WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear radiative cooling

  1. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  2. Illumination and radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  3. Radiative cooling for thermophotovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sun, Xingshu; Bermel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Radiative cooling has recently garnered a great deal of attention for its potential as an alternative method for photovoltaic thermal management. Here, we will consider the limits of radiative cooling for thermal management of electronics broadly, as well as a specific application to thermal power generation. We show that radiative cooling power can increase rapidly with temperature, and is particularly beneficial in systems lacking standard convective cooling. This finding indicates that systems previously operating at elevated temperatures (e.g., 80°C) can be passively cooled close to ambient under appropriate conditions with a reasonable cooling area. To examine these general principles for a previously unexplored application, we consider the problem of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of heat to electricity via thermal radiation illuminating a photovoltaic diode. Since TPV systems generally operate in vacuum, convective cooling is sharply limited, but radiative cooling can be implemented with proper choice of materials and structures. In this work, realistic simulations of system performance are performed using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) techniques to capture thermal emitter radiation, PV diode absorption, and radiative cooling. We subsequently optimize the structural geometry within realistic design constraints to find the best configurations to minimize operating temperature. It is found that low-iron soda-lime glass can potentially cool the PV diode by a substantial amount, even to below ambient temperatures. The cooling effect can be further improved by adding 2D-periodic photonic crystal structures. We find that the improvement of efficiency can be as much as an 18% relative increase, relative to the non-radiatively cooled baseline, as well as a potentially significant improvement in PV diode lifetime.

  4. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  5. Radiative cooling for concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Jin, Xin; Sun, Xingshu; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Radiative cooling, a unique and uncommon passive cooling method for devices operating outdoors, has recently been demonstrated to be effective for photovoltaic thermal management. In this work, we investigate the effect of radiative cooling as a complement to existing passive cooling methods like convective cooling in a related system with much higher heat loads: a high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system. A feasible radiative cooler design addressing the thermal management challenges here is proposed. It consists of low-iron soda-lime glass with a porous layer on top as an antireflection coating and a diamond layer as heat spreader. It is found that the proposed structure has strong mid-IR emittance as well as high solar transmission, allowing radiative cooling under direct sunlight and low loss in the concentrated solar irradiance. A systematic simulation with realistic considerations is then performed. Compared with a conventional copper cooler, the lowest temperature reached by the proposed radiative cooler is 14 K lower. Furthermore, less area of the proposed cooler is needed to reach a standard target temperature (333.15 K) for steady-state operation under high concentrations for the crystalline silicon PV module. In order to compare the coolers quantitatively, a figure of merit - cooling power per weight - is introduced. At the target temperature, the proposed cooler is determined to have a cooling power per weight of 75 W/kg, around 3.7 times higher than that of the conventional copper cooler.

  6. Control of Non-linear Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing control laws for a marine cooling system used for cooling the main engine and auxiliary components aboard several classes of container vessels. We focus on achieving simple set point control for the system and do not consider compensation of the non......-linearities, closed circuit flow dynamics or transport delays that are present in the system. Control laws are therefore designed using classical control theory and the performance of the design is illustrated through two simulation examples....

  7. Nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Drake, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability is presented in a simple one-dimensional magnetized plasma. It is shown that the radiative condensation is typically a nonlinear instability---the growth of the instability is stronger once the disturbance reaches finite amplitude. Moreover, classical parallel thermal conduction is insufficient by itself to saturate the instability. Radiative collapse continues until the temperature in the high density condensation falls sufficiently to reduce the radiation rate

  8. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  9. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a mathematical model for a specific type of marine cooling system. The system in question is used for cooling the main engine and main engine auxiliary components, such as diesel generators, turbo chargers and main engine air coolers for certain classes...... of container ships. The purpose of the model is to describe the important dynamics of the system, such as nonlinearities, transport delays and closed circuit flow dynamics to enable the model to be used for control design and simulation. The control challenge is related to the highly non-standard type of step...

  10. Nonlinearity of radiation health effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Pollycove, M

    1998-01-01

    The prime concern of radiation protection policy since 1959 has been to protect DNA from damage. In 1994 the United Nations Scientific Community on the Effects of Atomic Radiation focused on biosystem response to radiation with its report Adaptive Responses to Radiation of Cells and Organisms. The 1995 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report Principles and Application of Collective Dose in Radiation Protection states that because no human data provides direct support ...

  11. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored.

  12. Heavy-ion cooling and radiative recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.

    1988-09-01

    There is presently a large number of ion storage rings under construction which will use electron cooling for increasing the phase-space density of the stored ions in order to gain luminosity and resolution advantages for a variety of experiments. In this review a more general introduction to the electron-cooling technique is given. The atomic-physics aspects of electron-ion interactions at low relative velocity are identified. One of the most important processes is electron-ion radiative recombination because it can have strong implications on the operation of a storage ring employing electron cooling. Estimates are given of the ion-beam lifetime, as limited by recombination losses, as a function of electron density and temperature and for all values of the atomic number Z of the ions. The use of recombination processes in the electron cooler for atomic spectroscopy of few-electron heavy ions is discussed along with their implication on diagnostics of electron cooling. (orig.)

  13. Compton Ring with Laser Radiative Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.; Zimmermann, F.

    2013-10-01

    Proposed is an enhancement of laser radiative cooling by utilizing laser pulses of small spatial and temporal dimensions, which interact only with a fraction of an electron bunch circulating in a storage ring. The dynamics of such electron bunch when laser photons scatter off the electrons at a collision point placed in a section with nonzero dispersion is studied. In this case of `asymmetric cooling', the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering where the laser spot size is larger than the electron beam; and the synchrotron oscillations are damped faster. Results of extensive simulations are presented for the performance optimization of Compton gamma-ray sources and damping rings.

  14. Electron dynamics with radiation and nonlinear wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowett, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    The physics of electron motion in storage rings is described by supplementing the Hamiltonian equations of motion with fluctuating radiation reaction forces to describe the effects of synchrotron radiation. This leads to a description of radiation damping and quantum diffusion in single-particle phase-space by means of Fokker-Planck equations. For practical purposes, most storage rings remain in the regime of linear damping and diffusion; this is discussed in some detail with examples, concentrating on longitudinal phase space. However special devices such as nonlinear wigglers may permit the new generation of very large rings to go beyond this into regimes of nonlinear damping. It is shown how a special combined-function wiggler can be used to modify the energy distribution and current profile of electron bunches

  15. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-01-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++, GAMANL, GRPANL and MGAU, typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service . The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted

  16. Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aaswath P; Anoma, Marc Abou; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-11-27

    Cooling is a significant end-use of energy globally and a major driver of peak electricity demand. Air conditioning, for example, accounts for nearly fifteen per cent of the primary energy used by buildings in the United States. A passive cooling strategy that cools without any electricity input could therefore have a significant impact on global energy consumption. To achieve cooling one needs to be able to reach and maintain a temperature below that of the ambient air. At night, passive cooling below ambient air temperature has been demonstrated using a technique known as radiative cooling, in which a device exposed to the sky is used to radiate heat to outer space through a transparency window in the atmosphere between 8 and 13 micrometres. Peak cooling demand, however, occurs during the daytime. Daytime radiative cooling to a temperature below ambient of a surface under direct sunlight has not been achieved because sky access during the day results in heating of the radiative cooler by the Sun. Here, we experimentally demonstrate radiative cooling to nearly 5 degrees Celsius below the ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Using a thermal photonic approach, we introduce an integrated photonic solar reflector and thermal emitter consisting of seven layers of HfO2 and SiO2 that reflects 97 per cent of incident sunlight while emitting strongly and selectively in the atmospheric transparency window. When exposed to direct sunlight exceeding 850 watts per square metre on a rooftop, the photonic radiative cooler cools to 4.9 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, and has a cooling power of 40.1 watts per square metre at ambient air temperature. These results demonstrate that a tailored, photonic approach can fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for energy efficiency. Further, the cold darkness of the Universe can be used as a renewable thermodynamic resource, even during the hottest hours of the day.

  17. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  18. Performance improvement of dry cooled advanced concentrating solar power plants using daytime radiative cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi; Khalili, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and recompression super critical carbon dioxide power cycles are analyzed. • Radiative cooling is investigated as the supplemental cooling for air cooled plants. • For simple super critical carbon dioxide cycle performance improvement is up to 5%. • For recompression super critical carbon dioxide cycle the improvement is up to 7.5%. - Abstract: In this study, utilization of daytime radiative cooling to enhance the performance of air-cooled concentrating solar thermal power plants is investigated. Water scarcity and environmental concerns are the driving forces for solar thermal power plants to use dry cooling systems. In order to overcome the energy conversion efficiency penalties associated with using air cooled technologies various supplemental cooling techniques have been proposed. Recent advancements in manufacturing structures with selective radiative properties have made the daytime radiative cooling to the cold outer space practical. In this work, the efficiency improvement of the air-cooled advanced supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles coupled with a radiative cooler is explored. It is shown that for the simple supercritical carbon dioxide cycle operating at hot source temperature equal 550 °C by employing 14.02 m 2 /kW e radiative cooler, it is possible to overcome the efficiency losses due to air cooling and the net output of the cycle improves by 5.0%. At hot source temperature equal 800 °C, the required radiative cooler area is 4.38 m 2 /kW e and respective performance improvement is equal 3.1%. For the recompression supercritical carbon dioxide cycle operating at hot source temperature equal 550 °C by employing 18.26 m 2 /kW e radiative cooler, it is possible to overcome the efficiency losses due to air cooling and the net output of the cycle improves by 7.5%. At hot source temperature equal 800 °C, the required radiative cooler area is 10.46 m 2 /kW e and respective performance improvement is equal 4.9%.

  19. Radiative sky cooling: fundamental physics, materials, structures, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingshu; Sun, Yubo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bermel, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Radiative sky cooling reduces the temperature of a system by promoting heat exchange with the sky; its key advantage is that no input energy is required. We will review the origins of radiative sky cooling from ancient times to the modern day, and illustrate how the fundamental physics of radiative cooling calls for a combination of properties that may not occur in bulk materials. A detailed comparison with recent modeling and experiments on nanophotonic structures will then illustrate the advantages of this recently emerging approach. Potential applications of these radiative cooling materials to a variety of temperature-sensitive optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaics, thermophotovoltaics, rectennas, and infrared detectors, will then be discussed. This review will conclude by forecasting the prospects for the field as a whole in both terrestrial and space-based systems.

  20. Effect of radiative cooling on collapsing charged grains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the clouds above Jeans mass may be caused by the electrostatic interaction of the plasma clouds [4,5], the condensation of the sub critical Jeans matter can be achieved via radiative cooling of its plasma particles [6–8] which along with the charged and neutral grains form its other constituents. The precise nature of cooling ...

  1. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  2. Cooling and trapping neutral atoms with radiative forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Castro, J.C.; Li, M.S.; Zilio, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques to slow and trap neutral atoms at high densities with radiative forces are discussed in this review articles. Among several methods of laser cooling, it is emphasized Zeeman Tuning of the electronic levels and frequency-sweeping techniques. Trapping of neutral atoms and recent results obtained in light and magnetic traps are discussed. Techniques to further cool atoms inside traps are presented and the future of laser cooling of neutral atoms by means of radiation pressure is discussed. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. MHD flow and nonlinear radiative heat transfer of Sisko nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Prasannakumara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of heat and mass transfer of Siskonanofluid flow over a nonlinear stretching sheet under the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation and chemical reaction is considered. suitable set of similarity transformations are implemented to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An efficient Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth–fifth order method along with shooting technique is employed to solve the reduced equations. The influence of several emerging physical parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for both linear and nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of linear and nonlinear thermal radiation has been studied and analyzed through plotted graphs and tables in detail. It is found that the Nusselt and Sherwood number are high in case of nonlinear stretching sheet than linear. Further, it is observed that the nonlinear thermal radiation has more influence on temperature profiles than linear.

  4. Radiative cooling in the nocturnal boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjemkes, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the transfer of infrared radiation (electromagnetic waves with a wavelength between 3.6 and 100 μm) through a cloudfree nocturnal boundary layer is studied. To simulate the transfer of infrared radiation an accurate narrow band model which simulates the absorption and

  5. Optimized thin film coatings for passive radiative cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshine, Babak B.; Saboonchi, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Passive radiative cooling is a very interesting method, which lays on low atmospheric downward radiation within 8-13 μm waveband at dry climates. Various thin film multilayer structures have been investigated in numerous experimental studies, in order to find better coatings to exploit the full potential of this method. However, theoretical works are handful and limited. In this paper, the Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm are used to optimize a thin film multilayer structure for passive radiative cooling applications. Spectral radiative properties are calculated through the matrix formulation. Considering a wide range of materials, 30 high-potential convective shields are suggested. According to the calculations, cooling can be possible even under direct sunlight, using the introduced shields. Moreover, a few water-soluble materials are studied for the first time and the results show that, a KBr substrate coated by a thin CaF2 or polyethylene film can is very close to an ideal coating for passive radiative cooling at night.

  6. On physical and numerical instabilities arising in simulations of non-stationary radiatively cooling shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjin, D. A.; Glazyrin, S. I.; Manukovskiy, K. V.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2016-06-01

    We describe our modelling of the radiatively cooling shocks and their thin shells with various numerical tools in different physical and calculational setups. We inspect structure of the dense shell, its formation and evolution, pointing out physical and numerical factors that sustain its shape and also may lead to instabilities. We have found that under certain physical conditions, the circular shaped shells show a strong bending instability and successive fragmentation on Cartesian grids soon after their formation, while remain almost unperturbed when simulated on polar meshes. We explain this by physical Rayleigh-Taylor-like instabilities triggered by corrugation of the dense shell surfaces by numerical noise. Conditions for these instabilities follow from both the shell structure itself and from episodes of transient acceleration during re-establishing of dynamical pressure balance after sudden radiative cooling onset. They are also easily excited by physical perturbations of the ambient medium. The widely mentioned non-linear thin shell instability, in contrast, in tests with physical perturbations is shown to have only limited chances to develop in real radiative shocks, as it seems to require a special spatial arrangement of fluctuations to be excited efficiently. The described phenomena also set new requirements on further simulations of the radiatively cooling shocks in order to be physically correct and free of numerical artefacts.

  7. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation.

  8. Performance analysis for minimally nonlinear irreversible refrigerators at finite cooling power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rui; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The coefficient of performance (COP) for general refrigerators at finite cooling power have been systematically researched through the minimally nonlinear irreversible model, and its lower and upper bounds in different operating regions have been proposed. Under the tight coupling conditions, we have calculated the universal COP bounds under the χ figure of merit in different operating regions. When the refrigerator operates in the region with lower external flux, we obtained the general bounds (0 present large values, compared to a relative small loss from the maximum cooling power. If the cooling power is the main objective, it is desirable to operate the refrigerator at a slightly lower cooling power than at the maximum one, where a small loss in the cooling power induces a much larger COP enhancement.

  9. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  10. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-02

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Energy nonlinearity in radiation detection materials: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, J.E.; Jordan, D.V.; Peurrung, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology and present theoretical understanding of energy nonlinearity (nonproportionality) in radiation detection materials is reviewed, with emphasis on gamma-ray spectroscopy. Scintillators display varying degrees and patterns of nonlinearity, while semiconductor detectors are extremely linear, and gas detectors show a characteristic form of nonproportionality associated with core levels. The relation between nonlinear response (to both primary particles and secondary electrons) and spectrometer resolution is also discussed. We review the qualitative ideas about the origin of nonlinearity in scintillators that have been proposed to date, with emphasis on transport and recombination of electronic excitations. Recent computational and experimental work on the basic physics of scintillators is leading towards a better understanding of energy nonlinearity and should result in new, more linear scintillator materials in the near future

  12. Nonlinear aspects of acoustic radiation force in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovsky, Lev, E-mail: Lev.A.Ostrovsky@noaa.gov [NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Tsyuryupa, Sergey; Sarvazyan, Armen, E-mail: armen@artannlabs.com [Artann Laboratories, Inc., 1459 Lower Ferry Rd., West Trenton, New Jersey,08618 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    In the past decade acoustic radiation force (ARF) became a powerful tool in numerous biomedical applications. ARF from a focused ultrasound beam acts as a virtual “finger” for remote probing of internal anatomical structures and obtaining diagnostic information. This presentation deals with generation of shear waves by nonlinear focused beams. Albeit the ARF has intrinsically nonlinear origin, in most cases the primary ultrasonic wave was considered in the linear approximation. In this presentation, we consider the effects of nonlinearly distorted beams on generation of shear waves by such beams.

  13. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  14. Nonlinear Phase Distortion in a Ti:Sapphire Optical Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) has been considered for future high-luminosity colliders as it offers much faster cooling time in comparison to the micro-wave stochastic cooling. The OSC technique relies on collecting and amplifying a broadband optical signal from a pickup undulator and feeding the amplified signal back to the beam. It creates a corrective kick in a kicker undulator. Owing to its superb gain qualities and broadband amplification features, Titanium:Sapphire medium has been considered as a gain medium for the optical amplifier (OA) needed in the OSC*. A limiting factor for any OA used in OSC is the possibility of nonlinear phase distortions. In this paper we experimentally measure phase distortions by inserting a single-pass OA into one leg of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The measurement results are used to estimate the reduction of the corrective kick a particle would receive due to these phase distortions in the kicker undulator.

  15. Renormalization-group approach to nonlinear radiation-transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method is derived for solving nonlinear radiation-transport problems that allows one to average over the effects of many photon absorptions and emissions at frequencies where the opacity is large. This method should allow one to treat radiation-transport problems with large optical depths, e.g., line-transport problems, with little increase in computational effort over that which is required for optically thin problems

  16. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Physics in Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, C. E.; Ganguli, G.; Tejero, E. M.; Amatucci, B.; Siefring, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    A sounding rocket experiment, Space Measurement of Rocket-Released Turbulence (SMART), can be used to probe the nonlinear response to a known stimulus injected into the radiation belt. Release of high-speed neutral barium atoms (8- 10 km/s) generated by a shaped charge explosion in the ionosphere can be used as the source of free energy to seed weak turbulence in the ionosphere. The Ba atoms are photo-ionized forming a ring velocity distribution of heavy Ba+ that is known to generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering will convert the lower hybrid waves into EM whistler/magnetosonic waves. The escape of the whistlers from the ionospheric region into the radiation belts has been studied and their observable signatures quantified. The novelty of the SMART experiment is to make coordinated measurement of the cause and effect of the turbulence in space plasmas and from that to deduce the role of nonlinear scattering in the radiation belts. Sounding rocket will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section that includes vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors. The goal of these measurements is to determine the whistler and lower hybrid wave amplitudes and spectrum in the ionospheric source region and look for precipitated particles. The Ba release may occur at 600-700 km near apogee. Ground based cameras and radio diagnostics can be used to characterize the Ba and Ba+ release. The Van Allen Probes can be used to detect the propagation of the scattering-generated whistler waves and their effects in the radiation belts. By detecting whistlers and measuring their energy density in the radiation belts the SMART mission will confirm the nonlinear generation of whistlers through scattering of lower hybrid along with other nonlinear responses of the radiation belts and their connection to weak turbulence.

  17. Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)

  18. Small global-mean cooling due to volcanic radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. M.; Andrews, T.; Good, P.; Mauritsen, T.; Forster, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    In both the observational record and atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations of the last ˜150 years, short-lived negative radiative forcing due to volcanic aerosol, following explosive eruptions, causes sudden global-mean cooling of up to ˜0.3 K. This is about five times smaller than expected from the transient climate response parameter (TCRP, K of global-mean surface air temperature change per W m-2 of radiative forcing increase) evaluated under atmospheric CO2 concentration increasing at 1 % yr-1. Using the step model (Good et al. in Geophys Res Lett 38:L01703, 2011. doi: 10.1029/2010GL045208), we confirm the previous finding (Held et al. in J Clim 23:2418-2427, 2010. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3466.1) that the main reason for the discrepancy is the damping of the response to short-lived forcing by the thermal inertia of the upper ocean. Although the step model includes this effect, it still overestimates the volcanic cooling simulated by AOGCMs by about 60 %. We show that this remaining discrepancy can be explained by the magnitude of the volcanic forcing, which may be smaller in AOGCMs (by 30 % for the HadCM3 AOGCM) than in off-line calculations that do not account for rapid cloud adjustment, and the climate sensitivity parameter, which may be smaller than for increasing CO2 (40 % smaller than for 4 × CO2 in HadCM3).

  19. Electromagnetic radiation due to nonlinear oscillations of a charged drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, S. O.; Grigor'ev, A. N.; Kolbneva, N. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    The nonlinear oscillations of a spherical charged drop are asymptotically analyzed under the conditions of a multimode initial deformation of its equilibrium shape. It is found that if the spectrum of initially excited modes contains two adjacent modes, the translation mode of oscillations is excited among others. In this case, the center of the drop's charge oscillates about the equilibrium position, generating a dipole electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the intensity of this radiation is many orders of magnitude higher than the intensity of the drop's radiation, which arises in calculations of the first order of smallness and is related to the drop's charged surface oscillations.

  20. Nonlinear radiation of waves at combination frequencies due to radiation-surface wave interaction in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.

    1992-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs

  1. Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter.

  2. Nonlinear Wave-Particle Interactions in Radiation Belt Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Tang, R.; Omura, Y.; Miyashita, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Earth's radiation belts have undergone considerable theoretical and experimental investigation since their discovery in 1958 by James Van Allen and colleagues.Much of our understanding of wave-particle interactions in the radiation belts has been based on the linear theory of plasma waves and quasi-linear diffusion.There is recent evidence ,however,that fully nonlinear aspects of wave-particle interactions may play an essential role in radiation belt physics.This evidence is in the form of increasingly refined wave and particle data,and,in parallel,recently developed nonlinear wave growth theory supported by self-consistent particle simulations.We examine the nonlinear spatio-temporal evolution of whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere.Chorus waves with rising frequency are generated at the magnetic equator,and propagate to higher latitudes.During propagation,nonlinear wave evolution occurs due to interaction with resonant electrons.From model equations we reproduce the time evolution of the chorus wave at the equator.By taking into account the adiabatic variation of the off-equatorial energetic particle distribution,we determine the resonant current.Then by solving general wave equations numerically we obtain the time evolution of the chorus wave frequency and amplitude along the static dipole magnetic field.Further,we incorporate the effects of nonlinear wave growth into the calculation of the Kennel-Petschek limit for the stably-trapped particle flux in a planetary magnetosphere.Using the model chorus equations we estimate nonlinear growth rates for a range of input parameters.By calculating the resulting total wave gain,we are able to estimate the self-limiting particle flux.We compare our new theoretical results for the limiting flux with particle observations at Earth and Saturn.

  3. Nonlinear Whistler Wave Physics in the Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Wave particle interactions between electrons and whistler waves are a dominant mechanism for controlling the dynamics of energetic electrons in the radiation belts. They are responsible for loss, via pitch-angle scattering of electrons into the loss cone, and energization to millions of electron volts. It has previously been theorized that large amplitude waves on the whistler branch may scatter their wave-vector nonlinearly via nonlinear Landau damping leading to important consequences for the global distribution of whistler wave energy density and hence the energetic electrons. It can dramatically reduce the lifetime of energetic electrons in the radiation belts by increasing the pitch angle scattering rate. The fundamental building block of this theory has now been confirmed through laboratory experiments. Here we report on in situ observations of wave electro-magnetic fields from the EMFISIS instrument on board NASA's Van Allen Probes that show the signatures of nonlinear scattering of whistler waves in the inner radiation belts. In the outer radiation belts, whistler mode chorus is believed to be responsible for the energization of electrons from 10s of Kev to MeV energies. Chorus is characterized by bursty large amplitude whistler mode waves with frequencies that change as a function of time on timescales corresponding to their growth. Theories explaining the chirping have been developed for decades based on electron trapping dynamics in a coherent wave. New high time resolution wave data from the Van Allen probes and advanced spectral techniques are revealing that the wave dynamics is highly structured, with sub-elements consisting of multiple chirping waves with discrete frequency hops between sub-elements. Laboratory experiments with energetic electron beams are currently reproducing the complex frequency vs time dynamics of whistler waves and in addition revealing signatures of wave-wave and beat-wave nonlinear wave-particle interactions. These new data

  4. Broadband metamaterial as an "invisible" radiative cooling coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijia; Pu, Mingbo; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a compact planar device in infrared (3- 12 μm) that has a high emission range from 5 μm to 8 μm while simultaneously serving as a broadband mirror for the rest wavelengths by engineering its thermal emission characteristics. The structure utilizes a random-stacked multilayer to reduce the thickness required for ideal spectrum engineering. In addition, it is also convenient to fabricate and scale up. All the features above makes it an ;invisible; radiative cooling coat by taking advantage of the atmospheric transparency window. We believe that this device may fundamentally enable new technological possibilities for stealth techniques by integrating the device with traditional cloaking methods.

  5. Nonlinear evolution of oblique whistler waves in radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Nandal, P.; Yadav, N.; Sharma, Swati

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic power spectrum and formation of coherent structures have been investigated in the present work applicable to Van Allen radiation belt. The nonlinear interaction of high frequency oblique whistler wave and low frequency magnetosonic wave has been investigated. Simulation was performed of the coupled equation of these two waves. The nonlinear interaction of these waves leads to the formation of the localized structures. These resulting localized structures are of complex nature. The associated magnetic power spectrum has also been studied. Dispersive nonlinear processes account for the high frequency part of the spectrum. The resulting magnetic power spectrum shows a scaling of k^{ - 4.5}. The energy transfer process from injection scales to smaller scales is explained by the results.

  6. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Rizzato, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by intense Langmuir waves in the vicinity of the fundamental plasma frequency f p is of current interest in space and laboratory plasmas. In a pioneer work, Lashmore-Davies demonstrated that an efficient process for converting intense Langmuir waves into f p electromagnetic radiation can be achieved by two counterstreaming Langmuir pump waves through an electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability. Recently Chian and Alves, Akimoto and Rizzato and Chian extended the formalism of Lashmore-Davies in order to include mixed processes with induced modes which are purely electrostatic or electromagnetic. In this paper we extend our previous analysis, in order to study the nonlinear interaction involving travelling electromagnetic pumps, low-frequency density fluctuations and high-frequency f p modes which can be electrostatic-electromagnetic hybrids. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  8. Analysis of Cooling and Heating of Water with Flat-plate Solar Radiators

    OpenAIRE

    Balen, Igor; Soldo, Vladimir; Kennedy, David

    2003-01-01

    Extensive analysis of flat-plate radiative panels operation using average hourly weather data for a maritime climate region was performed. The panels are integrated in the space ventilation system with air-cooling by means of a cold-water coil. Their primary function is to prepare sufficient quantity of cold water, integrating radiative and convective cooling, that is collected in the cold-water tank during the nighttime operation. That cold water is used for cooling of the air during daytime...

  9. Non-linear Model Predictive Control for cooling strings of superconducting magnets using superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)673023; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    In each of eight arcs of the 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 2.5 km long strings of super-conducting magnets are cooled with superfluid Helium II at 1.9 K. The temperature stabilisation is a challenging control problem due to complex non-linear dynamics of the magnets temperature and presence of multiple operational constraints. Strong nonlinearities and variable dead-times of the dynamics originate at strongly heat-flux dependent effective heat conductivity of superfluid that varies three orders of magnitude over the range of possible operational conditions. In order to improve the temperature stabilisation, a proof of concept on-line economic output-feedback Non-linear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC) is presented in this thesis. The controller is based on a novel complex first-principles distributed parameters numerical model of the temperature dynamics over a 214 m long sub-sector of the LHC that is characterized by very low computational cost of simulation needed in real-time optimizat...

  10. Nonlinear Adaptive Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhe

    2013-04-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, much more attention has to be drawn on the safety issues. The improvement of safety has already become the focus of the developing trend of the nuclear energy systems. Due to the inherent safety feature and the potential economic competitiveness, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) has been seen as the central part of the next generation of nuclear plant (NGNP). Power-level control is one of the key techniques that guarantee the safe, stable and efficient operation for nuclear reactors. Since the MHTGR dynamics has the features of strong nonlinearity and uncertainty, in order to improve the operation performance, it is meaningful to develop the nonlinear adaptive power-level control law for the MHTGR. Based on using the natural dynamic features beneficial to system stabilization, a novel nonlinear adaptive power-level control is given for the MHTGR in this paper. It is theoretically proved that this newly-built controller does not only provide globally asymptotic closed-loop stability but is also adaptive to the system uncertainty. This control law is then applied to the power-level regulation of the pebble-bed MHTGR of the HTR-PM power plant. Numerical simulation results show the feasibility of this control law and the relationship between the performance and controller parameters.

  11. Dispersive shock mediated resonant radiations in defocused nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Rik; Bhadra, Shyamal Kumar

    2018-04-01

    We report the evolution of resonant radiation (RR) in a self-defocused nonlinear medium with two zero dispersion wavelengths. RR is generated from dispersive shock wave (DSW) front when the pump pulse is in non-solitonic regime close to first zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW). DSW is responsible for pulse splitting resulting in the generation of blue solitons when leading edge of the pump pulse hits the first ZDW. DSW also generates a red shifted dispersive wave (DW) in the presence of higher order dispersion coefficients. Further, DSW through cross-phase modulation with red shifted dispersive wave (DW) excites a localized radiation. The presence of zero nonlinearity point in the system restricts red-shift of RR and enhances the red shifting of DW. It also helps in the formation of DSW at shorter distance and squeezes the solitonic region beyond second zero dispersion point. Predicted results indicate that the spectral evolution depends on the product of Kerr nonlinearity and group velocity dispersion.

  12. Nonlinear radiation generation processes in the auroral acceleration region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known from laboratory plasma experiments that double layers (DLs radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum; but this is only known qualitatively. In these experiments, it was shown that the electron beam created on the high-potential side of a DL generates nonlinear structures which couple to electromagnetic waves and act as a sender antenna. In the Earth auroral region, observations performed by auroral spacecraft have shown that DLs occur naturally in the source region of intense radio emissions called auroral kilometric radiation (AKR. Very high time-, spatial-, and temporal-resolution measurements are needed in order to characterize waves and particle distributions in the vicinity of DLs, which are moving transient structures. We report observations from the FAST satellite of a localized large-amplitude parallel electric field (∼ 300 mV m−1 recorded at the edges of the auroral density cavity. In agreement with laboratory experiments, on the high-potential side of the DL, elementary radiation events are detected. They occur substantially above the local electron gyrofrequency and are associated with the presence of electron holes. The velocity of these nonlinear structures can be derived from the measurement of the Doppler-shifted AKR frequency spectrum above the electron gyrofrequency. The generated electron holes appear as the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic waves generated by the electron–electron two-stream instability because they propagate at about half the beam velocity. It is pointed out that, in the vicinity of a DL, the shape of the electron distribution gives rise to a significant power recorded in the left-hand polarized ordinary (LO mode.

  13. Nonlinear radiation generation processes in the auroral acceleration region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottelette, Raymond; Berthomier, Matthieu

    2017-11-01

    It is known from laboratory plasma experiments that double layers (DLs) radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum; but this is only known qualitatively. In these experiments, it was shown that the electron beam created on the high-potential side of a DL generates nonlinear structures which couple to electromagnetic waves and act as a sender antenna. In the Earth auroral region, observations performed by auroral spacecraft have shown that DLs occur naturally in the source region of intense radio emissions called auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). Very high time-, spatial-, and temporal-resolution measurements are needed in order to characterize waves and particle distributions in the vicinity of DLs, which are moving transient structures. We report observations from the FAST satellite of a localized large-amplitude parallel electric field (˜ 300 mV m-1) recorded at the edges of the auroral density cavity. In agreement with laboratory experiments, on the high-potential side of the DL, elementary radiation events are detected. They occur substantially above the local electron gyrofrequency and are associated with the presence of electron holes. The velocity of these nonlinear structures can be derived from the measurement of the Doppler-shifted AKR frequency spectrum above the electron gyrofrequency. The generated electron holes appear as the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic waves generated by the electron-electron two-stream instability because they propagate at about half the beam velocity. It is pointed out that, in the vicinity of a DL, the shape of the electron distribution gives rise to a significant power recorded in the left-hand polarized ordinary (LO) mode.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Passively Cooled Small Modular Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Samet Egemen

    A nonlinear dynamic model for a passively cooled small modular reactor (SMR) is developed. The nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) model includes representations for reactor core, steam generator, pressurizer, hot leg riser and downcomer. The reactor core is modeled with the combination of: (1) neutronics, using point kinetics equations for reactor power and a single combined neutron group, and (2) thermal-hydraulics, describing the heat transfer from fuel to coolant by an overall heat transfer resistance and single-phase natural circulation. For the helical-coil once-through steam generator, a single tube depiction with time-varying boundaries and three regions, i.e., subcooled, boiling, and superheated, is adopted. The pressurizer model is developed based upon the conservation of fluid mass, volume, and energy. Hot leg riser and downcomer are treated as first-order lags. The NSSS model is incorporated with a turbine model which permits observing the power with given steam flow, pressure, and enthalpy as input. The overall nonlinear system is implemented in the Simulink dynamic environment. Simulations for typical perturbations, e.g., control rod withdrawal and increase in steam demand, are run. A detailed analysis of the results show that the steady-state values for full power are in good agreement with design data and the model is capable of predicting the dynamics of the SMR. Finally, steady-state control programs for reactor power and pressurizer pressure are also implemented and their effect on the important system variables are discussed.

  15. Terahertz radiation from a nonlinear slab traversed by an optical pulse.

    OpenAIRE

    Zinov’ev, N. N.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.; Chamberlain, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the theoretical calculations considering collinear electromagnetic radiation at the propagation of an optical pulse through a slab of nonlinear material. Calculated waveforms of the radiated field fit well to the experimental dependencies showing the remarkable similarities between the radiation at nonlinear wave interaction and the radiation phenomena of moving external charges, similarly to discussed in the Tamm Problem and transition radiation of moving external ch...

  16. Laboratory Studies of Magnetically Driven, Radiatively Cooled Supersonic Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergey V.

    2010-05-01

    Results of the recent experiments with radiatively cooled jets performed on the pulsed power MAGPIE facility (1.5MA, 250ns) at Imperial College will be presented. The experiments are scalable to astrophysical flows in that critical dimensionless numbers such as the plasma collisionality, the plasma beta, Reynolds number and the magnetic Reynolds number are all in the astrophysically appropriate ranges. The experimental results will be compared with computer simulations performed with laboratory plasma codes and with astrophysical codes. The main part of the presentation will concentrate on the dynamics of magnetically driven jets, in particular on formation of episodic outflows [1]. The experimental results show the periodic ejections of magnetic bubbles naturally evolving into a heterogeneous jet propagating inside a channel made of self-collimated magnetic cavities. Experimental data on the energy balance in the magnetically driven jets, the conversion of the Poynting flux energy into kinetic energy of the outflow, will be also presented. *) In collaboration with A. CIARDI, F.A. SUZUKI-VIDAL, S.N. BLAND, M. BOCCHI, G. BURDIAK, J.P. CHITTENDEN, P. de GROUCHY, G. HALL, A. HARVEY-THOMSON, A. MAROCCHINO, G. SWADLING, A. FRANK, E. G. BLACKMAN, C. STEHLE, M. CAMENZIND. This research was sponsored by EPSRC, by the OFES DOE, by the NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-02NA00057 and by the European Community's Marie Curie Actions within the JETSET network under Contract No. MRTNCT- 2004 005592. References [1] A. Ciardi, S.V. Lebedev, A. Frank et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 691: L147-L150 (2009).

  17. Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Night - time Radiative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Grossule, F.

