WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear quantum dust

  1. Quantum well nonlinear microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.

    We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.

  2. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  3. Linear and nonlinear excitations in complex plasmas with nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and dust size distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Ping; Xue Ju-Kui; Li Yan-Long

    2011-01-01

    Both linear and nonlinear excitation in dusty plasmas have been investigated including the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and Gaussian size distribution dust particles.A linear dispersion relation and a Korteweg-de VriesBurgers equation governing the dust acoustic shock waves are obtained.The relevance of the instability of wave and the wave evolution to the dust size distribution and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation is illustrated both analytically and numerically.The numerical results show that the Gaussian size distribution of dust particles and the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong common influence on the propagation of both linear and nonlinear excitations.

  4. Quantum nonlinear optics without photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, Roberto; Macrı, Vincenzo; Kockum, Anton Frisk; Di Stefano, Omar; Miranowicz, Adam; Savasta, Salvatore; Nori, Franco

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous parametric down-conversion is a well-known process in quantum nonlinear optics in which a photon incident on a nonlinear crystal spontaneously splits into two photons. Here we propose an analogous physical process where one excited atom directly transfers its excitation to a pair of spatially separated atoms with probability approaching 1. The interaction is mediated by the exchange of virtual rather than real photons. This nonlinear atomic process is coherent and reversible, so the pair of excited atoms can transfer the excitation back to the first one: the atomic analog of sum-frequency generation of light. The parameters used to investigate this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in ultrastrong circuit quantum electrodynamics. This approach can be extended to realize other nonlinear interatomic processes, such as four-atom mixing, and is an attractive architecture for the realization of quantum devices on a chip. We show that four-qubit mixing can efficiently implement quantum repetition codes and, thus, can be used for error-correction codes.

  5. Nonlinear metrology with a quantum interface

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, M.; Mitchell, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe nonlinear quantum atom-light interfaces and nonlinear quantum metrology in the collective continuous variable formalism. We develop a nonlinear effective Hamiltonian in terms of spin and polarization collective variables and show that model Hamiltonians of interest for nonlinear quantum metrology can be produced in $^{87}$Rb ensembles. With these Hamiltonians, metrologically relevant atomic properties, e.g. the collective spin, can be measured better than the "Heisenberg limit" $\\...

  6. The quantum theory of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Playing a prominent role in communications, quantum science and laser physics, quantum nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field. This book presents a self-contained treatment of field quantization and covers topics such as the canonical formalism for fields, phase-space representations and the encompassing problem of quantization of electrodynamics in linear and nonlinear media. Starting with a summary of classical nonlinear optics, it then explains in detail the calculation techniques for quantum nonlinear optical systems and their applications, quantum and classical noise sources in optical fibers and applications of nonlinear optics to quantum information science. Supplemented by end-of-chapter exercises and detailed examples of calculation techniques in different systems, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, condensed matter physics, quantum information and atomic physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamic...

  7. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  8. Quantum dust collapse in 2 +1 dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Souvik; Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we will examine the consequence of a canonical theory of quantum dust collapse in 2 +1 dimensions. The solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation describing the collapse indicates that collapsing shells outside the apparent horizon are accompanied by outgoing shells within the apparent horizon during their collapse phase and stop collapsing once they reach the apparent horizon. Taking this picture of quantum collapse seriously, we determine a static solution with energy density corresponding to a dust ball whose collapse has terminated at the apparent horizon. We show that the boundary radius of the ball is larger than the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli radius confirming that no event horizon is formed. The ball is sustained by radial pressure which we determine and which we attribute to the Unruh radiation within it.

  9. Quantum Dynamics of Nonlinear Cavity Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of three different configurations of nonlinear cavity systems. To begin, we carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector comprised of a SQUID with a mechanically compliant loop segment. The SQUID is approximated by a nonlinear current-dependent inductor, inducing a flux tunable nonlinear Duffing term in the cavity equation of motion. Expressions are derived for the detector signal ...

  10. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.

  11. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo; Rivas Vargas, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the ene...

  12. Nonlinear Electrostatic Properties of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Stacy A.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to study the induction charging and charge decay characteristics of small dielectric particles, or glass beads. Initially, the goal of the experiment was further understanding of induction charging of lunar dust particles. However, the mechanism of charging became a point of greater interest as the project continued. Within an environmentally-controlled acrylic glove box was placed a large parallel plate capacitor at high-voltage (HV) power supply with reversible polarity. Spherical 1-mm and 0.5-mm glass beads, singly, were placed between the plates, and their behaviors recorded on video and quantified. Nearly a hundred trials at various humidities were performed. The analysis of the results indicated a non-linear relationship between humidity and particle charge exchange time (CET), for both sizes of beads. Further, a difference in CET for top-resting beads and bottom-resting beads hinted at a different charging mechanism than that of simple induction. Results from the I-mm bead trials were presented at several space science and physics conferences in 2008 and 2009, and were published as a Master's thesis in August 2009. Tangential work stemming from this project resulted in presentations at other international conferences in 2010, and selection to attend workshop on granular matter flow 2011.

  13. Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hong; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Long, Gui-Lu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the course of the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.

  14. Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ke; LIU Yang; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHANG Wen-Hong; SUN Yun-Fei; ZHANG Cun-Lin; LONG Gui-Lu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the courseof the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.

  15. Quantum dynamics of biological systems and dust plasma nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasukov, V. V.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lasukova, O. V.

    2012-12-01

    A quantum solution of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with convection and linear diffusion is obtained which can provide the basis for the quantum biology and quantum microphysics equation. On this basis, quantum emission of biological systems, separate microorganisms (cells or bacteria), and dust plasma particles is investigated.

  16. Colloidal Plasmas : Effect of nonthermal ion distribution and dust temperature on nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarsem Singh Gill; Harvinder Kaur

    2000-11-01

    The effects of nonthermal ion distribution and finite dust temperature are incorporated in the investigation of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. Sagdeev pseudopotential method which takes into account the full nonlinearity of plasma equations, is used here to study solitary wave solutions. Possibility of co-existence of refractive and compressive solitons as a function of Mach number, dust temperature and concentration of nonthermal ions, is considered. For the fixed value of nonthermal ions, it is found that the effect of increase in dust temperature is to reduce the range of co-existence of compressive and refractive solitons. Particular concentration of nonthermal ions results in disappearance of refractive solitons while the decrease in dust temperature, at this concentration restores the lost refractive solitons.

  17. Nonlinear wave interactions in quantum magnetoplasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K; Marklund, M; Stenflo, L

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions involving electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH), ion-cyclotron (IC), lower-hybrid (LH), and Alfven waves in quantum magnetoplasmas are considered. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamical equations are used to derive the governing equations for nonlinearly coupled UH, IC, LH, and Alfven waves. The equations are then Fourier analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations, which admit both decay and modulational instabilities of the UH waves at quantum scales. The growth rates of the instabilities are presented. They can be useful in applications of our work to diagnostics in laboratory and astrophysical settings.

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons

    OpenAIRE

    Kröger, H.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons

    OpenAIRE

    Kröger, H.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

  20. Nonlinear fiber gyroscope for quantum metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    We examine the performance of a nonlinear fiber gyroscope for improved signal detection beating the quantum limits of its linear counterparts. The performance is examined when the nonlinear gyroscope is illuminated by practical field states, such as coherent and quadrature squeezed states. This is compared with the case of more ideal probes such as photon-number states.

  1. Nonlinear fiber gyroscope for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Alfredo; Morales, Irene; Rivas, Ángel

    2016-07-01

    We examine the performance of a nonlinear fiber gyroscope for improved signal detection beating the quantum limits of its linear counterparts. The performance is examined when the nonlinear gyroscope is illuminated by practical field states, such as coherent and quadrature squeezed states. This is compared with the case of more ideal probes such as photon-number states.

  2. Non-linear (loop) quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin; Dantas, Christine C; Jaffe, Matthew; Simpson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inhomogeneous quantum cosmology is modeled as a dynamical system of discrete patches, whose interacting many-body equations can be mapped to a non-linear minisuperspace equation by methods analogous to Bose-Einstein condensation. Complicated gravitational dynamics can therefore be described by more-manageable equations for finitely many degrees of freedom, for which powerful solution procedures are available, including effective equations. The specific form of non-linear and non-local equations suggests new questions for mathematical and computational investigations, and general properties of non-linear wave equations lead to several new options for physical effects and tests of the consistency of loop quantum gravity. In particular, our quantum cosmological methods show how sizeable quantum corrections in a low-curvature universe can arise from tiny local contributions adding up coherently in large regions.

  3. Quantum nonlinear optics: nonlinear optics meets the quantum world (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-02-01

    This presentation first reviews the historical development of the field of nonlinear optics, starting from its inception in 1961. It then reviews some of its more recent developments, including especially how nonlinear optics has become a crucial tool for the developing field of quantum technologies. Fundamental quantum processes enabled by nonlinear optics, such as the creation of squeezed and entangled light states, are reviewed. We then illustrate these concepts by means of specific applications, such as the development of secure communication systems based on the quantum states of light.

  4. UV Nano-Lights: Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    method is also applicable to bare nanoparticles in polar solvents. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Quantum Dots, Nonlinear Optical Materials , Energy...TERMS Quantum Dots, Nonlinear Optical Materials , Energy Conservation, Up-conversion 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  5. Euclidean Quantum Mechanics and Universal Nonlinear Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhashyam Balaji

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in applied science is the continuous nonlinear filtering problem, i.e., the estimation of a Langevin state that is observed indirectly. In this paper, it is shown that Euclidean quantum mechanics is closely related to the continuous nonlinear filtering problem. The key is the configuration space Feynman path integral representation of the fundamental solution of a Fokker-Planck type of equation termed the Yau Equation of continuous-continuous filtering. A corollary is the equivalence between nonlinear filtering problem and a time-varying Schr¨odinger equation.

  6. Nonlinear peltier effect in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1998-11-01

    A theoretical analysis of the Peltier effect in two-dimensional quantum point contacts, in field-free conditions and under the influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated.

  7. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...

  8. Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling

    of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre......This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear...... to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase...

  9. On the photoelectric quantum yield of small dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around main-sequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an ill-defined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the so-called small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. We show that the small particle effect elevates the photoelectric quantum yields of nanoparticles up to by a factor of 103 for carbon, water ice, and organics, and a factor of 102 for silicate, silicon carbide, and iron. We conclude the surface curvature of the particles is a quantity of great importance to the small particle effect, unless the particles are submicrometers in radius or larger.

  10. On the photoelectric quantum yield of small dust particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron emission is crucial to electric charging of dust particles around main-sequence stars and gas heating in various dusty environments. An estimate of the photoelectric processes contains an ill-defined parameter called the photoelectric quantum yield, which is the total number of electrons ejected from a dust particle per absorbed photon. Here we revisit the so-called small particle effect of photoelectron emission and provide an analytical model to estimate photoelectric quantum yields of small dust particles in sizes down to nanometers. We show that the small particle effect elevates the photoelectric quantum yields of nanoparticles up to by a factor of $10^3$ for carbon, water ice, and organics, and a factor of $10^2$ for silicate, silicon carbide, and iron. We conclude the surface curvature of the particles is a quantity of great importance to the small particle effect, unless the particles are submicrometers in radius or larger.

