Nanoscale nonlinear PANDA ring resonator
Yupapin, Preecha
2012-01-01
Microring/nanoring resonator is an interesting device that has been widely studied and investigated by researchers from a variety of specializations. This book begins with the basic background of linear and nonlinear ring resonators. A novel design of nano device known as a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The use of the device in the form of a PANDA in applications such as nanoelectronics, measurement, communication, sensors, optical and quantum computing, drug delivery, hybrid transistor and a new concept of electron-hole pair is discussed in detail.
Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenguang Huang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.
A Novel All-Optical Switch in a Double-Loop Sagnac Ring Coupled with a Nonlinear Ring Resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jun-Qing; LI Li; ZHAO Jia-Qun; LI Chun-Fei
2004-01-01
@@ We propose a novel configuration of all-optical switch based on a double-loop Sagnac ring coupled with a nonlinear ring resonator. In the case of self-phase modulation, the reducing switching threshold power down to mW is predicted, which is the improvement of earlier works on all-optical switches. The switch optimization is analysed.A way to increase the response speed of all-optical switches is suggested.
Enhanced all-optical switching by use of a nonlinear fiber ring resonator.
Heebner, J E; Boyd, R W
1999-06-15
We predict dramatically reduced switching thresholds for nonlinear optical devices incorporating fiber ring resonators. The circulating power in such a resonator is much larger than the incident power; also, the phase of the transmitted light varies rapidly with the single-pass phase shift. The combined action of these effects leads to a finesse-squared reduction in the switching threshold, allowing for photonic switching devices that operate at milliwatt power levels in ordinary optical fibers.
A Weakly Nonlinear Model for the Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings
Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki
2016-10-01
In this paper, we address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings. Goldreich & Tremaine have already argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring’s viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper Schmidt et al., we have pointed out that when—within a fluid description of the ring dynamics—the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping, but nonlinearity of the underlying equations guarantees a finite amplitude and eventually a damping of the wave. We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model. This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts density waves to be (linearly) unstable in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. Sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. The wave’s damping lengths of the model depend on certain input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability in parameter space and the ground state surface mass density.
All optical NAND gate based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somaye Serajmohammadi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a new design for all optical NAND gate. By combining nonlinear Kerr effect with photonic crystal ring resonators, we designed an all optical NAND gate. A typical NAND gate is a logic device with one bias and two logic input and one output ports. It has four different combinations for its logic input ports. The output port of the NAND gate is OFF, when both logic ports are ON, otherwise the output port will be ON. The switching power threshold obtained for this structure equals to 1.5 kW/μm2. For designing the proposed optical logic gate we employed one resonant ring whose resonant wavelength is at 1554 nm. The functionality of the proposed NAND gate depends on the operation of this resonant ring. When the power intensity of optical waves is less than the switching threshold the ring will couple optical waves into drop waveguide otherwise the optical waves will propagate on the bus waveguide.
Controlling the dynamical behavior of nonlinear fiber ring resonators with balanced loss and gain
Deka, Jyoti P; Sarma, Amarendra K
2015-01-01
We show the possibility of controlling the dynamical behavior of a single fiber ring (SFR) resonator system with the fiber being an amplified (gain) channel and the ring being attenuated (loss) nonlinear dielectric medium. The system considered here is a simple alteration in the basic building block of the parity time (PT) symmetric synthetic coupler structures reported in A. Regensburger et al., Nature 488, 167 (2012). We find that this result in a dynamically controllable algorithm for the chaotic dynamics inherent in the system. We have also shown the dependence of the period doubling point upon the input amplitude, emphasizing on the dynamical aspects of our system. Moreover, the fact that the resonator essentially plays the role of a damped harmonic oscillator has been elucidated with the non-zero intensity inside the resonator due to constant influx of input light. This study may be a step forward to further investigations in regard to the inter-connectivity between the PT symmetry and chaos along with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Aditi Ghosh; R Vijaya
2014-07-01
The continuous-wave output of a single-mode erbium-doped fibre ring laser when subjected to cavity-loss modulation is found to exhibit linear as well as nonlinear resonances. At sufficiently low driving amplitude, the system resembles a linear damped oscillator. At higher amplitudes, the dynamical study of these resonances shows that the behaviour of the system exhibits features of a nonlinear damped oscillator under harmonic modulation. These nonlinear dynamical features, including harmonic and subharmonic resonances, have been studied experimentally and analysed with the help of a simple time-domain and frequency-domain information obtained from the output of the laser. All the studies are restricted to the modulation frequency lying in a regime near the relaxation oscillation frequency.
Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan
2016-01-01
This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...
Integrated silicon optofluidic ring resonator
Testa, G.; Huang, Y.; Sarro, P.M.; Zeni, L.; Bernini, R.
2010-01-01
The feasibility of an integrated silicon optofluidic ring resonator is demonstrated. Liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides are used to realize a rectangular ring resonator with a multimode interference liquid core coupler between the ring and the bus waveguide. In this configuration
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings
Esposito, L. W.
2015-12-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from
Split ring resonator resonance assisted terahertz antennas
Galal, Hossam; Vitiello, Miriam S
2016-01-01
We report on the computational development of novel architectures of low impedance broadband antennas, for efficient detection of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived Split Ring Resonator Resonance Assisted (SRR RA) antennas are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme, exploiting a 200 Ohm and 400 Ohm impedance, respectively. Moreover, the impedance is tunable by varying the coupling parameters in the exploited geometry, allowing for better matching with the detector circuit for maximum power extraction. Our simulation results have been obtained by assuming a 1.5 THz operation frequency.
Modelling a singly resonant, intracavity ring optical parametric oscillator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Wei, Hou;
2003-01-01
We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a single-frequency, unidirectional ring laser with an intracavity nonlinear singly resonant OPO-crystal in a coupled resonator. We find for a range of operating conditions good agreement between model results and measurements of the laser ...
Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits
Ge, Xiaoqing
2010-06-01
Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.
Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.;
2005-01-01
or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....
On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators
Elwakil, Ahmed S.
2009-06-01
We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Resonant Meta-atoms with Nonlinearities on Demand
Filonov, Dmitry; Kozlov, Vitali; Malomed, Boris A; Ginzburg, Pavel
2016-01-01
Nonlinear light-matter interactions and their applications are constrained by properties of available materials. The use of metamaterials opens the way to achieve precise control over electromagnetic properties at a microscopic level, providing new tools for experimental studies of complex nonlinear phenomena in photonics. Here a doubly resonant nonlinear meta-atom is proposed, analyzed and characterized in the GHz spectral range. The underlying structure is composed of a pair of split rings, resonant at both fundamental and nonlinear frequencies. The rings share a varactor diode, which serves as a microscopic source of nonlinearity. Flexible control over the coupling and near- and far-field patterns are reported, favoring the doubly resonant structure over other realizations. Relative efficiencies of the second and third harmonics, generated by the diode, are tailored by dint of the double-ring geometry, providing a guideline for selecting one frequency against another, using the design of the auxiliary stru...
Tavousi, Alireza; Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Saffari, Mehdi
2016-09-01
Implementing of photonic sampling and quantizing analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) enable us to extract a single binary word from optical signals without need for extra electronic assisting parts. This would enormously increase the sampling and quantizing time as well as decreasing the consumed power. To this end, based on the concept of successive approximation method, a 4-bit full-optical ADC that operates using the intensity-dependent Kerr-like nonlinearity in a two dimensional photonic crystal (2DPhC) platform is proposed. The Silicon (Si) nanocrystal is chosen because of the suitable nonlinear material characteristic. An optical limiter is used for the clamping and quantization of each successive levels that represent the ADC bits. In the proposal, an energy efficient optical ADC circuit is implemented by controlling the system parameters such as ring-to-waveguide coupling coefficients, the ring's nonlinear refractive index, and the ring's length. The performance of the ADC structure is verified by the simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.
Measurement of Resonance driving terms in the ATF Damping Ring
Tomás, R; Kuroda, S; Naito, T; Okugi, T; Urakawa, J; Zimmermann, F
2008-01-01
The measurement of resonance driving terms in the Damping Ring of the Accelerator Test Facility in KEK could help finding possible machine imperfections and even to optimize single particle stability through the minimization of non-linearities. The first experimental attempts of this enterprise are reported in this note.
Damping of Resonantly Forced Density Waves in Dense Planetary Rings
Lehmann, Marius; Schmidt, Jürgen; Salo, Heikki
2016-10-01
We address the stability of resonantly forced density waves in dense planetary rings.Already by Goldreich and Tremaine (1978) it has been argued that density waves might be unstable, depending on the relationship between the ring's viscosity and the surface mass density. In the recent paper (Schmidt et al. 2016) we have pointed out that when - within a fluid description of the ring dynamics - the criterion for viscous overstability is satisfied, forced spiral density waves become unstable as well. In this case, linear theory fails to describe the damping.We apply the multiple scale formalism to derive a weakly nonlinear damping relation from a hydrodynamical model.This relation describes the resonant excitation and nonlinear viscous damping of spiral density waves in a vertically integrated fluid disk with density dependent transport coefficients. The model consistently predicts linear instability of density waves in a ring region where the conditions for viscous overstability are met. In this case, sufficiently far away from the Lindblad resonance, the surface mass density perturbation is predicted to saturate to a constant value due to nonlinear viscous damping. In general the model wave damping lengths depend on a set of input parameters, such as the distance to the threshold for viscous overstability and the ground state surface mass density.Our new model compares reasonably well with the streamline model for nonlinear density waves of Borderies et al. 1986.Deviations become substantial in the highly nonlinear regime, corresponding to strong satellite forcing.Nevertheless, we generally observe good or at least qualitative agreement between the wave amplitude profiles of both models. The streamline approach is superior at matching the total wave profile of waves observed in Saturn's rings, while our new damping relation is a comparably handy tool to gain insight in the evolution of the wave amplitude with distance from resonance, and the different regimes of
Nonlinear behavior of Helmholtz resonators
Hersh, A. S.
1990-10-01
A semi-empirical fluid mechanical model has been derived to predict the nonlinear acoustic behavior of thin-walled, single-orifice Helmholtz resonators. The model assumed that the sound particle velocity field approaches the resonator in a spherically symmetric manner. The incident and cavity sound pressure fields are connected in terms of an orifice discharge coefficient and an end correction parameter whose values are determined empirically. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing predicted with measured impedance over a wide range of sound amplitudes and frequencies for two different resonator geometries and with measurements conducted by Ingard and Ising.
Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor
Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David
2007-01-01
A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.
Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings
Esposito, Larry W.
2015-11-01
Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects
InP tunable ring resonator filters
Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Vawter, G. A.; Skogen, E. J.; Peake, G.; Overberg, M.; Alford, C.; Torres, D.; Cajas, F.
2013-03-01
Optical channelizing filters with narrow linewidth are of interest for optical processing of microwave signals. Fabrication tolerances make it difficult to place exactly the optical resonance frequency within the microwave spectrum as is required for many applications. Therefore, efficient tuning of the filter resonance is essential. In this paper we present a tunable ring resonator filter with an integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) fabricated on an InP based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform. The ring resonance is tuned over 37 GHz with just 0.2 mA of current injection into a passive phase section. The use of current injection is often more efficient than thermal tuning using heaters making them useful for low-power applications. The single active ring resonator has an electrical FWHM of 1.5 GHz and shows greater than 16 dB of extinction between on and off resonance. The effects of SOA internal ring gain and induced passive loss on extinction and linewidth will be shown. Agreement between experimentally demonstrated devices and simulations are shown. The integration of the active and passive regions is done using quantum well intermixing and the resonators utilize buried heterostructure waveguides. The fabrication process of these filters is compatible with the monolithic integration of DBR lasers and high speed modulators enabling single chip highly functional PICs for the channelizing of RF signals.
Radiation from structured-ring resonators
Maling, B; Craster, R V
2016-01-01
We investigate the scalar-wave resonances of systems composed of identical Neumann-type inclusions arranged periodically around a circular ring. Drawing on natural similarities with the undamped Rayleigh-Bloch waves supported by infinite linear arrays, we deduce asymptotically the exponentially small radiative damping in the limit where the ring radius is large relative to the periodicity. In our asymptotic approach, locally linear Rayleigh-Bloch waves that attenuate exponentially away from the ring are matched to a ring-scale WKB-type wave field. The latter provides a descriptive physical picture of how the mode energy is transferred via tunnelling to a circular evanescent-to-propagating transition region a finite distance away from the ring, from where radiative grazing rays emanate to the far field. Excluding the zeroth-order standing-wave modes, the position of the transition circle bifurcates with respect to clockwise and anti-clockwise contributions, resulting in striking spiral wavefronts.
Miniaturised self-resonant split-ring resonator antenna
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2009-01-01
A self-resonant miniaturized antenna composed of a broadside-coupled split-ring resonator (SRR) and an excitation arc-shaped monopole is presented. The size of the antenna and its resonance frequency is essentially defined by the SRR dimensions and geometry, while the input resistance...... at the resonance is governed by the arc length of the monopole. Numerical and experimental results are presented for an antenna configuration of 1/23.4 wavelength in diameter (ka~0.134). The antenna is tuned to 50 ohms without any matching network, and its efficiency is measured to be 17.5%....
Tesseral resonances in the rings of Saturn
El Moutamid, Maryame; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Burns, Joseph A.; French, Richard G.
2016-05-01
We will present a study of the behavior of the A, B, C and D rings using images and occultation data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft over a period of 8 years from 2006 to 2015. We have identified a variety of free and forced normal modes at the edge of the A ring, with values of ''m'' ranging from 3 to 18 and appropriate pattern speeds (El Moutamid et al, 2016). These modes may represent waves trapped in resonant cavities at the edge (Spitale and Porco 2010, Nicholson et al 2014). Moreover, Hedman et al. (2009) have identified structures in the D ring and the Roche division which appear to rotate with Saturn. These may represent Tesseral resonances associated with inhomogeneities in Saturn's interior.We are now searching for wave-like signatures in the main rings which are not associated with edges but also related to the rotation period of Saturn. We have identified several signatures consistent with other Tesseral resonances. These signatures may provide information about differential rotation in Saturn's interior.
Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)
2015-12-15
We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)
Observation of nonlinear resonances in the advanced light source
Robin, D.; Collins, H.; Decking, W.; Portmann, G.; Schachinger, L.; Zholents, A.
1995-09-01
Observations of nonlinear resonances in the Advanced Light Source have been made by scanning betatron tunes and observing count rates in a beam-loss radiation monitor placed down stream of a beam scraper. We have found that it is possible to see structural resonances which are unallowed as well as those which are allowed by the ring's natural 12-fold symmetry. By systematically breaking the amount of symmetry we see that the widths of the unallowed resonances grow while the widths of the allowed resonances do not. In this paper we briefly discuss the importance of symmetry and its effect on resonances in the design of the ALS. Next we describe our experimental setup and discuss the performance of the beam loss monitor which we used to view the resonances. We then present scans of the tune space where one can see the presence of the structural resonances and their evolution when the lattice symmetry is systematically broken.
Continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillator placed inside a ring laser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben
2003-01-01
A cw singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) was built and placed inside the cavity of a ring laser. The system consists of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 ring laser with intracavity periodically poled lithium niobate as the nonlinear gain medium of the SRO. When the laser was operated...... the laser was coupled with the SRO. The results show that it is preferable to couple a SRO with a unidirectional ring laser....
Gap solitons in a chain of split-ring resonator dimers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Wei-na, E-mail: cuiweinaa@163.com [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Hong-xia, E-mail: hxli@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Sun, Min [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Bu, Ling-bing [Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)
2017-06-21
Dynamics of a chain of split-ring resonator dimers with Kerr nonlinear interaction are investigated. A dimer is built as a pair of coupled split-ring resonators with different size. It is shown that the gap solitons with frequency lying in the gap exist due to the interaction of the discreteness and nonlinearity. Such localized structures are studied in the phase plane and analytical and numerical expressions are also obtained. - Highlights: • The coupling of the two modes is studied in the chain of split-ring resonator dimers with Kerr nonlinear interaction. • The evolution of the localized structures is studied in the phase plane. • This system supports gap solitons with the frequencies lying in the gap.
Nonlinear Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Iltchenko, Vladimir
2009-01-01
In an alternative version of a proposed bimaterial thermal compensator for a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator, a mechanical element having nonlinear stiffness would be added to enable stabilization of a desired resonance frequency at a suitable fixed working temperature. The previous version was described in "Bimaterial Thermal Compensators for WGM Resonators." Both versions are intended to serve as inexpensive means of preventing (to first order) or reducing temperature-related changes in resonance frequencies.
Integrated micro ring resonator displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies
Kiyat, Isa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2004-03-01
We describe a novel displacement sensor for scanning probe microscopies using an integrated optical micro ring resonator. This device operates by means of monitoring the changes in the transmission spectrum of a high finesse micro ring resonator. Finite element method simulations were carried out to obtain the optimum sensor design and finite difference time domain simulation was used to obtain the transfer characteristics of micro ring resonators. Operation principles and sensitivity calculations are discussed in detail. To achieve high sensitivity, we have studied different types of ring resonator. The highest sensitivity is obtained in a race-track resonator. This new design should provide sensitivities as high as ~10-4 Å-1.
Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2009-01-01
A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...... a essentially determined by the SRR, while by varying the dipole arm length the input resistance is changed in a wide range, thus matching the antenna to a feed line and compensating for simulation and manufacturing inaccuracies. No additional matching network is required. Theoretically, there is no limit...... on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms...
Multiple four-wave mixing and Kerr combs in a bichromatically pumped nonlinear fiber ring cavity.
Ceoldo, D; Bendahmane, A; Fatome, J; Millot, G; Hansson, T; Modotto, D; Wabnitz, S; Kibler, B
2016-12-01
We report numerical and experimental studies of multiple four-wave mixing processes emerging from dual-frequency pumping of a passive nonlinear fiber ring cavity. We observe the formation of a periodic train of nearly background-free soliton pulses associated with Kerr frequency combs. The generation of resonant dispersive waves is also reported.
VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others
1995-12-31
The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ZHENG GAIGE; XU LINHUA; LIU YUZHU
2016-05-01
Tunable filter based on two metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides coupled to each other by a ring resonator with double narrow gaps is designed and numerically investigated by finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The propagating modes of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are studied. By introducing narrow gaps in ring resonators, the transmission in differentresonance modes can be effectively adjusted by changing the gap width (g), and the transmitted peak wavelength has a nonlinear relationship with g. Another structure consisting two cascading ring resonators and regular MIM waveguide have also been proposed. The mechanism based on circular ring resonators with narrow gaps may provide a novel method for designing all-opticalintegrated components in optical communication and computing.
An Archetype Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) Resonator
Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; VanZyl, Jakob
2009-01-01
We introduce and demonstrate the generation of a novel resonator, termed Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP), that exhibits unique features, such as, its use of one plane mirror, allowing the SRFP to be easily fabricated as a symmetrical device. In addition to its unique features, it exhibits advantages of ring and Fabry-Perot resonators: 1) compared to a ring resonator that only allows a transmitted intensity, the Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) supports standing waves, allowing both a reflected and transmitted intensity; 2) the reflected light spectrum of the SRFP resonator is much narrower than similar Fabry-Perot, implying higher finesse.
HTS nonlinearities in microwave disk resonators
Collado, Carlos; Mateu, Jordi; Shaw, Timothy J.; O'Callaghan, Juan M.
2002-08-01
This article describes a procedure for the calculation of the intermodulation behavior of the TM0 1 0 mode in high temperature superconducting (HTS) disk resonators from a description of the local HTS nonlinearities. Successful cross-checks are performed by comparing the theoretical results with experimental measurements and simulations based on the multiport harmonic balance algorithm for a specific model of HTS nonlinearity. The application of this procedure to the determination of nonlinear material parameters from disk resonator measurements is illustrated and compared to theoretical predictions.
Geometrical tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Kristensen, Anders; Xiao, Sanshui;
2010-01-01
We investigate the capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators. An LC-model predicts a simple dependence of resonance frequency on slit aspect ratio. Experimental and numerical data follow the predictions of the LC-model....
Passive ring resonator micro-optical gyroscopes
Venediktov, V. Yu; Filatov, Yu V.; Shalymov, E. V.
2016-05-01
This paper reviews recent advances in passive micro-optical gyroscopes. In the last decade, most research effort in the area of micro-optical gyros has been concentrated on a configuration that takes advantage of a single-mode passive ring resonator, which is usually fabricated using integrated optical technologies. The dimensions of such micro-optical gyros are comparable to those of micromechanical gyroscopes (area of 10 to 100 mm2) and their sensitivity is considerably better than the sensitivity of the latter, approaching that of fibre-optic and laser gyros. Moreover, microoptical gyros can be made as a single integrated circuit, like the micromechanical gyros, but they have no movable parts, in contrast to their micromechanical counterparts. We also describe the development and investigation of micro-optical gyros produced in our studies.
Differential Resonant Ring YIG Tuned Oscillator
Parrott, Ronald A.
2010-01-01
A differential SiGe oscillator circuit uses a resonant ring-oscillator topology in order to electronically tune the oscillator over multi-octave bandwidths. The oscillator s tuning is extremely linear, because the oscillator s frequency depends on the magnetic tuning of a YIG sphere, whose resonant frequency is equal to a fundamental constant times the DC magnetic field. This extremely simple circuit topology uses two coupling loops connecting a differential pair of SiGe bipolar transistors into a feedback configuration using a YIG tuned filter creating a closed-loop ring oscillator. SiGe device technology is used for this oscillator in order to keep the transistor s 1/f noise to an absolute minimum in order to achieve minimum RF phase noise. The single-end resonant ring oscillator currently has an advantage in fewer parts, but when the oscillation frequency is greater than 16 GHz, the package s parasitic behavior couples energy to the sphere and causes holes and poor phase noise performance. This is because the coupling to the YIG is extremely low, so that the oscillator operates at near the unloaded Q. With the differential resonant ring oscillator, the oscillation currents are just in the YIG coupling mechanisms. The phase noise is even better, and the physical size can be reduced to permit monolithic microwave integrated circuit oscillators. This invention is a YIG tuned oscillator circuit making use of a differential topology to simultaneously achieve an extremely broadband electronic tuning range and ultra-low phase noise. As a natural result of its differential circuit topology, all reactive elements, such as tuning stubs, which limit tuning bandwidth by contributing excessive open loop phase shift, have been eliminated. The differential oscillator s open-loop phase shift is associated with completely non-dispersive circuit elements such as the physical angle of the coupling loops, a differential loop crossover, and the high-frequency phase shift of the n
Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions
Ramini, Abdallah
2016-10-04
Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.
Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions
Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-10-01
Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.
Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton
Amiri, Iraj Sadegh
2014-01-01
The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi
Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor
2008-01-01
For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency rang...
Resonance capture and Saturn's rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patterson, C.W.
1986-05-01
We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Mukai, Y; Yamamoto, T; Kageyama, H; Tanaka, K
2016-01-01
We report on the nonlinear magnetization dynamics of a HoFeO3 crystal induced by a strong terahertz magnetic field resonantly enhanced with a split ring resonator and measured with magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. The terahertz magnetic field induces a large change (~40%) in the spontaneous magnetization. The frequency of the antiferromagnetic resonance decreases in proportion to the square of the magnetization change. A modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with a phenomenological nonlinear damping term quantitatively reproduced the nonlinear dynamics.
Nonlinearity and hysteresis of resonant strain gauges
Gui, Chengqun; Legtenberg, Rob; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Elwenspoek, Miko
1995-01-01
Nonlinearity and hysteresis effects of electrostatically activated, voltage driven resonant microbridges have been studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown, that, in order to avoid vibration instability and hysteresis to occur, the choices of the ax. and d.c. driving voltages and of the
Nonlinearity and hysteresis of resonant strain gauges
Gui, Chengqun; Legtenberg, Rob; Tilmans, Harrie A.C.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Elwenspoek, Miko
1998-01-01
The nonlinearity and hysteresis effects of the electrostatically activated voltage-driven resonant microbridges have been studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that in order to avoid vibration instability and hysteresis to occur, the choices of the ac and dc driving voltages and of t
Thermo-optically tunable switching in an electro-microtube ring resonator
Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Tao; Deng, Ming
2015-07-01
We propose a tunable optical switching based on thermo-optic nonlinear effect in an electro-microtube ring resonator (EMRR) made by a capillary embedded with a heating wire. The significant modes shift in the EMRR for nonlinear switching are attributed to a huge joule heat generated by the heating wire, leading to the resonant wavelength shifts over 0.9nm when using 250mA current. In our viewpoints, with such a significant performance, the EMRR may be practically applied to switching, optical filter, sensing and optical network process.
Enhanced linear and nonlinear optical phase response of AlGaAs microring resonators.
Heebner, John E; Lepeshkin, Nick N; Schweinsberg, Aaron; Wicks, G W; Boyd, Robert W; Grover, Rohit; Ho, P T
2004-04-01
We have constructed and characterized several optical microring resonators with scale sizes of the order of 10 microm. These devices are intended to serve as building blocks for engineerable linear and nonlinear photonic media. Light is guided vertically by an epitaxially grown structure and transversely by deeply etched air-clad sidewalls. We report on the spectral phase transfer characteristics of such resonators. We also report the observation of a pi-rad Kerr nonlinear phase shift accumulated in a single compact ring resonator evidenced by all-optical switching between output ports of a resonator-enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
Storage ring lattice calibration using resonant spin depolarization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. P. Wootton
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents measurements of the GeV-scale electron beam energy for the storage rings at the synchrotron light source facilities Australian Synchrotron (AS and SPEAR3 at SLAC. Resonant spin depolarization was employed in the beam energy measurement, since it is presently the highest precision technique and an uncertainty of order 10^{-6} was achieved at SPEAR3 and AS. Using the resonant depolarization technique, the beam energy was measured at various rf frequencies to measure the linear momentum compaction factor. This measured linear momentum compaction factor was used to evaluate models of the beam trajectory through combined-function bending magnets. The main bending magnets of both lattices are rectangular, horizontally defocusing gradient bending magnets. Four modeling approaches are compared for the beam trajectory through the bending magnet: a circular trajectory, linear and nonlinear hyperbolic cosine trajectories, and numerical evaluation of the trajectory through the measured magnetic field map. Within the uncertainty of the measurement the momentum compaction factor is shown to agree with the numerical model of the trajectory within the bending magnet, and disagree with the hyperbolic cosine approximation.
Hamiltonian theory of nonlinear waves in planetary rings
Stewart, G. R.
1987-01-01
The derivation of a Hamiltonian field theory for nonlinear density waves in Saturn's rings is discussed. Starting with a Hamiltonian for a discrete system of gravitating streamlines, an averaged Hamiltonian is obtained by successive applications of Lie transforms. The transformation may be carried out to any desired order in q, where q is the nonlinearity parameter defined in the work of Shu, et al (1985) and Borderies et al (1985). Subsequent application of the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin Method approximation yields an asymptotic field Hamiltonian. Both the nonlinear dispersion relation and the wave action transport equation are easily derived from the corresponding Lagrangian by the standard variational principle.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Ghosh; B K Goswami; R Vijaya
2010-11-01
Our experiments with an erbium-doped fibre ring laser (CW, single transverse mode and multiaxial mode) with an intracavity LiNbO3 electro-optic modulator (EOM) display the characteristic features of a nonlinear oscillator (e.g., harmonic and period-2 sub-harmonic resonances) when the EOM driver voltage is modulated periodically. Harmonic resonance leads to period-1 bistability and hysteresis. Inside the period-2 sub-harmonic resonance region, the laser exhibits Feigenbaum sequence and generalized bistability.
YBCO superconducting ring resonators at millimeter-wave frequencies
Chorey, Christopher M.; Kong, Keon-Shik; Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, J. D.; Itoh, Tatsuo
1991-01-01
Microstrip ring resonators operating at 35 GHz were fabricated from laser ablated YBCO films deposited on lanthanum aluminate substrates. They were measured over a range of temperatures and their performances compared to identical resonators made of evaporated gold. Below 60 Kelvin the superconducting strip performed better than the gold, reaching an unloaded Q approximately 1.5 times that of gold at 25 K. A shift in the resonant frequency follows the form predicted by the London equations. The Phenomenological Loss Equivalence Method is applied to the ring resonator and the theoretically calculated Q values are compared to the experimental results.
Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan;
2012-01-01
We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....
Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.
Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong
2015-05-21
We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.
Coriolis effects on nonlinear oscillations of rotating cylinders and rings
Padovan, J.
1976-01-01
The effects which moderately large deflections have on the frequency spectrum of rotating rings and cylinders are considered. To develop the requisite solution, a variationally constrained version of the Lindstedt-Poincare procedure is employed. Based on the solution developed, in addition to considering the effects of displacement induced nonlinearity, the role of Coriolis forces is also given special consideration.
Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan
2012-01-01
We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping.......We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....
Stable ring resonator with bidirectional passes through the gain medium
Paxton, Alan H.; Miller, Harold C.
2014-03-01
Ring resonators have unique properties that are sometimes desirable. Spatial hole burning is eliminated. Beam transformation, such as image rotation which may reduce the magnitude of certain aberrations, can be implemented in a traveling-wave region. There is a drawback, however. As usually constructed, a ring resonator has half as many passes through the gain medium as can be achieved with a standing-wave resonator. This may have a detrimental effect on laser efficiency. We have constructed a type of ring resonator that allows counterpropagating collinear passes through the gain medium, while there is also a section with a unidirectional beam. The resonator includes a polarizing beam splitter. The linear polarization is transformed to the orthogonal state by optical elements at the two ends of the region with counter-propagating beams. The beams passing through the gain medium in opposite directions are linearly polarized with orthogonal states.
Nonlinear Resonance of Mechanically Excited Sessile Drops
Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul
2013-11-01
The spectrum of frequencies and mode shapes for an inviscid drop on a planar substrate have recently been documented. For vertical excitation, zonal modes respond to the driving frequency harmonically and non-zonal modes subharmonically, consistent with the prior literature. In this study, we report observations from the regime of nonlinear response. Here, zonals can respond non-harmonically, both sub- and super-harmonic responses are reported. The principal challenge to generating and observing superharmonic resonances of higher zonal modes is a mode-mixing behavior. However, using a simple visual simulation based on the ray-tracing technique, the individual contributions to the mixed resonance behavior can be extracted. In summary, results from experiment and theory show that the zonal modes, which respond harmonically and can mix with non-zonal modes without interfering with one another in the linear regime, tend to respond sub- or superharmonically and compete with non-zonal modes in the nonlinear regime.
Nonlinear nanomechanical resonators for quantum optoelectromechanics
Rips, S; Hartmann, M J
2012-01-01
We present a scheme for enhancing the anharmonicity of nanomechanical resonators by subjecting them to inhomogenous electrostatic fields. We show that this approach enables access to a novel regime of optomechanics, where the nonlinearity per quanta of the mechanical motion becomes comparable to the linewidth of the optical cavities employed. In this "resolved nonlinearity regime" transitions between phonon Fock states of the mechanical resonator can be selectively addressed. As one application we show that our approach would allow to prepare stationary phonon Fock states in experimentally realistic devices. Such states are manifestly non-classical as they show pronounced negative Wigner functions. We calculate the mechanical steady state by tracing out the cavity modes in the weak optomechanical coupling limit and corroborate our results by a numerical analysis of the full dynamics including the cavity modes. Finally, we show how the negativity of the stationary states' Wigner function can be read off the ou...
Optomechanical response of a nonlinear mechanical resonator
Shevchuk, Olga; Singh, Vibhor; Steele, Gary A.; Blanter, Ya. M.
2015-11-01
We investigate theoretically in detail the nonlinear effects in the response of an optical/microwave cavity coupled to a Duffing mechanical resonator. The cavity is driven by a laser at a red or blue mechanical subband, and a probe laser measures the reflection close to the cavity resonance. Under these conditions, we find that the cavity exhibits optomechanically induced reflection (OMIR) or absorption (OMIA) and investigate the optomechanical response in the limit of nonlinear driving of the mechanics. Similar to linear mechanical drive, in an overcoupled cavity the red sideband drive may lead to both OMIA and OMIR depending on the strength of the drive, whereas the blue sideband drive only leads to OMIR. The dynamics of the phase of the mechanical resonator leads to the difference between the shapes of the response of the cavity and the amplitude response of the driven Duffing oscillator, for example, at weak red sideband drive the OMIA dip has no inflection point. We also verify that mechanical nonlinearities beyond Duffing model have little effect on the size of the OMIA dip though they affect the width of the dip.
Nonlinear Oscillations of Microscale Piezoelectric Resonators and Resonator Arrays
2006-06-30
linear characteristics [2-5]. These characteristics include DUffing oscillator like response during resonance excitations [6], temporal harmonics in the...model is used with a single-mode approximation to produce a forced Duffing oscillator . Nonlinear analysis is used to obtain the frequency-response...backward this procedure, the simplified model takes the form of a forced frequency sweeps, only the forward sweep data are used in Duffing oscillator , shown
Design of Square Shaped Miniaturized Split Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najuka Hadkar,
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Microwaves are constantly experiencing changes for many years. Microwave circuits use microstrip lines because it allows easy integration of active and passive surface mount components and it is less costly. In addition to a large number of benefits, microstrip lines have some disadvantages such as narrow-band loss, interference and low efficiency. To overcome the disadvantages, metamaterials are introduced. The proposed work shows various concentric U-shaped multi-split ring resonators(SRRs metamaterial structures with & without broadside coupling. As compared to the conventional split ring resonators , broadside coupled resonators shows decrease in the LC resonance frequency and provide an electrically small and easy-tofabricate alternative to the present multi-band metamaterial structures. The multi-band magnetic resonator topologies are simulated using CST Microwave Studio (MWS to compute and compare their electrical sizes. Different types of U-shaped structures with inner and outer rings of SRR are used to realize transmission spectra, resonant frequencies and electrical sizes. This topology has the flexibility of adjusting the resonance frequencies by changing the design parameters such as the gap width, metal width and inter-ring distances. The broadside-coupled multiple U-Shaped magnetic resonator topology is considered to be a useful contribution to multi-band metamaterial research applications.
Capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger;
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators. Based on a simple LC circuit model (LC-model), we derive an expression where the inductance is proportional to the area while the capacitance reflects the aspect ratio of the slit. The resonance frequency may...
Capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders
2009-01-01
We investigate the capacitance tuning of nanoscale split-ring resonators. Based on a simple inductor-capacitor circuit model, we derive an expression, where the inductance is proportional to the area while the capacitance reflects the aspect ratio of the slit. The resonance frequency may thus be ...
Nonlinearly Coupled Superconducting Lumped Element Resonators
Collodo, Michele C.; Potočnik, Anton; Rubio Abadal, Antonio; Mondal, Mintu; Oppliger, Markus; Wallraff, Andreas
We study SQUID-mediated tunable coupling between two superconducting on-chip resonators in the microwave frequency range. In this circuit QED implementation, we employ lumped-element type resonators, which consist of Nb thin film structured into interdigitated finger shunt capacitors and meander inductors. A SQUID, functioning as flux dependent and intrinsically nonlinear inductor, is placed as a coupling element together with an interdigitated capacitor between the two resonators (cf. A. Baust et al., Phys Rev. B 91 014515 (2015)). We perform a spectroscopic measurement in a dilution refrigerator and find the linear photon hopping rate between the resonators to be widely tunable as well as suppressible for an appropriate choice of parameters, which is made possible due to the interplay of inductively and capacitively mediated coupling. Vanishing linear coupling promotes nonlinear effects ranging from onsite- to cross-Kerr interaction. A dominating cross-Kerr interaction related to this configuration is notable, as it induces a unique quantum state. In the course of analog quantum simulations, such elementary building blocks can serve as a precursor for more complex geometries and thus pave the way to a number of novel quantum phases of light
Electric and magnetic dipole couplings in split ring resonator metamaterials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan Jing; Sun Guang-Yong; and Zhu Wei-Ren
2011-01-01
In this paper,the electric and the magnetic dipole couplings between the outer and the inner rings of a single split ring resonator (SRR) are investigated.We numerically demonstrate that the magnetic resonance frequency can be substantially modified by changing the couplings of the electric and magnetic dipoles,and give a theoretical expression of the magnetic resonance frequency.The results in this work are expected to be conducive to a deeper understanding of the SRR and other similar metamaterials,and provide new guidance for complex metamaterials design with a tailored electromagnetic response.
Nonlinear plasmonic resonances in graphene nanostructures
You, Jian Wei; Weismann, Martin; Panoiu, Nicolae C.
2016-09-01
Peculiar physical properties of graphene offer remarkable potential for advanced photonics, particularly in the area of nonlinear optics at deep-subwavelength scale. In this article, we use a theoretical and computational analysis to demonstrate an efficient mechanism for enhancing the third-harmonic generation in graphene diffraction gratings. By taking advantage of the relation between the resonance wavelength of localized surface-plasmon polaritons of graphene ribbons and disks their specific geometry, we can engineer the spectral response of graphene gratings so as strong plasmonic resonances exist at both the fundamental frequency and third-harmonic (TH). As a result of this dual resonance mechanism for optical near-field enhancement, the intensity of the TH can be increased greatly.
Experimental study of resonance fiber optic gyroscope employing a dual-ring resonator
Fan, Yue; Wang, Wei
2016-09-01
A dual-ring resonator which is available to alter the full width at half maximum (FWHM) without altering the free spectrum range (FSR) for practice applications is analyzed theoretically and set up in practice. The parameters of the dual-ring resonator have been optimized in simulation, the resonance depth and the dynamic range are enhanced. The prototype is set up with single mode fiber of 8 meter and two 95 : 5 couplers for open loop experiment. The FWHM of the dual-ring resonator is demonstrated less than 1.5MHz and the fineness is calculated to be 37 during the frequency sweeping experiment. The frequency locking experiment with demodulation curve method has been accomplished, and the locking time achieves less than 40ms. All these provide a basic reference for optimizing the resonance fiber optic gyro based on dual-ring resonator.
Low-Loss Polymer-Based Ring Resonator for Resonant Integrated Optical Gyroscopes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guang Qian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Waveguide ring resonator is the sensing element of resonant integrated optical gyroscope (RIOG. This paper reports a polymer-based ring resonator with a low propagation loss of about 0.476 dB/cm for RIOG. The geometrical parameters of the waveguide and the coupler of the resonator were optimally designed. We also discussed the optical properties and gyroscope performance of the polymer resonator which shows a high quality factor of about 105. The polymer-based RIOG exhibits a limited sensitivity of less than 20 deg/h for the low and medium resolution navigation systems.
Multi-resonance split ring resonator structures at sub-terahertz frequencies
Galal, Hossam
2016-01-01
This paper reports on the computational development of novel architectures of multi-resonance Split Ring Resonators (SRRs), for efficient manipulation of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived resonators are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme. Simulation results have been obtained for a 60 GHz to 240 GHz operational bandwidth.
Frequency map analysis of resonances in a nonlinear lattice with space charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turchetti, G. E-mail: turchetti@bo.infn.it; Bazzani, A.; Bergamini, F.; Rambaldi, S.; Hofmann, I.; Bongini, L.; Franchetti, G
2001-05-21
In storage rings for heavy ion fusion beam losses must be minimized. During bunch compression high space charge is reached and the reciprocal effects between the collective modes of the beam and the single particle lattice nonlinearities must be considered to understand the problem of resonance crossing and halo formation. We show that the frequency map analysis of particle in core models gives an adequate description of the resonance network and of the chaotic regions where the halo particles can diffuse.
A widely tunable laser using silica-waveguide ring resonators
Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Morio; Suzuki, Kouichi; Deki, Yukari; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Takaesu, Sekizen; Horie, Mika; Sato, Kenji; Kudo, Koji
2005-10-01
A Wide wavelength tunable laser is needed for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (ROADM) networks, since it realizes flexible network, effectively employing wavelength resources, and inventory cost reduction. Several types currently exist, but they all are difficult to produce; that is, their mass producibility is not high and they have many components. In particular, monolithically integrated wavelength tunable lasers, such as DFB array, and SG(Sampled Grating)-DBR based structures, have been developed. While these lasers have good performance, they require complex InP growth steps and processing. The external cavity lasers also have good performance, but require precise manual assembly and have moving parts. We have proposed novel tunable laser consisting of silica waveguide ring resonator connected directly to semiconductor optical amplifier. This laser structure has several advantages, such as a simple laser structure suitable for mass-production and high reliability due to having a stable thermal optic phase shifter and no moving parts. This paper gives recent progress in waveguide ring resonator based tunable laser. Low loss and high performance silica waveguide ring resonator, which was suitable for tunable laser, was successfully fabricated using high index contrast SiON core. Double-ring resonators successfully attained 45-nm and 160-nm wavelength tuning operations, which was the largest wavelength tuning range in a tunable laser with no mechanical moving parts reported to date. Triple-ring resonator demonstrated stable full L-band tuning operations with 50-GHz wavelength spacing. We believe that silica waveguide ring resonator based tunable laser is very suitable for not only mass production, but also widely wavelength tuning and stable single mode operations.
Notes on the nonlinear beam dynamics with strong damping in the CLIC Damping Ring
Levichev, Eugene; Shatilov, Dmitry
2010-01-01
The beam is injected into the CLIC damping ring with the relatively large emittance and energy spread and then is damped to the extremely low phase volume. During the damping process the betatron frequency of each particle changes due to the space charge tune shift and nonlinear dependence of the betatron tune on the amplitude. This nonlinearity is produced by the strong chromatic sextupoles, wiggler nonlinear field components and, again, by the space charge force. During the damping, the particle cross resonances, which can trap some fraction of the beam, cause the loss of intensity, the beam blow up and degrade the beam quality. In this paper we study the evolution of the beam distribution in time during the damping for the original lattice of the CLIC DR (May 2005). Geneva, Switzerland June 2010 CLIC – Note – 850
Strong Coupling between On Chip Notched Ring Resonator and Nanoparticle
Wang, S; Smith, H; Yi, Y
2010-01-01
We have demonstrated a new photonic structure to achieve strong optical coupling between nanoparticle and photonic molecule by utilizing a notched micro ring resonators. By creating a notch in the ring resonator and putting a nanoparticle inside the notch, large spectral shifts and splittings at nm scale can be achieved, compared to only pm scale observed by fiber tip evanescently coupled to the surface of microsphere, thereby significantly lowered the quality factor requirement for single nanoparticle detection. The ability for sorting the type of nanoparticles due to very different mode shift and splitting behavior of dielectric and metallic nanoparticles is also emphasized.