    2016-01-01

    demand. In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels...... provided by the PV/T panels was 43 W/m2 for Copenhagen, while for Milan and Athens it was 36 W/m2 and 34 W/m2, respectively. The cooling power of the unglazed solar collector was negligible. Finally, the total electricity produced in Copenhagen for the simulated period was 371 kWh, while for Milan...... and increase use of renewable energy sources. The aim is that by 2020 all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings. A solution that could contribute to this is the combination of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity and phase change material (PCM) for the reduction of peak cooling...

  18. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del

    2010-06-08

    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  19. Scalable-manufactured randomized glass-polymer hybrid metamaterial for daytime radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yao; Ma, Yaoguang; David, Sabrina N.; Zhao, Dongliang; Lou, Runnan; Tan, Gang; Yang, Ronggui; Yin, Xiaobo

    2017-03-01

    Passive radiative cooling draws heat from surfaces and radiates it into space as infrared radiation to which the atmosphere is transparent. However, the energy density mismatch between solar irradiance and the low infrared radiation flux from a near-ambient-temperature surface requires materials that strongly emit thermal energy and barely absorb sunlight. We embedded resonant polar dielectric microspheres randomly in a polymeric matrix, resulting in a metamaterial that is fully transparent to the solar spectrum while having an infrared emissivity greater than 0.93 across the atmospheric window. When backed with a silver coating, the metamaterial shows a noontime radiative cooling power of 93 watts per square meter under direct sunshine. More critically, we demonstrated high-throughput, economical roll-to-roll manufacturing of the metamaterial, which is vital for promoting radiative cooling as a viable energy technology.

  20. Radiation Effects in Dual Heat Sinks for Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    IN DUAL HEAT SINKS FOR COOLING OF CONCENTRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS by Mark T. Brandau June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth Hobson Co-Advisor...thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADIATION EFFECTS IN DUAL HEAT SINKS FOR COOLING OF CONCENTRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark...examined the effectiveness of improving the cooling of concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) through the use of dual heat sinks. The intent was to improve

  1. Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet K

    2016-01-01

    This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media.  The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...

  2. Effect of radiative cooling on a hot charged dusty grains with charging fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElWakil, S.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; El-Basyouny, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the radiative cooling of electrons on the gravitational collapse of hot dust grains with fluctuating electric charge is investigated. Propagation of linear solitary radiation in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma is studied. The standard normal-mode analysis is used to study the stability condition of linear wave

  3. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  4. Performance analysis on utilization of sky radiation cooling energy for space cooling. Part 2; Hosha reikyaku riyo reibo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marushima, S.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studies have been made about a heat accumulation tank type cooling system making use of radiation cooling that is a kind of natural energy. The daily operating cycle of the cooling system is described below. A heat pump air conditioner performs cooling during the daytime and the exhaust heat is stored in a latent heat accumulation tank; the heat is then used for the bath and tapwater in the evening; at night radiation cooling is utilized to remove the heat remnant in the tank for the solidification of the phase change material (PCM); the solidified PCM serves as the cold heat source for the heat pump air conditioner to perform cooling. The new system decelerates urban area warming because it emits the cooler-generated waste heat not into the atmosphere but into space taking advantage of radiation cooling. Again, the cooler-generated waste heat may be utilized for energy saving and power levelling. For the examination of nighttime radiation cooling characteristics, CaCl2-5H2O and Na2HPO4-12H2O were tested as the PCM. Water was used as the heating medium. In the case of a PCM high in latent heat capacity, some work has to be done for insuring sufficient heat exchange for it by, for instance, rendering the flow rate low. The coefficient of performance of the system discussed here is three times higher than that of the air-cooled type heat pump system. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A Novel Approach to Thermal Design of Solar Modules: Selective-Spectral and Radiative Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xingshu; Dubey, Rajiv; Chattopadhyay, Shashwata; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Chavali, Raghu Vamsi; Silverman, Timothy J.; Kottantharayil, Anil; Vasi, Juzer; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2016-11-21

    For commercial solar modules, up to 80% of the incoming sunlight may be dissipated as heat, potentially raising the temperature 20-30 degrees C higher than the ambient. In the long run, extreme self-heating may erode efficiency and shorten lifetime, thereby, dramatically reducing the total energy output by almost ~10% Therefore, it is critically important to develop effective and practical cooling methods to combat PV self-heating. In this paper, we explore two fundamental sources of PV self-heating, namely, sub-bandgap absorption and imperfect thermal radiation. The analysis suggests that we redesign the optical and thermal properties of the solar module to eliminate the parasitic absorption (selective-spectral cooling) and enhance the thermal emission to the cold cosmos (radiative cooling). The proposed technique should cool the module by ~10 degrees C, to be reflected in significant long-term energy gain (~ 3% to 8% over 25 years) for PV systems under different climatic conditions.

  6. Nighttime radiative cooling potential of unglazed and PV/T solar collectors: parametric and experimental analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime radiative cooling technology has been studied both by means of simulations and experiments, to evaluate its potential and to validate the existing theoretical models used to describe it. Photovoltaic/thermal panels (PV/T) and unglazed solar collectors have been chosen as case studies....... The obtained values showed a good agreement with the ones found in the literature about solar panels or other kinds of heat sinks used for radiative cooling applications. The panels provided a cooling performance per night ranging between 0.2 and 0.9 kWh/m2 of panel. The COP values (defined as the ratio....... An experimental setup has been constructed and tested during summer of 2014, at the Technical University of Denmark. The cooling performance (heat loss) has been measured simultaneously for both types of panels, installed side-by-side. The experimental results have been compared with the results from a commercial...

  7. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Duraschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  8. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Durschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulkinsulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosedreflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  9. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  10. An intelligent approach for cooling radiator fault diagnosis based on infrared thermal image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Ahmadi, Hojjat; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Mollazade, Kaveh; Russell Smith, Alan John; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new intelligent fault diagnosis and condition monitoring system for classification of different conditions of cooling radiator using infrared thermal images. The system was adopted to classify six types of cooling radiator faults; radiator tubes blockage, radiator fins blockage, loose connection between fins and tubes, radiator door failure, coolant leakage, and normal conditions. The proposed system consists of several distinct procedures including thermal image acquisition, image pre-processing, image processing, two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT), feature extraction, feature selection using a genetic algorithm (GA), and finally classification by artificial neural networks (ANNs). The 2D-DWT is implemented to decompose the thermal images. Subsequently, statistical texture features are extracted from the original images and are decomposed into thermal images. The significant selected features are used to enhance the performance of the designed ANN classifier for the 6 types of cooling radiator conditions (output layer) in the next stage. For the tested system, the input layer consisted of 16 neurons based on the feature selection operation. The best performance of ANN was obtained with a 16-6-6 topology. The classification results demonstrated that this system can be employed satisfactorily as an intelligent condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for a class of cooling radiator. - Highlights: • Intelligent fault diagnosis of cooling radiator using thermal image processing. • Thermal image processing in a multiscale representation structure by 2D-DWT. • Selection features based on a hybrid system that uses both GA and ANN. • Application of ANN as classifier. • Classification accuracy of fault detection up to 93.83%

  11. Homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies with nonlinear electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollick, Dan N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I examine cosmological models that contain a stochastic background of nonlinear electromagnetic radiation. I show that for Born-Infeld electrodynamics the equation of state parameter, w=P/ρ, remains close to 1/3 throughout the evolution of the universe if E 2 =B 2 in the late universe to a high degree of accuracy. Theories with electromagnetic Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 +αF 4 have recently been studied in magnetic universes, where the electric field vanishes. It was shown that the F 4 term can produce a bounce in the early universe, avoiding an initial singularity. Here I show that the inclusion of an electric field, with E 2 ≅B 2 in the late universe, eliminates the bounce and the universe begins with an initial singularity. I also examine theories with Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 -μ 8 /F 2 , which have been shown to produce a period of late time accelerated expansion in magnetic universes. I show that, if an electric field is introduced, the accelerated phase will only occur if E 2 2 .

  12. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  13. Cooling capacity of high porosity open-cell metal foams as passive cryogenic radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Tisha; Ghosh, Indranil

    2017-06-01

    This work presents an innovative avenue for employment of high porosity open-cell metal foams as extended heat transfer surfaces in passive cryogenic radiators. Metal foams are known for being light in weight and possess high surface area density. In contrast to a solid surface, porosity of metal foams makes it feasible for penetration of radiation thereby resulting in higher radiatively interactive surface area. Two 20 PPI metal foams made of copper and aluminum with 94.9% and 90.3% porosity respectively have been chosen for this study. A laboratory-scale test rig measures the radiative cooling capacity of metal foams in vacuum (10-6 mbar) subjected to liquid nitrogen environment. Heat load to the foam has been provided by means of convective fluid loop. Simultaneously, a theoretical model based on radiation-conduction fin analysis has been developed to predict the foam cooling capacity at a specified temperature. The required radiation heat transfer coefficient has been obtained from a previous experiment wherein the foam samples are freely suspended in similar conditions but with no heat load. Lastly, performance of the foams under study has been expressed in terms of a commonly used performance parameter (surface area/cooling capacity) for passive cryogenic radiators.

  14. CHROMOSPHERIC HEATING BY ACOUSTIC WAVES COMPARED TO RADIATIVE COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobotka, M.; Heinzel, P.; Švanda, M.; Jurčák, J. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fričova 298, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Del Moro, D.; Berrilli, F. [Department of Physics, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-07-20

    Acoustic and magnetoacoustic waves are among the possible candidate mechanisms that heat the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. A weak chromospheric plage near the large solar pore NOAA 11005 was observed on 2008 October 15, in the Fe i 617.3 nm and Ca ii 853.2 nm lines of the Interferometric Bidimemsional Spectrometer attached to the Dunn Solar Telescope. In analyzing the Ca ii observations (with spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.″4 and 52 s) the energy deposited by acoustic waves is compared to that released by radiative losses. The deposited acoustic flux is estimated from the power spectra of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca ii line core. The radiative losses are calculated using a grid of seven one-dimensional hydrostatic semi-empirical model atmospheres. The comparison shows that the spatial correlation of the maps of radiative losses and acoustic flux is 72%. In a quiet chromosphere, the contribution of acoustic energy flux to radiative losses is small, only about 15%. In active areas with a photospheric magnetic-field strength between 300 and 1300 G and an inclination of 20°–60°, the contribution increases from 23% (chromospheric network) to 54% (a plage). However, these values have to be considered as lower limits and it might be possible that the acoustic energy flux is the main contributor to the heating of bright chromospheric network and plages.

  15. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the individual and combined effects of radiation and thermal conduction are studied by displaying the analytical solution numerically. Our discussions and conclusions are presented in Section 5. 2. The model and governing equations. We model a straight coronal loop, in which the magnetic field is uniform and in.

  16. Vanadium dioxide based Fabry-Perot emitter for dynamic radiative cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sydney; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    An asymmetric Fabry-Perot emitter is proposed with a lossless dielectric spacer inserted between a vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin film and an opaque aluminum substrate. Switchable mid-infrared emittance has been achieved due to the insulator-to-metal transition of VO2. When VO2 is dielectric below 341 K, the structure is highly reflective, thereby minimizing thermal radiation loss. Above 345 K, the VO2 becomes metallic and forms a Fabry-Perot resonance cavity with high broadband emissivity around 10 μm wavelength, providing a radiative cooling effect due to enhanced thermal emission. The radiative properties are calculated via a uniaxial transfer matrix method and Bruggeman effective medium theory. The physical mechanisms that provide the observed absorption enhancements are elucidated by examining the total phase shift in the multilayer structure and the phonon modes of VO2. When experiencing the VO2 phase transition, the radiative power of the proposed coating achieves a 6.5 fold enhancement for extraterrestrial spacecraft systems, and 7.3 fold enhancement for terrestrial systems such as buildings, making it a promising choice for dynamic radiative cooling applications in a variable environment. The findings here will facilitate research and development of novel coating materials for radiative cooling applications.

  17. SELF-CONVERGENCE OF RADIATIVELY COOLING CLUMPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yirak, Kristopher; Frank, Adam; Cunningham, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Isolated regions of higher density populate the interstellar medium (ISM) on all scales-from molecular clouds, to the star-forming regions known as cores, to heterogeneous ejecta found near planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. These clumps interact with winds and shocks from nearby energetic sources. Understanding the interactions of shocked clumps is vital to our understanding of the composition, morphology, and evolution of the ISM. The evolution of shocked clumps is well understood in the limiting 'adiabatic' case where physical processes such as self-gravity, heat conduction, radiative cooling, and magnetic fields are ignored. In this paper, we address the issue of evolution and convergence when one of these processes-radiative cooling-is included. Numeric convergence studies demonstrate that the evolution of an adiabatic clump is well captured by roughly 100 cells per clump radius. The presence of radiative cooling, however, imposes limits on the problem due to the removal of thermal energy. Numerical studies which include radiative cooling typically adopt the 100-200 cells per clump radius resolution. In this paper, we present the results of a convergence study for radiatively cooling clumps undertaken over a broad range of resolutions, from 12 to 1536 cells per clump radius, employing adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in a two-dimensional axisymmetric geometry (2.5 dimensions). We also provide a fully three-dimensional simulation, at 192 cells per clump radius, which supports our 2.5 dimensional results. We find no appreciable self-convergence at ∼100 cells per clump radius as small-scale differences owing to increasingly resolving the cooling length have global effects. We therefore conclude that self-convergence is an insufficient criterion to apply on its own when addressing the question of sufficient resolution for radiatively cooled shocked clump simulations. We suggest the adoption of alternate criteria to support a statement of sufficient

  18. An Experimental and Analytical Study of a Radiative Cooling System with Unglazed Flat Plate Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Taherian, Hessam

    2012-01-01

    On an average about 40% of world energy is used in residential buildings and the largest energy consumption is allocated to the cooling and air-conditioning systems. So every attempt to economize energy consumption is very valuable. In this research a nocturnal radiative cooling system with flat...... plate solar collectors in a humid area, Babol, Iran, is assessed both experimentally and numerically. Different methods available in the literature are reviewed and by using a widely accepted model, the sky temperature is determined. The mathematical model for a flat plate solar collector is used...... by convection and radiation to sky. The experiments were carried out at various mass flow rates and in different weather conditions and the results have been compared to those of the theoretical model. The results indicate that water temperature decreases 7–8◦C and the average net cooling will be ranged from 23...

  19. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    PhotoVoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) panels were used for cooling water through the principle of nocturnal radiative cooling. This water was utilised for discharging Phase Change Material (PCM) which was embedded in ceiling panels in a climate chamber. Three different sets of flow rates were examined...... for the solar and the PCM loops, for five days each. The highest examined water flow rate (210 l/h) in the PCM loop provided the best thermal environment in the climate chamber, namely 92% of the occupancy time was within the range of Category III of Standard EN 15251. Although the lowest examined water flow...... rate (96 l/h) in the solar loop provided the highest average cooling power, due to the significant variations in the weather conditions during the three experimental cases, made it impossible to determine to which extent the difference in the cooling power is due to the different water flow rate...

  20. Moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice under sequenced infrared radiation heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice drying with infrared (IR) radiation has been investigated during recent years and showed promising potential with improved quality and energy efficiency. The objective of this study was to further investigate the moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice heated by IR and cooled ...

  1. Radiative cooling in numerical astrophysics: The need for adaptive mesh refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, A. J.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    Energy loss through optically thin radiative cooling plays an important part in the evolution of astrophysical gas dynamics and should therefore be considered a necessary element in any numerical simulation. Although the addition of this physical process to the equations of hydrodynamics is

  2. The Role of Cerenkov Radiation in the Pressure Balance of Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Despite the substantial progress made recently in understanding the role of AGN feedback and associated non-thermal effects, the precise mechanism that prevents the core of some clusters of galaxies from collapsing catastrophically by radiative cooling remains unidentified. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the evolution of a cluster's cooling core, in terms of its density, temperature, and magnetic field strength, inevitably enables the plasma electrons there to quickly become Cerenkov loss dominated, with emission at the radio frequency of ≲350 Hz, and with a rate considerably exceeding free–free continuum and line emission. However, the same does not apply to the plasmas at the cluster's outskirts, which lacks such radiation. Owing to its low frequency, the radiation cannot escape, but because over the relevant scale size of a Cerenkov wavelength the energy of an electron in the gas cannot follow the Boltzmann distribution to the requisite precision to ensure reabsorption always occurs faster than stimulated emission, the emitting gas cools before it reheats. This leaves behind the radiation itself, trapped by the overlying reflective plasma, yet providing enough pressure to maintain quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium. The mass condensation then happens by Rayleigh–Taylor instability, at a rate determined by the outermost radius where Cerenkov radiation can occur. In this way, it is possible to estimate the rate at ≈2 M {sub ⊙} year{sup −1}, consistent with observational inference. Thus, the process appears to provide a natural solution to the longstanding problem of “cooling flow” in clusters; at least it offers another line of defense against cooling and collapse should gas heating by AGN feedback be inadequate in some clusters.

  3. The cooling rates comparison between the longwave radiation and turbulence in nocturnal planetary boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Grisogono, Branko; Subanović, Nebojša; Koračin, Darko

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the process of the air-cooling is dominated by the divergence of the longwave radiative flux in cases of night-time clear-sky conditions and with weak wind conditions. The parameterization of the longwave radiative flux divergence is derived according to the emissivity concept and the Stefan-Boltzman law, assuming that the water vapor is the only absorber of longwave radiative. The parameterization of the turbulent temperature flux divergence has been based on the O’Brie...

  4. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities. PMID:26392542

  5. Cooling load calculation by the radiant time series method - effect of solar radiation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre M.S. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], E-mail: amscosta@uem.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work was analyzed numerically the effect of three different models for solar radiation on the cooling load calculated by the radiant time series' method. The solar radiation models implemented were clear sky, isotropic sky and anisotropic sky. The radiant time series' method (RTS) was proposed by ASHRAE (2001) for replacing the classical methods of cooling load calculation, such as TETD/TA. The method is based on computing the effect of space thermal energy storage on the instantaneous cooling load. The computing is carried out by splitting the heat gain components in convective and radiant parts. Following the radiant part is transformed using time series, which coefficients are a function of the construction type and heat gain (solar or non-solar). The transformed result is added to the convective part, giving the instantaneous cooling load. The method was applied for investigate the influence for an example room. The location used was - 23 degree S and 51 degree W and the day was 21 of January, a typical summer day in the southern hemisphere. The room was composed of two vertical walls with windows exposed to outdoors with azimuth angles equals to west and east directions. The output of the different models of solar radiation for the two walls in terms of direct and diffuse components as well heat gains were investigated. It was verified that the clear sky exhibited the less conservative (higher values) for the direct component of solar radiation, with the opposite trend for the diffuse component. For the heat gain, the clear sky gives the higher values, three times higher for the peek hours than the other models. Both isotropic and anisotropic models predicted similar magnitude for the heat gain. The same behavior was also verified for the cooling load. The effect of room thermal inertia was decreasing the cooling load during the peak hours. On the other hand the higher thermal inertia values are the greater for the non peak hours. The effect

  6. Effectiveness of a night radiative cooling system in different geographical latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoy, A. P.; Granovskiy, A. S.; Baranenko, A. V.; Tsoy, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Growth of world energy consumption and depletion of energy resources make humanity to constantly work on the creation of the energy efficient technologies and increase usage of the alternative and renewable sources of energy. One of such alternative sources of energy is the night radiative cooling (NRC). NRC is an alternative and renewable source of energy, derived from the effective radiation of the Earth into the Space. If the given surface is located so that it looks to the night sky, then under the particular condition more energy can be generated under the effect of radiative cooling, than received from the atmosphere. As a result the temperature of the surface can be kept lower than the temperature of the ambient air. This effect can be used for creation of the refrigeration systems with the low energy consumption and as a result lower negative influence on the environment. During the research it has been identified that the possibility of the NRC usage is mostly predetermined by the specifics of the climate of the each region. In particular climate conditions the refrigeration systems working on night radiative cooling will be more effective that in others.

  7. Homogenization of some radiative heat transfer models: application to gas-cooled reactor cores; Homogeneisation de modeles de transferts thermiques et radiatifs: application au coeur des reacteurs a caloporteur gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ganaoui, K

    2006-09-15

    In the context of homogenization theory we treat some heat transfer problems involving unusual (according to the homogenization) boundary conditions. These problems are defined in a solid periodic perforated domain where two scales (macroscopic and microscopic) are to be taken into account and describe heat transfer by conduction in the solid and by radiation on the wall of each hole. Two kinds of radiation are considered: radiation in an infinite medium (non-linear problem) and radiation in cavity with grey-diffuse walls (non-linear and non-local problem). The derived homogenized models are conduction problems with an effective conductivity which depend on the considered radiation. Thus we introduce a framework (homogenization and validation) based on mathematical justification using the two-scale convergence method and numerical validation by simulations using the computer code CAST3M. This study, performed for gas cooled reactors cores, can be extended to other perforated domains involving the considered heat transfer phenomena. (author)

  8. Passive radiative cooling design with broadband optical thin-film filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecebas, Muhammed Ali; Menguc, M. Pinar; Kosar, Ali; Sendur, Kursat

    2017-09-01

    The operation of most electronic semiconductor devices suffers from the self-generated heat. In the case of photovoltaic or thermos-photovoltaic cells, their exposure to sun or high temperature sources make them get warm beyond the desired operating conditions. In both incidences, the solution strategy requires effective radiative cooling process, i.e., by selective absorption and emission in predetermined spectral windows. In this study, we outline two approaches for alternative 2D thin film coatings, which can enhance the passive thermal management for application to electronic equipment. Most traditional techniques use a metallic (silver) layer because of their high reflectivity, although they display strong absorption in the visible and near-infrared spectrums. We show that strong absorption in the visible and near-infrared spectrums due to a metallic layer can be avoided by repetitive high index-low index periodic layers and broadband reflection in visible and near-infrared spectrums can still be achieved. These modifications increase the average reflectance in the visible and near-infrared spectrums by 3-4%, which increases the cooling power by at least 35 W/m2. We also show that the performance of radiative cooling can be enhanced by inserting an Al2O3 film (which has strong absorption in the 8-13 μm spectrum, and does not absorb in the visible and near-infrared) within conventional coating structures. These two approaches enhance the cooling power of passive radiative cooling systems from the typical reported values of 40 W/m2-100 W/m2 and 65 W/m2 levels respectively.

  9. Radiation cooling and gain calculation for C VI 182 A line in C/Se plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, C.H.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.; Feldman, U.

    1986-04-01

    A model is developed which is capable of describing the evolution of gain resulting from both rapid radiative and expansion cooling of a recombining, freely expanding plasma. It is demonstrated for the particular case of a carbon/selenium plasma that the cooling rate which leads to optimal gain can be achieved by adjusting the admixture of an efficiently radiating material (selenium) in the gain medium (carbon). Comparison is made to a recent observation of gain in a recent NRL/Rochester experiment with carbon/selenium plasma for the n = 3 ..-->.. 2 transition in C VI occurring at 182 A. The predicted maximum gain is approx.10 cm/sup -1/, as compared to observation of 2 to 3 cm/sup -1/.

  10. Radiation cooling and gain calculation for C VI 182 A line in C/Se plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C.H.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.; Feldman, U.

    1986-04-01

    A model is developed which is capable of describing the evolution of gain resulting from both rapid radiative and expansion cooling of a recombining, freely expanding plasma. It is demonstrated for the particular case of a carbon/selenium plasma that the cooling rate which leads to optimal gain can be achieved by adjusting the admixture of an efficiently radiating material (selenium) in the gain medium (carbon). Comparison is made to a recent observation of gain in a recent NRL/Rochester experiment with carbon/selenium plasma for the n = 3 → 2 transition in C VI occurring at 182 A. The predicted maximum gain is approx.10 cm -1 , as compared to observation of 2 to 3 cm -1

  11. Performative building envelope design correlated to solar radiation and cooling energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky, Thiodore; Santoni

    2017-11-01

    Climate change as an ongoing anthropogenic environmental challenge is predominantly caused by an amplification in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs), notably carbon dioxide (CO2) in building sector. Global CO2 emissions are emitted from HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) occupation to provide thermal comfort in building. In fact, the amount of energy used for cooling or heating building is implication of building envelope design. Building envelope acts as interface layer of heat transfer between outdoor environment and the interior of a building. It appears as wall, window, roof and external shading device. This paper examines performance of various design strategy on building envelope to limit solar radiation and reduce cooling loads in tropical climate. The design strategies are considering orientation, window to wall ratio, material properties, and external shading device. This research applied simulation method using Autodesk Ecotect to investigate simultaneously between variations of wall and window ratio, shading device composition and the implication to the amount of solar radiation, cooling energy consumption. Comparative analysis on the data will determine logical variation between opening and shading device composition and cooling energy consumption. Optimizing the building envelope design is crucial strategy for reducing CO2 emissions and long-term energy reduction in building sector. Simulation technology as feedback loop will lead to better performative building envelope.

  12. Robust nonlinear control design with application to a marine cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider design of control laws for a class of nonlinear systems with time-varying state delays by use of principles from feedback linearization. To deal with model uncertainties and delay mismatches, a robust linear H-inf controller is designed for the feedback linearized system...

  13. Astrophysically relevant radiatively cooled hypersonic bow shocks in nested wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampleford, David

    2009-11-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments which introduce obstructions into hypersonic plasma flows to study the formation of shocks. Astrophysical observations have demonstrated many examples of equivalent radiatively cooled bow shocks, for example the head of protostellar jets or supernova remnants passing through the interstellar medium or between discrete clumps in jets. Wire array z-pinches allow us to study quasi-planar radiatively cooled flows in the laboratory. The early stage of a wire array z-pinch implosion consists of a steady flow of the wire material towards the axis. Given a high rate of radiative cooling, these flows reach high sonic- Mach numbers, typically up to 5. The 2D nature of this configuration allows the insertion of obstacles into the flow, such as a concentric ``inner'' wire array, as has previously been studied for ICF research. Here we study the application of such a nested array to laboratory astrophysics where the inner wires act as obstructions perpendicular to the flow, and induce bow shocks. By varying the wire array material (W/Al), the significance of radiative cooling on these shocks can be controlled, and is shown to change the shock opening angle. As multiple obstructions are present, the experiments show the interaction of multiple bow shocks. It is also possible to introduce a magnetic field around the static object, increasing the opening angle of the shocks. Further experiments can be designed to control the flow density, magnetic field structure and obstruction locations. In collaboration with: S.V. Lebedev, M.E. Cuneo, C.A. Jennings, S.N. Bland, J.P. Chittenden, A. Ciardi, G.N. Hall, S.C. Bott, M. Sherlock, A. Frank, E. Blackman

  14. The absorption and emission spectrum of radiative cooling galactic fountain gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Robert A.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    We have calculated the time-dependent, nonequilibrium thermal and ionization history of gas cooling radiatively from 10(exp 6) K in a one-dimensional, planar, steady-state flow model of the galactic fountain, including the effects of radiative transfer. Our previous optically thin calculations explored the effects of photoionization on such a flow and demonstrated that self-ionization was sufficient to cause the flow to match the observed galactic halo column densities of C 4, Si 4, and N 5 and UV emission from C 4 and O 3 in the constant density (isochoric) limit, which corresponded to cooling regions homogeneous on scales D less than or approximately equal to 1 kpc. Our new calculations which take full account of radiative transfer confirm the importance of self-ionization in enabling such a flow to match the data but allow a much larger range for cooling region sizes, i.e. D(sub 0) greater than or approximately equal to 15 pc. For an initial flow velocity v(sub 0) approximately equal to 100 km/s, comparable to the sound speed of a 10(exp 6) K gas, the initial density is found to be n(sub h,0) is approximately 2 x 10(exp -2) cm(exp -3), in reasonable agreement with other observation estimates, and D(sub 0) is approximately equal to 40 pc. We also compare predicted H(alpha) fluxes, UV line emission, and broadband x-ray fluxes with observed values. One dimensional numerical hydrodynamical calculations including the effects of radiative cooling are also presented.

  15. Thermoregulated Nitric Cryosystem for Cooling Gas-Filled Detectors of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharkov I.P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryosystem for cooling and filling of gas-filled detectors of ionizing radiation with compressed inert gas on the basis of wide-nitrogen cryostat, which provides detetector temperature control in a range of 173 — 293 K and its stabilization with accuracy of ± 1°. The work was carried out within the Ukraine — NATO Program of Collaboration, Grant SfP #984655.

  16. Probing polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, Dario, E-mail: Dario.cavallo@unige.it [University of Genoa, Dept. of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Portale, Giuseppe [ESRF, Dubble CRG, Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NWO), 38043 Grenoble (France); Androsch, René [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Center of Engineering Sciences, D-06099 Halle/S. (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Processing of polymeric materials to produce any kind of goods, from films to complex objects, involves application of flow fields on the polymer melt, accompanied or followed by its rapid cooling. Typically, polymers solidify at cooling rates which span over a wide range, from a few to hundreds of °C/s. A novel method to probe polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates is proposed. Using a custom-built quenching device, thin polymer films are ballistically cooled from the melt at rates between approximately 10 and 200 °C/s. Thanks to highly brilliant synchrotron radiation and to state-of-the-art X-ray detectors, the crystallization process is followed in real-time, recording about 20 wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns per second while monitoring the instantaneous sample temperature. The method is applied to a series of industrially relevant polymers, such as isotactic polypropylene, its copolymers and virgin and nucleated polyamide-6. Their crystallization behaviour during rapid cooling is discussed, with particular attention to the occurrence of polymorphism, which deeply impact material’s properties.

  17. Reduction of vibration forces transmitted from a radiator cooling fan to a vehicle body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonghyuk; Sim, Woojeong; Yun, Seen; Lee, Dongkon; Chung, Jintai

    2018-04-01

    This article presents methods for reducing transmitted vibration forces caused by mass unbalance of the radiator cooling fan during vehicle idling. To identify the effects of mass unbalance upon the vibration characteristics, vibration signals of the fan blades were experimentally measured both with and without an added mass. For analyzing the vibration forces transmitted to the vehicle body, a dynamic simulation model was established that reflected the vibration characteristics of the actual system. This process included a method described herein for calculating the equivalent stiffness and the equivalent damping of the shroud stators and rubber mountings. The dynamic simulation model was verified by comparing its results with experimental results of the radiator cooling fan. The dynamic simulation model was used to analyze the transmitted vibration forces at the rubber mountings. Also, a measure was established to evaluate the effects of varying the design parameters upon the transmitted vibration forces. We present design guidelines based on these analyses to reduce the transmitted vibration forces of the radiator cooling fan.

  18. Radiative forcing of the Venus mesosphere. II - Thermal fluxes, cooling rates, and radiative equilibrium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, David

    1989-01-01

    A radiative heat-transfer model is presently used to ascertain the way in which radiative forcing contributes to the up to 20 K higher temperature of the Venus polar regions, by comparison with the tropics, in the 60-100 km mesospheric levels. Model global-mean radiative equilibrium temperatures for 55-100 km are compared with observations to show how each opacity source contributes to the thermal structure. The results obtained from latitude-dependent radiative equilibrium experiments indicate that meridional variations in radiative forcing obliterate observed mesospheric temperature gradients and yield polar temperatures up to 40 K cooler than the tropics.

  19. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.

  20. Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. Modal analysis and nonlinear characterization of an airborne power ultrasonic transducer with rectangular plate radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R R; Acosta, V M; Lucas, M; Riera, E

    2018-01-01

    Some industrial processes like particle agglomeration or food dehydration among others can be enhanced by the use of power ultrasonic technologies. These technologies are based on an airborne power ultrasonic transducer (APUT) constituted by a pre-stressed Langevin-type transducer, a mechanical amplifier and an extensive plate radiator. In order to produce the desired effects in industrial processing, the transducer has to vibrate in an extensional mode driving an extensive radiator in the desired flexural mode with high amplitude displacements. Due to the generation of these high amplitude displacements in the radiator surfaces, non-linear effects like frequency shifts, hysteresis or modal interactions, among others, may be produced in the transducer behavior. When any nonlinear effect appears, when applying power, the stability and efficiency of this ultrasonic technology decreases, and the transducer may be damaged depending on the excitation power level and the nature of the nonlinearity. In this paper, an APUT with flat rectangular radiator is presented, as the active part of an innovative system with stepped reflectors. The nonlinear behavior of the APUT has been characterized numerically and experimentally in case of the modal analysis and experimentally in the case of dynamic analysis. According to the results obtained after the experiments, no modal interactions are expected, nor do other nonlinear effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electromagnetic radiation from linearly and nonlinearly oscillating charge drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Shiryaeva, S. O.

    2016-12-01

    It has been shown that analytic calculations of the intensity of electromagnetic radiation from an oscillating charged drop in the approximation linear in the oscillation amplitude (small parameter is on the order of 0.1) give only the quadrupole component of the total radiation. The dipole component can only be obtained in calculations using higher-order approximations. Nevertheless, the intensity of the dipole radiation turns out to be substantially higher (by 14-15 orders of magnitude). This is because the decomposition of radiation from a system of charges into multipole components (differing even in the rates of decrease in the potential with the distance) is carried out using the expansion in a substantially smaller parameter, viz., the ratio of the size of the emitting system (in our case, a drop of radius 10 μm) to the distance to the point of observation in the wave zone of the emission of radiation (emitted wavelength) of 100-1000 m. As a result, this second small parameter is on the order of 10-7 to 10-8. On the other hand, in accordance with the field theory, the ratio of intensities of quadrupole and dipole radiations is proportional to the squared ratio of the hydrodynamic velocity of the oscillating surface of a charged drop to the velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic signal in vacuum (velocity of light), which yields a ratio of 10-14 to 10-15.

  3. On the quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling self-gravitating gas clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerson, B.; Megged, E.

    1995-03-01

    Two model problems are considered, illustrating the dynamics of quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling, optically thin self-gravitating gas clouds. In the first problem, spherically symmetric flows in an unmagnetized plasma are considered. For a power-law dependence of the radiative loss function on the temperature, a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions is found. The authors concentrate on a constant-mass cloud, one of the cases, when the self-similarity indices are uniquely selected. In this case, the self-similar flow problem can be formally reduced to the classical Lane-Emden equation and therefore solved analytically. The cloud is shown to undergo radiative condensation, if the gas specific heat ratio γ > 4/3. The condensation proceeds either gradually, or in the form of (quasihydrostatic) collapse. For γ < 4/3, the cloud is shown to expand. The second problem addresses a magnetized plasma slab that undergoes quasihydrostatic radiative cooling and condensation. The problem is solved analytically, employing the Lagrangian mass coordinate

  4. Effect of Radiative Cooling on Cloud-SST Relationship within the Tropical Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chou, Ming-Dah; Lau, Ka-Ming; Li, Xiao-Fan; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A recent analysis found a negative correlation between the area-mean cloud amount and the corresponding mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) within the cloudy areas. The SST-cloud relation becomes more evident when the SST contrast between warm pool and surrounding cold pool (DSST) in the tropical Pacific is stronger than normal. The above feature is related to the finding that the strength of subsidence over the cold pool is limited by radiative cooling because of its small variability. As a result, the area of radiatively-driven subsidence must expand in response to enhanced low-boundary forcing due to SST warming or enhanced basin-scale DSST. This leads to more cloud free regions and less cloudy regions. The increased ratio of cloud-free areas to cloudy areas leads to more high SST areas (>29.50C) due to enhanced solar radiation.

  5. Oscillations in the spectrum of nonlinear Thomson-backscattered radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Brau

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available When an electron beam collides with a high-intensity laser beam, the spectrum of the nonlinear Thomson scattering in the backward direction shows strong oscillations like those in the spectrum of an optical klystron. Laser gain on the backward Thomson scattering is estimated using the Madey theorem, and the results suggest that Thomson-backscatter free-electron lasers are possible at wavelengths extending to the far uv using a terawatt laser beam from a chirped-pulse amplifier and a high-brightness electron beam from a needle cathode.