  11. Quantum and Nonlinear Optical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    comment in Physical Review Letters , and more detailed versions of the theory have been written for publication. In addition, we have demonstrated...past funding cycle that was published in Physical Review Letters . This result pertains to the role of the quantum features of light in enabling the...in Physical Review Letters ) a purported theoretical demonstration of this speculation. In our work, we showed that we could reproduce this earlier

  12. Nonlinear Farley-Buneman instability with Dust Impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, B.; Volokitin, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    The regimes of nonlinear stabilization of instability of low frequency waves in magnetized, weakly ionized and inhomogeneous ionospheric dusty plasma are considered. In the lower ionosphere in the E--region, a complex process transforms wind energy into currents creating the E--region electrojet. If these currents exceed a certain critical amplitude, a streaming instability called the Farley--Buneman or a collisional two-stream instability develops. When the number of cooperating waves remains small due to a competition of processes of their instability and attenuation, the turbulence appears in the result of their stochastic behavior. Then even system with finite number of interacting waves can realize a turbulent state in active media. At conditions when electrons are magnetized and characteristic time of density oscillations exceed the rate of electron ion collisions and electron dust collision the drift of electrons perpendicular to magnetic field is the main motion. Consequently, the main nonlinearity appears in result of convection of a density perturbation in one wave by another wave in the perpendicular to magnetic field and mathematically is expressed in a specific vector form The strong collisional damping of waves allow to assume that a typical perturbed state of plasma can be described as finite set of interacting waves. This allow to avoid difficulties of 3D simulations and to make full study of nonlinear stabilization and influence of the dust component in the conditions when the number of interacting waves keeps small by the strong competition of processes wave damping and instabilities Keywords: Dusty Plasmas, Farley-Buneman Instability, Nonlinear Stabilization. REFERENCES 1. M. Oppenheim and N. Otani, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, pp. 353-356, 1995. 2. A.V. Volosevich and C.V. Meister, Int. Journal of Geomagnetism and aeronomy, 3 pp.151-156, 2002 3. A. S. Volokitin and B. Atamaniuk, Reduced nonlinear description of Farley-Buneman instability

  13. Nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wimberger, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos has grown very much over the last few decades and is becoming more and more relevant in different disciplines. This book presents a clear and concise introduction to the field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos, suitable for graduate students in mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, and in natural sciences in general. It provides a thorough and modern introduction to the concepts of Hamiltonian dynamical systems' theory combining in a comprehensive way classical and quantum mechanical description. It covers a wide range of topics usually not found in similar books. Motivations of the respective subjects and a clear presentation eases the understanding. The book is based on lectures on classical and quantum chaos held by the author at Heidelberg University. It contains exercises and worked examples, which makes it ideal for an introductory course for students as well as for researchers starting to work in the field.

  14. A nonlinear Schroedinger wave equation with linear quantum behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Chris D.; Schlagheck, Peter; Martin, John; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Bastin, Thierry [Departement de Physique, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    We show that a nonlinear Schroedinger wave equation can reproduce all the features of linear quantum mechanics. This nonlinear wave equation is obtained by exploring, in a uniform language, the transition from fully classical theory governed by a nonlinear classical wave equation to quantum theory. The classical wave equation includes a nonlinear classicality enforcing potential which when eliminated transforms the wave equation into the linear Schroedinger equation. We show that it is not necessary to completely cancel this nonlinearity to recover the linear behavior of quantum mechanics. Scaling the classicality enforcing potential is sufficient to have quantum-like features appear and is equivalent to scaling Planck's constant.

  15. Nonlinear phenomena in quantum thermoelectrics and heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, David; López, Rosa

    2016-12-01

    We review recent developments in nonlinear quantum transport through nanostructures and mesoscopic systems driven by thermal gradients or in combination with voltage biases. Low-dimensional conductors are excellent platforms for analyzing both the thermoelectric and heat dynamics beyond the linear response because, due to their small size, a small temperature difference applied across regions gives rise to large thermal biases. We offer a theoretical discussion based on the scattering approach to highlight the differences between the linear and the nonlinear regimes of transport. We discuss recent experiments on quantum dots and molecular junctions subjected to strong temperature differences. Theoretical predictions concerning the Kondo effect and heat rectification proposals are briefly examined. An important issue is the calculation of thermoelectric efficiencies including nonlinearities. Cross Seebeck effects and nonlinear spin filtering arise in superconductors and topological insulators, while mixed noises between charge and heat currents are also considered. Finally, we provide an outlook on the possible future directions of the field. xml:lang="fr"

  16. Quantum Decoherence During Inflation from Gravitational Nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    We study the inflationary quantum-to-classical transition for the adiabatic curvature perturbation $\\zeta$ due to quantum decoherence, focusing on the role played by squeezed-limit mode couplings. We evolve the quantum state $\\Psi$ in the Schr\\"odinger picture, for a generic cubic coupling to additional environment degrees of freedom. Focusing on the case of minimal gravitational interactions, we find the evolution of the reduced density matrix for a given long-wavelength fluctuation by tracing out the other (mostly shorterwavelength) modes of $\\zeta$ as an environment. We show that inflation produces phase oscillations in the wave functional $\\Psi[\\zeta(\\mathbf{x})]$, which suppress off-diagonal components of the reduced density matrix, leaving a diagonal mixture of different classical configurations. Gravitational nonlinearities thus provide a minimal mechanism for generating classical stochastic perturbations from inflation. We identify the time when decoherence occurs, which is delayed after horizon cross...

  17. Dust-acoustic solitary waves and shocks in strongly coupled quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves and shocks in a strongly coupled dusty plasma consisting of intertialess electrons and ions, and strongly coupled inertial charged dust particles. A generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model with the effects of electrostatic dust pressure associated with the strong coupling of dust particles, and a quantum hydrodynamic model with the effects of quantum forces associated with the Bohm potential and the exchange-correlation potential for electrons and ions are considered. Both the linear and weakly nonlinear theory of DA waves are studied by the derivation and analysis of dispersion relations as well as Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and KdV-Burgers (KdVB)-like equations. It is shown that in the kinetic regime ($\\omega\\tau_m\\gg1$, where $\\omega$ is the wave frequency and $\\tau_m$ is the viscoelastic relaxtation time), the amplitude of the DA solitary waves decays slowly with time with the effect of a small amount of dus...

  18. Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via quantum interference from spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadpour, S.H., E-mail: S.Hosein.Asadpour@gmail.com [Young Researchers Club, Bandar Anzali Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahrai, M. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, A. [School of Engineering and Emerging Technologies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedi, H.R. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-02

    A novel atom configuration is proposed for a giant Kerr nonlinearity in zero linear and nonlinear probe absorption. It is shown that without coherent control field and just by quantum interference of spontaneous emission, a giant Kerr nonlinearity can be obtained. -- Highlights: ► The quantum interference from spontaneous emission is considered in a four-level medium. ► The giant Kerr nonlinearity in the zero linear and nonlinear absorption is obtained. ► The quantum interference effect on group velocity is then investigated.

  19. Quantum dust collapse in 2+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Souvik; Wijewardhana, L C R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will examine the consequence of a canonical theory of quantum dust collapse in 2+1 dimensions. The solution of the WDW equation describing the collapse indicates that collapsing shells outside the apparent horizon are accompanied by outgoing shells within the apparent horizon during their collapse phase and stop collapsing once they reach the apparent horizon. Taking this picture of quantum collapse seriously, we determine a static solution with energy density corresponding to a dust ball whose collapse has terminated at the apparent horizon. We show that the boundary radius of the ball is larger than the BTZ radius confirming that no event horizon is formed. The ball is sustained by radial pressure which we determine and which we attribute to the Unruh radiation within it.

  20. Quantum dust magnetosonic waves with spin and exchange correlation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroof, R.; Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-15

    Dust magnetosonic waves are studied in degenerate dusty plasmas with spin and exchange correlation effects. Using the fluid equations of magnetoplasma with quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential, temperature degeneracy, spin magnetization energy, and exchange correlation, a generalized dispersion relation is derived. Spin effects are incorporated via spin force and macroscopic spin magnetization current. The exchange-correlation potentials are used, based on the adiabatic local-density approximation, and can be described as a function of the electron density. For three different values of angle, the dispersion relation is reduced to three different modes under the low frequency magnetohydrodynamic assumptions. It is found that the effects of quantum corrections in the presence of dust concentration significantly modify the dispersive properties of these modes. The results are useful for understanding numerous collective phenomena in quantum plasmas, such as those in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the cores of white dwarf stars and giant planets) and in plasma-assisted nanotechnology (e.g., quantum diodes, quantum free-electron lasers, etc.)

  1. Dust-ion acoustic cnoidal waves and associated nonlinear ion flux in a nonthermal dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.

    2016-09-01

    The dust-ion acoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are investigated in a dusty plasma containing dynamic cold ions, superthermal kappa distributed electrons and static charged dust particles. The massive dust particles can have positive or negative charge depending on the plasma environment. Using reductive perturbation method (RPM) with appropriate periodic boundary conditions, the evolution equations for the first and second order nonlinear potentials are derived. The first order potential is determined through Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which gives dust-ion acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons structures. The solution of second order nonlinear potential is obtained through an inhomogeneous differential equation derived from collecting higher order terms of dynamic equations, which is linear for second order electrostatic potential. The nonlinear ion flux associated with the cnoidal waves is also found out numerically. The numerical plots of the dust-ion acoustic cnoidal wave and soliton structures for both positively and negatively charged dust particles cases and nonthermal electrons are also presented for illustration. It is found that only compressive nonlinear electrostatic structures are formed in case of positively dust charged particles while both compressive and rarefactive nonlinear structures are obtained in case of negatively charged particles depending on the negatively charged dust density in a nonthermal dusty plasma. The numerical results are obtained using data of the ionospheric region containing dusty plasma exist in the literature.

  2. Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Artificially Structured Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helt, Lukas Gordon

    This thesis presents an analysis of photon pairs generated via either spontaneous parametric downconversion or spontaneous four-wave mixing in channel waveguides as well as in microring resonators side-coupled to channel waveguides. The state of photons exiting a particular device is calculated within a general Hamiltonian formalism that simplifies the link between quantum nonlinear optics experiments and classical nonlinear optics experiments. This state contains information regarding photon pair production efficiency as well as modal and spectral correlations between the two photons, characterized by a two-dimensional spectral distribution function called the biphoton wave function. In the limit of a low probability of pair production, photon pair production efficiencies are cast into forms resembling corresponding well-known classical nonlinear optical frequency conversion efficiencies, making it easy to see what plays the role of a classical "seed" field in an un-seeded (quantum) process. This also allows photon pair production efficiencies to be calculated based on the results of classical nonlinear optical experiments. It is further calculated that, unless generated photons are collected over a very narrow frequency range, their generation efficiency does not scale the same way with device length in a channel waveguide, or resonance quality factor in a microring resonator, as might be expected from the corresponding classical frequency conversion efficiency. Although calculations do not include self- or cross-phase modulation, nor two-photon absorption or free-carrier absorption, it is calculated that their neglect is justified in the low pair production probability limit. Linear (scattering) loss is also neglected, though partially addressed in the final chapter of this thesis. Biphoton wave functions are calculated explicitly, such that their shape and orientation, including approximate analytic expressions for their widths, can easily be determined. This

  3. Quantum Size- Dependent Third- Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ting; XIONG Gui-guang

    2005-01-01

    The density matrix approach has been employed to investigate the optical nonlinear polarization in a single semiconductor quantum dot(QD). Electron states are considered to be confined within a quantum dot with infinite potential barriers. It is shown, by numerical calculation, that the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for a typical Si quantum dot is dependent on the quantum size of the quantum dot and the frequency of incident light.