Optical Leaky-Wave Antenna Integrated in Ring Resonator
Guclu, Caner; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo
2014-01-01
A leaky-wave antenna at optical frequencies is designed and integrated with a ring resonator at 1550 nm wavelength. The leaky wave is generated by using periodic perturbations in the integrated dielectric waveguide that excite the -1 spatial harmonic. The antenna consists of a dielectric waveguides with semiconductor corrugations, and it is compatible with CMOS fabrication technology. We show that integrating the leaky wave antenna in an optical ring resonator that is fed by directional couplers, we can improve the electronic control of the radiation through carrier injection into the semiconductor corrugations.
Ring-resonator-based wavelength filters
Geuzebroek, D.H.; Driessen, A.; Venghaus, H.
2006-01-01
Microring resonators (MR) represent a class of filters with characteristics very similar to those of Fabry–Perot filters. However, they offer the advantage that the injected and reflected signals are separated in individual waveguides, and in addition, their design does not require any facets or
Quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a split-ring-resonator-based left-handed coplanar waveguide.
Veldes, G P; Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J
2011-04-01
We study the propagation of quasidiscrete microwave solitons in a nonlinear left-handed coplanar waveguide coupled with split-ring resonators. By considering the relevant transmission line analog, we derive a nonlinear lattice model which is studied analytically by means of a quasidiscrete approximation. We derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and find that the system supports bright envelope soliton solutions in a relatively wide subinterval of the left-handed frequency band. We perform systematic numerical simulations, in the framework of the nonlinear lattice model, to study the propagation properties of the quasidiscrete microwave solitons. Our numerical findings are in good agreement with the analytical predictions, and suggest that the predicted structures are quite robust and may be observed in experiments.
Waveguide Model for Thick Complementary Split Ring Resonators
Pulido-Mancera, Laura Maria
2014-01-01
This paper presents a very simple analytical model for the design of Frequency Selective Surfaces based on Complementary Split Ring Resonators (CSRR) within the microwave range. Simple expressions are provided for the most important geometrical parameters of the model, yielding an accurate description of the CSRR resonance frequency and avoiding full-wave numerical simulations. Besides, a qualitative description of the band-pass filter behavior of these structures is described, considering its high quality factor Q.
Zhang, Juanjuan; Wen, Jianbiao; Gao, Yuanwen
2016-06-01
In previous works, most of them employ a linear constitutive model to describe magnetocapacitance (MC) effect in magnetoelectric (ME) composites, which lead to deficiency in their theoretical results. In view of this, based on a nonlinear magnetostrictive constitutive relation and a linear piezoelectric constitutive relation, we establish a nonlinear model for MC effect in PZT-ring/Terfenol-D-strip ME composites. The numerical results in this paper coincide better with experimental data than that of a linear model, thus, it's essential to utilize a nonlinear constitutive model for predicting MC effect in ME composites. Then the influences of external magnetic fields, pre-stresses, frequencies, and geometric sizes on the MC effect are discussed, respectively. The results show that the external magnetic field is responsible for the resonance frequency shift. And the resonance frequency is sensitive to the ratio of outer and inner radius of the PZT ring. Moreover, some other piezoelectric materials are employed in this model and the corresponding MC effects are calculated, and we find that different type of piezoelectric materials affect the MC effect obviously. The proposed model is more accurate for multifunction devices designing.
Longitudinal mode structure in a non-planar ring resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Jaberi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The structure of longitudinal modes of a passively Q-switched, non-planar unidirectional ring-resonator,with Nd:YAG active medium is described in this article. Two different techniques are used to study the longitudinal mode structure of the laser resonator. At first, the fast-fourier transform technique is applied for analyzing the mode beating of the optical fields by intensity frequency structure of the laser pulses to determine the number of longitudinal modes. Then, an analyzer etalon is used to observe Fabry-Perot fringes to compute the numbers of the resonator longitudinal modes. The results of two techniques are in good agreement with each other. Under the proper conditions, a reliable single longitudinal mode of the non-planar ring-resonator can be achieved with a good spatial mode profile that originates from the unidirectional travelling optical field propagation in the resonator having a very low sensitivity of the non-planar ring resonator to the optical elements misalignment.
Progress On 58m2 Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope
Shaw, G. L.; Rotge, J.; Simmons, B. J.
1986-01-01
An update of the large area (now 60m2) Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyro (PRRLG) is given. Some aspects of last year's design have changed; but performance is still predicted to be in the 10-10 earth rate unit (ERU) range. This is of interest for a number of geophysical applications.
Analytical Model of Planar Double Split Ring Resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor
2007-01-01
This paper focuses on accurate modelling of microstrip double split ring resonators. The impedance matrix representation for coupled lines is applied for the first time to model the SRR, resulting in excellent model accuracy over a wide frequency range. Phase compensation is implemented to take...
Multipoles of Even/Odd Split-Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Chen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The ultimate goal of metamaterial engineering is to have complete control over the electromagnetic constitutive parameters in three-dimensional space. This engineering can be done by considering either single meta-atoms or full meta-arrays. We follow the first route and perform numerical simulations of split-ring resonators, with different gap numbers and under varying illumination scenarios, to investigate their individual multipolar scattering response. For the fundamental resonance, we observe that odd-gap rings always exhibit overlapping electric and magnetic dipole responses while even-gap rings only exhibit that behavior accidentally. We expect our results to foster progress in the engineering of three-dimensional disordered metamaterials.
Vortices and ring dark solitons in nonlinear amplifying waveguides
Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Lu; Mihalache, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A
2010-01-01
We consider the generation and propagation of (2+1)-dimensional beams in a nonlinear waveguide with the linear gain. Simple self-similar evolution of the beams is achieved at the asymptotic stage, if the input beams represent the fundamental mode. On the contrary, if they carry vorticity or amplitude nodes (or phase slips), vortex tori and ring dark solitons (RDSs) are generated, featuring another type of the self-similar evolution, with an exponentially shrinking vortex core or notch of the RDS. Numerical and analytical considerations reveal that these self-similar structures are robust entities in amplifying waveguides, being \\emph{stable} against azimuthal perturbations.
Gain Incorporated Split-Ring Resonator Structures for Active Metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordan Chaires
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a systematic study of split-ring resonator (SRR structures that are used as the basic building blocks of active metamaterials with incorporated gain. The active split-ring resonator (aSRR structures with gain elements can in theory have similar unusual electromagnetic responses such as negative effective permeability near their resonance of the artificial magnetic response just like their passive counterparts. At the same time aSRRs can have reversed imaginary part of the effective permeability and, therefore, mitigate the loss of passive SRRs. We explored in detail both passive and active SRRs through analytic theory, numerical simulations, and lab experimentation and demonstrated that aSRRs can have the similar negative effective permeability responses while reducing and even reversing the loss.
Time delay in double micro-ring resonator with grating
Li, Qiliang; Chen, Xin; Song, Junfeng; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Miao; Li, Shuqin
2016-10-01
In this paper, using the transfer matrix which is obtained by coupled mode theory, we have studied the transmission and time delay characteristics of the micro-ring resonator with the grating. We find that fast- and slow-light can occur in double ring resonator which contains the grating. We also study the effect of coupling coefficient on transmission characteristics. The results reveal that the increase of the coupling coefficient can lead to the change of the time delay at various ports at the resonant point. Thus by adjusting the frequency of the incident light and selecting the device with different coupling coefficient, we can realize the output of the fast and slow light.
Numerical study of transient nonlinear harbor resonance
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
It is generally accepted that nonlinear wave-wave interactions play an important role in harbor resonance. Nevertheless it is not clear how waves take part in those interactions. The aim of this paper is to investigate those processes for a rectangular harbor at transient phases. Long-period oscillations excited by bichromatic waves are simulated by the Boussinesq model. The simulations start from calm conditions for the purpose of studying the response process. The internal wavemaker stops working after the oscillations have reached a quasi-steady state, and it is used to simulate the damp process. In order to analyze temporary features of wave-wave interactions in different states, the wavelet-based bispectrum is employed. The influence of the short wave frequencies on long-period oscillations is investigated, and reasons are tried to be given from nonlinear triad interactions between different wave components and the interaction of short waves and the bay entrance. Finally, the response time and the damp time are estimated by a simple method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Cun-Xi; Ding Xiu-Huan; Wang Rui; Zhou Yun-Qing; Kong Ling-Min
2012-01-01
We consider a discrete model that describes a linear chain of particles coupled to an isolated ring composed of N defects.This simple system can be regarded as a generalization of the familiar Fano-Anderson model.It can be used to model discrete networks of coupled defect modes in photonic crystals and simple waveguide arrays in two-dimensional lattices.The analytical result of the transmission coefficient is obtained,along with the conditions for perfect reflections and transmissions due to either destructive or constructive interferences.Using a simple example,we further investigate the relationship between the resonant frequencies and the number of defects N,and study how to affect the numbers of perfect reflections and transmissions.In addition,we demonstrate how these resonance transmissions and refections can be tuned by one nonlinear defect of the network that possesses a nonlinear Kerr-like response.
Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: rrestre@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)
2014-11-15
Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.
Improved nonlinear optimization in the storage ring of the modern synchrotron radiation light source
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Shun-Qiang; LIU Gui-Min; HOU Jie; CHEN Guang-Ling; CHEN Sen-Yu
2009-01-01
In the storage ring of the third generation light sources,nonlinear optimization is an indispensable course in order to obtain ample dynamic acceptances and to reach high injection efficiency and long beam lifetime,especially in a low emittance lattice.An improved optimization algorithm based on the single resonance approach,which takes relative weight and initial Harmonic Sextupole Integral Strength (HSIS) as search variables,is discussed in this paper.Applications of the improved method in several test lattices are presented.Detailed analysis of the storage ring of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is particularly emphasized.Furthermore,cancellation of the driving terms is investigated to reveal the physical mechanism of the harmonic sextupole compensation.Sensitivity to the weight and the initial HSIS as well as dependence of the optimum solution on the convergent factor is analyzed.
Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator
Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander
2016-11-01
Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.
Coulomb pairing resonances in multiple-ring aromatic molecules
Huber, D L
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of the Coulomb pairing resonances observed in photo-double-ionization studies of CnHm aromatic molecules with multiple benzene-like rings. It is applied to naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene and coronene, all of which have six-member rings, and azulene which is comprised of a five-member and a seven-member ring. There is a high energy resonance at ~ 40 eV that is found in all of the molecules cited and is associated with paired electrons localized on carbon sites on the perimeter of the molecule, each of which having two carbon sites as nearest neighbors. The low energy resonance at 10 eV, which is found only in pyrene and coronene, is attributed to the formation of paired electrons localized on arrays of interior carbon atoms that have the point symmetry of the molecule with each carbon atom having three nearest neighbors. The origin of the anomalous increase in the doubly charged to singly charged parent-ion ratio that is found above the 40 eV resonance in all of the cited ...
Non-Linear Beam Dynamics Studies of the Diamond Storage Ring
Bartolini, Riccardo; Belgroune, Mahdia; Henry Rowland, James; Jones, James; Martin, Ian; Singh, Beni
2005-01-01
The non-linear beam dynamics have been investigated for the non-zero dispersion lattice of the Diamond storage ring. Effects in realistic lattice configurations such as the introduction of coupling errors, beta beating, closed orbit correction, quadrupole fringe field and in-vacuum and helical insertion devices have been studied in the presence of realistic physical aperture limitations. Frequency map analysis together with 6D tracking allows identification of the limiting resonances as well as the loss locations and calculation of the influence of non-linear longitudinal motion on the Touschek lifetime. The sensitivity of the lattice to some of these effects leads to the identification of a better working point for the machine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renlong Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We have studied the excitation second-order nonlinearity through a triangular lattice perforated gold film instead of square lattice in many papers. Under the excitation of surface plasmas resonance effect, the second order nonlinearity exists in the noncentrosymmetric split-ring resonators arrays. Reflection of fundamental frequency wave through a triangular lattice perforated gold film is obtained. We also described the second harmonic conversion efficiencies in the second order nonlinear optical process with the spectra. Moreover, the electric field distributions of fundamental frequency above the gold film region are calculated. The light propagation through the holes results in the enhancement of the second order nonlinearity including second harmonic generation as well as the sum (difference frequency generation.
de Oliveira, Rafael E P; de Matos, Christiano J S
2013-12-30
Actively-controlled second harmonic generation in a silicon nitride ring resonator is proposed and simulated. The ring was designed to resonate at both pump and second harmonic wavelengths and quasi-phase-matched frequency conversion is induced by a periodic static electric field generated by voltage applied to electrodes arranged along the ring. Nonlinear propagation simulations were undertaken and an efficiency of -21.67 dB was calculated for 60 mW of pump power at 1550 nm and for a 30V applied voltage, which compares favorably with demonstrated all-optical second harmonic generation in integrated microresonators. Transient effects were also evaluated. The proposed design can be exploited for the construction of electro-optical devices based on nonlinear effects in CMOS compatible circuits.
Towards chains of tunable and nonlinear superconducting microwave resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Michael; Wulschner, Friedrich; Schaumburger, Udo; Haeberlein, Max; Fedorov, Kirill; Goetz, Jan; Xie, Edwar [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Schwarz, Manuel; Eder, Peter; Menzel, Edwin; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)
2015-07-01
We present an experimental feasibility study of chains of tunable and nonlinear superconducting microwave resonators within the realm of circuit QED. We describe the fabrication and experimental characterization of the components required to realize nonlinear resonators with tunable anharmonicity, capacitively coupled resonator chains and on-chip parallel plate capacitors. We discuss possible error sources in the fabrication and characterization processes. Furthermore, simulations based on existing theories are performed to identify accessible parameter ranges.
Extending the Bandwidth of Electric Ring Resonator Metamaterial Absorber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Hao; WANG Tao; GONG Rong-Zhou; NIE Yan; WANG Xian
2011-01-01
An efficient method is proposed to extend the bandwidth of a metamaterial absorber with multi-resonance structure. The basic unit cell of a metamaterial absorber consists of the electric ring resonator, dielectric substrate (FR-4)and split-wire. By assembling five sandwiched structures with different geometric dimensions into a unit cell, we obtain the superposition of five different absorption peaks.Finally the bandwidth of metamaterial absorption is extended and the full width at half maximum is up to 1.3 GHz. The simulated and experimental results are consistent.
Synchrobetatron resonant coupling mechanism in a storage ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kouichi Jimbo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A clear synchrobetatron resonant coupling of Mg ion beam was observed experimentally in the horizontal laser beam cooling experiment in small laser equipped storage ring. Synchrotron and horizontal betatron motions were intentionally coupled in a rf cavity. Using the Hamiltonian which is composed of coasting, synchrotron and betatron motions, physical mechanism of the coupling is analyzed to explain the observed horizontal betatron tune jump near the synchrobetatron resonant coupling point. There energy exchange between the synchrotron oscillation and the horizontal betatron oscillation was mediated by coasting particles and the freedom of the horizontal direction is connected with the freedom of the longitudinal direction.
High-Power Ka-Band Window and Resonant Ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jay L. Hirshfield
2006-11-29
A stand-alone 200 MW rf test station is needed for carrying out development of accelerator structures and components for a future high-gradient multi-TeV collider, such as CLIC. A high-power rf window is needed to isolate the test station from a structure element under test. This project aimed to develop such a window for use at a frequency in the range 30-35 GHz, and to also develop a high-power resonant ring for testing the window. During Phase I, successful conceptual designs were completed for the window and the resonant ring, and cold tests of each were carried out that confirmed the designs.
Active split-ring metamaterial slabs for magnetic resonance imaging
Lopez, Marcos A; Freire, Manuel J; Behr, Volker C; Jakob, Peter M; Marques, Ricardo
2011-01-01
In this work, it is analyzed the ability of split-ring metamaterial slabs with zero/high permeability to reject/confine the radiofrequency magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging systems. Using an homogenization procedure, split-ring slabs have been designed and fabricated to work in a 1.5T system. Active elements consisting of pairs of crossed diodes are inserted in the split-rings. With these elements, the permeability of the slabs can be automatically switched between a unity value when interacting with the strong excitation field of the transmitting body coil, and zero or high values when interacting with the weak field produced by protons in tissue. Experiments are shown for different configurations where these slabs can help to locally increase the signal-to-noise-ratio.
Extended verification of scaling behavior in split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger;
2011-01-01
We present an expanded LC-model for nanoscale split-ring resonators (SRR), including the influence of dielectric host materials. The LC-model is experimentally verified by changing the geometry of the SRR unit cell as well as by optofluidic tuning, where the SRR samples are covered with index oil....... The extended model can be used as a general guideline for metal SRR structures with arbitrary dielectric host materials....
Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator
Jung, Hojoong; Fong, King Y; Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X
2013-01-01
Aluminum nitride is an appealing nonlinear optical material for on-chip wavelength conversion. Here we report optical frequency comb generation from high quality factor aluminum nitride micro-ring resonators integrated on silicon substrates. By engineering the waveguide structure to achieve near-zero dispersion at telecommunication wavelengths and optimizing the phase matching for four-wave mixing, frequency combs are generated with a single wavelength continuous-wave pump laser. The Kerr coefficient (n2) of aluminum nitride is further extracted from our experimental results.
Nonlinear spectroscopy of superconducting anharmonic resonators
DiVincenzo, David P
2011-01-01
We formulate a model for the steady state response of a nonlinear quantum oscillator structure, such as those used in a variety of superconducting qubit experiments, when excited by a steady, but not necessarily small, ac tone. We show that this model can be derived directly from a circuit description of some recent qubit experiments in which the state of the qubit is read out directly, without a SQUID magnetometer. The excitation profile has a rich structure depending on the detuning of the tone from the small-signal resonant frequency, on the degree of damping, and on the excitation amplitude. We explore two regions in detail: First, at high damping there is a trough in the excitation response as a function of detuning, near where the classical Duffing bifurcation occurs. This trough has been understood as a classical interference between two metastable responses with opposite phase. We use Wigner function studies to show that while this picture is roughly correct, there are also more quantum mechanical asp...
F Ring Core Stability: Corotation Resonance Plus Antiresonance
Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Marouf, Essam; French, Richard; Jacobson, Robert
2014-01-01
The decades-or-longer stability of the narrow F Ring core in a sea of orbital chaos appears to be due to an unusual combination of traditional corotation resonance and a novel kind of "antiresonance". At a series of specific locations in the F Ring region, apse precession between synodic encounters with Prometheus allows semimajor axis perturbations to promptly cancel before significant orbital period changes can occur. This cancellation fails for particles that encounter Prometheus when it is near its apoapse, especially during periods of antialignment of its apse with that of the F Ring. At these times, the strength of the semimajor axis perturbation is large (tens of km) and highly nonsinusoidal in encounter longitude, making it impossible to cancel promptly on a subsequent encounter and leading to chaotic orbital diffusion. Only particles that consistently encounter Prometheus away from its apoapse can use antiresonance to maintain stable orbits, implying that the true mean motion nF of the stable core must be defined by a corotational resonance of the form nF = nP(-kappa)P/m, where (nP, kappaP) are Prometheus' mean motion and epicycle frequency. To test this hypothesis we used the fact that Cassini RSS occultations only sporadically detect a "massive" F Ring core, composed of several-cm-and-larger particles. We regressed the inertial longitudes of 24 Cassini RSS (and VGR) detections and 43 nondetections to a common epoch, using a comb of candidate nP, and then folded them modulo the anticipated m-number of the corotational resonance (Prometheus m = 110 outer CER), to see if clustering appears. We find the "true F Ring core" is actually arranged in a series of short longitudinal arcs separated by nearly empty longitudes, orbiting at a well determined semimajor axis of 140222.4 km (from 2005-2012 at least). Small particles seen by imaging and stellar occultations spread quickly in azimuth and obscure this clumpy structure. Small chaotic variations in the mean
Tailoring the nonlinear response of MEMS resonators using shape optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Lily L.; Polunin, Pavel M.; Dou, Suguang
2017-01-01
We demonstrate systematic control of mechanical nonlinearities in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonators using shape optimization methods. This approach generates beams with non-uniform profiles, which have nonlinearities and frequencies that differ from uniform beams. A set of bridge-type mic......We demonstrate systematic control of mechanical nonlinearities in micro-electromechanical (MEMS) resonators using shape optimization methods. This approach generates beams with non-uniform profiles, which have nonlinearities and frequencies that differ from uniform beams. A set of bridge...
Melnikov, Vasily
2012-11-10
We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.
Magnetic Plasmon Sensing in Twisted Split-Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. X. Cao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We studied the sensing properties of stereo-SRRs metamaterials composed from two twisted split-ring resonators (SRRs. Due to the strong hybridization effect in the system, the polarization state of the transmitted wave is greatly changed at resonances. Since the stereo-SRRs structure is strongly coupled to the surrounding medium, the polarization change of the transmitted waves is quite sensitive to the refractive index change of the environment medium. The polarization ratio PRtran = Ty/Tx is used as sensing parameter and its figure of merit can reach 22.3 at the hybridized magnetic plasmon resonance. The results showed that the stereo-SRRs metamaterial can be applied to optical sensors an or other related field.
Circularly split-ring-resonator-based frequency-reconfigurable antenna
Rahman, M. A.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.
2017-01-01
In this paper, an antenna with frequency configurability in light of a circularly split-ring resonator (CSRR) is introduced. The proposed reconfigurable monopole antenna consists of a microstrip-fed hook-shaped structure and a CSRR having single reconfigurable split only. A new band of radiation unlike the band radiated from monopole only is observed due to magnetic coupling between the CSRR and the monopole antenna. The resonance frequency of the CSRR can be arbitrarily chosen by varying the dimension and relative position of its gap with the monopole, which leads the antenna to become reconfigurable one. By using a single switch with perfect electric conductor at the gap of CSRR cell, the effect of CSRR can be deactivated and, hence, it is possible to suppress the corresponding resonance, resulting in a frequency-reconfigurable antenna. Commercially available Computer Simulation Technology microwave studio based on finite integration technique was adopted throughout the study.
Ultra-compact terahertz switch with graphene ring resonators
Sun, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Le; Gao, Fei
2016-10-01
We propose and numerically demonstrate a compact terahertz wave switch which is composed of two graphene waveguides and three graphene ring resonators. Changing the bias voltage of the Fermi level in the center graphene ring, the resonant mode can be tuned when the plasmon waves in the waveguides and rings are coupled. We theoretically explain their mechanisms as being due to bias voltage change induced carrier density of graphene modification and the coupling coefficients of graphene plasmon effect after carrier density change, respectively. The mechanism of such a terahertz wave switch is further theoretically analyzed and numerically investigated with the aid of the finite element method. With an appropriate design, the proposed device offers the opportunity to ‘tune’ the terahertz wave ON-OFF with an ultra-fast, high extinction ratio and compact size. This structure has the potential applications in terahertz wave integrated circuits. Project supported by the Public Technology Research Project of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2015C31116).
Nonlinear plasmonic amplification via dissipative soliton-plasmon resonances
Ferrando, Albert
2017-01-01
In this contribution we introduce a strategy for the compensation of plasmonic losses based on a recently proposed nonlinear mechanism: the resonant interaction between surface plasmon polaritons and spatial solitons propagating in parallel along a metal/dielectric/Kerr structure. This mechanism naturally leads to the generation of a quasiparticle excitation, the so-called soliplasmon resonance. We analyze the role played by the effective nonlinear coupling inherent to this system and how this can be used to provide a mechanism of quasiresonant nonlinear excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. We will pay particular attention to the introduction of asymmetric linear gain in the Kerr medium. The unique combination of nonlinear propagation, nonlinear coupling, and gain give rise to a scenario for the excitation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons with distinguishing characteristics. The connection between plasmonic losses and soliplasmon resonances in the presence of gain will be discussed.
Transmission of asymmetric coupling double-ring resonator
Zhao, C. Y.; Tan, W. H.
2015-02-01
Based on the asymmetry between waveguide and double ring, the transmission and phase characteristics of coupled double-ring resonators are analyzed systemically. It is shown that the initial detuning determines the shape of transmission spectrum. The transmission spectrum of all-optical analog to electromagnetic inducted transparency (EIT) is controlled by tuning the asymmetric coupled parameter and loss. With the increasing of asymmetric coupled parameter, the transmission spectrum changes from EIT-like profile to Lorenz profile. The EIT-like transmission spectrum results from the interference between two Lorenz profiles. With the increasing of the loss, the transmission spectrum full frequency width at half-maximum broadens and its peak declines. The detuning and loss also make significant influences on the phase profile.
Dynamic behavior and complexity of modulated optical micro ring resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Yang; Wei Pan; Bin Luo; ShuiYing Xiang; Ning Jiang
2011-01-01
@@ The dynamic behavior of an optical micro ring resonator (OMRR) with an amplitude modulator positioned in the micro ring is investigated quantitatively by adopting a recently introduced quantifier, the permutation entropy (PE).The effects of modulation depth are focused on, and the roles of input power are considered.The two-dimensional (2D) maps of PE showing dependence on both modulation depth and input power are presented as well.PE values nearly increase with modulation depth.On the other hand, the optimal value of input power is achieved when the PE reaches its maximum.Thus, PE can successfully quantify the dynamics of modulated OMRR.Selecting the parameters in the region with high PE values would contribute to the complexity-enhanced OMRR-based chaotic communication systems.%The dynamic behavior of an optical micro ring resonator (OMRR) with an amplitude modulator positioned in the micro ring is investigated quantitatively by adopting a recently introduced quantifier, the permutation entropy (PE). The effects of modulation depth are focused on, and the roles of input power are considered. The two-dimensional (2D) maps of PE showing dependence on both modulation depth and input power are presented as well. PE values nearly increase with modulation depth. On the other hand, the optimal value of input power is achieved when the PE reaches its maximum. Thus, PE can successfully quantify the dynamics of modulated OMRR. Selecting the parameters in the region with high PE values would contribute to the complexity-enhanced OMRR-based chaotic communication systems.
Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.
2016-02-01
Efficient modulation of electrical signals onto an optical carrier remains the main challenge in full implementation of microwave photonic links (MPLs) for applications such as antenna remoting and wireless access networks. Current MPLs utilize Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) with sinusoidal transfer function as electro-optic modulators causing nonlinear distortions in the link. Recently ring resonator modulators (RRM) consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a base waveguide attracted interest to enhance linearity, reduce the size and power consumption in MPLs. Fabrication of a RRM is more challenging than the MZI not only in fabrication process but also in designing and optimization steps. Although RRM can be analyzed theoretically for MPLs, physical structures need to be designed and optimized utilizing simulation techniques in both optical and microwave regimes with consideration of specific material properties. Designing and optimization steps are conducted utilizing full-wave simulation software package and RRM function analyzed in both passive and active forms and confirmed through theoretical analysis. It is shown that RRM can be completely designed and analyzed utilizing full-wave simulation techniques and as a result linearity effect of the modulator on MPLs can be studied and optimized. The material nonlinearity response can be determined computationally and included in modulator design and readily adaptable for analyzing other materials such as silicon or structures where theoretical analysis is not easily achieved.
Polymer ring resonator based devices prepared by DLW
Jandura, D.; Pudis, D.; Gaso, P.; Goraus, M.
2017-05-01
In this paper, the fabrication method of waveguide structures and devices as ring resonators for different waveguide applications based on polymer material is presented. The structures were designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software and two-photon polymerization lithography system was used for preparation of desired devices. Morphological properties of prepared devices were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope. Finally, we performed measurement of optical spectrum characteristics in telecommunication wavelengths range. The results corresponds to calculated parameters. Final polymer devices are promising for lab on a chip and sensing applications due to unique elastic and chemical properties.
A 58 sq m Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope
Shaw, G. L.; Simmons, B. J.
1984-01-01
A 7.62 x 7.62 m Passive Ring Resonator Laser Gyro (PRRLG) is analyzed. Each element of the PRRLG is consistent with the requirements for geophysical applications, which would include precision measurements of earth rotation and polar wobble. The shot noise limit was calculated to be about 3 x 10 to the -8th ERU (tau = 1 sec), and, with a predicted transition Fourier frequency between white noise and 1/f noise at about 200 microHz, a resolution on the order of about 4 x 10 to the -10th ERU is feasible.
Chaotic parametric soliton-like pulses in ferromagnetic-film active ring resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grishin, S. V., E-mail: grishfam@sgu.ru; Golova, T. M.; Morozova, M. A.; Romanenko, D. V. [Tchernyshevsky State University (Russian Federation); Seleznev, E. P. [Saratov Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation); Sysoev, I. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Tchernyshevsky State University (Russian Federation)
2015-10-15
The generation of quasi-periodic sequences of parametric soliton-like pulses in an active ring resonator with a ferromagnetic film via the three-wave parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave is studied theoretically and experimentally. These dissipative structures form in time due to the competition between the cubic nonlinearity caused by parametric coupling between spin waves and the time dispersion caused by the resonant cavity that is present in a self-oscillatory system. The development of dynamic chaos due to the parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave results in irregular behavior of a phase. However, this behavior does not break a quasi-periodic pulse sequence when the gain changes over a wide range. The generated soliton-like pulses have a chaotic nature, which is supported by the maximum Lyapunov exponent estimated from experimental time series.
Spin Motion and Resonances in Accelerators and Storage Rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courant,E.
2008-01-01
Some of the basic aspects of the spin dynamics of accelerators and storage rings are reviewed. Since the components of spin parallel and perpendicular to the particle velocity behave differently it is desirable to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a frame of reference that exhibits this difference explicitly. The conventional treatment employs a coordinate system derived from a reference orbit. An alternate coordinate system, based on the actual trajectory of the particle, leads to simplified equations of spin motion but, contrary to a conjecture presented in a previous note, resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical, as pointed out by Kondratenko. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.
Split ring resonator for the Argonne superconducting heavy ion booster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shepard, K.W.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.
1977-01-01
A split-ring resonator for use in the ANL superconducting heavy-ion linac was constructed and is being tested. The electromagnetic characteristics of the 98-MHz device are the same as the unit described earlier, but the housing is formed of a new material consisting of niobium sheet explosively bonded to copper. The niobium provides the superconducting path and the copper conducts heat to a small area cooled by liquid helium. This arrangement greatly simplified the cryogenic system. Fabrication of the housing was relatively simple, with the result that costs have been reduced substantially. The mechanical stability of the resonator and the performance of the demountable superconducting joints are significantly better than for the earlier unit.
Gas breakdown and plasma impedance in split-ring resonators
Hoskinson, Alan R.; Parsons, Stephen; Hopwood, Jeffrey
2016-02-01
The appearance of resonant structures in metamaterials coupled to plasmas motivates the systematic investigation of gas breakdown and plasma impedance in split-ring resonators over a frequency range of 0.5-9 GHz. In co-planar electrode gaps of 100 μm, the breakdown voltage amplitude decreases from 280 V to 225 V over this frequency range in atmospheric argon. At the highest frequency, a microplasma can be sustained using only 2 mW of power. At 20 mW, we measure a central electron density of 2 × 1020 m-3. The plasma-electrode overlap plays a key role in the microplasma impedance and causes the sheath impedance to dominate the plasma resistance at very low power levels. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.
Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules
Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping
2015-01-01
The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity. PMID:26043931
Coupling a thermal atomic vapor to an integrated ring resonator
Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert
2016-01-01
Strongly interacting atom-cavity systems within a network with many nodes constitute a possible realization for a quantum internet which allows for quantum communication and computation on the same platform. To implement such large-scale quantum networks, nanophotonic resonators are promising candidates because they can be scalably fabricated and interconnected with waveguides and optical fibers. By integrating arrays of ring resonators into a vapor cell we show that thermal rubidium atoms above room temperature can be coupled to photonic cavities as building blocks for chip-scale hybrid circuits. Although strong coupling is not yet achieved in this first realization, our approach provides a key step towards miniaturization and scalability of atom-cavity systems.
Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs
Yue, Weisheng
2016-01-11
We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.
Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs.
Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Whittaker, John; Schedin, Fredrik; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Jiaguang
2016-02-01
We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar
Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito
2011-02-01
Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.
Analysis of nonlinear transient responses of piezoelectric resonators.
Hagiwara, Manabu; Takahashi, Seita; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Tsurumi, Takaaki
2011-09-01
The electric transient response method is an effective technique to evaluate material constants of piezoelectric ceramics under high-power driving. In this study, we tried to incorporate nonlinear piezoelectric behaviors in the analysis of transient responses. As a base for handling the nonlinear piezoelectric responses, we proposed an assumption that the electric displacement is proportional to the strain without phase lag, which could be described by a real and constant piezoelectric e-coefficient. Piezoelectric constitutive equations including nonlinear responses were proposed to calculate transient responses of a piezoelectric resonator. The envelopes and waveforms of current and vibration velocity in transient responses observed in some piezoelectric ceramics could be fitted with the calculation including nonlinear responses. The procedure for calculation of mechanical quality factor Q(m) for piezoelectric resonators with nonlinear behaviors was also proposed.
Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
1993-01-01
We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.
Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator
Del Bino, Leonardo; Stebbings, Sarah L; Del'Haye, Pascal
2016-01-01
Light is generally expected to travel through isotropic media independent of its direction. This makes it challenging to develop non-reciprocal optical elements like optical diodes or circulators, which currently rely on magneto-optical effects and birefringent materials. Here we present measurements of non-reciprocal transmission and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) light waves to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, the symmetry breaking can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. This effect is expected to take place in any dielectric ring-resonator and might constitute one of the m...
Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL
2014-01-01
The fundamental sensitivity limit of an appropriately scaled down mechanical resonator can approach one atomic mass unit when only thermal noise is present in the system. However, operation of such nanoscale mechanical resonators is very challenging due to minuteness of their oscillation amplitudes and presence of multiple noise sources in real experimental environments. In order to surmount these challenges, we use microscale cantilever resonators driven to large amplitudes, far beyond their nonlinear instability onset. Our experiments show that such a nonlinear cantilever resonator, described analytically as a Duffing oscillator, has mass sensing performance comparable to that of much smaller resonators operating in a linear regime. We demonstrate femtogram level mass sensing that relies on a bifurcation point tracking that does not require any complex readout means. Our approaches enable straightforward detection of mass changes that are near the fundamental limit imposed by thermo-mechanical fluctuations.
Dong, B.; Cai, H.; Ng, G. I.; Kropelnicki, P.; Tsai, J. M.; Randles, A. B.; Tang, M.; Gu, Y. D.; Suo, Z. G.; Liu, A. Q.
2013-10-01
In this Letter, an optical gradient force driven Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) actuator, which is controlled by the Q-factor attenuation of micro-ring resonator, is demonstrated. The actuator consists of a tunable actuation ring resonator, a sensing ring resonator, and a mechanical actuation arc. The actuation displacement can reach up to 14 nm with a measured resolution of 0.8 nm, when the Q-factor of the ring resonator is tuned from 15 × 103 to 6 × 103. The potential applications of the NEMS actuator include single molecule manipulation, nano-manipulation, and high sensitivity sensors.
Hamiltonian optics formalism for microring resonator structures with varying ring resonances.
Sun, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhenshan; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Chao; Dong, Yanhua; Xie, Libin; Sipe, J E
2011-04-11
We develop a Hamiltonian optics formalism to quantitatively analyze a recently proposed scheme for increasing the delay-time-bandwidth product for microring resonator structures with varying ring resonances [Yang and Sipe, Opt. Lett. 32, 918 (2007)]. This theory is formally compact, simple and physically intuitive. We compare this formalism with the more rigorous transfer matrix method, and conclude that the Hamiltonian optics formalism correctly gives the average dispersion, which essentially determines the group delay as well as the dispersive distortion for pulses in the ps regime or longer.
Theory and analysis of nonlinear dynamics and stability in storage rings: A working group summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chattopadhyay, S.; Audy, P.; Courant, E.D.; Forest, E.; Guignard, G.; Hagel, J.; Heifets, S.; Keil, E.; Kheifets, S.; Mais, H.; Moshammer, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Pilat, F.; Suzuki, T.; Turchetti, G.; Warnock, R.L.
1988-07-01
A summary and commentary of the available theoretical and analytical tools and recent advances in the nonlinear dynamics, stability and aperture issues in storage rings are presented. 11 refs., 4 figs.
Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Marquardt, Christoph; Matsko, Andrey B.; Schwefel, Harald G. L.; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-12-01
Optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon has a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves. It enables resonators of unique properties attractive both in science and engineering. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range spanning from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.
Molecular Split-Ring Resonators Based on Metal String Complexes
Shen, Yao; Ai, Qing; Peng, Shie-Ming; Jin, Bih-Yaw
2014-01-01
Metal string complexes or extended metal atom chains (EMACs) belong to a family of molecules that consist of a linear chain of directly bonded metal atoms embraced helically by four multidentate organic ligands. These four organic ligands are usually made up of repeating pyridyl units, single-nitrogen-substituted heterocyclic annulenes, bridged by independent amido groups. Here, in this paper, we show that these heterocyclic annulenes are actually nanoscale molecular split-ring resonators (SRRs) that can exhibit simultaneous negative electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in the UV-Vis region. Moreover, a monolayer of self-assembled EMACs is a periodic array of molecular SRRs which can be considered as a negative refractive index material. In the molecular scale, where the quantum-size effect is significant, we apply the tight-binding method to obtain the frequency-dependent permittivity and permeability of these molecular SRRs with their tensorial properties carefully considered.
Optofluidic ring resonator sensors for rapid DNT vapor detection.
Sun, Yuze; Liu, Jing; Frye-Mason, Greg; Ja, Shiou-jyh; Thompson, Aaron K; Fan, Xudong
2009-07-01
We demonstrated rapid 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor detection at room temperature based on an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensor. With the unique on-column separation and detection features of OFRR vapor sensors, DNT can be identified from other interferences coexisting in the analyte sample mixture, which is especially useful in the detection of explosives from practical complicated vapor samples usually containing more volatile analytes. The DNT detection limit is approximately 200 pg, which corresponds to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling time of only 1 second at room temperature from equilibrium headspace. A theoretical analysis was also performed to account for the experimental results. Our study shows that the OFRR vapor sensor is a promising platform for the development of a rapid, low-cost, and portable analytical device for explosive detection and monitoring.
Tunable polarization beam splitter based on optofluidic ring resonator.
Zhu, Song; Liu, Yang; Shi, Lei; Xu, Xinbiao; Yuan, Shixing; Liu, Ningyu; Zhang, Xinliang
2016-07-25
An efficient polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on an optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The PBS relies on the large effective refractive index difference between transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization states, since the silica-microcapillary-based OFRR possesses a slab-like geometry configuration in the cross section through which the circulating light travels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first OFRR-based PBS. In our work, the maximum polarization splitting ratio of up to 30 dB is achieved. Besides, water and ethanol are pumped into the core of the silica microcapillary respectively, and the maximum wavelength tuning range of 7.02 nm is realized when ethanol flows through the core, verifing the tuning principle of the PBS effectively. With such a good performance and simple scheme, this OFRR-based PBS is promising for applications such as tunable optical filters, demultiplexers, and routers.
Scaling and synchronization in a ring of diffusively coupled nonlinear oscillators
Senthilkumar, D. V.; Muruganandam, P.; Lakshmanan, M.; Kurths, J.
2010-01-01
Chaos synchronization in a ring of diffusively coupled nonlinear oscillators driven by an external identical oscillator is studied. Based on numerical simulations we show that by introducing additional couplings at $(mN_c+1)$-th oscillators in the ring, where $m$ is an integer and $N_c$ is the maximum number of synchronized oscillators in the ring with a single coupling, the maximum number of oscillators that can be synchronized can be increased considerably beyond the limit restricted by siz...
Resonant beam behavior studies in the Proton Storage Ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Cousineau
2003-07-01
Full Text Available We present studies of space-charge-induced beam profile broadening at high intensities in the Proton Storage Ring (PSR at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We investigate the profile broadening through detailed particle-in-cell simulations of several experiments and obtain results in good agreement with the measurements. We interpret these results within the framework of coherent resonance theory. With increasing intensity, our simulations show strong evidence for the presence of a quadrupole-mode resonance of the beam envelope with the lattice in the vertical plane. Specifically, we observe incoherent tunes crossing integer values, and large amplitude, nearly periodic envelope oscillations. At the highest operating intensities, we observe a continuing relaxation of the beam through space charge forces leading to emittance growth. The increase of emittance commences when the beam parameters encounter an envelope stop band. Once the stop band is reached, the emittance growth balances the intensity increase to maintain the beam near the stop band edge. Additionally, we investigate the potential benefit of a stop band correction to the high intensity PSR beam.
Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography
Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.
2012-05-01
We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.
Parametric analysis of the planar metamaterials based on complementary double-ring resonators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Wei-Bing; Ji Zhong-Fu
2011-01-01
The planar metamaterials comprising complementary double-ring resonators (CDRRs) show its left handed behaviour. As a consequent work, this paper presents a detailed parametric study on the magnetically resonant transmission characteristics of the complementary double-ring metamaterials based on its structural parameters. This will be useful for the design of compact planar metamaterials based on the transmission lines loaded with CDRRs.
Mulyanti, B.; Ramza, H.; Pawinanto, R. E.; Rahman, J. A.; Ab-Rahman, M. S.; Putro, W. S.; Hasanah, L.; Pantjawati, A. B.
2017-05-01
The acid rain is an environmental disaster that it will be intimidates human life. The development micro-ring resonator sensor created from SOI (Silicon on insulator) and it used to detect acid rain index. In this study, the LUMERICAL software was used to simulate SOI material micro-ring resonator. The result shows the optimum values of fixed parameters from ring resonator have dependent variable in gap width. The layers under ring resonator with silicone (Si) and wafer layer of silicone material (Si) were added to seen three conditions of capability model. Model - 3 is an additional of bottom layer that gives the significant effect on the factor of quality. The optimum value is a peak value that given by the FSR calculation. FSR = 0, it means that is not shows the light propagation in the ring resonator and none of the light coming out on the bus - line.
Compact on-Chip Temperature Sensors Based on Dielectric-Loaded Plasmonic Waveguide-Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The application of a waveguide-ring resonator based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides as a temperature sensor is demonstrated in this paper and the influence of temperature change to the transmission through the waveguide-ring resonator system is comprehensively analyzed. The results show that the roundtrip phase change in the ring resonator due to the temperature change is the major reason for the transmission variation. The performance of the temperature sensor is also discussed and it is shown that for a waveguide-ring resonator with the resonator radius around 5 mm and waveguide-ring gap of 500 nm which gives a footprint around 140 µm2, the temperature sensitivity at the order of 10−2 K can be achieved with the input power of 100 mW within the measurement sensitivity limit of a practical optical detector.