  6. Latitudinal dependence of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave and radiation belt relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Shen, Chao; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are long suggested to account for the rapid loss of radiation belt relativistic electrons. Here we perform both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation to comprehensively investigate the nonlinear interaction between EMIC wave and relativistic electrons. In particular, we emphasize the dependence of nonlinear processes on the electron initial latitude. The nonlinear phase trapping yields negative equatorial pitch angle transport, with efficiency varying over the electron initial latitude, implying that it can increase the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear channel effect phase bunching produces positive equatorial pitch angle transport, less dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can decrease the loss rate predicted by quasilinear theory. The nonlinear cluster effect phase bunching alternately causes positive and negative equatorial pitch angle transport, quasi-periodically dependent on the electron initial latitude, suggesting that it can either decrease or increase the loss rate predicted by the quasilinear theory. Such latitudinal dependence of nonlinear processes should be taken into account in the evaluation of radiation belt electron loss rate driven by EMIC waves.

  7. CFD-simulation of radiator for air cooling of microprocessors in a limitided space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimov V. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the final stages of microprocessors development is heat test. This procedure is performed on a special stand, the main element of which is the switching PCB with one or more mounted microprocessor sockets, chipsets, interfaces, jumpers and other components which provide various modes of microprocessor operation. The temperature of microprocessor housing is typically changed using thermoelectric module. The cold surface of the module with controlled temperature is in direct thermal contact with the microprocessor housing designed for cooler installation. On the hot surface of the module a radiator is mounted. The radiator dissipates the cumulative heat flow from both the microprocessor and the module. High density PCB layout, the requirement of free access to the jumpers and interfaces, and the presence of numerous sensors limit the space for radiator mounting and require the use of an extremely compact radiator, especially in air cooling conditions. One of the possible solutions for this problem may reduce the area of the radiator heat-transfer surfaces due to a sharp growth of the heat transfer coefficient without increasing the air flow rate. To ensure a sharp growth of heat transfer coefficient on the heat-transfer surface one should make in the surface one or more dead-end cavities into which the impact air jets would flow. CFD simulation of this type of radiator has been conducted. The heat-aerodynamic characteristics and design recommendations for removing heat from microprocessors in a limited space have been determined.

  8. Numerical Approximation of a Nonlinear 3D Heat Radiation Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, L.; Huang, M.; Yuan, K.; Křížek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2009), s. 125-139 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : heat radiation problem * Stefan-Boltzmann condition * Newton iterative method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Solar radiation and cooling load calculation for radiant systems: Definition and evaluation of the Direct Solar Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The study of the influence of solar radiation on the built environment is a basic issue in building physics and currently it is extremely important because glazed envelopes are widely used in contemporary architecture. In the present study, the removal of solar heat gains by radiant cooling systems...... is investigated. Particular attention is given to the portion of solar radiation converted to cooling load, without taking part in thermal absorption phenomena due to the thermal mass of the room. This specific component of the cooling load is defined as the Direct Solar Load. A simplified procedure to correctly...... calculate the magnitude of the Direct Solar Load in cooling load calculations is proposed and it is implemented with the Heat Balance method and the Radiant Time Series method. The F ratio of the solar heat gains directly converted to cooling load, in the case of a low thermal mass radiant ceiling...

  10. Radiative cooling test facility and performance evaluation of 4-MIL aluminized polyvinyl fluoride and white-paint surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruskopf, M.S.; Berdahl, P.; Martin, M.; Sakkal, F.; Sobolewski, M.

    1980-11-01

    A test facility designed to measure the amount of radiative cooling a specific material or assembly of materials will produce when exposed to the sky is described. Emphasis is placed upon assemblies which are specifically designed to produce radiative cooling and which therefore offer promise for the reduction of temperatures and/or humidities in occupied spaces. The hardware and software used to operate the facility are documented and the results of the first comprehensive experiments are presented. A microcomputer-based control/data acquisition system was employed to study the performance of two prototype radiator surfaces: 4-mil aluminized polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and white painted surfaces set below polyethylene windscreens. The cooling rates for materials tested were determined and can be approximated by an equation (given). A computer model developed to simulate the cooling process is presented. (MCW)

  11. A nonventing cooling system for space environment extravehicular activity, using radiation and regenerable thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Stephen A.; Trevino, Luis A.; Dinsmore, Craig E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the selection, design, and testing of a prototype nonventing regenerable astronaut cooling system for extravehicular activity space suit applications, for mission durations of four hours or greater. The selected system consists of the following key elements: a radiator assembly which serves as the exterior shell of the portable life support subsystem backpack; a layer of phase change thermal storage material, n-hexadecane paraffin, which acts as a regenerable thermal capacitor; a thermoelectric heat pump; and an automatic temperature control system. The capability for regeneration of thermal storage capacity with and without the aid of electric power is provided.

  12. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer to stagnation-point flow of Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we endeavor to perform a numerical analysis in connection with the nonlinear radiative stagnation-point flow and heat transfer to Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder in the presence of convective boundary conditions. The influence of thermal radiation using nonlinear Rosseland approximation is explored. The numerical solutions of transformed governing equations are calculated through forth order Runge-Kutta method using shooting technique. With the help of graphs and tables, the influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity and temperature along with the local skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed. The results reveal that the temperature increases however, heat transfer from the surface of cylinder decreases with the increasing values of thermal radiation and temperature ratio parameters. Moreover, the authenticity of numerical solutions is validated by finding their good agreement with the HAM solutions.

  13. Impact of melting heat transfer and nonlinear radiative heat flux mechanisms for the generalized Burgers fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Khan

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the analysis of melting heat and mass transfer characteristics in the stagnation point flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of non-linear radiative heat flux. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. The governing equations in dimensional form are reduced to a system of dimensionless expressions by implementation of suitable similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless problem governing the generalized Burgers is solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. The effects of different flow parameters like the ratio parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, melting parameter, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter and Schmidt number on the velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics are computed and presented graphically. Moreover, useful discussions in detail are carried out with the help of plotted graphs and tables. Keywords: Generalized Burgers fluid, Non-linear radiative flow, Magnetic field, Melting heat transfer

  14. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer to stagnation-point flow of Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Masood [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Malik, Rabia, E-mail: rabiamalik.qau@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, International Islamic University Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences and Humanities, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-05-15

    In the present paper, we endeavor to perform a numerical analysis in connection with the nonlinear radiative stagnation-point flow and heat transfer to Sisko fluid past a stretching cylinder in the presence of convective boundary conditions. The influence of thermal radiation using nonlinear Rosseland approximation is explored. The numerical solutions of transformed governing equations are calculated through forth order Runge-Kutta method using shooting technique. With the help of graphs and tables, the influence of non-dimensional parameters on velocity and temperature along with the local skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed. The results reveal that the temperature increases however, heat transfer from the surface of cylinder decreases with the increasing values of thermal radiation and temperature ratio parameters. Moreover, the authenticity of numerical solutions is validated by finding their good agreement with the HAM solutions.

  15. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  16. Thermal radiation characteristics and direct evidence of tungsten cooling on the way to nanostructure formation on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties of tungsten with nanostructure on its surface are investigated focusing on the thermal radiation and cooling characteristics. First, direct evidence of substantial W surface cooling has been clearly shown with use of a very thin thermocouple inserted into W target, which solves an uncertainty associated with a radiation thermometer. Second, the above measurements of W surface temperature make it possible to estimate quantitatively the total emissivity from which we may evaluate the radiative power through the Stefan–Boltzmann equation, which is very important for mitigation evaluation of a serious plasma heat load to the plasma-facing component

  17. Gas-phase measurements of combustion interaction with materials for radiation-cooled chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R. S.; Lucht, R. P.; Jassowski, D. M.; Rosenberg, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Foil samples of Ir and Pt are exposed to combustion products in a controlled premixed environment at atmospheric pressure. Electrical heating of the foil samples is used to control the surface temperature and to elevate it above the radiative equilibrium temperature within the test apparatus. Profiles of temperature and OH concentration in the boundary layer adjacent to the specimen surface are measured by laser-induced fluorescence. Measured OH concentrations are significantly higher than equilibrium concentrations calculated for the known mixture ratio and the measured temperature profiles. This result indicates that superequilibrium concentrations of H-atoms and O-atoms are also present in the boundary layer, due to partial equilibrium of the rapid binary reactions of the H2/O2 chemical kinetic system. These experiments are conducted as part of a research program to investigate fundamental aspects of the interaction of combustion gases with advanced high-temperature materials for radiation-cooled thrusters.

  18. Vibrational branching ratios and radiative lifetimes in the laser cooling of AlBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yufeng; Wan, Mingjie

    2017-02-15

    The feasibility of laser cooling of the AlBr molecule is investigated using ab initio quantum chemistry. Potential energy curves, permanent dipole moments, and transition dipole moments for the ground state X 1 Σ + and the first two excited states (a 3 Π and A 1 Π) are calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction plus Davidson corrections (MRCI+Q) method with the ACVQZ basis set; the spin-orbit coupling effects are also taken into account in electronic structure calculations at the MRCI level. Based on the acquired potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, highly diagonally distributed Franck-Condon factors (f 00 = 0.9540, f 11 = 0.8172) and vibrational branching ratios (R 00 = 0.9708, R 11 = 0.8420) for the transition are determined. Radiative lifetime calculations of the A 1 Π 1 (ν' = 0-4) state are found to be short (9.16-11.48 ns) enough for rapid laser cooling. The proposed main cycling laser drives the transition at the wavelength λ 00 = 279.19 nm. The vibrational branching loss ratios of the A 1 Π 1 (ν') state to the intervening states a 3 Π 0 + and a 3 Π 1 are small (laser cooling.

  19. Magnetic reconnection in the low solar chromosphere with a more realistic radiative cooling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lin, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the most likely mechanism responsible for the high temperature events that are observed in strongly magnetized locations around the temperature minimum in the low solar chromosphere. This work improves upon our previous work [Ni et al., Astrophys. J. 852, 95 (2018)] by using a more realistic radiative cooling model computed from the OPACITY project and the CHIANTI database. We find that the rate of ionization of the neutral component of the plasma is still faster than recombination within the current sheet region. For low β plasmas, the ionized and neutral fluid flows are well-coupled throughout the reconnection region resembling the single-fluid Sweet-Parker model dynamics. Decoupling of the ion and neutral inflows appears in the higher β case with β0=1.46 , which leads to a reconnection rate about three times faster than the rate predicted by the Sweet-Parker model. In all cases, the plasma temperature increases with time inside the current sheet, and the maximum value is above 2 ×104 K when the reconnection magnetic field strength is greater than 500 G. While the more realistic radiative cooling model does not result in qualitative changes of the characteristics of magnetic reconnection, it is necessary for studying the variations of the plasma temperature and ionization fraction inside current sheets in strongly magnetized regions of the low solar atmosphere. It is also important for studying energy conversion during the magnetic reconnection process when the hydrogen-dominated plasma approaches full ionization.

  20. Design and analysis of the DII-D radiative divertor water-cooled structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, M.A.; Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek; Chin, E.; Phelps, R.D.; Redler, K.M.; Reis, E.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Radiative Divertor is a major modification to the divertor of DIII-D and is being designed and fabricated for installation in late 1996. The Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) will enhance the dissipative processes in the edge and divertor plasmas to reduce the heat flux and plasma erosion at the divertor target. This approach will have major implications for the heat removal methods used in future devices. The divertor is of slot-type configuration designed to minimize the flow of sputtered and injected impurities back to the core plasma. The new divertor will be composed of toroidally continuous, Inconel 625 water-cooled rings of sandwich construction with an internal water channel, incorporating seam welding to provide the water-to-vacuum seal as well as structural integrity. The divertor structure is designed to withstand electromagnetic loads as a result of halo currents and induced toroidal currents. It also accommodates the thermal differences experienced during the 400 degrees C bake used on DIII-D. A low Z plasma-facing surface is provided by mechanically attached graphite tiles. Water flow through the rings will inertially cool these tiles which will be subjected to 38 MW, 10 second pulses. Current schedules call for detailed design in 1996 with installation completed in March 1997. A full size prototype, one-quarter of one ring, is being built to validate manufacturing techniques, machining, roll-forming, and seam welding. The experience and knowledge gained through the fabrication of the prototype is discussed. The design of the electrically isolated (5 kV) vacuum-to-air water feedthroughs supplying the water-cooled rings is also discussed

  1. Optimization of a heat-pipe-cooled space radiator for use with a reactor-powered Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, M.P.; French, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The design optimization of a reactor-Stirling heat-pipe-cooled radiator is presented. The radiator is a self-deploying concept that uses individual finned heat pipe petals to reject waste heat from a Stirling engine. Radiator optimization methodology is presented, and the results of a parametric analysis of the radiator design variables for a 100-kW(e) system are given. The additional steps of optiminzing the radiator resulted in a net system mass savings of 3 percent. 5 references

  2. Convective–radiative radial fins with convective base heating and convective–radiative tip cooling: Homogeneous and functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Torabi, Mohsen; Zhang, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Convective–radiative radial fins with base convective heating were analyzed. • Homogeneous material and functionally graded material fins were investigated. • Fin efficiency and the effects of dimensionless parameters in fins were analyzed. - Abstract: This paper studies a radial fin of uniform thickness with convective heating at the base and convective–radiative cooling at the tip. The fin is assumed to experience uniform internal heat generation. The exposed surfaces of the fin lose heat by simultaneous convection and radiation to the surroundings. Two types of fin materials are investigated: homogeneous material and functionally graded material (FGM). For the homogeneous material, the thermal conductivity is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, while for the FGM fin the thermal conductivity is modeled as a linear function of the dimensionless radial coordinate. The analysis is conducted using the differential transformation method (DTM). The accuracy of DTM is verified by comparing the results for the simplified versions of the present model with an exact analytical solution derived here. Once the accuracy of DTM is authenticated, the method is used to generate results for the general problem formulated here. These results illustrate the effects of various dimensionless parameters on the thermal performance of homogeneous material fins and FGM fins

  3. Storm time variation of radiative cooling of thermosphere by nitric oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M. V. Sunil; Bag, Tikemani; Bharti, Gaurav

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental vibration-rotation band emission (Δν=1, Δ j=0,± 1) by nitric oxide (NO) at 5.3 µm is one of the most important cooling mechanisms in thermosphere. The collisional vibrational excitation of NO(ν=0) by impact with atomic oxygen is the main source of vibrationally excited nitric oxide. The variation of NO density depends on latitude, longitude and season. The present study aims to understand how the radiative flux gets influenced by the severe geomagnetic storm conditions. The variation of Nitric Oxide (NO) radiative flux exiting thermosphere is studied during the superstorm event of 7-12 November, 2004. The observations of TIMED/SABER suggest a strong anti-correlation with the O/N_2 ratio observed by GUVI during the same period. On a global scale the NO radiative flux showed an enhancement during the main phase on 8 November, 2004, whereas maximum depletion in O/N_2 is observed on 10 November, 2004. Both O/N_2 and NO radiative flux were found to propagate equatorward due to the effect of meridional wind resulting from joule and particle heating in polar region. Larger penetrations is observed in western longitude sectors. These observed variations are effectively connected to the variations in neutral densities. In the equatorial sectors, O/N_2 shows enhancement but almost no variation in radiative flux is observed. The possible reasons for the observed variations in NO radiative emission and O/N_2 ratios are discussed in the light of equator ward increase in the densities and prompt penetration.

  4. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in solar enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower with radiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiuhuan; Zhu, Jialing; Lu, Xinli

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A 3-D numerical model integrated with a discrete ordinate (DO) solar radiation model (considering solar radiation effect in the room of solar collector) was developed to investigate the influence of solar radiation intensity and ambient pressure on the efficiency and thermal characteristics of the SENDDCT. Our study shows that introducing such a radiation model can more accurately simulate the heat transfer process in the SENDDCT. Calculation results indicate that previous simulations overestimated solar energy obtained by the solar collector and underestimated the heat loss. The cooling performance is improved when the solar radiation intensity or ambient pressure is high. Air temperature and velocity increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. But ambient pressure has inverse effects on the changes of air temperature and velocity. Under a condition that the solar load increases but the ambient pressure decreases, the increased rate of heat transferred in the heat exchanger is not obvious. Thus the performance of the SENDDCT not only depends on the solar radiation intensity but also depends on the ambient pressure. - Highlights: • A radiation model has been introduced to accurately simulate heat transfer process. • Heat transfer rate would be overestimated if the radiation model was not introduced. • The heat transfer rate is approximately proportional to solar radiation intensity. • The higher the solar radiation or ambient pressure, the better SENDDCT performance. - Abstract: Solar enhanced natural draft dry cooling tower (SENDDCT) is more efficient than natural draft dry cooling tower by utilizing solar radiation in arid region. A three-dimensional numerical model considering solar radiation effect was developed to investigate the influence of solar radiation intensity and ambient pressure on the efficiency and thermal characteristics of SENDDCT. The numerical simulation outcomes reveal that a model with consideration of

  5. Forecasting hourly global solar radiation using hybrid k-means and nonlinear autoregressive neural network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmouiza, Khalil; Cheknane, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An unsupervised clustering algorithm with a neural network model was explored. • The forecasting results of solar radiation time series and the comparison of their performance was simulated. • A new method was proposed combining k-means algorithm and NAR network to provide better prediction results. - Abstract: In this paper, we review our work for forecasting hourly global horizontal solar radiation based on the combination of unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm and artificial neural networks (ANN). k-Means algorithm focused on extracting useful information from the data with the aim of modeling the time series behavior and find patterns of the input space by clustering the data. On the other hand, nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) neural networks are powerful computational models for modeling and forecasting nonlinear time series. Taking the advantage of both methods, a new method was proposed combining k-means algorithm and NAR network to provide better forecasting results

  6. Nanoparticles and nonlinear thermal radiation properties in the rheology of polymeric material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Awais

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis is related to the dynamics of polymeric liquids (Oldroyd-B model with the presence of nanoparticles. The rheological system is considered under the application of nonlinear thermal radiations. Energy and concentration equations are presented when thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are present. Bidirectional form of stretching is considered to interpret the three-dimensional flow dynamics of polymeric liquid. Making use of the similarity transformations, problem is reduced into ordinary differential system which is approximated by using HAM. Influence of physical parameters including Deborah number, thermophoresis and Brownian motion on velocity, temperature and mass fraction expressions are plotted and analyzed. Numerical values for local Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are presented and discussed. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Polymeric liquid, Oldroyd-B model, Nonlinear thermal radiation

  7. Radiation-acoustic studies of materials with non-linear thermoelastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.T.; Slezov, V.V.; Popov, G.F.; Kalinichenko, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation acoustic methods are used to investigate the dynamics of phase transitions in materials with non-linear thermoelastic properties, including alloys with a shape memory effect, rare-earth metals, high-Tc ceramics, etc. The temperature dependence of the Grueneisen parameter and the elastic modulus of the materials under study are shown to be sensitive to the concentration of the constituents, alloy components and gas saturation. Discussed are possible methods of control of the parameters, absorbed energy field and the phase state of the materials under radiation action of pulsed high-current relativistic electron beams. 5 refs.; 4 figs. (author)

  8. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  9. 3D Numerical Analysis of Radiative Edge Cooling in Wendelstein 7-X Island Divertor Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberg, Florian; Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Barbui, T.; Geiger, J.; Jakubowski, M.; Köenig, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Niemann, H.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Wurden, G. A.; W7-X-Team Team

    2017-10-01

    Radiative edge cooling is a promising method for mitigation of high heat and particle fluxes in the 3D field geometry of Wendelstein 7-X. A new high mirror island configuration is investigated featuring a more uniform distribution of heat and particle fluxes on horizontal and vertical divertor targets. For an upstream density of nup = 2 × 1019m-3 at PECRH=8MW maximum heat loads up to qmax 7.2MWm-2 are calculated with the 3D fluid and kinetic edge transport Monte Carlo Code EMC3-EIRENE. Carbon eroded from the divertor targets is predicted to serve as effective intrinsic radiator enabling detached operational regimes at higher densities (nup > 4 × 1019m-3). The feasibility of active control of heat and particle flux levels by impurity seeding (CxHy, N2, Ne) will be discussed for the new island geometry. Impurity line radiation tends to concentrate in the islands for lower densities and causes a drop of flux levels correlated to the power loss fraction, Δq Prad/PSOL . β-effects are taken into account based on the 3D MHD-equilibrium code HINT. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Grant DE-SC0014210.

  10. On the Connection Between Microbursts and Nonlinear Electronic Structures in Planetary Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmane, Adnane; Wilson, Lynn B., III; Blum, Lauren; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2016-01-01

    Using a dynamical-system approach, we have investigated the efficiency of large-amplitude whistler waves for causing microburst precipitation in planetary radiation belts by modeling the microburst energy and particle fluxes produced as a result of nonlinear wave-particle interactions. We show that wave parameters, consistent with large amplitude oblique whistlers, can commonly generate microbursts of electrons with hundreds of keV-energies as a result of Landau trapping. Relativistic microbursts (greater than 1 MeV) can also be generated by a similar mechanism, but require waves with large propagation angles Theta (sub k)B greater than 50 degrees and phase-speeds v(sub phi) greater than or equal to c/9. Using our result for precipitating density and energy fluxes, we argue that holes in the distribution function of electrons near the magnetic mirror point can result in the generation of double layers and electron solitary holes consistent in scales (of the order of Debye lengths) to nonlinear structures observed in the radiation belts by the Van Allen Probes. Our results indicate a relationship between nonlinear electrostatic and electromagnetic structures in the dynamics of planetary radiation belts and their role in the cyclical production of energetic electrons (E greater than or equal to 100 keV) on kinetic timescales, which is much faster than previously inferred.

  11. Entropy generation minimization (EGM) of nanofluid flow by a thin moving needle with nonlinear thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleed Ahmed Khan, M.; Ijaz Khan, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization (EGM) and heat transport in nonlinear radiative flow of nanomaterials over a thin moving needle has been discussed. Nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation terms are merged in the energy expression. Water is treated as ordinary fluid while nanomaterials comprise titanium dioxide, copper and aluminum oxide. The nonlinear governing expressions of flow problems are transferred to ordinary ones and then tackled for numerical results by Built-in-shooting technique. In first section of this investigation, the entropy expression is derived as a function of temperature and velocity gradients. Geometrical and physical flow field variables are utilized to make it nondimensionalized. An entropy generation analysis is utilized through second law of thermodynamics. The results of temperature, velocity, concentration, surface drag force and heat transfer rate are explored. Our outcomes reveal that surface drag force and Nusselt number (heat transfer) enhanced linearly for higher nanoparticle volume fraction. Furthermore drag force decays for aluminum oxide and it enhances for copper nanoparticles. In addition, the lowest heat transfer rate is achieved for higher radiative parameter. Temperature field is enhanced with increase in temperature ratio parameter.

  12. Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day-night cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-12-13

    Radiative cooling technology utilizes the atmospheric transparency window (8-13 μm) to passively dissipate heat from Earth into outer space (3 K). This technology has attracted broad interests from both fundamental sciences and real world applications, ranging from passive building cooling, renewable energy harvesting and passive refrigeration in arid regions. However, the temperature reduction experimentally demonstrated, thus far, has been relatively modest. Here we theoretically show that ultra-large temperature reduction for as much as 60 °C from ambient is achievable by using a selective thermal emitter and by eliminating parasitic thermal load, and experimentally demonstrate a temperature reduction that far exceeds previous works. In a populous area at sea level, we have achieved an average temperature reduction of 37 °C from the ambient air temperature through a 24-h day-night cycle, with a maximal reduction of 42 °C that occurs when the experimental set-up enclosing the emitter is exposed to peak solar irradiance.

  13. Effects of Convective Aggregation on Radiative Cooling and Precipitation in a CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A. C.; Randall, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the global energy budget, the atmospheric radiative cooling (ARC) is approximately balanced by latent heating, but on regional scales, the ARC and precipitation rates are inversely related. We use a cloud-resolving model to explore how the relationship between precipitation and the ARC is affected by convective aggregation, in which the convective activity is confined to a small portion of the domain that is surrounded by a much larger region of dry, subsiding air. Sensitivity tests show that the precipitation rate and ARC are highly sensitive to both SST and microphysics; a higher SST and 1-moment microphysics both act to increase the domain-averaged ARC and precipitation rates. In all simulations, both the domain-averaged ARC and precipitation rates increased due to convective aggregation, resulting in a positive temporal correlation. Furthermore, the radiative effect of clouds in these simulations is to decrease the ARC. This finding is consistent with our observational results of the cloud effect on the ARC, and has implications for convective aggregation and the geographic extent in which it can occur.

  14. Method of 16N generation for test of radiation controlled channels at nuclear power stations with water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khryachkov, V.A.; Bondarenko, I.P.; Dvornikov, P.A.; Zhuravlev, B.V.; Kovtun, S.N.; Khromyleva, T.A.; Pavlov, A.V.; Roshchin, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The preferences of nuclear reaction use for radiation control channels test in water-cooled power reactors have been analyzed in the paper. The new measurements for more accurate determination of reaction cross section energy dependence have been carried out. A set of new methods for background reducing and improvement of events determination reliability has also been developed [ru

  15. New thermodynamics of entropy generation minimization with nonlinear thermal radiation and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Ijaz; Qayyum, Sumaira; Alsaedi, A.; Khan, M. Imran

    2018-03-01

    This research addressed entropy generation for MHD stagnation point flow of viscous nanofluid over a stretching surface. Characteristics of heat transport are analyzed through nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption. Nanoliquid features for Brownian moment and thermophoresis have been considered. Fluid in the presence of constant applied inclined magnetic field is considered. Flow problem is mathematically modeled and governing expressions are changed into nonlinear ordinary ones by utilizing appropriate transformations. The effects of pertinent variables on velocity, nanoparticle concentration and temperature are discussed graphically. Furthermore Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects on entropy generation and Bejan number have been examined. Total entropy generation is inspected through various flow variables. Consideration is mainly given to the convergence process. Velocity, temperature and mass gradients at the surface of sheet are calculated numerically.

  16. A new boundary control scheme for simultaneous achievement of H-mode and radiative cooling (SHC boundary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.

    1995-05-01

    We have proposed a new boundary control scheme (SHC boundary), which could allow simultaneous achievement of the H-mode type confinement improvement and radiative cooling with wide heat flux distribution. In our proposed configuration, a low m island layer sharply separates a plasma confining region from an open 'ergodic' boundary. The degree of openness in the ergodic boundary must be high enough to make the plasma pressure constant along the field line, which in turn separates low density plasma just outside the plasma confining region (the key external condition for achieving a good H-mode discharge) from very high density, cold radiative plasma near the wall (required for effective edge radiative cooling). Examples of such proposed SHC boundaries for Heliotron typed devices and tokamaks are presented. (author)

  17. Nonlinearity in MCF7 Cell Survival Following Exposure to Modulated 6 MV Radiation Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste-Collin, Laetitia; Castiella, Marion; Franceries, Xavier; Cassol, Emmanuelle; Vieillevigne, Laure; Pereda, Veronica; Bardies, Manuel; Courtade-Sa?di, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The study of cell survival following exposure to nonuniform radiation fields is taking on particular interest because of the increasing evidence of a nonlinear relationship at low doses. We conducted in vitro experiments using the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 2.4 × 2.4 cm2 square area of a T25 flask was irradiated by a Varian Novalis accelerator delivering 6 MV photons. Cell survival inside the irradiation field, in the dose gradient zone and in the peripheral zone, was determined using a ...

  18. Impact of melting heat transfer and nonlinear radiative heat flux mechanisms for the generalized Burgers fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waqar Azeem; Khan, Masood; Irfan, Muhammad; Alshomrani, A. S.

    The present paper deals with the analysis of melting heat and mass transfer characteristics in the stagnation point flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of non-linear radiative heat flux. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. The governing equations in dimensional form are reduced to a system of dimensionless expressions by implementation of suitable similarity transformations. The resulting dimensionless problem governing the generalized Burgers is solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effects of different flow parameters like the ratio parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, melting parameter, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter and Schmidt number on the velocity, heat and mass transfer characteristics are computed and presented graphically. Moreover, useful discussions in detail are carried out with the help of plotted graphs and tables.

  19. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  20. Coherent structures in stratocumulus topped boundary layer: sensitivity to surface fluxes, radiative cooling and vertical stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davini, Paolo; D'Andrea, Fabio; Park, Seung-bu; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The representation of stratocumulus clouds in global climate models is still a concern for the climate modelling community. This is due to the low efficacy of current parametrization to simulate the full set of phenomena that governs the stratocumulus topped boundary layer (STBL), but also by the inaccurate knowledge of the sensitivities of the STBL dynamics to external large scale forcing. Here we show that making of a series of high-resolution LES simulations, we are able to detect and track coherent structures such as updrafts, downdrafts and their returning shells (i.e. both ascending and subsiding), together with the entraining air from the inversion layer or the free troposphere in a non-precipitating marine nighttime STBL. This is done with a new classification method based on octant analysis - using vertical velocity and two passive scalars - which defines the structures also in cloud-free regions. We are thus able to quantify the geometrical and thermodynamic characteristics (e.g. areal fraction, temperature, liquid and total water mixing ratio, buoyancy, etc.) of those structures, highlighting the single contributions to the turbulent transport of mass, heat and moisture. It is thus possible to estimate the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes to the intensity of the cloud-top radiative cooling, to the surface latent and sensible fluxes and to the strength of the vertical stability is explored. Indeed, this analysis lays the foundation for a new parametrization of stratocumulus-topped boundary layer for global climate models.

  1. Artificial chameleon skin that controls spectral radiation: Development of Chameleon Cool Coating (C3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masashi; Okajima, Junnosuke; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2018-01-19

    Chameleons have a diagnostic thermal protection that enables them to live under various conditions. Our developed special radiative control therefore is inspired by the chameleon thermal protection ability by imitating its two superposed layers as two pigment particles in one coating layer. One particle imitates a chameleon superficial surface for color control (visible light), and another particle imitates a deep surface to reflect solar irradiation, especially in the near-infrared region. Optical modeling allows us to optimally design the particle size and volume fraction. Experimental evaluation shows that the desired spectral reflectance, i.e., low in the VIS region and high in NIR region, can be achieved. Comparison between the measured and calculated reflectances shows that control of the particle size and dispersion/aggregation of particle cloud is important in improving the thermal-protection performance of the coating. Using our developed coating, the interior temperature decreases and the cooling load is reduced while keeping the dark tone of the object.

  2. THE LAUNCHING OF COLD CLOUDS BY GALAXY OUTFLOWS. I. HYDRODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS WITH RADIATIVE COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Brüggen, Marcus [Universität Hamburg, Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the nature of the multiphase material found in outflowing galaxies, we study the evolution of cold clouds embedded in flows of hot and fast material. Using a suite of adaptive mesh refinement simulations that include radiative cooling, we investigate both cloud mass loss and cloud acceleration under the full range of conditions observed in galaxy outflows. The simulations are designed to track the cloud center of mass, enabling us to study the cloud evolution at long disruption times. For supersonic flows, a Mach cone forms around the cloud, which damps the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability but also establishes a streamwise pressure gradient that stretches the cloud apart. If time is expressed in units of the cloud crushing time, both the cloud lifetime and the cloud acceleration rate are independent of cloud radius, and we find simple scalings for these quantities as a function of the Mach number of the external medium. A resolution study suggests that our simulations accurately describe the evolution of cold clouds in the absence of thermal conduction and magnetic fields, physical processes whose roles will be studied in forthcoming papers.

  3. The 'sixth sense' of ultrasound: probing nonlinear elasticity with acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B; Dontsov, Egor V; Urban, Matthew W; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2015-05-07

    Prompted by a recent finding that the magnitude of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) in isotropic tissue-like solids depends linearly on a particular third-order modulus of elasticity-hereon denoted by C, this study investigates the possibility of estimating C from the amplitude of the ARF-generated shear waves. The featured coefficient of nonlinear elasticity, which captures the incipient nonlinear interaction between the volumetric and deviatoric modes of deformation, has so far received only a limited attention in the context of soft tissues due to the fact that the latter are often approximated as (i) fluid-like when considering ultrasound waves, and (ii) incompressible under static deformations. On establishing the analytical and computational platform for the proposed sensing methodology, the study proceeds with applying the prototype technique toward estimating via ARF the third-order modulus C in a series of tissue-mimicking phantoms. To help validate the concept and its implementation, the germane third-order modulus is independently estimated in each phantom via an established technique known as acoustoelasticity. The C-estimates obtained respectively via acoustoelasticity and the new theory of ARF show a significant degree of consistency. The key features of the new sensing methodology are that: (a) it requires no external deformation of a material other than that produced by the ARF, and (b) it estimates the nonlinear C-modulus locally, over the focal region of an ultrasound beam-where the shear waves are being generated.

  4. Rapid block matching based nonlinear registration on GPU for image guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An; Disher, Brandon; Carnes, Greg; Peters, Terry M.

    2010-02-01

    To compensate for non-uniform deformation due to patient motion within and between fractions in image guided radiation therapy, a block matching technique was adapted and implemented on a standard graphics processing unit (GPU) to determine the displacement vector field that maps the nonlinear transformation between successive CT images. Normalized cross correlation (NCC) was chosen as the similarity metric for the matching step, with regularization of the displacement vector field being performed by Gaussian smoothing. A multi-resolution framework was adopted to further improve the performance of the algorithm. The nonlinear registration algorithm was first applied to estimate the intrafractional motion from 4D lung CT images. It was also used to calculate the inter-fractional organ deformation between planning CT (PCT) and Daily Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images of thorax. For both experiments, manual landmark-based evaluation was performed to quantify the registration performance. In 4D CT registration, the mean TRE of 5 cases was 1.75 mm. In PCT-CBCT registration, the TRE of one case was 2.26mm. Compared to the CPU-based AtamaiWarp program, our GPU-based implementation achieves comparable registration accuracy and is ~25 times faster. The results highlight the potential utility of our algorithm for online adaptive radiation treatment.

  5. Nonlinearity in MCF7 Cell Survival Following Exposure to Modulated 6 MV Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiella, Marion; Franceries, Xavier; Cassol, Emmanuelle; Vieillevigne, Laure; Pereda, Veronica; Bardies, Manuel; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The study of cell survival following exposure to nonuniform radiation fields is taking on particular interest because of the increasing evidence of a nonlinear relationship at low doses. We conducted in vitro experiments using the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 2.4 × 2.4 cm2 square area of a T25 flask was irradiated by a Varian Novalis accelerator delivering 6 MV photons. Cell survival inside the irradiation field, in the dose gradient zone and in the peripheral zone, was determined using a clonogenic assay for different radiation doses at the isocenter. Increased cell survival was observed inside the irradiation area for doses of 2, 10, and 20 Gy when nonirradiated cells were present at the periphery, while the cells at the periphery showed decreased survival compared to controls. Increased survival was also observed at the edge of the dose gradient zone for cells receiving 0.02 to 0.01 Gy when compared with cells at the periphery of the same flask, whatever the isocenter dose. These data are the first to report cell survival in the dose gradient zone. Radiotherapists must be aware of this nonlinearity in dose response. PMID:26740805

  6. Nonlinearity in MCF7 Cell Survival Following Exposure to Modulated 6 MV Radiation Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Lacoste-Collin MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of cell survival following exposure to nonuniform radiation fields is taking on particular interest because of the increasing evidence of a nonlinear relationship at low doses. We conducted in vitro experiments using the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 2.4 × 2.4 cm2 square area of a T25 flask was irradiated by a Varian Novalis accelerator delivering 6 MV photons. Cell survival inside the irradiation field, in the dose gradient zone and in the peripheral zone, was determined using a clonogenic assay for different radiation doses at the isocenter. Increased cell survival was observed inside the irradiation area for doses of 2, 10, and 20 Gy when nonirradiated cells were present at the periphery, while the cells at the periphery showed decreased survival compared to controls. Increased survival was also observed at the edge of the dose gradient zone for cells receiving 0.02 to 0.01 Gy when compared with cells at the periphery of the same flask, whatever the isocenter dose. These data are the first to report cell survival in the dose gradient zone. Radiotherapists must be aware of this nonlinearity in dose response.