  4. Effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation in a complex plasma with negative equilibrium dust charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Subrata; Ghosh, Uttam; Sarkar, Susmita

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves in a complex plasma where equilibrium dust charge is negative. The primary electrons, secondary electrons, and ions are Boltzmann distributed, and only dust grains are inertial. Electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions have been neglected with the assumption that electron and ion mean free paths are very large compared to the plasma Debye length. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic dust charge variations have been separately taken into account. In the case of adiabatic dust charge variation, nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves is governed by the KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation, whereas for nonadiabatic dust charge variation, it is governed by the KdV-Burger equation. The solution of the KdV equation gives a dust acoustic soliton, whose amplitude and width depend on the secondary electron yield. Similarly, the KdV-Burger equation provides a dust acoustic shock wave. This dust acoustic shock wave may be monotonic or oscillatory in nature depending on the fact that whether it is dissipation dominated or dispersion dominated. Our analysis shows that secondary electron emission increases nonadiabaticity induced dissipation and consequently increases the monotonicity of the dust acoustic shock wave. Such a dust acoustic shock wave may accelerate charge particles and cause bremsstrahlung radiation in space plasmas whose physical process may be affected by secondary electron emission from dust grains. The effect of the secondary electron emission on the stability of the equilibrium points of the KdV-Burger equation has also been investigated. This equation has two equilibrium points. The trivial equilibrium point with zero potential is a saddle and hence unstable in nature. The nontrivial equilibrium point with constant nonzero potential is a stable node up to a critical value of the wave velocity and a stable focus above it. This critical

  5. Effect of nonthermal ion distribution and dust temperature on nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Annou; R Annou

    2012-01-01

    Dust-acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are inertial charged dust grains, Boltzmannian electrons and nonthermal ions have been investigated by taking into account finite dust temperature. The pseudopotential has been used to study solitary solution. The existence of solitary waves having negative potential is reported.

  6. Optimal state discrimination and unstructured search in nonlinear quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andrew M.; Young, Joshua

    2016-02-01

    Nonlinear variants of quantum mechanics can solve tasks that are impossible in standard quantum theory, such as perfectly distinguishing nonorthogonal states. Here we derive the optimal protocol for distinguishing two states of a qubit using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a model of nonlinear quantum mechanics that arises as an effective description of Bose-Einstein condensates. Using this protocol, we present an algorithm for unstructured search in the Gross-Pitaevskii model, obtaining an exponential improvement over a previous algorithm of Meyer and Wong. This result establishes a limitation on the effectiveness of the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. More generally, we demonstrate similar behavior under a family of related nonlinearities, giving evidence that the ability to quickly discriminate nonorthogonal states and thereby solve unstructured search is a generic feature of nonlinear quantum mechanics.

  7. Kinematic dust viscosity effect on linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in space dusty plasmas with nonthermal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hanbaly, A. M.; Sallah, M., E-mail: msallahd@mans.edu.eg [Mansoura University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K. [Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Department of Physics (Saudi Arabia); Darweesh, H. F. [Mansoura University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Egypt)

    2015-10-15

    Linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves are studied in a collisionless, unmagnetized and dissipative dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged dust grains, Boltzmann-distributed electrons, and nonthermal ions. The normal mode analysis is used to obtain a linear dispersion relation illustrating the dependence of the wave damping rate on the carrier wave number, the dust viscosity coefficient, the ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperatures, and the nonthermal parameter. The plasma system is analyzed nonlinearly via the reductive perturbation method that gives the KdV-Burgers equation. Some interesting physical solutions are obtained to study the nonlinear waves. These solutions are related to soliton, a combination between a shock and a soliton, and monotonic and oscillatory shock waves. Their behaviors are illustrated and shown graphically. The characteristics of the DA solitary and shock waves are significantly modified by the presence of nonthermal (fast) ions, the ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperature, and the dust kinematic viscosity. The topology of the phase portrait and the potential diagram of the KdV-Burgers equation is illustrated, whose advantage is the ability to predict different classes of traveling wave solutions according to different phase orbits. The energy of the soliton wave and the electric field are calculated. The results in this paper can be generalized to analyze the nature of plasma waves in both space and laboratory plasma systems.

  8. Virial Theorem for a Class of Quantum Nonlinear Harmonic Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪红; 郭军义; 李艳

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the Virial Theorem based on a class of quantum nonlinear harmonic oscillators is presented.This relationship has to do with parameter λ and ?/?λ,where the λ is a real number.When λ=0,the nonlinear harmonic oscillator naturally reduces to the usual quantum linear harmonic oscillator,and the Virial Theorem also reduces to the usual Virial Theorem.

  9. Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato

    2016-02-22

    The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence.

  10. Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hayato

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence.

  11. Simulation of an optomechanical quantum memory in the nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, R. Y.; Kiesewetter, S.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.

    2017-07-01

    Optomechanical systems cooled to the quantum level provide a promising mechanism for a high-fidelity quantum memory that is faithful to a given temporal mode structure, and can be recovered synchronously. We carry out full, probabilistic quantum simulation of a quantum optomechanical memory, including nonlinear effects that are usually ignored. This is achieved using both the approximate truncated Wigner and the exact positive P phase-space representations. By considering the nonlinear quantum optomechanical Hamiltonian, our simulations allow us to probe the regime where the linearization approximation fails to hold. We show evidence for large spectral overlap between the quantum signal and the transfer field in typical optomechanical quantum memory experiments. Methods for eliminating this overlap to accurately recover the quantum signal are discussed. This allows us to give a complete model for the quantum storage of a coherent state. We treat the mode matching that is necessary to accurately retrieve the stored quantum state, by including the internal dynamics of the mechanical system as well as the optical system. We also include the finite switching time of the control transfer field. The fidelity for the storage of a coherent state is computed numerically using currently realistic experimental parameters in the electromechanical case. We find the expected fidelity is lower than required to demonstrate true quantum state transfers. Significant improvements in the quality factor of the cavity and mechanical systems will, however, increase the fidelity beyond the quantum threshold.

  12. Quantum Nanoantennas for Making Nonlinear and Self-Modulatable Metasurface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Pai Yen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the plasmonic nanodipole antenna with sub-microscopic nanogap. Relevant quantum conductivities, including linear and nonlinear components, are observed due to the photon-assisted quantum tunneling, realizing optical nano-radiators with enhanced amplitude and frequency modulations. © 2015 OSA.

  13. Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in a Quantum Artificial Economy

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Chaos and nonlinear economic dynamics are addressed for a quantum coupled map lattice model of an artificial economy, with quantized supply and demand equilibrium conditions. The measure theoretic properties and the patterns that emerge in both the economic business volume dynamics' diagrams as well as in the quantum mean field averages are addressed and conclusions are drawn in regards to the application of quantum chaos theory to address signatures of chaotic dynamics in relevant discrete economic state variables.

  14. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with arbitrarily charged dust and trapped electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Rahman; A A Mamun

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical investigation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) waves is governed by a nonlinear equation of modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) type (instead of KdV). The reductive perturbation method was employed to study the basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of DA solitary waves which are significantly modified by the presence of trapped electrons. The implications of our results in space and laboratory plasmas are briefly discussed.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics and quantum entanglement in optomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2014-03-21

    To search for and exploit quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear dynamics is one of the most fundamental problems in physics. Using optomechanical systems as a paradigm, we address this problem from the perspective of quantum entanglement. We uncover strong fingerprints in the quantum entanglement of two common types of classical nonlinear dynamical behaviors: periodic oscillations and quasiperiodic motion. There is a transition from the former to the latter as an experimentally adjustable parameter is changed through a critical value. Accompanying this process, except for a small region about the critical value, the degree of quantum entanglement shows a trend of continuous increase. The time evolution of the entanglement measure, e.g., logarithmic negativity, exhibits a strong dependence on the nature of classical nonlinear dynamics, constituting its signature.

  16. Nonlinear fiber optics formerly quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    1995-01-01

    The field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown substantially since the First Edition of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, published in 1989. Like the First Edition, this Second Edition is a comprehensive, tutorial, and up-to-date account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes widely scattered research material and presents it in an accessible manner for students and researchers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of nonlinear fiber optics. Particular attention is paid to the importance of nonlinear effects in the design of optical fiber communication systems. This is

  17. Dust-lower-hybrid instability with fluctuating charge in quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, M.; Ali, M.; Rasheed, A.; Zubia, K.; Salimullah, M.

    2015-03-01

    The instability of Dust-Lower-Hybrid (DLH) wave is examined in detail in the uniform dusty magnetoplasmas. The time dependent charging effects on dust particles around its equilibrium charge Qd0 are taken into account based on Orbit-Limited Probe theory. The quantum characteristics of the system like Bohm potential and Fermi degenerate pressure are dealt using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas. The external magnetic field and size of the dust particles have new physical effects over the dissipative instability of DLH wave in the quantum plasma regime.

  18. Dust-lower-hybrid instability with fluctuating charge in quantum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ali, M. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, NUST, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Rasheed, A. [Department of Physics, GC University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Zubia, K. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salimullah, M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh)

    2015-03-15

    The instability of Dust-Lower-Hybrid (DLH) wave is examined in detail in the uniform dusty magnetoplasmas. The time dependent charging effects on dust particles around its equilibrium charge Q{sub d0} are taken into account based on Orbit-Limited Probe theory. The quantum characteristics of the system like Bohm potential and Fermi degenerate pressure are dealt using the quantum hydrodynamic model of plasmas. The external magnetic field and size of the dust particles have new physical effects over the dissipative instability of DLH wave in the quantum plasma regime.

  19. Quantum Arnol'd Diffusion in a Simple Nonlinear System

    CERN Document Server

    Demikhovskii, V Y; Malyshev, A I

    2002-01-01

    We study the fingerprint of the Arnol'd diffusion in a quantum system of two coupled nonlinear oscillators with a two-frequency external force. In the classical description, this peculiar diffusion is due to the onset of a weak chaos in a narrow stochastic layer near the separatrix of the coupling resonance. We have found that global dependence of the quantum diffusion coefficient on model parameters mimics, to some extent, the classical data. However, the quantum diffusion happens to be slower that the classical one. Another result is the dynamical localization that leads to a saturation of the diffusion after some characteristic time. We show that this effect has the same nature as for the studied earlier dynamical localization in the presence of global chaos. The quantum Arnol'd diffusion represents a new type of quantum dynamics and can be observed, for example, in 2D semiconductor structures (quantum billiards) perturbed by time-periodic external fields.

  20. Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic field with quantum plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with quantum collisionless plasma is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in quantum collisionless plasma at any temperature are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal classical current, received at the classical linear analysis. The case of degenerate electronic plasma is considered. It is shown, that for degenerate plasmas the electric current is calculated under the formula, not containing quadratures.

  1. UV Nano Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0072 UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling Eric Waclawik QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 06...Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)  03 Feb 2014 to 02 Feb 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling 5a...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4056 5c.   PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6.  AUTHOR(S) Eric Waclawik 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f

  2. Nonlinear laser dynamics from quantum dots to cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdge, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    A distinctive discussion of the nonlinear dynamical phenomena of semiconductor lasers. The book combines recent results of quantum dot laser modeling with mathematical details and an analytic understanding of nonlinear phenomena in semiconductor lasers and points out possible applications of lasers in cryptography and chaos control. This interdisciplinary approach makes it a unique and powerful source of knowledge for anyone intending to contribute to this field of research.By presenting both experimental and theoretical results, the distinguished authors consider solitary lase

  3. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Springs and Their Nonclassical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J. Faghihi; M.K. Tavassoly

    2011-01-01

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states ofanother system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of ω to ω √1+ μα+α the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper, we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring with particular attention to the dependence or trequency to the intensity of radiation field that naturally observes in the nonlinear coherent states, from which we arrive at a physical system has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring. Then, after the introduction of the generalized tlamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters, as particular quantum features, will be revealed.