Resonance phenomena for asymmetric weakly nonlinear oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钱定边
2002-01-01
We establish the coexistence of periodic solution and unbounded solution, the infinity of largeamplitude subharmonics for asymmetric weakly nonlinear oscillator x" + a2x+ - b2x- + h(x) = p(t) with h(±∞) - 0 and xh(x) → +∞(x →∞), assuming that M(τ ) has zeros which are all simple and M(τ ) 0respectively, where M(τ ) is a function related to the piecewise linear equation x" + a2x+ - b2x- = p(t).``
Calibration of the Nonlinear Accelerator Model at the Diamond Storage Ring
Bartolini, Riccardo; Rowland, James; Martin, Ian; Schmidt, Frank
2010-01-01
The correct implementation of the nonlinear ring model is crucial to achieve the top performance of a synchrotron light source. Several dynamics quantities can be used to compare the real machine with the model and eventually to correct the accelerator. Most of these methods are based on the analysis of turn-by-turn data of excited betatron oscillations. We present the experimental results of the campaign of measurements carried out at the Diamond. A combination of Frequency Map Analysis (FMA) and detuning with momentum measurements has allowed a precise calibration of the nonlinear model capable of reproducing the nonlinear beam dynamics in the storage ring
Nonlinear Response of Cantilever Beams to Combination and Subcombination Resonances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali H. Nayfeh
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear planar response of cantilever metallic beams to combination parametric and external subcombination resonances is investigated, taking into account the effects of cubic geometric and inertia nonlinearities. The beams considered here are assumed to have large length-to-width aspect ratios and thin rectangular cross sections. Hence, the effects of shear deformations and rotatory inertia are neglected. For the case of combination parametric resonance, a two-mode Galerkin discretization along with Hamilton’s extended principle is used to obtain two second-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, the method of multiple scales is applied to obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the modulation of the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. For the case of subcombination resonance, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the Lagrangian and virtual-work term. Then using Hamilton’s extended principle, we obtain a set of four first-order nonlinear ordinary-differential equations governing the amplitudes and phases of the two excited modes. In both cases, the modulation equations are used to generate frequency- and force-response curves. We found that the trivial solution exhibits a jump as it undergoes a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation. Similarly, the nontrivial solutions also exhibit jumps as they undergo saddle-node bifurcations.
Nonlinear resonances of a single-wall carbon nanotube cantilever
Kim, I. K.; Lee, S. I.
2015-03-01
The dynamics of an electrostatically actuated carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever are discussed by theoretical and numerical approaches. Electrostatic and intermolecular forces between the single-walled CNT and a graphene electrode are considered. The CNT cantilever is analyzed by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, including its geometric and inertial nonlinearities, and a one-mode projection based on the Galerkin approximation and numerical integration. Static pull-in and pull-out behaviors are adequately represented by an asymmetric two-well potential with the total potential energy consisting of the CNT elastic energy, electrostatic energy, and the Lennard-Jones potential energy. Nonlinear dynamics of the cantilever are simulated under DC and AC voltage excitations and examined in the frequency and time domains. Under AC-only excitation, a superharmonic resonance of order 2 occurs near half of the primary frequency. Under both DC and AC loads, the cantilever exhibits linear and nonlinear primary and secondary resonances depending on the strength of the excitation voltages. In addition, the cantilever has dynamic instabilities such as periodic or chaotic tapping motions, with a variation of excitation frequency at the resonance branches. High electrostatic excitation leads to complex nonlinear responses such as softening, multiple stability changes at saddle nodes, or period-doubling bifurcation points in the primary and secondary resonance branches.
Nonlinear and Quantum Optics with Whispering Gallery Resonators
Strekalov, Dmitry V; Matsko, Andrey B; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-01-01
Optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon was later realized to have a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves, but in particular also to electromagnetic waves ranging from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.
Sensitivity of nonlinear photoionization to resonance substructure in collective excitation
Mazza, T.; Karamatskou, A.; Ilchen, M.; Bakhtiarzadeh, S.; Rafipoor, A. J.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kelly, T. J.; Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Meyer, M.; Santra, R.
2015-04-01
Collective behaviour is a characteristic feature in many-body systems, important for developments in fields such as magnetism, superconductivity, photonics and electronics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the optically nonlinear response of collective excitations. Here we demonstrate how the nonlinear interaction of a many-body system with intense XUV radiation can be used as an effective probe for characterizing otherwise unresolved features of its collective response. Resonant photoionization of atomic xenon was chosen as a case study. The excellent agreement between experiment and theory strongly supports the prediction that two distinct poles underlie the giant dipole resonance. Our results pave the way towards a deeper understanding of collective behaviour in atoms, molecules and solid-state systems using nonlinear spectroscopic techniques enabled by modern short-wavelength light sources.
Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin [Industrial Technology Research Institute-South, Tainan 709, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Chen, E-mail: fengchiahsu@itri.org.t, E-mail: hsujc@yuntech.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)
2011-09-21
In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.
Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures
Hsu, Feng-Chia; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin
2011-09-01
In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.
Calibration of the nonlinear ring model at the Diamond Light Source
Bartolini, R; Rehm, G; Martin, I P S
2011-01-01
Nonlinear beam dynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of a storage ring. The beam lifetime, the injection efficiency, and the dynamic and momentum apertures available to the beam are optimized during the design phase by a proper optimization of the linear lattice and of the distribution of sextupole families. The correct implementation of the design model, especially the nonlinear part, is a nontrivial accelerator physics task. Several parameters of the nonlinear dynamics can be used to compare the real machine with the model and eventually to correct the accelerator. Most of these parameters are extracted from the analysis of turn-by-turn data after the excitation of betatron oscillations of the particles in the ring. We present the experimental results of the campaign of measurements carried out at the Diamond storage ring to characterize the nonlinear beam dynamics. A combination of frequency map analysis with the detuning with momentum measurements has allowed for a precise calibration ...
Wide dynamic range microwave planar coupled ring resonator for sensing applications
Zarifi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshmand, Mojgan
2016-06-01
A highly sensitive, microwave-coupled ring resonator with a wide dynamic range is studied for use in sensing applications. The resonator's structure has two resonant rings and, consequently, two resonant frequencies, operating at 2.3 and 2.45 GHz. Inductive and capacitive coupling mechanisms are explored and compared to study their sensing performance. Primary finite element analysis and measurement results are used to compare the capacitive and inductive coupled ring resonators, demonstrating sensitivity improvements of up to 75% and dynamic range enhancement up to 100% in the capacitive coupled structure. In this work, we are proposing capacitive coupled planar ring resonators as a wide dynamic range sensing platform for liquid sensing applications. This sensing device is well suited for low-cost, real-time low-power, and CMOS compatible sensing technologies.
Exploiting nonlinearities of micro-machined resonators for filtering applications
Ilyas, Saad
2017-06-21
We demonstrate the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of two electrically coupled microbeam resonators to realize a band-pass filter. More specifically, we combine their nonlinear hardening and softening responses to realize a near flat pass band filter with sharp roll-off characteristics. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and electrostatically actuated microbeams made of silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce a softening frequency response. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the second resonator response of hardening behavior. This overlapping improves the pass band flatness. Also, the sudden jumps due to the softening and hardening behaviors create sharp roll-off characteristics. This approach can be promising for the future generation of filters with superior characteristics.
Liu, Peter Q.; Luxmoore, Isaac J.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Savostianova, Nadja A.; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R.
2015-11-01
Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light-matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ~60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light-matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation.
Liu, Peter Q; Luxmoore, Isaac J; Mikhailov, Sergey A; Savostianova, Nadja A; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R
2015-11-20
Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light-matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ∼60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light-matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation.
Photon antibunching and bunching in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system.
Chen, Zihao; Zhou, Yao; Shen, Jung-Tsung
2016-07-15
We numerically investigate the photonic state generation and its nonclassical correlations in a ring-resonator waveguide quantum electrodynamics system. Specifically, we discuss photon antibunching and bunching in various scenarios, including the imperfect resonator with backscattering and dissipations. Our numerical results indicate that an imperfect ring resonator with backscattering can enhance the quality of antibunching. In addition, we also identify the quantum photonic halo phenomenon in the photon scattering dynamics and the shoulder effect in the second-order correlation function.
Polunin, Pavel M.
singular peaks in the probability distribution. The theoretical results are successfully compared experimental results obtained from collaborators at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Second, we discuss a time-domain technique for characterizing parameters for models that describe the response of a single vibrational mode of micromechanical resonators with symmetric restoring and damping forces. These parameters include coefficients of conservative and dissipative linear and nonlinear terms, as well as the strengths of various noise sources acting on the mode of interest. The method relies on measurements taken during a ringdown response, that is, free vibration, in which the nonlinearities result in an amplitude-dependent frequency and a non-exponential decay of the amplitude, while noise sources cause fluctuations in the resonator amplitude and phase. Analysis of the amplitude of the ringdown response allows one to estimate the quality factor and the dissipative nonlinearity, and the zero-crossing points in the ringdown measurement can be used to characterize the linear natural frequency and the cubic and quintic nonlinearities of the vibrational mode, which typically arise from a combination of mechanical and electrostatic effects. Additionally, we develop and demonstrate a statistical analysis of the zero-crossing points in the resonator response that allows one to separate the effects of additive, multiplicative, and measurement noises and estimate their corresponding intensities. These characterization methods are demonstrated using experimental measurements obtained from collaborators at Stanford University. Finally, we examine the problem of self-induced parametric amplification in ring/disk resonating gyroscopes. We model the dynamics of these gyroscopes by considering flexural (elliptical) vibrations of a thin elastic ring subjected to electrostatic transduction and show that the parametric amplification arises naturally from nonlinear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, D.P.; Vogt, M.
2006-12-15
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in-depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarization at and near so-called snake resonances in proton storage rings. (orig.)
Barber, D P
2006-01-01
Here, and in a sequel, we invoke the invariant spin field to provide an in--depth study of spin motion at and near low order orbital resonances in a simple model for the effects of vertical betatron motion in a storage ring with Siberian Snakes. This leads to a clear understanding, within the model, of the behaviour of the beam polarisation at and near so--called snake resonances in proton storage rings.
Multidimensional Purcell effect in an ytterbium-doped ring resonator
Ding, Dapeng; Pereira, Lino M. C.; Bauters, Jared F.; Heck, Martijn J. R.; Welker, Gesa; Vantomme, André; Bowers, John E.; de Dood, Michiel J. A.; Bouwmeester, Dirk
2016-06-01
Rare-earth ions in solids are of particular interest for quantum information storage and processing because of the long coherence times of the 4f states. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made by using ensembles of ions and single ions. However, the weak optical transitions within the 4f manifold pose a great challenge to the optical interaction with a single rare-earth ion on a single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate a ninefold enhanced ion-light interaction (Purcell effect) in an integrated-optics-based, fibre-coupled silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonator with implanted ytterbium ions (Yb3+). We unveil the one-, two- and three-dimensional contributions to the Purcell factor as well as the temperature-dependent decoherence and depolarization of the ions. The results indicate that this cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system has the potential of interfacing single rare-earth ions with single photons on a chip.
Measurements of complex coupling coefficients in a ring resonator of a laser gyroscope
Bessonov, A. S.; Makeev, A. P.; Petrukhin, E. A.
2017-07-01
A method is proposed for measuring complex coupling coefficients in a ring optical resonator in the absence of an active gas mixture. A setup is described on which measurements are performed in ring resonators of ring He-Ne lasers with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. A model of backscattering field interference between conservative and dissipative sources is presented. Within the framework of this model, the unusual behaviour of backscattering fields in ring resonators observed in experiments is explained: a significant difference in the moduli of coupling coefficients of counterpropagating waves and variation of the magnitude of the total phase shift in a wide range. It is proposed to use this method as a metrological method when assembling and aligning a ring resonator of a laser gyroscope.
On the nonlinear resonances and dynamic pull-in of electrostatically actuated resonators
Alsaleem, Fadi M.; Younis, Mohammad I.; Ouakad, Hassen M.
2009-04-01
We present modeling, analysis and experimental investigation for nonlinear resonances and the dynamic pull-in instability in electrostatically actuated resonators. These phenomena are induced by exciting a microstructure with nonlinear forcing composed of a dc parallel-plate electrostatic load superimposed on an ac harmonic load. Nonlinear phenomena are investigated experimentally and theoretically including primary resonance, superharmonic and subharmonic resonances, dynamic pull-in and the escape-from-potential-well phenomenon. As a case study, a capacitive sensor made up of two cantilever beams with a proof mass attached to their tips is studied. A nonlinear spring-mass-damper model is utilized accounting for squeeze-film damping and the parallel-plate electrostatic force. Long-time integration and a global dynamic analysis are conducted using a finite-difference method combined with the Floquet theory to capture periodic orbits and analyze their stability. The domains of attraction (basins of attraction) for data points on the frequency-response curve are calculated numerically. Dover cliff integrity curves are calculated and the erosion of the safe basin of attraction is investigated as the frequency of excitation is swept passing primary resonance and dynamic pull-in. Conclusions are presented regarding the safety and integrity of MEMS resonators based on the simulated basin of attraction and the observed experimental data.
Wireless transfer of power by a 35-GHz metamaterial split-ring resonator rectenna
Maedler, Carsten; Yi, Adrian; Christopher, Jason; Hong, Mi K; Mertiri, Alket; House, Larry; Seren, Huseyin R; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard; Mohanty, Pritiraj; Erramilli, Shyamsunder
2016-01-01
Wireless transfer of power via high frequency microwave radiation using a miniature split ring resonator rectenna is reported. RF power is converted into DC power by integrating a rectification circuit with the split ring resonator. The near-field behavior of the rectenna is investigated with microwave radiation in the frequency range between 20-40 GHz with a maximum power level of 17 dBm. The observed resonance peaks match those predicted by simulation. Polarization studies show the expected maximum in signal when the electric field is polarized along the edge of the split ring resonator with the gap and minimum for perpendicular orientation. The efficiency of the rectenna is on the order of 1% for a frequency of 37.2 GHz. By using a cascading array of 9 split ring resonators the output power was increased by a factor of 20.
Modeling of the nonlinear resonant response in sedimentary rocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shankland, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vakhnenko, Vyacheslav O [NON LANL; Vakhnenko, Oleksiy [NON LANL
2009-04-03
We suggest a model for describing a wide class of nonlinear and hysteretic effects in sedimentary rocks at longitudinal bar resonance. In particular, we explain: hysteretic behaviour of a resonance curve on both its upward and downward slopes; linear softening of resonant frequency with increase of driving level; gradual (almost logarithmic) recovery of resonant frequency after large dynamical strains; and temporal relaxation of response amplitude at fixed frequency. Starting with a suggested model, we predict the dynamical realization of end-point memory in resonating bar experiments with a cyclic frequency protocol. These theoretical findings were confirmed experimentally at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Sedimentary rocks, particularly sandstones, are distinguished by their grain structure in which each grain is much harder than the intergrain cementation material. The peculiarities of grain and pore structures give rise to a variety of remarkable nonlinear mechanical properties demonstrated by rocks, both at quasistatic and alternating dynamic loading. Thus, the hysteresis earlier established for the stress-strain relation in samples subjected to quasistatic loading-unloading cycles has also been discovered for the relation between acceleration amplitude and driving frequency in bar-shaped samples subjected to an alternating external drive that is frequency-swept through resonance. At strong drive levels there is an unusual, almost linear decrease of resonant frequency with strain amplitude, and there are long-term relaxation phenomena such as nearly logarithmic recovery (increase) of resonant frequency after the large conditioning drive has been removed. In this report we present a short sketch of a model for explaining numerous experimental observations seen in forced longitudinal oscillations of sandstone bars. According to our theory a broad set of experimental data can be understood as various aspects of the same internally consistent pattern. Furthermore
Design and fabrication of InP micro-ring resonant detectors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
辛海明; 黄永清; 陈海波; 黄辉; 任晓敏; 周星光
2009-01-01
The quantum efficiency and the transient response of the InP semiconductor micro-ring resonant detector are analyzed to get the optimum design parameters.Then the side coupling micro-ring resonant is fabricated using the InP semiconductor material based on the parameters.The micro-ring resonant cavity has the raius of 80 μm,waveguide width of 3 μm and the coupler gap of 1 μm.The test results show that the FSR is 0.75 nm,and the FWHM is 0.5 nm,which are consistent with the theoretical calculation results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghasemi, Negareh; Zare, Firuz; Davari, Pooya
2017-01-01
Several factors can affect performance of an ultrasound system such as quality of excitation signal and ultrasound transducer behaviour. Nonlinearity of piezoelectric ultrasound transducers is a key determinant in designing a proper driving power supply. Although, the nonlinearity of piezoelectri...... receiver is a function of a voltage across the resistor in the RLC branches and is related to the resonance frequencies of the ultrasound transducer....
Nonlinear dynamics of giant resonances in atomic nuclei
Vretenar, D; Ring, P; Lalazissis, G A
1999-01-01
The dynamics of monopole giant resonances in nuclei is analyzed in the time-dependent relativistic mean-field model. The phase spaces of isoscalar and isovector collective oscillations are reconstructed from the time-series of dynamical variables that characterize the proton and neutron density distributions. The analysis of the resulting recurrence plots and correlation dimensions indicate regular motion for the isoscalar mode, and chaotic dynamics for the isovector oscillations. Information-theoretic functionals identify and quantify the nonlinear dynamics of giant resonances in quantum systems that have spatial as well as temporal structure.
Internal Resonance in a Vibrating Beam: A Zoo of Nonlinear Resonance Peaks.
Mangussi, Franco; Zanette, Damián H
2016-01-01
In oscillating mechanical systems, nonlinearity is responsible for the departure from proportionality between the forces that sustain their motion and the resulting vibration amplitude. Such effect may have both beneficial and harmful effects in a broad class of technological applications, ranging from microelectromechanical devices to edifice structures. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the amplitude, in particular, jeopardizes the use of nonlinear oscillators in the design of time-keeping electronic components. Nonlinearity, however, can itself counteract this adverse response by triggering a resonant interaction between different oscillation modes, which transfers the excess of energy in the main oscillation to higher harmonics, and thus stabilizes its frequency. In this paper, we examine a model for internal resonance in a vibrating elastic beam clamped at its two ends. In this case, nonlinearity occurs in the form of a restoring force proportional to the cube of the oscillation amplitude, which induces resonance between modes whose frequencies are in a ratio close to 1:3. The model is based on a representation of the resonant modes as two Duffing oscillators, coupled through cubic interactions. Our focus is put on illustrating the diversity of behavior that internal resonance brings about in the dynamical response of the system, depending on the detailed form of the coupling forces. The mathematical treatment of the model is developed at several approximation levels. A qualitative comparison of our results with previous experiments and numerical calculations on elastic beams is outlined.
Internal Resonance in a Vibrating Beam: A Zoo of Nonlinear Resonance Peaks
Mangussi, Franco
2016-01-01
In oscillating mechanical systems, nonlinearity is responsible for the departure from proportionality between the forces that sustain their motion and the resulting vibration amplitude. Such effect may have both beneficial and harmful effects in a broad class of technological applications, ranging from microelectromechanical devices to edifice structures. The dependence of the oscillation frequency on the amplitude, in particular, jeopardizes the use of nonlinear oscillators in the design of time-keeping electronic components. Nonlinearity, however, can itself counteract this adverse response by triggering a resonant interaction between different oscillation modes, which transfers the excess of energy in the main oscillation to higher harmonics, and thus stabilizes its frequency. In this paper, we examine a model for internal resonance in a vibrating elastic beam clamped at its two ends. In this case, nonlinearity occurs in the form of a restoring force proportional to the cube of the oscillation amplitude, which induces resonance between modes whose frequencies are in a ratio close to 1:3. The model is based on a representation of the resonant modes as two Duffing oscillators, coupled through cubic interactions. Our focus is put on illustrating the diversity of behavior that internal resonance brings about in the dynamical response of the system, depending on the detailed form of the coupling forces. The mathematical treatment of the model is developed at several approximation levels. A qualitative comparison of our results with previous experiments and numerical calculations on elastic beams is outlined. PMID:27648829
Multistable internal resonance in electroelastic crystals with nonlinearly coupled modes
Kirkendall, Christopher R.; Kwon, Jae W.
2016-03-01
Nonlinear modal interactions have recently become the focus of intense research in micro- and nanoscale resonators for their use to improve oscillator performance and probe the frontiers of fundamental physics. However, our understanding of modal coupling is largely restricted to clamped-clamped beams, and lacking in systems with both geometric and material nonlinearities. Here we report multistable energy transfer between internally resonant modes of an electroelastic crystal plate and use a mixed analytical-numerical approach to provide new insight into these complex interactions. Our results reveal a rich bifurcation structure marked by nested regions of multistability. Even the simple case of two coupled modes generates a host of topologically distinct dynamics over the parameter space, ranging from the usual Duffing bistability to complex multistable behaviour and quasiperiodic motion.
Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Chaudhuri, S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Bockstiegel, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2015-08-10
We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.
Multistability in nonlinearly coupled ring of Duffing systems
Jaros, P.; Kapitaniak, T.; Perlikowski, P.
2016-11-01
In this paper we consider dynamics of three unidirectionally coupled Duffing oscillators with nonlinear coupling function in the form of third degree polynomial. We focus on the influence of the coupling on the occurrence of different bifurcation's scenarios. The stability of equilibria, using Routh-Hurwitz criterion, is investigated. Moreover, we check how coefficients of the nonlinear coupling influence an appearance of different types of periodic solutions. The stable periodic solutions are computed using path-following. Finally, we show the two parameters' bifurcation diagrams with marked areas where one can observe the coexistence of solutions.
Double resonant processes in $\\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear periodic media
Konotop, V. V.; Kuzmiak, V.
2000-01-01
In a one-dimensional periodic nonlinear $\\chi^{(2)}$ medium, by choosing a proper material and geometrical parameters of the structure, it is possible to obtain two matching conditions for simultaneous generation of second and third harmonics. This leads to new diversity of the processes of the resonant three-wave interactions, which are discussed within the framework of slowly varying envelope approach. In particular, we concentrate on the fractional conversion of the frequency $\\omega \\to (...
Analysis and design of nonlinear resonances via singularity theory
Cirillo, G I; Kerschen, G; Sepulchre, R
2016-01-01
Bifurcation theory and continuation methods are well-established tools for the analysis of nonlinear mechanical systems subject to periodic forcing. We illustrate the added value and the complementary information provided by singularity theory with one distinguished parameter. While tracking bifurcations reveals the qualitative changes in the behaviour, tracking singularities reveals how structural changes are themselves organised in parameter space. The complementarity of that information is demonstrated in the analysis of detached resonance curves in a two-degree-of-freedom system.
Analysis and design of nonlinear resonances via singularity theory
Cirillo, G. I.; Habib, G.; Kerschen, G.; Sepulchre, R.
2017-03-01
Bifurcation theory and continuation methods are well-established tools for the analysis of nonlinear mechanical systems subject to periodic forcing. We illustrate the added value and the complementary information provided by singularity theory with one distinguished parameter. While tracking bifurcations reveals the qualitative changes in the behaviour, tracking singularities reveals how structural changes are themselves organised in parameter space. The complementarity of that information is demonstrated in the analysis of detached resonance curves in a two-degree-of-freedom system.
Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical properties in a triangular quantum ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nasri, Djillali [Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, Département de Génie Electrique, Université Ibn-Khaldoun de Tiaret, Zaaroura BP No.78, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Microphysique et de Nanophysique (LaMiN), Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d’Oran, BP 1523 EL M’Naouer, Oran 31000 (Algeria); Bettahar, N [Faculté des Sciences de la matière, Département de Physique, Université Ibn-Khaldoun de Tiaret, Zaaroura, BP No.78, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria)
2015-12-01
Using the effective mass approximation, within the plane wave expansion, the linear and nonlinear coefficients absorption and the refractive index changes relative to the intersubband transitions in the conduction band of an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/ GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As triangular quantum ring for an x-polarization and an y-polarization of the incident light are calculated. It is found that the transition energy between the ground state and the first two excited states and their related optical matrix are strongly influenced by the length of the side of the inner triangle, leading to a red-shift and blue-shift of the resonant peaks of the intersubband optical absorption, for an x-polarized light absorption and an y-polarized light absorption respectively. Our results are qualitatively similar to those of a triangular quantum wire in the presence of an intense laser field in recent literature.
Kinetic equation for nonlinear resonant wave-particle interaction
Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.
2016-09-01
We investigate the nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions including the effects of particle (phase) trapping, detrapping, and scattering by high-amplitude coherent waves. After deriving the relationship between probability of trapping and velocity of particle drift induced by nonlinear scattering (phase bunching), we substitute this relation and other characteristic equations of wave-particle interaction into a kinetic equation for the particle distribution function. The final equation has the form of a Fokker-Planck equation with peculiar advection and collision terms. This equation fully describes the evolution of particle momentum distribution due to particle diffusion, nonlinear drift, and fast transport in phase-space via trapping. Solutions of the obtained kinetic equation are compared with results of test particle simulations.
Resonances in nonlinear structure vibrations under multifrequency excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Bassiouny, A F [Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Benha University, Benha 1358 (Egypt); El-Latif, G M Abd [Faculty of Science, Mathematics Department, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)
2006-10-15
The response of a single-degree-of-freedom system with quadratic, cubic and quartic nonlinearities subjected to a sinusoidal excitation that involves multiple frequencies is considered. The method of multiple scales is used to construct a first order uniform expansion yielding two first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations that are derived for the evolution of the amplitude and phase. These oscillations involve a subharmonic oscillation of order one-fourth and superharmonic oscillation of order two. Steady state responses and their stability are computed for selected values of the system parameters. The effects of these (quadratic, cubic, and quartic) nonlinearities on these oscillations are specifically investigated. With this study, it has been verified that the qualitative effects of these nonlinearities are different. Regions of hardening (softening) behaviour of the system exist for the case of subharmonic resonance. The response curve is not affected by decreasing the damping factor for the case of superharmonic resonance. It is shown that the response curve contracts or expands as the parameters vary. The multivalued region increases or decreases when some parameters vary.
Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator
Ruzziconi, Laura
2013-08-04
We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.
Resonance modes in stereometamaterial of square split ring resonators connected by sharing the gap
Wang, Sheng Lei; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao Ming
2014-01-01
Stereometamaerials can fully utilize the 3D degrees of freedom to exploit the coupling and hybridization between multiple split ring resonators (SRRs), enabling more extraordinary resonances and properties over their planar counterparts. Here we propose and numerically study a kind of structure based on connected SRRs sharing their gap in a rotational fashion. It is shown that there are three typical resonance modes in such cage-like SRR (C-SRR) stereometamaterial in the communication and near infrared range. In the order of increasing energy, these modes can be essentially ascribed to magnetic torodial dipole, magnetic dipole, and a mixture of electric-dipole and magnetic toroidal dipole. We show that the latter two are derived from the second-order mode in the corresponding individual SRR, while the first one from the fundamental one. The highest energy mode remains relatively "dark" in an individual C-SRR due to the high-order feature and the rotational symmetry. However, they are all easily excitable in a...
A Novel Analysis Approach for Ring-resonator Performance as Optical Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Jing-bo
2008-01-01
A novel attempt has been made in this paper for a different approach for determination of ring resonator transmittance with the help of delay line signal processing techniques and Totally Coded Method (TCM). A generalized approach for determination of transfer function in Z-domain of optical waveguide based ring resonator is introduced. Delay line signal processing technique is used to develop the signal flow graph of different ring resonator architectures, and a rule is implemented to determine its overall transmittance. The parameters describing the performance of optical filter can be directly estimated from the frequency response plot. A waveguide based double ring resonator (DRR) architecture is proposed, and its frequency response analysis is carried out.
Modulation Speed Enhancement of Directly Modulated Lasers Using a Micro-ring Resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
An, Yi; Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Seoane, Jorge;
2012-01-01
A silicon micro-ring resonator is used to enhance the modulation speed of a 10-Gbit/s directly modulated laser to 40 Gbit/s, demonstrating a potentially integratable transmitter design for high-speed optical interconnects....
Theory of Optical Leaky-Wave Antenna Integrated in a Ring Resonator for Radiation Control
Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo
2015-01-01
The integration of a leaky-wave antenna with a ring resonator is presented using analytical guided wave models. The device consists of a ring resonator fed by a directional coupler, where the ring resonator path includes a leaky-wave antenna segment. The resonator integration provides two main advantages: the high-quality factor ensures effective control of radiation intensity by controlling the resonance conditions and the efficient radiation from a leaky-wave antenna even when its length is much smaller than the propagation length of the leaky wave. We devise an analytical model of the guided wave propagation along a directional coupler and the ring resonator path including the antenna and non-radiating segments. The trade-offs regarding the quality factor of resonance and the antenna efficiency of such a design is reported in terms of the coupler parameters, leaky-wave constant and radiation length. Finally a CMOS-compatible OLWA design suitable for the ring resonator integration is designed where Silicon ...
Calibration of the nonlinear ring model at the Diamond Light Source
Bartolini, R.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rehm, G.; Schmidt, F.
2011-05-01
Nonlinear beam dynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of a storage ring. The beam lifetime, the injection efficiency, and the dynamic and momentum apertures available to the beam are optimized during the design phase by a proper optimization of the linear lattice and of the distribution of sextupole families. The correct implementation of the design model, especially the nonlinear part, is a nontrivial accelerator physics task. Several parameters of the nonlinear dynamics can be used to compare the real machine with the model and eventually to correct the accelerator. Most of these parameters are extracted from the analysis of turn-by-turn data after the excitation of betatron oscillations of the particles in the ring. We present the experimental results of the campaign of measurements carried out at the Diamond storage ring to characterize the nonlinear beam dynamics. A combination of frequency map analysis with the detuning with momentum measurements has allowed for a precise calibration of the nonlinear model that can accurately reproduce the nonlinear beam dynamics in Diamond.
Nonlinear Resonance Benchmarking Experiment at the CERN Proton Synchrotron
Hofmann, I; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Martini, M; Métral, Elias
2003-01-01
As a first step of a space charge - nonlinear resonance benchmarking experiment over a large number of turns, beam loss and emittance evolution were measured over 1 s on a 1.4 GeV kinetic energy flat-bottom in the presence of a single octupole. By lowering the working point towards the resonance a gradual transition from a loss-free core emittance blow-up to a regime dominated by continuous loss was found. Our 3D simulations with analytical space charge show that trapping on the resonance due to synchrotron oscillation causes the observed core emittance growth as well as halo formation, where the latter is explained as the source of the observed loss.
Quantized amplitudes in a nonlinear resonant electrical circuit
Cretin, B
2008-01-01
We present a simple nonlinear resonant analog circuit which demonstrates quantization of resonating amplitudes, for a given excitation level. The system is a simple RLC resonator where C is an active capacitor whose value is related to the current in the circuit. This variation is energetically equivalent to a variation of the potential energy and the circuit acts as a pendulum in the gravitational field. The excitation voltage, synchronously switched at the current frequency, enables electrical supply and keeping the oscillation of the system. The excitation frequency has been set to high harmonic of the fundamental oscillation so that anisochronicity can keep constant the amplitude of the circuit voltage and current. The behavior of the circuit is unusual: different stable amplitudes have been measured depending on initial conditions and excitation frequency, for the same amplitude of the excitation. The excitation frequency is naturally divided by the circuit and the ratio is kept constant without external...
Mode Coupling and Nonlinear Resonances of MEMS Arch Resonators for Bandpass Filters
Hajjaj, Amal Z.
2017-01-30
We experimentally demonstrate an exploitation of the nonlinear softening, hardening, and veering phenomena (near crossing), where the frequencies of two vibration modes get close to each other, to realize a bandpass filter of sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband. The concept is demonstrated based on an electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven MEMS arch resonator operated in air. The in-plane resonator is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a deliberate curvature to form an arch shape. A DC current is applied through the resonator to induce heat and modulate its stiffness, and hence its resonance frequencies. We show that the first resonance frequency increases up to twice of the initial value while the third resonance frequency decreases until getting very close to the first resonance frequency. This leads to the phenomenon of veering, where both modes get coupled and exchange energy. We demonstrate that by driving both modes nonlinearly and electrostatically near the veering regime, such that the first and third modes exhibit softening and hardening behavior, respectively, sharp roll off from the passband to the stopband is achievable. We show a flat, wide, and tunable bandwidth and center frequency by controlling the electrothermal actuation voltage.
Three-dimension isotropic negative permeability material made of eight-split-ring resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zijian Tian
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Based on a traditional split-ring resonator, a new type of eight-split-ring resonator structure, capable of providing negative permeability, is proposed in the paper. A three-dimension structure, consisting of three orthogonal eight-split-ring resonators, is a kind of three-dimension isotropic negative permeability structure. Simulation results show that in a three-dimensional space, the magnetic resonance behavior of three-dimensional structure is independent of electromagnetic wave direction and can give negative permeability at the frequency around 4.1GHz. Also, it is demonstrated that the orthogonal pattern in such three-dimension structure does not affect magnetic resonance behavior, facilitating structural analysis and material preparation. The paper provides a reference to the development of metamaterials towards multiple dimensions and directions.
Three-dimension isotropic negative permeability material made of eight-split-ring resonator
Tian, Zijian; Wang, Xuqi; Li, Weixiang; Fan, Jing
2017-03-01
Based on a traditional split-ring resonator, a new type of eight-split-ring resonator structure, capable of providing negative permeability, is proposed in the paper. A three-dimension structure, consisting of three orthogonal eight-split-ring resonators, is a kind of three-dimension isotropic negative permeability structure. Simulation results show that in a three-dimensional space, the magnetic resonance behavior of three-dimensional structure is independent of electromagnetic wave direction and can give negative permeability at the frequency around 4.1GHz. Also, it is demonstrated that the orthogonal pattern in such three-dimension structure does not affect magnetic resonance behavior, facilitating structural analysis and material preparation. The paper provides a reference to the development of metamaterials towards multiple dimensions and directions.
Unstable ring resonator with bidirectional propagation through the gain medium: analysis
Paxton, Alan H.
2011-03-01
Unique properties of unstable ring resonators are sometimes useful. A collimated beam in the gain medium may be desirable. Spatial hole burning is eliminated. Beam rotation may be helpful. There is a drawback, however. As usually constructed, a ring resonator has half as many passes through the gain medium as can be achieved with a standing-wave resonator. We have performed a geometrical and a wave-optics numerical simulation of a type of ring resonator that allows counter-propagating collinear passes through the gain medium, while there is also a section with a unidirectional beam. The resonator includes a polarizing beam splitter. The linear polarization is transformed to the orthogonal state by optical elements at the two ends of the region with counter-propagating beams. The wave-optics simulation treats a UR90, for which the output beam is unobscured.
Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever.
Abdulla, S M C; Kauppinen, L J; Dijkstra, M; de Boer, M J; Berenschot, E; Jansen, H V; de Ridder, R M; Krijnen, G J M
2011-08-15
The principle, fabrication and characterization of a dielectric MEMS cantilever located a few 100 nm above a racetrack ring resonator are presented. After fabrication of the resonators on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers in a foundry process, the cantilevers were integrated by surface micromachining techniques. Off-state deflections of the cantilevers have been optimized to appropriately position them near the evanescent field of the resonator. Using electrostatic actuation, moving the cantilevers into this evanescent field, the propagation properties of the ring waveguide are modulated. We demonstrate 122 pm tuning of the resonance wavelength of the optical ring resonator (in the optical C-band) without change of the optical quality factor, on application of 9 V to a 40 µm long cantilever. This compact integrated device can be used for tuning/switching a specific wavelength, with very little energy for operation and negligible cross talk with surrounding devices.
Non-Linear Rheological Properties and Neutron Scattering Investigation on Dilute Ring-Linear Blends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Bras, A.R.; Wischnewski, A.;
Linear and non-linear Rheology on dilute blends of polystyrene ring polymers in linear matrix is combined with Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) investigations. In this way 2 different entanglement interactions become clear. After stretching the samples to different hencky strains up to 2 in ...
Analysis of resonant responses of split ring resonators using conformal mapping techniques
McMeekin, Scott G.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Lahiri, Basudev; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.
2007-05-01
We report a novel method for modeling the resonant frequency response of infra-red light, in the range of 2 to 10 microns, reflected from metallic spilt ring resonators (SRRs) fabricated on a silicon substrate. The calculated positions of the TM and TE peaks are determined from the plasma frequency associated with the filling fraction of the metal array and the equivalent LC circuit defined by the SRR elements. The capacitance of the equivalent circuit is calculated using conformal mapping techniques to determine the co-planar capacitance associated with both the individual and the neighbouring elements. The inductance of the equivalent circuit is based on the self-inductance of the individual elements and the mutual inductance of the neighboring elements. The results obtained from the method are in good agreement with experimental results and simulation results obtained from a commercial FDTD simulation software package. The method allows the frequency response of a SRR to be readily calculated without complex computational methods and enables new designs to be optimised for a particular frequency response by tuning the LC circuit.
Nonlinear Analysis of Ring Oscillator and Cross-Coupled Oscillator Circuits
Ge, Xiaoqing
2010-12-01
Hassan Khalil’s research results and beautifully written textbook on nonlinear systems have influenced generations of researchers, including the authors of this paper. Using nonlinear systems techniques, this paper analyzes ring oscillator and cross-coupled oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. The paper first investigates local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator by making use of its cyclic structure. It next studies global stability properties of a class of cross-coupled oscillators which admit the representation of a dynamic system in feedback with a static nonlinearity, and presents su cient conditions for almost global convergence of the solutions to a limit cycle when the feedback gain is in the vicinity of a bifurcation point. The result are also extended to the synchronization of interconnected identical oscillator circuits.
Tuning a racetrack ring resonator by an integrated dielectric MEMS cantilever
Abdulla, S.M.C.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, M.; Boer, de M.J.; Berenschot, E.; Jansen, H.V.; Ridder, de R.M.; Krijnen, G.J.M.
2011-01-01
The principle, fabrication and characterization of a dielectric MEMS cantilever located a few 100 nm above a racetrack ring resonator are presented. After fabrication of the resonators on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers in a foundry process, the cantilevers were integrated by surface micromachinin
Decoupling crossover in asymmetric broadside coupled split-ring resonators at terahertz frequencies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keiser, G. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew; Fan, K.;
2013-01-01
We investigate the electromagnetic response of asymmetric broadside coupled split-ring resonators (ABC-SRRs) as a function of the relative in-plane displacement between the two component SRRs. The asymmetry is defined as the difference in the capacitive gap widths (Δg) between the two resonators ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prabhu Gaunkar, N., E-mail: neelampg@iastate.edu; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-05-07
This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.
Resonant Charge Current in a Rashba Ring Induced by Spin-Dependent Potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Zhan-Feng; LI Hong
2008-01-01
A one-dimensional ring subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling is investigated. When it is attached to a lead with spin-dependent chemical potential, there will be charge current in the ring. The charge current response is resonantly maximized when the Fermi energy of the lead is equal to any energy level of the 1D ring. And if two probes are attached to the ring, the electric voltage between them creates sawtooth-like wave, which indicates the direction of the charge current. A ferromagnetic lead can also induce persistent charge current, which can be detected by magnetization intensity measurement.
The inherent complexity in nonlinear business cycle model in resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma Junhai [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China) and Tianjin University of Finance and Economics, Tianjin 300222 (China)], E-mail: lzqsly@126.com; Sun Tao; Liu Lixia [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2008-08-15
Based on Abraham C.-L. Chian's research, we applied nonlinear dynamic system theory to study the first-order and second-order approximate solutions to one category of the nonlinear business cycle model in resonance condition. We have also analyzed the relation between amplitude and phase of second-order approximate solutions as well as the relation between outer excitements' amplitude, frequency approximate solutions, and system bifurcation parameters. Then we studied the system quasi-periodical solutions, annulus periodical solutions and the path leading to system bifurcation and chaotic state with different parameter combinations. Finally, we conducted some numerical simulations for various complicated circumstances. Therefore this research will lay solid foundation for detecting the complexity of business cycles and systems in the future.
Optical properties of split ring resonator metamaterial structures on semiconductor substrates
Johnson, Nigel P.; Lahiri, Basudev; Khokhar, Ali Z.; De La Rue, Richard M.; McMeekin, Scott
2008-04-01
Metamaterials based on single-layer metallic Split Ring Resonators (SRR) and Wires have been demonstrated to have a resonant response in the near infra-red wavelength range. The use of semiconductor substrates gives the potential for control of the resonant properties of split-ring resonator (SRR) structures by means of active changes in the carrier concentration obtained using either electrical injection or photo-excitation. We examine the influence of extended wires that are either parallel or perpendicular to the gap of the SRRs and report on an equivalent circuit model that provides an accurate method of determining the polarisation dependent resonant response for incident light perpendicular to the surface. Good agreement is obtained for the substantial shift observed in the position of the resonances when the planar metalisation is changed from gold to aluminium.
Su, Wei; Chen, Bingyan
2017-09-01
A plasmonic band-pass filter based on graphene rectangular ring resonator with double narrow gaps is proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. For the filter with or without gaps, the resonant frequencies can be effectively adjusted by changing the width of the graphene nanoribbon, the coupling distance and chemical potential of graphene. In addition, by introducing narrow gaps in the rectangular ring resonators, it shows the single frequency filtering effect. Moreover, the structure also shows high sensitivity for different surrounding mediums. This work provides a novel method for designing all-optical integrated components in optical communication.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WEI SU; BINGYAN CHEN
2017-09-01
A plasmonic band-pass filter based on graphene rectangular ring resonator with double narrow gaps is proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. For the filter with or without gaps, the resonant frequencies can be effectively adjusted by changing the width of the graphene nanoribbon, the coupling distance and chemical potential of graphene. In addition, by introducing narrow gaps in the rectangular ring resonators, it shows the single frequency filtering effect. Moreover, the structure also shows high sensitivity fordifferent surrounding mediums. This work provides a novel method for designing all-optical integrated components in optical communication.
A reconfigurable subwavelength plasmonic fano nano-antenna based on split ring resonator
Hosseinbeig, Ahmad; Pirooj, Azadeh; Zarrabi, Ferdows B.
2017-02-01
In this article, a reconfigurable subwavelength plasmonic nano-antenna with Fano resonance effect is presented based on the dual ring structure. In order to achieve reconfigurable characteristics, the interaction of gold with graphene is studied. SiN substrate with refractive index of 1.98 and gold with Palik optical characteristic modified for metal layer are utilized in the design of the proposed nano-antenna. Simulations are performed by using CST Microwave Studio. The biasing effect on extinction cross section is studied for 0 to 0.8 eV. It is shown that the gap method is useful for exciting the Fano resonance in the dual ring nano-antenna and there is only a plasmonic resonance in the simple dual ring antenna. The proposed nano-antenna is useful for THz medical spectroscopy due to its simple design and the ability to control the second resonance frequency by changing the bias of the graphene.