  7. Nonlinear quantitative radiation sensitivity prediction model based on NCI-60 cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunying; Girard, Luc; Das, Amit; Chen, Sun; Zheng, Guangqiang; Song, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a nonlinear model to perform a novel quantitative radiation sensitivity prediction. We used the NCI-60 panel, which consists of nine different cancer types, as the platform to train our model. Important radiation therapy (RT) related genes were selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). Orthogonal latent variables (LVs) were then extracted by the partial least squares (PLS) method as the new compressive input variables. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) regression model was trained with these LVs to predict the SF2 (the surviving fraction of cells after a radiation dose of 2 Gy γ-ray) values of the cell lines. Comparison with the published results showed significant improvement of the new method in various ways: (a) reducing the root mean square error (RMSE) of the radiation sensitivity prediction model from 0.20 to 0.011; and (b) improving prediction accuracy from 62% to 91%. To test the predictive performance of the gene signature, three different types of cancer patient datasets were used. Survival analysis across these different types of cancer patients strongly confirmed the clinical potential utility of the signature genes as a general prognosis platform. The gene regulatory network analysis identified six hub genes that are involved in canonical cancer pathways.

  8. Nonlinear Quantitative Radiation Sensitivity Prediction Model Based on NCI-60 Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a nonlinear model to perform a novel quantitative radiation sensitivity prediction. We used the NCI-60 panel, which consists of nine different cancer types, as the platform to train our model. Important radiation therapy (RT related genes were selected by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM. Orthogonal latent variables (LVs were then extracted by the partial least squares (PLS method as the new compressive input variables. Finally, support vector machine (SVM regression model was trained with these LVs to predict the SF2 (the surviving fraction of cells after a radiation dose of 2 Gy γ-ray values of the cell lines. Comparison with the published results showed significant improvement of the new method in various ways: (a reducing the root mean square error (RMSE of the radiation sensitivity prediction model from 0.20 to 0.011; and (b improving prediction accuracy from 62% to 91%. To test the predictive performance of the gene signature, three different types of cancer patient datasets were used. Survival analysis across these different types of cancer patients strongly confirmed the clinical potential utility of the signature genes as a general prognosis platform. The gene regulatory network analysis identified six hub genes that are involved in canonical cancer pathways.

  9. Nonlinear vs. bolometric radiation response and phonon thermal conductance in graphene-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Heli; Nielsen, Bent; Du, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a promising candidate for building fast and ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors due to its weak electron-phonon coupling and low heat capacity. In order to realize a practical graphene-based bolometer, several important issues, including the nature of radiation response, coupling efficiency to the radiation and the thermal conductance need to be carefully studied. Addressing these issues, we present graphene-superconductor junctions as a viable option to achieve efficient and sensitive bolometers, with the superconductor contacts serving as hot electron barriers. For a graphene-superconductor device with highly transparent interfaces, the resistance readout in the presence of radio frequency radiation is dominated by non-linear response. On the other hand, a graphene-superconductor tunnel device shows dominantly bolometric response to radiation. For graphene devices fabricated on SiO 2 substrates, we confirm recent theoretical predictions of T 2 temperature dependence of phonon thermal conductance in the presence of disorder in the graphene channel at low temperatures

  10. Thermal stratification effects on MHD radiative flow of nanofluid over nonlinear stretching sheet with variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Shagaiya Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of thermal stratification, applied electric and magnetic fields, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and Joules heating are numerically studied on a boundary layer flow of electrical conducting nanofluid over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with variable thickness. The governing equations which are partial differential equations are converted to a couple of ordinary differential equations with suitable similarity transformation techniques and are solved using implicit finite difference scheme. The electrical conducting nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled. The effects of the emerging parameters on the electrical conducting nanofluid velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration volume fraction with skin friction, heat transfer characteristics are examined with the aids of graphs and tabular form. It is observed that the variable thickness enhances the fluid velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle concentration volume fraction. The heat and mass transfer rate at the surface increases with thermal stratification resulting to a reduction in the fluid temperature. Electric field enhances the nanofluid velocity which resolved the sticking effects caused by a magnetic field which suppressed the profiles. Radiative heat transfer and viscous dissipation are sensitive to an increase in the fluid temperature and thicker thermal boundary layer thickness. Comparison with published results is examined and presented. Keywords: MHD nanofluid, Variable thickness, Thermal radiation, Similarity solution, Thermal stratification

  11. Nanoparticles and nonlinear thermal radiation properties in the rheology of polymeric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, M.; Hayat, T.; Muqaddass, N.; Ali, A.; Aqsa; Awan, Saeed Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    The present analysis is related to the dynamics of polymeric liquids (Oldroyd-B model) with the presence of nanoparticles. The rheological system is considered under the application of nonlinear thermal radiations. Energy and concentration equations are presented when thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are present. Bidirectional form of stretching is considered to interpret the three-dimensional flow dynamics of polymeric liquid. Making use of the similarity transformations, problem is reduced into ordinary differential system which is approximated by using HAM. Influence of physical parameters including Deborah number, thermophoresis and Brownian motion on velocity, temperature and mass fraction expressions are plotted and analyzed. Numerical values for local Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are presented and discussed.

  12. A synchrotron radiation study of nonlinear diffusion in Cu-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, E.S.K.; Huang, P.; Kraitchman, M.; deFontaine, D.; Hoyt, J.J.; Chow, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a study in which alternate layers of pure copper and gold were vapor deposited on a sodium chloride substrate, the average concentration of the films being Cu-16 at% Au and the layering periodicity (modulation wavelength) being 3.31 nm. The composition modulation gives rise to satellite diffraction peaks around the (200) Bragg reelections. Synchrotron radiation at SSRL was able to detect u to third order satellite intensity the evolution of which was measured as a function of annealing time at 515 K. although the first order satellite intensity decayed as expected exponentially with time, intensities of both second and third order satellites decreased very rapidly at first, then increased before decaying exponentially. These results are in conformity with theoretical models of satellite evolution during annealing in a one-dimensional modulated system governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation

  13. Evaluation of radiation heat transfer in porous medial: Application for a pebble bed modular reactor cooled by CO2 gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi-Ali Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the contribution of radiation heat transfer in the cooling of a pebble bed modular reactor. The mathematical model, developed for a porous medium, is based on a set of equations applied to an annular geometry. Previous major works dealing with the subject have considered the forced convection mode and often did not take into account the radiation heat transfer. In this work, only free convection and radiation heat transfer are considered. This can occur during the removal of residual heat after shutdown or during an emergency situation. In order to derive the governing equations of radiation heat transfer, a steady-state in an isotropic and emissive porous medium (CO2 is considered. The obtained system of equations is written in a dimensionless form and then solved. In order to evaluate the effect of radiation heat transfer on the total heat removed, an analytical method for solving the system of equations is used. The results allow quantifying both radiation and free convection heat transfer. For the studied situation, they show that, in a pebble bed modular reactor, more than 70% of heat is removed by radiation heat transfer when CO2 is used as the coolant gas.

  14. Nonlinear Wave Radiation and Diffraction by a Near-Surface Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, P.

    1997-11-01

    Physics of surface-wave and rigid-body interactions is of importance in naval architecture, in that a good understanding of wave-body interactions is necessary for the design of hulls with minimum ship-motion and resistance characteristics. Particular topics of contemporary research such as generation of spray and breaking waves by a surface ship and control of ship motion in high seas are however highly nonlinear, rendering analysis a challenging task. Using a robust numerical algorithm developed for analyzing fully nonlinear free-surface flow in a viscous fluid (see P. Ananthakrishnan, Three-dimensional wave-body interactions in a viscous fluid, Proc. of ISOPE'97 Conference, Hawaii), we have investigated diffraction and radiation of waves by floating and submerged rigid bodies. In the numerical model, the Navier-Stokes equations subject to exact free-surface and body boundary conditions are solved in primitive variables using a fractional-step finite-difference method which is implemented using curvilinear coordinates. Approximate conditions are however used to model the open boundary and the movement of the contact line. Results presented shed light to a better understanding of generation and ensuing spatial-temporal evolution of vortices under the influence of a free surface, vortical and potential components of hydrodynamics forces, symmetry-breaking in the case of large-amplitude oscillations, generation and damping of super-harmonic waves, and parameter ranges in which effect of viscosity is significant.

  15. Outcome of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in Darcy-Forchheimer flow with nonlinear thermal radiation and convective condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Shah, Faisal; Alsaedi, A.; Hussain, Zakir

    The present analysis aims to report the consequences of nonlinear radiation, convective condition and heterogeneous-homogeneous reactions in Darcy-Forchheimer flow over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness. Non-uniform magnetic field and nonuniform heat generation/absorption are accounted. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The computations are organized and the effects of physical variables such as thickness parameter, power index, Hartman number, inertia and porous parameters, radiation parameter, Biot number, Prandtl number, ratio parameter, heat generation parameter and homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction parameter are investigated. The variations of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for different interesting variables are plotted and discussed. It is noticed that Biot number and heat generation variable lead to enhance the temperature distribution. The solutal boundary layer thickness decreases for larger homogeneous variable while reverse trend is seen for heterogeneous reaction.

  16. Thermophoretic diffusion and nonlinear radiative heat transfer due to a contracting cylinder in a nanofluid with generalized slip condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abbas

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the generalized slip condition and MHD flow of a nanofluid due to a contracting cylinder in the presence of non-linear radiative heat transfer using Buongiorno’s model. The Navier-Stokes along with energy and nanoparticle concentration equations is transformed to highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These similar differential equations are then solved numerically by employing a shooting technique with Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method. Dual solutions exist for a particular range of the unsteadiness parameter. The physical influence of the several important fluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction is discussed and shown through graphs and table in detail. The present study indicates that as increase of Brownian motion parameter and slip velocity is to decrease the nanoparticle volume fraction. Keywords: Nanofluid, Contracting cylinder, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Generalized slip condition, Numerical solution

  17. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy’s law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined. Keywords: Porous medium, Heat generation/absorption, SWCNTs and MWCNTs, Nonlinear radiation

  18. Storm Time Variation of Radiative Cooling by Nitric Oxide as Observed by TIMED-SABER and GUVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Gaurav; Sunil Krishna, M. V.; Bag, T.; Jain, Puneet

    2018-02-01

    The variation of O/N2 (reference to N2 column density 1017 cm-2) and nitric oxide radiative emission flux exiting the thermosphere have been studied over the Northern Hemisphere during the superstorm event of 7-12 November 2004. The data have been obtained from Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. The NO radiative flux is observed to show an anti-correlation with O/N2 on a global scale. Both NO radiative flux and O/N2 ratio show equatorward motion with maximum penetration in western longitude sectors. A local variation of O, O2, and N2 densities have been calculated using NRLMSISE-00 model over a midlatitude location (55°N,180°E). On a local scale, model calculated O/O2 and O/N2 ratios are found to follow the observations made by GUVI. The collisional excitation of NO with atomic oxygen is the most dominant process for the total cooling rate. The SABER-retrieved NO cooling rate (CR) at a local site suggests an enhancement during the storm period with the peak emission rate closely correlated to the progression of the storm. The peak emission altitude of NO CR moves upward during the main phase of the storm. The NO abundance has been calculated by using cooling rate and Nitric Oxide Empirical Model (NOEM) model. Both these suggest a vary large (3-15 times) increase in NO density during the storm, which is required to account the changes in NO radiative flux. A similar kind of enhancement in NO abundance is also noticed in Student Nitric Oxide Explorer observations during intense geomagnetic storms.

  19. Covering Materials Incorporating Radiation-Preventing Techniques to Meet Greenhouse Cooling Challenges in Arid Regions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Ghany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling greenhouses is essential to provide a suitable environment for plant growth in arid regions characterized by brackish water resources. However, using conventional cooling methods are facing many challenges. Filtering out near infra-red radiation (NIR at the greenhouse cover can significantly reduce the heating load and can solve the overheating problem of the greenhouse air. This paper is to review (i the problems of using conventional cooling methods and (ii the advantages of greenhouse covers that incorporate NIR reflectors. This survey focuses on how the cover type affects the transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, the reflectance or absorptance of NIR and the greenhouse air temperature. NIR-reflecting plastic films seem to be the most suitable, low cost and simple cover for greenhouses under arid conditions. Therefore, this review discusses how various additives should be incorporated in plastic film to increase its mechanical properties, durability and ability to stand up to extremely harsh weather. Presently, NIR-reflecting covers are able to reduce greenhouse air temperature by no more than 5°C. This reduction is not enough in regions where the ambient temperature may exceed 45°C in summer. There is a need to develop improved NIR-reflecting plastic film covers.

  20. Thermal-Induced Non-linearity of Ag Nano-fluid Prepared using γ-Radiation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeil Shahriari; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus; Zainal Abidin Talib; Elias Saion

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear refractive index of Ag nano-fluids prepared by γ-radiation method was investigated using a single beam z-scan technique. Under CW 532 nm laser excitation with power output of 40 mW, the Ag nano-fluids showed a large thermal-induced non-linear refractive index. In the present work it was determined that the non-linear refractive index for Ag nano-fluids is -4.80x10 -8 cm 2 / W. The value of Δn 0 was calculated to be -2.05x10 -4 . Our measurements also confirmed that the non-linear phenomenon was caused by the self-defocusing process making them good candidates for non linear optical devices. (author)

  1. Numerical investigation to study effect of radiation on thermal performance of radiator for onan cooling configuration of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, V.; Paramane, S. B.; Veken, W. V. d.; Codde, J.

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, flow and temperature distribution in the radiator fins of a power transformer is studied numerically with conjugate heat transfer using commercial CFD software to study the effect of radiation on heat dissipation. The approach considered here is a complete 3D geometry of the radiator fins with average height of the flute geometry of the fins for meshing and computational time reduction. Simulations are performed for ONAN (Oil Natural Air Natural) case for one radiator configuration. The simulations also study the effect of radiation and its impact on the overall heat dissipation. These results would give a holistic picture of heat transfer phenomenon to the designers.

  2. Outcome of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in Darcy-Forchheimer flow with nonlinear thermal radiation and convective condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available The present analysis aims to report the consequences of nonlinear radiation, convective condition and heterogeneous-homogeneous reactions in Darcy-Forchheimer flow over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness. Non-uniform magnetic field and nonuniform heat generation/absorption are accounted. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The computations are organized and the effects of physical variables such as thickness parameter, power index, Hartman number, inertia and porous parameters, radiation parameter, Biot number, Prandtl number, ratio parameter, heat generation parameter and homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction parameter are investigated. The variations of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for different interesting variables are plotted and discussed. It is noticed that Biot number and heat generation variable lead to enhance the temperature distribution. The solutal boundary layer thickness decreases for larger homogeneous variable while reverse trend is seen for heterogeneous reaction. Keywords: Variable sheet thickness, Darcy-Forchheimer flow, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Power-law surface velocity, Convective condition, Heat generation/absorption, Nonlinear radiation

  3. Evaluation of the NightCool Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept: Annual Performance Assessment in Scale Test Buildings Stage Gate 1B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John R. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report, data is presented on the long-term comparative with all of NightCool system fully operational, with circulating fans when attic conditions are favorable for nocturnal cooling and with conventional air conditioning at other times. Data is included for a full year of the cooling season in Central Florida, which stretches from April to November of 2007.

  4. Nonlinear real index of refraction variations of a gas medium due to a monochromatic radiation near resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, J.I.C.

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinear real index of refraction variations of a gas medium due to a strong monochromatic radiation causing saturation effects is calculated. The gas is supposed to be composed of two-level molecules with which the external field is nearly resonant. It is assumed homogeneous (hard collisions, spontaneous decay) and inhomogeneous (Doppler effect) broadening mechanisms acting on the real index of refraction of the medium. The nonlinear dispersion of the medium is studied as a function of the detuning frequencies, saturation conditions and for various ratios between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous linewidths. In particular, the modification of the index of refraction due to saturation effects are emphasized. (Author) [pt

  5. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  6. Investigation of cooling methods and thickness considerations in the filter/window assembly for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream to absorb the soft x-rays so that the window can be protected from overheating, which could result in failure. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. When the synchrotron x-rays pass through a filter or window, part of the photons will be absorbed by the filter or window. The absorbed photons cause heat to build up within the filter or window. Successful filter and window designs should effectively dissipate the heat generated by the absorbed photons and guarantee the safety of the filter and window. The cooling methods typically used in a filter or window design are conduction and radiation cooling or a combination of the two. The different cooling methods were first examined with regard to efficiency and effectiveness in different temperature ranges. Analysis results are presented for temperature distribution and corresponding thermal stresses in the filter and window. Another important issue to be resolved in designing a filter/window assembly is how to select the thickness of the filters and windows. This paper focuses on the criteria for choosing the thickness of a filter: whether it is better to use a few thick filters or a series of thin ones; how to determine the minimum/maximum thickness; and the difference in thickness considerations for the window versus the filter. Numerical investigations are presented

  7. Fragmentation inside atomic cooling haloes exposed to Lyman-Werner radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Downes, Turlough P.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive stars born in pristine environments in the early Universe hold the promise of being the seeds for the supermassive black holes observed as high redshift quasars shortly after the epoch of reionisation. {H_2} suppression is thought to be crucial in order to negate normal Population III star formation and allow high accretion rates to drive the formation of supermassive stars. Only in the cases where vigorous fragmentation is avoided will a monolithic collapse be successful giving rise to a single massive central object. We investigate the number of fragmentation sites formed in collapsing atomic cooling haloes subject to various levels of background Lyman-Werner flux. The background Lyman-Werner flux manipulates the chemical properties of the gas in the collapsing halo by destroying {H_2}. We find that only when the collapsing gas cloud shifts from the molecular to the atomic cooling regime is the degree of fragmentation suppressed. In our particular case we find that this occurs above a critical Lyman-Werner background of J ˜ 10 J21. The important criterion being the transition to the atomic cooling regime rather than the actual value of J, which will vary locally. Once the temperature of the gas exceeds T ≳ 104 K and the gas transitions to atomic line cooling, then vigorous fragmentation is strongly suppressed.

  8. Fragmentation inside atomic cooling haloes exposed to Lyman-Werner radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Downes, Turlough P.

    2018-04-01

    Supermassive stars born in pristine environments in the early Universe hold the promise of being the seeds for the supermassive black holes observed as high redshift quasars shortly after the epoch of reionisation. H2 suppression is thought to be crucial in order to negate normal Population III star formation and allow high accretion rates to drive the formation of supermassive stars. Only in the cases where vigorous fragmentation is avoided will a monolithic collapse be successful, giving rise to a single massive central object. We investigate the number of fragmentation sites formed in collapsing atomic cooling haloes subject to various levels of background Lyman-Werner flux. The background Lyman-Werner flux manipulates the chemical properties of the gas in the collapsing halo by destroying H2. We find that only when the collapsing gas cloud shifts from the molecular to the atomic cooling regime is the degree of fragmentation suppressed. In our particular case, we find that this occurs above a critical Lyman-Werner background of J ˜ 10 J21. The important criterion being the transition to the atomic cooling regime rather than the actual value of J, which will vary locally. Once the temperature of the gas exceeds T ≳ 104 K and the gas transitions to atomic line cooling, then vigorous fragmentation is strongly suppressed.

  9. Evaluation of air temperature distribution using thermal image under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter season over Shikoku area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Using the thermal images offered by the infra-red thermometer and the LANDSAT, the air temperature distribution over mountainous regions were estimated under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in the winter season. The thermal image analyses by using an infra-red thermometer and the micrometeological observation were carried out around Zentsuji Kagawa prefecture. At the same time, the thermal image analyses were carried out by using the LANDSAT data. The LANDSAT data were taken on Dec. 7, 1984 and Dec. 5, 1989. The scenes covered the west part of Shikoku, southwest of Japan.The results were summarized as follows:Values of the surface temperature of trees, which were measured by an infra-red thermometer, were almost equal to the air temperature. On the other hand, DN values detected by LANDSAT over forest area were closely related with air temperature observed by AMeDAS. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate instantaneously a spatial distribution of the nocturnal air temperature from thermal image.The LANDSAT detect a surface temperature over Shikoku area only at 21:30. When radiative cooling was dominant, the thermal belt and the cold air lake were already formed on the mountain slopes at 21:30. Therfore, it is possible to estimate the characteristic of nocturnal temperature distribution by using LANDSAT data.It became clear that the temperature distribution estimated by thermal images offered by the infra-red thermometer and the LANDSAT was useful for the evaluation of rational land use for winter crops

  10. Effects of cross-Kerr coupling and parametric nonlinearity on normal mode splitting, cooling, and entanglement in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Zeng, Wei; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2017-06-01

    We study the influence of cross-Kerr (CK) coupling and optical parametric amplifier (OPA) on the effective frequency, damping, normal mode splitting, ground state cooling, and steady state entanglement of an optomechanical system formed by one fixed mirror and one movable mirror. The CK coupling could increase the damping of the movable mirror. The normal mode splitting of the output field is observed due to the CK coupling. The combination of the CK coupling and OPA decreases the minimum attainable phonon number and the effective temperature of the movable mirror. The amount of stationary entanglement between the mechanical and cavity modes can be enhanced by the weak CK coupling. In particular, we find the stationary entanglement becomes more robust against thermal fluctuations of the movable mirror in the presence of the weak CK coupling.

  11. Cool-season precipitation in the southwestern USA since AD 1000: comparison of linear and nonlinear techniques for reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fenbiao; Cavazos, Tereza; Hughes, Malcolm K.; Comrie, Andrew C.; Funkhouser, Gary

    2002-11-01

    A 1000 year reconstruction of cool-season (November-April) precipitation was developed for each climate division in Arizona and New Mexico from a network of 19 tree-ring chronologies in the southwestern USA. Linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (NN) models were used to identify the cool-season precipitation signal in tree rings. Using 1931-88 records, the stepwise LR model was cross-validated with a leave-one-out procedure and the NN was validated with a bootstrap technique. The final models were also independently validated using the 1896-1930 precipitation data. In most of the climate divisions, both techniques can successfully reconstruct dry and normal years, and the NN seems to capture large precipitation events and more variability better than the LR. In the 1000 year reconstructions the NN also produces more distinctive wet events and more variability, whereas the LR produces more distinctive dry events. The 1000 year reconstructed precipitation from the two models shows several sustained dry and wet periods comparable to the 1950s drought (e.g. 16th century mega drought) and to the post-1976 wet period (e.g. 1330s, 1610s). The impact of extreme periods on the environment may be stronger during sudden reversals from dry to wet, which were not uncommon throughout the millennium, such as the 1610s wet interval that followed the 16th century mega drought. The instrumental records suggest that strong dry to wet precipitation reversals in the past 1000 years might be linked to strong shifts from cold to warm El Niño-southern oscillation events and from a negative to positive Pacific decadal oscillation.

  12. Radiation protection training for personnel at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Section 19.12 Instructions to Workers, of 10 CFR Part 19, Notices, Instructions, and Reports to Workers; Inspections, requires that individuals be given instruction in radiation protection that is commensurate with the potential radiation protection problems they may encounter in restricted areas as defined in para. 19.3(e) of 10 CFR Part 19. Para. 20.1(c) of 10 CFR Part 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation, states that occupational radiation exposure should be kept as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). Appropriate training is an essential aspect of an ALARA program. This guide describes a radiation protection training program consistent with the ALARA objective and acceptable to the NRC staff for meeting the training requirements of 10 CFR Part 19 with respect to individuals that enter restricted areas at nuclear power plants

  13. Rotating Flow of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-Linear Thermal Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M; Mushtaq, A; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2016-01-01

    Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4-water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration.

  14. Rotating Flow of Magnetite-Water Nanofluid over a Stretching Surface Inspired by Non-Linear Thermal Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mustafa

    Full Text Available Present study explores the MHD three-dimensional rotating flow and heat transfer of ferrofluid induced by a radiative surface. The base fluid is considered as water with magnetite-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Novel concept of non-linear radiative heat flux is considered which produces a non-linear energy equation in temperature field. Conventional transformations are employed to obtain the self-similar form of the governing differential system. The arising system involves an interesting temperature ratio parameter which is an indicator of small/large temperature differences in the flow. Numerical simulations with high precision are determined by well-known shooting approach. Both uniform stretching and rotation have significant impact on the solutions. The variation in velocity components with the nanoparticle volume fraction is non-monotonic. Local Nusselt number in Fe3O4-water ferrofluid is larger in comparison to the pure fluid even at low particle concentration.

  15. Unsteady slip flow of Carreau nanofluid over a wedge with nonlinear radiation and new mass flux condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    Full Text Available This article addresses a numerical investigation for the unsteady 2D slip flow of Carreau nanofluid past a static and/or moving wedge with the nonlinear radiation. A zero nanoparticle mass flux and convective boundary conditions are implemented. Further, the most recently devised model for nanofluid is adopted that incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A set of suitable transformation is demonstrated to alter the nonlinear partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then tackled numerically by employing bvp4c in Matlab package. The numerical computations for the wall heat flux (Nusselt number and wall mass flux (Sherwood number are also performed. Effects of several controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration are explored and discussed in detail. Our study reveals that the temperature and the associated thermal boundary layer thickness are enhancing function of the temperature ratio parameter for both shear thickening and shear thinning fluids. Moreover, it is noticed that the velocity in case of moving wedge is higher than static wedge. Keywords: Unsteady wedge flow, Carreau nanofluid, Non-linear radiation, Velocity slip and nanoparticles mass flux conditions

  16. Engineering method of calculation temperature fields and thermal stresses in the initial stage of radiation convection heating (cooling body with variable heat transfer coefficient, and the temperature of environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov A.D.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing solutions of radiant and convective heating (cooling body problems at the initial stage at unsteady heat transfer coefficients and temperatures are rather cumbersome. The purpose of this work is getting simpler dependencies. Decisions are based on the analysis of relations between the cause (heat flow and the effect (surface temperature in the initial period of heating. Two simple and effective engineering methods of calculation of unsteady temperature fields, and axial thermal stresses at the initial stage of heating (cooling of body of canonical form for both convection and radiation heat transfer at variable ambient temperature and environmental factors have been developed. Some of the solutions are generic in nature, which allows significantly reducing the number of variables and thus using the graphical method of problem solving. The formulas for calculating the bulk and central temperature in the initial stage are provided; other researchers of nonlinear heat conduction problems did not usually do this. It has been found that the axial thermal stresses are determined entirely by the heat flow on the surface. The adequacy of the developed techniques is based on five cases of calculation of heating (cooling plates under various conditions of its thermal loading. It is shown that the error in determining the surface temperature does not exceed 6%, and that the developed method can be used up to Fourier numbers Fo<0.4

  17. Effects of Variable Thermal Conductivity and Non-linear Thermal Radiation Past an Eyring Powell Nanofluid Flow with Chemical Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, M.; Bilal, M.; Kanwal, Shamsa; Chung, Jae Dong

    2017-06-01

    Present analysis discusses the boundary layer flow of Eyring Powell nanofluid past a constantly moving surface under the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Heat and mass transfer mechanisms are examined under the physically suitable convective boundary condition. Effects of variable thermal conductivity and chemical reaction are also considered. Series solutions of all involved distributions using Homotopy Analysis method (HAM) are obtained. Impacts of dominating embedded flow parameters are discussed through graphical illustrations. It is observed that thermal radiation parameter shows increasing tendency in relation to temperature profile. However, chemical reaction parameter exhibits decreasing behavior versus concentration distribution. Supported by the World Class 300 Project (No. S2367878) of the SMBA (Korea)

  18. On the Numerical Solution of the Nonlinear Radiation Heat Transfer Problem in a Three-Dimensional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ammar; Mustafa, Meraj; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    The steady laminar three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet is investigated. The sheet is linearly stretched in two lateral directions. Heat transfer analysis is performed by utilizing a nonlinear radiative heat flux in Rosseland approximation for thermal radiation. Two different wall conditions, namely (i) constant wall temperature and (ii) prescribed surface temperature are considered. The developed nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) are solved numerically through fifth-order Runge-Kutta method using a shooting technique. To ascertain the accuracy of results the solutions are also computed by using built in function bvp4c of MATLAB. The behaviours of interesting parameters are carefully analyzed through graphs for velocity and temperature distributions. The dimensionless expressions of wall shear stress and heat transfer rate at the sheet are evaluated and discussed. It is seen that a point of inflection of the temperature function exists for sufficiently large values of wall to ambient temperature ratio. The solutions are in excellent agreement with the previous studies in a limiting sense. To our knowledge, the novel idea of nonlinear thermal radiation in three-dimensional flow is just introduced here.

  19. Non-linear interactions between CO_2 radiative and physiological effects on Amazonian evapotranspiration in an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Kate; Good, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of mechanisms underlying the evapotranspiration response to increased CO_2 in HadGEM2-ES, focussed on western Amazonia. We use three simulations from CMIP5 in which atmospheric CO_2 increases at 1% per year reaching approximately four times pre-industrial levels after 140 years. Using 3-hourly data, we found that evapotranspiration (ET) change was dominated by decreased stomatal conductance (g_s), and to a lesser extent by decreased canopy water and increased moisture gradient (specific humidity difference between surface and near-surface). There were large, non-linear decreases in ET in the simulation in which radiative and physiological forcings could interact. This non-linearity arises from non-linearity in the conductance term (includes aerodynamic and stomatal resistance and partitioning between the two, which is determined by canopy water availability), the moisture gradient, and negative correlation between these two terms. The conductance term is non-linear because GPP responds non-linearly to temperature and GPP is the dominant control on g_s in HadGEM2-ES. In addition, canopy water declines, mainly due to increases in potential evaporation, which further decrease the conductance term. The moisture gradient responds non-linearly owing to the non-linear response of temperature to CO_2 increases, which increases the Bowen ratio. Moisture gradient increases resulting from ET decline increase ET and thus constitute a negative feedback. This analysis highlights the importance of the g_s parametrisation in determining the ET response and the potential differences between offline and online simulations owing to feedbacks on ET via the atmosphere, some of which would not occur in an offline simulation.

  20. Radiative transfer in the refractive atmospheres of very cool white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, P. M.; Saumon, D.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres where the index of refraction departs from unity and is a function of density and temperature. We present modified Feautrier and Lambda-iteration methods to solve the equation of radiative transfer with refraction in a plane parallel atmosphere. These methods are general and can be used in any problem with 1-D geometry where the index of refraction is a monotonically varying function of vertical optical depth. We present an ...

  1. Analysis of the hydrothermal behavior and entropy generation in a regenerative cooling channel considering thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, M., E-mail: mostafamahmoodi@engineer.com [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kandelousi, Sh., E-mail: m.Kandelousi.sh@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer enhancement of kerosene–alumina nanofluid is studied. • DTM is applied to solve the governing equations. • Nu is an increasing function of Rd, ϕ. • Be is a decreasing function of R, Ec. - Abstract: A semi-analytical investigation is performed into the force convection heat transfer characteristics and entropy generation of kerosene–alumina nanofluid in a channel of semi cryogenic engine. Thermal radiation effect is considered in energy equation. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary equation by means of similarity solution and solve by Differential Transformation Method. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Bejan number are determined for different values of pertinent parameters such as Radiation parameter, nanofluid volume fraction, Viscosity parameter and Eckert number. Results indicate that entropy generation is an increasing function of Viscosity parameter and Eckert number while it is a decreasing function of Radiation parameter. Also it can be concluded that Nusselt number enhances with augment of Radiation parameter and nanofluid volume fraction while it decreases with increase of Radiation and Viscosity parameter parameters.

  2. Analysis of the hydrothermal behavior and entropy generation in a regenerative cooling channel considering thermal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodi, M.; Kandelousi, Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer enhancement of kerosene–alumina nanofluid is studied. • DTM is applied to solve the governing equations. • Nu is an increasing function of Rd, ϕ. • Be is a decreasing function of R, Ec. - Abstract: A semi-analytical investigation is performed into the force convection heat transfer characteristics and entropy generation of kerosene–alumina nanofluid in a channel of semi cryogenic engine. Thermal radiation effect is considered in energy equation. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary equation by means of similarity solution and solve by Differential Transformation Method. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Bejan number are determined for different values of pertinent parameters such as Radiation parameter, nanofluid volume fraction, Viscosity parameter and Eckert number. Results indicate that entropy generation is an increasing function of Viscosity parameter and Eckert number while it is a decreasing function of Radiation parameter. Also it can be concluded that Nusselt number enhances with augment of Radiation parameter and nanofluid volume fraction while it decreases with increase of Radiation and Viscosity parameter parameters

  3. Improving the cooling performance of automobile radiator with Al2O3/water nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyghambarzadeh, S.M.; Hashemabadi, S.H.; Jamnani, M. Seifi; Hoseini, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, forced convective heat transfer in a water based nanofluid has experimentally been compared to that of pure water in an automobile radiator. Five different concentrations of nanofluids in the range of 0.1-1 vol.% have been prepared by the addition of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles into the water. The test liquid flows through the radiator consisted of 34 vertical tubes with elliptical cross section and air makes a cross flow inside the tube bank with constant speed. Liquid flow rate has been changed in the range of 2-5 l/min to have the fully turbulent regime (9 x 10 3 4 ). Additionally, the effect of fluid inlet temperature to the radiator on heat transfer coefficient has also been analyzed by varying the temperature in the range of 37-49 o C. Results demonstrate that increasing the fluid circulating rate can improve the heat transfer performance while the fluid inlet temperature to the radiator has trivial effects. Meanwhile, application of nanofluid with low concentrations can enhance heat transfer efficiency up to 45% in comparison with pure water. - Highlights: → Application of nanofluid in the car radiator has been studied experimentally. → Heat transfer enhancement of about 45% compared to water has been recorded. → Increasing particle concentration and velocity improves heat transfer performance.

  4. Newton's law of cooling revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, M

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer from any object to its surrounding is not only due to conduction and convection but also due to radiation. The latter does not vary linearly with temperature difference, which leads to deviations from Newton's law. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the cooling of objects with a small Biot number. It is shown that Newton's law of cooling, i.e. simple exponential behaviour, is mostly valid if temperature differences are below a certain threshold which depends on the experimental conditions. For any larger temperature differences appreciable deviations occur which need the complete nonlinear treatment. This is demonstrated by results of some laboratory experiments which use IR imaging to measure surface temperatures of solid cooling objects with temperature differences of up to 300 K.

  5. Characteristics of fabricated si PIN-type radiation detectors on cooling temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Soo; Jeong, Manhee; Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Hun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Ha, Jang Ho

    2015-06-01

    Si PIN photodiode radiation detectors with three different active areas (3×3 mm2, 5×5 mm2, and 10×10 mm2) were designed and fabricated at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for low energy X- and gamma-ray detection. In Si-based semiconductor radiation detectors, one of the noise sources is thermal noise, which degrades their energy resolution performance. In this study, the temperature effects on the energy resolution were investigated using a 3×3 mm2 active area PIN photodiode radiation detector using a Thermoelectric Module (TEM) from room temperature to -23 °C. Energy resolutions from 25 keV auger electrons to 81 keV gamma-ray from a Ba-133 calibration source were measured and compared at every 10 °C interval. At -23 °C, energy resolutions were improved by 15.6% at 25 keV, 4.0% at 31 keV, and 1.2% at 81 keV in comparison with resolutions at room temperature. CsI(Tl)/PIN photodiode radiation detectors were also fabricated for relatively high energy gamma-ray detection. Energy resolutions for Cs-137, Co-60, and Na-22 sources were measured and compared with the spectral responsivity.