  4. Quantum corrections to nonlinear ion acoustic wave with Landau damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M. S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India); Bose, Anirban [Serampore College, West Bengal (India)

    2014-07-15

    Quantum corrections to nonlinear ion acoustic wave with Landau damping have been computed using Wigner equation approach. The dynamical equation governing the time development of nonlinear ion acoustic wave with semiclassical quantum corrections is shown to have the form of higher KdV equation which has higher order nonlinear terms coming from quantum corrections, with the usual classical and quantum corrected Landau damping integral terms. The conservation of total number of ions is shown from the evolution equation. The decay rate of KdV solitary wave amplitude due to the presence of Landau damping terms has been calculated assuming the Landau damping parameter α{sub 1}=√(m{sub e}/m{sub i}) to be of the same order of the quantum parameter Q=ℏ{sup 2}/(24m{sup 2}c{sub s}{sup 2}L{sup 2}). The amplitude is shown to decay very slowly with time as determined by the quantum factor Q.

  5. Higher order nonlinearity and synchronization of quantum cascade lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taraprasad Chattopadhyay; Prosenjit Bhattacharyya

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form analysis of the synchronization phenomenon of the quantum cascade laser (QCL). The analysis has been made with considering higher order nonlinearity of the modal gain of the QCL. The frequency response characteristics of the synchronized QCL along with the stability of the locked state, the effect of nonlinearity on the lockband of the QCL and the amplitude limiting action of the locked QCL have been calculated. The analysis demonstrates the effect of higher order nonlinearity on the properties of the synchronized QCL.

  6. Terahertz Quantum Plasmonics of Nanoslot Antennas in Nonlinear Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Yeon; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Joohyun; Bahk, Young-Mi; Kim, Won Tae; Rhie, Jiyeah; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2015-10-14

    Quantum tunneling in plasmonic nanostructures has presented an interesting aspect of incorporating quantum mechanics into classical optics. However, the study has been limited to the subnanometer gap regime. Here, we newly extend quantum plasmonics to gap widths well over 1 nm by taking advantage of the low-frequency terahertz regime. Enhanced electric fields of up to 5 V/nm induce tunneling of electrons in different arrays of ring-shaped nanoslot antennas of gap widths from 1.5 to 10 nm, which lead to a significant nonlinear transmission decrease. These observations are consistent with theoretical calculations considering terahertz-funneling-induced electron tunneling across the gap.

  7. Head-on collision of dust-ion-acoustic solitons in electron-dust-ion quantum plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasanta Chatterjee; Malay Kumar Ghorui; Rajkumar Roychoudhury

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we study the head-on collision between two dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) solitons in quantum electron-dust-ion plasma. Using the extended Poincaré–Lighthill–Kuo (PLK) method, we obtain the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equations, the phase shifts and the trajectories after the head-on collision of the two DIA solitons. We investigate the effect of quantum diffraction parameters for electrons and ions $(H_{e}, H_{i})$, the Fermi temperature ratio () and the dust charged number density (d0) on the phase shifts. Different values of = d0(d0/i0) and d = d0(i/d) are taken to discuss the effects on phase shifts, where d0 denotes the dust charge number, j0 represents the equilibrium number density and is the mass of the jth species ( = , , for electrons, ions and dust particles, respectively). It is observed that the phase shifts are significantly affected by the plasma parameters.

  8. Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Optomechanical Nanoscale Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zoubi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of achieving a significant nonlinear phase shift among photons propagating in nanoscale waveguides exploiting interactions among photons that are mediated by vibrational modes and induced through Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). We introduce a configuration that allows slowing down the photons by several orders of magnitude via SBS involving sound waves and two pump fields. We extract the conditions for maintaining vanishing amplitude gain or loss for slowly propagating photons while keeping the influence of thermal phonons to the minimum. The nonlinear phase among two counter-propagating photons can be used to realize a deterministic phase gate.

  9. Nonlinear quantum mechanics, the superposition principle, and the quantum measurement problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kinjalk Lochan; T P Singh

    2011-01-01

    There are four reasons why our present knowledge and understanding of quantum mechanics can be regarded as incomplete. (1) The principle of linear superposition has not been experimentally tested for position eigenstates of objects having more than about a thousand atoms. (2) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the process of quantum measurement. (3) There is no universally agreed upon explanation for the observed fact that macroscopic objects are not found in superposition of position eigenstates. (4) Most importantly, the concept of time is classical and hence external to quantum mechanics: there should exist an equivalent reformulation of the theory which does not refer to an external classical time. In this paper we argue that such a reformulation is the limiting case of a nonlinear quantum theory, with the nonlinearity becoming important at the Planck mass scale. Such a nonlinearity can provide insights into the aforesaid problems. We use a physically motivated model for a nonlinear Schr ¨odinger equation to show that nonlinearity can help in understanding quantum measurement. We also show that while the principle of linear superposition holds to a very high accuracy for atomic systems, the lifetime of a quantum superposition becomes progressively smaller, as one goes from microscopic to macroscopic objects. This can explain the observed absence of position superpositions in macroscopic objects (lifetime is too small). It also suggests that ongoing laboratory experiments may be able to detect the finite superposition lifetime for mesoscopic objects in the near future.

  10. Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Marquardt, Christoph; Matsko, Andrey B.; Schwefel, Harald G. L.; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-12-01

    Optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon has a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves. It enables resonators of unique properties attractive both in science and engineering. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range spanning from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.

  11. Nonlinear and Quantum Optics with Whispering Gallery Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Matsko, Andrey B; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) derive their name from a famous acoustic phenomenon of guiding a wave by a curved boundary observed nearly a century ago. This phenomenon was later realized to have a rather general nature, equally applicable to sound and all other waves, but in particular also to electromagnetic waves ranging from radio frequencies to ultraviolet light. Very high quality factors of optical WGM resonators persisting in a wide wavelength range, their small mode volume, and tunable in- and out- coupling make them exceptionally efficient for nonlinear optical applications. Nonlinear optics facilitates interaction of photons with each other and with other physical systems, and is of prime importance in quantum optics. In this paper we review numerous applications of WGM resonators in nonlinear and quantum optics. We outline the current areas of interest, summarize progress, highlight difficulties, and discuss possible future development trends in these areas.

  12. An exactly solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States); Morris, J. R. [Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states.

  13. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.

    2013-08-05

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  14. Nonlinear optical signals and spectroscopy with quantum light

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-01-01

    Conventional nonlinear spectroscopy uses classical light to detect matter properties through the variation of its response with frequencies or time delays. Quantum light opens up new avenues for spectroscopy by utilizing parameters of the quantum state of light as novel control knobs and through the variation of photon statistics by coupling to matter. We present an intuitive diagrammatic approach for calculating ultrafast spectroscopy signals induced by quantum light, focusing on applications involving entangled photons with nonclassical bandwidth properties - known as "time-energy entanglement". Nonlinear optical signals induced by quantized light fields are expressed using time ordered multipoint correlation functions of superoperators. These are different from Glauber's g- functions for photon counting which use normally ordered products of ordinary operators. Entangled photon pairs are not subjected to the classical Fourier limitations on the joint temporal and spectral resolution. After a brief survey o...

  15. Nonlinear effects in the bounded dust-vortex flow in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishram, Modhuchandra; Sharma, Devendra; Chattopdhyay, Prabal K.; Kaw, Predhiman K.

    2017-03-01

    The vortex structures in a cloud of electrically suspended dust in a streaming plasma constitutes a driven system with a rich nonlinear flow regime. Experimentally recovered toroidal formations of this system have motivated study of its volumetrically driven-dissipative vortex flow dynamics using two-dimensional hydrodynamics in the incompressible Navier-Stokes regime. Nonlinear equilibrium solutions are obtained for this system where a nonuniformly driven two-dimensional dust flow exhibits distinct regions of localized accelerations and strong friction caused by stationary fluids at the confining boundaries resisting the dust flow. In agreement with observations in experiments, it is demonstrated that the nonlinear effects appear in the limit of small viscosity, where the primary vortices form scaling with the most dominant spatial scales of the domain topology and develop separated virtual boundaries along their periphery. This separation is triggered beyond a critical dust viscosity that signifies a structural bifurcation. Emergence of uniform vorticity core and secondary vortices with a newer level of identical dynamics highlights the applicability of the studied dynamics to gigantic vortex flows, such as the Jovian great red spot, to microscopic biophysical intracellular activity.

  16. Experimental study of nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K

    2008-01-01

    The excitation and propagation of finite amplitude low frequency solitary waves are investigated in an Argon plasma impregnated with kaolin dust particles. A nonlinear longitudinal dust acoustic solitary wave is excited by pulse modulating the discharge voltage with a negative potential. It is found that the velocity of the solitary wave increases and the width decreases with the increase of the modulating voltage, but the product of the solitary wave amplitude and the square of the width remains nearly constant. The experimental findings are compared with analytic soliton solutions of a model Kortweg-de Vries equation.

  17. Nonlinear nanomechanical resonators for quantum optoelectromechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rips, S; Hartmann, M J

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for enhancing the anharmonicity of nanomechanical resonators by subjecting them to inhomogenous electrostatic fields. We show that this approach enables access to a novel regime of optomechanics, where the nonlinearity per quanta of the mechanical motion becomes comparable to the linewidth of the optical cavities employed. In this "resolved nonlinearity regime" transitions between phonon Fock states of the mechanical resonator can be selectively addressed. As one application we show that our approach would allow to prepare stationary phonon Fock states in experimentally realistic devices. Such states are manifestly non-classical as they show pronounced negative Wigner functions. We calculate the mechanical steady state by tracing out the cavity modes in the weak optomechanical coupling limit and corroborate our results by a numerical analysis of the full dynamics including the cavity modes. Finally, we show how the negativity of the stationary states' Wigner function can be read off the ou...

  18. Quantum theory of nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vivek M

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger model is quantised and exactly solved using the canonical framework. It is found that the usual canonical quantisation of the model leads to a theory with pathological inner product. This problem is resolved by constructing another inner product over the vector space of the theory. The resultant theory is found to be identical to that of nonrelativistic bosons with delta function interaction potential, devoid of any nonlocality. The exact eigenstates are found using the Bethe ansatz technique.

  19. The Causal Interpretation of Dust and Radiation Fluids Non-Singular Quantum Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    De Barros, J A; Sagioro-Leal, M A

    1998-01-01

    We apply the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics to homogeneous and isotropic quantum cosmology where the sources of the gravitational field are either dust or radiation perfect fluids. We find non-singular quantum trajectories which tends to the classical one when the scale factor becomes much larger then the Planck length. In this situation, the quantum potential becomes negligible. There are no horizons. As radiation is a good approximation for the matter content of the early universe, this result suggests that the universe can be eternal due to quantum effects.

  20. Quantum annealing with all-to-all connected nonlinear oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puri, Shruti; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Grimsmo, Arne L.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum annealing aims at solving combinatorial optimization problems mapped to Ising interactions between quantum spins. Here, with the objective of developing a noise-resilient annealer, we propose a paradigm for quantum annealing with a scalable network of two-photon-driven Kerr......-nonlinear resonators. Each resonator encodes an Ising spin in a robust degenerate subspace formed by two coherent states of opposite phases. A fully connected optimization problem is mapped to local fields driving the resonators, which are connected with only local four-body interactions. We describe an adiabatic...... annealing protocol in this system and analyse its performance in the presence of photon loss. Numerical simulations indicate substantial resilience to this noise channel, leading to a high success probability for quantum annealing. Finally, we propose a realistic circuit QED implementation of this promising...