Probabilistic approach to nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction
Artemyev, A. V.; Neishtadt, A. I.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Mourenas, D.
2017-02-01
In this paper we provide a theoretical model describing the evolution of the charged-particle distribution function in a system with nonlinear wave-particle interactions. Considering a system with strong electrostatic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, we demonstrate that individual particle motion can be characterized by the probability of trapping into the resonance with the wave and by the efficiency of scattering at resonance. These characteristics, being derived for a particular plasma system, can be used to construct a kinetic equation (or generalized Fokker-Planck equation) modeling the long-term evolution of the particle distribution. In this equation, effects of charged-particle trapping and transport in phase space are simulated with a nonlocal operator. We demonstrate that solutions of the derived kinetic equations agree with results of test-particle tracing. The applicability of the proposed approach for the description of space and laboratory plasma systems is also discussed.
Nonlinear dynamic modeling and resonance tuning of Galfenol vibration absorbers
Scheidler, Justin J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.
2013-08-01
This paper investigates the semi-active control of a magnetically-tunable vibration absorber’s resonance frequency. The vibration absorber that is considered is a metal-matrix composite containing the magnetostrictive material Galfenol (FeGa). A single degree of freedom model for the nonlinear vibration of the absorber is presented. The model is valid under arbitrary stress and magnetic field, and incorporates the variation in Galfenol’s elastic modulus throughout the composite as well as Galfenol’s asymmetric tension-compression behavior. Two boundary conditions—cantilevered and clamped-clamped—are imposed on the composite. The frequency response of the absorber to harmonic base excitation is calculated as a function of the operating conditions to determine the composite’s capacity for resonance tuning. The results show that nearly uniform controllability of the vibration absorber’s resonance frequency is possible below a threshold of the input power amplitude using weak magnetic fields of 0-8 kA m-1. Parametric studies are presented to characterize the effect on resonance tunability of Galfenol volume fraction and Galfenol location within the composite. The applicability of the results to composites of varying geometry and containing different Galfenol materials is discussed.
Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)
2009-11-01
In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.
NERO a code for evaluation of nonlinear resonances in 4D symplectic mappings
Todesco, Ezio; Giovannozzi, Massimo
1998-01-01
A code to evaluate the stability, the position and the width of nonlinear resonances in four-dimensional symplectic mappings is described. NERO is based on the computation of the resonant perturbative series through the use of Lie transformation implemented in the code ARES, and on the analysis of the resonant orbits of the interpolating Hamiltonian. The code is aimed at studying the nonlinear moti on of a charged particle moving in a circular accelerator under the influence of nonlinear forces.
Xereas, George; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.
2016-07-01
We present the design and development of breath-mode silicon ring resonators fabricated using a commercial pure-play microfabrication process that provides ultraclean wafer-level vacuum-encapsulation. The micromechanical resonators are fabricated in MEMS integrated design for inertial sensors process that is developed by Teledyne DALSA Semiconductor Inc. The ring resonators are designed to operate with a relatively low DC polarization voltage, starting at 5 V, while providing a high frequency-quality factor product. We study the quality of the vacuum packaging using an automated testing setup over an extended time period. We study the effect of motional resistance on the performance of MEMS resonators. The fabricated devices had a resonant frequency of 10 MHz with the quality factor exceeding 8.4×104.
Design study of a resonant Schottky pick-up for the Rare-RI Ring project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzaki, F., E-mail: suzaki@ribf.riken.jp [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Zenihiro, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamaguchi, T., E-mail: yamaguti@phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Uesaka, T.; Wakasugi, M.; Yamada, K.; Yamaguchi, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2013-12-15
Highlights: • The heavy-ion storage ring project, the Rare-RI Ring, is ongoing at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory. • The Rare-RI Ring will enable precision isochronous mass spectrometry of r-process nuclei. • A resonant Schottky pick-up will be used for the precise tuning of isochronous optics of the storage ring. • Simulation results of 3D electromagnetic field calculations show a high sensitivity of stored single-ion detection. -- Abstract: The new heavy-ion storage ring project Rare-RI Ring at the RIKEN RI Beam Factory launched in 2012 aims at precision isochronous mass spectrometry for single ions of exotic nuclides. To precisely tune the storage-ring ion optical conditions to the isochronous field setting, Schottky noise pick-up technique will be employed. Pillbox-type resonant cavity, similar to the Schottky pick-up system successfully operating at the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI, is adopted for the pick-up probe. To determine the design values of the cavity, we systematically performed a simulation study of three-dimensional electromagnetic field calculations in the high frequency region. High shunt impedance obtained in the simulation will enable us to detect stored single ions with charge down to q≃15.
Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.
Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming
2013-03-01
The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.
Resonant Transmission of Electron Spin States through Multiple Aharonov-Bohm Rings
Cutright, Jim; Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong
2011-10-01
An Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with embedded quantum dots (QD) in each arm and one -dimensional nanowires attached as leads acts as a primitive cell in this analysis. When a tunable, external magnetic field is parallel to the surface area of the ring it causes Zeeman splitting in the energy levels of the QDs. An electron that traverses these energy levels has the potential to interfere with other electrons and to produce spin polarized output. It is already known that upon output the transmission of the electrons through this system will have a resonant peak at each Zeeman split energy level. A system where multiple AB rings are connected in series is studied, to see how having the electrons pass through multiple, identical rings effects the resonant peaks in the transmission and the degree of spin polarization.
A Compact Dual Band Implantable Antenna Based on Split-Ring Resonators with Meander Line Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunus Emre Yamac
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a dual band implantable split-ring microstrip antenna which operates at MICS (Medical Implant Services and ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical bands is proposed for biotelemetry applications. A miniaturized size of 9.5 mm × 9.5 mm × 1.27 mm was accomplished by using three split-ring resonators and meander lines elements on these resonators. A shorting pin appropriately placed between the patch and ground plane was used for the antenna miniaturization. In addition, three useful metallic paths between the rings provided fine frequency tuning. The proposed split-ring implantable antenna presents 23.5% and 9.3% bandwidth, -48 dB and -24 dB maximum gains, 407 W/kg and 403 W/kg maximum 1-g averaged SAR values at the respective bands. Return loss performance, radiation patterns and SAR values of the antenna design are presented in the paper.
Surpassing Fundamental Limits of Oscillators Using Nonlinear Resonators
Villanueva, L. G.; Kenig, E.; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.; Lifshitz, Ron; Cross, M. C.; Roukes, M. L.
2013-01-01
In its most basic form an oscillator consists of a resonator driven on resonance, through feedback, to create a periodic signal sustained by a static energy source. The generation of a stable frequency, the basic function of oscillators, is typically achieved by increasing the amplitude of motion of the resonator while remaining within its linear, harmonic regime. Contrary to this conventional paradigm, in this Letter we show that by operating the oscillator at special points in the resonator’s anharmonic regime we can overcome fundamental limitations of oscillator performance due to thermodynamic noise as well as practical limitations due to noise from the sustaining circuit. We develop a comprehensive model that accounts for the major contributions to the phase noise of the nonlinear oscillator. Using a nano-electromechanical system based oscillator, we experimentally verify the existence of a special region in the operational parameter space that enables suppressing the most significant contributions to the oscillator’s phase noise, as predicted by our model. PMID:23679770
An all-optical switch of Mach-Zehnder interferometer type using an active fibre ring resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Jun-Qing; Alireza Bananej; Li Qiang-Hua; Chen Qiang; Li Chun-Fei
2004-01-01
We propose an all-optical switch of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer type using an active nonlinear ring resonatorand analyse the significance of the parameter A, a product of gain and total loss, for performing an ideal 1 by 2switch. We found that in the range of 1 - κ≤ A ≤√/1 - k, the increment of A can compensate the losses insidethe ring, therefore increase the finesse of the ring and enhance the nonlinearity contribution to reduce the switchingpower threshold effectively. We also emphasize the importance of the initial switching point and discuss the feasibilityof utilizing a high-nonlinear fibre in the ring.
Behaviour of Hexagon Split Ring Resonators and Left-Handed Metamaterials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Fu-Li; ZHAO Qian; LIU Ya-Hong; LUO Chun-Rong; ZHAO Xiao-Peng
2004-01-01
We used a rectangular waveguide system to measure the X-band (8-12 GHz) transmission of hexagon split ring resonators (SRRs) alone and the left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) consisting of hexagon SRR array and wire array. The experimental results show that for an individual SRR, the resonance frequency increases with the azimuthal gap, but decreases with the radial gap. For two identical SRRs, the resonance peak has a shift because of the electromagnetic interaction, and the resonance frequency and the strength decrease with the separation distance. Finally, we demonstrate the left-handed effect of the LHMs.
Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Zaiping; Garoufalis, Christos S.; Baskoutas, Sotirios, E-mail: bask@upatras.gr
2014-07-18
Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system have been theoretically studied. In general, we find that the structure parameters of the coupled system significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. The enhancement of the coupling effects between the dot and ring is found to increase considerably the optical susceptibilities and redshift drastically the transition energies. Comparing to the linear susceptibility, the nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be more sensitive to the variation of the structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement with respect to the modification of the structure parameters is provided, which offers a unique perspective of the ground-state localization. - Highlights: • Optical susceptibilities in a quantum-dot–quantum-ring system are studied. • The structure parameters significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. • The enhancement of the coupling effects increases the optical susceptibilities. • The nonlinear susceptibility is more sensitive to the change in structure parameters. • A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement is provided.
Shield Optimization and Formulation of Regression Equations for Split-Ring Resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tahir Ejaz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Microwave resonators are widely used for numerous applications including communication, biomedical and chemical applications, material testing, and food grading. Split-ring resonators in both planar and nonplanar forms are a simple structure which has been in use for several decades. This type of resonator is characterized with low cost, ease of fabrication, moderate quality factor, low external noise interference, high stability, and so forth. Due to these attractive features and ease in handling, nonplanar form of structure has been utilized for material characterization in 1–5 GHz range. Resonant frequency and quality factor are two important parameters for determination of material properties utilizing perturbation theory. Shield made of conducting material is utilized to enclose split-ring resonator which enhances quality factor. This work presents a novel technique to develop shield around a predesigned nonplanar split-ring resonator to yield optimized quality factor. Based on this technique and statistical analysis regression equations have also been formulated for resonant frequency and quality factor which is a major outcome of this work. These equations quantify dependence of output parameters on various factors of shield made of different materials. Such analysis is instrumental in development of devices/designs where improved/optimum result is required.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
An, Yi; Muller, M.; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel
2013-01-01
A micro-ring resonator transfer function is used to enhance the quality of signals generated using directly modulated VCSELs. The scheme is demonstrated up to 25 Gbit/s with a 17.6-GHz VCSEL, with up to 10 dB sensitivity improvement.......A micro-ring resonator transfer function is used to enhance the quality of signals generated using directly modulated VCSELs. The scheme is demonstrated up to 25 Gbit/s with a 17.6-GHz VCSEL, with up to 10 dB sensitivity improvement....
Transmission Property of Directly Modulated Signals Enhanced by a Micro-ring Resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
An, Yi; Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Seoane, Jorge;
2012-01-01
A silicon micro-ring resonator is used to enhance the modulation speed of a 10-Gbit/s directly modulated laser to 40 Gbit/s. The generated signal is transmitted error free over 4.5 km SSMF. Dispersion tolerance is also studied.......A silicon micro-ring resonator is used to enhance the modulation speed of a 10-Gbit/s directly modulated laser to 40 Gbit/s. The generated signal is transmitted error free over 4.5 km SSMF. Dispersion tolerance is also studied....
Stopping and storing light pulses within a fiber optic ring resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
F.H.Suhailin; J.Ali; P.P.Yupapin; Y.Fujii; H.Ahmad; S.W.Harun
2009-01-01
A simple all optical system for stopping and storing light pulses is demonstrated.The system consists of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier(EDFA),a semiconductor optical amplifier(SOA),and a fiber ring resonator.The results show that the multisoliton generation with a free spectrum range of 2.4 nm and a pulse spectral width of 0.96 nm is achieved.The memory time of 15 min and the maximum soliton output power of 5.94 dBm are noted,respectively.This means that light pulses can be trapped,i.e.,stopped optically within the fiber ring resonator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.KAREEMULLA
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A novel Substrate Integrated Waveguide Band Pass Filter based on circular complimentary split ring resonators (CSRR is proposed in this paper. By etching Circular Complimentary Split Ring Resonators on the surface of the substrate integrated waveguide, the SIW gets BPF characteristics for particular band of frequencies. This filter is small size and low profile, is useful in designing single substrate front-end broad band communication system. The current BPF is designed at 8 GHz to 9 GHz in X-Band and presented with Simulation results.
Nonlinear dynamic response of beam and its application in nanomechanical resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yin Zhang; Yun Liu; Kevin D. Murphy
2012-01-01
Nonlinear dynamic response of nanomechanical resonator is of very important characteristics in its application.Two categories of the tension-dominant and curvaturedominant nonlinearities are analyzed.The dynamic nonlinearity of four beam structures of nanomechanical resonator is quantitatively studied via a dimensional analysis approach.The dimensional analysis shows that for the nanomechanical resonator of tension-dominant nonlinearity,its dynamic nonlinearity decreases monotonically with increasing axial loading and increases monotonically with the increasing aspect ratio of length to thickness; the dynamic nonlinearity can only result in the hardening effects.However,for the nanomechanical resonator of the curvature-dominant nonlinearity,its dynamic nonlinearity is only dependent on axial loading.Compared with the tension-dominant nonlinearity,the curvature-dominant nonlinearity increases monotonically with increasing axial loading; its dynamic nonlinearity can result in both hardening and softening effects.The analysis on the dynamic nonlinearity can be very helpful to the tuning application of the nanomechanical resonator.
Hu, Zhan; Zheng, Gangtie
2016-08-01
A combined analysis method is developed in the present paper for studying the dynamic properties of a type of geometrically nonlinear vibration isolator, which is composed of push-pull configuration rings. This method combines the geometrically nonlinear theory of curved beams and the Harmonic Balance Method to overcome the difficulty in calculating the vibration and vibration transmissibility under large deformations of the ring structure. Using the proposed method, nonlinear dynamic behaviors of this isolator, such as the lock situation due to the coulomb damping and the usual jump resulting from the nonlinear stiffness, can be investigated. Numerical solutions based on the primary harmonic balance are first verified by direct integration results. Then, the whole procedure of this combined analysis method is demonstrated and validated by slowly sinusoidal sweeping experiments with different amplitudes of the base excitation. Both numerical and experimental results indicate that this type of isolator behaves as a hardening spring with increasing amplitude of the base excitation, which makes it suitable for isolating both steady-state vibrations and transient shocks.
Vibration optimization of ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zinan Zhao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A rectangular ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes is presented in this paper to demonstrate the existence of a nearly uniform displacement distribution at the central part of this typical resonator. The variational formulation based on two-dimensional scalar differential equations provides a theoretical foundation for the Ritz method adopted in our analysis. The resonant frequencies and vibration distributions for the thickness-extensional modes of this ring electrode resonator are obtained. The structural parameters are optimized to achieve a more uniform displacement distribution and therefore a uniform mass sensitivity, which guarantee the high accuracy and repeatable measurement for sensor detection in an air or a liquid environment. These results provide a fundamental reference for the design and optimization of the high quality sensor.
Optimal operating points of oscillators using nonlinear resonators.
Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M C; Villanueva, L G; Karabalin, R B; Matheny, M H; Lifshitz, Ron; Roukes, M L
2012-11-01
We demonstrate an analytical method for calculating the phase sensitivity of a class of oscillators whose phase does not affect the time evolution of the other dynamic variables. We show that such oscillators possess the possibility for complete phase noise elimination. We apply the method to a feedback oscillator which employs a high Q weakly nonlinear resonator and provide explicit parameter values for which the feedback phase noise is completely eliminated and others for which there is no amplitude-phase noise conversion. We then establish an operational mode of the oscillator which optimizes its performance by diminishing the feedback noise in both quadratures, thermal noise, and quality factor fluctuations. We also study the spectrum of the oscillator and provide specific results for the case of 1/f noise sources.
Mode coupling control in a resonant device: application to solid-state ring lasers
Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Bouyer, Philippe; Lariontsev, Evguenii; Aspect, Alain; Pocholle, Jean-Paul
2006-01-01
International audience; A theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of mode coupling in a resonant macro- scopic quantum device is achieved in the case of a ring laser. In particular, we show both analytically and experimentally that such a device can be used as a rotation sensor provided the effects of mode coupling are controlled, for example through the use of an additional coupling. A possible general- ization of this example to the case of another resonant macroscopic qua...
Equivalent Circuit Model for Thick Split Ring Resonators and Thick Spiral Resonators
Mancera, Laura Maria Pulido
2014-01-01
A simple theoretical model which provides circuit parameters and resonance frequency of metallic thick resonators is presented. Two different topologies were studied: the original Pendry's SRR and spiral resonators of two and three turns. Theoretical computations of resonant frequencies are in good agreement with values obtained with a commercial electromagnetic solver. The model could be helpful for designing thick frequency selective surfaces (FSS) based on this types of resonators, so called metasurfaces.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M K Maurya; T K Yadav; R A Yadav
2009-04-01
The steady-state amplification of light beam during two-wave mixing in photorefractive materials has been analysed in the strong nonlinear regime. The oscillation conditions for unidirectional ring resonator have been studied. The signal beam can be amplified in the presence of material absorption, provided the gain due to the beam coupling is large enough to overcome the cavity losses. Such amplification is responsible for the oscillations. The gain bandwidth is only a few Hz. In spite of such an extremely narrow bandwidth, unidirectional oscillation can be observed easily at any cavity length in ring resonators by using photorefractive crystals as the medium and this can be explained in terms of the photorefractive phase-shift. The presence of such a phase-shift allows the possibility of the non-reciprocal steady-state transfer of energy between the two light beams. Dependence of gain bandwidth on coupling constant, absorption coefficient of the material's cavity length (crystal length) and modulation ratio have also been studied.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Jie
2009-01-01
In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.
Silicon reflectors for external cavity lasers based on ring resonators
Wang, Chao; Li, Xia; Jin, Hao; Yu, Hui; Yang, Jianyi; Jiang, Xiaoqing
2017-01-01
We propose and experimentally investigate types of silicon ring reflectors on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) platform. These reflectors are used for realizing the silicon hybrid external cavity lasers. A suspended edge coupler is used to connect the reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) chip and the reflectors. The properties of the reflectors and the hybrid external cavity lasers with these reflectors are illustrated. The experimental results show that all of those reflectors have a high reflectivity and the highest reflectivity can up to be 95%. The lowest insertion loss can be as low as 0.4 dB. The output power of the hybrid external cavity lasers with these reflectors can reach mW magnitude and the highest output power is 6.1 mW. Over 30 dB side mode suppression ratio is obtained.
Moritake, Yuto; Tanaka, Takuo
2017-07-27
We propose and demonstrate the strategy to control bi-anisotropic response in three-dimensional split-ring-resonators (3D-SRRs) array for purely magnetic resonance in the mid-infrared region. By using a metal-stress-driven self-folding method, inversion symmetry along a propagation axis of 3D-SRRs was controlled. The inversion symmetry of 3D-SRRs realized non-bi-anisotropic response of a magnetic resonant mode at around 10 μm in wavelength resulting in purely magnetic resonance with high transmission of 70%. Highly transparent purely magnetic artificial elements demonstrated in this study will be a key component for functional applications using artificial magnetism at the optical frequencies.
Optimization of nonlinear structural resonance using the incremental harmonic balance method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dou, Suguang; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2015-01-01
We present an optimization procedure for tailoring the nonlinear structural resonant response with time-harmonic loads. A nonlinear finite element method is used for modeling beam structures with a geometric nonlinearity and the incremental harmonic balance method is applied for accurate nonlinea...
Reconfigurable Solid-state Dye-doped Polymer Ring Resonator Lasers
Chandrahalim, Hengky; Fan, Xudong
2015-01-01
This paper presents wavelength configurable on-chip solid-state ring lasers fabricated by a single-mask standard lithography. The single- and coupled-ring resonator hosts were fabricated on a fused-silica wafer and filled with 3,3′-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), and 3,3′-Diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide (CY5)-doped polymer as the reconfigurable gain media. The recorded lasing threshold was ~220 nJ/mm2 per pulse for the single-ring resonator laser with R6G, marking the lowest threshold shown by solid-state dye-doped polymer lasers fabricated with a standard lithography process on a chip. A single-mode lasing from a coupled-ring resonator system with the lasing threshold of ~360 nJ/mm2 per pulse was also demonstrated through the Vernier effect. The renewability of the dye-doped polymer was examined by removing and redepositing the dye-doped polymer on the same resonator hosts for multiple cycles. We recorded consistent emissions from the devices for all trials, suggesting the feasibility of employing this technology for numerous photonic and biochemical sensing applications that entail for sustainable, reconfigurable, and low lasing threshold coherent light sources on a chip. PMID:26674508
Refractive Index Sensing Using a Three-Port Interferometer and Comparison with Ring Resonators
Gulik, R.J.J. van; Boer, B.M. de; Harmsma, P.J.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we compare ring resonator and three-port Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) devices fabricated on silicon-on-insulator for the purpose of refractive index sensing. Their respective sensitivities and limits of detection (LOD) were determined with NaCl solutions. A sensitivity of 113.07
Linear all-optical signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing
2016-01-01
Silicon micro-ring resonators (MRRs) are compact and versatile devices whose periodic frequency response can be exploited for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we review our recent work on linear all-optical signal processing applications using silicon MRRs as passive filters. We focus...
Silicon photonic micro-ring resonators to sense strain and ultrasound
Westerveld, W.J.
2014-01-01
We demonstrated that photonic micro-ring resonators can be used in micro-machined ultrasound microphones. This might cause a breakthrough in array transducers for ultrasonography; first because optical multiplexing allows array interrogation via one optical fiber and second because the silicon-on-in
Sensing platform based on micro-ring resonator and on-chip reference sensors in SOI
Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.C.; Boer, B.M. de; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Berg, J.H. van den; Abutan, A.E.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Lo Cascio, D.M.R.; Harmsma, P.J.
2014-01-01
This article presents work on a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) compact sensing platform based on Micro Ring Resonators (MRRs). In order to enable correction for variations in environmental conditions (temperature, mechanical stress etc), a study has been performed on the performance of uncoated sensing
SOI based mechano-optical pressure sensor using a folded micro ring resonator
Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.C.; Harmsma, P.J.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Pozo Torres, J.M.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.; Berg, J.H. van den; Bodis, P.; Buskens, P.
2012-01-01
A compact, mass producible Silicon On Insulator (SOI) based pressure sensor consisting of a folded Micro Ring Resonator (MRR) on a circular diaphragm is successfully designed, fabricated and characterized. An application of pressure deflects the diaphragm, causing stress in the MRR, which elongates
Fusion of Renewable Ring Resonator Lasers and Ultrafast Laser Inscribed Photonic Waveguides
Chandrahalim, Hengky; Rand, Stephen C.; Fan, Xudong
2016-09-01
We demonstrated the monolithic integration of reusable and wavelength reconfigurable ring resonator lasers and waveguides of arbitrary shapes to out-couple and guide laser emission on the same fused-silica chip. The ring resonator hosts were patterned by a single-mask standard lithography, whereas the waveguides were inscribed in the proximity of the ring resonator by using 3-dimensional femtosecond laser inscription technology. Reusability of the integrated ring resonator – waveguide system was examined by depositing, removing, and re-depositing dye-doped SU-8 solid polymer, SU-8 liquid polymer, and liquid solvent (toluene). The wavelength reconfigurability was validated by employing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 3,3‧-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide (CY3) as exemplary gain media. In all above cases, the waveguide was able to couple out and guide the laser emission. This work opens a door to reconfigurable active and passive photonic devices for on-chip coherent light sources, optical signal processing, and the investigation of new optical phenomena.
The effect of Ti and ITO adhesion layers on gold split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders
2010-01-01
Ultrathin adhesion layers serve a well-documented fabrication purpose while its influence on the optical properties of gold nanostructures is often neglected. Gold split-ring resonators are fabricated with two commonly used adhesion layers: titanium and indium tin oxide. When compared to all-gold...... with perturbative considerations....
Design of a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network for phased array receive antennas
Klooster, van 't J.W.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Meijerink, A.; Zhuang, L.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Etten, van W.C.; Heideman, R.G.; Leinse, A.; Schippers, H.; Verpoorte, J.; Wintels, M.
2008-01-01
A novel squint-free ring resonator-based optical beam forming network (OBFN) for phased array antennas (PAA) is proposed. It is intended to provide broadband connectivity to airborne platforms via geostationary satellites. In this paper, we present the design of the OBFN and its control system. Our
The effect of Ti and ITO adhesion layers on gold split-ring resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Mortensen, Asger; Kristensen, Anders
2010-01-01
Ultrathin adhesion layers serve a well-documented fabrication purpose while its influence on the optical properties of gold nanostructures is often neglected. Gold split-ring resonators are fabricated with two commonly used adhesion layers: titanium and indium tin oxide. When compared to all...
Microwave Power Transmission Using Electromagnetic Coupling of Open-Ring Resonators
2012-11-01
Ao, I. Awai and Y. Ohno, “Wireless Inter-Chip Signal Transmission by Electromagnetic Coupling of Open-Ring Resonators,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , vol...Y Hu, H. Kawai, N. Shinohara, N. Niwa, and Y. Ohno, : GaN Schottky Diodes for Microwave Power Rectification, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , Vol
Optimization of an integrated-optical ring-resonator slow-light-based sensor
Uranus, H.P.; Hoekman, M.; Dijkstra, M.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; stoffer, R.
2008-01-01
A 3-D, vectorial, and multimodal model that incorporates realistic losses was developed to study the performance of Si3N4 based integrated-optical ring-resonator slow-light-based refractometric sensor. Efficient optimization of the coupler gap and tolerance analysis were also performed using the mod
Study of an integrated-optical slow light ring-resonator for sensing applications
Uranus, H.P.; Dijkstra, M.; Hoekman, M.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.
2008-01-01
Integrated-optical (IO) micro-ring, -disk, and -sphere resonators have been long considered as a good candidate to enhance optical sensor performance. To the best of our knowledge, none of previous reported works has explicitly attributed such (expected) enhancement to slow-light phenomenon, i.e. a
Folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexer Theory and experiment
Pickett, H. M.; Chiou, A. E. T.
1983-01-01
Performance of folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexers with different geometries of reflecting surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Design of optimum surface geometry for minimum diffraction, together with the figure of merit indicating improvement in performance, are given.
Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris
2017-08-01
We present a metamaterial configuration exhibiting single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like properties. The unit cell of the single band EIT-like metamaterial consists of a multi-split ring resonator surrounded by a split ring resonator. The multi-split ring resonator acts as a quasi-dark or dark resonator, depending on the polarization of the incident wave, and the split ring resonator serves as the bright resonator. Combination of these two resonators results in a single band EIT-like transmission inside the stop band. EIT-like transmission phenomenon is also clearly observed in the measured transmission spectrum at almost the same frequencies for vertical and horizontal polarized waves, and the numerical results are verified for normal incidence. Moreover, multi-band transmission windows are created within a wide band by combining the two slightly different single band EIT-like metamaterial unit cells that exhibit two different coupling strengths inside a supercell configuration. Group indices as high as 123 for single band and 488 for tri-band transmission, accompanying with high transmission rates (over 80%), are achieved, rendering the metamaterial very suitable for multi-band slow light applications. It is shown that the group delay of the propagating wave can be increased and dynamically controlled by changing the polarization angle. Multi-band EIT-like transmission is also verified experimentally, and a good agreement with simulations is obtained. The proposed novel methodology for obtaining multi-band EIT, which takes advantage of a supercell configuration by hosting slightly different configured unit cells, can be utilized for easily formation and manipulation of multi-band transmission windows inside a stop band.
Zhuang, L.; Beeker, Willem; Beeker, W.P.; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.
2012-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a wideband photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonators allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The implemented all-pass filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuefeng Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Based on solving numerically the generalized nonlinear Langevin equation describing the nonlinear dynamics of stochastic resonance by Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, an aperiodic stochastic resonance based on an optical bistable system is numerically investigated. The numerical results show that a parameter-tuning stochastic resonance system can be realized by choosing the appropriate optical bistable parameters, which performs well in reconstructing aperiodic signals from a very high level of noise background. The influences of optical bistable parameters on the stochastic resonance effect are numerically analyzed via cross-correlation, and a maximum cross-correlation gain of 8 is obtained by optimizing optical bistable parameters. This provides a prospective method for reconstructing noise-hidden weak signals in all-optical signal processing systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xuefeng, E-mail: lixfpost@163.com [School of Science, Xi' an University of Post and Telecommunications, Xi' an, 710121 (China); Cao, Guangzhan; Liu, Hongjun [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an, 710119 (China)
2014-04-15
Based on solving numerically the generalized nonlinear Langevin equation describing the nonlinear dynamics of stochastic resonance by Fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, an aperiodic stochastic resonance based on an optical bistable system is numerically investigated. The numerical results show that a parameter-tuning stochastic resonance system can be realized by choosing the appropriate optical bistable parameters, which performs well in reconstructing aperiodic signals from a very high level of noise background. The influences of optical bistable parameters on the stochastic resonance effect are numerically analyzed via cross-correlation, and a maximum cross-correlation gain of 8 is obtained by optimizing optical bistable parameters. This provides a prospective method for reconstructing noise-hidden weak signals in all-optical signal processing systems.
Tunable band notch filters by manipulating couplings of split ring resonators.
Sun, Haibin; Wen, Guangjun; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Jian; Zhu, Weiren; Si, Li-Ming
2013-11-01
The couplings between single/dual split ring resonators (SRRs) and their mirror images in a rectangular waveguide are systematically investigated through theoretical analysis and experimental measurements. Such couplings can be manipulated mechanically by rotating the SRRs along a dielectric rod and/or shifting the SRRs up/down along the sidewall of the rectangular waveguide, resulting in shifts of the resonant frequencies and modulations of the resonant magnitudes. These controllable properties of SRRs pave the routers toward designing tunable band notch filters. In particular, it is experimentally demonstrated that the designed filters possess 7.5% tuning range in the X-band.
Quantum-optical description of losses in ring resonators based on field-operator transformations
Alsing, Paul M.; Hach, Edwin E.; Tison, Christopher C.; Smith, A. Matthew
2017-05-01
In this work we examine loss in ring resonator networks from an operator valued phasor addition approach which considers the multiple transmission and cross coupling paths of a quantum field traversing a ring resonator coupled to one or two external waveguide buses. We demonstrate the consistency of our approach by the preservation of the operator commutation relation of the out-coupled bus mode. We compare our results to those obtained from the conventional quantum Langevin approach which introduces noise operators in addition to the quantum Heisenberg equations in order to preserve commutation relations in the presence of loss. It is shown that the two expressions agree in the neighborhood of a cavity resonance where the Langevin approach is applicable, whereas the operator valued phasor addition expression we derive is more general, remaining valid far from resonances. In addition, we examine the effects of internal and coupling losses on the Hong-Ou-Mandel manifold discussed in Hach et al. [Phys. Rev. A 89, 043805 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.043805] that generalizes the destructive interference of two incident photons interfering on a 50:50 beam splitter (HOM effect) to the case of an add-drop double bus ring resonator.
Tunable multi-band chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric split ring resonators
Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou; Meng, Qingxin; Zhou, Zhongxiang
2016-07-01
We have numerically demonstrated chiral metamaterials based on double-layered asymmetric Au film with hollow out design of split ring resonators on either side of the polyimide. Multiple electric dipoles and magnetic dipoles resulted from parallel and antiparallel currents between the eight split ring resonators. Multi-band circular dichroism is found in the visible frequency regime by studying the transmission properties. Huge optical activity and the induced multi-band negative refractive index are obtained at resonance by calculating the optical activity and ellipticity of the transmitted E-fields. Chirality parameter and effective refractive index are retrieved to illustrate the tunable optical properties of the metamaterials. The underlying mechanisms for the observed circular dichroism are analyzed. These metamaterials would offer flexible electromagnetic applications in the infrared and visible regime.
Flexible printed chipless RFID tag using metamaterial-split ring resonator
Jalil, M. E.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Dewan, R.
2016-04-01
An 8-bit passive chipless RFID using metamaterial structure with dimension of 25 × 50 mm which operates between 3.4 and 7.4 GHz is proposed. The chipless RFID is designed using complementary split ring resonator (SRR) with a transmission line feeding network of 50 Ω. The modified complementary split ring resonator (MCSRR) is located at the backside of the substrate. The MCSRR has narrow bandwidth which can maximize the amount of bit capacity. To enhance the bit capacity, the frequency shifting is introduced by the allocation of bit conditions (00, 01, 10 and 11) at the specific resonance frequency. The polyethylene terephthalate material with ɛ r = 3.0 and tan δ = 0.002 is a suitable candidate for body identification due to the flexibility and the robustness of the material.
All-fibre micro-ring resonator based on tapered microfibre
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Xiao-Wei; Lu Shao-Hua; Feng Su-Chun; Xu Ou; Jian Shui-Sheng
2008-01-01
In this paper, bendloss characteristics of an optical fibre are investigated in detail, and the results show that the resonator with a smaller ring radius, wider free spectrum range (FSR), higher fineness (f) and quality-factor (Q) can be achieved by using microfibres. Based on the improved fused taper technique, a high-quality microfibre with 5 μm radius has been fabricated, and an all-fibre micro-ring resonator with a radius of only 500 μm is realized using self-coiling coupling method. The good-resonant characteristic makes the all-fibre device be expected to avoid bendloss and connection loss associated with planar waveguide integration.
Second-Order Resonant Interaction of Ring Current Protons with Whistler-Mode Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Fu-Liang; CHEN Liang-Xu; HE Hui-Yong; ZHOU Qing-Hua
2008-01-01
We present a study on the second-order resonant interaction between the ring current protons with Whistler-mode waves propagating near the quasi electrostatic limit following the previous second-order resonant theory.The diffusion coefficients are proportional to the electric field amplitude E,much greater than those for the regular first-order resonance.which are proportional to the electric field amplitudes square E2.Numerical calculations for the pitch angle scattering are performed for typical energies of protons Ek=50ke V and 100ke V at locations L=2 and L=3.5.The timescale for the loss process of protons by the Whistler waves is found to approach one hour,comparable to that by the EMIC waves,suggesting that Whistler waves may also contribute significantly to the ring current decay under appropriate conditions.
Nonlinear and long-term beam dynamics in low energy storage rings
Papash, A. I.; Smirnov, A. V.; Welsch, C. P.
2013-06-01
Electrostatic storage rings operate at very low energies in the keV range and have proven to be invaluable tools for atomic and molecular physics. Because of the mass independence of electric rigidity, these machines are able to store a wide range of different particles, from light ions to heavy singly charged biomolecules, opening up unique research opportunities. However, earlier measurements have shown strong limitations in maximum beam intensity, fast decay of the stored ion current, and reduced beam lifetime. The nature of these effects has not been fully understood and an improved understanding of the physical processes influencing beam motion and stability in such rings is needed. In this paper, a comprehensive study into nonlinear and long-term beam dynamics studies is presented on the examples of a number of existing and planned electrostatic storage rings using the BETACOOL, OPERA-3D, and MAD-X simulation software. A detailed investigation into ion kinetics, under consideration of effects from electron cooling and multiple scattering of the beam on a supersonic gas jet target, is carried out and yields a consistent explanation of the physical effects in a whole class of storage rings. The lifetime, equilibrium momentum spread, and equilibrium lateral spread during collisions with the target are estimated. In addition, the results from experiments at the Test Storage Ring, where a low-intensity beam of CF+ ions at 93keV/u has been shrunk to extremely small dimensions, are reproduced. Based on these simulations, the conditions for stable ring operation with an extremely low-emittance beam are presented. Finally, results from studies into the interaction of 3-30 keV ions with a gas jet target are summarized.
Nonlinear and long-term beam dynamics in low energy storage rings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. I. Papash
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Electrostatic storage rings operate at very low energies in the keV range and have proven to be invaluable tools for atomic and molecular physics. Because of the mass independence of electric rigidity, these machines are able to store a wide range of different particles, from light ions to heavy singly charged biomolecules, opening up unique research opportunities. However, earlier measurements have shown strong limitations in maximum beam intensity, fast decay of the stored ion current, and reduced beam lifetime. The nature of these effects has not been fully understood and an improved understanding of the physical processes influencing beam motion and stability in such rings is needed. In this paper, a comprehensive study into nonlinear and long-term beam dynamics studies is presented on the examples of a number of existing and planned electrostatic storage rings using the BETACOOL, OPERA-3D, and MAD-X simulation software. A detailed investigation into ion kinetics, under consideration of effects from electron cooling and multiple scattering of the beam on a supersonic gas jet target, is carried out and yields a consistent explanation of the physical effects in a whole class of storage rings. The lifetime, equilibrium momentum spread, and equilibrium lateral spread during collisions with the target are estimated. In addition, the results from experiments at the Test Storage Ring, where a low-intensity beam of CF^{+} ions at 93 keV/u has been shrunk to extremely small dimensions, are reproduced. Based on these simulations, the conditions for stable ring operation with an extremely low-emittance beam are presented. Finally, results from studies into the interaction of 3–30 keV ions with a gas jet target are summarized.
Schneeweiss, Philipp; Hoinkes, Thomas; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Volz, Jürgen
2016-01-01
We experimentally realize an optical fiber ring resonator that includes a tapered section with subwavelength-diameter waist. In this section, the guided light exhibits a significant evanescent field which allows for efficient interfacing with optical emitters. A commercial tunable fiber beam splitter provides simple and robust coupling to the resonator. Key parameters of the resonator such as its out-coupling rate, free spectral range, and birefringence can be adjusted. Thanks to the low taper- and coupling-losses, the resonator exhibits an unloaded finesse of F=75+/-1, sufficient for reaching the regime of strong coupling for emitters placed in the evanescent field. The system is ideally suited for trapping ensembles of laser-cooled atoms along the nanofiber section. Based on measured parameters, we estimate that the system can serve as a platform for optical multimode strong coupling experiments. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of using the resonator for applications based on chiral quantum optics.
Nonlinear quantum piston for the controlled generation of vortex rings and soliton trains
Pinsker, Florian
2013-05-29
We propose a simple way to generate nonlinear excitations in a controllable way by managing interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. Under the action of a quantum analog of a classical piston, the condensed atoms are pushed through the trap, generating vortex rings infully three-dimensional condensates or soliton trains in quasi-one-dimensional scenarios. The vortex rings form due to transverse instability of the shock-wave train, enhanced and supported by the energy transfer between waves. We elucidate in what sense the self-interactions within the atom cloud define the properties of the generated vortex rings and soliton trains. Based on the quantum-piston scheme we study the behavior of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates and analyze how the presence of an additional superfluid influences the generation of vortex rings or solitons in the other component, and vice versa. Finally, we show the dynamical emergence of skyrmions within two-component systems in the immiscible regime. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Chimera regimes in a ring of oscillators with local nonlinear interaction
Shepelev, Igor A.; Zakharova, Anna; Vadivasova, Tatiana E.
2017-03-01
One of important problems concerning chimera states is the conditions of their existence and stability. Until now, it was assumed that chimeras could arise only in ensembles with nonlocal character of interactions. However, this assumption is not exactly right. In some special cases chimeras can be realized for local type of coupling [1-3]. We propose a simple model of ensemble with local coupling when chimeras are realized. This model is a ring of linear oscillators with the local nonlinear unidirectional interaction. Chimera structures in the ring are found using computer simulations for wide area of values of parameters. Diagram of the regimes on plane of control parameters is plotted and scenario of chimera destruction are studied when the parameters are changed.
Synthesis and nonlinearity of triene chromophores containing the cyclohexene ring structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ermer, S.; Lovejoy, S.M.; Leung, D.S.; Warren, H.; Moylan, C.R.; Twieg, R.J.
1998-07-01
A series of conjugated donor-acceptor trienes in which the central double bond is incorporated into an unsaturated isophorone, verbenone or chromone ring has been synthesized. In each case, the donor group consists of an amine and an aromatic or heterocyclic ring system, and the acceptor is the dicyanomethylidene group. The nonlinear optical properties of each of the compounds has been measured and correlated with its structure. The dipole moments and molecular hyperpolarizabilities of these compounds, like those of other conjugated polyenes, are large enough to be used as the active components of electro-optic polymers. Unlike other donor-acceptor polyenes, however, these compounds exhibit the thermal stability required for such applications.
Measurement of the Beam Longitudinal Profile in a Storage Ring by Non-Linear Laser Mixing
Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.
2004-11-01
We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid-state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of un trapped particles, and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets ("ghost bunches").
Fang, Sheng; Guo, Hua
2013-01-01
The parallel magnetic resonance imaging (parallel imaging) technique reduces the MR data acquisition time by using multiple receiver coils. Coil sensitivity estimation is critical for the performance of parallel imaging reconstruction. Currently, most coil sensitivity estimation methods are based on linear interpolation techniques. Such methods may result in Gibbs-ringing artifact or resolution loss, when the resolution of coil sensitivity data is limited. To solve the problem, we proposed a nonlinear coil sensitivity estimation method based on steering kernel regression, which performs a local gradient guided interpolation to the coil sensitivity. The in vivo experimental results demonstrate that this method can effectively suppress Gibbs ringing artifact in coil sensitivity and reduces both noise and residual aliasing artifact level in SENSE reconstruction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianli Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the precision of Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS and reduce the complexity of the traditional calibration method, a novel calibration and compensation scheme is proposed. An optimization calibration method with four-direction rotations is designed to calculate all error coefficients of Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG SINS in a series of constant temperatures. According to the actual working environment, the temperature errors of RLG SINS are compensated by a nonlinear interpolation compensation algorithm. The experimental results show that the inertial navigation errors of the proposed method are reduced.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Shun-Qiang; ZHANG Wen-Zhi; LI Hao-Hu; ZHANG Man-Zhou; HOU Jie; ZHOU xue-Mei; LIU Gui-Min
2009-01-01
Phase Ⅰ commissioning of the SSRF storage ring on 3.0 GeV beam energy was started at the end of December 2007.A lot of encouraging results have been obtained so far.In this paper,calibrations of the linear optics during the commissioning are discussed,and some measured results about the nonlinearity given.Calibration procedure emphasizes correcting quadrupole magnetic coefficients with the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit(LOCO)technique.After fitting the closed orbit response matrix,the linear optics of the four test modes is substantially corrected,and the measured physical parameters agree well with the designed ones.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Xiu-you; PANG Fu-fei; FANG Zu-jie; ZHAO Ming-shan
2008-01-01
Based on the measurement of the contrast ratios of the transmission spectra from the throughput and drop ports of ring resonator, an efficient method is proposed to extract the coupling ratio and round-trip loss of the integrated optical waveguide ring resonator. The parameters of a racetrack resonator prepared by ion-exchange technique in K9 optical glass substrate are examined, which demonstrates the validity of this method. The accuracy and applicable range of this method are also discussed.
Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X
2015-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a dispersion control technique by combination of different waveguide cross sections in an aluminum nitride micro-ring resonator. Narrow and wide waveguides with normal and anomalous dispersion, respectively, are linked with tapering waveguides and enclosed in a ring resonator to produce a total dispersion near zero. The mode-coupling in multimoded waveguides is also effectively suppressed. This technique provides new degrees of freedom and enhanced flexibility in engineering the dispersion of microcomb resonators.
Nonlinear electrodynamics of electrons in a quasi-one-dimensional ballistic ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Epshtein, E.M. [Institute for Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shmelev, G.M.; Maglevanny, I.I. [Volgograd State Pedagogical University, Volgograd (Russian Federation)
2000-09-01
We consider ballistic electron motion in a quasi-one-dimensional ring under the uniform high-frequency electric field induced by an electromagnetic field. The electron satisfies a nonlinear equation of motion which is formally identical to that for a pendulum with a vibrating suspension point. The averaging method of Kapitza is used. The electromagnetic emission spectrum is calculated. The spectrum consists of low-frequency radiation, scattered radiation at the incident radiation frequency and combination scattered radiation; the intensities and frequencies of all components depend nonlinearly on the incident radiation frequency. At a certain value of that intensity the spontaneous symmetry breakdown occurs. As a result, the system acquires some static electric dipole moment. (author)
Nonlinear electrodynamics of electrons in a quasi-one-dimensional ballistic ring
Epshtein, E. M.; Shmelev, G. M.; Maglevanny, I. I.
2000-09-01
We consider ballistic electron motion in a quasi-one-dimensional ring under the uniform high-frequency electric field induced by an electromagnetic field. The electron satisfies a nonlinear equation of motion which is formally identical to that for a pendulum with a vibrating suspension point. The averaging method of Kapitza is used. The electromagnetic emission spectrum is calculated. The spectrum consists of low-frequency radiation, scattered radiation at the incident radiation frequency and combination scattered radiation; the intensities and frequencies of all components depend nonlinearly on the incident radiation frequency. At a certain value of that intensity the spontaneous symmetry breakdown occurs. As a result, the system acquires some static electric dipole moment.
Coupling of semiconductor carbon nanotubes emission with silicon photonic micro ring resonators
Sarti, Francesco; Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Biccari, Francesco; Torrini, Ughetta; Intonti, Francesca; Vinattieri, Anna; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Zhang, Weiwei; Noury, Adrien; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Hoang, ThiHong Cam; Serna, Samuel; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric; Izard, Nicolas; Yang, Hongliu; Bezugly, Viktor; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Filoramo, Arianna; Vivien, Laurent; Gurioli, Massimo
2016-05-01
Hybrid structures are needed to fully exploit the great advantages of Si photonics and several approaches have been addressed where Si devices are bonded to different materials and nanostructures. Here we study the use of semiconductor carbon nanotubes for emission in the 1300 nm wavelength range to functionalize Si photonic structures in view of optoelectronic applications. The Si micro-rings are fully characterized by near field forward resonant scattering with 100 nm resolution. We show that both TE and TM modes can be addressed on the top of the micro-rings in a vectorial imaging of the in-plane polarization components. We coupled the Si micro-resonators with selected carbon nanotubes for high photoluminescence emission. Coupling nanotubes with the evanescent tails in air of the electric field localized in the photonic modes of the micro-resonators is demonstrated by sharp resonances over imposed to the nanotube emission bands. By mapping the Si and the nanotube emission we demonstrate that strong enhancement of the nanotube photoluminescence can be achieved both in the photonic modes of micro-disks and slot micro-rings, whenever the spatial overlap between nano-emitters and photonic modes is fulfilled.
A universal label-free biosensing platform based on opto-fluidic ring resonators
Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Gohring, John; Fan, Xudong
2009-02-01
Rapid and accurate detection of biomolecules is important for medical diagnosis, pharmaceuticals, homeland security, food quality control, and environmental protection. A simple, low cost and highly sensitive label-free optical biosensor based on opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) has been developed that naturally integrates microfluidics with ring resonators. The OFRR employs a piece of fused silica capillary with a diameter around 100 micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the ring resonator and light repeatedly travels along the resonator circumference in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) through total internal reflection. When the capillary wall is as thin as a couple of micrometers (detect the target molecules with high specificity, the OFRR inner surface is functionalized with receptors, such as antibodies, peptide-displayed bacteriophage or oligonucleotide DNA probes. The WGM spectral position shifts when biomolecules bind to the OFRR inner surface and change the local refractive index, which provides quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction near the OFRR inner surface. The OFRR has been successfully demonstrated for detection of various types of biomoelcuels. Here, we will first introduce the basic operation principle of the OFRR as a sensor and then application examples of the OFRR in the detection of proteins, disease biomarkers, virus, DNA molecules, and cells with high sensitivities will be presented.
Nonlinear thickness-stretch vibration of thin-film acoustic wave resonators
Ji, Xiaojun; Fan, Yanping; Han, Tao; Cai, Ping
2016-03-01
We perform a theoretical analysis on nonlinear thickness-stretch free vibration of thin-film acoustic wave resonators made from AlN and ZnO. The third-order or cubic nonlinear theory by Tiersten is employed. Using Green's identify, under the usual approximation of neglecting higher time harmonics, a perturbation analysis is performed from which the resonator frequency-amplitude relation is obtained. Numerical calculations are made. The relation can be used to determine the linear operating range of these resonators. It can also be used to compare with future experimental results to determine the relevant thirdand/or fourth-order nonlinear elastic constants.
A nonlinear plasmonic resonator for three-state all-optical switching
Amin, Muhammad
2014-01-01
A nonlinear plasmonic resonator design is proposed for three-state all-optical switching at frequencies including near infrared and lower red parts of the spectrum. The tri-stable response required for three-state operation is obtained by enhancing nonlinearities of a Kerr medium through multiple (higher order) plasmons excited on resonator\\'s metallic surfaces. Indeed, simulations demonstrate that exploitation of multiple plasmons equips the proposed resonator with a multi-band tri-stable response, which cannot be obtained using existing nonlinear plasmonic devices that make use of single mode Lorentzian resonances. Multi-band three-state optical switching that can be realized using the proposed resonator has potential applications in optical communications and computing. © 2014 Optical Society of America.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sangeeta Chakrabarti; S Anantha Ramakrishna
2012-03-01
On systematically investigating the electromagnetic response of periodic split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterials as a function of the size-to-wavelength (/) ratio, we ﬁnd that the stop bands due to the geometric resonances of the SRR weaken with increasing (/) ratio, and are eventually replaced by stop bands due to Bragg scattering. Our study traces the behaviour of SRR-based metamaterials as the resonance frequency increases and the wavelength of the radiation ﬁnally becomes comparable to the size of the unit cell of the metamaterial. In the intermediate stages, the dispersion of the SRR metamaterial can still be described as due to a localized magnetic resonances while Bragg scattering ﬁnally becomes the dominant phenomenon as / ∼ 1/2.
Spectral signature barcodes based on S-shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRRs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herrojo Cristian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown that S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs are useful particles for the implementation of spectral signature (i.e., a class of radiofrequency barcodes based on coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission lines loaded with such resonant elements. By virtue of its S shape, these resonators are electrically small. Hence S-SRRs are of interest for the miniaturization of the barcodes, since multiple resonators, each tuned at a different frequency, are used for encoding purposes. In particular, a 10-bit barcode occupying 1 GHz spectral bandwidth centered at 2.5 GHz, with dimensions of 9 cm2, is presented in this paper.
Spectral signature barcodes based on S-shaped Split Ring Resonators (S-SRRs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herrojo Cristian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, it is shown that S-shaped split ring resonators (S-SRRs are useful particles for the implementation of spectral signature (i.e., a class of radiofrequency barcodes based on coplanar waveguide (CPW transmission lines loaded with such resonant elements. By virtue of its S shape, these resonators are electrically small. Hence S-SRRs are of interest for the miniaturization of the barcodes, since multiple resonators, each tuned at a different frequency, are used for encoding purposes. In particular, a 10-bit barcode occupying 1 GHz spectral bandwidth centered at 2.5 GHz, with dimensions of 9 cm2, is presented in this paper.
RF Spectrum Sensing Based on an Overdamped Nonlinear Oscillator Ring for Cognitive Radios
Tang, Zhi-Ling; Li, Si-Min; Yu, Li-Juan
2016-01-01
Existing spectrum-sensing techniques for cognitive radios require an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to work at high dynamic range and a high sampling rate, resulting in high cost. Therefore, in this paper, a spectrum-sensing method based on a unidirectionally coupled, overdamped nonlinear oscillator ring is proposed. First, the numerical model of such a system is established based on the circuit of the nonlinear oscillator. Through numerical analysis of the model, the critical condition of the system’s starting oscillation is determined, and the simulation results of the system’s response to Gaussian white noise and periodic signal are presented. The results show that once the radio signal is input into the system, it starts oscillating when in the critical region, and the oscillating frequency of each element is fo/N, where fo is the frequency of the radio signal and N is the number of elements in the ring. The oscillation indicates that the spectrum resources at fo are occupied. At the same time, the sampling rate required for an ADC is reduced to the original value, 1/N. A prototypical circuit to verify the functionality of the system is designed, and the sensing bandwidth of the system is measured. PMID:27294928
Lorentz resonances and the vertical structure of dusty rings - Analytical and numerical results
Schaffer, Les; Burns, Joseph A.
1992-03-01
The Schaffer and Burns (1987) linear theory of Lorentz resonances (LRs) in planetary rings is extended in order to accurately compute LR locations and to elucidate the nature of grain trajectories within the LR zones. Using the perturbation theory and energy arguments, it is shown that an increase in the inclination or eccentricity of a grain must be accompanied by a shift in the mean orbital radius of the particle. This shift alters the epicyclic frequencies in such a way that the infinite response of the linear resonance theory is suppressed. Chaotic motion is found for the range of charge-to-mass ratios that cause the vertical and horizontal LRs to overlap.
Sensitivity of Double-Sided Split Ring Resonator Arrays to Fabrication Tolerances
Trang, Frank; Rogalla, Horst; Popovic, Zoya
2012-01-01
We present a study of the effects of fabrication tolerances on the performance of a planar array of double-sided split-ring resonators, printed on two sides of a dielectric substrate and fabricated using a printed circuit board (PCB) milling machine. The array is simulated and measured in an X-band waveguide, and the measured resonant frequency is found to be 6.3% higher than the predicted one. The sensitivity of the frequency response to several possible fabrication and measurement errors is investigated, and the dominant effect identified and demonstrated experimentally and in simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanotto, Simone; Pitanti, Alessandro [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze–CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Lange, Christoph; Maag, Thomas; Huber, Rupert [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Miseikis, Vaidotas; Coletti, Camilla [CNI@NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, P.za S. Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Degl' Innocenti, Riccardo [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Baldacci, Lorenzo [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Institute of Life Sciences, P.za Martiri della Libertà 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Tredicucci, Alessandro [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi,” Università di Pisa, L.go Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)
2015-09-21
By placing a material in close vicinity of a resonant optical element, its intrinsic optical response can be tuned, possibly to a wide extent. Here, we show that a graphene monolayer, spaced a few tenths of nanometers from a split ring resonator metasurface, exhibits a magneto-optical response which is strongly influenced by the presence of the metasurface itself. This hybrid system holds promises in view of thin optical modulators, polarization rotators, and nonreciprocal devices, in the technologically relevant terahertz spectral range. Moreover, it could be chosen as the playground for investigating the cavity electrodynamics of Dirac fermions in the quantum regime.
Screw split ring resonator as building block of three-dimensional chiral metamaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Yong, E-mail: liaoy@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerocraft Tracking Telemetering and Command and Communication, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xian 710071 (China); Yang, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Aerocraft Tracking Telemetering and Command and Communication, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shi, Lina [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices and Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)
2014-01-17
We proposed and numerically investigated the influence of spatial topology on the infrared frequency region response of chiral metamaterials based on discrete deformed split ring resonators. Compared with the well studied continuous helix, the proposed metamaterials with discrete topology exhibit broad band chiral electromagnetic response. It is shown that the conversion between left and right circular polarization waves for our model is much broader than the continuous helix model. The observed cross-coupling between electric and magnetic fields results from the chiral electric currents on the resonators due to the broken mirror symmetry. The findings are useful for the design of future real three-dimensional chiral metamaterials with tunable optical response.
Multi-bi- and tri-stability using nonlinear plasmonic Fano resonators
Amin, Muhammad
2013-09-01
A plasmonic Fano resonator embedding Kerr nonlinearity is used to achieve multi-bi- and tri-stability. Fano resonance is obtained by inducing higher-order plasmon modes on metallic surfaces via geometrical symmetry breaking. The presence of the multiple higher order plasmon modes provides the means for producing multi-bi- or tri-stability in the response of the resonator when it is loaded with a material with Kerr nonlinearity. The multi-stability in the response of the proposed resonator enables its use in three-state all optical memory and switching applications. © 2013 IEEE.
Wang, Tianyang; Chu, Fulei; Han, Qinkai
2017-03-01
Identifying the differences between the spectra or envelope spectra of a faulty signal and a healthy baseline signal is an efficient planetary gearbox local fault detection strategy. However, causes other than local faults can also generate the characteristic frequency of a ring gear fault; this may further affect the detection of a local fault. To address this issue, a new filtering algorithm based on the meshing resonance phenomenon is proposed. In detail, the raw signal is first decomposed into different frequency bands and levels. Then, a new meshing index and an MRgram are constructed to determine which bands belong to the meshing resonance frequency band. Furthermore, an optimal filter band is selected from this MRgram. Finally, the ring gear fault can be detected according to the envelope spectrum of the band-pass filtering result.
Tissue culture system using a PANDA ring resonator and wavelength router for hydroponic plant.
Kamoldilok, Surachart; Suwanpayak, Nathaporn; Suttirak, Saisudawan; Yupapin, Preecha P
2012-06-01
A novel system of nanofluidics trapping and delivery, which is known as a tissue culture system is proposed. By using the intense optical pulse(i.e., a soliton pulse) and a system constructed by a liquid core waveguide, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated, where the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers in the PANDA ring resonator can be formed. By controlling the suitable parameters, the intense optical vortices can be generated within the PANDA ring resonator, in which the nanofluidics can be trapped and moved (transported) dynamically within the Tissue culture system(a wavelength router), which can be used for tissue culture and delivery in the hydroponic plant system.
Tunable Plasmonic Band-Pass Filter with Dual Side-Coupled Circular Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongdong Liu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A wavelength band-pass filter with asymmetric dual circular ring resonators in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM structure is proposed and numerically simulated. For the interaction of the local discrete state and the continuous spectrum caused by the side-coupled resonators and the baffle, respectively, the transmission spectrum exhibits a sharp and asymmetric profile. By adjusting the radius and material imbedded in one ring cavity, the off-to-on plasmon-induced absorption (PIA optical response can be tunable achieved. In addition, the structure can be easily extended to other similar compact structures to realize the filtering task. Our structures have important potential applications for filters and sensors at visible and near-infrared regions.
Novel ultrasound detector based on small slot micro-ring resonator with ultrahigh Q factor
Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Jian; He, Sailing
2017-01-01
An ultrasound detector based on a novel slot micro-ring resonator (SMRR) with ultrahigh Q factor and small size is proposed in this study. The theoretical Q factor of SMRR can be approximately 8.34×108 with bending radius of merely 12 μm. The ultrahigh Q factor leads to an enhanced sensitivity that is approximately two orders of that of state-of-the-art ultrasound detector based on polymer micro-ring resonator. Moreover, the 3 dB bandwidth of the ultrasound detector is approximately 540 MHz, thereby leading to an ultrahigh axial resolution of 1.2 μm. The proposed detector is also CMOS compatible and can be easily and extensively integrated to be maximized in photoacoustic microscopy.
Spin-orbital interaction of photons and fine splitting of levels in ring dielectric resonator
Bliokh, K Y
2004-01-01
We consider eigen modes of a ring resonator made of a circular dielectric waveguide. Taking into account the polarization corrections, which are responsible for the interaction of polarization and orbital properties of electromagnetic waves (spin-orbital interaction of photons), results in fine splitting of the levels of scalar approximation. The basic features of this fine structure of the levels are quite similar to that of electron levels in an atom. Namely: 1) sublevels of the fine structure are defined by an additional quantum number: product of helicity of the wave and its orbital moment; 2) each level of the scalar approximation splits into N sublevels (N is the principal quantum number); 3) each level of the fine structure remains twice degenerated due to local axial symmetry of the waveguide. Numerical estimations show that the described fine splitting of levels may be observed in optic-fiber ring resonators.
Self-generation of dissipative solitons in magnonic quasicrystal active ring resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grishin, S. V., E-mail: grishfam@sgu.ru; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation)
2014-02-07
Self-generation of dissipative solitons in the magnonic quasicrystal (MQC) active ring resonator is studied theoretically and experimentally. The developed magnonic crystal has quasiperiodic Fibonacci type structure. Frequency selectivity of the MQC together with the parametric three-wave decay of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) leads to the dissipative soliton self-generation. The transfer matrix method is used to describe MQC transmission responses. Besides, the model of MQC active ring resonator is suggested. The model includes three coupled differential equations describing the parametric decay of MSSW and two differential equations of linear oscillators describing the frequency selectivity of MQC. Numerical simulation results of dissipative soliton self-generation are in a fair agreement with experimental data.
Topological phononic states of underwater sound based on coupled ring resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Cheng; Li, Zheng; Ni, Xu; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Yu, Si-Yuan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lu, Ming-Hui, E-mail: luminghui@nju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Yan-Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2016-01-18
We report a design of topological phononic states for underwater sound using arrays of acoustic coupled ring resonators. In each individual ring resonator, two degenerate acoustic modes, corresponding to clockwise and counter-clockwise propagation, are treated as opposite pseudospins. The gapless edge states arise in the bandgap resulting in protected pseudospin-dependent sound transportation, which is a phononic analogue of the quantum spin Hall effect. We also investigate the robustness of the topological sound state, suggesting that the observed pseudospin-dependent sound transportation remains unless the introduced defects facilitate coupling between the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes (in other words, the original mode degeneracy is broken). The topological engineering of sound transportation will certainly promise unique design for next generation of acoustic devices in sound guiding and switching, especially for underwater acoustic devices.
Wu, Yaw-Dong; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Lee, Jian-Jang
2009-11-01
In this paper, we proposed the design of directional coupler integrated with ring resonator based on two-dimensional photonic crystals (2D PCs) to develop a triplexer filter. It can be widely used as the fiber access network element for multiplexer-demultiplexer wavelength selective in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) communication systems. The directional coupler is chosen to separate the wavelengths of 1490nm and 1310nm. The ring resonator separates the wavelength of 1550nm. The transmission efficiency is larger than 90%. Besides, the total size of propose triplexer is only 19μm×12μm. We present simulation results using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the proposed structure.
Mahmudin, D.; Estu, T. T.; Fathnan, A. A.; Maulana, Y. Y.; Daud, P.; Sugandhi, G.; Wijayanto, Y. N.
2016-11-01
Optical filter is very important components in WDM network. MRR is a basic structure to design the optical filter because of easy to design for improving its performance. This paper discusses an innovative structure of the MRR, which is Triple Coupler Ring Resonators (TCRR) for optical filter applications. Values of width between bus and ring and values of radius of the ring in the structure TCRR were analyzed and optimized for several variations for obtaining coupling coefficient values. Therefore, wide Free Spectral Range (FSR) and high crosstalk suppression bandwidth can be obtained. As results, at the optimized width of gap of 100 nm and the optimized radiation of 8 μm, FSR of 2.85 THz and crosstalk suppression bandwidth of 60 GHz were achieved. Based on the results, this structure can be used for filtering optical signals in optical fiber communication.
Wang, Yonghua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Zengxing; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Wendong; Yan, Shubin
2016-12-01
The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical ways has shown great potential in optical delay and quantum-information technology due to its flexible design and easy implementation. The chief drawback for these devices is the bad tunability. Here we demonstrate a tunable optical transparency system formed by graphene-silicon microrings which could control the transparent window by electro-optical means. The device consists of cascaded coupled ring resonators and a graphene/graphene capacitor which integrated on one of the rings. By tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheets, we can modulate the round-trip ring loss so that the transparency window can be dynamically tuned. The results provide a new method for the manipulation and transmission of light in highly integrated optical circuits and quantum information storage devices.
Stable and wavelength-tunable silicon-micro-ring-resonator based erbium-doped fiber laser.
Yang, L G; Yeh, C H; Wong, C Y; Chow, C W; Tseng, F G; Tsang, H K
2013-02-11
In this work, we propose and demonstrate a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser. Here, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based silicon-micro-ring-resonator (SMRR) is used as the wavelength selective element inside the fiber ring cavity. A uniform period grating coupler (GC) is used to couple between the SMRR and single mode fiber (SMF) and serves also as a polarization dependent element in the cavity. The output lasing wavelength of the proposed fiber laser can be tuned at a tuning step of 2 nm (defined by the free spectral range (FSR) of the SMRR) in a bandwidth of 35.2 nm (1532.00 to 1567.20 nm), which is defined by the gain of the EDF. The optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) of each lasing wavelength is larger than 42.0 dB. In addition, the output stabilities of power and wavelength are also discussed.
Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity
Decker, M; Soukoulis, C M; Linden, S; Wegener, M
2010-01-01
Coupled split-ring-resonator metamaterials have previously been shown to exhibit large coupling effects, which are a prerequisite for obtaining large effective optical activity. By a suitable lateral arrangement of these building blocks, we completely eliminate linear birefringence and obtain pure optical activity and connected circular optical dichroism. Experiments at around 100-THz frequency and corresponding modeling are in good agreement. Rotation angles of about 30 degrees for 205nm sample thickness are derived.
Optical Switching in Silicon Nanowaveguide Ring Resonators Based on Kerr Effect and TPA Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Chun-Fei; DOU Na
2009-01-01
We analyze theoretically the 1 × 2 low-power all-optical switching in silicon nanowaveguide ring resonators (RR) based on the Kerr effect and two-photon absorption (TPA), and give a comparison between both the all-optical switches. The calculation shows that the switching power of the TPA-RR switch is 3 orders smaller than that of the Kerr-RR switch. The switching time for both the switches is about 100ps.
Dispersion engineered high-Q silicon Nitride Ring-Resonators via Atomic Layer Deposition
Riemensberger, Johann; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J
2012-01-01
We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. All results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.
Measurement of nonlinear elastic response in rock by the resonant bar method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, P.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rasolofosaon, P.; Zinszner, B. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)
1993-04-01
In this work we are studying the behavior of the fundamental (Young`s) mode resonant peak as a function of drive amplitude in rock samples. Our goal from these studies is to obtain nonlinear moduli for many rock types, and to study the nonlinear moduli as a function of water saturation and other changes in physical properties. Measurements were made on seven different room dry rock samples. For one sample measurements were taken at 16 saturation levels between 1 and 98%. All samples display a ``softening`` nonlinearity, that is, the resonant frequency shifts downward with increasing drive amplitude. In extreme cases, the resonant frequency changes by as much as 25% over a strain interval of 10{sup {minus}7} to {approximately}4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. Measurements indicate that the nonlinear response is extremely sensitive to saturation. Estimates of a combined cubic and quartic nonlinear parameter {Gamma} range from approximately {minus}300 to {minus}10{sup 9} for the rock samples.
Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Sun
2015-11-01
Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper, which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required.
Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in a storage ring
Kristensen, M.; Hangst, J. S.; Jessen, P. S.; Nielsen, J. S.; Poulsen, O.; Shi, P.
1992-10-01
Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy of the hyperfine transition between F''=0 and F'=1 in the metastable 3S1 state of 6Li+ was performed in 100-keV beam in the storage ring ASTRID. High efficiency of optical pumping was demonstrated for complex pumping schemes. A broadband (dc-6 GHz) rf device was designed and used for rf spectroscopy in the storage ring. The possibility of obtaining coherent rf signals (Ramsey fringes) from successive interactions with the same field was investigated. Important limitations for the coherences due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities were observed. These led to randomization of the atomic polarization during only one turn in the storage ring and completely prevented observation of Ramsey fringes. This situation is different from the case of fundamental particles in a storage ring, where the polarization may be preserved for many round-trips. Limits were put on the demands to beam quality, beam positioning, and magnetic-field quality to overcome the problem. The effects of the rf device on the external degrees of freedom of the ion beam were investigated. Its small aperture substantially reduced the beam lifetime, and at very low rf frequencies the electric field in the rf device was able to excite external transverse resonances in the beam.
A new nonlinear model for analyzing the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators
Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.
2016-09-01
The present study develops a new size-dependent nonlinear model for the analysis of the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators. In particular, based on modified couple stress theory, the fully nonlinear equations of motion of the carbon nanotube-based resonator are derived using Hamilton's principle, taking into account both the longitudinal and transverse displacements. Molecular dynamics simulation is then performed in order to verify the validity of the developed size-dependent continuum model at the nano scale. The nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the system are discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to examine the nonlinear resonant behaviour of the carbon nanotube-based resonator. A new universal pull-in formula is also developed for predicting the occurrence of the static pull-in and validated using numerical simulations.
Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.
Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-12-08
We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America
Tang, Jianwei; He, Sailing
2013-10-07
We derive an analytical LC model from Maxwell's equations for the magnetic resonance of subwavelength ring resonators. Using the LC model, we revisit the scaling of split-ring resonators. Inspired by the LC model, we propose a hybrid metal-dielectric ring resonator mainly composed of high index dielectric material (e.g., TiO₂) with some gaps filled with metal (e.g., Ag). The saturation frequency of magnetic response for the hybrid metal-dielectric ring resonator is much higher (up to the ultraviolet range) than that for split-ring resonators, and can be controlled by the metal fraction in the ring. The hybrid metal-dielectric ring resonator can also overcome the homogenization problem of all-dielectric magnetic resonators, and therefore can form homogenizable magnetic metamaterials at short wavelengths down to the ultraviolet range.
Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A
2012-09-28
: The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum.
Aurélien, Crida; El Moutamid, Maryame
2017-06-01
Janus and Epimetheus orbit Saturn at 151461 km on average, on mutual horseshoe orbits with orbital separation 50 km, exchanging position every 4 years. This configuration is unique and intriguing : Lissauer et al. (1985) have shown that their orbital separation should converge to zero in about 20 Myrs only, and no satisfactory model for the origin of this co-orbital resonance exists yet. Charnoz et al. (2010) have shown that Janus and Epimetheus probably formed from the spreading of the rings beyond the Roche radius. Here, we study this phenomenon in the frame of the elliptical restricted 3-body problem, where ring particles are perturbed by the 2:3 mean motion resonances with the outer satellite Mimas.Two types of resonances play different roles. The Lindblad resonance (LR) confines the rings radially, and prevents their spreading (like the B-ring into the Cassini division). The Corotation resonance (CR) confines the rings azimuthally in two capture sites (akin Neptune's arcs). Because of Saturn's J_2, the CR is 130 km closer to Saturn than the LR. A few hundred million years ago, the 2:3 mean motion resonances with Mimas were just inside the Roche radius ; hence the rings could not spread and the two capture sites were full of ring material. When Mimas migrated outwards so that its 2:3 mean motion resonances receded past the Roche radius, the captured material agglomerated into two bodies of ~10^{15} kg on the exact same orbit. These bodies then migrated outwards together due to their interaction with the rings, in mutual horseshoe orbits. The rings then spawn new small satellites, eventually accreted by the proto-Janus and the proto-Epimetheus following the pyramidal regime of the ring spreading model (Crida & Charnoz 2012). The two bodies then grow in mass following a Fibonacci sequence, and this excites their orbital separation, leading to a configuration close to the present one.
On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators.
Shopova, Siyka I; White, Ian M; Sun, Yuze; Zhu, Hongying; Fan, Xudong; Frye-Mason, Greg; Thompson, Aaron; Ja, Shiou-jyh
2008-03-15
We developed a novel on-column micro gas chromatography (microGC) detector using capillary based optical ring resonators (CBORRs). The CBORR is a thin-walled fused silica capillary with an inner diameter ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds of micrometers. The interior surface of the CBORR is coated with a layer of stationary phase for gas separation. The circular cross section of the CBORR forms a ring resonator and supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that circulate along the ring resonator circumference hundreds of times. The evanescent field extends into the core and is sensitive to the refractive index change induced by the interaction between the gas sample and the stationary phase. The WGM can be excited and monitored at any location along the CBORR by placing a tapered optical fiber against the CBORR, thus enabling on-column real-time detection. Rapid separation of both polar and nonpolar samples was demonstrated with subsecond detection speed. Theoretical work was also established to explain the CBORR detection mechanism. While low-nanogram detection limits are observed in these preliminary tests, many methods for improvements are under investigation. The CBORR is directly compatible with traditional capillary GC columns without any dead volumes. Therefore, the CBORR-based muGC is a very promising technology platform for rapid, sensitive, and portable analytical devices.
Molecular buffer using a PANDA ring resonator for drug delivery use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Suwanpayak
2011-03-01
Full Text Available N Suwanpayak1, MA Jalil2, MS Aziz3, J Ali3, PP Yupapin11Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N’SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies (IIS, 3Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universitiy Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, MalaysiaAbstract: A novel design of molecular buffer for molecule storage and delivery using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. The optical vortices can be generated and controlled to form the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers. In theory, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which is reviewed. By using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator, the required molecules can be trapped and moved (transported dynamically within the wavelength router or network, ie, a molecular buffer. This can be performed within the wavelength router before reaching the required destination. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system, which is available for molecule storage and transportation.Keywords: molecular buffer, molecular memory, molecular transceiver, molecular repeater, PANDA ring resonator
Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya
2011-10-10
We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.
Gumber, Sukirti; Gambhir, Monica; Jha, Pradip Kumar; Mohan, Man
2016-10-01
We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in χ(3) is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byers, Loren W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-06-28
Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.
Tunable filters based on an SOI nano-wire waveguide micro ring resonator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Shuai; Wu Yuanda; Yin Xiaojie; An Junming; Li Jianguang; Wang Hongjie; Hu Xiongwei
2011-01-01
Micro ring resonator (MRR) filters based on a silicon on insulator (SOI) nanowire waveguide are fabricated by electron beam photolithography (EBL) and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology.The cross-section size of the strip waveguides is 450 × 220 nm2,and the bending radius of the micro ring is around 5μm.The test results from the tunable filter based on a single ring show that the free spectral range (FSR) is 16.8 nm and the extinction ratio (ER) around the wavelength 1550 nm is 18.1 dB.After thermal tuning,the filter's tuning bandwidth reaches 4.8 nm with a tuning efficiency of 0.12 nm/℃ Meanwhile,we fabricated and studied multi-channel filters based on a single ring and a double ring.After measurement,we drew the following conclusions:during the signal transmission of multi-channel filters,crosstalk exists mainly among different transmission channels and are fairly distinct when there are signals input to add ports.
Yang, X; Li, Z; Tangdiongga, E; Lenstra, D; Khoe, G; Dorren, H
2004-05-31
We demonstrate the generation of sub-picosecond optical pulses using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a linear polarizer placed in a ring-laser configuration. Nonlinear polarization rotation in the SOA serves as the passive mode-locking mechanism. The ring cavity generates pulses with duration below 800 fs (FWHM) at a repetition rate of 14 MHz. The time -bandwidth product is 0.48. Simulation results in good agreement with the experimental results are presented.
Modeling of racetrack-resonator add-drop filters with arbitrary nonlinear directional couplers.
Gómez-Alcalá, Rafael; Fraile-Peláez, F Javier; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Díaz-Otero, Francisco J
2012-06-01
In this Letter we employ the general coupled-mode equations of the nonlinear directional coupler and demonstrate that the switching characteristics of prototypical nonlinear racetrack-resonator structures may differ considerably from those obtained when the standard, generally incorrect, coupled-mode equations are used.
E Heebner, John; Boyd, Robert W; Park, Q-Han
2002-03-01
We describe an optical transmission line that consists of an array of wavelength-scale optical disk resonators coupled to an optical waveguide. Such a structure leads to exotic optical characteristics, including ultraslow group velocities of propagation, enhanced optical nonlinearities, and large dispersion with a controllable magnitude and sign. This device supports soliton propagation, which can be described by a generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation.
Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou
2017-04-01
We theoretically investigate the nonlinear effects of acoustic wave propagation and dispersion in a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged Helmholtz resonators. By using the classical perturbation method in nonlinear acoustics and considering a nonlinear response up to the third-order at the fundamental frequency, the expressions of the nonlinear impedance ZNHR of the Helmholtz resonator and effective nonlinear bulk modulus Bneff of the composite structure are derived. In order to confirm the nonlinear properties of the acoustic metamaterial, the transmission spectra have been studied by means of the acoustic transmission line method. Moreover, we calculate the effective acoustic impedance and dispersion relation of the system using the acoustic impedance theory and Bloch theory, respectively. It is found that with the increment of the incident acoustic pressure level, owing to the nonlinearity of the Helmholtz resonators, the resonant frequency ω0 shifts toward the lower frequency side and the forbidden bandgap of the transmission spectrum is shown to be broadened. The perturbation method employed in this paper extends the general analytical framework for a nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.
Long wave-short wave resonance in nonlinear negative refractive index media.
Chowdhury, Aref; Tataronis, John A
2008-04-18
We show that long wave-short wave resonance can be achieved in a second-order nonlinear negative refractive index medium when the short wave lies on the negative index branch. With the medium exhibiting a second-order nonlinear susceptibility, a number of nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves, paired solitons, and periodic wave trains are possible or enhanced through the cascaded second-order effect. Potential applications include the generation of terahertz waves from optical pulses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao, E-mail: wzc@scnu.edu.cn; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng
2016-01-08
We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.
Brillouin/Raman compensation of the Kerr-effect-induced bias in a nonlinear ring laser gyroscope.
Luo, Zhang; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhihong; Liu, Ken; Ye, Weimin; Zeng, Chun; Ji, Jiarong
2013-04-01
In this Letter, the beat frequency at rest of a ring laser gyroscope with nonlinear effects is discussed in detail. Even without an additional intensity-stabilizing system, the random nullshift bias induced by the Kerr effect is compensated by the phase shift associated with the stimulated Brillouin/Raman scattering. And the nonlinear stimulated scattering also serves as the gain mechanism of the gyroscope. And thus the influence of the fluctuation of the injected pump intensity on the beat frequency is eliminated.
Self-induced light trapping in nonlinear Fabry-Perot resonators
Pichugin, K. N.; Sadreev, A. F.
2016-10-01
In the framework of the coupled mode theory we consider light trapping between two off-channel resonators which serve as self-adjusted Fano mirrors due to the Kerr effect. By inserting an auxiliary nonlinear resonator between the mirrors we achieve self-tuning of phase shift between the mirrors. That allows for the light trapping for arbitrary distance between the mirrors.
Influence of resonator shape on nonlinear acoustic field in a thermoacoustic engine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Danxiao; ZHOU Chengguang; LIU Ke
2012-01-01
The influence of the resonator shape on nonlinear acoustic field in a thermoacous- tic engine is studied. The resonator of themoacoustic engine is boundary driving by a piston at one end, and the other end of it is rigid closed. A one-dimensional wave equation that accounts for gas dynamic nonlinearities and viscous dissipation in the resonator is established based on the governing equations of viscous hydromechanics. The nonlinear wave equation is solved using approximate Galerkin method. The nonlinear acoustic field in four different types of shaped resonators including hyperbolical, exponential, conical and sinusoidal are obtained and compared with that of a cylindrical resonator. It is found that the amplitude and wave- form of the pressure are strongly affected by the resonator shape, the driving amplitude and the oscillation frequency of the piston. Waveform distortion, resonance frequency shift and hysteresis are observed, when the piston oscillation amplitude is large enough. The advantages of shaped resonator for thermoacoustic engine lie in inhibition of higher order harmonics and improvement of pressure ratio, etc.
Coherent perfect absorption induced by the nonlinearity of a Helmholtz resonator.
Achilleos, V; Richoux, O; Theocharis, G
2016-07-01
In this work, coherent perfect absorption of sound waves induced by the nonlinear response of a Helmholtz Resonator side loaded to a waveguide, is reported. It is shown that this two-port system can perfectly absorb two high amplitude symmetric incident waves under a certain condition. For the one-sided incidence configuration, this condition leads to an absorption equal to 0.5. Experiments verify these results and are in agreement with an analytical nonlinear impedance model for the resonator. The nonlinear control of perfect absorption opens new possibilities in the design of high amplitude sound attenuators for aero-engine applications.
NERO: a code for the nonlinear evaluation of resonances in one-turn mappings
Todesco, E.; Gemmi, M.; Giovannozzi, M.
1997-10-01
We describe a code that evaluates the stability, the position and the width of resonances in four-dimensional symplectic mappings. The code is based on the computation of the resonant perturbative series through the program ARES, and on the analysis of the resonant orbits of the interpolating Hamiltonian. The code is dedicated to the study and to the comparison of the nonlinear behaviour in one-turn betatronic maps.
1:2 INTERNAL RESONANCE OF COUPLED DYNAMIC SYSTEM WITH QUADRATIC AND CUBIC NONLINEARITIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈予恕; 杨彩霞; 吴志强; 陈芳启
2001-01-01
The 1:2 internal resonance of coupled dynamic system with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities is studied. The normal forms of this system in 1: 2 internal resonance were derived by using the direct method of normal form. In the normal forms, quadratic and cubic nonlinearities were remained. Based on a new convenient transformation technique, the 4-dimension bifurcation equations were reduced to 3-dimension. A bifurcation equation with one-dimension was obtained. Then the bifurcation behaviors of a universal unfolding were studied by using the singularity theory. The method of this paper can be applied to analyze the bifurcation behavior in strong internal resonance on 4-dimension center manifolds.
Nonlinear interaction of two trapped-mode resonances in a bilayer "fish-scale" metamaterial
Tuz, Vladimir R; Mladyonov, Pavel L; Prosvirnin, Sergey L; Novitsky, Andrey V
2014-01-01
We report on a bistable light transmission through a bilayer "fish-scale" (meander-line) metamaterial. It is demonstrated that an all-optical switching may be achieved nearly the frequency of the high-quality-factor Fano-shaped trapped-mode resonance excitation. The nonlinear interaction of two closely spaced trapped-mode resonances in the bilayer structure composed with a Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric slab is analyzed in both frequency and time domains. It is demonstrated that these two resonances react differently on the applied intense light which leads to destination of a multistable transmission.
Laser-Machined Ultra-High-Q Microrod Resonators for Nonlinear Optics
Del'Haye, Pascal; Papp, Scott B
2013-01-01
Optical whispering-gallery microresonators are useful tools in microphotonics, and nonlinear optics at very low threshold powers. Here, we present details about the fabrication of ultra-high-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonators made by CO2-laser lathe machining of fused-quartz rods. The resonators can be fabricated in less than one minute and the obtained optical quality factors exceed Q = 10^9. Demonstrated resonator diameters are in the range between 170 {\\mu}m and 8 mm (free spectral ranges between 390 GHz and 8 GHz). Using these microresonators, a variety of optical nonlinearities are observed, including Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing.
Tunable plasmon resonance in the nanobars and split ring resonator(SRR) composite structure
Xu, Haiqing; Li, Hongjian; Xiao, Gang; Chen, Qiao
2016-10-01
We have proposed a multi-band metamaterials composed of bars and planer SRR. There are three sharp peaks in the transmission spectra in the visible and near-infrared region, we find that the transmission spectra are highly tunable as the coupling and geometric parameters modifying, especially the third peak in the near-infrared region. When the gap distance between the two nanobar g1<14 nm, the original first peak will split, a new dip and peak will exist, which is results from the high-order plasmon resonance. When introducing asymmetry to the planer SRR, a new sharp peak accompany with a new sharp dip exists in the original second peak, which is originated from the strong electric field resonance. We also find that the proposed structures with sensing sensitivity of ~467 nm/RIU, which can be used for plasmonic sensor.
Vukovic, N.; Healy, N.; Suhailin, F. H.; Mehta, P.; Day, T. D.; Badding, J. V.; Peacock, A. C.
2013-10-01
Microresonators are ideal systems for probing nonlinear phenomena at low thresholds due to their small mode volumes and high quality (Q) factors. As such, they have found use both for fundamental studies of light-matter interactions as well as for applications in areas ranging from telecommunications to medicine. In particular, semiconductor-based resonators with large Kerr nonlinearities have great potential for high speed, low power all-optical processing. Here we present experiments to characterize the size of the Kerr induced resonance wavelength shifting in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonator and demonstrate its potential for ultrafast all-optical modulation and switching. Large wavelength shifts are observed for low pump powers due to the high nonlinearity of the amorphous silicon material and the strong mode confinement in the microcylindrical resonator. The threshold energy for switching is less than a picojoule, representing a significant step towards advantageous low power silicon-based photonic technologies.
Collective resonances of atomic xenon from the linear to the nonlinear regime
Chen, Yi-Jen; Santra, Robin
2016-01-01
We explain the origin of the two collective sub-resonances of the $4d$ giant dipole resonance of atomic Xe recently discovered by nonlinear spectroscopy. In the case of one-photon absorption, while a change in the resonant-like feature in the cross section upon the inclusion of electronic correlations has been commonly attributed to a change of the resonance parameters of a single resonance state, we show that this modification is a result of switching between the relative visibilities of the underlying resonance states. In addition, we predict hitherto undiscovered collective $4d$ resonance states in Xe that can only be accessed through multiphoton absorption. Unlike any known collective feature in atoms, these resonances are exceptionally long-lived (more than 100 attoseconds), thus opening up possibilities to probe new collective effects in atoms with modern XUV light sources.
Surpassing Fundamental Limits of Oscillators Using Nonlinear Resonators
Villanueva, L. G.; Kenig, E.; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.; Lifshitz, R; Cross, M. C.; Roukes, M. L.
2013-01-01
Self-sustained oscillators are ubiquitous and essential for metrology, communications, time reference, and geolocation. In its most basic form an oscillator consists of a resonator driven on-resonance, through feedback, to create a periodic signal sustained by a static energy source. The generation of a stable frequency, the basic function of oscillators, is typically achieved by increasing the amplitude of motion of the resonator while remaining within its linear, harmonic, regime. Contrary ...