  6. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD stagnation point flow of nanofluid past a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wubshet Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional boundary layer flow of nanofluid fluid past a stretching sheet is examined. The paper reveals the effect of non-linear radiative heat transfer on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet with convective heating. Condition of zero normal flux of nanoparticles at the wall for the stretched flow is considered. The nanoparticle fractions on the boundary are considered to be passively controlled. The solution for the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration depends on parameters viz. Prandtl number Pr, velocity ratio parameter A, magnetic parameter M, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion Nb, and the thermophoresis parameter Nt. Moreover, the problem is governed by temperature ratio parameter (Nr=TfT∞ and radiation parameter Rd. Similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing non-linear boundary-value problems into coupled higher order non-linear ordinary differential equation. These equations were numerically solved using the function bvp4c from the matlab software for different values of governing parameters. Numerical results are obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration, as well as the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient Cf increases as the values of magnetic parameter M increase and decreases as the values of velocity ratio parameter A increase. The local Nusselt number −θ′(0 decreases as the values of thermophoresis parameter Nt and radiation parameter Nr increase and it increases as the values of both Biot number Bi and Prandtl number Pr increase. Furthermore, radiation has a positive effect on temperature and concentration profiles.

  7. Closed form solution for a conductive-convective-radiative annular fin with multiple nonlinearities and its inverse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajiv; Mallick, Ashis; Prasad, Dilip K.

    2017-03-01

    The performance characteristics and temperature field of conducting-convecting-radiating annular fin are investigated. The nonlinear variation of thermal conductivity, power law dependency of heat transfer coefficient, linear variation of surface emissivity, and heat generation with the temperature are considered in the analysis. A semi-analytical approach, homotopy perturbation method is employed to solve the nonlinear differential equation of heat transfer. The analysis is presented in non-dimensional form, and the effect of various non-dimensional thermal parameters such as conduction-convection parameter, conduction-radiation parameter, linear and nonlinear variable thermal conductivity parameter, emissivity parameter, heat generation number and variable heat generation parameter are studied. For the correctness of the present analytical solution, the results are compared with the results available in the literature. In addition to forward problem, an inverse approach namely differential evolution method is employed for estimating the unknown thermal parameters for a given temperature field. The temperature fields are reconstructed using the inverse parameters and found to be in good agreement with the forward solution.

  8. Development results of portable gamma-radiation HPGe spectrometer with electric cooling for field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.; Loshevich, E.; Pchelintsev, A.; Sokolov, A.; Gostilo, V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents development results of a portable spectrometer based on high purity germanium (HPGe spectrometer) with Stirling electric cooler for field applications. The spectrometer cryostat allows installation of HPGe coaxial detectors with efficiency up to 40% and planar detectors with sensitive area up to 3000 mm2. The detector cooling time is not more than 8 hours. Despite the mechanical vibrations due to electric cooler operation, the obtained energy resolution of the spectrometer with coaxial detector of 10% efficiency was less than 1,0 and 2,0 keV by energies 122 and 1332 keV accordingly. Miniature processor device (Android) allows control for all operation modes of the spectrometer, provides self diagnostics, initial procession, indication and spectra accumulation

  9. Generation of Nonlinear Electric Field Bursts in the Outer Radiation Belt through Electrons Trapping by Oblique Whistler Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Drake, James; Mozer, Forrest

    2016-04-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.

  10. Non-Darcy flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Ullah, Siraj; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.; Zaigham Zia, Q. M.

    2018-03-01

    Here modeling and computations are presented to introduce the novel concept of Darcy-Forchheimer three-dimensional flow of water-based carbon nanotubes with nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Bidirectional stretching surface induces the flow. Darcy's law is commonly replace by Forchheimer relation. Xue model is implemented for nonliquid transport mechanism. Nonlinear formulation based upon conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy is first modeled and then solved by optimal homotopy analysis technique. Optimal estimations of auxiliary variables are obtained. Importance of influential variables on the velocity and thermal fields is interpreted graphically. Moreover velocity and temperature gradients are discussed and analyzed. Physical interpretation of influential variables is examined.

  11. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation A Simulation Code Based on the Non-Linear Extension of the Operator Splitting Method

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is one of the main problems limiting the performance of high intensity electron accelerators. A code devoted to the analysis of this type of problems should be fast and reliable: conditions that are usually hardly achieved at the same time. In the past, codes based on Lie algebraic techniques have been very efficient to treat transport problem in accelerators. The extension of these method to the non-linear case is ideally suited to treat CSR instability problems. We report on the development of a numerical code, based on the solution of the Vlasov equation, with the inclusion of non-linear contribution due to wake field effects. The proposed solution method exploits an algebraic technique, using exponential operators implemented numerically in C++. We show that the integration procedure is capable of reproducing the onset of an instability and effects associated with bunching mechanisms leading to the growth of the instability itself. In addition, parametric studies a...

  12. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear radiation effects on stagnation point flow of nanofluid along a moving surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Feroz Ahmed; Haq, Rizwan Ul; Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    In this study, heat generation/absorption effects are studied in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation along a moving slip surface. Uniform magnetic field and convective condition along the stretching surface are adjusted to deal the slip mechanisms in term of Brownian motion and thermophoresis for nanofluid. The mathematical model is constructed in the form of coupled partial differential equations. By introducing the suitable similarity transformation, system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are obtained. Finite difference approach is implemented to obtain the unknown functions of velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration. To deduct the effects at the surface, physical quantities of interest are computed under the effects of controlled physical parameters. Present numerical solutions are validated via numerical comparison with existing published work for limiting cases. Present study indicates that due to increase in both Brownian motion and thermophoresis, the Nusselt number decreases while Sherwood number shows the gradual increase.

  13. Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear interactions with VLF chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Omura, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt recovery of MeV (millions of electron Volts) electron populations in the poststorm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly nonlinear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant nonadiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of nonlinear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy of hundreds of keV to 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV-200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10-100 ms.

  14. High cloud variations with surface temperature from 2002 to 2015: Contributions to atmospheric radiative cooling rate and precipitation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Gu, Yu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Liu, Shaw Chen

    2017-05-01

    The global mean precipitation is largely constrained by atmospheric radiative cooling rates (Qr), which are sensitive to changes in high cloud fraction. We investigate variations of high cloud fraction with surface temperature (Ts) from July 2002 to June 2015 and compute their radiative effects on Qr using the Fu-Liou-Gu plane-parallel radiation model. We find that the tropical mean (30°S-30°N) high cloud fraction decreases with increasing Ts at a rate of about -1.0 ± 0.34% K-1 from 2002 to 2015, which leads to an enhanced atmospheric cooling around 0.86 W m-2 K-1. On the other hand, the northern midlatitudes (30°N-60°N) high cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 1.85 ± 0.65% K-1 and the near-global mean (60°S-60°N) high cloud fraction shows a statistically insignificant decreasing trend with increasing Ts over the analysis period. Dividing high clouds into cirrus, cirrostratus, and deep convective clouds, we find that cirrus cloud fraction increases with surface warming at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.11% K-1 (0.01 ± 0.17% K-1) for the near-global mean (tropical mean), while cirrostratus and deep convective clouds decrease with surface warming at a rate of -0.02 ± 0.18% K-1 and -0.33 ± 0.18% K-1 for the near-global mean and -0.64 ± 0.23% K-1 and -0.37 ± 0.13% K-1 for the tropical mean, respectively. High cloud fraction response to feedback to Ts accounts for approximately 1.9 ± 0.7% and 16.0 ± 6.1% of the increase in precipitation per unit surface warming over the period of 2002-2015 for the near-global mean and the tropical mean, respectively.

  15. Cooling of ions trapped in potential wells produced by electromagnetic radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The probability distributions for the ground state and the excited state of a two-level ion trapped in an harmonic potential well are studied. The ion is excited by electromagnetic radiation and relaxes back due to either spontaneous or stimulated emission. The photon statistics is considered Poissonian and the momentum transfer between the electromagnetic field and the ion is assumed discrete. The present results are closely related to the quantum treatment in the heavy particle limit as well as to those derived from previous semiclassical models. (Author) [es

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Nonlinearity in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldberg, Zelanna; Rocke, David M

    2007-01-01

    .... We have begun detailed cell cycle analysis of low dose radiation exposure on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as well as survival as says following priming and challenge doses of ionizing radiation...

  17. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer and Hall effects on a viscous fluid in a semi-porous curved channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, effects of Hall currents and nonlinear radiative heat transfer in a viscous fluid passing through a semi-porous curved channel coiled in a circle of radius R are analyzed. A curvilinear coordinate system is used to develop the mathematical model of the considered problem in the form partial differential equations. Similarity solutions of the governing boundary value problems are obtained numerically using shooting method. The results are also validated with the well-known finite difference technique known as the Keller-Box method. The analysis of the involved pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature distributions is presented through graphs and tables.

  18. Study of Heat Transfer with Nonlinear Thermal Radiation on Sinusoidal Motion of Magnetic Solid Particles in a Dusty Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M. M.; Zeeshan, A.; Ellahi, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, heat transfer with nonlinear thermal radiation on sinusoidal motion of magnetic solid particles in a dust Jeffrey fluid has been studied. The effects of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hall current are also taken under consideration. The governing equation of motion and energy equation are modelled with help of Ohms law for fluid and dust phases. The solutions of the resulting ordinary coupled partial differential equations are solved analytically. The impact of all the physical parameters of interest such as Hartmann number, slip parameter, Hall parameter, radiation parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and particle volume fraction are demonstrated mathematically and graphically. Trapping mechanism is also discussed in detail by drawing contour lines. The present analysis affirms many interesting behaviours, which permit further study on solid particles motion with heat and mass transfer.

  19. A Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX Neural Network Model for the Prediction of the Daily Direct Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Boussaada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The solar photovoltaic (PV energy has an important place among the renewable energy sources. Therefore, several researchers have been interested by its modelling and its prediction, in order to improve the management of the electrical systems which include PV arrays. Among the existing techniques, artificial neural networks have proved their performance in the prediction of the solar radiation. However, the existing neural network models don’t satisfy the requirements of certain specific situations such as the one analyzed in this paper. The aim of this research work is to supply, with electricity, a race sailboat using exclusively renewable sources. The developed solution predicts the direct solar radiation on a horizontal surface. For that, a Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX neural network is used. All the specific conditions of the sailboat operation are taken into account. The results show that the best prediction performance is obtained when the training phase of the neural network is performed periodically.

  20. On the determination of the overall heat transmission coefficient and soil heat flux for a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse: Analysis of radiation and convection heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m -2 , the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m -2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m -2 . The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m -2 C -1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m -2 C -1 and 6.0 W m -2 C -1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse

  1. Modeling and simulation for 3D magneto Eyring-Powell nanomaterial subject to nonlinear thermal radiation and convective heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, W. A.; Ahmad, L.

    The present article scrutinizes the steady three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid with convective and the nanoparticles mass flux conditions. Additionally, the features of heat transfer phenomena's are carried out by utilizing the non-linear thermal radiation. Suitable transformations convert the nonlinear PDEs to the nonlinear ODEs and then tackled numerically by bvp4c technique. The properties of numerous amending parameters to the heat and mass transfer features are portrayed graphically and deliberated in detail. The achieved results reveal that amassed values of magnetic parameter M and Biot number γ enhance the temperature distribution and its thickness of boundary layer. Also, it is identified that the impact of Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt on concentration field are relatively conflicting. In order to recognize the validity of the current effort, the influence of pertinent fluid parameters are conferred in details. Furthermore, to comprehend the legitimacy of numerical computation a comparison between Matlab package bvp4c and shooting technique with RK Fehlberg method is presented in this scrutiny and alleged a tremendous agreement.

  2. MHD boundary layer slip flow and radiative nonlinear heat transfer over a flat plate with variable fluid properties and thermophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Parida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the two-dimensional steady MHD boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a flat plate with partial slip at the surface subjected to the convective heat flux. The particular attraction lies in searching the effects of variable viscosity and variable thermal diffusivity on the behavior of the flow. In addition, non-linear thermal radiation effects and thermophoresis are taken into account. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations for the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity variable, which are solved numerically by applying Runge–Kutta fourth–fifth order integration scheme in association with quasilinear shooting technique. The novel results for the dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration and ambient Prandtl number within the boundary layer are displayed graphically for various parameters that characterize the flow. The local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown graphically. The numerical results obtained for the particular case are fairly in good agreement with the result of Rahman [6].

  3. Optimum design for the primary cooling system in BWRs to control shutdown radiation dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Saito, Tatsuya; Uchida, Shunsuke; Izumiya, Masakiyo.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of radiation dose rate at the time of shutdown is an important task for smoothly performing the regular inspection and maintenance works in nuclear power plants as the number of those plants in operation has increased. Hitachi Ltd. has investigated the industrially applicable measures to reduce dose rate to suppress the exposure dose per year in 1100 MWe class BWR nuclear power plants below 200 Man-Rem. The exposure dose in normal checking works during a regular inspection is regarded to be macroscopically dependent on the dose rate of piping in recirculation system. Thus, it was found that the above target can be achieved by suppressing the dose rate on piping surface to 30 mR/h. For further reduction if iron crud and 60 Co ions contributing to the increase of dose rate, in addition to the oxygen injection into the feed water system and the duplicated condensate purification system, the use of corrosion-resistant steel and low cobalt material has been attempted. However, high temperature water to be filtrated can not be passed through the purification system because it employs ion exchange resin. Therefore, the optimum capacity is selected for the purification system in view of the reduction of dose rate and plant thermal efficiency. Hitachi Ltd. recommends the application of this system, considering the evaluation of contribution by the code predicting dose rate increase and estimating economy. The above measures will achieve the exposure dose target of 200 Man-Rem/year. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Concept of a staged FEL enabled by fast synchrotron radiation cooling of laser-plasma accelerated beam by solenoidal magnetic fields in plasma bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryi, Andrei; Lesz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal fields in a laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper, we present an outline of what a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like, and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.

  5. Law of cooling, heat conduction and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation laws fitted to experimental data for bones irradiated by CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Luc

    2014-03-01

    The rate of cooling of domesticated pig bones is investigated within the temperature range of 20°C-320°C. Within the afore-mentioned temperature range, it was found that different behaviors in the rate of cooling were taking place. For bones reaching a temperature within the lower temperature range of 20°C-50°C, it was found that the rate of cooling is mostly governed by the empirical Newton's law of cooling. It is also shown that a transition is taking place somewhere within 50°C-100°C, where both the heat conduction equation and Newton's law apply. As bones can be raised at a fairly high temperature before burning, it was found that the rate of cooling within the range 125°C-320°C is mostly behaving according to the heat conduction equation and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to heat the bones up to a given temperature and the change of temperature as a function of time was recorded by non-contact infrared thermometer during the cooling period.

  6. A numerical analysis for non-linear radiation in MHD flow around a cylindrical surface with chemically reactive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Ahmad Khan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Boundary layer flow around a stretchable rough cylinder is modeled by taking into account boundary slip and transverse magnetic field effects. The main concern is to resolve heat/mass transfer problem considering non-linear radiative heat transfer and temperature/concentration jump aspects. Using conventional similarity approach, the equations of motion and heat transfer are converted into a boundary value problem whose solution is computed by shooting method for broad range of slip coefficients. The proposed numerical scheme appears to improve as the strengths of magnetic field and slip coefficients are enhanced. Axial velocity and temperature are considerably influenced by a parameter M which is inversely proportional to the radius of cylinder. A significant change in temperature profile is depicted for growing wall to ambient temperature ratio. Relevant physical quantities such as wall shear stress, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are elucidated in detail. Keywords: Stretchable boundary, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction, Mathematical modeling, Non-linear differential system, Mass transfer

  7. Nonlinearity in MCF7 Cell Survival Following Exposure to Modulated 6 MV Radiation Fields: Focus on the Dose Gradient Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste-Collin, Laetitia; Castiella, Marion; Franceries, Xavier; Cassol, Emmanuelle; Vieillevigne, Laure; Pereda, Veronica; Bardies, Manuel; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The study of cell survival following exposure to nonuniform radiation fields is taking on particular interest because of the increasing evidence of a nonlinear relationship at low doses. We conducted in vitro experiments using the MCF7 breast cancer cell line. A 2.4 × 2.4 cm(2) square area of a T25 flask was irradiated by a Varian Novalis accelerator delivering 6 MV photons. Cell survival inside the irradiation field, in the dose gradient zone and in the peripheral zone, was determined using a clonogenic assay for different radiation doses at the isocenter. Increased cell survival was observed inside the irradiation area for doses of 2, 10, and 20 Gy when nonirradiated cells were present at the periphery, while the cells at the periphery showed decreased survival compared to controls. Increased survival was also observed at the edge of the dose gradient zone for cells receiving 0.02 to 0.01 Gy when compared with cells at the periphery of the same flask, whatever the isocenter dose. These data are the first to report cell survival in the dose gradient zone. Radiotherapists must be aware of this nonlinearity in dose response.

  8. A radiation-cooled armor tile design for the first wall of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallix, R.; Baxi, C.; Reis, E.; Schultz, K.

    1989-01-01

    This work was performed as a contribution by the U.S. Plasma Facing Components engineering team to the concept definition effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the ITER device, frequent plasma disruptions are expected during the first phase of operation, which will be devoted to plasma physics. Armor is required to protect the stainless steel first wall (FW) against the intense heat pulses caused by these disruptions. Based on successful experience in many operating fusion devices, graphite is proposed as the leading armor tile material for ITER during the first phase of operation. The tile design presented here uses radiation rather then conduction to transfer heat to the water-cooled first wall. The central, thermally insulated tile attachment minimized local thermal stresses in the first wall and facilitates remote maintenance. The tile module consists of: a graphite tile; layers of anisotropic pyrolytic carbon used as a high-temperature thermal insulator; a metallic mounting plate; carbon-reinforced carbon (C-C) screws which join the tile, the insulator and the mounting plate together; and a captive, central mounting screw. The design emphasized simplicity and ruggedness while minimizing the need for R and D. The results of a detailed, two-dimensional heat transfer and thermal stress analysis are presented for steady-state heat fluxes of 20 and 100 W/cm 2 . The effects of neutron heating, radiation conduction, contact resistances, material anisotropy, temperature dependencies, and sliding interfaces are considered. The calculated temperatures and stresses show that the proposed tile design is feasible. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  10. Quasistatic thermal and nonlinear processes of photoconversion of high-density optical radiation by multilayer structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Arkadiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the systematic experimental analysis of the thermal nonlinear electro-optic properties of photoelectric converters with silicon vertical cells in comparison with solar elements and elements on the basis of In/Ga/As are presented. The parameters of the linear and quadratic approximations for the investigated dependences are determined, that allows constructing a scalable analytic model of the converter with a given type of the working elements switching.

  11. Quasistatic thermal and nonlinear processes of photoconversion of high-density optical radiation by multilayer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Arkadiy; Razuvaev, Anton; Suhareva, Natalia; Tugaenko, Vjatcheslav

    2017-10-01

    The results of the systematic experimental analysis of the thermal nonlinear electro-optic properties of photoelectric converters with silicon vertical cells in comparison with solar elements and elements on the basis of In/Ga/As are presented. The parameters of the linear and quadratic approximations for the investigated dependences are determined, that allows constructing a scalable analytic model of the converter with a given type of the working elements switching.

  12. Nonlinear waves and coherent structures in quasi-neutral plasmas excited by external electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzenov, Stephan I.

    2017-12-01

    Starting from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations describing the dynamics of various species in a quasi-neutral plasma, an exact relativistic hydrodynamic closure for a special type of water-bag distribution satisfying the Vlasov equation has been derived. It has been shown that the set of equations for the macroscopic hydrodynamic variables coupled to the wave equations for the self-consistent electromagnetic field is fully equivalent to the Vlasov-Maxwell system. Based on the method of multiple scales, a system comprising a vector nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the transverse envelopes of the self-consistent plasma wakefield, coupled to a scalar nonlinear Schrodinger equation for the electron current velocity envelope, has been derived. Using the method of formal series of Dubois-Violette, a traveling wave solution of the derived set of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations in the case of circular wave polarization has been obtained. This solution is represented as a ratio of two formal Volterra series. The terms of these series can be calculated explicitly to every desired order.

  13. Effects of total integrated solar radiation on radial fruit cracking in tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum] cultivation under rain shelter in cool uplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yanase, S.; Enya, T.; Shimazu, T.; Tanaka, I.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the cause of radial fruit cracking in tomato cultivation under rain shelter in the cool uplands in Gifu Prefecture. The effect of total integrated radiation using two types of training methods was determined over a three-year period. The percentage of refused radial fruit cracking associated with increased total integrated solar radiation from the young fruit stage to the mature green stage. Fruit cracking occurred in the training method which foliage and fruits received a large amount of light-interception. Also, as for fruits that undergo vigorous enlargement, the frequency of the radial fruit cracking increased

  14. Night time cooling by ventilation or night sky radiation combined with in-room radiant cooling panels including phase change materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Grossule, Fabio

    constructed at the Technical University of Denmark, where the outside PVT panels are connected through a storage tank to in-room radiant ceiling panels. The radiant ceiling panels include phase change material (PCM) and embedded pipes for circulating water. Due to the phase change material it is possible...... depending on the sky clearness. This cooling power was enough to remove the stored heat and regenerate the ceiling panels. The validation simulation model results related to PCM were close to the corresponding results extracted from the experiment, while the results related to the production of cold water...

  15. Non-Linear Optical Phenomena in Detecting Materials as a Possibility for Fast Timing in Detectors of Ionizing Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Korjik, M. V.; Buganov, O.; Fedorov, A. A.; Emelianchik, I.; Griesmayer, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Nargelas, S.; Sidletskiy, O.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tikhomirov, S. N.; Vaitkevicius, A.

    2016-01-01

    The time resolution of the detectors currently in use is limited by 50-70 ps due to the spontaneous processes involved in the development of the response signal, which forms after the relaxation of carriers generated during the interaction. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of exploiting sub-picosecond phenomena occurring after the interaction of scintillator material with ionizing radiation by probing the material with ultra-short laser pulses. One of the phenomena is the elastic polarization due to the local lattice distortion caused by the displacement of electrons and holes generated by ionization. The key feature of the elastic polarization is its short response time, which makes it prospective for using as an optically detectable time mark. The nonlinear optical absorption of femtosecond light pulses of appropriate wavelength is demonstrated to be a prospective tool to form the mark. This study was aimed at searching for inorganic crystalline media combining scintillation properties and non-...

  16. A numerical analysis for non-linear radiation in MHD flow around a cylindrical surface with chemically reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid Ahmad; Mustafa, M.

    2018-03-01

    Boundary layer flow around a stretchable rough cylinder is modeled by taking into account boundary slip and transverse magnetic field effects. The main concern is to resolve heat/mass transfer problem considering non-linear radiative heat transfer and temperature/concentration jump aspects. Using conventional similarity approach, the equations of motion and heat transfer are converted into a boundary value problem whose solution is computed by shooting method for broad range of slip coefficients. The proposed numerical scheme appears to improve as the strengths of magnetic field and slip coefficients are enhanced. Axial velocity and temperature are considerably influenced by a parameter M which is inversely proportional to the radius of cylinder. A significant change in temperature profile is depicted for growing wall to ambient temperature ratio. Relevant physical quantities such as wall shear stress, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are elucidated in detail.

  17. Removal of solar radiation effect based on nonlinear data processing technique for Seismo-Ionospheric Anomaly before few earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunvar Shardaprasad Yadav

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of ionospheric precursorsof earthquakehas gained interest among many researchers, specially the precursor obtained in terms of anomalous variation in total electron content (TEC. If earthquake occurs during a period of moderate to high solar activity, the TEC derived using global positioning system (GPS measurements requires the elimination of solar effect so as to identify the precursory signature. This paperincludes multi-resolution time series technique to remove the nonlinear effect from solar radiation on GPS-based TEC. The technique is based on wavelet transform applicable to RINEX TEC data. This technique is used to remove nonlinear background solar effect from TEC prior to four different earthquakes (M 6.0. Further in order to evaluate the extracted TEC, we obtain the correlation between the decomposed TEC A6 and measured solar index (F10.7 and extreme ultraviolet (EUV. A good correlation is obtained between decomposed TEC A6 and EUV for all the cases. This suggests that this technique is useful in removal of background solar effect for identifying earthquake precursor in TEC.

  18. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  19. Observed radiative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau for the past three decades driven by snow cover-induced surface albedo anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaona; Long, Di; Hong, Yang; Liang, Shunlin; Hou, Aizhong

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a sensitive indicator of climate change. Unlike the decreasing snow cover extent and associated weakening of radiative cooling effects for the Northern Hemisphere during recent decades reported by previous studies, snow cover variability over the TP and its impact on the energy budget remain largely unknown. We defined the snow cover-induced radiative forcing (SnRF) as the instantaneous perturbation to Earth's shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) induced by the presence of snow cover. Here using satellite observations and a radiative kernel approach, we found slightly enhanced SnRF, i.e., a radiative cooling effect on the TP during the past three decades (1982-2014). However, this cooling effect weakened during 2001-2014 because of reduced snow cover at a rate of -0.61% decade-1 and land surface albedo at a rate of -0.72% decade-1. Changes in snow cover fraction are highly correlated with anomalies in land surface albedo (as) over the TP both spatially and temporally. Moreover, the SnRF is closely related to the direct observation of TOA shortwave flux anomalies (R2 = 0.54, p = 0.004) over the TP during 2001-2014. Despite the insignificant interannual variability in SnRF, its intra-annual variability has intensified driven mostly by enhanced SnRF during the snow accumulation season but weakened SnRF during the melt season, indicating greater energy release during the transition between accumulation and melt seasons. This may pose a great challenge to snow meltwater use and flood prediction for transboundary rivers originating from the TP, such as the Brahmaputra River basin.

  20. Mathematical modelling of nonlinear thermal radiation effects on EMHD peristaltic pumping of viscoelastic dusty fluid through a porous medium duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bhatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired propulsion systems are currently receiving significant interest in the aerospace sector. Since many spacecraft propulsion systems operate at high temperatures, thermal radiation is important as a mode of heat transfer. Motivated by these developments, in the present article, the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation (via the Rosseland diffusion flux model has been studied on the laminar, incompressible, dissipative EMHD (Electro-magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic propulsive flow of a non-Newtonian (Jefferys viscoelastic dusty fluid containing solid particles through a porous planar channel. The fluid is electrically-conducting and a constant static magnetic field is applied transverse to the flow direction (channel walls. Slip effects are also included. Magnetic induction effects are neglected. The mathematical formulation is based on continuity, momentum and energy equations with appropriate boundary conditions, which are simplified by neglecting the inertial forces and taking the long wavelength and lubrication approximations. The boundary value problem is then rendered non-dimensional with appropriate variables and the resulting system of reduced ordinary differential equations is solved analytically. The impact of various emerging parameters dictating the non-Newtonian propulsive flow i.e. Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, permeability parameter, Eckert number, particle volume fraction, electric field and slip parameter are depicted graphically. Increasing particle volume fraction is observed to suppress temperature magnitudes. Furthermore the computations demonstrate that an increase in particle volume fraction reduces the pumping rate in retrograde pumping region whereas it causes the opposite effect in the co-pumping region. The trapping mechanism is also visualized with the aid of streamline contour plots. Increasing thermal radiation elevates temperatures. Increasing Hartmann (magnetic body

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Nonlinearity in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-12

    fibroblasts. J Biol Chem1998;273:32889-94. 41. Shankar B, Sainis KB. Cell cycle regulators modulat- IntJ Radiat Biol 2003;79:759-75. 25. Kim AH...the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line Oncol 2005;24;33-43. mouse lymphocytes after y irradiation in vivo and OE-33. IntJ Oncol 2003;23:1593-9. 42

  2. Methods and complex of programs for radiating particle 3DOF nonlinear dynamics analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakhin, V Yu

    1999-01-01

    The Lie-transform perturbation theory for non-autonomous non- Hamiltonian systems and its implementation in a complex of Mathematica programs are described. On the example of LEP 108/90 lattice the radiation effects are shown to play an important effect on particle stability at high energies. (9 refs).

  3. Investigation of gamma radiation effect on chemical properties and surface morphology of some nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlam, M.A., E-mail: omaymn771@yahoo.com [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka (India); Ravishankar, M.N. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka (India); Vijayan, N. [Materials Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Govindaraj, G. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014 (India); Siddaramaiah [Department of Polymer and Technology, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore 570 006 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka (India)

    2012-05-01

    The effect of Co-60 gamma irradiation on L-alanine cadmium chloride (LACC), L-alanine doped potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KDP) and L-arginine doped KDP nonlinear optical (NLO) single crystals were studied in doses ranging from 100 krad to 6 Mrad. The crystals were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical, surface morphology, DC electrical conductivity, thermal and mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied. The functional groups of unirradiated and irradiated crystals have been identified and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of irradiated crystals shows some morphological changes in the crystals. The dc conductivity of LACC and L-alanine doped KDP crystals were found to increase with increase in radiation dose whereas in case of L-arginine doped KDP crystals, the dc conductivity was found to decrease with increase in radiation dose. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms reveals that there is no significant change in the melting point of the crystals after irradiation and the crystals does not decompose as a result of irradiation. The mechanical behavior of both unirradiated and irradiated crystals is explained with the indentation effects using Vicker's microhardness tester. The Vicker's hardness number H{sub V} and Mayer's index 'n' has been estimated and confirms that LACC belong to the hard materials.

  4. From Anti-greenhouse Effect of Solar Absorbers to Cooling Effect of Greenhouse Gases: A 1-D Radiative Convective Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, R.

    2012-12-01

    The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al

  5. Nonlinear narrow Doppler-free resonances for optical transitions and annihilation radiation of a positronium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.; Minogin, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of obtaining narrow resonances without the Doppler broadening for transition between the fine structure levels of the ground and first excited states of a positronium atom are considered. An analysis is carried out of the conditions required for observation of the narrow resonances of saturation of single quantum absorption in the 1S-2P transitions and observation of narrow two-photon absorption resonances in the 1S-2S transitions. It is shown that narrow 2γ annihilation radiation lines of a positronium atom may be obtained with a width much smaller than the Doppler one

  6. Beam cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Danared, H

    2006-01-01

    Beam cooling is the technique of reducing the momentum spread and increasing the phase-space density of stored particle beams. This paper gives an introduction to beam cooling and Liouville’s theorem, and then it describes the three methods of active beam cooling that have been proven to work so far, namely electron cooling, stochastic cooling, and laser cooling. Ionization cooling is also mentioned briefly.

  7. Nonlinear Microwave Optomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinearity is essential for creation of non-classical states of the cavity or mechanical resonator such as squeezed or cat states. A microwave cavity can be made nonlinear by, for instance, adding Josephson junctions. The mechanical resonator is inherently nonlinear. The radiation pressure

  8. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  9. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, Johannes Faas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  10. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  11. Laser cooling of beryllium ions using a frequency-doubled 626 nm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozijn, F M J; Biesheuvel, J; Flores, A S; Ubachs, W; Blume, G; Wicht, A; Paschke, K; Erbert, G; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate laser cooling of trapped beryllium ions at 313 nm using a frequency-doubled extended cavity diode laser operated at 626 nm, obtained by cooling a ridge waveguide diode laser chip to -31°C. Up to 32 mW of narrowband 626 nm laser radiation is obtained. After passage through an optical isolator and beam shaping optics, 14 mW of 626 nm power remains of which 70% is coupled into an external enhancement cavity containing a nonlinear crystal for second-harmonic generation. We produce up to 35 μW of 313 nm radiation, which is subsequently used to laser cool and detect 6×10(2) beryllium ions, stored in a linear Paul trap, to a temperature of about 10 mK, as evidenced by the formation of Coulomb crystals. Our setup offers a simple and affordable alternative for Doppler cooling, optical pumping, and detection to presently used laser systems.

  12. Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  13. Radiation Dose Assessment For The Biota Of Terrestrial Ecosystems In The Shoreline Zone Of The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90 Sr and 137 Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

  14. Predicting the effect of ionising radiation on biological populations: testing of a non-linear Leslie model applied to a small mammal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the application of a non-linear Leslie model for predicting the effects of ionising radiation on wild populations. The model assumes that, for protracted chronic irradiation, the effect-dose relationship is linear. In particular, the effects of radiation are modelled by relating the increase in the mortality rates of the individuals to the dose rates through a proportionality factor C. The model was tested using independent data and information from a series of experiments that were aimed at assessing the response to radiation of wild populations of meadow voles and whose results were described in the international literature. The comparison of the model results with the data selected from the above mentioned experiments showed that the model overestimated the detrimental effects of radiation on the size of irradiated populations when the values of C were within the range derived from the median lethal dose (L 50 ) for small mammals. The described non-linear model suggests that the non-expressed biotic potential of the species whose growth is limited by processes of environmental resistance, such as the competition among the individuals of the same or of different species for the exploitation of the available resources, can be a factor that determines a more effective response of population to the radiation effects. -- Highlights: • A model to assess the radiation effects on wild population is described. • The model is based on non-linear Leslie matrix. • The model is applied to small mammals living in an irradiated meadow. • Model output is conservative if effect-dose factor estimated from L 50 is used. • Systemic response to stress of populations in competitive conditions may be more effective

  15. Cross diffusion effect on MHD mixed convection flow of nonlinear radiative heat and mass transfer of Casson fluid over a vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesh Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow of Casson fluid over a vertical plate has been modelled in the presence of Cross diffusion effect and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing partial differential equations are remodelled into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. The accompanied differential equations are resolved numerically by using Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg forth-fifth order along with shooting method (RKF45 Method. The results of various physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are given diagrammatically. The numerical values of the local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number also are shown in a tabular form. It is found that, effect of Dufour and Soret parameter increases the temperature and concentration component correspondingly. Keywords: Casson fluid, Nonlinear thermal radiation, Magnetic field, Cross diffusion effect, Vertical surface

  16. Modeling and simulation for 3D magneto Eyring–Powell nanomaterial subject to nonlinear thermal radiation and convective heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khan

    Full Text Available The present article scrutinizes the steady three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid with convective and the nanoparticles mass flux conditions. Additionally, the features of heat transfer phenomena’s are carried out by utilizing the non-linear thermal radiation. Suitable transformations convert the nonlinear PDEs to the nonlinear ODEs and then tackled numerically by bvp4c technique. The properties of numerous amending parameters to the heat and mass transfer features are portrayed graphically and deliberated in detail. The achieved results reveal that amassed values of magnetic parameter M and Biot number γ enhance the temperature distribution and its thickness of boundary layer. Also, it is identified that the impact of Brownian motion parameter Nb and thermophoresis parameter Nt on concentration field are relatively conflicting. In order to recognize the validity of the current effort, the influence of pertinent fluid parameters are conferred in details. Furthermore, to comprehend the legitimacy of numerical computation a comparison between Matlab package bvp4c and shooting technique with RK Fehlberg method is presented in this scrutiny and alleged a tremendous agreement. Keywords: Three-dimensional flow, Eyring–Powell model fluid, Nanoparticles, Non-linear thermal radiation, New mass flux boundary conditions

  17. Physical Approaches to Designing a Two-Cascade Terahertz Laser Generating Difference-Frequency Radiation in a Nonlinear Optical ZnGeP2 Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribenyukov, A. I.; Dyomin, V. V.; Polovtsev, I. G.; Yudin, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    An optical layout of a two-cascade frequency converter of the mid-IR laser radiation into the terahertz (THz) radiation is proposed. In the first stage it is assumed to convert the Tm:YLF-laser frequency in a Cr+2:ZnSe polycrystal into the radiation with the wavelength 2-3 μm. The second cascade can be presented as a parametric conversion of the frequencies of two laser sources operating in the 2-3 μm range into the THz radiation via the difference-frequency mixing in a nonlinear optical ZnGeP2 crystal. The estimates of the terahertz output signal are reported.