  1. Characteristics of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma with effect of adiabatic and nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raicharan Denra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, characteristics of small amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated in a unmagnetized, collisionless, Lorentzian dusty plasma where electrons and ions are inertialess and modeled by generalized Lorentzian Kappa distribution. Dust grains are inertial and equilibrium dust charge is negative. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuation of charges on dust grains have been taken under consideration. For adiabatic dust charge variation reductive perturbation analysis gives rise to a KdV equation that governs the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves having soliton solutions. For nonadiabatic dust charge variation nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic wave obeys KdV-Burger equation and gives rise to dust acoustic shock waves. Numerical estimation for adiabatic grain charge variation shows the existence of rarefied soliton whose amplitude and width varies with grain charges. Amplitude and width of the soliton have been plotted for different electron Kappa indices keeping ion velocity distribution Maxwellian. For non adiabatic dust charge variation, ratio of the coefficients of Burger term and dispersion term have been plotted against charge fluctuation for different kappa indices. All these results approach to the results of Maxwellian plasma if both electron and ion kappa tends to infinity.

  2. Characteristics of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma with effect of adiabatic and nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denra, Raicharan; Paul, Samit; Sarkar, Susmita

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, characteristics of small amplitude nonlinear dust acoustic wave have been investigated in a unmagnetized, collisionless, Lorentzian dusty plasma where electrons and ions are inertialess and modeled by generalized Lorentzian Kappa distribution. Dust grains are inertial and equilibrium dust charge is negative. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuation of charges on dust grains have been taken under consideration. For adiabatic dust charge variation reductive perturbation analysis gives rise to a KdV equation that governs the nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves having soliton solutions. For nonadiabatic dust charge variation nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic wave obeys KdV-Burger equation and gives rise to dust acoustic shock waves. Numerical estimation for adiabatic grain charge variation shows the existence of rarefied soliton whose amplitude and width varies with grain charges. Amplitude and width of the soliton have been plotted for different electron Kappa indices keeping ion velocity distribution Maxwellian. For non adiabatic dust charge variation, ratio of the coefficients of Burger term and dispersion term have been plotted against charge fluctuation for different kappa indices. All these results approach to the results of Maxwellian plasma if both electron and ion kappa tends to infinity.

  3. Optical Nonlinearities and Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, V.; McBranch, D.; Schwarz, C.

    1998-08-10

    Low-dimensional semiconductors have attracted great interest due to the potential for tailoring their linear and nonlinear optical properties over a wide-range. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC's) represent a class of quasi-zero-dimensional objects or quantum dots. Due to quantum cordhement and a large surface-to-volume ratio, the linear and nonlinear optical properties, and the carrier dynamics in NC's are significantly different horn those in bulk materials. napping at surface states can lead to a fast depopulation of quantized states, accompanied by charge separation and generation of local fields which significantly modifies the nonlinear optical response in NC's. 3D carrier confinement also has a drastic effect on the energy relaxation dynamics. In strongly confined NC's, the energy-level spacing can greatly exceed typical phonon energies. This has been expected to significantly inhibit phonon-related mechanisms for energy losses, an effect referred to as a phonon bottleneck. It has been suggested recently that the phonon bottleneck in 3D-confined systems can be removed due to enhanced role of Auger-type interactions. In this paper we report femtosecond (fs) studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities, and energy relaxation and trap ping dynamics in three types of quantum-dot systems: semiconductor NC/glass composites made by high temperature precipitation, ion-implanted NC's, and colloidal NC'S. Comparison of ultrafast data for different samples allows us to separate effects being intrinsic to quantum dots from those related to lattice imperfections and interface properties.

  4. Entanglement Dynamics of Quantum Oscillators Nonlinearly Coupled to Thermal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Voje, Aurora; Croy, Alexander; Isacsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study the asymptotic entanglement of two quantum harmonic oscillators nonlinearly coupled to an environment. Coupling to independent baths and a common bath are investigated. Numerical results obtained using the Wangsness-Bloch-Redfield method are supplemented by analytical results in the rotating wave approximation. The asymptotic negativity as function of temperature, initial squeezing and coupling strength, is compared to results for systems with linear system-reservoir coupling. We fin...

  5. Measurement-Induced Strong Kerr Nonlinearity for Weak Quantum States of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Luca S.; Coelho, Antonio S.; Biagi, Nicola; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Bellini, Marco; Zavatta, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Strong nonlinearity at the single photon level represents a crucial enabling tool for optical quantum technologies. Here we report on experimental implementation of a strong Kerr nonlinearity by measurement-induced quantum operations on weak quantum states of light. Our scheme coherently combines two sequences of single photon addition and subtraction to induce a nonlinear phase shift at the single photon level. We probe the induced nonlinearity with weak coherent states and characterize the output non-Gaussian states with quantum state tomography. The strong nonlinearity is clearly witnessed as a change of sign of specific off-diagonal density matrix elements in the Fock basis.

  6. Interplay between dissipation and driving in nonlinear quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierheilig, Carmen

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis we investigate the interplay between dissipation and driving in nonlinear quantum systems for a special setup: a flux qubit read out by a DC-SQUID - a nonlinear quantum oscillator. The latter is embedded in a harmonic bath, thereby mediating dissipation to the qubit. Two different approaches are elaborated: First we consider a composite qubit-SQUID system and add the bath afterwards. We derive analytical expressions for its eigenstates beyond rotating wave approximation (RWA), by applying Van Vleck perturbation theory (VVPT) in the qubit-oscillator coupling. The second approach is an effective bath approach based on a mapping procedure, where SQUID and bath form an effective bath seen by the qubit. Here the qubit dynamics is obtained by applying standard procedures established for the spin-boson problem. This approach requires the knowledge of the steady-state response of the dissipative Duffing oscillator, which is studied within a resonant and an offresonant approach: The first is applicable near and at an N-photon resonance using VVPT beyond a RWA. The second is based on the exact Floquet states of the nonlinear driven oscillator. The dissipative qubit dynamics is described analytically for weak system-bath coupling and agrees well for both approaches. We derive the effect of the nonlinearity on the qubit dynamics, on the Bloch-Siegert shift and on the vacuum Rabi splitting. (orig.)

  7. Deterministic quantum nonlinear optics with single atoms and virtual photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockum, Anton Frisk; Miranowicz, Adam; Macrı, Vincenzo; Savasta, Salvatore; Nori, Franco

    2017-06-01

    We show how analogs of a large number of well-known nonlinear-optics phenomena can be realized with one or more two-level atoms coupled to one or more resonator modes. Through higher-order processes, where virtual photons are created and annihilated, an effective deterministic coupling between two states of such a system can be created. In this way, analogs of three-wave mixing, four-wave mixing, higher-harmonic and -subharmonic generation (i.e., up- and down-conversion), multiphoton absorption, parametric amplification, Raman and hyper-Raman scattering, the Kerr effect, and other nonlinear processes can be realized. In contrast to most conventional implementations of nonlinear optics, these analogs can reach unit efficiency, only use a minimal number of photons (they do not require any strong external drive), and do not require more than two atomic levels. The strength of the effective coupling in our proposed setups becomes weaker the more intermediate transition steps are needed. However, given the recent experimental progress in ultrastrong light-matter coupling and improvement of coherence times for engineered quantum systems, especially in the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics, we estimate that many of these nonlinear-optics analogs can be realized with currently available technology.

  8. Modified Semi-Classical Methods for Nonlinear Quantum Oscillations Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Moncrief, Vincent; Maitra, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    We develop a modified semi-classical approach to the approximate solution of Schrodinger's equation for certain nonlinear quantum oscillations problems. At lowest order, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the conventional semi-classical formalism is replaced by an inverted-potential-vanishing-energy variant thereof. Under smoothness, convexity and coercivity hypotheses on its potential energy function, we prove, using the calculus of variations together with the Banach space implicit function theorem, the existence of a global, smooth `fundamental solution'. Higher order quantum corrections, for ground and excited states, are computed through the integration of associated systems of linear transport equations, and formal expansions for the corresponding energy eigenvalues obtained by imposing smoothness on the quantum corrections to the eigenfunctions. For linear oscillators our expansions naturally truncate, reproducing the well-known solutions for the energy eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. As an application, w...

  9. Nonlinear double Compton scattering in the full quantum regime

    CERN Document Server

    Mackenroth, F

    2012-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the process of two photon emission by an electron scattered from a high-intensity laser pulse is presented. The calculations are performed in the framework of strong-field QED and include exactly the presence of the laser field, described as a plane wave. We investigate the full quantum regime of interaction, where photon recoil plays an essential role in the emission process, and substantially alters the emitted photon spectra as compared to those in previously-studied regimes. We provide a semiclassical explanation for such differences, based on the possibility of assigning a trajectory to the electron in the laser field before and after each quantum photon emission. Our numerical results indicate the feasibility of investigating experimentally the full quantum regime of nonlinear double Compton scattering with already available plasma-based electron accelerator and laser technology.

  10. Quantum noise in large-scale coherent nonlinear photonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Santori, Charles; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Tezak, Nikolas; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A netlist-based circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important...

  11. Dust-acoustic solitons in quantum plasma with kappa-distributed ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehran Shahmansouri

    2013-02-01

    Arbitrary amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves in an unmagnetized and collisionless quantum dusty plasma comprising cold dust particles, kappa ()-distributed ions and degenerate electrons are investigated. The influence of suprathermality and quantum effects on the linear dispersion relation of DA waves is investigated. Then, the effect of -distributed ions and degenerate electrons on the existence domain of solitons is discussed in the space of (, ). The comparison of the existence domain for higher and lower values of shows that suprathermality results in propagation of solitons with lower values of Mach number, and the quantum effects, lead to a higher values of Mach number. The existence domain of solitons for nondegenerate -distributed electrons is considered for comparison with effect of degenerate electrons. Also, we found that the Sagdeev potential well becomes deeper and wider as $_{F-i}$ decreases, as for lower values, the influence of quantum effects on the Sagdeev pseudopotential profile is smaller.

  12. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev–Petviashvili dynamic equation in dust-acoustic plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALY R SEADAWY

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive perturbation method, the two-dimensional dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons lead to a KP equation. We derived the solitary travelling wave solutions of the twodimensional nonlinear KP equation by implementing sech–tanh, sinh–cosh, extended direct algebraic and fraction direct algebraicmethods. We found the electrostatic field potential and electric field in the form travellingwave solutions for two-dimensional nonlinear KP equation. The solutions for the KP equation obtained by using these methods can be demonstrated precisely and efficiency. As an illustration, we used the readymade package of $\\it{Mathematica}$ program 10.1 to solve the original problem. These solutions are in good agreement with the analytical one.

  13. Concise quantum associative memories with nonlinear search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchapet Njafa, J.P.; Nana Engo, S.G. [Laboratory of Photonics, Department of Physics, University of Ngaoundere (Cameroon)

    2016-02-15

    The model of Quantum Associative Memories (QAM) we propose here consists in simplifying and generalizing that of Rigui Zhou et al. [1] which uses the quantum matrix with the binary decision diagram put forth by David Rosenbaum [2] and the Abrams and Lloyd's nonlinear search algorithm [3]. Our model gives the possibility to retrieve one of the sought states in multi-values retrieving scheme when a measurement is done on the first register in O(c-r) time complexity. It is better than Grover's algorithm and its modified form which need O(√((2{sup n})/(m))) steps when they are used as the retrieval algorithm. n is the number of qubits of the first register and m the number of x values for which f(x) = 1. As the nonlinearity makes the system highly susceptible to the noise, an analysis of the influence of the single qubit noise channels on the Nonlinear Search Algorithm of our model of QAM shows a fidelity of about 0.7 whatever the number of qubits existing in the first register, thus demonstrating the robustness of our model. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. On Models of Nonlinear Evolution Paths in Adiabatic Quantum Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jie; LU Song-Feng; Samuel L.Braunstein

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study two different nonlinear interpolating paths in adiabatic evolution algorithms for solving a particular class of quantum search problems where both the initial and final Hamiltonian are one-dimensional projector Hamiltonians on the corresponding ground state.If the overlap between the initial state and final state of the quantum system is not equal to zero,both of these models can provide a constant time speedup over the usual adiabatic algorithms by increasing some another corresponding "complexity".But when the initial state has a zero overlap with the solution state in the problem,the second model leads to an infinite time complexity of the algorithm for whatever interpolating functions being applied while the first one can still provide a constant running time.However,inspired by a related reference,a variant of the first model can be constructed which also fails for the problem when the overlap is exactly equal to zero if we want to make up the "intrinsic" fault of the second model — an increase in energy.Two concrete theorems are given to serve as explanations why neither of these two models can improve the usual adiabatic evolution algorithms for the phenomenon above.These just tell us what should be noted when using certain nonlinear evolution paths in adiabatic quantum algorithms for some special kind of problems.