Plasmon resonance enhancement of nonlinear properties of amino acids
de Araujo, Renato E.; Rativa, Diego; Gomes, Anderson S. L.
2007-02-01
Here we analyze the influence of 9 nm (mean diameter) silver particles on the nonlinear properties of intrinsic cell molecules. A novel high sensitivity thermal managed eclipse Z-scan technique with a femtosecond laser system was used to analyze the nonlinear susceptibility of water solution of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amino acids (Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, Proline and Histidine) with different concentration of silver nanoparticles. The generalized Maxwell Garnett model is used to explain the behavior of the measured nonlinear refractive index with the change of the nanoparticles concentration in the sample.
Zhu, H.; Shan, G. C.; Shek, C. H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.
2012-07-01
The frequency response of a single crystal silicon resonator under nonlinear vibration is investigated and related to the shear property of the material. The shear stress-strain relation of bulk silicon is studied using a first-principles approach. By incorporating the calculated shear property into a device-level model, our simulation closely predicts the frequency response of the device obtained by experiments and further captures the nonlinear features. These results indicate that the observed nonlinearity stems from the material's mechanical property. Given the high quality factor (Q) of the device reported here (˜2 × 106), this makes it highly susceptible to such mechanical nonlinear effects.
Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferran Martín
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this review paper, several strategies for the implementation of reconfigurable split ring resonators (SRRs based on RF-MEMS switches are presented. Essentially three types of RF-MEMS combined with split rings are considered: (i bridge-type RF-MEMS on top of complementary split ring resonators CSRRs; (ii cantilever-type RF-MEMS on top of SRRs; and (iii cantilever-type RF-MEMS integrated with SRRs (or RF-MEMS SRRs. Advantages and limitations of these different configurations from the point of view of their potential applications for reconfigurable stopband filter design are discussed, and several prototype devices are presented.
Tofighi, Sara; Farshemi, Somayeh Safari; Sajjad, Batool; Shahshahani, Fatemeh; Bahrampour, Ali Reza
2012-10-10
In this paper we study the optical bistability in a double coupler fiber ring resonator which consists of an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in half part of the fiber ring and a quantum dot doped fiber (QDF) saturable absorber in the other half. The bistability is provided by the QDF section of the ring resonator. The EDFA is employed to reduce the switching power. The transmitted and reflected bistability characteristics are investigated. It is shown that the switching power for this new bistable device is less than 10 mW.
Nonlinear resonances of three modes in a high-T{sub c} superconducting magnetic levitation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasaki, Masahiko, E-mail: galian@z2.keio.jp; Sakaguchi, Ryunosuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@mach.keio.ac.jp
2013-11-15
Highlights: •We studied two nonlinear vibrations of a levitated beam supported by superconductors. •One of the vibrations is combination resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. •The other vibration is autoparametric resonance of the 2nd mode. •When the amplitude of the 2nd mode is small, the combination resonance is suppressed. •Otherwise, the two resonances can be resonated simultaneously. -- Abstract: In a high-T{sub c} superconducting magnetic levitation system, an object can levitate without control and contact. So it is expected to be applied to magnetically levitated transportation. To use it safely, lightening the levitated object is necessary. But this reduces the bending stiffness of the object. Besides, the system has nonlinearity. Therefore nonlinear elastic vibration can occur. This study focused on how plural nonlinear elastic vibrations of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd modes simultaneously occur. Our numerical calculation and experiment found out that the three modes simultaneously resonate when the amplitude of the 2nd mode is large enough whereas only the 2nd mode resonates when it is small.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adolf, D.
1997-11-01
Butyl rubber, unfortunately, has pronounced nonlinear viscoelastic behavior, which may be modelled by a separable KBKZ formalism. While these effects seem to have minimal impact on accelerated sealing force measurements, they do severely impact compression set tests. Therefore, a new test is suggested for evaluating field-return o-rings which is free from such confounding effects.
Matsas, V J; Richardson, D J; Newson, T P; Payne, D N
1993-03-01
A full characterization of a self-starting, passively mode-locked soliton ring fiber laser in terms of its various modes of mode-locked operation, cavity length, and type of fiber used is presented. Direct evidence, based on state-of-polarization measurements, that nonlinear polarization evolution is the responsible mode-locking mechanism is also given.
Yang, Yong; Kasumie, Sho; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2016-01-01
In whispering gallery mode resonator sensing applications, the conventional way to detect a change in the parameter to be measured is by observing the steady state transmission spectrum through the coupling waveguide. Alternatively, cavity ring-up spectroscopy (CRUS) sensing can be achieved transiently. In this work, we investigate CRUS using coupled mode equations and find analytical solutions with a large spectral broadening approximation of the input pulse. The relationships between the frequency detuning, coupling gap and ring-up peak height are determined and experimentally verified using an ultrahigh \\textit{Q}-factor silica microsphere. This work shows that distinctive dispersive and dissipative transient sensing can be realised by simply measuring the peak height of the CRUS signal, which might improve the data collection rate.
Jiang, Xianxin; Tang, Longhua; Song, Jinyan; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun
2014-03-01
Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been extensively investigated owing to its various advantages and many potential applications. In this article, we demonstrate a novel highly sensitive biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and ring resonator with the Vernier effect using wavelength interrogation. The experimental results show that the sensitivity reached 1,960 nm/RIU and 19,100 nm/RIU for sensors based on MZI alone and cascaded MZI-ring with Vernier effect, respectively. A biosensing application was also demonstrated by monitoring the interaction between goat and antigoat immunoglobulin G (IgG) pairs. This integrated high sensitivity biosensor has great potential for medical diagnostic applications.
Abdelrehim, Adel A. A.; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H.
2016-09-01
In this paper, three dimensional periodic structure composed of circular split ring resonators and thin wires is used to improve the performance of a microstrip patch antenna. The three dimensional periodic structure is placed at the top of the patch within a specific separation distance to construct the proposed antenna. The radiated electromagnetic waves intensity of the proposed antenna is improved compared with the conventional patch antenna due to the electric and magnetic coupling enhancements. These enhancements occur between the patch and the periodic structure resonators and between the different resonator pairs of the periodic structure. As a result, the electric and the magnetic fields at the top of the patch are improved, the radiated electromagnetic beam size reduces which results in a highly focused beam and hence the antenna directivity and gain are improved, while the beam are is reduced. The proposed antenna has been designed and simulated using CST microwave studio at 10 GHz. An infinite two dimensional periodicity unit cell of circular split ring resonator and thin wire is designed to resonate at a 10 GHz and simulated in CST software, the scattering parameters are extracted, the results showed that the infinite periodicity two dimensional structure has a pass band frequency response of good transmission and reflection characteristics around 10 GHz. The infinite periodicity of the two dimensional periodic structure is then truncated and multi layers of such truncated structure is used to construct a three dimensional periodic structure. A parametric analysis has been performed on the proposed antenna incorporated with the three dimensional periodic structure. The impacts of the separation distance between the patch and three dimensional periodic structures and the size of the three dimensional periodic structure on the radiation and impedance matching parameters of the proposed antenna are studied. For experimental verification, the proposed
Lost in Jupiter's Shadow: Can Resonant Charge Variations Explain Dust Grain Sizes in the Main Ring?
Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Hamilton, D. P.
2012-10-01
Interplanetary impacts onto the tiny moons Metis and Adrastea replenish Jupiter's main ring with dusty ejecta of all sizes. The equilibrium size distribution present in the rings at a given time is a function of production and loss mechanisms, both of which may be vary with particle size. Loss mechanisms include collisions and dynamical processes. Here we explore some of the latter. Grains tend to pick up negative electric charges due to motion through Jupiter's plasma environment, and positive charges from the photoelectric effect of sunlight. The periodic interruption of sunlight in Jupiter's shadow causes the equilibrium electric charge, and hence the Lorentz force, to resonate with the Kepler orbital frequency. The eccentricity increases for grains moving radially inwards during the shadow transit, and decreases when grains move outward in the shadow, hence the azimuthal location of pericenter is important. For smaller grains, the eccentricity increases monotonically until they collide with Jupiter. For much larger grains, precession due to both the Lorentz force and planetary oblateness causes the eccentricity to oscillate periodically. We explore the shadow instability in the main ring for a variety of uniform plasma density models, comparing numerical data with a semi-analytic approximation. We find that the effect of the shadow dwindles in importance for plasma that is either too sparse or too dense. In sparse plasma, the charging timescale slows, limiting the change in electric potential from sunlight to shadow. In dense plasma, charging currents from the plasma overwhelm the photoelectric effect in sunlight, also resulting in a small change in electric potential. Between these two regimes, the shadow resonance efficiently removes grains up to a particular size threshold in the main ring. This size-dependent loss mechanism may contribute to the observed flattening in the size distribution index for smaller grains.
Mechanism of geometric nonlinearity in a nonprismatic and heterogeneous microbeam resonator
Asadi, Keivan; Li, Junfeng; Peshin, Snehan; Yeom, Junghoon; Cho, Hanna
2017-09-01
Implementation of geometric nonlinearity in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators offers a flexible and efficient design to overcome the limitations of linear MEMS by utilizing beneficial nonlinear characteristics not attainable in a linear setting. Integration of nonlinear coupling elements into an otherwise purely linear microcantilever is one promising way to intentionally realize geometric nonlinearity. Here, we demonstrate that a nonlinear, heterogeneous microresonator system, consisting of a silicon microcantilever with a polymer attachment exhibits strong nonlinear hardening behavior not only in the first flexural mode but also in the higher modes (i.e., second and third flexural modes). In this design, we deliberately implement a drastic and reversed change in the axial vs bending stiffness between the Si and polymer components by varying the geometric and material properties. By doing so, the resonant oscillations induce the large axial stretching within the polymer component, which effectively introduces the geometric stiffness and damping nonlinearity. The efficacy of the design and the mechanism of geometric nonlinearity are corroborated through a comprehensive experimental, analytical, and numerical (finite element) analysis on the nonlinear dynamics of the proposed system.
High efficiency perfluorocyclobutyl air-trench splitters for use in compact ring resonators
Rahmanian, Nazli
Planar lightwave circuits with higher integration, lower cost, and added functionality can reduce costs in optical network components. To facilitate large scale integration of planar lightwave circuits the size of their fundamental building blocks such as splitters and bends needs to be reduced. In this dissertation compact air trench splitters are demonstrated in perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers. To realize these high efficiency splitters we have developed a very high aspect ratio (18:1) anisotropic PFCB etch for submicron features using a CO/O2 etch chemistry in an inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). A low loss of 0.45 dB/splitter (90.1% efficiency) has been measured on splitters fabricated on silicon substrates. The etch process was successfully transferred to Ultem substrates to reduce the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between PFCB and silicon. An ultra-compact ring resonator was demonstrated in PFCB with a splitting ratio of 85% to 15% (85-15) air-trench splitters and air-trench bends. The ring resonator size is only 70 mum x 100 mum. Measurements show a 7.2 nm free spectral range (FSR) in agreement with 2-dimensional finite difference time domain (2-D FDTD) simulation results. A 1.8 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and ˜10 dB insertion loss for the drop port was measured. The source of loss is explained with comparison to analytical calculations and measurement results. The ring resonator size is reduced by a factor of 1700 compared to a traditionally designed RR in the same material system due to the size reduction provided by the air-trench splitters and bends.
A Crescent Shaped Split Ring Resonator to Form a New Metamaterial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nidal Abutahoun
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new planner metamaterial consisting of crescent shaped split ring resonator unit cells. The cell is composed of a crescent shaped strip over one face of a dielectric substrate, and an oblong over the second face. The cell is very thin and easy to fabricate. The transmission characteristics of the structure were obtained using High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS commercial software by ANSOFT. Then the effective material properties were retrieved. All the transmission characteristics and material properties were plotted to show the material behavior with frequency. The new metamaterial provides a double negative refractive index over a specific frequency band.
Aharonov-Bohm Oscillations and Fano Resonance of a Coupled Dot-Ring System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG Yong-Jian
2006-01-01
@@ We derive an exact expression for the transmission coefficient through an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a side-coupled quantum dot using the scattering-matrix approach. We show a sudden AB phase change by π as the quantum dot is tuned across the resonance. The Aharonov-Bohm oscillation amplitude can be modulated effectively by tuning the quantum dot level. The transmission coefficient has an expression of the generalized Fano form with a complex Fano parameter q in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm flux.
An efficient optical biochemical sensor based on a polyatomic photonic crystal ring resonator
Wang, Daobin; Liu, Yanjun; Yuan, Lihua; Lei, Jingli; Li, Xiaoxiao; wu, Gang; Hou, Shanglin
2016-08-01
In this paper, we introduce and investigate a design concept for a polyatomic photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). In contrast to conventional sensors, this PCRR comprises two different branching waveguides (WG), which are all oriented in the same lattice direction, but with different optical propagation properties due to the binary nature of the diatomic square lattice. Based on this new scheme, an on-chip biochemical sensor is proposed. Electromagnetic analysis, PWE and FDTD numerical techniques, were used to investigate the sensing performance. Our results show that such a sensor can efficiently detect small changes in the refractive index within the sensing area.
Ultra-Sensitive Chip-Based Photonic Temperature Sensor Using Ring Resonator Structures
Xu, Haitan; Fan, J; Taylor, J M; Strouse, G F; Ahmed, Zeeshan
2013-01-01
Resistance thermometry provides a time-tested method for taking temperature measurements. However, fundamental limits to resistance-based approaches has produced considerable interest in developing photonic temperature sensors to leverage advances in frequency metrology and to achieve greater mechanical and environmental stability. Here we show that silicon-based optical ring resonator devices can resolve temperature differences of 1 mK using the traditional wavelength scanning methodology. An even lower noise floor of 80 microkelvin for measuring temperature difference is achieved in the side-of-fringe, constant power mode measurement.
Brewster effect in metafilms composed of bi-anisotropic split-ring resonators
Tamayama, Yasuhiro
2015-01-01
The Brewster effect is extended to single-layer metafilms. In contrast to bulk media, the Brewster effect in metafilms can be realized by tailoring the radiation pattern of a distribution of meta-atoms rather than the effective medium parameters. A metafilm composed of bi-anisotropic split-ring resonators is designed based on the theory, and its characteristics are numerically analyzed. The simulation demonstrates that there exists a condition for which the polarization of the reflected wave becomes independent of the incident polarization at a particular angle of incidence.
Four-channel optical demultiplexer based on hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonators
Fallahi, Vahid; Seifouri, Mahmood; Olyaee, Saeed; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed
2017-08-01
In this paper, photonic crystal ring resonators with hexagonal lattice structure are used to design a four-channel optical demultiplexer. The structure size, the average transfer coefficient, the quality factor, and the channel spacing are equal to 424.5 µm2, 95.8%, 1943, and 2 nm, respectively. The average crosstalk is also computed to be -18.11 dB. In this study, the plane wave expansion (PWE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods are used, respectively, to characterize the photonic bandgap and to investigate the optical behavior of the structure. The proposed design can be used in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems.
Discovery of higher order modes in a cylindrical reentrant-ring cavity resonator
Fan, Y; Carvalho, N C; Floch, J-M Le; Shan, Q; Tobar, M E
2013-01-01
Rigorous analysis of the properties of resonant modes in a reentrant cavity structure comprising of a post and ring is undertaken and verified experimentally. In particular for the first time we show the existence of higher order reentrant cavity modes in such a structure. Results show this cavity has a better displacement sensitivity compared to the common fundamental mode in a reentrant cylindrical cavity with just a single post. Thus, this type of cavity has the potential to operate as a highly sensitive transducer for a variety of precision measurement applications.
High amplitude nonlinear acoustic wave driven flow fields in cylindrical and conical resonators.
Antao, Dion Savio; Farouk, Bakhtier
2013-08-01
A high fidelity computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the flow, pressure, and density fields generated in a cylindrical and a conical resonator by a vibrating end wall/piston producing high-amplitude standing waves. The waves in the conical resonator are found to be shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that exceed the initial undisturbed pressure by two to three times. A cylindrical (consonant) acoustic resonator has limitations to the output response observed at one end when the opposite end is acoustically excited. In the conical geometry (dissonant acoustic resonator) the linear acoustic input is converted to high energy un-shocked nonlinear acoustic output. The model is validated using past numerical results of standing waves in cylindrical resonators. The nonlinear nature of the harmonic response in the conical resonator system is further investigated for two different working fluids (carbon dioxide and argon) operating at various values of piston amplitude. The high amplitude nonlinear oscillations observed in the conical resonator can potentially enhance the performance of pulse tube thermoacoustic refrigerators and these conical resonators can be used as efficient mixers.
Electrically actuated MEMS resonators: Effects of fringing field and nonlinear viscoelasticity
Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2017-10-01
This paper studies the nonlinear electromechanical response of a MEMS resonator numerically. A nonlinear continuous multi-physics model of the MEMS resonator is developed taking into account the effects of fringing field, size, residual axial load, and viscoelasticity. Moreover, both longitudinal and transverse motions are accounted for in the system modelling and simulations. The equations of motion of the MEMS resonator are obtained employing Hamilton's principle together with the modified version of the couple stress based theory (to account for size effects) and the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear energy dissipation). The Meijs-Fokkema electrostatic load formula is used to reliably model the fringing field effects. The continuous multi-physics model, consisting of geometrical, electrical, and viscos nonlinearities is discretised via a weighted-residual method, yielding a set of nonlinearly coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant set of ODEs is solved numerically when the microresonator is actuated by a biased DC voltage and an AC voltage. The results of the numerical simulations are presented in the form of DC voltage-deflection, DC voltage-natural frequency, and AC frequency-displacement diagrams. The effects of fringing field, residual axial load, small-scale, and nonlinear energy dissipation are highlighted. It is shown that fringing field effects are significant on both static and dynamic electromechanical responses of the MEMS resonator.
Double-dark-resonance-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a single layer of graphene nanostructure
Solookinejad, Gh.; Panahi, M.; Ahmadi Sangachin, E.; Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed
2016-08-01
In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for the giant enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in a single layer of graphene nanostructure based on quantum optics and nonlinear optical sciences. The linear and the nonlinear susceptibility of the monolayer graphene system are presented in details by using the density matrix method and perturbation theory. After deriving the equations of motion in the steady-state regime, we analytically solve the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the system. Our numerical results show that the giant enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be obtained in the double-dark-resonance condition with zero linear and nonlinear absorption. Our results may have potential applications in quantum information science in infrared and terahertz regimes.
Frequency locking of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser to an external fiber Fabry-Perot resonator
Park, Namkyoo; Dawson, Jay W.; Vahala, Kerry J.
1993-01-01
An all-fiber, single-frequency, erbium-doped ring laser has been frequency locked to a resonance peak of an external fiber Fabry-Perot resonator by the Pound-Drever technique. In addition, feedback to the mode selection filter in the laser resonator eliminates occasional mode hopping completely, resulting in frequency-locked, stable, single-frequency operation of the laser for periods of several hours.
Broadband Metamaterial Reflectors for Polarization Manipulation Based on Cross/Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Zhang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We presented the investigation of broadband metamaterial reflector for polarization manipulation based on cross/ring resonators. It is demonstrated that the meta¬material reflector can convert the linearly polarized inci¬dent wave to its cross polarized wave or circularly polar¬ized wave. Due to the multiple resonances at neighboring frequencies, the proposed reflector presents broadband property and high efficiency. The measured fraction band¬width of cross polarization conversion is 55.5% with effi¬ciency higher than 80%. Furthermore, a broadband circu¬lar polarizer is designed by adjusting the dimension para¬meters and the measured fraction bandwidth exceeds 30%.
Fano line shape and phase reversal in a split-ring resonator based metamaterial
Wallauer, J.; Walther, M.
2013-11-01
We introduce a universal scheme for invoking a full line shape and phase reversal of Fano resonances in plasmonic metamaterials. The effect is based on opening a new excitation channel through minor structural displacements which enable continuous tunability. At the example of a metamaterial designed for terahertz frequencies, consisting of two coupled split-ring resonators, it is demonstrated by simulation and experiment that displacements by only a fraction of the wavelength are sufficient to invoke a full line shape reversal, in combination with the change from inducing a phase delay to a phase advance for a transmitted wave. Our approach provides unprecedented control of Fano asymmetry and phase, potentially enabling the implementation of dynamically tuneable Fano metamaterials and Fano-plasmonic devices such as dynamic filters or phase shifters.
Reconfigurable electro-optical directed-logic circuit using carrier-depletion micro-ring resonators.
Qiu, Ciyuan; Gao, Weilu; Soref, Richard; Robinson, Jacob T; Xu, Qianfan
2014-12-15
Here we demonstrate a reconfigurable electro-optical directed-logic circuit based on a regular array of integrated optical switches. Each 1×1 optical switch consists of a micro-ring resonator with an embedded lateral p-n junction and a micro-heater. We achieve high-speed on-off switching by applying electrical logic signals to the p-n junction. We can configure the operation mode of each switch by thermal tuning the resonance wavelength. The result is an integrated optical circuit that can be reconfigured to perform any combinational logic operation. As a proof-of-principle, we fabricated a multi-spectral directed-logic circuit based on a fourfold array of switches and showed that this circuit can be reconfigured to perform arbitrary two-input logic functions with speeds up to 3 GB/s.
Madani, Abbas; Stolarek, David; Zimmermann, Lars; Ma, Libo; Schmidt, Oliver G
2015-01-01
We demonstrate full integration of vertical optical ring resonators with silicon nanophotonic waveguides on silicon-on-insulator substrates to accomplish a significant step towards 3D photonic integration. The on-chip integration is realized by rolling up 2D differentially strained TiO2 nanomembranes into 3D microtube cavities on a nanophotonic microchip. The integration configuration allows for out of plane optical coupling between the in-plane nanowaveguides and the vertical microtube cavities as a compact and mechanically stable optical unit, which could enable refined vertical light transfer in 3D stacks of multiple photonic layers. In this vertical transmission scheme, resonant filtering of optical signals at telecommunication wavelengths is demonstrated based on subwavelength thick walled microcavities. Moreover, an array of microtube cavities is prepared and each microtube cavity is integrated with multiple waveguides which opens up interesting perspectives towards parallel and multi-routing through a ...
Novel Sensors Based on the Symmetry Properties of Split Ring Resonators (SRRs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferran Martín
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The symmetry properties of split ring resonators (SRRs are exploited for the implementation of novel sensing devices. The proposed structure consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW loaded with movable SRRs on the back substrate side. It is shown that if the SRRs are placed with the slits aligned with the symmetry plane of the CPW, the structure is transparent to signal propagation. However, if the symmetry is broken, a net axial magnetic field can be induced in the inner region of the SRRs, and signal propagation is inhibited at resonance. The proposed structures can be useful as alignment sensors, position sensors and angle sensors. This novel sensing principle is validated through experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gneiding, N., E-mail: Natalia.Gneiding@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U. [Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shamonina, E. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PJ Oxford (United Kingdom)
2014-10-28
Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.
Engineered silicon ring resonator for wavelength multiplexed photon-pair generation
Mazeas, Florent; Bentivegna, Marco; Kaiser, Florian; Aktas, Djeylan; Zhang, Weiwei; Ramos, Carlos Alonso; Bin-Ngah, Lutfi-Arif; Lunghi, Tommaso; Picholle, Éric; Belabas-Plougonven, Nadia; Roux, Xavier Le; Cassan, Éric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vivien, Laurent; Sauder, Grégory; Labonté, Laurent; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2016-01-01
We report an efficient energy-time entangled photon-pair source based on four-wave mixing in a CMOS-compatible silicon photonics ring resonator. Thanks to suitable optimization, the source shows a large spectral brightness of 400 pairs of entangled photons /s/MHz for 500 {\\mu}W pump power. Additionally, the resonator has been engineered so as to generate a frequency comb structure compatible with standard telecom dense wavelength division multiplexers. We demonstrate high-purity energy-time entanglement, i.e., free of photonic noise, with near perfect raw visibilities (> 98%) between various channel pairs in the telecom C-band. Such a compact source stands as a path towards more complex quantum photonic circuits dedicated to quantum communication systems.
Optical Analog to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Cascaded Ring-Resonator Systems
Wang, Yonghua; Zheng, Hua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong
2016-01-01
The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical methods has shown great potential in slow light and sensing applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrated a coupled resonator induced transparency system with three cascaded ring coupled resonators in a silicon chip. The structure was modeled by using the transfer matrix method. Influences of various parameters including coupling ratio of couplers, waveguide loss and additional loss of couplers on transmission characteristic and group index have been investigated theoretically and numerically in detail. The transmission character of the system was measured by the vertical grating coupling method. The enhanced quality factor reached 1.22 × 105. In addition, we further test the temperature performance of the device. The results provide a new method for the manipulation of light in highly integrated optical circuits and sensing applications. PMID:27463720
Determination of permittivity of pulses and cereals using metamaterial split ring resonator
Chakyar, Sreedevi P.; Sikha Simon, K.; Murali, Aathira; Shanto T., A.; Andrews, Jolly; Joseph V., P.
2017-06-01
Relative permittivity of wide variety of pulses and cereals are precisely determined with the help of metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) operating at microwave frequencies using a simple extraction procedure. The unknown permittivity of food samples in powder form are evaluated from a calibration curve drawn between the dielectric constant of some standard samples and LC resonant frequency of SRR test probe with the sample placed over it. The experimental setup consists of SRR test probe arranged between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a vector network analyzer. Unknown relative permittivity of the sample is obtained by placing it on the SRR surface and is evaluated from the calibration curve which is found to be in good agreement with the expected standard values. The possible applications of this sensitive and easy technique are analyzed in the field of food preservation, quality checking, adulteration etc.
Karhu, J; Vainio, M; Metsälä, M; Hoekstra, S; Halonen, L
2016-01-01
A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, $\
Split-Ring Resonator-Based Strain Sensor on Flexible Substrates for Glaucoma Detection
Ekinci, Gizem; Deniz Yalcinkaya, Arda; Dundar, Gunhan; Torun, Hamdi
2016-10-01
This paper presents split-ring resonator-based strain sensors designed and characterized for glaucoma detection application. The geometry of the sensor is optimized such that it can be embedded in a contact lens. Silver conductive paint is to form the sensors realized on flexible substrates made of cellulose acetate and latex rubber. The devices are excited and interrogated using a pair of monopole antennas and the characteristics of devices with different curvature profiles are obtained. The sensitivity of the device, i.e. the change in resonant frequency for a unit change in radius of curvature, on acetate film is calculated as -4.73 MHz/mm and the sensitivity of the device on latex is 33.2 MHz/mm. The results indicate that the demonstrated device is suitable for glaucoma diagnosis.
Nonlinear elliptic equations and systems with linear part at resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip Korman
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The famous result of Landesman and Lazer [10] dealt with resonance at a simple eigenvalue. Soon after publication of [10], Williams [14] gave an extension for repeated eigenvalues. The conditions in Williams [14] are rather restrictive, and no examples were ever given. We show that seemingly different classical result by Lazer and Leach [11], on forced harmonic oscillators at resonance, provides an example for this theorem. The article by Williams [14] also contained a shorter proof. We use a similar approach to study resonance for 2X2 systems. We derive conditions for existence of solutions, which turned out to depend on the spectral properties of the linear part.
Reimann, Carolin; Puentes, Margarita; Maasch, Matthias; Hübner, Frank; Bazrafshan, Babak; Vogl, Thomas J; Damm, Christian; Jakoby, Rolf
2016-09-08
Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W.
Insect-inspired wing actuation structures based on ring-type resonators
Bolsman, Caspar T.; Goosen, Johannes F. L.; van Keulen, Fred
2008-03-01
In this paper, we illustrate and study the opportunities of resonant ring type structures as wing actuation mechanisms for a flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). Various design alternatives are presented and studied based on computational and physical models. Insects provide an excellent source of inspiration for the development of the wing actuation mechanisms for flapping wing MAVs. The insect thorax is a structure which in essence provides a mechanism to couple the wing muscles to the wings while offering weight reduction through application of resonance, using tailored elasticity. The resonant properties of the thorax are a very effective way to reducing the power expenditure of wing movement. The wing movement itself is fairly complex and is guided by a set of control muscles and thoracic structures which are present in proximity of the wing root. The development of flapping wing MAVs requires a move away from classical structures and actuators. The use of gears and rotational electric motors is hard to justify at the small scale. Resonant structures provide a large design freedom whilst also providing various options for actuation. The move away from deterministic mechanisms offers possibilities for mass reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolin Reimann
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan, E-mail: linjingquan@cust.edu.cn [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)
2015-09-21
Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.
Compact Microstrip Bandpass Diplexer Based on Twist Revised Split Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the twist revised split ring resonators (TR-SRRs inspired filter unit a microstrip bandpass diplexer with highly compact size and high frequency selection and isolation properties is synthesized and systematically characterized. The proposed filter unit exhibits both electric and magnetic coupling effects and possesses two resonance modes (magnetic and electronic resonances. The two resonance modes can be flexibly controlled by adjusting the gap between the two TR-SRRs. The synthesized diplexer has very simple configuration with size of 0.217λd×0.217λd and degree of freedom for impedance matching. Measurement and simulation demonstrations are performed in this paper and a good agreement is achieved. The measured results indicate two quite close frequency channels (centered at 2.16 GHz and 2.91 GHz with isolation larger than 30 dB. The proposed diplexer can be easily integrated into miniaturized RF/microwave integrated circuits.
Numerical modeling of nonlinear acoustic waves in a tube with an array of Helmholtz resonators
Lombard, Bruno
2013-01-01
Wave propagation in a 1-D guide with an array of Helmholtz resonators is studied numerically, considering large amplitude waves and viscous boundary layers. The model consists in two coupled equations: a nonlinear PDE of nonlinear acoustics, and a linear ODE describing the oscillations in the Helmholtz resonators. The dissipative effects in the tube and in the throats of the resonators are modeled by fractional derivatives. Based on a diffusive representation, the convolution kernels are replaced by a finite number of memory variables that satisfy local ordinary differential equations. An optimization procedure provides an efficient diffusive representation. A splitting strategy is then applied to the evolution equations: the propagative part is solved by a standard TVD scheme for hyperbolic equations, whereas the diffusive part is solved exactly. This approach is validated by comparisons with exact solutions. The properties of the full nonlinear solutions are investigated numerically. In particular, existenc...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Liqun; Jean W.ZU; WU Jun
2004-01-01
To investigate the principal resonance in transverse nonlinear parametric vibration of an axially accelerating viscoelastic string, the method of multiple scales is applied directly to the nonlinear partial differential equation that governs the transverse vibration of the string. To derive the governing equation, Newton's second law, Lagrangean strain, and Kelvin's model are respectively used to account the dynamical relation, geometric nonlinearity and the viscoelasticity of the string material.Based on the solvability condition of eliminating the secular terms, closed form solutions are obtained for the amplitude and the existence conditions of nontrivial steady-state response of the principal parametric resonance. The Lyapunov linearized stability theory is employed to analyze the stability of the trivial and nontrivial solutions in the principal parametric resonance. Some numerical examples are presented to show the effects of the mean transport speed, the amplitude and the frequency of speed variation.
Castro-Lopez, Marta; Brinks, Daan; Sapienza, Riccardo; van Hulst, Niek F
2011-11-09
Resonant optical antennas are ideal for nanoscale nonlinear optical interactions due to their inherent strong local field enhancement. Indeed second- and third-order nonlinear response of gold nanoparticles has been reported. Here we compare the on- and off-resonance properties of aluminum, silver, and gold nanoantennas, by measuring two-photon photoluminescence. Remarkably, aluminum shows 2 orders of magnitude higher luminescence efficiency than silver or gold. Moreover, in striking contrast to gold, the aluminum emission largely preserves the linear incident polarization. Finally, we show the systematic resonance control of two-photon excitation and luminescence polarization by tuning the antenna width and length independently. Our findings point to aluminum as a promising metal for nonlinear plasmonics.
All-plasmonic switching based on thermal nonlinearity in a polymer plasmonic microring resonator
Perron, David; Wu, Marcelo; Horvath, Cameron; Bachman, Daniel; van, Vien
2011-07-01
We experimentally investigated thermal nonlinear effects in a hybrid Au/SiO2/SU-8 plasmonic microring resonator for nonlinear switching. Large ohmic loss in the metal layer gave rise to a high rate of light-to-heat conversion in the plasmonic waveguide, causing an intensity-dependent thermo-optic shift in the microring resonance. We obtained 30 times larger resonance shift in the plasmonic microring than in a similar SU-8 dielectric microring. Using an in-plane pump-and-probe configuration, we also demonstrated all-plasmonic nonlinear switching in the plasmonic microring with an on--off switching contrast of 4dB over 50mW input power.
Coherent Perfect Absorption induced by the nonlinearity of a Helmholtz resonator
Achilleos, V; Theocharis, G
2016-01-01
In this work, we analytically report Coherent Perfect Absorption induced by the acoustic nonlinear response of a Helmholtz Resonator side loaded to a waveguide. In particular, we show that this two-port acoustic system can perfectly absorb two high amplitude symmetric incident waves when the additive nonlinear losses in the HR, induced by the jet flow separation, together with the weak linear viscothermal losses of the HR balance the radiation losses to the waveguide. For the case of the one-sided incidence configuration, this condition leads to an absorption equal to 0.5. This result, which is verified experimentally, is in a good agreement with an analytical nonlinear model of the impedance of the HR. The nonlinear control of perfect absorption using resonators will open new possibilities in the design of high amplitude sound attenuators for aero-engine applications.
Design and Analysis of an all-fiber MZI Interleaver Based on Fiber Ring Resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pu Huilan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI interleaver using one planar 3×3 fiber coupler, one 2×2 fiber coupler and one 8-shaped fiber ring resonator is developed by the new configuration. Based on its structure, the output spectrum expression is established and described by using the principle of fiber transmission and the matrix transfer function. The results of numerical simulation indicate that when the length difference of interference arms and the coupling coefficients of the couplers are some certain values, it obtains a uniform flat-top passband and similar to rectangular output spectrum. Compared with the traditional MZI interleaver, the isolation in stopband and the rolloff in transition band are strengthen, the 25dB stopband bandwidth and 0.5dB passband bandwidth are simultaneously remarkably improved. Compared with the asymmetrical ring resonator MZI interleaver, the influence of transmission loss on extinction ratio can be effectively reduced. The device has a certain ability to resist the deviation, which reduces the difficulties in fabricating it. The experiment results agree with the theoretical analysis well. The interleaver designed by the proposed approach has favorable performance, which has the potential application value in optical fiber communication system.
Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Yulu [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou (China); UCAS, Beijing (China); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2015-09-01
Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter-wave resonator (QWR)-based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.
Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shridhar N. Mathad
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.
Caplan, Ronald Meyer
We numerically study the dynamics and interactions of vortex rings in the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). Single ring dynamics for both bright and dark vortex rings are explored including their traverse velocity, stability, and perturbations resulting in quadrupole oscillations. Multi-ring dynamics of dark vortex rings are investigated, including scattering and merging of two colliding rings, leapfrogging interactions of co-traveling rings, as well as co-moving steady-state multi-ring ensembles. Simulations of choreographed multi-ring setups are also performed, leading to intriguing interaction dynamics. Due to the inherent lack of a close form solution for vortex rings and the dimensionality where they live, efficient numerical methods to integrate the NLSE have to be developed in order to perform the extensive number of required simulations. To facilitate this, compact high-order numerical schemes for the spatial derivatives are developed which include a new semi-compact modulus-squared Dirichlet boundary condition. The schemes are combined with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme in order to keep the overall method fully explicit. To ensure efficient use of the schemes, a stability analysis is performed to find bounds on the largest usable time step-size as a function of the spatial step-size. The numerical methods are implemented into codes which are run on NVIDIA graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel architectures. The codes running on the GPU are shown to be many times faster than their serial counterparts. The codes are developed with future usability in mind, and therefore are written to interface with MATLAB utilizing custom GPU-enabled C codes with a MEX-compiler interface. Reproducibility of results is achieved by combining the codes into a code package called NLSEmagic which is freely distributed on a dedicated website.
DNA-assembled nanoparticle rings exhibit electric and magnetic resonances at visible frequencies.
Roller, Eva-Maria; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Fedoruk, Michael; Schreiber, Robert; Govorov, Alexander O; Liedl, Tim
2015-02-11
Metallic nanostructures can be used to manipulate light on the subwavelength scale to create tailored optical material properties. Next to electric responses, artificial optical magnetism is of particular interest but difficult to achieve at visible wavelengths. DNA-self-assembly has proved to serve as a viable method to template plasmonic materials with nanometer precision and to produce large quantities of metallic objects with high yields. We present here the fabrication of self-assembled ring-shaped plasmonic metamolecules that are composed of four to eight single metal nanoparticles with full stoichiometric and geometric control. Scattering spectra of single rings as well as absorption spectra of solutions containing the metamolecules are used to examine the unique plasmonic features, which are compared to computational simulations. We demonstrate that the electric and magnetic plasmon resonance modes strongly correlate with the exact shape of the structures. In particular, our computations reveal the magnetic plasmons only for particle rings of broken symmetries, which is consistent with our experimental data. We stress the feasibility of DNA self-assembly as a method to create bulk plasmonic materials and metamolecules that may be applied as building blocks in plasmonic devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adelnia, Fatemeh; Lascialfari, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano and INSTM, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, Pavia (Italy); Mariani, Manuel [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ammannato, Luca; Caneschi, Andrea; Rovai, Donella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Firenze and INSTM, Firenze (Italy); Winpenny, Richard; Timco, Grigore [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Corti, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.corti@unipv.it; Borsa, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia and INSTM, Pavia (Italy)
2015-05-07
We present the room temperature proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) results in two 1D spin chains: the Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (AFM) Eu(hfac){sub 3}NITEt and the magnetically frustrated Gd(hfac){sub 3}NITEt. The NSLR as a function of external magnetic field can be interpreted very well in terms of high temperature spin dynamics dominated by a long time persistence of the decay of the two-spin correlation function due to the conservation of the total spin value for isotropic Heisenberg chains. The high temperature spin dynamics are also investigated in Heisenberg AFM molecular rings. In both Cr{sub 8} closed ring and in Cr{sub 7}Cd and Cr{sub 8}Zn open rings, i.e., model systems for a finite spin segment, an enhancement of the low frequency spectral density is found consistent with spin diffusion but the high cut-off frequency due to intermolecular anisotropic interactions prevents a detailed analysis of the spin diffusion regime.
Zhuang, Leimeng; Khan, Muhammad Rezaul; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René; Roeloffzen, Chris
2012-11-19
We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer implemented using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter. The full programmability of the ring resonator allows variable and arbitrary fractional order of the Hilbert transformer. The performance analysis in both frequency and time domain validates that the proposed implementation provides a good approximation to an ideal fractional Hilbert transformer. This is also experimentally verified by an electrical S21 response characterization performed on a waveguide realization of a ring resonator. The waveguide-based structure allows the proposed Hilbert transformer to be integrated together with other building blocks on a photonic integrated circuit to create various system-level functionalities for on-chip microwave photonic signal processors. As an example, a circuit consisting of a splitter and a ring resonator has been realized which can perform on-chip phase control of microwave signals generated by means of optical heterodyning, and simultaneous generation of in-phase and quadrature microwave signals for a wide frequency range. For these functionalities, this simple and on-chip solution is considered to be practical, particularly when operating together with a dual-frequency laser. To our best knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration where ring resonators are employed to perform phase control functionalities for optical generation of microwave signals by means of optical heterodyning.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kacem, N; Hentz, S; Pinto, D; Reig, B; Nguyen, V [CEA/LETI-MINATEC, Grenoble (France)
2009-07-08
In order to compensate for the loss of performance when scaling resonant sensors down to NEMS, it proves extremely useful to study the behavior of resonators up to very high displacements and hence high nonlinearities. This work describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation which includes both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinearities valid up to displacements comparable to the gap in the case of an electrostatically actuated doubly clamped beam. Moreover, the model takes into account the fringing field effects, significant for thin resonators. The model has been compared to both numerical integrations and electrical measurements of devices fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers; it shows very good agreement with both. An important contribution of this work is the provision for closed-form expressions of the critical amplitude and the pull-in domain initiation amplitude including all nonlinearities. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility to drive the resonator beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced to the maximum below the pull-in instability, while keeping a linear behavior.
Kacem, N; Hentz, S; Pinto, D; Reig, B; Nguyen, V
2009-07-08
In order to compensate for the loss of performance when scaling resonant sensors down to NEMS, it proves extremely useful to study the behavior of resonators up to very high displacements and hence high nonlinearities. This work describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation which includes both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinearities valid up to displacements comparable to the gap in the case of an electrostatically actuated doubly clamped beam. Moreover, the model takes into account the fringing field effects, significant for thin resonators. The model has been compared to both numerical integrations and electrical measurements of devices fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers; it shows very good agreement with both. An important contribution of this work is the provision for closed-form expressions of the critical amplitude and the pull-in domain initiation amplitude including all nonlinearities. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility to drive the resonator beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced to the maximum below the pull-in instability, while keeping a linear behavior.
Umarji, Govind; Qureshi, Nilam; Gosavi, Suresh; Mulik, Uttam; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Amalnerkar, Dinesh
2017-02-01
In conventional thick-film technology, there are often problems associated with poor edges, rough surfaces, and reproducibility due to process limitations, especially for high-frequency applications. These difficulties can be circumvented by using thin-film technology, but process cost and complexity remain major concerns. In this context, photopatternable thick-film technology can offer a viable alternative due to its Newtonian rheology, which can facilitate formation of the required sharp edges. We present herein a unique attempt to formulate a photopatternable silver paste with organic (photosensitive polymer) to inorganic (silver and glass) ratio of 30:70, developed in-house by us for fabrication of thick-film-based ring resonator and band-pass filter components. The ring resonator and band-pass component structures were realized by exposing screen-printed film to ultraviolet light at wavelength of 315 nm to 400 nm for 30 s to crosslink the photosensitive polymer. The pattern was subsequently developed using 1% sodium carbonate aqueous solution. For comparison, conventional silver and silver-palladium thick films were produced using in-house formulations. The surface topology and microstructural features were examined by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The smoothness and edge definition of the film were assessed by profilometry. The resistivity of the samples was observed and remained in the range from 3.4 μΩ cm to 3.6 μΩ cm. The electrical properties were compared by measuring the insertion loss characteristics. The results revealed that the ring resonator fabricated using the photopatternable silver paste exhibited better high-frequency properties compared with components based on conventional silver or silver-palladium paste, especially in terms of the resonant frequency of 10.1 GHz (versus 10 GHz designed) with bandwidth of 80 MHz. Additionally, the band-pass filter fabricated using the photopatternable silver paste displayed better
NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF LATERAL MICRO-RESONATOR INCLUDING VISCOUS AIR DAMPING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Rong; WANG Xiaojing; WANG Min; YU Maohua; XIE Mingchun
2007-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of the lateral micro-resonator including the air damping effect is researched. The air damping force is varied periodically during the resonator oscillating, and the air damp coefficient can not be fixed as a constant. Therefore the linear dynamic analysis which used the constant air damping coefficient can not describe the actual dynamic characteristics of the micro-resonator. The nonlinear dynamic model including the air damping force is established. On the base of Navier-Stokes equation and nonlinear dynamical equation, a coupled fluid-solid numerical simulation method is developed and demonstrates that damping force is a vital factor in micro-comb structures. Compared with existing experimental result, the nonlinear numerical value has quite good agreement with it. The differences of the amplitudes (peak) between the experimental data and the results by the linear model and the nonlinear model are 74.5% and 6% respectively. Nonlinear numerical value is more exact than linear value and the method can be applied in other micro-electro-mechanical systeme (MEMS) structures to simulate the dynamic performance.
Dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow MHD waves in twisted flux tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Erdélyi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear resonant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves are studied in weakly dissipative isotropic plasmas in cylindrical geometry. This geometry is suitable and is needed when one intends to study resonant MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes (e.g. for sunspots, coronal loops, solar plumes, solar wind, the magnetosphere, etc. The resonant behaviour of slow MHD waves is confined in a narrow dissipative layer. Using the method of simplified matched asymptotic expansions inside and outside of the narrow dissipative layer, we generalise the so-called connection formulae obtained in linear MHD for the Eulerian perturbation of the total pressure and for the normal component of the velocity. These connection formulae for resonant MHD waves across the dissipative layer play a similar role as the well-known Rankine-Hugoniot relations connecting solutions at both sides of MHD shock waves. The key results are the nonlinear connection formulae found in dissipative cylindrical MHD which are an important extension of their counterparts obtained in linear ideal MHD (Sakurai et al., 1991, linear dissipative MHD (Goossens et al., 1995; Erdélyi, 1997 and in nonlinear dissipative MHD derived in slab geometry (Ruderman et al., 1997. These generalised connection formulae enable us to connect solutions obtained at both sides of the dissipative layer without solving the MHD equations in the dissipative layer possibly saving a considerable amount of CPU-time when solving the full nonlinear resonant MHD problem.
Masuda, Arata; Sato, Takeru
2016-04-01
This paper presents an experimental verification of a wideband nonlinear vibration energy harvester which has a globally stabilized high-energy resonating response. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the maximum performance of the power generation and its bandwidth are in a relation of trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear resonator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear resonators often have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is diﬃcult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. In this study, an experimental verification of this concept are carried out. An experimental prototype harvester is designed and fabricated and the performance of the proposed harvester is experimentally verified. It has been shown that the numerical and experimental results agreed very well, and the highest-energy solutions above the threshold value were successfully stabilized globally.
Spectroscopy of laser-induced autoionizing nonlinear resonances in atomic systems
Pavlov, L. I.; Kovachev, V. V.
2015-03-01
Efficient harmonic generation at laser-induced autoionizing state in continuum, were observed for the first time by our laboratory [1,2,3]. In this paper, nonlinear frequency mixing in alkali metal vapors at induced continuum structure in Na, are studied in detail. Besides, measurement of nonlinear optical susceptibility at induced autoionizing resonance, is performed. Tunable ultraviolet radiations by four-photon processes near induced resonances are obtained. Estimations of the real and imaginary parts of the nonlinearities, are estimated. We will specially note, that the resonant photoabsorption of ions is experimentally investigated since it gives information about the autoionizing states, which is impossible to obtain on the base only of the emission spectra. We use also laser inducing for obtaining of powerful radiation source in VUV. Thus, many actual problems as the selective impact on matter, laser photochemistry and laser isotope separation are connected directly with the induced autoionizing nonlinear resonances. The main interest is to control the spectral characteristics of continuum. The discrete level from the continuum structure leads to appearance of asymmetrical autoionizing resonance onto the background of the broad-band absorption line.
Nonlinear damping in mechanical resonators made from carbon nanotubes and graphene
Eichler, A.; Moser, J.; Chaste, J.; Zdrojek, M.; Wilson-Rae, I.; Bachtold, A.
2011-06-01
The theory of damping is discussed in Newton's Principia and has been tested in objects as diverse as the Foucault pendulum, the mirrors in gravitational-wave detectors and submicrometre mechanical resonators. In general, the damping observed in these systems can be described by a linear damping force. Advances in nanofabrication mean that it is now possible to explore damping in systems with one or more atomic-scale dimensions. Here we study the damping of mechanical resonators based on carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets. The damping is found to strongly depend on the amplitude of motion, and can be described by a nonlinear rather than a linear damping force. We exploit the nonlinear nature of damping in these systems to improve the figures of merit for both nanotube and graphene resonators. For instance, we achieve a quality factor of 100,000 for a graphene resonator.
Iorsh, Ivan; Alodjants, Alexander; Shelykh, Ivan A
2016-05-30
We studied optical response of microcavity non-equilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and non-resonant pumping. We demonstrated the emergence of multistabile behavior due to the saturation of the excitonic absorption. Stable periodic Rabi-type oscillations of the excitonic and photonic condensate components in the regime of the stationary pump and their transition to the chaotic dynamics through the cascade of Hopf bifurcations by tuning of the electrical pump are revealed.
Iorsh, Ivan; Shelykh, Ivan
2016-01-01
We studied optical response of microcavity non-equilibrium exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate with saturable nonlinearity under simultaneous resonant and non-resonant pumping. We demonstrated the emergence of multistabile behavior due to the satutration of the excitonic absorbtion. Stable periodic Rabi- type oscillations of the excitonic and photonic condensate components in the regime of the stationary pump and their transition to the chaotic dynamics through the cascade of Hopf bifurcations by tuning of the electrical pump are revealed.
A procedure to analyze nonlinear density waves in Saturn's rings using several occultation profiles
Rappaport, N J; French, R G; Marouf, E A; McGhee, C A
2010-01-01
Cassini radio science experiments have provided multiple occultation optical depth profiles of Saturn's rings that can be used in combination to analyze density waves. This paper establishes an accurate procedure of inversion of the wave profiles to reconstruct the wave kinematic parameters as a function of semi-major axis, in the nonlinear regime. This procedure is achieved from simulated data in the presence of realistic noise perturbations, to control the reconstruction error. By way of illustration we have applied our procedure to the Mimas 5:3 density wave. We were able to recover precisely the kinematic parameters from the radio experiment occultation data in most of the propagation region; a preliminary analysis of the pressure-corrected dispersion allowed us to determine new but still uncertain values for the opacity ($K\\simeq 0.02$ cm$^2$/g) and velocity dispersion of ($c_o\\simeq 0.6$ cm/s) in the wave region. Our procedure constitutes the first step in our planned analysis of the density waves of Sa...
Remote synchronization of amplitudes across an experimental ring of non-linear oscillators
Minati, Ludovico
2015-12-01
In this paper, the emergence of remote synchronization in a ring of 32 unidirectionally coupled non-linear oscillators is reported. Each oscillator consists of 3 negative voltage gain stages connected in a loop to which two integrators are superimposed and receives input from its preceding neighbour via a "mixing" stage whose gains form the main system control parameters. Collective behaviour of the network is investigated numerically and experimentally, based on a custom-designed circuit board featuring 32 field-programmable analog arrays. A diverse set of synchronization patterns is observed depending on the control parameters. While phase synchronization ensues globally, albeit imperfectly, for certain control parameter values, amplitudes delineate subsets of non-adjacent but preferentially synchronized nodes; this cannot be trivially explained by synchronization paths along sequences of structurally connected nodes and is therefore interpreted as representing a form of remote synchronization. Complex topology of functional synchronization thus emerges from underlying elementary structural connectivity. In addition to the Kuramoto order parameter and cross-correlation coefficient, other synchronization measures are considered, and preliminary findings suggest that generalized synchronization may identify functional relationships across nodes otherwise not visible. Further work elucidating the mechanism underlying this observation of remote synchronization is necessary, to support which experimental data and board design materials have been made freely downloadable.
Huang, Pu; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Dong; Lin, Shaochun; Deng, Wen; Meng, Chao; Duan, Changkui; Ju, Chenyong; Zheng, Xiao; Xue, Fei; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-05-01
Nonlinearity in macroscopic mechanical systems may lead to abundant phenomena for fundamental studies and potential applications. However, it is difficult to generate nonlinearity due to the fact that macroscopic mechanical systems follow Hooke's law and respond linearly to external force, unless strong drive is used. Here we propose and experimentally realize high cubic nonlinear response in a macroscopic mechanical system by exploring the anharmonicity in chemical bonding interactions. We demonstrate the high tunability of nonlinear response by precisely controlling the chemical bonding interaction, and realize, at the single-bond limit, a cubic elastic constant of 1 × 1020 N m-3. This enables us to observe the resonator's vibrational bi-states transitions driven by the weak Brownian thermal noise at 6 K. This method can be flexibly applied to a variety of mechanical systems to improve nonlinear responses, and can be used, with further improvements, to explore macroscopic quantum mechanics.
Unified model and reverse recovery nonlinearities of the driven diode resonator.
de Moraes, Renato Mariz; Anlage, Steven M
2003-08-01
We study the origins of period doubling and chaos in the driven series resistor-inductor-varactor diode (RLD) nonlinear resonant circuit. We find that resonators driven at frequencies much higher than the diode reverse recovery rate do not show period doubling. Models of chaos based on the nonlinear capacitance of the varactor diode display a reverse-recovery-like effect, and this effect strongly resembles reverse recovery of real diodes. We find for the first time that in addition to the known dependence of the reverse recovery time on past current maxima, there are also important nonlinear dependencies on pulse frequency, duty cycle, and dc voltage bias. Similar nonlinearities are present in the nonlinear capacitance models of these diodes. We conclude that a history-dependent and nonlinear reverse-recovery time is an essential ingredient for chaotic behavior of this circuit, and demonstrate for the first time that all major competing models have this effect, either explicitly or implicitly. Besides unifying the two major models of RLD chaos, our work reveals that the nonlinearities of the reverse-recovery time must be included for a complete understanding of period doubling and chaos in this circuit.
Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Dynamics and Resonance in Trees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Doumiri Ganji
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Wind and gravity both impact trees in storms, but wind loads greatly exceed gravity loads in most situations. Complex behavior of trees in windstorms is gradually turning into a controversial concern among ecological engineers. To better understand the effects of nonlinear behavior of trees, the dynamic forces on tree structures during periods of high winds have been examined as a mass-spring system. In fact, the simulated dynamic forces created by strong winds are studied in order to determine the responses of the trees to such dynamic loads. Many of such nonlinear differential equations are complicated to solve. Therefore, this paper focuses on an accurate and simple solution, Differential Transformation Method (DTM, to solve the derived equation. In this regard, the concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced. The approximate solution to this equation is calculated in the form of a series with easily computable terms. Then, the method has been employed to achieve an acceptable solution to the presented nonlinear differential equation. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, the obtained results from DTM are compared with those from the numerical solution. The results reveal that this method gives successive approximations of high accuracy solution.
Zhu, Mei; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Chengkuo
2014-11-01
This work examines the coupling effect in concentric double split-ring-resonator devices in terahertz (THz) range when the inner ring changes its relative orientation to the outer ring. Through detailed analysis on the simulation results of surface current and electrical field distributions, we look into the changes of inductance and capacitance in the system caused by structural layouts, and present a set of coherent theory that is solely rooted in the inductance-capacitance circuit analogy to systematically account for the resonance change. Such coupling effect combined with polarization of the incident wave is further explored to demonstrate continuous modulation of THz resonances. A variation range of transmission intensity from 20% to 80% has been successfully achieved. These experimental results demonstrate the promise of realizing future tunable THz filters by means of rotating sub-structures of the device only.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Q. Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The formation and evolution mechanisms of plasmon resonance from single Ring-shaped nanotube to dimer and arrays are studied; an attempt has been made to bridge the gap between single-tube, dimer, and array. Results show that resonant modes can be divided into three types: quadrupole, hexapole, and octupole resonance from visible to near infrared region, and each mode maintains relatively stable resonant characteristics, but the optical transmission properties including redshift and blueshift of the modes and band gap are highly tunable by adjusting the number of nanotube and intertube spacing values. The field-interference mechanism has been suggested to explain the physical origin.
Complementary Split-Ring Resonator-Loaded Microfluidic Ethanol Chemical Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Salim
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR-loaded patch is proposed as a microfluidic ethanol chemical sensor. The primary objective of this chemical sensor is to detect ethanol’s concentration. First, two tightly coupled concentric CSRRs loaded on a patch are realized on a Rogers RT/Duroid 5870 substrate, and then a microfluidic channel engraved on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is integrated for ethanol chemical sensor applications. The resonant frequency of the structure before loading the microfluidic channel is 4.72 GHz. After loading the microfluidic channel, the 550 MHz shift in the resonant frequency is ascribed to the dielectric perturbation phenomenon when the ethanol concentration is varied from 0% to 100%. In order to assess the sensitivity range of our proposed sensor, various concentrations of ethanol are tested and analyzed. Our proposed sensor exhibits repeatability and successfully detects 10% ethanol as verified by the measurement set-up. It has created headway to a miniaturized, non-contact, low-cost, reliable, reusable, and easily fabricated design using extremely small liquid volumes.
Gold split-ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface-enhanced raman scattering
Yue, Weisheng
2013-10-24
We used gold split ring resonators (SRRs) as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The arrays of SRRs were fabricated by electron-beam lithography in combination with plasma etching. In the detection of rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, SERS enhancement factors of the order of 105 was achieved. This SERS enhancement increased as the size of the split gap decrease as a consequence of the matching between the resonance wavelength of the SRRs and the excitation wavelength of SERS. As the size of the split gap decreased, the localized surface plasmon resonance shifted to near the excitation wavelength and, thus, resulted in the increase in the electric field on the nanostructures. We used finite integration method (FIT) to simulate numerically the electromagnetic properties of the SRRs. The results of the simulation agreed well with our experimental observations. We anticipate this work will provide an approach to manipulate the SERS enhancement by modulating the size of split gap with SRRs without affecting the area and structural arrangement. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Crida, Aurelien; El Moutamid, Maryame
2016-10-01
Janus and Epimetheus orbit Saturn at 151461 km on average, on mutual horseshoe orbits with orbital separation 50 km, exchanging position every 4 years. This configuration is unique and intriguing : Lissauer et al. (1985) have shown that their orbital separation should converge to zero in about 20 Myrs only, and no satisfactory model for the origin of this co-orbital resonance exists yet.Charnoz et al. (2010) have shown that Janus and Epimetheus probably formed from the spreading of the rings beyond the Roche radius. Here, we show that this happened when Mimas' 2:3 Lindblad Resonance, which used to confine the rings, receded past the Roche radius. This first explains the gap in mass and distance between Janus and Mimas, which is unexpected in the pyramidal regime of the ring spreading model (Crida & Charnoz 2012). Furthermore, at this time, the two capture sites of Mimas's 2:3 Corotation Resonance were full of ring material. We suggest that as the two capture sites were brought beyond the Roche radius, the captured material agglomerated into two bodies of ~1015 kg on the exact same orbit. These bodies then migrated outwards together due to their interaction with the rings, in mutual horseshoe orbits. The rings then spawn new small satellites, eventually accreted by the proto-Janus and the proto-Epimetheus. This excites their orbital separation, leading to today's configuration.
Nonlinear resonances in a multi-stage free-electron laser amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashimoto, S. [Graduate Univ. for Advanced Studies, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Takayama, K. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)
1995-12-31
A two-beam accelerator (TBA) is a possible candidate of future linear colliders, in which the demanded rf power is provided by a multi-stage free-electron laser (MFEL). After if amplification in each stage, a driving beam is re-accelerated by an induction unit and propagates into the next stage. Recently it has been recognized that the multi-stage character of the MFEL causes resonances between its periodicity and the synchrotron motion in an rf bucket. Since the synchrotron oscillation is strongly modulated by the resonance and at the worst a large fraction of particles is trapped in the resonance islands, the nonlinear resonances in the FEL longitudinal beam dynamics can lead to notable degradation of the MFEL performance, such as output fluctuation and phase modulation which have been big concerns in the accelerator society. The overall efficiency of the MFEL and the quality of the amplified microwave power are key issues for realizing the TBA/FEL Particularly the rf phase and amplitude errors must be maintained within tolerance. One of significant obstacles is an amplification of undesired modes. If a small-size waveguide is employed, the FEL resonance energies for undesired higher order modes shift very far from that for a fundamental mode; so it is possible to prevent higher order modes from evolving. Such a small-size waveguide, however, gives a high power density in the FEL. Simulation results have demonstrated that the nonlinear resonances occur in die FEL longitudinal motion when the power density exceeds some threshold. An analytical method for studying the nonlinear resonance in the TBA/FEL is developed based on the macroparticle model which can describe analytically the drastic behaviors in the evolutions of the phase and amplitude. In the theory the basic 1D-FEL equations are reduced to a nonlinear pendulum equation with respect to the ponderomotive phase.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper reports the synthesis and the nonlinear optical property of a series of new chromophores which contain furan ring as the only conjugation bridge for the first time. They are characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Their dipole moment and the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β) are calculated and compared with those of the analogues containing either benzene or thiophene as the conjugation bridge.
Budker, D
2003-01-01
Recent work on Lambda-resonances in alkali metal vapors (E. Mikhailov, I. Novikova, Yu. V. Rostovtsev, and G. R. Welch, quant-ph/0309171, and references therein) has revealed a novel type of electromagnetically induced absorption resonance that occurs in three-level systems under specific conditions normally associated with electromagnetically induced transparency. In this note, we show that these resonances have a direct analog in nonlinear magneto-optics, and support this conclusion with a calculation for a J=1->J'=0 system interacting with a single nearly circularly polarized light field in the presence of a weak longitudinal magnetic field.
Measurement of nonlinear elastic response in rock by the resonant bar method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, P.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Rasolofosaon, P.; Zinszner, B. (Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France))
1993-01-01
In this work we are studying the behavior of the fundamental (Young's) mode resonant peak as a function of drive amplitude in rock samples. Our goal from these studies is to obtain nonlinear moduli for many rock types, and to study the nonlinear moduli as a function of water saturation and other changes in physical properties. Measurements were made on seven different room dry rock samples. For one sample measurements were taken at 16 saturation levels between 1 and 98%. All samples display a softening'' nonlinearity, that is, the resonant frequency shifts downward with increasing drive amplitude. In extreme cases, the resonant frequency changes by as much as 25% over a strain interval of 10[sup [minus]7] to [approximately]4 [times] 10[sup [minus]5]. Measurements indicate that the nonlinear response is extremely sensitive to saturation. Estimates of a combined cubic and quartic nonlinear parameter [Gamma] range from approximately [minus]300 to [minus]10[sup 9] for the rock samples.
Binci, L.; Tu, C.; Zhu, H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.
2016-11-01
We report the use of planar ring-shaped phononic crystals (PnCs) as anchor boundaries of very-high-frequency band piezoelectric-on-silicon Lamb mode resonators for the purpose of enhancing their quality factor (Q). Here, we exploit the acoustic bandgap associated with the PnC anchoring boundaries to reduce acoustic energy leakage out of the micromechanical resonator. The proposed approach provides greater mechanical robustness (by merit of interlocking the cells in a matrix) and the possibility of electrical routing through the PnC cells. We experimentally show enhancements in Q by a factor of three using the proposed approach of hybridizing planar ring-shaped PnCs with micromechanical resonators. The effect of these PnCs on resonator Q is further corroborated by their effects in suppressing transmission when incorporated into a delay line.
Electrically tunable high Q-factor micro-ring resonator based on blue phase liquid crystal cladding.
Wang, Chun-Ta; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Yu, Jui-Hao; Wang, Cheng Yu; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Chen, Yung-Jui; Lin, Tsung-Hsien
2014-07-28
This work demonstrates an electrically tunable silicon nitride (SiN) micro-ring resonator with polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals (PSBPLCs) cladding. An external vertical electric field is applied to modulate the refractive index of the PSBPLCs by exploiting its fast-response Kerr effect-induced birefringence. The consequent change in the refractive index of the cladding can vary the effective refractive index of the micro-ring resonator and shift the resonant wavelength. Crystalline structures of PSBPLCs with a scale of the order of hundreds of nanometers ensure that the resonator has a very low optical loss. The measured tuning range is 0.45 nm for TM polarized light under an applied voltage of 150V and the corresponding response time is in the sub-millisecond range with a Q-factor of greater than 20,000.
Zlenko, A. S.; Akhmetshin, U. G.; Bogatyrjov, V. A.; Bulatov, L. I.; Dvoyrin, V. V.; Firstov, S. V.; Dianov, E. M.
2009-10-01
A germanium-doped silica-core fiber with an active region in the form of a thin ring of silica doped with bismuth ions was fabricated. Bismuth doping in the ring surrounding the core allows to stabilize bismuth in silica glass, and it does not impose any restrictions on the composition of the core. The bismuth concentration in the ring is less than 0.2 wt.%. The GeO2 concentration in the core is more than 15 mol.%. A high germanium concentration in the core allows to shift the zero dispersion wavelength to 1860 nm and to obtain a high nonlinear refractive index (n2 more than 3,2*10-20 m2/W). Spectroscopic investigations were carried out in the visible and near infrared (800-1700 nm) spectral range. Despite the small concentration of bismuth, we observed the absorption and luminescence characteristic bands, confirming the presence of bismuth active centers in silica glass. Upon pumping at 1350 nm the on/off gain spectrum was measured on a 20-m fiber. The gain was observed throughout investigated range of 1430-1530 nm. The maximal gain of ~9.5 dB was obtained near 1430 nm. The results of the spectroscopic investigations of the fiber with a thin active Bi-doped ring showed prospects of the creation and application of such fiber type for laser and nonlinear optics.
Clack, C
2009-01-01
The nonlinear theory of driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves in strongly anisotropic and dispersive plasmas, developed for slow resonance by Clack and Ballai [Phys. Plasmas, 15, 2310 (2008)] and Alfv\\'en resonance by Clack \\emph{et al.} [A&A,494, 317 (2009)], is used to study the weakly nonlinear interaction of fast magnetoacoustic (FMA) waves in a one-dimensional planar plasma. The magnetic configuration consists of an inhomogeneous magnetic slab sandwiched between two regions of semi-infinite homogeneous magnetic plasmas. Laterally driven FMA waves penetrate the inhomogeneous slab interacting with the localized slow or Alfv\\'{e}n dissipative layer and are partly reflected, dissipated and transmitted by this region. The nonlinearity parameter defined by Clack and Ballai (2008) is assumed to be small and a regular perturbation method is used to obtain analytical solutions in the slow dissipative layer. The effect of dispersion in the slow dissipative layer is to further decrease the coefficient of ener...
Design of an efficient terahertz source using triply resonant nonlinear photonic crystal cavities.
Burgess, Ian B; Zhang, Yinan; McCutcheon, Murray W; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Johnson, Steven G; Loncar, Marko
2009-10-26
We propose a scheme for efficient cavity-enhanced nonlinear THz generation via difference-frequency generation (DFG) processes using a triply resonant system based on photonic crystal cavities. We show that high nonlinear overlap can be achieved by coupling a THz cavity to a doubly-resonant, dual-polarization near-infrared (e.g. telecom band) photonic-crystal nanobeam cavity, allowing the mixing of three mutually orthogonal fundamental cavity modes through a chi((2)) nonlinearity. We demonstrate through coupled-mode theory that complete depletion of the pump frequency - i.e., quantum-limited conversion - is possible. We show that the output power at the point of optimal total conversion efficiency is adjustable by varying the mode quality (Q) factors.
A high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points
Guo, Shi-liang; Wang, Wen-juan; Hu, Chun-hai
2014-12-01
A novel high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points (MRRTCP) is reported. Since the dielectric constant of Polyimide is highly sensible to the relative humidity of the environment, we choose the Polyimide (PI) as the moisture material. The effective refractive index of the sensing part of the sensor changes as the relative humidity of the environment changes, this leading to an obvious shift of the output spectrum. The sensing range of the relative humidity sensor is 0~100%RH, and the sensitivity is 0.0017μm/%RH, and the structure is relatively simple and could be used in micro-scale humidity sensing.
Barkat, Ouarda; Benghalia, Abdelmadjid
2009-10-01
In this work, the full-wave method is used for computing the resonant frequency, the bandwidth, and radiation pattern of High temperature superconductor, or an imperfectly conducting annular ring microstrip, which is printed on uniaxial anisotropic substrate. Galerkin’s method is used in the resolution of the electric field integral equation. The TM set of modes issued from the cavity model theory are used to expand the unknown currents on the patch. Numerical results concerning the effect of the anisotropic substrates on the antenna performance are presented and discussed. It is found that microstrip superconducting could give high efficiency with high gain in millimeter wavelengths. Results are compared with previously published data and are found to be in good agreement.
Electromagnetic interactions in a pair of coupled split-ring resonators
Seetharaman, S. S.; King, C. G.; Hooper, I. R.; Barnes, W. L.
2017-08-01
Split-ring resonators (SRRs) are a fundamental building block of many electromagnetic metamaterials. Typically the response of a metamaterial is assumed to be independent of interelement interactions in the material. We show that SRRs in close proximity to each other exhibit a rich coupling that involves both electric and magnetic interactions. We study experimentally and computationally the strength and nature of the coupling between two identical SRRs as a function of their separation and relative orientation. We characterize the electric and magnetic couplings and find that, when SRRs are close enough to be in each other's near field, the electric and magnetic couplings may either reinforce each other or act in opposition. At larger separations retardation effects become important.
A Compact 5.5 GHz Band-Rejected UWB Antenna Using Complementary Split Ring Resonators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Islam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A band-removal property employing microwave frequencies using complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs is applied to design a compact UWB antenna wishing for the rejection of some frequency band, which is meanwhile exercised by the existing wireless applications. The reported antenna comprises optimization of a circular radiating patch, in which slotted complementary SRRs are implanted. It is printed on low dielectric FR4 substrate material fed by a partial ground plane and a microstrip line. Validated results exhibit that the reported antenna shows a wide bandwidth covering from 3.45 to more than 12 GHz, with a compact dimension of 22 × 26 mm2, and VSWR < 2, observing band elimination of 5.5 GHz WLAN band.
Micro-ring resonator quality factor enhancement via an integrated Fabry-Perot cavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiayang Wu
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We propose and experimentally demonstrate the enhancement in the filtering quality (Q factor of an integrated micro-ring resonator (MRR by embedding it in an integrated Fabry-Perot (FP cavity formed by cascaded Sagnac loop reflectors. By utilizing coherent interference within the FP cavity to reshape the transmission spectrum of the MRR, both the Q factor and the extinction ratio (ER can be significantly improved. The device is theoretically analyzed and practically fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Experimental results show that up to 11-times improvement in the Q factor, together with an 8-dB increase in the ER, can be achieved via our proposed method. The impact of varying structural parameters on the device performance is also investigated and verified by the measured spectra of the fabricated devices with different structural parameters.
Asymmetric split-ring resonator-based biosensor for detection of label-free stress biomarkers
Lee, Hee-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Suji; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Jung, Hyo-Il
2013-07-01
In this paper, an asymmetric split-ring resonator, metamaterial element, is presented as a biosensing transducer for detection of highly sensitive and label-free stress biomarkers. In particular, the two biomarkers, cortisol and α-amylase, are used for evaluating the sensitivity of the proposed biosensor. In case of cortisol detection, the competitive reaction between cortisol-bovine serum albumin and free cortisol is employed, while alpha-amylase is directly detected by its antigen-antibody reaction. From the experimental results, we find that the limit of detection and sensitivity of the proposed sensing device are about 1 ng/ml and 1.155 MHz/ng ml-1, respectively.
Label Free Detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Using the Optofluidic Ring Resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John T. Gohring
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We have demonstrated label free detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte whole cells and CD4+ T-Lymphocyte cell lysis using the optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR sensor. The OFRR sensing platform incorporates microfluidics and photonics in a setup that utilizes small sample volume and achieves a fast detection time. In this work, white blood cells were isolated from healthy blood and the concentrations were adjusted to match T-Lymphocyte levels of individuals infected with HIV. Detection was accomplished by immobilizing CD4 and CD8 antibodies on the inner surface of the OFRR. Sensing results show excellent detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte cells at medically significant concentrations with a detection time of approximately 30 minutes. This work will lead to a rapid and low-cost sensing device that can provide a CD4 and CD8 count as a measure of HIV progression.
Split ring resonators: the effect of titanium adhesion layers on the optical response
Lahiri, Basudev; Dylewicz, Rafal; McMeekin, Scott G.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.
2010-04-01
The response of metallic split ring resonators (SRRs) scales linearly with their dimensions. At higher frequencies, metals do not behave like perfect conductors but display properties characterized by the Drude model. In this paper we compare the responses of nano-sized gold-based SRRs at near infra-red wavelengths. Deposition of gold SRRs onto dielectric substrates typically involves the use of an additional adhesion layer. We have employed the commonly used metal titanium (Ti) to provide an adhesive layer for sticking gold SRRs to silicon substrates - and have investigated the effect of this adhesion layer on the overall response of these gold SRRs. Both experimental and theoretical results show that even a two nm thick titanium adhesion layer can shift the overall SRR response by 20 nm.
Shakeri, Nadim; Jalili, Saeed; Ahmadi, Vahid; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Goliaei, Sama
2015-01-01
The problem of finding the Hamiltonian path in a graph, or deciding whether a graph has a Hamiltonian path or not, is an NP-complete problem. No exact solution has been found yet, to solve this problem using polynomial amount of time and space. In this paper, we propose a two dimensional (2-D) optical architecture based on optical electronic devices such as micro ring resonators, optical circulators and MEMS based mirror (MEMS-M) to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, for undirected graphs in linear time. It uses a heuristic algorithm and employs n+1 different wavelengths of a light ray, to check whether a Hamiltonian path exists or not on a graph with n vertices. Then if a Hamiltonian path exists, it reports the path. The device complexity of the proposed architecture is O(n2).
Photonic compressive sensing with a micro-ring-resonator-based microwave photonic filter
Chen, Ying; Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Zhijing; Chi, Hao; Zheng, Shilie; Zhang, Xianmin; Jin, Xiaofeng; Galili, Michael; Yu, Xianbin
2016-08-01
A novel approach to realize photonic compressive sensing (CS) with a multi-tap microwave photonic filter is proposed and demonstrated. The system takes both advantages of CS and photonics to capture wideband sparse signals with sub-Nyquist sampling rate. The low-pass filtering function required in the CS is realized in a photonic way by using a frequency comb and a dispersive element. The frequency comb is realized by shaping an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with an on-chip micro-ring resonator, which is beneficial to the integration of photonic CS. A proof-of-concept experiment for a two-tone signal acquisition with frequencies of 350 MHz and 1.25 GHz is experimentally demonstrated with a compression factor up to 16.
Normal-incidence left-handed metamaterials based on symmetrically connected split-ring resonators.
Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Ma, Hua; Xia, Song; Yang, Yiming; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Qian; Chen, Chunhui
2010-03-01
Normal-incidence left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) based on symmetrically connected split-ring resonators (SC-SRRs) were proposed and investigated numerically and experimentally. The SC-SRR, which can be easily fabricated by conventional printed circuit board technology, is composed of metallic patterns connected by metalized vias through the dielectric substrate. Under normal incidence, SC-SRR exhibits strong magnetic response, leading to negative permeability. By combing SC-SRRs with metallic wires, a normal-incidence LHM was realized. Both the simulation and experiment results demonstrated left-handed properties of the SC-SRR/wire LHM. The design method paved new ways of realizing magnetic and even electric metamaterials.
Electroinductive waves role in left-handed stacked complementary split rings resonators.
Beruete, M; Aznabet, M; Navarro-Cía, M; El Mrabet, O; Falcone, F; Aknin, N; Essaaidi, M; Sorolla, M
2009-02-01
In this letter it is presented a Left-Handed Metamaterial design route based upon stacked arrays of screens made of complementary split rings resonators under normal incidence in the microwave regime. Computation of the dispersion diagram highlights the possibility to obtain backward waves provided the longitudinal lattice is small enough. The experimental results are in good agreement with the computed ones. The physics underlying the Left-Handed behavior is found to rely on electroinductive waves, playing the mutual capacitive coupling the major role to explain the phenomenon. Our route to Left-Handed metamaterial introduced in this paper based on stacking CSRRs screens can be scaled to millimeter and terahertz for future applications.
Weak-periodic stochastic resonance in a parallel array of static nonlinearities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yumei Ma
Full Text Available This paper studies the output-input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR gain of an uncoupled parallel array of static, yet arbitrary, nonlinear elements for transmitting a weak periodic signal in additive white noise. In the small-signal limit, an explicit expression for the SNR gain is derived. It serves to prove that the SNR gain is always a monotonically increasing function of the array size for any given nonlinearity and noisy environment. It also determines the SNR gain maximized by the locally optimal nonlinearity as the upper bound of the SNR gain achieved by an array of static nonlinear elements. With locally optimal nonlinearity, it is demonstrated that stochastic resonance cannot occur, i.e. adding internal noise into the array never improves the SNR gain. However, in an array of suboptimal but easily implemented threshold nonlinearities, we show the feasibility of situations where stochastic resonance occurs, and also the possibility of the SNR gain exceeding unity for a wide range of input noise distributions.
Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A
2015-01-01
Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.
Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jiayang; Jin, Junjie; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Long; Bi, Zhuanfang; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong
2016-01-01
An improving structure for resonance optical gyro inserting a Mach-Zehnder Interferomete (MZI) into coupler region between ring resonator and straight waveguide was proposed. The different reference phase shift parameters in the MZI arms are tunable by thermo-optic effect and can be optimized at every rotation angular rate point without additional phase bias. Four optimum paths are formed to make the gyroscope to work always at the highest sensitivity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fufei Pang; Xiuyou Han; Haiwen Cai; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang
2005-01-01
@@ A planar lightwave circuit (PLC) add-drop filter is proposed and analyzed, which consists of a symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) combined with double microring resonators. A critical coupling condition is derived for a better box-like drop spectrum. Comparisons of its characteristics with other schemes,such as a MZI with a single ring resonator, are presented, and some of the issues about device design and fabrication are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZORAN JAKSIC
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Experimental nanofabrication of planar structures for one-dimensional metamaterials designed to achieve a negative effective refractive index in the mid-infrared range (5–10 micrometers was performed. Double split ring and complementary double split ring resonators (SRR and CSRR with square and circular geometries, were chosen to be fabricated since these are the basic building blocks to achieve a negative effective dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. Scanning probe nanolithography with z-scanner movement was used to fabricate straight-line and curvilinear segments with a line width of 80 – 120 nm. The geometries were delineated in 20 nm thin silver layers sputter-deposited on a positive photoresist substrate spin-coated on polished single crystal silicon wafers, as well as on polycarbonate slabs. The morphology of the structures was characterized by atomic force microscopy. The feature repeatibility was 60 – 150 nm, depending on the process conditions and the feature complexity. The nanolithographic groove depth in different samples ranged from 4 nm to 80 nm.
Small-Scale Gaps Near Resonance Locations in Saturn's A Ring
Brown, Zarah; Rehnberg, Morgan; Esposito, Larry W.; Albers, Nicole
2016-10-01
High-resolution Cassini stellar occultation data has allowed for the direct investigation of self-gravity wakes and other disturbances in ring-particle density that cause an observed azimuthal brightness asymmetry. Using Cassini UVIS occultation data collected between May 19 2005 and June 2 2013 (Cassini revolutions 8 - 191), we investigate small-scale gaps in Saturn's A ring, which may form between adjacent self-gravity wakes. Factors that affect the radial width and observation frequency of tenuous gap regions are investigated, including a discussion of how various occultation parameters alter gap detection. Here we show that gaps are wider within the wave trains than in surrounding unperturbed regions of the following inner Lindblad resonances (ILR): Janus 4:3, Janus 5:4, Janus 6:5 and Mimas 5:3. These trends are compared to those found at the Mimas 5:3 bending wave. Radial gap width and number density are compared in the peak and trough regions of the ILR wave trains.
Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator
Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M.; Stebbings, Sarah L.; Del'Haye, Pascal
2017-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors. PMID:28220865
Non-Linear High Amplitude Oscillations in Wave-shaped Resonators
Antao, Dion; Farouk, Bakhtier
2011-11-01
A numerical and experimental study of non-linear, high amplitude standing waves in ``wave-shaped'' resonators is reported here. These waves are shock-less and can generate peak acoustic overpressures that can exceed the ambient pressure by three/four times its nominal value. A high fidelity compressible axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic model is used to simulate the phenomena in cylindrical and arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric resonators. Working fluids (Helium, Nitrogen and R-134a) at various operating pressures are studied. The experiments are performed in a constant cross-section cylindrical resonator in atmospheric pressure nitrogen and helium to provide model validation. The high amplitude non-linear oscillations demonstrated can be used as a prime mover in a variety of applications including thermoacoustic cryocooling. The work reported is supported by the US National Science Foundation under grant CBET-0853959.
Analysis of internal resonance in a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamical system
Dai, Honghua; Wang, Xuechuan; Schnoor, Matt; Atluri, Satya N.
2017-08-01
This study is devoted to the analysis of the three-to-one internal resonance in a two degree-of-freedom system with cubic nonlinearity. Quasi-periodic motion is found to appear in the present system with internal resonance, while it does not show up in the case without internal resonance. Both the time domain collocation method and the harmonic balance method are applied to obtain the periodic solutions, and are compared with the benchmark solution of the numerical integration method. In contrast, the quasi-periodic solutions can only be captured via the numerical integration method. A combination of the phase plane portrait, Poincare map, and the frequency spectrum are employed to identify the quasi-periodic motions. A peculiar bifurcation-of-attraction-basin phenomenon is found and demonstrated. Moreover, for strongly nonlinear system subject to high external force, a long-lived chaotic transient is observed.
Lee, Ju Han; Takushima, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Kazuro
2005-10-01
We experimentally demonstrate a novel erbium-doped fiber based continuous-wave (cw) supercontinuum laser. The laser has a simple ring-cavity structure incorporating an erbium-doped fiber and a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNL-DSF). Differently from previously demonstrated cw supercontinuum sources based on single propagation of a strong Raman pump laser beam through a highly nonlinear fiber, erbium gain inside the cavity generates a seed light oscillation, and the oscillated light subsequently evolves into a supercontinuum by nonlinear effects such as modulation instability and stimulated Raman scattering in the HNL-DSF. High quality of the depolarized supercontinuum laser output with a spectral bandwidth larger than 250 nm is readily achieved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Zahertar
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this work, transmission characteristics of rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits are analyzed at microwave frequencies. The resonators are coupled with monopole antennas for excitation. The scattering parameters of the devices are investigated under different polarizations of E and H fields. The magnetic resonances induced by E and H fields are identified and the differences in the behavior of the resonators due to orientations of the fields are explained based on simulation and experimental results. The addition of the second split of the device is investigated considering different configurations of the excitation vectors. It is demonstrated that the single-split and the two-splits resonators exhibit identical transmission characteristics for a certain excitation configuration as verified with simulations and experiments. The presented resonators can effectively function as frequency selective media for varying excitation conditions.
Efficient Radiation by Electrically Small Antennas made of Coupled Split-ring Resonators
Peng, Liang; Chen, Peiwei; Wu, Aiting; Wang, Gaofeng
2016-09-01
In this paper, coupled split-ring resonators (SRRs) are used to construct the electrically small antennas. We show that through strong magnetic coupling, the coupled SRRs composite can oscillate at a wavelength much larger than its total size. Due to its magnetic dipole feature, the coupled SRRs composite allows the electromagnetic (EM) power to radiate and hence forms the electrically small antenna (ESA). Because of the high-Q resonance, the ESA could be easily matched to the driving circuit in the microwave region, through mutual induction approach. We also demonstrate that the radiation efficiency of such ESAs can be drastically improved if the current distribution on individual SRRs is similar, which is achievable by carefully designing the ESAs. From our simulations and experimental measurements, the ESAs’ radiation efficiency can reach up to 41%, with relative footprint of 0.05λ0 × 0.05λ0. Our approach would be an effective way to realize ESAs with high efficiency, which can be implemented on chip through the standard planar lithography.
Gold asymmetric-split ring resonators (A-SRRs) for proteins sensing
Paul, Jharna; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.
2016-04-01
In this paper, gold asymmetric-split ring resonators (A-SRRs) are used for proteins sensing in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral region. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octadecanethiol (ODT) in ethanolic solution were deposited on the resonator surfaces to immobilise protein molecules for their detection. Different diameters ASRRs were fabricated on zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrates using electron-beam lithography technique. Their plasmonic responses appear in the mid-IR spectral region and match with the vibrational responses of many organic molecules. After the formation of SAMs layer, one sample was immersed in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution for proteins adsorption while other sample was immersed in hydroxyl terminated hexa-ethylene glycol (EG6-OH) solution to modify SAMs surfaces to resist immobilisation of proteins. The vibrational responses of these organic molecules, all samples were excited using an incident broadband mid-IR light source and their reflectance spectra were measured at normal incidence using a microscope coupled Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. This study highlights the capability of plasmonic structures (A-SRRs) fabricated on transparent and high refractive index ZnSe substrates allows the detection of BSA proteins with enhanced detection in the mid-IR spectral range, demonstrating their potential for a wide range of sensing applications, e.g. in biomedical engineering and food industries.
A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Taha Jilnai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement.
Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.