  18. Dose non-linearity of the dosimetry system and possible monitor unit errors on medical linear accelerators used in conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Wazir; Hoon Lee Sang; Alam Khan; Maqbool Muhammad; Khan Gulzar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study dose non-linearity in medical linear accelerators used in conventional radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Open fields, as well as the enhanced dynamic wedge ones, were used to collect data for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams obtained from the VARIAN linear accelerator. Beam stability was checked and confirmed for different dose rates, energies, and application of enhanced dynamic wedge by calculating the charge per monitor unit. Moni...

  19. Influence of nonlinear thermal radiation and Magnetic field on upper-convected Maxwell fluid flow due to a convectively heated stretching sheet in the presence of dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koneri L. Krupalakshmi

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of two-dimensional MHD boundary layer flow and thermal characteristics of an electrically conducting dusty non-Newtonian fluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet has been considered. The effects of nonlinear thermal radiation, heat source or sink and viscous dissipation are also taken into the account. The Rosseland approximation is used to model the nonlinear thermal radiation. Suitable similarity transformations are used to transform the flow governing equations into a set of nonlinear differential equations of one independent variable. The Shooting method is adopted to solve transformed equations. The effects of various material parameters on the flow and heat transfer in terms of velocity and temperature distributions are drawn in the form of graphs and are briefly discussed. The numerical computations for the Nusselt number and skin friction drag are also carried out for the emerging parameters of interest in the problem. The obtained numerical results show the good agreement with the existing one for limiting case.

  20. On radiative-magnetoconvective heat and mass transfer of a nanofluid past a non-linear stretching surface with Ohmic heating and convective surface boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Mishra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetoconvective heat and mass transfer characteristics of a two-dimensional steady flow of a nanofluid over a non-linear stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation, Ohmic heating and viscous dissipation have been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of the Brownian motion and the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid. The governing equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. The numerical solutions are obtained by using fifth order Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method with shooting technique. The non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles and also on local Nusselt number and Sherwood number are discussed. The results indicate that the local skin friction coefficient decreases as the value of the magnetic parameter increases whereas the Nusselt number and Sherwood number increase as the values of the Brownian motion parameter and magnetic parameter increase.

  1. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  2. Parametric analysis of the operation of nocturnal radiative cooling panels coupled with in room PCM ceiling panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Péan, T.Q.

    2017-01-01

    03:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 21°C, 69.8°F, activate the heat pump no earlier than 05:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 15°C, 59°F, and lastly have a temperature difference between the output of the solar panels......The scope of this parametric simulation study was to identify the optimal combination of set-points for different parameters of a radiant PCM ceiling panels cooling system that will result in the best indoor thermal environment with the least possible energy use. The results showed that for each...

  3. On nonlinear inverse problems of heat transfer with radiation boundary conditions : application to dehydratation of gypsum plasterboards exposed to fire.

    OpenAIRE

    Belmiloudi , Aziz; Mahé , Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The paper investigates boundary optimal controls and parameter estimates to the well-posedness nonlinear model of dehydration of thermic problems. We summarize the general formulations for the boundary control for initial-boundary value problem for nonlinear partial differential equations modeling the heat transfer and derive necessary optimality conditions, including the adjoint equation, for the optimal set of parameters minimizing objective functions J. Numerical si...

  4. Generation of nonlinear electric field bursts in the outer radiation belt through the parametric decay of whistler waves

    OpenAIRE

    Agapitov, O. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A.V.; Volokitin, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, nonlinear whistlers, etc., referred to as Time Domain Structures, TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes. Some of them are associated with whistler waves. Such TDS often emerge on the forward edges of the whistler wave packets and form chains. The parametric decay of a whistler wave into a whistler wave propagating in the opposite direction and an el...

  5. Development of a neutron irradiation device with a cooled crystal filter: Radiation physical properties and applications in in vivo irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braetter, P.; Galinke, E.; Gatschke, W.; Gawlik, D.; Roesick, U.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation-physical and geometrical properties of a neutron-beam, collimated with a Bi-crystal filter were investigated at the reactor BER II. The influence of the crystal temperature as well as the actions of a reflector and a collimator on neutron flux-density and neutron field of the thermal neutrons were investigated. The dose contributions of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons as well as γ-radiation was determined by activation of the sample respective with TLD-measurements. The influence of irradiation and measurement geometry on the sensitivity and detection probability was investigated by means of phantom irradiations. The method prooved to be suitable, to detect changes of the Ca-content in a rat hind leg by about 10%. In investigations on animal groups of about 10 animals a threshold of detectability for changes of the ca-content is to be expected by about 4%. In a further group experiment it was found, that even in the case of multiple radiation the procedure of irradiation and measurement was not followed by a significant change in the Ca-content of the hind legs of the testing animals. (orig.) [de

  6. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  7. Is cold better ? - exploring the feasibility of liquid-helium-cooled optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.; Mills, D.; Macrander, A.; Tajiri, G.

    1999-01-01

    Both simulations and recent experiments conducted at the Advanced Photon Source showed that the performance of liquid-nitrogen-cooled single-silicon crystal monochromators can degrade in a very rapid nonlinear fashion as the power and for power density is increased. As a further step towards improving the performance of silicon optics, we propose cooling with liquid helium, which dramatically improves the thermal properties of silicon beyond that of liquid nitrogen and brings the performance of single silicon-crystal-based synchrotrons radiation optics up to the ultimate limit. The benefits of liquid helium cooling as well as some of the associated technical challenges will be discussed, and results of thermal and structural finite elements simulations comparing the performance of silicon monochromators cooled with liquid nitrogen and helium will be given

  8. Optical Cherenkov radiation by cascaded nonlinear interaction: an efficient source of few-cycle energetic near- to mid-IR pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin

    2011-01-01

    When ultrafast noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses occur in a bulk lithium niobate crystal optical Cherenkov waves are formed in the near- to mid-IR. Numerical simulations show that the few-cycle solitons radiate Cherenkov (dispersive) waves in the λ = ...... efficiency is up to 25%. Thus, optical Cherenkov waves formed with cascaded nonlinearities could become an efficient source of energetic near- to mid-IR few-cycle pulses.......When ultrafast noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses occur in a bulk lithium niobate crystal optical Cherenkov waves are formed in the near- to mid-IR. Numerical simulations show that the few-cycle solitons radiate Cherenkov (dispersive) waves in the λ = 2...

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Effect of nonlinear light scattering in air on ablation of materials produced by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, Sergei M.; Kononenko, Taras V.; Pivovarov, Pavel A.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Breitling, D.; Dausinger, F.

    2002-05-01

    Nonlinear light scattering appearing upon air breakdown induced by high-power ultrashort pulses (110 — 5200 fs) from a Ti:Al2O3 laser is studied. As a result of forward scattering, the beam profile is severely deformed, which is accompanied by spectral conversion of the incident radiation to a series of shorter-wavelength peaks extending into the visible spectral range. Measurements are made of the thresholds and the scattered radiation energy, which amounts to 75% of the incident energy. The effect of scattering on the material ablation in air is investigated. The obtained data offer an explanation for the experimentally observed paradoxical morphology of the channels ablated by high-power femtosecond pulses.

  10. Influence of non-linear thermal radiation on 2D unsteady flow of a Williamson fluid with heat source/sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khan

    Full Text Available The present article reports a new mathematical formulation for a time dependent flow of a non-Newtonian Williamson fluid model by taking into account the impacts of infinite shear rate viscosity. By incorporating the constitutive relation of Williamson fluid model the basic conservation equations are obtained for two dimensional boundary layer flow. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics for flow filed over a stretching surface has been explored within the sight of thermal radiation and heat sink or source. The Rosseland approximation is being employed for non-linear thermal radiation impacts in the presence of convective heat transfer mode. The current work aims at revealing the solution of equations describing the flow of Williamson fluid by mean of employing the dimensionless approach. Therefore, the leading nonlinear momentum and energy equations are rendered into a set of simultaneously ordinary differential equations via non-dimensional variables with associated physical boundary conditions. Numerical treatment of these reduced conservation equations has been conducted by utilizing the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. We have examined the influence of various physical variables, like, the unsteadiness parameter, Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio parameter, Biot number, radiation parameter, temperature ratio parameter, Prandtl number and heat source/sink parameter on momentum and thermal boundary layers, which is illustrated by means of graphs and tables. The results suggest that the impact of larger viscosity ratio parameter lead to higher fluid velocity while the converse is true for the temperature field. It is noted that the greater unsteadiness parameter results in a significant enhancement in the friction factor. In addition, an increase in thermal radiation as well as temperature ratio parameters improves the heat transfer performance in fluid flow. The work of previous researchers is correlated with the findings of

  11. Development of a 4K/80K multiple operating type of GM refrigeration system for the superconducting magnet in maglev use. Cooling characteristics of the nitrogen self-circulated cooling-type radiation shield plate; Fujoshiki tetsudoyo chodendojishaku no 4K/80K ryoyo GM reito sisutemu no kaihatsu. Chisso shizen junkanhoshiki netsu shirudo no reikyaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Sanada, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yamaji, Mutsuhiko [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Terai, Motoaki [Central Japan Railway Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Igarashi, Motohiro; Yamaguchi, Mitsugu [Niigata Unviersity, Niigata (Japan)

    1999-02-25

    An onboard refrigeration system is one of the most important components in the superconducting magnetically levitated system (Maglev system). In the superconducting magnet, liquid helium and nitrogen are used to cool the superconducting coils and the radiation shields. At the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line, the operation of the superconducting magnet without a supplement of liquid helium has been achieved by the onboard 4 K Gifford-McMahon/Joule-Thomson (GM/JT) refrigerators- . As for the liquid nitrogen, it is supplied to the radiation shields periodically. Our final target for an onboard refrigeration system for commercial use is to operate magnets with no supplementation of cryogen. That is the operations of magnets should not depend on a helium liquefaction plant or a liquid nitrogen supplying system in the train depot, except for occasions of the magnet's precooling or when the vehicle is being overhauled. To meet these requirements, we have been developing a new type of onboard GM refrigeration (GM refrigerator application) system that features a combination of a 4K/80K multiple-operating type of GM refrigerator and a self-circulated cooling-type radiation shield. The nitrogen self-circulated cooling-type radiation shield plate was demonstrated by using the radiation shield plate mock-up. (author)

  12. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  13. Effect of nonlinear thermal radiation on non-aligned bio-convective stagnation point flow of a magnetic-nanofluid over a stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayachandra Babu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study covers the relative study of non-aligned magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow of a nanofluid comprising gyrotactic microorganisms across a stretching sheet in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation and variable viscosity. The governing equations transitioned as nonlinear ordinary differential equations with suited similarity transformations. With the assistance of Runge-Kutta based shooting method, we derived solutions. Results for oblique and free stream flow cases are exhibited through plots for the parameters of concern. In tabular form, heat and mass transfer rate along with the local density of the motile microorganisms are analyzed for some parameters. It is found that local density of the motile microorganisms is highly influenced by the Biot and Peclet numbers. Rising values of the magnetic field parameter, Biot number, thermal radiation parameter and thermophoresis parameter increase the thermal boundary layer. Bioconvection Peclet number and bioconvection Lewis number have tendency to reduce the density of the motile microorganisms. It is also found that thermal and concentration boundary layers become high in free stream flow when compared with the oblique flow.

  14. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  15. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  16. Beam stabilization in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with an attractive potential by beam splitting and radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    leMesurier, B.J.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2004-01-01

    The effect of attractive linear potentials on self-focusing in-waves modeled by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation is considered. It is shown that the attractive potential can prevent both singular collapse and dispersion that are generic in the cubic Schrodinger equation in the critical dimension 2...

  17. Cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, E.; Dittrich, H.; Ernst, G.; Roller, W.

    1975-01-01

    The task on which the invention is based is to design a cooling tower in such a way that the negative influences of the wind, in particular strong side winds (wind velocities of over 10 m/s), on the functioning of the cooling tower are reduced or eliminated altogether. (orig./TK) [de

  18. Cooling in the single-photon regime of optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Borkje, Kjetil; Girvin, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Optomechanics experiments are rapidly approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. We show that in this limit the power spectrum has multiple sidebands and that the cavity response has several resonances in the resolved-sideband limit [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063602 (2011)]. We then discuss how red-sideband cooling is modified in this nonlinear regime. Using Fermi's Golden rule we calculate the transition rates induced by the optical drive. In the resolved-sideband limit we find multiple cooling resonances for strong single-photon coupling. They lead to non-thermal steady states and are accompanied by multiple mechanical sidebands in the optical output spectrum. Our study provides the tools to detect and take advantage of this novel regime of optomechanics.

  19. Final Report for Project DE-SC0006958: "An Investigation of the Effects of magnetic Fields and Collisionality on Shock Formation in Radiatively Cooled Plasma Flows"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott-Suzuki, Simon

    2014-11-05

    We have developed a new experimental platform to study bow-shock formation in plasma flows generated using an inverse wire array z-pinch. We have made significant progress on the analysis of both hydrodynamic and magnetized shocks using this system. The hydrodynamic experiments show formation of a well-defined Mach cone, and highly localized shock strong associated with radiative losses and rapidly cooling over the shock. Magnetized shocks show that the balance of magnetic and ram pressures dominate the evolution of the shock region, generating a low plasma beta void around the target. Manuscripts are in preparation for publication on both these topics. We have also published the development of a novel diagnostic method which allow recovery of interferometry and self-emission data along the same line of sight. Finally, we have carried out work to integrate a kinetic routine with the 3D MHD code Gorgon, however it remains to complete this process. Both undergraduate and graduate students have been involved in both the experimental work and publications.

  20. On Nonlinear Inverse Problems of Heat Transfer with Radiation Boundary Conditions: Application to Dehydration of Gypsum Plasterboards Exposed to Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belmiloudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates boundary optimal controls and parameter estimates to the well-posedness nonlinear model of dehydration of thermic problems. We summarize the general formulations for the boundary control for initial-boundary value problem for nonlinear partial differential equations modeling the heat transfer and derive necessary optimality conditions, including the adjoint equation, for the optimal set of parameters minimizing objective functions J. Numerical simulations illustrate several numerical optimization methods, examples, and realistic cases, in which several interesting phenomena are observed. A large amount of computational effort is required to solve the coupled state equation and the adjoint equation (which is backwards in time, and the algebraic gradient equation (which implements the coupling between the adjoint and control variables. The state and adjoint equations are solved using the finite element method.

  1. A nonlinear support vector machine model with hard penalty function based on glowworm swarm optimization for forecasting daily global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, He; Dong, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Eclat data mining algorithm is used to determine the possible predictors. • Support vector machine is converted into a ridge regularization problem. • Hard penalty selects the number of radial basis functions to simply the structure. • Glowworm swarm optimization is utilized to determine the optimal parameters. - Abstract: For a portion of the power which is generated by grid connected photovoltaic installations, an effective solar irradiation forecasting approach must be crucial to ensure the quality and the security of power grid. This paper develops and investigates a novel model to forecast 30 daily global solar radiation at four given locations of the United States. Eclat data mining algorithm is first presented to discover association rules between solar radiation and several meteorological factors laying a theoretical foundation for these correlative factors as input vectors. An effective and innovative intelligent optimization model based on nonlinear support vector machine and hard penalty function is proposed to forecast solar radiation by converting support vector machine into a regularization problem with ridge penalty, adding a hard penalty function to select the number of radial basis functions, and using glowworm swarm optimization algorithm to determine the optimal parameters of the model. In order to illustrate our validity of the proposed method, the datasets at four sites of the United States are split to into training data and test data, separately. The experiment results reveal that the proposed model delivers the best forecasting performances comparing with other competitors.

  2. Cross diffusion effect on MHD mixed convection flow of nonlinear radiative heat and mass transfer of Casson fluid over a vertical plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, K.; Archana, M.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishanamurthy, M. R.; Rudraswamy, N. G.

    2018-03-01

    A study on magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection flow of Casson fluid over a vertical plate has been modelled in the presence of Cross diffusion effect and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing partial differential equations are remodelled into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. The accompanied differential equations are resolved numerically by using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg forth-fifth order along with shooting method (RKF45 Method). The results of various physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are given diagrammatically. The numerical values of the local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number also are shown in a tabular form. It is found that, effect of Dufour and Soret parameter increases the temperature and concentration component correspondingly.

  3. Dose non-linearity of the dosimetry system and possible monitor unit errors on medical linear accelerators used in conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study dose non-linearity in medical linear accelerators used in conventional radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Open fields, as well as the enhanced dynamic wedge ones, were used to collect data for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams obtained from the VARIAN linear accelerator. Beam stability was checked and confirmed for different dose rates, energies, and application of enhanced dynamic wedge by calculating the charge per monitor unit. Monitor unit error was calculated by the two-exposure method for open and enhanced dynamic wedge beams of 6 MV and 15 MV photons. A significant monitor unit error with maximum values of ±2.05931 monitor unit and ±2.44787 monitor unit for open and enhanced dynamic wedge beams, respectively, both energy and dose rate dependent, was observed both in the open photon beam and enhanced dynamic wedge fields. However, it exhibited certain irregular patterns at enhanced dynamic wedge angles. Dose monitor unit error exists only because of the overshoot phenomena and electronic delay in dose coincident and integrated circuits with a dependency on the dose rate and photon energy. Monitor unit errors are independent of the application of enhanced dynamic wedge. The existence of monitor unit error demands that the dose non-linearity of the linear accelerator dosimetry system be periodically tested, so as to avoid significant dosimetric errors.

  4. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  5. Modulation by Blood-cooling and Blood Flow-promoting Herbs to the expression of TNF-α and bFGF in radiation induced lung damage of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Minghui; Zang Qian; Dou Yongqi; Feng Linchun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the modulation by Blood-cooling and Blood Flow-promoting Herbs to expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and basic fibroblast growth factors (bFGF) in radiation-induced lung injury of rats at different radiation times, and explore the mechanism of prevention and curative effect of the herbs on radiation lung injury. Methods: 160 wistar rats were randomly allocated into irradiation group, treatment group, herb-fracture group and control group. The first two groups were irradiated to right hemithorax with a dose of 30 Gy/10 fraction/5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at weeks 3,5,8,12 and 26 post irradiation. The level of immunoreactivity of cytokine TNF-α and bFGF was evaluated. Results: The acute radiation-induced pneumonia occurred at weeks 3 and was most serious at weeks 5 and pulmonary fibrosis was remarkable at the late phase in irradiation group. The pneumonia and fibrosis of treatment group were lighter than that of irradiation group. Expressions of TNF-α and bFGF reached their peaks at weeks 5 and 26 of respectively. The expressions in treatment group was significantly lower than that the irradiation group( P<0.01). Conclusions: Blood-cooling and Blood Flow-promoting Herbs can prevent and treat the radiation-reduced lung injury by restraining the expression of TNF-α and bFGF. (authors)

  6. Optical Cherenkov radiation by cascaded nonlinear interaction: an efficient source of few-cycle near- to mid-IR pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin

    2011-01-01

    Through cascaded second-harmonic generation, few-cycle solitons can form that resonantly emit strongly red-shifted optical Cherenkov radiation. Numerical simulations show that such dispersive waves can be an efficient source of near- to mid-IR few-cycle broadband pulses.......Through cascaded second-harmonic generation, few-cycle solitons can form that resonantly emit strongly red-shifted optical Cherenkov radiation. Numerical simulations show that such dispersive waves can be an efficient source of near- to mid-IR few-cycle broadband pulses....

  7. Exposures involving perturbations of the EM field have non-linear effects on radiation response and can alter the expression of radiation induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Our recent data suggest there is a physical component to the bystander signal induced by radiation exposure and that alternative medicine techniques such as Reiki and acupuncture or exposures to weak EM fields alter the response of cells to direct irradiation and either altered bystander signal production or altered the response of cells receiving bystander signals. Our proposed mechanism to explain these findings is that perturbation of electromagnetic (EM) fields is central to the induction of low radiation dose responses especially non-targeted bystander effects. In this presentation we review the alternative medicine data and other data sets from our laboratory which test our hypothesis that perturbation of bio-fields will modulate radiation response in the low dose region. The other data sets include exposure to MRI, shielding using lead and or Faraday cages, the use of physical barriers to bystander signal transmission and the use of membrane channel blockers. The data taken together strongly suggest that EM field perturbation can modulate low dose response and that in fact the EM field rather than the targeted deposition of ionizing energy in the DNA may be the key determinant of dose response in a cell or organism The results also lead us to suspect that at least when chemical transmission is blocked, bystander signals can be transmitted by other means. Our recent experiments suggest light signals and volatiles are not likely. We conclude that alternative medicine and other techniques involving electromagnetic perturbations can modify the response of cells to low doses of ionizing radiation and can induce bystander effects similar to those seen in medium transfer experiments. In addition to the obvious implications for mechanistic studies of low dose effects, this could perhaps provide a novel target to exploit in space radiation protection and in optimizing therapeutic gain during radiotherapy.

  8. Stellar parameters of the post-AGB star HD 56126 from observations and non-linear radiative pulsation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coroller, Herve; Fokin, A. B.; Lèbre, A.; Gillet, D.

    2001-05-01

    After the AGB phase and before becoming planetary nebulae, the stars cross a post-AGB phase during a short time of approximately 10 000 years. Stars at this evolution stage are thus statistically rare and their pulsation mechanisms, probably related to the propagation of shocks in their atmosphere, remain badly known. It thus appeared essential to carry out an in-depth study on a typical post-AGB object. Thus, we present an analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data on HD 56126, a post-AGB variable star, rich in carbon. A previous work (Barthes et al, 2000, A&A 359,168) finds a 37 days pulsation period. We present here the results of a non-linear model which allowed to deduce the stellar parameters of this star (Teff, L, M). We also discuss the limits of such a model to simulate the complex atmospheric dynamics of post-AGB objects.

  9. Nonlinear local parallel acceleration of electrons through Landau trapping by oblique whistler mode waves in the outer radiation belt

    OpenAIRE

    Agapitov, O. V.; Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Mozer, F. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Simultaneous observations of electron velocity distributions and chorus waves by the Van Allen Probe B are analyzed to identify long-lasting (more than 6 h) signatures of electron Landau resonant interactions with oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt. Such Landau resonant interactions result in the trapping of ˜1-10 keV electrons and their acceleration up to 100-300 keV. This kind of process becomes important for oblique whistler mode waves having a signifi...

  10. The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David

    2004-01-01

    A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold

  11. Sympathetic Cooling of Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of maximizing the cooling of a quantum simulator by controlling the system-environment coupling such that the system is driven into the ground state. We make use of various analytical tools such as effective operator formalism and the quantum master equations to exactly solve the model of an Ising spin chain consisting of N particles coupled to a radiation field. We maximize the cooling by finding the dependence of the effective rate of transitions of the various excited states into the ground state. We show that by adding a single dissipative qubit, we already get quite substantial cooling rates. Volkswagen Foundation, DFG.

  12. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena; Copplestone, David; Evseeva, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    Over several decades, modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on biological system has relied on the target principle [Timofeeff-Ressovsky et al., 1935], which assumes that cell damage or modification to genes appear as a direct consequence of the exposure of biological macromolecules to charged particles. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is no threshold for the induction of biological damage and that the effects observed are proportional to the energy absorbed. Following this principle, the average number of hits per target should increase linearly with dose, and the yield of mutations per unit of dose is assumed to be the same at both low and high doses (linearity of response). This principle has served as the scientific background for the linear no-threshold (LNT) concept that forms the basis for the radiological protection for the public and the environment [ICRP, 1990]. It follows from the LNT that there is an additional risk for human health from exposure to any radiation level, even below natural background. Since the mid 50's, however, the scientific basis for the LNT concept has been challenged as experimental data have shown that, at low doses, there was a non linear relationship in the dose response. Luchnik and Timofeeff-Ressovsky were the first who showed a non-linear response to a low dose exposure [Luchnik, 1957; Timofeeff-Ressovsky and Luchnik, 1960]. Since then, many data have been accumulated which contradict the LNT model at low doses and dose rates. However, the hit-effect paradigm has become such a strong and indissoluble fact that it has persisted even under the growing pressure of scientific evidence for phenomena at low dose exposure that can not be successfully accounted for by the LNT concept. In recent years, additional information on non-targeted effects of radiation has been accumulated following the first reports of an adaptive response in human lymphocytes [Olivieri et al., 1984] as well as bystander mutagenic effect of alpha

  13. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras' kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, RIARAE, 249032 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Copplestone, David [Environment Agency, Millbank Tower, 25th. Floor, 21/24 Millbank, London, SW1P 4XL (United Kingdom); Evseeva, Tatyana [Institute of Biology, Kommunisticheskaya st., 28 Syktyvkar 167610, Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Over several decades, modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on biological system has relied on the target principle [Timofeeff-Ressovsky et al., 1935], which assumes that cell damage or modification to genes appear as a direct consequence of the exposure of biological macromolecules to charged particles. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is no threshold for the induction of biological damage and that the effects observed are proportional to the energy absorbed. Following this principle, the average number of hits per target should increase linearly with dose, and the yield of mutations per unit of dose is assumed to be the same at both low and high doses (linearity of response). This principle has served as the scientific background for the linear no-threshold (LNT) concept that forms the basis for the radiological protection for the public and the environment [ICRP, 1990]. It follows from the LNT that there is an additional risk for human health from exposure to any radiation level, even below natural background. Since the mid 50's, however, the scientific basis for the LNT concept has been challenged as experimental data have shown that, at low doses, there was a non linear relationship in the dose response. Luchnik and Timofeeff-Ressovsky were the first who showed a non-linear response to a low dose exposure [Luchnik, 1957; Timofeeff-Ressovsky and Luchnik, 1960]. Since then, many data have been accumulated which contradict the LNT model at low doses and dose rates. However, the hit-effect paradigm has become such a strong and indissoluble fact that it has persisted even under the growing pressure of scientific evidence for phenomena at low dose exposure that can not be successfully accounted for by the LNT concept. In recent years, additional information on non-targeted effects of radiation has been accumulated following the first reports of an adaptive response in human lymphocytes [Olivieri et al., 1984] as well as bystander mutagenic effect of

  14. Passive cooling containment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.J.; Iotti, R.C.; Wright, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Pressure and temperature transients of nuclear reactor containment following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally for the full scale NPR (New Production Reactor). All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified CONTEMPT code CONTEMPT-NPR. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux, and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and half foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of CONTEMPT-NPR and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale NPR

  15. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  16. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  17. Unequal diffusivities case of homogeneous–heterogeneous reactions within viscoelastic fluid flow in the presence of induced magnetic-field and nonlinear thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Animasaun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the effects of nonlinear thermal radiation and induced magnetic field on viscoelastic fluid flow toward a stagnation point. It is assumed that there exists a kind of chemical reaction between chemical species A and B. The diffusion coefficients of the two chemical species in the viscoelastic fluid flow are unequal. Since chemical species B is a catalyst at the horizontal surface, hence homogeneous and heterogeneous schemes are of the isothermal cubic autocatalytic reaction and first order reaction respectively. The transformed governing equations are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta integration scheme along with Newton’s method. Good agreement is obtained between present and published numerical results for a limiting case. The influence of some pertinent parameters on skin friction coefficient, local heat transfer rate, together with velocity, induced magnetic field, temperature, and concentration profiles is illustrated graphically and discussed. Based on all of these assumptions, results indicate that the effects of induced magnetic and viscoelastic parameters on velocity, transverse velocity and velocity of induced magnetic field are almost the same but opposite in nature. The strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter is very helpful to reduce the concentration of bulk fluid and increase the concentration of catalyst at the surface.

  18. Combined effects of slip and convective boundary condition on MHD 3D stretched flow of nanofluid through porous media inspired by non-linear thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M. K.; Shaw, Sachin; Pandey, V. S.; Chamkha, Ali J.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the main concern is to investigate the magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow subject to porous matrix and convective heating past a permeable linear stretching sheet. In addition, the influence of velocity slip, viscous dissipation, Joule heating and non-linear thermal radiation are considered. A new micro-convection model known as the Patel model is implemented for considerable enhancement of the thermal conductivity and hence, the heat transfer capability of nanofluids. Moreover, a convective heat transfer model is introduced where the bottom surface of the sheet gets heated due to a convection mechanism from a hot fluid of particular temperature. The numerical results of the transformed governing differential equations have been obtained by using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting approach and secant method is used for better approximation. In the present analysis, base fluids such as water and Ethylene glycol and Copper, Silver and Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are considered. Results of the present investigation show that inclusion of porous matrix contributes to slow down the fluid velocity and diminution of wall shear stress (axial as well as transverse). Drag force due to magnetic field strength, velocity slip and imposed fluid suction impede the fluid motion and upsurge the heat transfer rate from the surface. In addition, rise in viscous dissipation widens the thermal boundary layer.

  19. Estimation of non-linear continuous time models for the heat exchange dynamics of building integrated photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik; Bloem, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on a method for linear or non-linear continuous time modelling of physical systems using discrete time data. This approach facilitates a more appropriate modelling of more realistic non-linear systems. Particularly concerning advanced building components, convective and radiative...... heat interchanges are non-linear effects and represent significant contributions in a variety of components such as photovoltaic integrated facades or roofs and those using these effects as passive cooling strategies, etc. Since models are approximations of the physical system and data is encumbered...... with measurement errors it is also argued that it is important to consider stochastic models. More specifically this paper advocates for using continuous-discrete stochastic state space models in the form of non-linear partially observed stochastic differential equations (SDE's)-with measurement noise...

  20. Laser cooling, evaporative cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Pradip N.

    2002-01-01

    Laser radiations are used to slow down atoms by the process of momentum transfer. This leads to reducing the temperature to micro kelvin region. Gas phase atoms are trapped by using magnetic fields. The recent advances have led to the realization of the dream of physicists of confining the atoms and reducing their velocities to the limit imposed by quantum mechanics. A number of new experiments are possible with the cooled and trapped atoms and ions that would be useful to solve many problems of theoretical physics. Further cooling by the process of evaporative technique has led to the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation predicted by Einstein and Bose nearly seventy-five years ago. A brief review of the method of laser cooling, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling methods used for obtaining ultracold atoms are discussed. It is possible to obtain temperature in the nano kelvin region without using cryogenic methods thus simplifying the experimental methods to a great extent. (author)

  1. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  2. ATLAS - Liquid Cooling Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - Cooling Unit - Side View Photo 2 - Cooling Unit - Detail Manifolds Photo 3 - Cooling Unit - Rear View Photo 4 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump, Heater and Exchanger Photo 5 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump and Fridge Photo 6 - Cooling Unit - Front View

  3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  4. Cool Snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm; Grunert, Klaus G; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  5. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  6. Evolution of the collective radiation dose of nuclear reactors from the 2nd through to the 3rd generation and 4th generation sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidez Joel

    2017-01-01

    In the case of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs, the compilation and summarizing of various documentary resources has enabled them to be situated and compared to other types of reactors of the second and third generations (respectively pressurized water reactors in operation and EPR under construction. From these results, it can be seen that the doses received during the operation of SFR are significantly lower for this type of reactor.

  7. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  8. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  9. Plasma impurities and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.

    1976-11-01

    In high-temperature low-density plasmas radiation cooling by impurity atoms can be an important energy loss mechanism, since the radiation is not reabsorbed. In a brief historical survey it is shown that the problem is not new but was discussed since the first beginning of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is then shown radiation losses enter into the general power balance equation of a plasma containing impurities. The equations for the different types of radiation losses are given as a function of the atomic quantities. In a special section simplifications due to the corona model assumption are discussed. It follows a detailed survey of the results obtained by several authors for the ionization balance and power losses of impurity elements observed in present high-temperature plasma machines used in CTR, especially in TOKAMAKS. In the conclusion a survey is given of the atomic data which experimentalists and theorists need for current research on impurities in fusion-like plasmas. (86 references)

  10. Asymmetric Response of the Equatorial Pacific SST to Climate Warming and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Luo, Yiyong [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Garuba, Oluwayemi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Wan, Xiuquan [Physical Oceanography Laboratory/Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, and Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China

    2017-09-01

    The response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to heat fluxes of equal amplitude but opposite sign is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Results show a strong asymmetry in SST changes. In the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP), the warming responding to the positive forcing exceeds the cooling to the negative forcing; while in the western equatorial Pacific (WEP), it is the other way around and the cooling surpasses the warming. This leads to a zonal dipole asymmetric structure, with positive values in the east and negative values in the west. A surface heat budget analysis suggests that the SST asymmetry is mainly resulted from the oceanic horizontal advection and vertical entrainment, with both of their linear and nonlinear components playing a role. For the linear component, its change appears to be more significant over the EEP (WEP) in the positive (negative) forcing scenario, favoring the seesaw pattern of the SST asymmetry. For the nonlinear component, its change acts to warm (cool) the EEP (WEP) in both scenarios, also favorable for the development of the SST asymmetry. Additional experiments with a slab ocean confirm the dominant role of ocean dynamical processes for this SST asymmetry. The net surface heat flux, in contrast, works to reduce the SST asymmetry through its shortwave radiation and latent heat flux components, with the former being related to the nonlinear relationship between SST and convection, and the latter being attributable to Newtonian damping and air-sea stability effects. The suppressing effect of shortwave radiation on SST asymmetry is further verified by partially coupled overriding experiments.

  11. Nonlinear analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rassias, Themistocles M

    1987-01-01

    ... known that nonlinear partial differential equations can not be treated in the same systematic way as linear ones and this volume provides, among other things, proofs of existence and uniqueness theorems for nonlinear differential equations of a global nature. However, the basic techniques which have proven to be efficient in dealing with li...

