damage state of two art pieces, a medallion from the Castle of Celle and a window sill from the St. Peter of Trier Cathedral. We also used terahertz radiation to follow and assess the restoration process of the window sill. We found that terahertz spectroscopy is an excellent non-destructive evaluation method for stone artwork that shows enormous potential as a tool for conservation.

  18. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented...

  19. Terahertz planar antennas for next generation communication

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, Kumud Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    This book describes various methods to enhance the directivity of  planar antennas, enabling the next generation of high frequency, wireless communication.  The authors discuss various applications to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, with an emphasis on gain enhancement mechanisms.  The numerical models of these antennas are presented and the analytical results are supported, using commercial simulators. The multilayer substrate microstrip transmission line at terahertz frequency is also explored and a method to obtain the various parameters of this interconnect at high frequency is described.  This book will be a valuable resource for anyone needing to explore the terahertz band gap for future wireless communication, in an effort to solve the bandwidth (spectrum scarcity) problem. • Enables development of terahertz communication systems in a license-free band of the electromagnetic spectrum; • Describes methods to design a multi-layered substrate transmission line to reduce var...

  20. Terahertz Imaging Systems With Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Löffler, Torsten; Dall, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    imaging systems are reviewed in terms of the employed architecture and data processing strategies. Active multichannel measurement method is found to be promising for real-time applications among the various terahertz imaging techniques and is chosen as a basis for the imaging instruments presented......This paper presents the research and development of two terahertz imaging systems based on photonic and electronic principles, respectively. As part of this study, a survey of ongoing research in the field of terahertz imaging is provided focusing on security applications. Existing terahertz...... in this paper. An active system operation allows for a wide dynamic range, which is important for image quality. The described instruments employ a multichannel high-sensitivity heterodyne architecture and aperture filling techniques, with close to real-time image acquisition time. In the case of the photonic...

  1. Terahertz pulse driven Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerlingo, Carlo, E-mail: c.camerlingo@cib.na.cnr.it [CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' , Via Campi Flegrei 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Theoretical model of the ac Josephson effect in pulsed current driven junctions. Evaluation of the voltage response of a THz pulsed radiation driven Josephson junction. The pulsed current bias induces steps in the junction I/V characteristics for voltages depending on the pulse rate. Working principles of a fast response detector for THz pulsed radiation. The voltage response of a Josephson junction to a pulsed terahertz current is evaluated in the limit of a negligible junction capacitance (overdamped limit). The time-dependent superconductor phase difference across the junction is calculated in the framework of the standard resistive shunted junction model by using a perturbative method. The pulsed current bias affects the time average value of the voltage across the junction and current steps are induced in the current-voltage characteristics for voltage values depending on the pulse repetition rate. The current step height is proportional to the square of the pulse time width ({tau}) to the period (T) ratio. A fast response detector for pulsed Terahertz radiation is proposed, with an expected responsivity of the order of 0.1 V/W and an equivalent noise power of about 3 x 10{sup -10} W/Hz{sup 1/2}.

  2. Direct detector for terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM; Shaner, Eric A [Albuquerque, NM; Allen, S James [Santa Barbara, CA

    2008-09-02

    A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

  3. Graphene based All-Optical Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qi-Ye; Tian, Wei; Mao, Qi; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Qing-Hui; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical terahertz modulator based on single-layer graphene on germanium (GOG), which can be driven by a 1.55 μm CW laser with a low-level photodoping power. Both the static and dynamic THz transmission modulation experiments were carried out. A spectrally wide-band modulation of the THz transmission is obtained in a frequency range from 0.25 to 1 THz, and a modulation depth of 94% can be achieved if proper pump power is applied. The modulation speed of the modulator was measured to be ~200 KHz using a 340 GHz carrier. A theoretical model is proposed for the modulator and the calculation results indicate that the enhanced THz modulation is mainly due to the third order nonlinear effect in the optical conductivity of the graphene monolayer. PMID:25491194

  4. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  5. Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Hwayeong; Yang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Young A; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2016-11-15

    Carcinogenesis involves the chemical and structural alteration of biomolecules in cells. Aberrant methylation of DNA is a well-known carcinogenic mechanism and a common chemical modification of DNA. Terahertz waves can directly observe changes in DNA because the characteristic energies lie in the same frequency region. In addition, terahertz energy levels are not high enough to damage DNA by ionization. Here, we present terahertz molecular resonance fingerprints of DNA methylation in cancer DNA. Methylated cytidine, a nucleoside, has terahertz characteristic energies that give rise to the molecular resonance of methylation in DNA. Molecular resonance is monitored in aqueous solutions of genomic DNA from cancer cell lines using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopic technique. Resonance signals can be quantified to identify the types of cancer cells with a certain degree of DNA methylation. These measurements reveal the existence of molecular resonance fingerprints of cancer DNAs in the terahertz region, which can be utilized for the early diagnosis of cancer cells at the molecular level.