Generation of THz frequency using PANDA ring resonator for THz imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ong CT
2012-02-01
Full Text Available MA Jalil1, Afroozeh Abdolkarim2, T Saktioto2, CT Ong3, Preecha P Yupapin41Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM,81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 2Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM, 81310, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3Department of Mathematics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 4Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Advanced Research Center for Photonics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, ThailandAbstract: In this study, we have generated terahertz (THz frequency by a novel design of microring resonators for medical applications. The dense wavelength-division multiplexing can be generated and obtained by using a Gaussian pulse propagating within a modified PANDA ring resonator and an add/drop filter system. Our results show that the THz frequency region can be obtained between 40–50 THz. This area of frequency provides a reliable frequency band for THz pulsed imaging.Keywords: THz imaging, THz technology, MRRs, PANDA, add/drop filter
A Microwave Ring-Resonator Sensor for Non-Invasive Assessment of Meat Aging
Jilani, Muhammad Taha; Wen, Wong Peng; Cheong, Lee Yen; ur Rehman, Muhammad Zaka
2016-01-01
The assessment of moisture loss from meat during the aging period is a critical issue for the meat industry. In this article, a non-invasive microwave ring-resonator sensor is presented to evaluate the moisture content, or more precisely water holding capacity (WHC) of broiler meat over a four-week period. The developed sensor has shown significant changes in its resonance frequency and return loss due to reduction in WHC in the studied duration. The obtained results are also confirmed by physical measurements. Further, these results are evaluated using the Fricke model, which provides a good fit for electric circuit components in biological tissue. Significant changes were observed in membrane integrity, where the corresponding capacitance decreases 30% in the early aging (0D-7D) period. Similarly, the losses associated with intracellular and extracellular fluids exhibit changed up to 42% and 53%, respectively. Ultimately, empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the electrical component values for a better understanding of aging effects. The measured and calculated values are found to be in good agreement. PMID:26805828
Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip.
Silverstone, J W; Santagati, R; Bonneau, D; Strain, M J; Sorel, M; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G
2015-08-06
Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale.
Son, Hyeok Woo; Cho, Young Ki; Kim, Byung Mun; Back, Hyun Man; Yoo, Hyoungsuk
2016-04-01
A new radio-frequency (RF) resonator for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging at clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is proposed in this paper. An approach based on the effects of the properties of metamaterials in split-ring resonators (SRRs) is used to design a new loop resonator with a SRR for NMR imaging. This loop resonator with a SRR is designed for NMR imaging at 3 T MRI systems. The 3D electromagnetic simulation was used to optimize the design of the proposed RF resonator and analyze it's performance at 3 T MRI systems. The proposed RF resonator provides strong penetrating magnetic fields at the center of the human phantom model, approximately 10%, as compared to the traditional loop-type RF resonator used for NMR imaging at clinical MRI systems. We also designed an 8-channel body coil for human-body NMR imaging by using the proposed loop resonator with a SRR. This body coil also produces more homogeneous and highly penetrating magnetic fields into the human phantom model.
Strongly driven nonlinear quantum optics in microring resonators
Vernon, Z
2015-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of strongly driven spontaneous four-wave mixing in a lossy integrated microring resonator side-coupled to a channel waveguide. A nonperturbative, analytic solution within the undepleted pump approximation is developed for a cw pump input of arbitrary intensity. In the strongly driven regime self- and cross-phase modulation, as well as multi-pair generation, lead to a rich variety of power-dependent effects; the results are markedly different than in the low power limit. The photon pair generation rate, single photon spectrum, and joint spectral intensity (JSI) distribution are calculated. Splitting of the generated single photon spectrum into a doublet structure associated with both pump detuning and cross-phase modulation is predicted, as well as substantial narrowing of the generated signal and idler bandwidths associated with the onset of optical parametric oscillation at intermediate powers. Both the correlated and uncorrelated contributions to the JSI are calculated, and fo...
Wavenumber resonance in nonlinear wave interactions in the wake of a flat plate
Davila, Jose Benigno
The spatial traits of nonlinear wave interactions in transitioning flow in the symmetric wake of a flat plate were studied. The study combines the use of hot wire anemometry and digital analysis techniques for extracting frequency and wavenumber information from velocity fluctuation time series measurements. The linear spatial coherence was computed from velocity fluctuation data in order to determine if the frequency modes behave as waves, that is, spatially coherent fluctuations with a well defined dispersion relation. A new method was used to compute the mode triad wavenumber mismatch. The results were used to determine to what extent wavenumber resonance is present among quadratically interacting frequency resonant modes, as predicted by resonant wave interaction theory. The results show that, in the early part of the transition, instability modes interact nonlinearity to generate spatially coherent modes at frequencies above the instability range. Quadratically interacting, frequency resonant mode triads involve the transfer of energy to the harmonics of the fundamental instability exhibit good wavenumber resonance, as predicted by resonant wave interaction theory.
Arrays of Ag split-ring resonators coupled to InGaAs single-quantum-well gain
Meinzer, Nina; Linden, Stefan; Soukoulis, Costas M; Khitrova, Galina; Hendrickson, Joshua; Olitsky, Joshua D; Gibbs, Hyatt M; Wegener, Martin
2010-01-01
We study arrays of silver split-ring resonators operating at around 1.5-{\\mu}m wavelength coupled to an MBE-grown single 12.7-nm thin InGaAs quantum well separated only 4.8 nm from the wafer surface. The samples are held at liquid-helium temperature and are pumped by intense femtosecond optical pulses at 0.81-{\\mu}m center wavelength in a pump-probe geometry. We observe much larger relative transmittance changes (up to about 8%) on the split-ring-resonator arrays as compared to the bare quantum well (not more than 1-2%). We also observe a much more rapid temporal decay component of the differential transmittance signal of 15 ps for the case of split-ring resonators coupled to the quantum well compared to the case of the bare quantum well, where we find about 0.7 ns. The latter observation is ascribed to the Purcell effect that arises from the evanescent coupling of the split-ring resonators to the quantum-well gain. All experimental results are compared with a recently introduced analytical toy model that acc...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias
2016-01-01
We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron bombardm...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias;
2016-01-01
We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron...
Ring resonator-based on-chip PM-IM Convertor for high-performance microwave photonic links
Zhuang, L.; Taddei, Caterina; Hoekman, M.; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene; van Dijk, Paul; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.
2013-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband photonic PM-IM convertor for performance improvement of phase-modulated microwave photonic links, which uses a simple architecture based on ring resonators. The full programmability of the proposed device allows arbitrary optical amplitude and phase
Nonlinear mode coupling and internal resonances in MoS2 nanoelectromechanical system
Samanta, C.; Yasasvi Gangavarapu, P. R.; Naik, A. K.
2015-10-01
Atomically thin two dimensional (2D) layered materials have emerged as a new class of material for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) due to their extraordinary mechanical properties and ultralow mass density. Among them, graphene has been the material of choice for nanomechanical resonator. However, recent interest in 2D chalcogenide compounds has also spurred research in using materials such as MoS2 for the NEMS applications. As the dimensions of devices fabricated using these materials shrink down to atomically thin membrane, strain and nonlinear effects have become important. A clear understanding of the nonlinear effects and the ability to manipulate them is essential for next generation sensors. Here, we report on all electrical actuation and detection of few-layer MoS2 resonator. The ability to electrically detect multiple modes and actuate the modes deep into the nonlinear regime enables us to probe the nonlinear coupling between various vibrational modes. The modal coupling in our device is strong enough to detect three distinct internal resonances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. N. Kawakatsu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present a theoretical study of reflection and transmission characteristics of a microwave planar array on a thin dielectric substrate with unit cell made of two concentric rings. This array possesses high quality factor transmission resonance with polarization insensitivity for normally incident plane wave. This resonance is defined by the trapped-mode regime. We show that for oblique incidence, there are some differences in characteristics of the array and a small change in quality factor of the trapped-mode resonance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)
2016-09-15
Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.
Wang, Geng; Su, Zhenpeng; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shui
2017-02-01
Cyclotron resonant scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves has been considered to be responsible for the rapid loss of radiation belt high-energy electrons. For parallel-propagating EMIC waves, the nonlinear character of cyclotron resonance has been revealed in recent studies. Here we present the first study on the nonlinear fundamental and harmonic cyclotron resonant scattering of radiation belt ultrarelativistic electrons by oblique EMIC waves on the basis of test particle simulations. Higher wave obliquity produces stronger nonlinearity of harmonic resonances but weaker nonlinearity of fundamental resonance. Compared to the quasi-linear prediction, these nonlinear resonances yield a more rapid loss of electrons over a wider pitch angle range. In the quasi-linear regime, the ultrarelativistic electrons are lost in the equatorial pitch angle range αeq87.5° at ψ = 20° and 40°. At the resonant pitch angles αeq<75°, the difference between quasi-linear and nonlinear loss timescales tends to decrease with the wave normal angle increasing. At ψ = 0° and 20°, the nonlinear electron loss timescale is 10% shorter than the quasi-linear prediction; at ψ = 40°, the difference in loss timescales is reduced to <5%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waldemar Moliński
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper shows results of specific elastic modulus and specific tensile strength in the resonance spruce wood [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in relation to its heterogeneity within individual annual rings. It also presents changes in the average values of microfibril angle in S2 layer measured in tangential walls of tracheids (MFA within individual annual rings. On the grounds of the results, it can be concluded that specific modulus of elasticity and specific tensile strength of wood are strongly influenced by the position of the sample in annual rings. Generally, the values of these parameters increase along the width of annual rings. It is also noted that the specific modulus of elasticity and specific tensile strength depend on MFA. As MFA decreases, the values of these parameters increase.
Bifurcation and Resonance of a Mathematical Model for Non-Linear Motion of a Flooded Ship in Waves
Murashige, S.; Aihara, K.; Komuro, M.
1999-02-01
A flooded ship can exhibit undesirable non-linear roll motion even in waves of moderate amplitude. In order to understand the mechanism of this non-linear phenomenon, the non-linearly coupled dynamics of a ship and flood water are considered using a mathematical model for the simplified motion of a flooded ship in regular beam waves. This paper describes bifurcation and resonance of this coupled system. A bifurcation diagram shows that large-amplitude subharmonic motion exists in a wide range of parameters, and that the Hopf bifurcation is observed due to the dynamic effects of flood water. Resonance frequencies can be determined by linearization of this model. Comparison between the resonant points and the bifurcation curves suggests that non-linear resonance of this model can bring about large-amplitude subharmonic motion, even if it is in the non-resonate state of the linearized system.
Heteroclinic structure of parametric resonance in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation
Conforti, M; Kudlinski, A; Rota-Nodari, S; Dujardin, G; De Bievre, S; Armaroli, A; Trillo, S
2016-01-01
We show that the nonlinear stage of modulational instability induced by parametric driving in the {\\em defocusing} nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation can be accurately described by combining mode truncation and averaging methods, valid in the strong driving regime. The resulting integrable oscillator reveals a complex hidden heteroclinic structure of the instability. A remarkable consequence, validated by the numerical integration of the original model, is the existence of breather solutions separating different Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrent regimes. Our theory also shows that optimal parametric amplification unexpectedly occurs outside the bandwidth of the resonance (or Arnold tongues) arising from the linearised Floquet analysis.
Werchner, M; Schafer, M; Kira, M; Koch, S W; Sweet, J; Olitzky, J D; Hendrickson, J; Richards, B C; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M; Poddubny, A N; Ivchenko, E L; Voronov, M; Wegener, M
2009-04-13
A detailed experimental and theoretical study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of different Fibonacci-spaced multiple-quantum-well structures is presented. Systematic numerical studies are performed for different average spacing and geometrical arrangement of the quantum wells. Measurements of the linear and nonlinear (carrier density dependent) reflectivity are shown to be in good agreement with the computational results. As the pump pulse energy increases, the excitation-induced dephasing broadens the exciton resonances resulting in a disappearance of sharp features and reduction in peak reflectivity.
Nonlinear resonances in a class of multi-degree-of-freedom systems
Sridhar, S.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Mook, D. T.
1975-01-01
An analysis is presented of the superharmonic, subharmonic, and combination resonances in a multi-degree-of-freedom system which has cubic nonlinearity and modal viscous damping and is subject to harmonic excitation. It is shown that, in the absence of internal resonances, the steady-state response contains only the modes which are directly excited. It is shown that, in the presence of internal resonances, modes other than those that are directly excited can appear in the response. The strong influence of internal resonances is exhibited in numerical examples involving hinged-clamped beams. It is shown that when a multimode solution exists the lowest mode can dominate the response, even when it is not directly excited.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welsch, Dominic Markus
2010-03-10
The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a
Kim, Tae-Ryong; Kim, Hong-Seung; Li, Jun; Oh, Geum-Yoon; Kim, Doo-Gun; Choi, Young-Wan
2015-03-01
In this paper, surface plasmon resonance triangular ring resonator (SPR-TRR) Vernier structure based on InP is simulated for index variation from 1.33 to 1.35. Sensing area of SPR-TRR is achieved to make an ultra-compact SPR mirror by deposition of Au film layer which is designed to deposit on vertex of TRR. The possibility of mass production is shown by a deposition of SPR mirror on the triangular ring resonator (TRR). Also, the sensitivity enhancement of an envelope signal for Vernier effect is confirmed by FDTD simulation compared to SPR-TRR. As simulation results, the sensitivity is enhanced 20 nm / RIU to 480 nm / RIU. Thus, SPR-TRR Vernier structure is used for a biosensor to enhance the sensitivity of biosensor.
Bykov, Andrei M; Osipov, Sergei M; Vladimirov, Andrey E
2014-01-01
We present a nonlinear Monte Carlo model of efficient diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) where the magnetic turbulence responsible for particle diffusion is calculated self-consistently from the resonant cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instability, together with non-resonant short- and long-wavelength CR-current-driven instabilities. We include the backpressure from CRs interacting with the strongly amplified magnetic turbulence which decelerates and heats the super-alfvenic flow in the extended shock precursor. Uniquely, in our plane-parallel, steady-state, multi-scale model, the full range of particles, from thermal (~eV) injected at the viscous subshock, to the escape of the highest energy CRs (~PeV) from the shock precursor, are calculated consistently with the shock structure, precursor heating, magnetic field amplification (MFA), and scattering center drift relative to the background plasma. In addition, we show how the cascade of turbulence to shorter wavelengths influences the total shock compression, the d...
Nonlinear Forced Vibration of a Viscoelastic Buckled Beam with 2 : 1 Internal Resonance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu-Yang Xiong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of a viscoelastic buckled beam subjected to primary resonance in the presence of internal resonance is investigated for the first time. For appropriate choice of system parameters, the natural frequency of the second mode is approximately twice that of the first providing the condition for 2 : 1 internal resonance. The ordinary differential equations of the two mode shapes are established using the Galerkin method. The problem is replaced by two coupled second-order differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. The multiple scales method is applied to derive the modulation-phase equations. Steady-state solutions of the system as well as their stability are examined. The frequency-amplitude curves exhibit the steady-state response in the directly excited and indirectly excited modes due to modal interaction. The double-jump, the saturation phenomenon, and the nonperiodic region phenomena are observed illustrating the influence of internal resonance. The validity range of the analytical approximations is assessed by comparing the analytical approximate results with a numerical solution by the Runge-Kutta method. The unstable regions in the internal resonance are explored via numerical simulations.
A new model for nonlinear acoustic waves in a non-uniform lattice of Helmholtz resonators
Mercier, Jean-François
2016-01-01
Propagation of high amplitude acoustic pulses is studied in a 1D waveguide, connected to a lattice of Helmholtz resonators. An homogenized model has been proposed by Sugimoto (J. Fluid. Mech., 244 (1992)), taking into account both the nonlinear wave propagation and various mechanisms of dissipation. This model is extended to take into account two important features: resonators of different strengths and back-scattering effects. The new model is derived and is proved to satisfy an energy balance principle. A numerical method is developed and a better agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained.
Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems
Zaikin, Alexei
2003-02-01
Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich
The nonlinear saturation of the non-resonant kinetically driven streaming instability
Gargate, L; Niemiec, J; Pohl, M; Bingham, R; Silva, L O
2010-01-01
A non-resonant instability for the amplification of the interstellar magnetic field in young Supernova Remnant (SNR) shocks was predicted by Bell (2004), and is thought to be relevant for the acceleration of cosmic ray (CR) particles. For this instability, the CRs streaming ahead of SNR shock fronts drive electromagnetic waves with wavelengths much shorter than the typical CR Larmor radius, by inducing a current parallel to the background magnetic field. We explore the nonlinear regime of the non-resonant mode using Particle-in-Cell (PIC) hybrid simulations, with kinetic ions and fluid electrons, and analyze the saturation mechanism for realistic CR and background plasma parameters. In the linear regime, the observed growth rates and wavelengths match the theoretical predictions; the nonlinear stage of the instability shows a strong reaction of both the background plasma and the CR particles, with the saturation level of the magnetic field varying with the CR parameters. The simulations with CR-to-background ...
Non-equilibrium many-body effects in driven nonlinear resonator arrays
Grujic, T; Angelakis, D G; Jaksch, D
2012-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium behavior of optically driven dissipative coupled resonator arrays. Assuming each resonator is coupled with a two-level system via a Jaynes-Cummings interaction, we calculate the many-body steady state behavior of the system under coherent pumping and dissipation. We propose and analyze the many-body phases using experimentally accessible quantities such as the total excitation number, the emitted photon spectra and photon coherence functions for different parameter regimes. In parallel, we also compare and contrast the expected behavior of this system assuming the local nonlinearity in the cavities is generated by a generic Kerr effect rather than a Jaynes-Cummings interaction. We find that the behavior of the experimentally accessible observables produced by the two models differs for realistic regimes of interactions even when the corresponding nonlinearities are of similar strength. We analyze in detail the extra features available in the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard (JCH) model ori...
Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of clamped laminated shallow shells with one-to-one internal resonance
Abe, Akira; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Yamada, Gen
2007-07-01
This paper investigates one-to-one internal resonance of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. It is assumed that the natural frequencies ω2 and ω3 of two asymmetric (second and third) vibration modes have the relationship ω2≈ ω3. The displacements are expressed by using eigenvectors for linear vibration modes calculated by the Ritz method. Applying Galerkin's procedure to the equation of motion, nonlinear differential equations are derived. By considering the first vibration mode in addition to the two asymmetric vibration modes, quadratic nonlinear terms expressing the interaction between the asymmetric and the first modes appear in the differential equations. Shooting method is used to obtain the steady-state response when the driving frequency Ω is near ω2. The dynamic characteristics of the shells with the internal resonance are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)
2014-01-15
The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.
A frequency up-converting harvester based on internal resonance in 2-DOF nonlinear systems
Wu, Yipeng; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli
2016-11-01
This paper reports the design and experimental testing of a novel frequency up- converting piezoelectric energy harvester. The harvester is firstly approximated as a 2-degree- of-freedom cubic nonlinear system instead of the general Duffing systems. A 1:3 internal resonance innovatively applied in the frequency up-conversion approach is thoroughly investigated. Finally, the theoretical dynamic model confirmed by the experimental results clearly shows the effect of the frequency up-conversion.
Rabi oscillations of two-photon states in nonlinear optical resonators
Sherkunov, Y.; Whittaker, David M.; Fal'ko, Vladimir
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that four-wave mixing processes in high-quality nonlinear resonators can lead to Rabi-like oscillations in photon occupation numbers and second-order correlation functions, being a characteristic feature of the presence of entangled photon pairs in the optical signal. In the case of a system driven by a continuous coherent pump, the oscillations occur in the transient regime. We show that driving the system with pulsed coherent pumping would generate strongly antibunched photon states.
Karhu, J.; Nauta, J.; Vainio, M.; Metsälä, M.; Hoekstra, S.; Halonen, L.
2016-06-01
A novel mid-infrared/near-infrared double resonant absorption setup for studying infrared-inactive vibrational states is presented. A strong vibrational transition in the mid-infrared region is excited using an idler beam from a singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, to populate an intermediate vibrational state. High output power of the optical parametric oscillator and the strength of the mid-infrared transition result in efficient population transfer to the intermediate state, which allows measuring secondary transitions from this state with a high signal-to-noise ratio. A secondary, near-infrared transition from the intermediate state is probed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which provides high sensitivity in this wavelength region. Due to the narrow linewidths of the excitation sources, the rovibrational lines of the secondary transition are measured with sub-Doppler resolution. The setup is used to access a previously unreported symmetric vibrational state of acetylene, ν 1 + ν 2 + ν 3 + ν4 1 + ν5 - 1 in the normal mode notation. Single-photon transitions to this state from the vibrational ground state are forbidden. Ten lines of the newly measured state are observed and fitted with the linear least-squares method to extract the band parameters. The vibrational term value was measured to be at 9775.0018(45) cm-1, the rotational parameter B was 1.162 222(37) cm-1, and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameter D was 3.998(62) × 10-6 cm-1, where the numbers in the parenthesis are one-standard errors in the least significant digits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Souayeh Saoussen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The collective nonlinear dynamics of a coupled array of nanocantilevers is investigated while taking into account the main sources of nonlinearities. The amplitude and phase equations of this device, subject to parametric and internal resonances, are analytically derived by means of a multi-modal Galerkin discretization coupled with a multiscale analysis. Based on the steady-state solutions of these equations, the frequency responses are numerically computed for a two-beam array. The effects of different parameters are investigated and several dynamical aspects are confirmed by numerical simulations. Particularly, we have demonstrated that the bifurcation topology transfer is imposed by the first nanocantilever and it can be general to the collective nonlinear dynamics of the NEMS array.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯之超; 祖武争
2004-01-01
Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed on moving belts subjected to geometric nonlinearity and initial tension fluctuation.To incorporate more accurately the damping mechanism of belt material, linear viscoelastic models are adopted in a unified form of differential operators.To circumvent high-order differential vibration equation of time-varying coefficients and with gyroscopic and nonlinear terms, where analytical solution is almost impossible, a systematic approach is presented by reforming the motion equation and directly using the method of multiple scales.To exemplify the procedure, the solutions at principal resonance are obtained and their stability conditions are derived for employing a Kelvin-Voigt model to reflect the property of the belt material.The solutions and stability conditions successfully reduce to those for using Kelvin model and elastic model, which validate the present approaches.Numerical simulations highlight the effects of tension fluctuations and translating speeds on the stability of the belt vibration.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hamed Farokhi; Mergen H Ghayesh
2016-01-01
This paper analyses the modal interactions in the nonlinear, size-dependent dynamics of geometrically imper-fect microplates. Based on the modified couple stress theory, the equations of motion for the in-plane and out-of-plane motions are obtained employing the von Kármán plate theory as well as Kirchhoff ’s hypotheses by means of the Lagrange equations. The equations of motions are solved using the pseudo-arclength continuation technique and direct time-integration method. The system parameters are tuned to the values associated with modal interactions, and then non-linear resonant responses and energy transfer are analysed. Nonlinear motion characteristics are shown in the form of frequency-response and force-response curves, time histo-ries, phase-plane portraits, and fast Fourier transforms.
Förner, K.; Polifke, W.
2017-10-01
The nonlinear acoustic behavior of Helmholtz resonators is characterized by a data-based reduced-order model, which is obtained by a combination of high-resolution CFD simulation and system identification. It is shown that even in the nonlinear regime, a linear model is capable of describing the reflection behavior at a particular amplitude with quantitative accuracy. This observation motivates to choose a local-linear model structure for this study, which consists of a network of parallel linear submodels. A so-called fuzzy-neuron layer distributes the input signal over the linear submodels, depending on the root mean square of the particle velocity at the resonator surface. The resulting model structure is referred to as an local-linear neuro-fuzzy network. System identification techniques are used to estimate the free parameters of this model from training data. The training data are generated by CFD simulations of the resonator, with persistent acoustic excitation over a wide range of frequencies and sound pressure levels. The estimated nonlinear, reduced-order models show good agreement with CFD and experimental data over a wide range of amplitudes for several test cases.
Wang, Chun-Ta; Wang, Cheng-Yu; Yu, Jui-Hao; Kuo, I-Tun; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Jau, Hung-Chang; Chen, Yung-Jui; Lin, Tsung-Hsien
2016-01-25
This work develops a sensitivity-enhanced optical temperature sensor that is based on a silicon nitride (SiN) micro-ring resonator that incorporates nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cladding. As the ambient temperature changes, the refractive index of the NLCs, which have a large thermal-optical coefficient, dramatically varies. The change in the refractive index of the NLC cladding that is caused by the temperature shift can alter the effective refractive index of the micro-ring resonator and make the resonance wavelength very sensitive to the ambient temperature. The temperature-sensitivity of the device with 5CB cladding for TM-polarized light was measured to be as high as 1nm/°C between 25 and 33 °C and over 2nm/°C at temperatures close to clearing temperature of the 5CB cladding. The temperature-sensitivity of the proposed device is at least 55 times that of the micro-ring resonator with air cladding, whose temperature-dependent wavelength shift for TM-polarized light is 18pm/ °C.
Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Ahmadivand, Arash; Al-Amin, Chowdhury; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Shur, Michael; Pala, Nezih
2016-03-01
We propose and investigate in detail a novel tunable, compact, room temperature terahertz (THz) emitter using individual microdisk resonators for both optical and THz waves with the capability of radiating THz field in 0.5-10 THz range with tuning frequency resolution of 0.05 THz. Enhanced THz generation is achieved by employing a nonlinear optical disk resonator with a high value of second-order nonlinearity ( χ (2)) in order to facilitate the difference-frequency generation (DFG) via nonlinear mixing with the choice of two appropriate input infrared optical waves. Efficient coupling of infrared waves from bus to the nonlinear disk is ensured by satisfying critical coupling condition. Phase matching condition for efficient DFG process is also met by employing modal phase matching technique. Our simulations show that THz output power can be reached up to milliwatt (mW) level with high optical to THz conversion efficiency. The proposed source is Silicon on Insulator (SoI) technology compatible enabling the monolithic integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics including plasmonic THz detectors.
Nonlinear Resonance of the Rotating Circular Plate under Static Loads in Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Yuda; WANG Tong
2015-01-01
The rotating circular plate is widely used in mechanical engineering, meanwhile the plates are often in the electromagnetic field in modern industry with complex loads. In order to study the resonance of a rotating circular plate under static loads in magnetic field, the nonlinear vibration equation about the spinning circular plate is derived according to Hamilton principle. The algebraic expression of the initial deflection and the magneto elastic forced disturbance differential equation are obtained through the application of Galerkin integral method. By mean of modified Multiple scale method, the strongly nonlinear amplitude-frequency response equation in steady state is established. The amplitude frequency characteristic curve and the relationship curve of amplitude changing with the static loads and the excitation force of the plate are obtained according to the numerical calculation. The influence of magnetic induction intensity, the speed of rotation and the static loads on the amplitude and the nonlinear characteristics of the spinning plate are analyzed. The proposed research provides the theory reference for the research of nonlinear resonance of rotating plates in engineering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvain Haupert
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of a nonlinear ultrasound technique, the so-called nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS technique, for detecting early microdamage accumulation in cortical bone induced by four-point bending fatigue. Small parallelepiped beam-shaped human cortical bone specimens were subjected to cyclic four-point bending fatigue in several steps. The specimens were prepared to control damage localization during four-point bending fatigue cycling and to unambiguously identify resonant modes for NRUS measurements. NRUS measurements were achieved to follow the evolution of the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior during fatigue-induced damage. After each fatigue step, a small number of specimens was removed from the protocol and set apart to quantitatively assess the microcrack number density and length using synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-µCT. The results showed a significant effect of damage steps on the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior. No significant change in the overall length of microcracks was observed in damaged regions compared to the load-free control regions. Only an increased number of shortest microcracks, those in the lowest quartile, was noticed. This was suggestive of newly formed microcracks during the early phases of damage accumulation. The variation of nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior was significantly correlated to the variation of the density of short microcracks. Our results suggest that the nonlinear hysteretic elastic behavior is sensitive to early bone microdamage. Therefore NRUS technique can be used to monitor fatigue microdamage progression in in vitro experiments.
Kim, I. K.; Lee, S. I.
2013-09-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a resonating carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever having an attached mass at the tip ("tip mass") were investigated by incorporating electrostatic forces and intermolecular interactions between the CNT and a conducting plane surface. This work enables applications of CNT resonating sensors for tiny mass detection and provides a better understanding of the dynamics of CNT cantilevers. The effect of tip mass on a resonating CNT cantilever is normally characterized by the fundamental frequency shift in the linear resonance regime. However, there are more complex dynamics in the nonlinear resonance regime, such as secondary resonances with parametric excitation. The latter have been limited to nano-cantilevers without tip mass or to axially excited micro-beams. To analyze the nonlinear dynamics, we developed a differential equation model that includes both geometric and inertial nonlinear terms for the large vibration amplitudes at increasing drive forces. In our approach, we used Galerkin discretization techniques and numerical integration methods. The CNT cantilever exhibited complex nonlinear responses due to the applied AC and DC voltages and various tip masses. The nonlinear model had a softer response for increasing tip mass than those of the linear model with the same driving conditions. At low applied voltages, the cantilever had linear amplitude and phase responses at primary and secondary superharmonic resonance frequencies. The response branches were softened at the primary resonance through saddle-node (SN) bifurcation from harmonic electrostatic excitation at higher applied voltages. After SN bifurcation, the lower branch of the solution near resonance became unstable. In addition, theoretical analyses were performed on more complex nonlinear responses and stability changes with tip mass variations, such as period-doubling (PD) bifurcation at subharmonic resonance frequencies.
Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator
Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang
2014-10-01
Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.
A study on refractive index sensors based on optical micro-ring resonators
Tsigaridas, Georgios N.
2017-09-01
In this work, the behavior of refractive index sensors based on optical micro-ring resonators is studied in detail. Using a result of waveguide perturbation theory in combination with numerical simulations, the optimum design parameters of the system, maximizing the sensitivity of the sensor, are determined. It is found that, when optimally designed, the sensor can detect relative refractive index changes of the order of Δ n/ n≈3×10-4, assuming that the experimental setup can detect relative wavelength shifts of the order of Δ λ/λ≈3×10-5. The behavior of the system as bio-sensor has also been examined. It is found that, when optimally designed, the system can detect refractive index changes of the order of Δ n≈10-3 for a layer thickness of t=10 nm, and changes in the layer thickness of the order of λ t≈0.24 nm, for a refractive index change of Δ n=0.05.
Nouman, Muhammad Tayyab; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Jang, Jae-Hyung
2016-12-01
Planar metasurface based quarter-wave plates offer various advantages over conventional waveplates in terms of compactness, flexibility and simple fabrication; however they offer very narrow bandwidth of operation. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz (THz) metasurface capable of linear to circular polarization conversion and vice versa in a wide frequency range. The proposed metasurface is based on horizontally connected split ring resonators and is realized on an ultrathin (0.05λ) zeonor substrate. The fabricated quarter waveplate realizes linear to circular polarization conversion in two broad frequency bands comprising 0.64-0.82 THz and 0.96-1.3 THz with an insertion loss ranging from -3.9 to -10 dB. By virtue of ultrathin sub wavelength thickness, the proposed waveplate design is well suited for application in near field THz optical systems. Additionally, the proposed metasurface design offers novel transmission phase characteristics that present further opportunities to realize dynamic polarization control of incident waves.
Chip-integrated optical power limiter based on an all-passive micro-ring resonator.
Yan, Siqi; Dong, Jianji; Zheng, Aoling; Zhang, Xinliang
2014-10-20
Recent progress in silicon nanophotonics has dramatically advanced the possible realization of large-scale on-chip optical interconnects integration. Adopting photons as information carriers can break the performance bottleneck of electronic integrated circuit such as serious thermal losses and poor process rates. However, in integrated photonics circuits, few reported work can impose an upper limit of optical power therefore prevent the optical device from harm caused by high power. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a feasible integrated scheme based on a single all-passive micro-ring resonator to realize the optical power limitation which has a similar function of current limiting circuit in electronics. Besides, we analyze the performance of optical power limiter at various signal bit rates. The results show that the proposed device can limit the signal power effectively at a bit rate up to 20 Gbit/s without deteriorating the signal. Meanwhile, this ultra-compact silicon device can be completely compatible with the electronic technology (typically complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology), which may pave the way of very large scale integrated photonic circuits for all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems.
Farhat, Mohamed
2014-08-01
We present in this paper a theoretical and numerical analysis of bending waves localized on the boundary of a platonic crystal whose building blocks are Split Ring Resonators (SRR). We first derive the homogenized parameters of the structured plate using a three-scale asymptotic expansion in the linearized biharmonic equation. In the limit when the wavelength of the bending wave is much larger than the typical heterogeneity size of the platonic crystal, we show that it behaves as an artificial plate with an anisotropic effective Young modulus and a dispersive effective mass density. We then analyze dispersion diagrams associated with bending waves propagating within an infinite array of SRR, for which eigen-solutions are sought in the form of Floquet-Bloch waves. We finally demonstrate that this structure displays the hallmarks of All-Angle Negative Refraction (AANR) and it leads to superlensing and ultrarefraction effects, interpreted thanks to our homogenization model as a consequence of negative and vanishing effective density, respectively. © EPLA, 2014.
Electromagnetic noise in electric circuits: Ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuji Kitora
2014-11-01
Full Text Available It is generally believed that electromagnetic noise originates from the coupling of electric signals in a circuit with electric signals in surrounding materials in the environment. However, the noise phenomenon had not been quantified until now. In order to study the phenomenon of noise, we considered a standard circuit (two transmission lines, to which an additional transmission line was introduced in order to explicitly take into account the effect of conductors in the environment. We performed calculations using a newly developed multiconductor transmission-line theory for the resulting three-line circuit in order to determine the magnitude of the coupling between the circuit and the conductors in the environment under various conditions. We observed ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode, which influenced the performance of the normal mode as electromagnetic noise. Our findings were confirmed by recent experiments in which conductor lines were arranged in various ways using a printed circuit board (PCB. The ordinary usage of electricity in the standard electric circuit was found to be worst in exciting the common mode noise.
A Novel Symmetrical Split Ring Resonator Based on Microstrip for Microwave Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alahnomi Rammah A.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, novel symmetrical split ring resonator (SSRR is proposed as a suitable component for performance enhancement of microwave sensors. SSRR has been employed for enhancing the insertion loss of the microwave sensors. Using the same device area, we can achieve a high Q-factor of 141.54 from the periphery enhancement using Quasi-linear coupling SSRR, whereas loose coupling SSRR can achieve a Q-factor of 33.98 only. Using Quasi-linear coupling SSRR, the Q-factor is enhanced 4.16 times the loose coupling SSRR using the same device area. After the optimization was made, the SSRR sensor with loose coupling scheme has achieved a very high Qfactor value around 407.34 while quasi-linear scheme has achieved high Q-factor value of 278.78 at the same operating frequency with smaller insertion loss. Spurious passbands at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th harmonics have been completely suppressed well above -20 dB rejection level without visible changes in the passband filter characteristics. The most significant of using SSRR is to be used for various industrial applications such as food industry, quality control, bio-sensing medicine and pharmacy. The simulation result that Quasi-linear coupling SSRR is a viable candidate for the performance enhancement of microwave sensors has been verified.
Left-handed and right-handed metamaterials composed of split ring resonators and strip wires
Woodley, J. F.; Wheeler, M. S.; Mojahedi, M.
2005-06-01
The behavior of two structures composed of split ring resonators (SRRs) and strip wires (SWs) is examined through full wave simulations. It is shown that both structures exhibit a transmission peak in the region where the real parts of the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are presumed to be negative, a property which is usually assumed to imply a negative index of refraction. However, an analysis of the dispersion characteristics and insertion phase of the two structures shows that the first structure, in which the SRRs and SWs are printed on opposite sides of a dielectric substrate, is a left-handed medium in the passband, whereas the second structure, in which SRRs and SWs are printed on the same side, is a right-handed medium in the passband. Hence the transmission magnitude alone does not provide sufficient evidence of a negative index of refraction. To determine the sign of the index correctly, the insertion phase for propagation through several lengths of the structure or calculations of dispersion diagrams are necessary. The impact of the unit cell size on the “handedness” of the structure is also examined.
A photonic analog of Möbius strips using coupled optical ring resonators
Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Tie-Jun; Chen, Jing
2017-02-01
A Möbius strip has an intriguing topological property in that it only has one non-orientable side. Here we propose to utilize coupled optical ring resonators (ORRs) to simulate the topological effect of Möbius strips. This scheme is based on the fact that the counter-clockwise mode in an ORR only couples to the clockwise mode of an adjacent ORR. We show that if an odd number of ORRs form a closed loop, after a round trip the handedness of the excited mode does not return to the initial one. Only after a double round trip does the mode come back to its initial state. Such a kind of Möbius-type coupling topology can be observed from the strong backward reflection in a common bus that provides the initial excitation. Eigenmodes, reflection and transmission spectra, and field distributions are calculated and analyzed. We also study the situation without Möbius-type coupling. The difference between these two categories is discussed. COMSOL simulations verify our analysis. The importance of this investigation and potential applications are briefly discussed.
Non-linear dynamics, entanglement and the quantum-classical crossover of two coupled SQUID rings
Everitt, M J
2009-01-01
We explore the quantum-classical crossover of two coupled, identical, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) rings. We note that the motivation for this work is based on a study of a similar system comprising two coupled Duffing oscillators. In that work we showed that the entanglement characteristics of chaotic and periodic (entrained) solutions differed significantly and that in the classical limit entanglement was preserved only in the chaotic-like solutions. However, Duffing oscillators are a highly idealised toy model. Motivated by a wish to explore more experimentally realisable systems we now extend our work to an analysis of two coupled SQUID rings. We observe some differences in behaviour between the system that is based on SQUID rings rather than on Duffing oscillators. However, we show that the two systems share a common feature. That is, even when the SQUID ring's trajectories appear to follow (semi) classical orbits entanglement persists.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iton, L.E.
1977-01-01
Unusual spin resonance observations made on a sample of rare earth ion-exchanged Y-zeolite have been attributed to the presence of a ferromagnetic impurity, and are qualitatively explained in terms of existing theories on nonlinear behavior in ferromagnetic resonance at high power. The effects included foldover and bistable response below 136 K, due to classical, anisotropy-based nonlinearity; above 136 K, apparent subsidiary absorption--the Suhl instability driven by coupling of low-frequency spin wave modes to the main resonance--predominated. Modification of the surface anisotropy is suggested to account for the complete suppression of the low-temperature effects when the zeolity sample was cooled in air, the high-temperature effects persisting after this cooling but with a loss of orientational anisotropy. Brief room temperature evacuation of the sample was sufficient to regenerate the original effects. Some details of the resonance behavior are very similar to recently published observations from magnetite impurities; those were there attributed to field-induced transitions. The limitations under which a field-dependent Verwey transition could be used to rationalize such observations have been schematically expounded, and the importance of the microwave field again appears to be the dominating factor.
Nonlinear response of an ultracompact waveguide Fabry-Pérot resonator
Sederberg, S.; Elezzabi, A. Y.
2013-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate active tuning of an ultracompact silicon-on-insulator trapezoid Fabry-Pérot resonator having a volume of 5.31 μm3. We show that the ultrafast nonlinear dynamics arising from two-photon and free-carrier absorption can be used to achieve a signal attenuation of 66% in the device, and the changes in the steady-state resonant properties of the device resulting from the thermo-optic effect induce a large red-shift in its resonance of Δλ = 7.57 nm. It is envisaged that the insight gained from this class of device will be valuable in the integrated optics community as ultrafast modulators, and switches are designed to occupy smaller volumes.
Wang, Kun; Villano, Stephanie M; Dean, Anthony M
2016-03-28
The intramolecular ring closure reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbon radicals potentially play an important role for the formation of molecular weight growth species, especially during the pyrolysis and oxidation of alkenes under low to intermediate temperatures. In this work we investigated a series of intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of both allylic- and alkyl-type dienyl radicals. In the first set of reactions, a resonant linear radical is converted into a non-resonant cyclic radical. In the second set, a non-resonant linear alkenyl radical isomerizes to either a resonant cyclic radical or a cyclic carbinyl radical. In both cases, three different reaction schemes are examined based on the location of the partially-formed resonance structure in the cyclic transition state. For each reaction scheme, both the endo- and exo-pathways were investigated. High pressure rate parameters are obtained from the results of CBS-QB3 electronic structure calculations combined with canonical transition state theory calculations. The results are discussed in the context of a Benson-type model to examine the impact of the partially-formed resonance stabilization on both the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The results are compared to previously reported rate parameters for cycloaddition reactions of alkenyl radicals. The differences in the activation energies are primarily due to the bimolecular component of the activation energy. However, in some cases, the presence of the partial resonance structure significantly increases the strain energy for the ring that is formed in the transition state. The pre-exponential factors are also impacted by the formation of a partial resonance structure in the transition state. Lastly, the C6H9 potential energy surface is examined to show how the trends that are outlined here can be used to estimate rate parameters, which are needed to analyze pressure-dependent reaction systems.
Pasyar, N.; Yadipour, R.; Baghban, H.
2017-07-01
The proposed design of the optical memory unit cell contains dual micro ring resonators in which the effect of lasing without inversion (LWI) in three-level nano particles doped over the optical resonators or integrators as the gain segment is used for loss compensation. Also, an on/off phase shifter based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level quantum dots (QDs) has been used for data reading at requested time. Device minimizing for integrated purposes and high speed data storage are the main advantages of the optical integrator based memory.
Zhang, Xin; Jian, Jia-wen; Zheng, Yan-gong; Jin, Han; Zou, Jie
2016-07-01
A high-sensitivity sensor for multiple gases based on microring array filter and fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy system is proposed and demonstrated. The parameters of the resonators are designed so that the filtered signal from a broadband light source can be tuned with an absorption spectral line of gas. Therefore, through adding microring resonators horizontally and vertically, the number of target gases and filter range are increased. In this research, in the broad spectral range of about 0.9 μm, only the absorption spectral lines of target gases are filtered. The simulation results show that three target gases, CH4, CO2 and HF, can be simultaneously detected by the sensing system. Owing to the fiber loop ring-down spectroscopy, the whole system is optimized in mini-size and sensitivity, and we can choose different sensing methods to enhance the measurement accuracy for high and low concentration conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckle, H.-P.; Johannesson, H.; Stafford, C. A.
2001-07-02
We study the persistent currents induced by both the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects in a one-dimensional mesoscopic ring coupled to a sidebranch quantum dot at Kondo resonance. For privileged values of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher fluxes, the problem can be mapped onto an integrable model, exactly solvable by a Bethe ansatz. In the case of a pure magnetic Aharonov-Bohm flux, we find that the presence of the quantum dot has no effect on the persistent current. In contrast, the Kondo resonance interferes with the spin-dependent Aharonov-Casher effect to induce a current which, in the strong-coupling limit, is independent of the number of electrons in the ring.
Eckle, H P; Johannesson, H; Stafford, C A
2001-07-02
We study the persistent currents induced by both the Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects in a one-dimensional mesoscopic ring coupled to a sidebranch quantum dot at Kondo resonance. For privileged values of the Aharonov-Bohm-Casher fluxes, the problem can be mapped onto an integrable model, exactly solvable by a Bethe ansatz. In the case of a pure magnetic Aharonov-Bohm flux, we find that the presence of the quantum dot has no effect on the persistent current. In contrast, the Kondo resonance interferes with the spin-dependent Aharonov-Casher effect to induce a current which, in the strong-coupling limit, is independent of the number of electrons in the ring.