  12. WORKSHOP: Beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling - the control of unruly particles to provide well-behaved beams - has become a major new tool in accelerator physics. The main approaches of electron cooling pioneered by Gersh Budker at Novosibirsk and stochastic cooling by Simon van der Meer at CERN, are now complemented by additional ideas, such as laser cooling of ions and ionization cooling of muons

  13. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  14. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  15. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  16. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  17. Fast infrared array spectrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled 160-element PbSe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jun; Gore, Jay P.; Sivathanu, Yudaya R.; Lim, Jongmook

    2004-01-01

    A fast infrared array spectrometer (FIAS) with a thermoelectrically cooled 160-element PbSe detector was demonstrated using measurements of instantaneous infrared radiation intensities simultaneously over the 1.8-4.9 μm wavelength range at a sampling rate of 390 Hz. A three-point second-degree Lagrange interpolation polynomial was constructed to calibrate the FIAS because of the nonlinear response of the infrared array detector to the incident radiation beam. This calibration method gave excellent measurements of blackbody radiation spectra except for a narrow band at wavelength of 4.3 μm due to absorption by room carbon dioxide, which is one of the two major gas radiation peaks (2.7 and 4.3 μm) from the lean premixed hydrocarbon/air combustion products in the midinfrared spectrum. Therefore, the absorption coefficient of room carbon dioxide was conveniently measured on site with the blackbody reference source, and was used in the calibration of the FIAS and also in the calculations of the radiation spectra. Blackbody tests showed that this procedure was effective in correcting for the room carbon dioxide absorption in the radiation spectra measured by the FIAS. For an example of its application, the calibrated FIAS was used to measure spectral radiation intensities from three lean premixed laminar flames and a premixed turbulent jet flame for which reference data with a grating spectrometer were available for comparison. The agreement between the FIAS measurements and the reference data was excellent

  18. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  19. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  20. Nonlinear reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2017-12-01

    We present a direct approach to nonparametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed nonlinear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the nonlinear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to the nonlinear scale (rδrδL>0.5 for k ≲1 h /Mpc ) with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully nonlinear fields, potentially substantially expanding the baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift space distortions information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  1. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  2. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    architectures , practical nonlinearities, nonlinear dynamics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8. NUMBER OF PAGES...performers from Mesodynamic Architectures (MESO) and uPNT all to include devices in these runs. This cost-sharing was planned, and is necessary for...contributions to the performance of MEMS gyroscopes. In particular, we have demonstrated for the first time that Parametric Amplification can improve the

  3. Radiant cooling of an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebihi, Abdeslam; Byun, Ki-Hong; Wen Jin; Smith, Theodore F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential for radiant cooling using the atmospheric sky window and to evaluate the desired characteristics of a radiant cooling material (RCM) applied to the ceiling window of a three-dimensional enclosure. The thermal characteristics of the system are governed by the geometry, ambient temperature, sky radiative temperature, amount of solar energy and its direction, heat transfer modes, wall radiative properties, and radiative properties of the RCMs. A semi-gray band analysis is utilized for the solar and infrared bands. The radiosity/irradiation method is used in each band to evaluate the radiant exchanges in the enclosure. The radiative properties for the RCM are varied in a parametric study to identify the desired properties of RCMs. For performance simulation of real RCMs, the radiative properties are calculated from spectral data. The desired solar property is a high reflectance for both opaque and semi-transparent RCMs. For a semi-transparent RCM, a low value of the solar transmittance is preferred. The desired infrared property is a high emittance for an opaque RCM. For a semi-transparent RCM, a high infrared transmittance is desired, and the emittance should be greater than zero

  4. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  5. Design and Principles of Synchrotrons and Circular Colliders: Beam Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    CERN

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '6.10 Beam Cooling' of the Chapter '6 Design and Principles of Synchrotrons and Circular Colliders' with the content: 6.10 Beam Cooling 6.10.1 Introduction 6.10.2 Beam Cooling Techniques 6.10.2.1 Radiation Cooling 6.10.2.2 Microwave Stochastic Cooling 6.10.2.3 Electron Cooling 6.10.2.4 Laser Cooling 6.10.2.5 Ionisation Cooling 6.10.2.6 Cooling of Particles in Traps

  6. Mass extinction, gradual cooling, or rapid radiation? Reconstructing the spatiotemporal evolution of the ancient angiosperm genus Hedyosmum (Chloranthaceae) using empirical and simulated approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Alexandre; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Chloranthaceae is a small family of flowering plants (65 species) with an extensive fossil record extending back to the Early Cretaceous. Within Chloranthaceae, Hedyosmum is remarkable because of its disjunct distribution--1 species in the Paleotropics and 44 confined to the Neotropics--and a long "temporal gap" between its stem age (Early Cretaceous) and the beginning of the extant radiation (late Cenozoic). Is this gap real, reflecting low diversification and a recent radiation, or the signature of extinction? Here we use paleontological data, relaxed-clock molecular dating, diversification analyses, and parametric ancestral area reconstruction to investigate the timing, tempo, and mode of diversification in Hedyosmum. Our results, based on analyses of plastid and nuclear sequences for 40 species, suggest that the ancestor of Chloranthaceae and the Hedyosmum stem lineages were widespread in the Holarctic in the Late Cretaceous. High extinction rates, possibly associated with Cenozoic climatic fluctuations, may have been responsible for the low extant diversity of the family. Crown group Hedyosmum originated c. 36-43 Ma and colonized South America from the north during the Early-Middle Miocene (c. 20 Ma). This coincided with an increase in diversification rates, probably triggered by the uplift of the Northern Andes from the Mid-Miocene onward. This study illustrates the advantages of combining paleontological, phylogenetic, and biogeographic data to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of an ancient lineage, for which the extant diversity is only a remnant of past radiations. It also shows the difficulties of inferring patterns of lineage diversification when incomplete taxon sampling is combined with high extinction rates.

  7. Evolution of the collective radiation dose of nuclear reactors from the 2nd through to the 3rd generation and 4th generation sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidez, Joel; Saturnin, Anne

    2017-11-01

    During the operation of a nuclear reactor, the external individual doses received by the personnel are measured and recorded, in conformity with the regulations in force. The sum of these measurements enables an evaluation of the annual collective dose expressed in man·Sv/year. This information is a useful tool when comparing the different design types and reactors. This article discusses the evolution of the collective dose for several types of reactors, mainly based on publications from the NEA and the IAEA. The spread of good practices (optimization of working conditions and of the organization, sharing of lessons learned, etc.) and ongoing improvements in reactor design have meant that over time, the doses of various origins received by the personnel have decreased. In the case of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), the compilation and summarizing of various documentary resources has enabled them to be situated and compared to other types of reactors of the second and third generations (respectively pressurized water reactors in operation and EPR under construction). From these results, it can be seen that the doses received during the operation of SFR are significantly lower for this type of reactor.

  8. Laser cooling in semiconductors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Laser cooling of semiconductor is very important topic in science researches and technological applications. Here we will report our progresses on laser cooling in semiconductors. By using of strong coupling between excitons and longitudinal optical phonons (LOPs), which allows the resonant annihilation of multiple LOPs in luminescence up-conversion processes, we observe a net cooling by about 40 K starting from 290 kelvin with 514-nm pumping and about 15 K starting from100 K with 532-nm pumping in a semiconductor using group-II-VI cadmium sulphide nanobelts. We also discuss the thickness dependence of laser cooing in CdS nanobelts, a concept porotype of semiconductor cryocooler and possibility of laser cooling in II-VI semiconductor family including CdSSe、CdSe, CdSe/ZnTe QDs and bulk CdS et al., Beyond II-VI semiconductor, we will present our recent progress in laser cooling of organic-inorganic perovskite materials, which show a very big cooling power and external quantum efficiency in 3D and 2D case. Further more, we demonstrate a resolved sideband Raman cooling of a specific LO phonon in ZnTe, in which only one specific phonon resonant with exciton can be cooled or heated. In the end, we will discuss the nonlinear anti-Stokes Raman and anti-Stokes photoluminescence upcoversion in very low temperature as low as down to liquid 4.2 K. In this case, the anti-Stokes resonance induces a quadratic power denpendece of anti-Stokes Raman and anti-Stokes PL. We proposed a CARS-like process to explain it. This nonlinear process also provides a possible physics picture of ultra-low temperatures phonon assisted photoluminescence and anti-Stokes Raman process.

  9. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n -distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Avillez, Miguel A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Évora, R. Romão Ramalho 59, 7000 Évora (Portugal); Breitschwerdt, Dieter, E-mail: mavillez@galaxy.lca.uevora.pt [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n  = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  10. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  11. Image processing module for high-speed thermal camera with cooled detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Sosnowski, Tomasz; Madura, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Bareła, Jarosław

    2011-06-01

    Infrared cameras are used in various military applications for early detection and observation. In applications where very fast image acquisition is needed the so called cooled detectors are used. Cooled detectors are a kind of detectors that demands cryogenic cooling, but in return provide exceptional performance and temperature sensitivity with low integration times. These features predestinate cooled detectors for special purposes like airborne systems, where fast and precise infrared radiation measurement is needed. Modern infrared cooled detector arrays like HgCdTe Epsilon detector from Sofradir with spectral range of 3.5μm-5μm can provide high frame rate reaching 140Hz with full frame readout. Increasing frame rates of cooled infrared detectors demands fast and efficient image processing modules for necessary operations like nonuniformity correction, bad pixel replacement and visualization. For that kind of detector array a fast image processing module was developed. The module is made of two separate FPGA modules and configuration processor. One FPGA was responsible for infrared data processing, and was performing nonuniformity correction, bad pixel replacement, linear and nonlinear filtering in spatial domain and dynamic range compression. Second FPGA was responsible for interfacing infrared data stream to standard video interfaces. It was responsible for frame rate conversion, image scaling and interpolation, and controlling ASICs for video interface realization. Both FPGAs use several external resources like SRAM and DRAM memories. The input interface was developed to connect with Epsilink board which is a standard proximity board provided by Sofradir for this kind of detector. The image processing chain is capable of performing real-time processing on data stream of volume up to about 40 Megapixels per second.

  12. Final Cooling for a Muon Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Castillo, John Gabriel [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2017-05-01

    To explore the new energy frontier, a new generation of particle accelerators is needed. Muon colliders are a promising alternative, if muon cooling can be made to work. Muons are 200 times heavier than electrons, so they produce less synchrotron radiation, and they behave like point particles. However, they have a short lifetime of 2.2 $\\mathrm{\\mu s}$ and the beam is more difficult to cool than an electron beam. The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) was created to develop concepts and technologies required by a muon collider. An important effort has been made in the program to design and optimize a muon beam cooling system. The goal is to achieve the small beam emittance required by a muon collider. This work explores a final ionization cooling system using magnetic quadrupole lattices with a low enough $\\beta^{\\star} $ region to cool the beam to the required limit with available low Z absorbers.

  13. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  14. Radiative nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a non-linear permeable sheet with slip conditions and variable magnetic field: Dual solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Rana

    2017-09-01

    Practice implications: The present problem has numerous applications in engineering and petroleum industries such as glass blowing, annealing and thinning of copper wires. The study of radiation heat transfer plays an important role in the industrial applications at high temperature.

  15. Muon cooling channels

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard-K-Kei

    2003-01-01

    A procedure uses the equations that govern ionization cooling, and leads to the most important parameters of a muon cooling channel that achieves assumed performance parameters. First, purely transverse cooling is considered, followed by both transverse and longitudinal cooling in quadrupole and solenoid channels. Similarities and differences in the results are discussed in detail, and a common notation is developed. Procedure and notation are applied to a few published cooling channels. The parameters of the cooling channels are derived step by step, starting from assumed values of the initial, final and equilibrium emittances, both transverse and longitudinal, the length of the cooling channel, and the material properties of the absorber. The results obtained include cooling lengths and partition numbers, amplitude functions and limits on the dispersion at the absorber, length, aperture and spacing of the absorber, parameters of the RF system that achieve the longitudinal amplitude function and bucket area ...

  16. Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feustel, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); de Almeida, A. (Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Universitywide Energy Research Group)

    1991-01-01

    This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...... in chemical reaction-diffusion systems....

  18. Heat Transfer and Cooling Techniques at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Baudouy, B

    2014-07-17

    The first part of this chapter gives an introduction to heat transfer and cooling techniques at low temperature. We review the fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of materials and heat transfer correlation in forced or boiling flow for example) used in the design of cooling systems. In the second part, we review the main cooling techniques at low temperature, with or without cryogen, from the simplest ones (bath cooling) to the ones involving the use of cryocoolers without forgetting the cooling flow techniques.

  19. Unsteady MHD Mixed Convection Slip Flow of Casson Fluid over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction, Thermal Radiation, Heat Generation/Absorption and Convective Boundary Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ullah

    Full Text Available Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.

  20. Unsteady MHD Mixed Convection Slip Flow of Casson Fluid over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemical Reaction, Thermal Radiation, Heat Generation/Absorption and Convective Boundary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Shafie, Sharidan; Khan, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.

  1. Light Optics for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) radiation generated by a particle in a "pickup" undulator is amplified and transported to a downstream "kicker" undulator where it interacts with the same particle which radiated it. Fermilab plans to carry out both passive (no optical amplifier) and active (optical amplifier) tests of OSC at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) currently in construction*. The performace of the optical system is analyzed with simulations in Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) accounting for the specific temporal and spectral properties of undulator radiation and being augmented to include dispersion of lens material.

  2. Exploring the nonlinear cloud and rain equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Ilan; Tziperman, Eli; Feingold, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Marine stratocumulus cloud decks are regarded as the reflectors of the climate system, returning back to space a significant part of the income solar radiation, thus cooling the atmosphere. Such clouds can exist in two stable modes, open and closed cells, for a wide range of environmental conditions. This emergent behavior of the system, and its sensitivity to aerosol and environmental properties, is captured by a set of nonlinear equations. Here, using linear stability analysis, we express the transition from steady to a limit-cycle state analytically, showing how it depends on the model parameters. We show that the control of the droplet concentration (N), the environmental carrying-capacity (H0), and the cloud recovery parameter (τ) can be linked by a single nondimensional parameter (μ=√{N }/(ατH0) ) , suggesting that for deeper clouds the transition from open (oscillating) to closed (stable fixed point) cells will occur for higher droplet concentration (i.e., higher aerosol loading). The analytical calculations of the possible states, and how they are affected by changes in aerosol and the environmental variables, provide an enhanced understanding of the complex interactions of clouds and rain.

  3. Epicyclic helical channels for parametric resonance ionization cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, Rolland Paul [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-23

    Proposed next-generation muon colliders will require major technical advances to achieve rapid muon beam cooling requirements. Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. In PIC, a half-integer parametric resonance causes strong focusing of a muon beam at appropriately placed energy absorbers while ionization cooling limits the beam’s angular spread. Combining muon ionization cooling with parametric resonant dynamics in this way should then allow much smaller final transverse muon beam sizes than conventional ionization cooling alone. One of the PIC challenges is compensation of beam aberrations over a sufficiently wide parameter range while maintaining the dynamical stability with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motion and dispersion. We explore use of a coupling resonance to reduce the dimensionality of the problem and to shift the dynamics away from non-linear resonances. PIC simulations are presented.

  4. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  5. Laser cooling of solids

    OpenAIRE

    Nemova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    Parallel to advances in laser cooling of atoms and ions in dilute gas phase, which has progressed immensely, resulting in physics Nobel prizes in 1997 and 2001, major progress has recently been made in laser cooling of solids. I compare the physical nature of the laser cooling of atoms and ions with that of the laser cooling of solids. I point out all advantages of this new and very promising area of laser physics. Laser cooling of solids (optical refrigeration) at the present time can be lar...

  6. Cooling tower calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonkova, J.

    1988-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the dynamic calculation of cooling towers with forced and natural air draft. The quantities and relations are given characterizing the simultaneous exchange of momentum, heat and mass in evaporative water cooling by atmospheric air in the packings of cooling towers. The method of solution is clarified in the calculation of evaporation criteria and thermal characteristics of countercurrent and cross current cooling systems. The procedure is demonstrated of the calculation of cooling towers, and correction curves and the effect assessed of the operating mode at constant air number or constant outlet air volume flow on their course in ventilator cooling towers. In cooling towers with the natural air draft the flow unevenness is assessed of water and air relative to its effect on the resulting cooling efficiency of the towers. The calculation is demonstrated of thermal and resistance response curves and cooling curves of hydraulically unevenly loaded towers owing to the water flow rate parameter graded radially by 20% along the cross-section of the packing. Flow rate unevenness of air due to wind impact on the outlet air flow from the tower significantly affects the temperatures of cooled water in natural air draft cooling towers of a design with lower demands on aerodynamics, as early as at wind velocity of 2 m.s -1 as was demonstrated on a concrete example. (author). 11 figs., 10 refs

  7. Klebsiella pneumonia, a Microorganism that Approves the Non-linear Responses to Antibiotics and Window Theory after Exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Moradi, M; Mansouri, Sh; Nouri, F; Mortazavi, S A R; Bahmanzadegan, F

    2015-09-01

    Drug resistance is widely believed to be an increasingly serious threat to global public health. We have previously reported that short term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasound waves could significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. In our previous studies, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed major differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics in exposed and non-exposed samples. This study was aimed at investigating the alteration of antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia, after exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. In this in vitro study, three replicate agar plates were used for each test. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates and the inhibition zones in both control and exposed groups were measured. A common Wi-Fi router was used in this study as the radiofrequency exposure source. Irradiated samples were exposed to Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation for 3, 4.5 and 8 hours. Statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found for all studied antibiotics after 4.5 hours of RF exposure, compared to non-exposed bacteria. Interestingly, the mean diameters of the inhibition zones after 3 hours of exposure were less than those exposed for 4.5 hours. Following this rise in the sensitivity to antibiotics, a fall was observed in the bacteria exposed for 8 hours for all studied antibiotics. The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure. These observations can be interpreted by the concept of non-linearity in the responses of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. As in this study a minimum level of effect was needed for the induction of adaptive response, these results also

  8. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  9. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  10. SU-F-J-71: Improving CT Quality for Radiation Therapy Planning and Delivery Guidance Using a Non-Linear Contrast Enhancement Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noid, G; Tai, A; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Advanced image post-processing techniques which enhance soft-tissue contrast in CT have not been widely employed for RT planning or delivery guidance. The purpose of this work is to assess the soft-tissue contrast enhancement from non-linear contrast enhancing filters and its impact in RT. The contrast enhancement reduces patient alignment uncertainties. Methods: Non-linear contrast enhancing methods, such as Best Contrast (Siemens), amplify small differences in X-ray attenuation between two adjacent structure without significantly increasing noise. Best Contrast (BC) separates a CT into two frequency bands. The low frequency band is modified by a non-linear scaling function before recombination with the high frequency band. CT data collected using a CT-on-rails (Definition AS Open, Siemens) during daily CT-guided RT for 6 prostate cancer patients and an image quality phantom (The Phantom Laboratory) were analyzed. Images acquired with a standard protocol (120 kVp, 0.6 pitch, 18 mGy CTDIvol) were processed before comparison to the unaltered images. Contrast and noise were measured in the the phantom. Inter-observer variation was assessed by placing prostate contours on the 12 CT study sets, 6 enhanced and 6 unaltered, in a blinded study involving 8 observers. Results: The phantom data demonstrate that BC increased the contrast between the 1.0% supra-slice element and the background substrate by 46.5 HU while noise increased by only 2.3 HU. Thus the contrast to noise ratio increased from 1.28 to 6.71. Furthermore, the variation in centroid position of the prostate contours was decreased from 1.3±0.4 mm to 0.8±0.3 mm. Thus the CTV-to-PTV margin was reduced by 1.1 mm. The uncertainty in delineation of the prostate/rectum edge decreased by 0.5 mm. Conclusion: As demonstrated in phantom and patient scans the BC filter accentuates soft-tissue contrast. This enhancement leads to reduced inter-observer variation, which should improve RT planning and delivery

  11. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-07-23

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at {lambda}{sub {omega}} = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5{+-}3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 {+-} 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, {lambda}-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two

  12. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at λ ω = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5±3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 ± 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, Λ-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two-color spectroscopy experiment

  13. Nonlinear optical crystals a complete survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nikogosyan, David N

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in modern optical science and technology for frequency conversion of laser light, i.e. to generate laser radiation at any specific wavelength in visible, UV or IR spectral regions. This unrivalled reference book contains the most complete and up-to-date information on properties of nonlinear optical crystals. It includes: * Database of 63 common and novel nonlinear optical crystals * Periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials * Full description of linear and nonlinear optical properties * Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information * 7 mini-reviews on novel applications, such as deep-UV light generation, terahertz-wave generation, ultrashort laser pulse compression, photonic band-gap crystals, x3 nonlinearity, etc. * More than 1500 different references with full titles It is a vital source of information for scientists and engineers dealing with modern applications of nonlinear opti...

  14. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet with viscous-Ohmic dissipation and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.

  15. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  16. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  17. Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The current and developing state-of-the-art in cryogenic coolers for satellite sensors was studied for earth oriented satellites. Six representative sensor categories in the 77 K to 300 K range were defined. Cooling capacities were 50 to 1000 mw; both continuous and intermittent duty cycles were considered; lifetimes were one to two years. Conceptual designs were prepared for the most promising coolers in each category. These coolers are Joule-Thomson, Solid Cryogen, Vuilleumier, Thermoelectric, Shielded Radiator, Optical Solar Reflector Radiator and Unshielded Radiator. Weight, envelope, power requirements and operating characteristics of each cooler are described. Scaling data for each cooler are included.

  18. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  19. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  20. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  1. Calculation and experimental test of the cooling factor of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puetterich, T.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Whiteford, A.D.; O'Mullane, M.G.; Summers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    The cooling factor of W is evaluated using state of the art data for line radiation and an ionization balance which has been benchmarked with experiment. For the calculation of line radiation, level-resolved calculations were performed with the Cowan code to obtain the electronic structure and excitation cross sections (plane-wave Born approximation). The data were processed by a collisional radiative model to obtain electron density dependent emissions. These data were then combined with the radiative power derived from recombination rates and bremsstrahlung to obtain the total cooling factor. The effect of uncertainties in the recombination rates on the cooling factor was studied and was identified to be of secondary importance. The new cooling factor is benchmarked, by comparisons of the line radiation with spectral measurements as well as with a direct measurement of the cooling factor. Additionally, a less detailed calculation using a configuration averaged model was performed. It was used to benchmark the level-resolved calculations and to improve the prediction on radiation power from line radiation for ionization stages which are computationally challenging. The obtained values for the cooling factor validate older predictions from the literature. Its ingredients and the absolute value are consistent with the existing experimental results regarding the value itself, the spectral distribution of emissions and the ionization equilibrium. A table of the cooling factor versus electron temperature is provided. Finally, the cooling factor is used to investigate the operational window of a fusion reactor with W as intrinsic impurity. The minimum value of nTτ E , for which a thermonuclear burn is possible, is increased by 20% for a W concentration of 3.0 x 10 -5 compared with a plasma without any impurities, except for the He ash which is considered in both cases.

  2. Equilibrium Models of Galaxy Clusters with Cooling, Heating, and Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggen, M.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the center causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Among other mechanisms, heating by a central active galactic nucleus and thermal conduction have been invoked in order to account for the small mass deposition rates. Here we present a family of hydrostatic models for the intracluster medium where radiative losses are exactly balanced by thermal conduction and heating by a central source. We describe the features of this simple model and fit its parameters to the density and temperature profiles of Hydra A.

  3. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  4. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  5. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  6. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  7. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriner, J.

    1986-08-01

    The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system

  8. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  9. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  10. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1994-08-16

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat. 3 figs.

  11. ATHENA X-IFU detector cooling chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, M. B. C.; Charles, I.; Butterworth, J.

    2014-07-01

    The TES (Transition Edge Sensors) micro-calorimeter detector technology in the X-IFU instrument for ATHENA (Astrophyics of the Hot and Energetic universe - Europe's next generation X-ray observatory ATHENA) will require cooling down to 50 mK, and a stable and quiet Electro-Magnetic and micro-vibrations environment. In order to achieve this temperature and environment, a cooling chain integrated in a compact cryostat with an optimized electromagnetic environment has to be developed. Critical technology developments are covered, such as mechanical cryocoolers, support structures, radiative and EMC shields, micro-vibrations reduction, and others.

  12. Cooled-Spool Piston Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed cooled-spool piston compressor driven by hydraulic power and features internal cooling of piston by flowing hydraulic fluid to limit temperature of compressed gas. Provides sufficient cooling for higher compression ratios or reactive gases. Unlike conventional piston compressors, all parts of compressed gas lie at all times within relatively short distance of cooled surface so that gas cooled more effectively.

  13. Klebsiella pneumonia, a Microorganism that Approves the Non-linear Responses to Antibiotics and Window Theory after Exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Moradi, M.; Mansouri, Sh.; Nouri, F.; Mortazavi, S. A. R.; Bahmanzadegan, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is widely believed to be an increasingly serious threat to global public health. We have previously reported that short term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasound waves could significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. In our previous studies, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed major differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics in exposed and non-exposed samples. This study was aimed at investigating the alteration of antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia, after exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. Materials and Methods In this in vitro study, three replicate agar plates were used for each test. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates and the inhibition zones in both control and exposed groups were measured. A common Wi-Fi router was used in this study as the radiofrequency exposure source. Irradiated samples were exposed to Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation for 3, 4.5 and 8 hours. Results Statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found for all studied antibiotics after 4.5 hours of RF exposure, compared to non-exposed bacteria. Interestingly, the mean diameters of the inhibition zones after 3 hours of exposure were less than those exposed for 4.5 hours. Following this rise in the sensitivity to antibiotics, a fall was observed in the bacteria exposed for 8 hours for all studied antibiotics. Conclusion The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure. These observations can be interpreted by the concept of non-linearity in the responses of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. As in this study a minimum level of effect was needed for the

  14. Klebsiella pneumonia, a Microorganism that Approves the Non-linear Responses to Antibiotics and Window Theory after Exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug resistance is widely believed to be an increasingly serious threat to global public health. We have previously reported that short term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasound waves could significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. In our previous studies, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed major differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics in exposed and non-exposed samples. This study was aimed at investigating the alteration of antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia, after exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, three replicate agar plates were used for each test. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates and the inhibition zones in both control and exposed groups were measured. A common Wi-Fi router was used in this study as the radiofrequency exposure source. Irradiated samples were exposed to Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation for 3, 4.5 and 8 hours. Results: Statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found for all studied antibiotics after 4.5 hours of RF exposure, compared to non-exposed bacteria. Interestingly, the mean diameters of the inhibition zones after 3 hours of exposure were less than those exposed for 4.5 hours. Following this rise in the sensitivity to antibiotics, a fall was observed in the bacteria exposed for 8 hours for all studied antibiotics. Conclusion: The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure. These observations can be interpreted by the concept of non-linearity in the responses of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. As in this study a minimum level of

  15. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  16. Study of cooling effectiveness for an integrated cooling turbine blade

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Mimura, Fujio; Fukuyama, Yoshitaka; 松下 政裕; 山根 敬; 三村 富嗣雄; 福山 佳孝

    2007-01-01

    Experimental study of film cooling, impingement cooling and integrated cooling were carried out with the aim of applying them to turbine cooling. The experiments were conducted with 673 K hot gas flow and room temperature cooling air. Test plate surface temperature distributions were measured with an infrared camera. This report presents fundamental research data on cooling performance of the test plates for the validation of numerical simulation. Moreover, simplify heat transfer calculations...

  17. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  18. Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A A [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

  19. Use of fluorocarbons in the cooling of LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenta dos Santos, M

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorochemicals sold by 3M under the trade name 3M Fluorinert Electronic Liquids have been used for many years as heat transfer media in a variety of industries. The suitability of these liquids for the cooling of LHC experiment originates from their high dielectric strength as well as from their chemical stability under ionizing radiation. The Fluorinerts are clear, colorless, non-flammable with low toxicity and low corrosiveness. Additionally, they offer low global waming potential – GWP – and zero ozone-depletion potential – ODP. Some examples of fluorinert application in the cooling of LHC experiments will be presented : (a) the ATLAS Inner detector C3F8 evaporative cooling system (b) the ATLAS TRF C6F14 monophase cooling system and (c) the ALICE SPD “active heat pipe” C4F10 evaporative cooling system. A brief comparison of evaporative and monophase cooling systems will be outlined.

  20. Evaporative cooling of trapped atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterle, W.; Van Druten, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on evaporative cooling of trapped atoms: Theoretical models for evaporative cooling; the role of collisions for real atoms; experimental techniques and summary of evaporative cooling experiments. 166 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  2. Water-cooled electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, G; Righini, B

    2000-01-01

    LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60 W for each module and more than 1000 W delivered by the power supply to the crate have been reached. These values comply with the VMEbus specifications. (3 refs).

  3. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  4. Nonlinear backreaction in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen Roland

    This thesis, based on two papers by Green and Wald, investigates the problem of nonlinear backreaction in cosmology. We first analyze the problem in a general context by developing a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric (not necessarily a cosmological metric), but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition itself—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Next, we apply our framework to the cosmological context, specializing our background metric to be of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker form. We demonstrate that, in the case of dust matter, a cosmological constant, and vanishing spatial curvature (i.e., our universe today), Newtonian gravity alone provides a good global description of an inhomogeneous general relativistic cosmology, even when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. Namely, we find a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general

  5. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail

  6. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-27

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  7. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@theory.caltech.edu [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter ''smog'' inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  8. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00237783; The ATLAS collaboration; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity.

  9. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  10. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  11. An Experimental Investigation of the Role of Radiation in Laboratory Bench-Top Experiments in Thermal Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Colm; O'Riordan, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple undergraduate experiment designed to study cooling purely by radiation and cooling by a combination of convection and radiation is described. Results indicate that the contribution from radiative cooling in normal laboratory experiments is more significant than students often realize, even in the case of forced cooling. (Contains 1…

  12. Laser Stabilization with Laser Cooled Strontium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Takashi Røjle

    the nonlinear effects from coupling of an optical cavity to laser cooled atoms having a narrow transition linewidth. Here, we have realized such a system where a thermal sample of laser cooled strontium-88 atoms are coupled to an optical cavity. The strontium-88 atoms were probed on the narrow 1S0-3P1 inter......-combination line at 689 nm in a strongly saturated regime. The dynamics of the atomic induced phase shift and absorption of the probe light were experimentally studied in details with the purpose of applications to laser stabilization. The atomic sample temperature was in the mK range which brought this system out....... The studies presented in this work open novel possibilities for alternative and simple strategies for surpassing the state-of-the-art laser stabilization and for realizing active light sources involving collective emission from narrow-line atoms....

  13. Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR Filter and a Solar Cooling System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Campen, J.B.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is a new greenhouse design that incorporates both a filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar cooling system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue for the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures. As a first measure, this

  14. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  15. Turbine airfoil film cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, L. D.; Nirmalan, V.; Sultanian, B. K.; Kaufman, R. M.

    1987-10-01

    The experimental data obtained in this program gives insight into the physical phenomena that occur on a film cooled airfoil, and should provide a relevant data base for verification of new design tools. Results indicate that the downstream film cooling process is a complex function of the thermal dilution and turbulence augmentation parameters with trends actually reversing as blowing strength and coolant-to-gas temperature ratio varied. The pressure surface of the airfoil is shown to exhibit a considerably higher degree of sensitivity to changes in the film cooling parameters and, consequently, should prove to be more of a challenge than the suction surface in accurately predicting heat transfer levels with downsteam film cooling.

  16. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  17. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  18. Split radiator design for heat rejection optimization for a waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-10-18

    A cooling system provides improved heat recovery by providing a split core radiator for both engine cooling and condenser cooling for a Rankine cycle (RC). The cooling system includes a radiator having a first cooling core portion and a second cooling core portion. An engine cooling loop is fluidly connected the second cooling core portion. A condenser of an RC has a cooling loop fluidly connected to the first cooling core portion. A valve is provided between the engine cooling loop and the condenser cooling loop adjustably control the flow of coolant in the condenser cooling loop into the engine cooling loop. The cooling system includes a controller communicatively coupled to the valve and adapted to determine a load requirement for the internal combustion engine and adjust the valve in accordance with the engine load requirement.

  19. ISM stripping from cluster galaxies and inhomogeneities in cooling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of the x ray surface brightness profiles of cluster cooling flows suggest that the mass flow rate decreases towards the center of the cluster. It is often suggested that this decrease results from thermal instabilities, in which denser blobs of gas cool rapidly and drop below x ray emitting temperatures. If the seeds for the thermal instabilities are entropy perturbations, these perturbations must enter the flow already in the nonlinear regime. Otherwise, the blobs would take too long to cool. Here, researchers suggest that such nonlinear perturbations might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stripped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly M sub Interstellar Matter (ISM) approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). It is interesting that the typical rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows are M sub cool approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). Thus, it is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low entropy perturbations can help to maintain their identities, both by suppressing thermal conduction and through the dynamical effects of magnetic tension. One significant question concerning this scenario is: Why are cooling flows seen only in a fraction of clusters, although one would expect gas stripping to be very common. It may be that the density perturbations only survive and cool efficiently in clusters with a very high intracluster gas density and with the focusing effect of a central dominant galaxy. Inhomogeneities in the intracluster medium caused by the stripping of interstellar gas from galaxies can have a number of other effects on clusters. For example, these density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, and this may be one mechanism for producing Wide

  20. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  1. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  2. Solar shading control strategies in cold climates - Heating, cooling demand and daylight availability in office spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Grynning, Steinar; Time, Berit; Matusiak, Barbara Szybinska

    2014-01-01

    Modern office buildings often have large glazed areas. Incident solar radiation can lead to large cooling demands during hot periods although the solar radiation can help reduce heating demands during cool periods. Previous studies have shown that large parts of the net energy demand of an office building is related to window heat loss and cooling demands induced by solar irradiance. In this article , the authors found that, even in what traditionally has been considered to be a heating-d...

  3. Solar shading control strategies in cold climates - Heating, cooling demand and daylight availability in office spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Grynning, Steinar; Time, Berit; Matusiak, Barbara Szybinska

    2014-01-01

    Modern office buildings often have large glazed areas. Incident solar radiation can lead to large cooling demands during hot periods although the solar radiation can help reduce heating demands during cool periods. Previous studies have shown that large parts of the net energy demand of an office building is related to window heat loss and cooling demands induced by solar irradiance. In this article, the authors found that, even in what traditionally has been considered to be a heating-do...

  4. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  5. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  6. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  7. Analytical thermal study on nonlinear fundamental heat transfer cases using a novel computational technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Zolfagharian, Ali; Hatami, M.; Ganji, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fin temperature distribution with a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is investigated. • Cooling of the lumped system with a variable specific heat is studied analytically. • Temperature distribution of a convective–radiative fin with a constant thermal conductivity is analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper a novel computational technique called Parameterized Perturbation Method (PPM) is used to obtain the solutions of nonlinear fundamental heat conduction equations. Three well known problems in the area of heat transfer are addressed to be solved. An analytical investigation is carried out for: (a) the temperature distribution in a fin with a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, (b) the cooling of the lumped system with variable specific heat, and (c) the temperature distribution of a convective–radiative fin. The validity of the results of PPM solution was verified via comparison with numerical results obtained using a fourth order Runge–Kutta method. These comparisons revealed that PPM is a powerful approach for solving these problems. Also, the results showed that the main attributions of this method are very straightforward calculations and low computational burden compared to previous analytical and numerical approaches.

  8. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  9. Selective covers for natural cooling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addeo, A.; Monza, E.; Peraldo, M.; Bartoli, B.; Coluzzi, B.; Silvestrini, V.; Troise, G.

    1978-01-01

    Extra-atmospheric space is practically a pure sink of radiation, and can be used as a nonconventional energy source. In previous papers it has been shown that surfaces with an emissivity matched with the atmospheric (8/13)μm ''transparency window'' (natural emitters) interact with cold space when exposed to clear sky at night, and undergo a sizable cooling effect. In this paper, starting from experimental results concerning the diurnal performances of natural emitters, the problem of their interaction with solar radiation is discussed, and the use is proposed of selective covers which shade the emitter from solar radiation, without preventing the interaction with cold space via emission of infra-red radiation. (author)

  10. Laser cooling of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A qualitative description of laser cooling of neutral atoms is given. Two of the most important mechanisms utilized in laser cooling, the so-called Doppler Cooling and Sisyphus Cooling, are reviewed. The minimum temperature reached by the atoms is derived using simple arguments. (Author) 7 refs

  11. Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-01-01

    Ionization Cooling using Parametric Resonances was an SBIR project begun in July 2004 and ended in January 2008 with Muons, Inc., (Dr. Rolland Johnson, PI), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) (Dr. Yaroslav Derbenev, Subcontract PI). The project was to develop the theory and simulations of Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) so that it could be used to provide the extra transverse cooling needed for muon colliders in order to relax the requirements on the proton driver, reduce the site boundary radiation, and provide a better environment for experiments. During the course of the project, the theoretical understanding of PIC was developed and a final exposition is ready for publication. Workshops were sponsored by Muons, Inc. in May and September of 2007 that were devoted to the PIC technique. One outcome of the workshops was the interesting and somewhat unexpected realization that the beam emittances using the PIC technique can get small enough that space charge forces can be important. A parallel effort to develop our G4beamline simulation program to include space charge effects was initiated to address this problem. A method of compensating for chromatic aberrations by employing synchrotron motion was developed and simulated. A method of compensating for spherical aberrations using beamline symmetry was also developed and simulated. Different optics designs have been developed using the OptiM program in preparation for applying our G4beamline simulation program, which contains all the power of the Geant4 toolkit. However, no PIC channel design that has been developed has had the desired cooling performance when subjected to the complete G4beamline simulation program. This is believed to be the consequence of the difficulties of correcting the aberrations associated with the naturally large beam angles and beam sizes of the PIC method that are exacerbated by the fringe fields of the rather complicated channel designs that have been

  12. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  13. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  14. Gas cooled leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutt, R.P.; Rehak, M.L.; Hornik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to cover as completely as possible and in sufficient detail the topics relevant to lead design. The first part identifies the problems associated with lead design, states the mathematical formulation, and shows the results of numerical and analytical solutions. The second part presents the results of a parametric study whose object is to determine the best choice for cooling method, material, and geometry. These findings axe applied in a third part to the design of high-current leads whose end temperatures are determined from the surrounding equipment. It is found that cooling method or improved heat transfer are not critical once good heat exchange is established. The range 5 5 but extends over a large of values. Mass flow needed to prevent thermal runaway varies linearly with current above a given threshold. Below that value, the mass flow is constant with current. Transient analysis shows no evidence of hysteresis. If cooling is interrupted, the mass flow needed to restore the lead to its initially cooled state grows exponentially with the time that the lead was left without cooling

  15. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  16. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  17. Reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate cleaning steps in the pipelines upon reactor shut-down by connecting a filtrating and desalting device to the cooling system to thereby always clean up the water in the pipelines. Constitution: A filtrating and desalting device is connected to the pipelines in the cooling system by way of drain valves and a check valve. Desalted water is taken out from the exit of the filtrating and desalting device and injected to one end of the cooling system pipelines by way of the drain valve and the check valve and then returned by way of another drain valve to the desalting device. Water in the pipelines is thus always desalted and the cleaning step in the pipelines is no more required in the shut-down. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. ELECTRON COOLING OF RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.; BARTON, D.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV.