  6. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  7. Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicarelli, L.; Vitiello, M. S.; Coquillat, D.; Lombardo, A.; Ferrari, A. C.; Knap, W.; Polini, M.; Pellegrini, V.; Tredicucci, A.

    2012-10-01

    The unique optoelectronic properties of graphene make it an ideal platform for a variety of photonic applications, including fast photodetectors, transparent electrodes in displays and photovoltaic modules, optical modulators, plasmonic devices, microcavities, and ultra-fast lasers. Owing to its high carrier mobility, gapless spectrum and frequency-independent absorption, graphene is a very promising material for the development of detectors and modulators operating in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum (wavelengths in the hundreds of micrometres), still severely lacking in terms of solid-state devices. Here we demonstrate terahertz detectors based on antenna-coupled graphene field-effect transistors. These exploit the nonlinear response to the oscillating radiation field at the gate electrode, with contributions of thermoelectric and photoconductive origin. We demonstrate room temperature operation at 0.3 THz, showing that our devices can already be used in realistic settings, enabling large-area, fast imaging of macroscopic samples.

  8. Response of asymmetric carbon nanotube network devices to sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayduchenko, I.; Kardakova, A.; Voronov, B.; Finkel, M.; Fedorov, G.; Jiménez, D.; Morozov, S.; Presniakov, M.; Goltsman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for efficient terahertz radiation detectors resulted in intensive study of the asymmetric carbon nanostructures as a possible solution for that problem. It was maintained that photothermoelectric effect under certain conditions results in strong response of such devices to terahertz radiation even at room temperature. In this work, we investigate different mechanisms underlying the response of asymmetric carbon nanotube (CNT) based devices to sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation. Our structures are formed with CNT networks instead of individual CNTs so that effects probed are more generic and not caused by peculiarities of an individual nanoscale object. We conclude that the DC voltage response observed in our structures is not only thermal in origin. So called diode-type response caused by asymmetry of the device IV characteristic turns out to be dominant at room temperature. Quantitative analysis provides further routes for the optimization of the device configuration, which may result in appearance of novel terahertz radiation detectors

  9. Plasmonic Terahertz Amplification in Graphene-Based Asymmetric Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nefedov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM, strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in optically thin graphene multilayers.

  10. Enhanced terahertz emission from thin film semiconductor/metal interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz light is electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. The photons that the terahertz light is comprised of carry a much smaller amount of energy compared to the visible light photons. Unlike visible light, terahertz light can pass through materials like plastic, cardboards, wood

  11. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  12. Efficient semiconductor multicycle terahertz pulse source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, P. S.; Krizsán, G.; Polónyi, Gy; Mechler, M. I.; Hebling, J.; Tóth, Gy; Fülöp, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Multicycle THz pulse generation by optical rectification in GaP semiconductor nonlinear material is investigated by numerical simulations. It is shown that GaP can be an efficient and versatile source with up to about 8% conversion efficiency and a tuning range from 0.1 THz to about 7 THz. Contact-grating technology for pulse-front tilt can ensure an excellent focusability and scaling the THz pulse energy beyond 1 mJ. Shapeable infrared pump pulses with a constant intensity-modulation period can be delivered for example by a flexible and efficient dual-chirped optical parametric amplifier. Potential applications include linear and nonlinear THz spectroscopy and THz-driven acceleration of electrons.

  13. Basic principles of ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One such nonlinear process, namely, the third order nonlinear spectroscopy has become a popular tool to study molecular structure. Thus, the spectroscopy based on the third order optical nonlinearity called stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a tool to extract the structural and dynamical information about a molecular ...

  14. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The broadband complex conductivities of transparent conducting oxides (TCO), namely aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), were investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range from 0.5 to 18 THz using air...... to be more thickness dependent than GZO and ITO, indicating high importance of the surface states for electron dynamics in AZO. Finally, we measure the transmittance of the TCO films from 10 to 200 THz with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements, thus closing the gap between THz...