  15. Optimization of optical nonlinearities in quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jing

    Nonlinearities in quantum cascade lasers (QCL's) have wide applications in wavelength tunability and ultra-short pulse generation. In this thesis, optical nonlinearities in InGaAs/AlInAs-based mid-infrared (MIR) QCL's with quadruple resonant levels are investigated. Design optimization for the second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the device is presented. Performance characteristics associated with the third-order nonlinearities are also analyzed. The design optimization for SHG efficiency is obtained utilizing techniques from supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) with both material-dependent effective mass and band nonparabolicity. Current flow and power output of the structure are analyzed by self-consistently solving rate equations for the carriers and photons. Nonunity pumping efficiency from one period of the QCL to the next is taken into account by including all relevant electron-electron (e-e) and longitudinal (LO) phonon scattering mechanisms between the injector/collector and active regions. Two-photon absorption processes are analyzed for the resonant cascading triple levels designed for enhancing SHG. Both sequential and simultaneous two-photon absorption processes are included in the rate-equation model. The current output characteristics for both the original and optimized structures are analyzed and compared. Stronger resonant tunneling in the optimized structure is manifested by enhanced negative differential resistance. Current-dependent linear optical output power is derived based on the steady-state photon populations in the active region. The second-harmonic (SH) power is derived from the Maxwell equations with the phase mismatch included. Due to stronger coupling between lasing levels, the optimized structure has both higher linear and nonlinear output powers. Phase mismatch effects are significant for both structures leading to a substantial reduction of the linear-to-nonlinear conversion efficiency. The optimized structure can be fabricated

  16. Entanglement dynamics of quantum oscillators nonlinearly coupled to thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voje, Aurora; Croy, Alexander; Isacsson, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    We study the asymptotic entanglement of two quantum harmonic oscillators nonlinearly coupled to an environment. Coupling to independent baths and a common bath are investigated. Numerical results obtained using the Wangsness-Bloch-Redfield method are supplemented by analytical results in the rotating wave approximation. The asymptotic negativity as function of temperature, initial squeezing, and coupling strength, is compared to results for systems with linear system-reservoir coupling. We find that, due to the parity-conserving nature of the coupling, the asymptotic entanglement is considerably more robust than for the linearly damped cases. In contrast to linearly damped systems, the asymptotic behavior of entanglement is similar for the two bath configurations in the nonlinearly damped case. This is due to the two-phonon system-bath exchange causing a suppression of information exchange between the oscillators via the bath in the common-bath configuration at low temperatures.

  17. Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zaiping; Garoufalis, Christos S.; Baskoutas, Sotirios, E-mail: bask@upatras.gr

    2014-07-18

    Linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities in a laterally coupled quantum-dot–quantum-ring system have been theoretically studied. In general, we find that the structure parameters of the coupled system significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. The enhancement of the coupling effects between the dot and ring is found to increase considerably the optical susceptibilities and redshift drastically the transition energies. Comparing to the linear susceptibility, the nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be more sensitive to the variation of the structure parameters. A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement with respect to the modification of the structure parameters is provided, which offers a unique perspective of the ground-state localization. - Highlights: • Optical susceptibilities in a quantum-dot–quantum-ring system are studied. • The structure parameters significantly affect the optical susceptibilities. • The enhancement of the coupling effects increases the optical susceptibilities. • The nonlinear susceptibility is more sensitive to the change in structure parameters. • A comprehensive analysis of the electron probability density movement is provided.

  18. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on GFT quantum gravity condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Pithis, Andreas G A; Tomov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting Group Field Theory (GFT) models in the context of the GFT quantum gravity condensate analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behaviour suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthe...

  19. Nonlinear transport of graphene in the quantum Hall regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shibing; Wang, Pengjie; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Junbo; Fu, Hailong; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Chen, Jian-Hao; Lin, Xi

    2017-03-01

    We have studied the breakdown of the integer quantum Hall (QH) effect with fully broken symmetry, in an ultra-high mobility graphene device sandwiched between two single crystal hexagonal boron nitride substrates. The evolution and stabilities of the QH states are studied quantitatively through the nonlinear transport with dc Hall voltage bias. The mechanism of the QH breakdown in graphene and the movement of the Fermi energy with the electrical Hall field are discussed. This is the first study in which the stabilities of fully symmetry broken QH states are probed all together. Our results raise the possibility that the ν = ±6 states might be a better target for the quantum resistance standard.

  20. Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiloglu, M.A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear electron transport in normally pinched-off quantum wire

    OpenAIRE

    Novoselov, K.S.; Dubrovskii, Yu. V.; Sablikov, V. A.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Vdovin, E. E.; Khanin, Yu N.; Tulin, V. A.; Esteve, D.; Beaumont, S.

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear electron transport in normally pinched-off quantum wires was studied. The wires were fabricated from AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas by electron beam lithography and following wet etching. At certain critical source-drain voltage the samples exhibited a step rise of the conductance. The differential conductance of the open wires was noticeably lower than e^2/h as far as only part of the source-drain voltage dropped between source contact ...

  2. Loop Quantum Theory Applied to Biology and Nonlinear Whole Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The loop quantum theory, which constitutes a very small discontinuous space, as new method is applied to biology. The model of protein folding and lungs is proposed. In the model, some known results are used, and four approximate conclusions are obtained: their structures are quantized, their space regions are finite, various singularities correspond to folding and crossed points, and different types of catastrophe exist. Further, based on the inseparability and correlativity of the biological systems, the nonlinear whole biology is proposed, and four basic hypotheses are formed. It may unify reductionism and holism, structuralism and functionalism. Finally, the medical meaning of the theory is discussed briefly.

  3. Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çipilolu, M. A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M.

    2004-09-01

    The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters.

  4. Solitonic and chaotic behaviors for the nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Hui-Ling; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Wen, Xiao-Yong

    2016-05-01

    A model for the nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic waves in a two-ion-temperature, magnetized dusty plasma is studied in this paper. Via the symbolic computation, one-, two- and N-soliton solutions are obtained. It is found that when √{μeμi }parallel during the propagation on the x - y, x - t, and y - t planes, where x, y, and z are the scaled spacial coordinates, and t is the retarded time. Upon the introduction of the driving force Γ(t ) , both the developed and weak chaotic motions as well as the effect of Γ(t ) are explored. Via the phase projections and power spectra, we find the difference between the two chaotic motions roots in the relative magnitude of nonlinearity and external force. Increasing the frequency of the external force or the strength of the damped term can weaken the chaotic motions of such a forced model.

  5. The Influence of Dust on the Farley-Buneman instability. Nonlinear regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Barbara

    In the lower ionosphere in the E-region, a complex process transforms wind energy into currents creating the E-region electrojet. If these currents exceed a certain critical amplitude, a streaming instability called the Farley-Buneman or a collisional two-stream instability develops. This instability grows more rapidly at shorter wavelengths and the waves propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is well known that even system with finite number of interacting waves can realize a turbulent state in active media. In such cases, when the number of cooperating waves remains small due to a competition of processes of their instability and attenuation, the turbulence appears in the result of their stochastic behavior. The perturbed ionospheric plasma is one of important example of such active media. The regimes of nonlinear stabilization of instability of low frequency waves in magnetized, weakly ionized and inhomogeneous ionospheric dusty plasma are considered. We make assumptions that the Earth magnetic field has no influence on the ions and on the dust particles so only the electrons are magnetized. If characteristic time of plasma density oscillations exceeds an electron collision frequency the basic is drift motion of electrons and, accordingly, the vector nonlinearity is the strongest. We study of nonlinear stabilization and influence of the dust component, conditions of stochasticity and the different regimes in the conditions when the number of interacting waves keeps small by the strong competition of processes wave damping and instabilities are considered. *This research is supported by KBN grant 0TOOA 01429 1. Meers Oppenheim and Niels Otani, Hybrid Simulations of the Saturated Farley-Buneman Instability in the Ionosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, pp. 353-356, 1995 2. Meers Oppenheim and Niels Otani and Corrado Ronchi, Saturation of the Farley-Buneman instability via nonlinear electron ExB drifts, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101

  6. Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serban, Ioana

    2008-05-15

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on

  7. Predator-prey dynamics stabilised by nonlinearity explain oscillations in dust-forming plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A. E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Dust-forming plasmas are ionised gases that generate particles from a precursor. In nature, dust-forming plasmas are found in flames, the interstellar medium and comet tails. In the laboratory, they are valuable in generating nanoparticles for medicine and electronics. Dust-forming plasmas exhibit a bizarre, even puzzling behaviour in which they oscillate with timescales of seconds to minutes. Here we show how the problem of understanding these oscillations may be cast as a predator-prey problem, with electrons as prey and particles as predators. The addition of a nonlinear loss term to the classic Lotka-Volterra equations used for describing the predator-prey problem in ecology not only stabilises the oscillations in the solutions for the populations of electrons and particles in the plasma but also explains the behaviour in more detail. The model explains the relative phase difference of the two populations, the way in which the frequency of the oscillations varies with the concentration of the precursor gas, and the oscillations of the light emission, determined by the populations of both species. Our results demonstrate the value of adopting an approach to a complex physical science problem that has been found successful in ecology, where complexity is always present.

  8. Nonlinear pulsational eigenmodes of a planar collisional dust molecular cloud with grain-charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Borah, B.

    2013-09-01

    We try to present a theoretical evolutionary model leading to the excitations of nonlinear pulsational eigenmodes in a planar (1D) collisional dust molecular cloud (DMC) on the Jeans scale. The basis of the adopted model is the Jeans assumption of self-gravitating homogeneous uniform medium for simplification. It is a self-gravitating multi-fluid consisting of the Boltzmann distributed warm electrons and ions, and the inertial cold dust grains with partial ionization. Dust-charge fluctuations, convections and all the possible collisions are included. The grain-charge behaves as a dynamical variable owing mainly to the attachment of the electrons and ions to the grain-surfaces randomly. The adopted technique is centered around a mathematical model based on new solitary spectral patterns within the hydrodynamic framework. The collective dynamics of the patterns is governed by driven Korteweg-de Vries ( d-KdV) and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations obtained by a standard multiscale analysis. Then, simplified analytical and numerical solutions are presented. The grain-charge fluctuation and collision processes play a key role in the DMC stability. The sensitive dependence of the eigenmode amplitudes on diverse relevant plasma parameters is discussed. The significance of the main results in astrophysical, laboratory and space environments are concisely summarized.

  9. Probing the Structure of Quantum Mechanics : Nonlinearity, Nonlocality, Computation and Axiomatics

    CERN Document Server

    Durt, Thomas; Czachor, Marek

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, scientists working in quantum theory have been engaging in promising new fields such as quantum computation and quantum information processing, and have also been reflecting on the possibilities of nonlinear behavior on the quantum level. These are challenging undertakings because (1) they will result in new solutions to important technical and practical problems that were unsolvable by the classical approaches (for example, quantum computers can calculate problems that are intractable if one uses classical computers); and (2) they open up new 'hard' problems of a fundamental nature that touch the foundation of quantum theory itself (for example, the contradiction between locality and nonlinearity and the interpretation of quantum computing as a universal process). In this book, one can distinguish two main streams of research to approach the just-mentioned problem field: (1) a theoretical structural part, which concentrates on the elaboration of a nonlinear quantum mechanics and the ...