  19. Nonlinear elliptic differential equations with multivalued nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Nonlinear elliptic differential equations with multivalued ... has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth .... A is upper semicontinuous (as a set-valued map) from every finite dimensional subspace of X into ...

  20. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  1. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  2. Stochastic cooling for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehl, D.

    1984-01-01

    These two lectures have been prepared to give a simple introduction to the principles. In Part I we try to explain stochastic cooling using the time-domain picture which starts from the pulse response of the system. In Part II the discussion is repeated, looking more closely at the frequency-domain response. An attempt is made to familiarize the beginners with some of the elementary cooling equations, from the 'single particle case' up to equations which describe the evolution of the particle distribution. (orig.)

  3. Nonlinear interaction of ultraintense laser pulse with relativistic thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 5. Nonlinear interaction of ultraintense laser pulse ... In the RPD regime, the plasma foil is pushed by ultraintense laser pulse when the radiation cannot propagate through the foil, while the electron and ion layers move together. The nonlinear character of ...

  4. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  5. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  6. Non-linear optical titanyl arsenates: Crystal growth and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Jenni Eva Louise

    Crystals are appreciated not only for their appearance, but also for their unique physical properties which are utilized by the photonic industry in appliances that we come across every day. An important part of enabling the technical use of optical devices is the manufacture of crystals. This dissertation deals with a specific group of materials called the potassium titanyl phosphate (KIP) family, known for their non-linear optical and ferroelectric properties. The isomorphs vary in their linear optical and dielectric properties, which can be tuned to optimize device performance by forming solid solutions of the different materials. Titanyl arsenates have a wide range of near-infrared transmission which makes them useful for tunable infrared lasers. The isomorphs examined in the present work were primarily RbTiOASO4 (RTA) and CsTiOAsO4 (CTA) together with the mixtures RbxCs 1-xTiOAsO4 (RCTA). Large-scale crystals were grown by top seeding solution growth utilizing a three-zone furnace with excellent temperature control. Sufficiently slow cooling and constant upward lifting produced crystals with large volumes useable for technical applications. Optical quality RTA crystals up to 10 x 12 x 20 mm were grown. The greater difficulty in obtaining good crystals of CTA led to the use of mixed RCTA materials. The mixing of rubidium and cesium in RCTA is more favorable to crystal growth than the single components in pure RTA and CTA. Mixed crystals are rubidium-enriched and contain only 20-30% of the cesium concentration in the flux. The cesium atoms show a preference for the larger cation site. The network structure is very little affected by the cation substitution; consequently, the non-linear optical properties of the Rb-rich isomorphic mixtures of RTA and CTA can be expected to remain intact. Crystallographic methods utilizing conventional X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction have been employed to investigate the properties of the atomic

  7. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  8. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  9. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...

  10. Calculation of Transient Temperature and Thermal Stresses at Calculus of Heat Transfer Coefficient Considering the Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov A.D.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of simplifications for solving problems of cooling / heating of bodies under the joint action of convection and radiation is considered. The mathematical formulation of the problem of non-stationary nonlinear heat, allowing along with convection, to take approximately into account the heat radiation. The solution of the problem for a thin body thermal model, based on the substitution method, linearizing the right boundary condition, as well as through the integral equation relationship between heat flow and surface-average and mass – average temperatures for the simple bodies in a regular stage of thermal conductivity. Two engineering methods were developed for calculating the temperature fields and axial thermal stresses during cooling (heating bodies of simple shape in the form of a plate, ball, and cylinder by convection and radiation in quasi-stationary stage. It is shown that neglecting heat transfer by radiation can lead to significant errors in calculation of the temperatures (up to 26%. The adequacy of the solutions has been tested at extreme cases, in the lack of heat transfer by radiation.

  11. Electron Cooling Dynamics for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Eidelman, Yu.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Malitsky, N.; Bruhwiler, D.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Trubnikov, G.

    2005-01-01

    Research towards high-energy electron cooling of RHIC is presently underway at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this new regime, electron cooling has many unique features and challenges. At high energy, due to the difficulty of providing operational reserves, the expected cooling times must be estimated with a high degree of accuracy compared to extant low-energy coolers. To address these high-energy cooling issues, a detailed study of cooling dynamics based on computer codes and experimental benchmarking was launched at BNL. In this paper, we present an update of the high-energy cooling dynamics studies. We also include a discussion of some features of electron cooling relevant to colliders, such as the effects of rapid cooling of the beam core and an accurate treatment of the intra-beam scattering for such cooled ion distributions

  12. Radiative transfer with scattering for domain-decomposed 3D MHD simulations of cool stellar atmospheres : numerical methods and application to the quiet, non-magnetic, surface of a solar-type star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayek, W.; Asplund, M.; Carlsson, M.; Trampedach, R.; Collet, R.; Gudiksen, B.V.; Hansteen, V.H.; Leenaarts, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837946

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes

  13. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  14. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...

  15. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  16. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Barton, D.S.; Beavis, D.B.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Burrill, A.; Calaga, R.; Cameron, P.; Chang, X.Y.; Connolly, R.; Eidelman, Yu.I.; Fedotov, A.V.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.M.; Hahn, H.; Harrison, M.; Hershcovitch, A.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Jain, A.K.; Johnson, P.D.J.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.F.; Litvinenko, V.; MacKay, W.W.; Mahler, G.J.; Malitsky, N.; McIntyre, G.T.; Meng, W.; Mirabella, K.A.M.; Montag, C.; Nehring, T.C.N.; Nicoletti, T.; Oerter, B.; Parzen, G.; Pate, D.; Rank, J.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Russo, T.; Scaduto, J.; Smith, K.; Trbojevic, D.; Wang, G.; Wei, J.; Williams, N.W.W.; Wu, K.-C.; Yakimenko, V.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhao, Y.; Abell, D.T.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Bluem, H.; Burger, A.; Cole, M.D.; Favale, A.J.; Holmes, D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Todd, A.M.M.; Burov, A.V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Delayen, J.R.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Funk, L. W.; Kneisel, P.; Merminga, L.; Phillips, H.L.; Preble, J.P.; Koop, I.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shatunov, Y.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Koop, I.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shatunov, Y.M.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Sekutowicz, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R and D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R and D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eCool/

  17. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Ben-Zvi; D.S. Barton; D.B. Beavis; M. Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X.Y. Chang; R. Connolly; Yu.I. Eidelman; A.V. Fedotov; W. Fischer; D.M. Gassner; H. Hahn; M. Harrison; A. Hershcovitch; H.-C. Hseuh; A.K. Jain; P.D.J. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R.F. Lambiase; V. Litvinenko; W.W. MacKay; G.J. Mahler; N. Malitsky; G.T. McIntyre; W. Meng; K.A.M. Mirabella; C. Montag; T.C.N. Nehring; T. Nicoletti; B. Oerter; G. Parzen; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Rao; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; D. Trbojevic; G. Wang; J. Wei; N.W.W. Williams; K.-C. Wu; V. Yakimenko; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; D.T. Abell; D.L. Bruhwiler; H. Bluem; A. Burger; M.D. Cole; A.J. Favale; D. Holmes; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; A.V. Burov; S. Nagaitsev; J.R. Delayen; Y.S. Derbenev; L. W. Funk; P. Kneisel; L. Merminga; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; I. Koop; V.V. Parkhomchuk; Y.M. Shatunov; A.N. Skrinsky; J.S. Sekutowicz

    2005-05-16

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eCool/.

  18. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz nonlinear...

  19. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  20. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  1. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  2. Active cooling of a mobile phone handset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, Ronan; Walsh, Ed; Walsh, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Power dissipation levels in mobile phones continue to increase due to gaming, higher power applications, and increased functionality associated with the internet. The current cooling methodologies of natural convection and radiation limit the power dissipation within a mobile phone to between 1-2 W depending on size. As power dissipation levels increase, products such as mobile phones will require active cooling to ensure that the devices operate within an acceptable temperature envelop from both user comfort and reliability perspectives. In this paper, we focus on the applied thermal engineering problem of an active cooling solution within a typical mobile phone architecture by implementing a custom centrifugal fan within the mobile phone. Its performance is compared in terms of flow rates and pressure drops, allowable phone heat dissipation and maximum phone surface temperature as this is the user constraint for a variety of simulated PCB architectures in the mobile phone. Perforated plates with varying porosity through different size orifices are used to simulate these architectures. The results show that the power level dissipated by a phone for a constant surface temperature may be increased by ∼50 - 75% depending on pressure drop induced by the internal phone architecture. Hence for successful implementation and efficient utilization of active cooling will require chip layout to be considered at the design stage.

  3. An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, H.G.; Lee, P.S.; Hawlader, M.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is adversely affected by the significant increase of cell operating temperature during absorption of solar radiation. A hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system was designed, fabricated and experimentally investigated in this work. To actively cool the PV cells, a parallel array of ducts with inlet/outlet manifold designed for uniform airflow distribution was attached to the back of the PV panel. Experiments were performed with and without active cooling. A linear trend between the efficiency and temperature was found. Without active cooling, the temperature of the module was high and solar cells can only achieve an efficiency of 8–9%. However, when the module was operated under active cooling condition, the temperature dropped significantly leading to an increase in efficiency of solar cells to between 12% and 14%. A heat transfer simulation model was developed to compare to the actual temperature profile of PV module and good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  4. Towards Laser Cooling of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani nia, Iman

    This dissertation reports on novel theoretical concepts as well as experimental efforts toward laser cooling of semiconductors. The use of quantum well system brings the opportunity to engineer bandstructure, effective masses and the spatial distribution of electrons and holes. This permits the incorporation of novel quantum mechanical phenomena to manipulate the temperature change of the material upon light-matter interaction. Inspired by the fact that Coulomb interaction can lead to blueshift of radiation after photo-absorption, the theory of Coulomb assisted laser cooling is proposed and investigated for the first time. In order to design suitable multiple quantum well (MQW) structures with Coulomb interaction a Poisson-Schrodinger solver was devised using MATLAB software. The software is capable of simulating all III-V material compositions and it results have been confirmed experimentally. In the next step, different MQW designs were proposed and optimized to exploit Coulomb interaction for assisting of optical refrigeration. One of the suitable designs with standard InGaAsP/InAlAs/InP layers was used to grow the MQW structures using metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD). Novel techniques of fabrication were implemented to make suspended structures for detecting ultralow thermal powers. By fabricating accurate thermometers, the temperature changes of the device upon laser absorption were measured. The accurate measurement of the temperature encouraged us to characterize the electrical response of the device as another important tool to promote our understanding of the 4 underlying physical phenomena. This is in addition to the accurate spectral and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements that provided us with a wealth of information about the effects of stress, Auger recombination and excitonic radiance in such structures. As the future works, important measurements for finding the quantum efficiency of the devices via electrical characterization and

  5. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  6. Sensitivity of energy and exergy performances of heating and cooling systems to auxiliary components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Heating and cooling systems in buildings consist of three main subsystems: heating/cooling plant, distribution system, and indoor terminal unit. The choice of indoor terminal unit determines the characteristics of the distribution system and the heating and cooling plants that can be used....... Different forms of energy (electricity and heat) are used in heating and cooling systems, and therefore, a holistic approach to system design and analysis is needed. In particular, distribution systems use electricity as a direct input to pumps and fans, and to other components. Therefore, exergy concept...... should be used in design and analysis of the whole heating and cooling systems, in addition to the energy analysis. In this study, water-based (floor heating and cooling, and radiator heating) and air-based (air heating and cooling) heating and cooling systems were compared in terms of their energy use...

  7. RCCS Experiments and Validation for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Cliff Davis; Goon C. Park

    2007-01-01

    A reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS), an air-cooled helical coil RCCS unit immersed in the water pool, was proposed to overcome the disadvantages of the weak cooling ability of air-cooled RCCS and the complex structure of water-cooled RCCS for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). An experimental apparatus was constructed to investigate the various heat transfer phenomena in the water pool type RCCS, such as the natural convection of air inside the cavity, radiation in the cavity, the natural convection of water in the water pool and the forced convection of air in the cooling pipe. The RCCS experimental results were compared with published correlations. The CFX code was validated using data from the air-cooled portion of the RCCS. The RELAP5 code was validated using measured temperatures from the reactor vessel and cavity walls

  8. Cooling devices in laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician′s personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  9. NPR and ANSI Containment Study Using Passive Cooling Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. J.; Iotti, R. C.; Wright, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    Passive containment cooling study of NPR (New Production Reactor) and ANSI (Advanced Neutron Source) following postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident station blackout due to total loss of all alternating current power are studied analytically and experimentally. All the reactor and containment cooling under this condition would rely on the passive cooling system which removes reactor decay heat and provides emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive emergency core and containment cooling. Containment passive cooling for this study takes place in the annulus between containment steel shell and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and concrete shield building by natural convection air flow and thermal radiation. Various heat transfer coefficients inside annular air space were investigated by running the modified Contempt code Contempt-Npr. In order to verify proper heat transfer coefficient, temperature, heat flux and velocity profiles were measured inside annular air space of the test facility which is a 24 foot (7.3m) high, steam heated inner cylinder of three foot (.91m) diameter and five and halt foot (1.7m) diameter outer cylinder. Comparison of Contempt-Npr and WGOTHIC was done for reduced scale Npr. It is concluded that Npr and ANSI containments can be passively cooled with air alone without extended cooling surfaces or passive water spray

  10. Status of and prospects for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA International Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR) (see Annex I), which was established in 1978, recommended to the Agency that a report be prepared in order to provide an up-to-date summary of gas-cooled reactor technology. The present Technical Report is based mainly on submissions of Member Countries of the IWGGCR and consists of four main sections. Beside some general information about the gas-cooled reactor line, section 1 contains a description of the incentives for the development and deployment of gas-cooled reactors in various Agency Member States. These include both electricity generation and process steam and process heat production for various branches of industry. The historical development of gas-cooled reactors is reviewed in section 2. In this section information is provided on how, when and why gas-cooled reactors have been developed in various Agency Member States and, in addition, a detailed description of the different gas-cooled reactor lines is presented. Section 3 contains information about the technical status of gas-cooled reactors and their applications. Gas-cooled reactors that are under design or construction or in operation are listed and shortly described, together with an outlook for future reactor designs. In this section the various applications for gas-cooled reactors are described in detail. These include both electricity generation and process steam and process heat production. The last section (section 4) is entitled ''Special features of gas-cooled reactors'' and contains information about the technical performance, fuel utilization, safety characteristics and environmental impact, such as radiation exposure and heat rejection

  11. Cooling apparatus and couplings therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Curtis; Webbon, Bruce

    1993-11-01

    A cooling apparatus includes a container filled with a quantity of coolant fluid initially cooled to a solid phase, a cooling loop disposed between a heat load and the container. A pump for circulating a quantity of the same type of coolant fluid in a liquid phase through the cooling loop, a pair of couplings for communicating the liquid phase coolant fluid into the container in a direct interface with the solid phase coolant fluid.

  12. Cooled particle accelerator target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  13. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  14. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  15. Laser Cooling of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Panel (b) com- pares the cooling efficiencies of available thermoelectric coolers ( TECs ) with ZBLANP:Yb3+-based optical refrigerators. Devices based...on materials with low parasitic heating will outperform TECs below 200 . Coolers made from current materials are less efficient than TECs at all...luminescence extraction efficiency are being explored as well. A novel method based on the frustrated total internal reflection across a vacuum “ nano -gap” is

  16. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  17. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  18. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  19. Muon Cooling - Emittance Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Muon Cooling is the key factor in building of a Muon collider, (to a less degree) Muon storage ring, and a Neutrino Factory. Muon colliders potential to provide a probe for fundamental particle physics is very interesting, but may take a considerable time to realize, as much more work and study is needed. Utilizing high intensity Muon sources - Neutrino Factories, and other intermediate steps are very important and will greatly expand our abilities and confidence in the credibility of high energy muon colliders. To obtain the needed collider luminosity, the phase-space volume must be greatly reduced within the muon life time. The Ionization cooling is the preferred method used to compress the phase space and reduce the emittance to obtain high luminosity muon beams. We note that, the ionization losses results not only in damping, but also heating. The use of alternating solenoid lattices has been proposed, where the emittance are large. We present an overview of the cooling and discuss formalism, solenoid magnets and some beam dynamics

  20. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  1. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  2. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  3. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  4. Laser cooling of a semiconductor by 40 kelvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Dehui; Chen, Renjie; Xiong, Qihua

    2013-01-24

    Optical irradiation accompanied by spontaneous anti-Stokes emission can lead to cooling of matter, in a phenomenon known as laser cooling, or optical refrigeration, which was proposed by Pringsheim in 1929. In gaseous matter, an extremely low temperature can be obtained in diluted atomic gases by Doppler cooling, and laser cooling of ultradense gas has been demonstrated by collisional redistribution of radiation. In solid-state materials, laser cooling is achieved by the annihilation of phonons, which are quanta of lattice vibrations, during anti-Stokes luminescence. Since the first experimental demonstration in glasses doped with rare-earth metals, considerable progress has been made, particularly in ytterbium-doped glasses or crystals: recently a record was set of cooling to about 110 kelvin from the ambient temperature, surpassing the thermoelectric Peltier cooler. It would be interesting to realize laser cooling in semiconductors, in which excitonic resonances dominate, rather than in systems doped with rare-earth metals, where atomic resonances dominate. However, so far no net cooling in semiconductors has been achieved despite much experimental and theoretical work, mainly on group-III-V gallium arsenide quantum wells. Here we report a net cooling by about 40 kelvin in a semiconductor using group-II-VI cadmium sulphide nanoribbons, or nanobelts, starting from 290 kelvin. We use a pump laser with a wavelength of 514 nanometres, and obtain an estimated cooling efficiency of about 1.3 per cent and an estimated cooling power of 180 microwatts. At 100 kelvin, 532-nm pumping leads to a net cooling of about 15 kelvin with a cooling efficiency of about 2.0 per cent. We attribute the net laser cooling in cadmium sulphide nanobelts to strong coupling between excitons and longitudinal optical phonons (LOPs), which allows the resonant annihilation of multiple LOPs in luminescence up-conversion processes, high external quantum efficiency and negligible background

  5. Laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Bartolotta, John; Holland, Murray; Thompson, James

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated a new method of laser cooling applicable to particles with narrow linewidth optical transitions. This simple and robust cooling mechanism uses a frequency-swept laser to adiabatically transfer atoms between internal and motional states. The role of spontaneous emission is reduced (though is still critical) compared to Doppler cooling. This allows us to achieve greater slowing forces than would be possible with Doppler cooling, and may make this an appealing technique for cooling molecules. In this talk, I will present a demonstration of this technique in a cold strontium system. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.

  6. Electron cooling experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, R.; Hardek, T.; Johnson, D.E.; Kells, W.; Kerner, V.; Lai, H.; Lennox, A.J.; Mills, F.; Miyahara, Y.; Oleksiuk, L.; Peters, R.; Rhoades, T.; Young, D.; McIntyre, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A 115 Mev proton beam has been successfully cooled in the Electron Cooling Ring at Fermilab. Initial experiments have measured the longitudinal drag force, transverse damping rate, and equilibrium beam size. The proton beam was cooled by a factor of aproximately 50 in momentum spread in 5 sec, and by a factor of 3 in transverse size in 15 sec. Long term losses were consistent with single scattering from residual gas, with lifetime approximately 1000 sec. Using the measured electron beam temperature T/sub e/.0.8(2) ev, the observed cooling agrees well with expectations from cooling theory. 13 refs

  7. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing.

  8. Direct Laser Cooling Al{}^{+} Ion Optical Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Deng, Ke; Luo, Jun; Lu, Ze-Huang

    2017-05-01

    The Al{}+ ion optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small black-body radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with the indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al{}+ ion optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al{}+ traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al{}+ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al{}+ ion to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach 9.0× {10}-17/\\sqrt{τ }. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed 234 nm two-photon cooling laser is utilized to further improve the accuracy of the clock laser. The total systematic uncertainty can be reduced to about 1× {10}-18. The proposed Al{}+ ion optical clock has the potential to become the most accurate and stable optical clock. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2012CB821300, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 91336213, 11304109, 91536116 and 11174095, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents by the Ministry of Education under Grant No NCET-11-0176.

  9. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  10. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  11. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...... linearization, an H∞-control design is applied to the resulting linear system. Disturbance rejection capabilities and robustness of performance for this control design methodology is compared to a baseline design derived from classical control theory. This shows promising results for the nonlinear robust design......This thesis is concerned with the problem of designing model-based control for a class of single-phase marine cooling systems. While this type of cooling system has been in existence for several decades, it is only recently that energy efficiency has become a focus point in the design and operation...

  12. Laser cooling of molecular anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzombard, Pauline; Hamamda, Mehdi; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-05-29

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarize the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C_{2}^{-}, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photodetachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C_{2}^{-}, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources, and antimatter physics.

  13. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  15. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  16. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  17. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  18. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  19. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  20. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  1. Tank Made Of Connected Cooling Fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Donald F.; O'Donnell, John J.

    1994-01-01

    New method of fabricating fin-cooled tank requires half as many arc-welding passes and features more efficient transfer of heat. Fins integral parts of tank structure. Requires only one welding pass per fin, and pass done on unobstructed inside of tank. With inside welding, fins longer and more closely spaced. Method proposed to build tank with 256 fins. Holds water in which radioisotope heat source immersed before use. Water absorbs bremsstrahlung radiation from isotope, and fins dissipate heat generated by absorption.

  2. Gas cooled HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.

    1985-01-01

    In the He-cooled, graphite-moderated HTR with spherical fuel elements, the steam generator is fixed outside the pressure vessel. The heat exchangers are above the reactor level. The hot gases stream from the reactor bottom over the heat exchanger, through an annular space around the heat exchanger and through feed lines in the side reflector of the reactor back to its top part. This way, in case of shutdown there is a supplementary natural draught that helps the inner natural circulation (chimney draught effect). (orig./PW)

  3. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  4. Subsurface Nonlinear Dynamical Heating and ENSO Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Michiya; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2017-12-01

    This study presents evidence of interannual to interdecadal variabilities residing in the subsurface nonlinear dynamical heating (NDH) along the equatorial Pacific thermocline based on ocean reanalysis products. In association with a flattened thermocline and drastic halt of the Equatorial Undercurrent, the NDH increases sharply right after a peak of the strong El Niño, reducing the linear anomalous advective subsurface cooling by 30%. As the result, subsurface cold signals in the west are significantly weakened as it reaches the easternmost Pacific, causing less surface cooling in the east and thus weakening the subsequent La Niña. Therefore, the subsurface NDH contributes to asymmetry in both the magnitude and structure between El Niño and La Niña. The acute positive subsurface NDH associated with strong El Niño events leads to substantial variations in its decadal means and serves as a potential source for tropical Pacific decadal to interdecadal variabilities.

  5. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Radiant floor cooling systems are increasingly being used in transition spaces with large glazed surfaces, such as atria, airports, and perimeter areas. For these cases, the cooling capacity can increase significantly according to the scientific literature. However, current design standards and test methods provide only limited guidance on sizing of radiant floor cooling systems and their associated air systems in the presence of solar radiation. The goals of this study are to 1) review curre...

  6. Rotational Laser Cooling of Vibrationally and Translationally Cold Molecular Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    [7,8,9]. Furthermore, in order to learn more about the chemistry in interstellar clouds, astrochemists can benefit greatly from direct measurements on cold reactions in laboratories [9]. Working with MgH+ molecular ions in a linear Paul trap, we routinely cool their translational degree of freedom...... by sympathetic cooling with Doppler laser cooled Mg+ ions. Giving the time for the molecules to equilibrate internally to the room temperature blackbody radiation, the vibrational degree of freedom will freeze out, leaving only the rotational degree of freedom to be cooled. We report here on the implementation......). [9] Smith, I. W. M., Low temperatures and cold molecules (Imperial College Press, London, 2008). [10] Staanum, P. F., Højbjerre, K., Skyt, P.S., Hansen, A. K. and Drewsen, M., Nat. Phys. 6, 271 (2010). [11] Vogelius, I. S., Madsen, L. B. and Drewsen, M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 173003 (2002)....

  7. 46 CFR 190.20-50 - Heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and cooling. 190.20-50 Section 190.20-50... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-50 Heating and... the space. (b) Radiators and other heating apparatus must be so placed and shielded, where necessary...

  8. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  9. Water cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to reduce any loss of primary water coolant from around a reactor core of a water cooled nuclear reactor caused by any failure of a pressure vessel, an inner vessel is positioned within and spaced from the pressure vessel. The reactor core and main portion of the primary water coolant circuit and a heat exchanger are positioned within the inner vessel to maintain some primary water coolant around the reactor core and to allow residual decay heat to be removed from the reactor core by the heat exchanger. In the embodiment shown an aperture at the upper region of the inner vessel is dimensioned configured and arranged to prevent steam from a steam space of an integral pressurised water cooled nuclear reactor for a ship entering the main portion of the primary water coolant circuit in the inner vessel if the longitudinal axis of the nuclear reactor is displaced from its normal substantially vertical position to an abnormal position at an angle to the vertical direction. Shields are integral with the inner vessel. (author)

  10. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable quick cooling of a core by efficiently utilizing coolant supplied in an emergency. Constitution: A feedwater nozzle and a water level detector are disposed in the gap between a partition plate for supporting the top of a fuel assembly and a lattice plate for supporting the bottom of the fuel assembly. At the time of a loss of coolant accident, coolant is injected from a sprinkling nozzle toward the reactor core, and is also injected from a feedwater nozzle. When the coolant reaches a prescribed level in the reactor core, the water level is detected by the detector, the coolant is fed by a pump to the lower plenum, and the submerging speed of the reactor core is thereby accelerated. When the water level again becomes lower than the prescribed level, the coolant is again filled from the feedwater nozzle, and similar operation is thereafter repeated. Accordingly, the coolant filled in the reactor core can be efficiently utilized to cool the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Laser cooling of beryllium ions using a frequency-doubled 626 nm diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijn, F.M.J.; Biesheuvel, J.; Flores, A.S.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Blume, G.; Wicht, A.; Paschke, K.; Erbert, G.; Koelemeij, J.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate laser cooling of trapped beryllium ions at 313 nm using a frequency-doubled extended cavity diode laser operated at 626 nm, obtained by cooling a ridge waveguide diode laser chip to -31°C. Up to 32 mW of narrowband 626 nm laser radiation is obtained. After passage through an optical

  12. Effects of different cooling principles on thermal sensation and physiological responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.; De Wit, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    convection in terms of increased air velocities) and active cooling (through convection or radiation). Furthermore, two different ventilation techniques were included: mixing and displacement ventilation. Ten male subjects (age: 20-29) were exposed to six different cases: (1) PC-C-M; passive cooling through...

  13. Structure and thermal analysis of the water cooling mask at NSRL front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Feiyun; Xu Chaoyin; Wang Qiuping; Wang Naxiu

    2003-01-01

    A water cooling mask is an important part of the front end, usually used for absorbing high power density synchrotron radiation to protect the apparatus from being destroyed by heat load. This paper presents the structure of the water cooling mask and the thermal analysis results of the mask block at NSRL using Program ANSYS5.5

  14. Metamaterial-Enhanced Nonlinear Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate large nonlinear terahertz responses in the gaps of metamaterial split ring resonators in several materials and use nonlinear THz transmission and THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy to study the nonlinear responses and dynamics. We use the field enhancement in the SRR gaps to initiate high-field phenomena at lower incident fields. In vanadium dioxide, we drive the insulator-to-metal phase transition with high-field THz radiation. The film conductivity increases by over two orders of magnitude and the phase transition occurs on a several picosecond timescale. In gallium arsenide, we observe high-field transport phenomena, including mobility saturation and impact ionization. The carrier density increases by up to ten orders of magnitude at high fields. At the highest fields, we demonstrate THz-induced damage in both vanadium dioxide and gallium arsenide.

  15. Quantum Nonlinear Optics in Optomechanical Nanoscale Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubi, Hashem; Hammerer, Klemens

    2017-09-22

    We show that strong nonlinearities at the few photon level can be achieved in optomechanical nanoscale waveguides. We consider the propagation of photons in cm-scale one-dimensional nanophotonic structures where stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is strongly enhanced by radiation pressure coupling. We introduce a configuration that allows slowing down photons by several orders of magnitude via SBS from sound waves using two pump fields. Slowly propagating photons can then experience strong nonlinear interactions through virtual off-resonant exchange of dispersionless phonons. As a benchmark we identify requirements for achieving a large cross-phase modulation among two counterpropagating photons applicable for photonic quantum gates. Our results indicate that strongly nonlinear quantum optics is possible in continuum optomechanical systems realized in nanophotonic structures.

  16. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  17. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  18. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  19. Assessment of Haar Wavelet-Quasilinearization Technique in Heat Convection-Radiation Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We showed that solutions by the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for the two problems, namely, (i temperature distribution equation in lumped system of combined convection-radiation in a slab made of materials with variable thermal conductivity and (ii cooling of a lumped system by combined convection and radiation are strongly reliable and also more accurate than the other numerical methods and are in good agreement with exact solution. According to the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique, we convert the nonlinear heat transfer equation to linear discretized equation with the help of quasilinearization technique and apply the Haar wavelet method at each iteration of quasilinearization technique to get the solution. The main aim of present work is to show the reliability of the Haar wavelet-quasilinearization technique for heat transfer equations.

  20. Detection of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1994-01-01

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)

  1. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  2. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  3. Nonlinear versus Ordinary Adaptive Control of Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtesek, Jiri; Dostal, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Unfortunately, the major group of the systems in industry has nonlinear behavior and control of such processes with conventional control approaches with fixed parameters causes problems and suboptimal or unstable control results. An adaptive control is one way to how we can cope with nonlinearity of the system. This contribution compares classic adaptive control and its modification with Wiener system. This configuration divides nonlinear controller into the dynamic linear part and the static nonlinear part. The dynamic linear part is constructed with the use of polynomial synthesis together with the pole-placement method and the spectral factorization. The static nonlinear part uses static analysis of the controlled plant for introducing the mathematical nonlinear description of the relation between the controlled output and the change of the control input. Proposed controller is tested by the simulations on the mathematical model of the continuous stirred-tank reactor with cooling in the jacket as a typical nonlinear system.

  4. H3+ cooling in planetary atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steve; Stallard, Tom; Melin, Henrik; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    We review the role of H3+ in planetary atmospheres, with a particular emphasis on its effect in cooling and stabilising, an effect that has been termed the "H3+ thermostat" (see Miller et al., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 2000, 58, 2485). In the course of our analysis of this effect, we found that cooling functions that make use of the partition function, Q(T) based on the calculated H3+ energy levels of Neale and Tennyson (Astrophys. J., 1995, 454, L169) may underestimate just how much energy this ion is radiating to space. So we present a new fit to the calculated values of Q(T) that is accurate to within 2% for the range 100 K to 10 000 K, a very significant improvement on the fit originally provided by Neale and Tennyson themselves. We also present a fit to Q(T) calculated from only those values Neale and Tennyson computed from first principles, which may be more appropriate for planetary scientists wishing to calculate the amount of atmospheric cooling from the H3+ ion.

  5. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  6. LONGITUDINAL IONIZATION COOLING WITHOUT WEDGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The emittance of a muon beam must be reduced very rapidly due to the finite lifetime of the muons. The most effective known way to accomplish this is ionization cooling. It is straightforward to reduce transverse emittance through ionization cooling, but the reducing the longitudinal emittance is more challenging. Longitudinal cooling is necessary for a muon collider, and would be helpful for a neutrino factory. The method traditionally proposed for longitudinal cooling is emittance exchange involving wedges of absorber material: the longitudinal emittance is reduced at the cost of increased transverse emittance. The larger transverse emittance can then be reduced straightforwardly. An alternative method is proposed here, which does not require wedges of material but instead makes slight modifications to the standard transverse cooling lattice. We demonstrate a lattice which is a slight modification to a standard Super FOFO transverse cooling lattice, which has linear eigenvalues all of which have magnitude less than one

  7. La Hague: keep cool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1997-01-01

    The study made by OPRI (ionizing radiation protection agency) confirms the results given by Greenpeace concerning the radioactive contamination due to the undersea discharge pipe of La Hague reprocessing plant. It is highlighted that at about 50 meters from the end of the pipe no contamination is perceptible. (A.C.)

  8. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquinelli, R.J. E-mail: pasquin@fnal.gov

    2004-10-11

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  9. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.

    2004-10-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.

  10. Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented

  11. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-01-01

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory

  12. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  13. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  14. Regeneratively Cooled Porous Media Jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); London, Adam Pollok (Inventor); Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The fluid and heat transfer theory for regenerative cooling of a rocket combustion chamber with a porous media coolant jacket is presented. This model is used to design a regeneratively cooled rocket or other high temperature engine cooling jacket. Cooling jackets comprising impermeable inner and outer walls, and porous media channels are disclosed. Also disclosed are porous media coolant jackets with additional structures designed to transfer heat directly from the inner wall to the outer wall, and structures designed to direct movement of the coolant fluid from the inner wall to the outer wall. Methods of making such jackets are also disclosed.

  15. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  16. Water cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a cooling water intake collector for a nuclear reactor. It includes multiple sub-collectors extending out in a generally parallel manner to each other, each one having a first end and a second one separated along their length, and multiple water outlets for connecting each one to a corresponding pressure tube of the reactor. A first end tube and a second one connect the sub-collector tubes together to their first and second ends respectively. It also includes multiple collector tubes extending transversely by crossing over the sub-collector tubes and separated from each other in the direction of these tubes. Each collector tubes has a water intake for connecting to a water pump and multiple connecting tubes separated over its length and connecting each one to the corresponding sub-collector [fr

  17. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  18. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Ronald H [Concord, MA

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  19. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  20. Core catcher cooling for a gas-cooled fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-01-01

    Water, molten salts, and liquid metals are under discussion as coolants for the core catcher of a gas-cooled fast breeder. The authors state that there is still no technically mature method of cooling a core melt. However, the investigations carried out so far suggest that there is a solution to this problem. (RW/AK) [de