  15. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  16. Terahertz electrodynamics and superconducting energy gap of NbN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kyung Ik; Jo, Young Chan; Ha, Taewoo; Kim, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yamamori, Hirotake

    2017-11-01

    We have measured the transmission spectra of the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor niobium nitride (NbN) thin films ( T c = 11 K) using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) over the spectral range of 10 - 110 cm -1 and the temperature range of 3.9 - 295 K. We extracted both the real part, σ1, and the imaginary part, σ2, of the optical conductivity, σ˜ = σ1 + iσ2, independently and simultaneously, without a Kramers-Kronig analysis. The superconducting gap Δ(T) was observed in the real part of the conductivity, σ1, below T c = 11 K with a maximum value of 2Δ(0) = 30 cm -1 and the gap ratio 2Δ(0)/ k B T c = 3.92.

  17. Strontium titanate/silicon-based terahertz photonic crystal multilayer stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, J.Z.; Jim, K.L.; Tsang, Y.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Leung, C.W.; Yang, J.; Gong, X.J.; Chen, L.Q.; Gao, F.

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimensional photonic crystal working in the terahertz (THz) range was designed and implemented. To facilitate the design, the transmission properties of strontium titanate crystals were characterized by THz-time-domain spectroscopy. Relatively high refractive index (∝18.5) and transmission ratio (0.08) were observed between 0.2 to 1 THz. A stacked structure of (Si d Si /STO d STO ) N /Si d Si was then designed, with transmission spectra calculated by the transfer matrix method. The effects of the filling ratio (d STO /(d Si +d STO )), periodicity (d Si +d STO ) and the number of repeats N on the transmission of PC were investigated. The effect of introducing a defect layer was also studied. Based on these, Si/STO multilayers with STO defect thickness of 125 μm and 200 μm were measured. The shift of the defect mode was observed and compared with the calculations. (orig.)

  18. Wavelength scale terahertz spectrometer based on extraordinary transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henstridge, M.; Zhou, Jing; Guo, L. Jay; Merlin, R.

    2017-08-01

    Subwavelength-slotted parallel plate waveguides exhibit a localized electromagnetic resonance bound to the slits at a frequency slightly below the transverse electric cutoff [R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. X 2, 031015 (2012)]. The resonance is long-lived and, as opposed to the vanishingly small transmission shown by a single sub-wavelength aperture, it gives perfect transmission for perfectly conducting plates. We show that the aperture-supported resonances of a pair of slotted copper plates have long lifetimes at Terahertz (THz) frequencies. Finite element method calculations show that these bound resonances can have quality factors greater than 100. The effects of the plate dimensions and imperfect parallel alignment are also discussed. Using THz time domain spectroscopy, we measured the transmission of a broadband pulse through a test structure for several plate separations and demonstrated, as a proof-of-principle, the function of the slotted waveguide as a highly compact THz spectrometer.

  19. Negative terahertz photoconductivity in 2D layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Jing

    2017-11-01

    The remarkable qualities of 2D layered materials such as wide spectral coverage, high strength and great flexibility mean that ultrathin 2D layered materials have the potential to meet the criteria of next-generation optoelectronic devices. Photoconductivity is one of the critical parameters of materials applied to optoelectronics. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, specific ultrathin 2D layers present anomalous negative photoconductivity. This opens a new avenue for designing novel optoelectronic devices. It is important to have a deep understanding of the fundamentals of this anomalous response, in order to design and optimize such devices. In this review, we provide an overview of the observation of negative photoconductivity in 2D layered materials including graphene, topological insulators and transitional metal dichalcogenides. We also summarize recent reports on investigations into the fundamental mechanism using ultrafast terahertz (THz) spectroscopies. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the existing challenges and proposing the possible prospects of this direction of research.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Permittivity of CdTe in the Terahertz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phonon dispersion spectrum, eigenvector, and lattice vibration frequency of cadmium telluride with a zinc blende structure have been investigated using the density functional theory, and the permittivity of cadmium telluride crystal is numerically calculated. The permittivity of the crystal is measured using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical calculations on the modified local density approximation, the general gradient approximation, and the modified general gradient approximation. Finally, the differences among the three approximate exchange correlation potentials indicate that in the terahertz region, the permittivity of cadmium telluride is dominantly contributed by the coupling between electron and phonon; however, the phonon frequencies of transverse wave and longitudinal wave were sensitive to electron density distribution.