  10. Cosmology emerging as the gauge structure of a nonlinear quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Kam, Chon-Fai

    2016-01-01

    Berry phases and gauge structures in parameter spaces of quantum systems are the foundation of a broad range of quantum effects such as quantum Hall effects and topological insulators. The gauge structures of interacting many-body systems, which often present exotic features, are particularly interesting. While quantum systems are intrinsically linear due to the superposition principle, nonlinear quantum mechanics can arise as an effective theory for interacting systems (such as condensates of interacting bosons). Here we show that gauge structures similar to curved spacetime can arise in nonlinear quantum systems where the superposition principle breaks down. In the canonical formalism of the nonlinear quantum mechanics, the geometric phases of quantum evolutions can be formulated as the classical geometric phases of a harmonic oscillator that represents the Bogoliubov excitations. We find that the classical geometric phase can be described by a de Sitter universe. The fundamental frequency of the harmonic o...

  11. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics approach to a nonlinear lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricotta, Regina Maria [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC), SP (Brazil); Drigo Filho, Elso [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: DNA is one of the most important macromolecules of all biological system. New discoveries about it have open a vast new field of research, the physics of nonlinear DNA. A particular feature that has attracted a lot of attention is the thermal denaturation, i.e., the spontaneous separation of the two strands upon heating. In 1989 a simple lattice model for the denaturation of the DNA was proposed, the Peyrard-Bishop model, PB. The bio molecule is described by two chains of particles coupled by nonlinear springs, simulating the hydrogen bonds that connect the two basis in a pair. The potential for the hydrogen bonds is usually approximated by a Morse potential. The Hamiltonian system generates a partition function which allows the evaluation of the thermodynamical quantities such as mean strength of the basis pairs. As a byproduct the Hamiltonian system was shown to be a NLSE (nonlinear Schroedinger equation) having soliton solutions. On the other hand, a reflectionless potential with one bound state, constructed using supersymmetric quantum mechanics, SQM, can be shown to be identical to a soliton solution of the KdV equation. Thus, motivated by this Hamiltonian problem and inspired by the PB model, we consider the Hamiltonian of a reflectionless potential through SQM, in order to evaluate thermodynamical quantities of a unidimensional lattice with possible biological applications. (author)

  12. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran_g@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2016-08-15

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev–Petviashvili solitons.

  13. Quantum Information and Entropy Spueezing of a Nonlinear Multiquantum JC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Abdel-Aty

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the entropy squeezing of the nonlinear k-quantum JC model. A definition of squeezing is presented for this system based on the quantum information theory. The utility of the definition is illustrated by examining squeezing in the information entropy of a nonlinear k-quantum two-level atom. The influence of the atomic coherence and the detuning parameter on the properties of the information entropy and squeezing of the atomic variables is examined.

  14. Numerical simulation of linear and nonlinear quantum optics as a design tool for free-space quantum communications and quantum imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.; Rosen, D.

    2002-12-01

    A new quantum optics tool for simulating quantum probability density functions resulting from the linear and nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and with other photons is developed and presented. It can be used to design and simulate quantum optics experiments used in quantum communications, quantum computing, and quantum imaging. Examples of a photon interacting with linears systems of mirrors and beamsplitters are simulated. Nonlinear simulations of the interaction of three photons resulting in photon momentum entanglement is presented. The wavefunction is expanded in Fock states. Fock states cannot be represented by classical modeling and therefore, the results of our modeling can in general represent phenomena in both the linear and nonlinear cases which cannot be modeled by classical linear optics. The modeling presented here is more general than the classical linear optics. Models of atmospheric turbulence and their simulations are presented and demonstrate the potential for first principles physics quantum optics simulations through turbulence in realistic environments.

  15. Thermopiezoelectric and Nonlinear Electromechanical Effects in Quantum Dots and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Bahrami-Samani, M.; Melnik, R. V. N.; Toropova, M.; Zu, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We report thermopiezoelectric (TPE) and nonlinear electromechanical (NEM) effects in quantum dots (QD) and nanowires (NW) analyzed with a model based on coupled thermal, electric and mechanical balance equations. Several representative examples of low dimensional semiconductor structures (LDSNs) are studied. We focus mainly on GaN/AlN QDs and CdTe/ZnTe NWs which we analyze for different geometries. GaN/AlN nano systems are observed to be more sensitive to thermopiezoelectric effects than those of CdTe/ZnTe. Furthermore, noticeable qualitative and quantitative variations in electromechanical fields are observed as a consequence of taking into account NEM effects, in particular in GaN/AlN QDs.

  16. Study of nonlinear waves in astrophysical quantum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, M.R.; Mamun, A.A., E-mail: rasel.plasma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinear propagation of the electron acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless degenerate quantum plasma system has been investigated theoretically. Our considered model consisting of two distinct groups of electrons (one of inertial non-relativistic cold electrons and other of inertialess ultrarelativistic hot electrons) and positively charged static ions. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation has been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method and numerically examined to identify the basic features (speed, amplitude, width, etc.) of EASWs. It is shown that only rarefactive solitary waves can propagate in such a quantum plasma system. It is found that the effect of degenerate pressure and number density of hot and cold electron fluids, and positively charged static ions, significantly modify the basic features of EASWs. It is also noted that the inertial cold electron fluid is the source of dispersion for EA waves and is responsible for the formation of solitary structures. The applications of this investigation in astrophysical compact objects (viz. non-rotating white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc.) are briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Interaction-based nonlinear quantum metrology with a cold atomic ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present an experimental and theoretical investigation of quantum-noise-limited measurement by nonlinear interferometry, or from another perspective, quantum-noise-limited interaction-based measurement. The experimental work is performed using a polarization-based quantum interface between propagating light pulses and cold rubidium-87 atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap. We first review the theory of quantum metrology and estimation theory, and we describe theor...

  18. Quantum Solitons and Localized Modes in a One-Dimensional Lattice Chain with Nonlinear Substrate Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Jun; MI Xian-Wu; DENG Ke; TANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    In the classical lattice theory, solitons and locaLized modes can exist in many one-dimensional nonlinear lattice chains, however, in the quantum lattice theory, whether quantum solitons and localized modes can exist or not in the one-dimensional lattice chains is an interesting problem. By using the number state method and the Hartree approximation combined with the method of multiple scales, we investigate quantum solitons and localized modes in a one-dimensional lattice chain with the nonlinear substrate potential. It is shown that quantum solitons do exist in this nonlinear lattice chain, and at the boundary of the phonon Brillouin zone, quantum solitons become quantum localized modes, phonons are pinned to the lattice of the vicinity at the central position j = j0.

  19. Non-linear excitation of quantum emitters in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, Andreas W; Takashima, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon absorption is an important non-linear process employed for high resolution bio-imaging and non-linear optics. In this work we realize two-photon excitation of a quantum emitter embedded in a two-dimensional material. We examine defects in hexagonal boron nitride and show that the emitters exhibit similar spectral and quantum properties under one-photon and two-photon excitation. Furthermore, our findings are important to deploy two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride for quantum non-linear photonic applications.

  20. Nonlinear optical characterization of colloidal solutions containing dye and Ag2S quantum dot associates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaev, G. S.; Sobirov, B.; Reyimbaev, S.; Sherniyozov, H.; Usmanov, T.; Smirnov, M. S.; Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Kondratenko, T. S.; Shihaliev, H. S.; Ganeev, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed the nonlinear absorption and refraction in the dyes and silver sulfide quantum dot (QD) associates. The nonlinear refractive indices, nonlinear absorption coefficients, and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of the Ag2S QDs associated with various dyes (xanthenes, thiazines, carbocyanines, quinolines) were measured. The influence of dyes nonlinearities on the whole pattern of the z-scans of colloidal QD solutions, as well as the application of different molar fractions of dyes and intensities of probe radiation (40 ps, 1064 nm and 532 nm), were analyzed and discussed in the contest of the influence of various nonlinear absorption processes.

  1. Harnack inequalities, a priori estimates, and sufficient statistics for nonlinear elliptic systems in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C. Aranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider systems of nonlinear elliptic problems and their relations with minimal sufficient statistics, which is a fundamental tool in classics statistics. This allows us to introduce new experimental tools in quantum physics.

  2. Role of nonlinearity in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics: Description of linear quantum electrodynamics from the nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Gilbert C.; Gazeau, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we consider a basic two-level nonlinear quantum model consisting in a two-particle interacting bound-state system. It is described by means of two different approaches: i) the mean-field stationary nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson equation with classical Coulomb interaction and harmonic potential; ii) the linear quantum electrodynamics Hamiltonian of a quantized field coupled to two fixed charges. Computing numerically the ground state and the first excited state about the maximum eigenstate overlap (which is not zero because of eigenstate non-orthogonality), we numerically demonstrate that these two descriptions coincide at first order. As a consequence, a specific definition of the fine-structure constant α is provided within 99.95% accuracy by the present first-order non-relativistic and nonlinear quantum description. This result also means that the internal Coulomb interaction commutes with external particle confinement for the calculation of the ground state. Consequently peculiar nonlinear quantum properties become observable (an experiment with GaAs quantum-dot helium is suggested).

  3. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  4. Electrostatic Nonlinear Structures in Dissipative Electron-Positron-Ion Quantum Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. Khan; Q. Haque

    2008-01-01

    @@ Low frequency (in comparison to ion plasma frequency) ion-acoustic shocks and solitons in superdense electron-positron-ion quantum plasmas are studied.The quantum hydrodynamic model is used incorporating quantum Bohm forces and Fermi-Dirac statistical corrections to derive the deformed Korteweg de Vries-Burgers (dKdVB) equation in weakly nonlinear limit.The travelling wave solution of dKdVB equation is presented and results are discussed in different limits.It is found that shock height increases with increase of quantum pressure, positron concentration and dissipation.Further, it is seen that the width of soliton decreases with increase of quantum pressure.

  5. Decoherence of a Quantum Nonlinear Oscillator Under a Non-zero Temperature Thermal Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic time τD for decoherence process of a quantum nonlinear oscillator system under a nonzero temperature thermal bath is studied by expanding the linear entropy. By numerical analysis, it is shown that at a non-zero temperature, the quantum coherence decays much faster than at zero temperature. Moreover, the non-zero temperature thermal bath will bring a crucialsuppression to the quantum effects of the observables, which causes these quantum effects to become unable to persist up to the Ehrenfest time but is insufficient to destroy the quantum-classical transition.

  6. Unitary evolution of the quantum universe with a Brown-Kuchar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We study the time evolution of a wave function for the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe governed by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in both analytic and numerical methods. We consider a Brown-Kuchar dust as a matter field in order to introduce a "clock" in quantum cosmology and adopt the Laplace-Beltrami operator-ordering. The Hamiltonian operator admits an infinite number of self-adjoint extensions corresponding to a one-parameter family of boundary conditions at the origin in the minisuperspace. For any value of the extension parameter in the boundary condition, the evolution of a wave function is unitary and the classical initial singularity is avoided and replaced by the big bounce in the quantum system. It is shown that the expectation value of the spatial volume of the universe obeys the classical time evolution in the late time.

  7. Spectral properties of a confined nonlinear quantum oscillator in one and three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Gordon, Christopher R. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We analyze the spectral behaviour of a nonlinear quantum oscillator model under confinement. The underlying potential is given by a harmonic oscillator interaction plus a nonlinear term that can be weakened or strengthened through a parameter. Numerical eigenvalues of the model in one and three dimensions are presented. The asymptotic behaviour of the eigenvalues for confinement relaxation and for vanishing nonlinear term in the potential is investigated. Our findings are compared with existing results.

  8. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility.

  9. Quantum stability of nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass parameter in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngman; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Pak, D. G.; Park, Chanyong; Tsukioka, Takuya

    2017-09-01

    The problem of the existence of a stable vacuum field in pure QCD is revised. Our approach is based on using classical stationary nonlinear wave type solutions with an intrinsic mass scale parameter. Such solutions can be treated as quantum-mechanical wave functions describing massive spinless states in quantum theory. We verify whether nonlinear wave type solutions can form a stable vacuum field background within the framework of the effective action formalism. We demonstrate that there is a special class of stationary generalized Wu-Yang monopole solutions that are stable against quantum gluon fluctuations.

  10. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Si-Cong, E-mail: tiansicong@ciomp.ac.cn; Tong, Cun-Zhu, E-mail: tongcz@ciomp.ac.cn; Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang [State Key laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Wan, Ren-Gang [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process.

  11. Quantum gravitational dust collapse does not result in a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Cenalo, E-mail: Cenalo.Vaz@uc.edu

    2015-02-15

    Quantum gravity suggests that the paradox recently put forward by Almheiri et al. (AMPS) can be resolved if matter does not undergo continuous collapse to a singularity but condenses on the apparent horizon. One can then expect a quasi-static object to form even after the gravitational field has overcome any degeneracy pressure of the matter fields. We consider dust collapse. If the collapse terminates on the apparent horizon, the Misner–Sharp mass function of the dust ball is predicted and we construct static solutions with no tangential pressure that would represent such a compact object. The collapse wave functions indicate that there will be processes by which energy extraction from the center occurs. These leave behind a negative point mass at the center which contributes to the total energy of the system but has no effect on the energy density of the dust ball. The solutions describe a compact object whose boundary lies outside its Schwarzschild radius and which is hardly distinguishable from a neutron star.

  12. Quantum gravitational dust collapse does not result in a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenalo Vaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity suggests that the paradox recently put forward by Almheiri et al. (AMPS can be resolved if matter does not undergo continuous collapse to a singularity but condenses on the apparent horizon. One can then expect a quasi-static object to form even after the gravitational field has overcome any degeneracy pressure of the matter fields. We consider dust collapse. If the collapse terminates on the apparent horizon, the Misner–Sharp mass function of the dust ball is predicted and we construct static solutions with no tangential pressure that would represent such a compact object. The collapse wave functions indicate that there will be processes by which energy extraction from the center occurs. These leave behind a negative point mass at the center which contributes to the total energy of the system but has no effect on the energy density of the dust ball. The solutions describe a compact object whose boundary lies outside its Schwarzschild radius and which is hardly distinguishable from a neutron star.

  13. Quantum control of ultra-cold atoms: uncovering a novel connection between two paradigms of quantum nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiao; Mouritzen, Anders Sørrig; Gong, Jiangbin

    2009-01-01

    .e. the kicked rotor model and the kicked Harper model, is established. In particular, it is shown that Hofstadter's butterfly quasi-energy spectrum in periodically driven quantum systems may soon be realized experimentally, with the effective Planck constant tunable by varying the time delay between two...... sequences of control fields. Extensions of this study are also discussed. The results are intended to open up a new generation of cold-atom experiments of quantum nonlinear dynamics....

  14. Direct measurement of non-linear properties of bipartite quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A; Castagnoli, G C; Ekert, A; Horodecki, P; Sergienko, A V; Alves, Carolina Moura; Bovino, Fabio Antonio; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Ekert, Artur; Horodecki, Pawel; Sergienko, Alexander Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Non-linear properties of quantum states, such as entropy or entanglement, quantify important physical resources and are frequently used in quantum information science. They are usually calculated from a full description of a quantum state, even though they depend only on a small number parameters that specify the state. Here we extract a non-local and a non-linear quantity, namely the Renyi entropy, from local measurements on two pairs of polarization entangled photons. We also introduce a "phase marking" technique which allows to select uncorrupted outcomes even with non-deterministic sources of entangled photons. We use our experimental data to demonstrate the violation of entropic inequalities. They are examples of a non-linear entanglement witnesses and their power exceeds all linear tests for quantum entanglement based on all possible Bell-CHSH inequalities.

  15. Lessons from the quantum control landscape: Robust optimal control of quantum systems and optimal control of nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, David Lance

    The control of quantum systems occurs across a broad range of length and energy scales in modern science, and efforts have demonstrated that locating suitable controls to perform a range of objectives has been widely successful. The justification for this success arises from a favorable topology of a quantum control landscape, defined as a mapping of the controls to a cost function measuring the success of the operation. This is summarized in the landscape principle that no suboptimal extrema exist on the landscape for well-suited control problems, explaining a trend of successful optimizations in both theory and experiment. This dissertation explores what additional lessons may be gleaned from the quantum control landscape through numerical and theoretical studies. The first topic examines the experimentally relevant problem of assessing and reducing disturbances due to noise. The local curvature of the landscape is found to play an important role on noise effects in the control of targeted quantum unitary operations, and provides a conceptual framework for assessing robustness to noise. Software for assessing noise effects in quantum computing architectures was also developed and applied to survey the performance of current quantum control techniques for quantum computing. A lack of competition between robustness and perfect unitary control operation was discovered to fundamentally limit noise effects, and highlights a renewed focus upon system engineering for reducing noise. This convergent behavior generally arises for any secondary objective in the situation of high primary objective fidelity. The other dissertation topic examines the utility of quantum control for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonians not previously considered under the landscape principle. Nonlinear Schrodinger equations are commonly used to model the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), one of the largest known quantum objects. Optimizations of BEC dynamics were performed in which the

  16. Nonlinear interaction between surface plasmons and ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir; Taheri Boroujeni, S. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we have investigated the nonlinear interaction between high-frequency surface plasmons and low-frequency ion oscillations in a semi-bounded collisional quantum plasma. By coupling the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and quantum hydrodynamic model, and taking into account the ponderomotive force, the dispersion equation is obtained. By solving this equation, it is shown that there is a modulational instability in the system, and collisions and quantum forces play significant roles on this instability. The quantum tunneling increases the phase and group velocities of the modulated waves and collisions increase the growth rate of the modulational instability. It is also shown that the effect of quantum forces and collisions is more significant in high modulated wavenumber regions.

  17. Quantum mechanical treatment of parametric amplification in an absorptive nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.

    2017-01-01

    Generally, loss phenomena are known to affect the quantum properties of a light wave. This paper describes a quantum mechanical treatment of parametric amplification in an absorptive nonlinear medium. An expression of the quantum mechanical field operator in such a physical system is presented based on the Heisenberg equation, using which the quantum properties of traveling light suffering from medium absorption are quantitatively evaluated. Calculations using the obtained operator indicate that some degradation of noise performance is caused by the absorption. The influence of the absorption on the squeezing performance in phase-sensitive parametric amplification is also evaluated.

  18. Quantum vacuum effects on the final fate of a collapsing ball of dust

    CERN Document Server

    Arfaei, Hessamaddin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum vacuum effects of the massless scalar fields that are non-minimally coupled to the background geometry of a collapsing homogeneous ball of dust. It is shown that for a definite range of coupling constants, there are repulsive quantum vacuum effects, capable of stopping the collapse process inside the black hole and precluding the formation of singularity. The final fate of the collapse will be a black hole with no singularity, inside which the matter stays balanced. The density of the final static matter will be close to the Planck density. We show that the largest possible radius of the stable static ball inside a black hole with Schwarzschild mass $M$ is given by ${{\\left( \\frac{1}{90\\pi }\\frac{M}{{{m}_{p}}} \\right)}^{\\frac{1}{3}}}{{\\ell }_{p}}$. If the black hole undergoes Hawking radiation, the final state will be an extremal quantum-corrected black hole, with zero temperature, with a remnant of matter inside. We show that the resolution of singularity is not disrupted under Hawkin...

  19. Quantum vacuum effects on the final fate of a collapsing ball of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Noorikuhani, Milad

    2017-02-01

    We consider the quantum vacuum effects of the massless scalar fields that are non-minimally coupled to the background geometry of a collapsing homogeneous ball of dust. It is shown that for a definite range of coupling constants, there are repulsive quantum vacuum effects, capable of stopping the collapse process inside the black hole and precluding the formation of singularity. The final fate of the collapse will be a black hole with no singularity, inside which the matter stays balanced. The density of the final static matter will be close to the Planck density. We show that the largest possible radius of the stable static ball inside a black hole with Schwarzschild mass M is given by {(1/90πM/m_p)}^{1/3}{ℓ}_p . If the black hole undergoes Hawking radiation, the final state will be an extremal quantum-corrected black hole, with zero temperature, with a remnant of matter inside. We show that the resolution of singularity is not disrupted under Hawking radiation.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems.” The PI is Ying-Cheng Lai from Arizona State University. The duration of the project was 12/1/2008...military systems may contain some graphene components. To understand various fundamental aspects of quantum transport dynamics is key to developing...conductance fluctuations, not seen previously in any quantum transport systems. This phenomenon has profound implications to the development of graphene

  1. Nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Duha; B Shikha; A A Mamun

    2011-08-01

    A dusty multi-ion plasma system consisting of non-isothermal (trapped) electrons, Maxwellian (isothermal) light positive ions, warm heavy negative ions and extremely massive charge fluctuating stationary dust have been considered. The dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves associated with negative ion dynamics, Maxwellian (isothermal) positive ions, trapped electrons and charge fluctuating stationary dust have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The basic features of such dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves have been identified. The implications of our findings in space and laboratory dusty multi-ion plasmas are discussed.

  2. New Tripartite Nonlinear Entangled State Representation in Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Mai-Hua; MA Shan-Jun; LIU Dong-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Based on the technique of integral within an ordered product of nonlinear bosonic operators, we construct a new kind of tripartite nonlinear entangled state |α,γ>λ in 3-mode Fock space, which can make up a complete set. We also simply discuss its properties and application.

  3. Nonlinear stability of pulsational mode of gravitational collapse in self-gravitating hydrostatically bounded dust molecular cloud

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Karmakar

    2011-06-01

    The pulsational mode of gravitational collapse (PMGC) in a hydrostatically bounded dust molecular cloud is responsible for the evolution of tremendous amount of energy during star formation. The source of free energy for this gravito-electrostatic instability lies in the associated self-gravity of the dispersed phase of relatively huge dust grains of solid matter over the gaseous phase of background plasma. The nonlinear stability of the same PMGC in an infinite dusty plasma model (plane geometry approximation for large wavelength fluctuation in the absence of curvature effects) is studied in a hydrostatic kind of homogeneous equilibrium configuration. By the standard reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation for investigating the nonlinear evolution of the lowest order perturbed self-gravitational potential is developed in a time-stationary (steady-state) form, which is studied analytically as well as numerically. Different nonlinear structures (soliton-like and soliton chain-like) are found to exist in different situations. Astrophysical situations, relevant to it, are briefly discussed.

  4. The nonlinear optical rectification of a confined exciton in a quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Wenfang, E-mail: xiewf@gzhu.edu.c [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-05-15

    An exciton in a disc-like quantum dot (QD) with the parabolic confinement, under applied electric field, is studied within the framework of the effective-mass approximation. The nonlinear optical rectification between the ground and the first-excited states has been examined through the computed energies and wave functions in details for the excitons. The results show that the optical rectification susceptibility obtained in a disc-like QD reach the magnitude of 10{sup -2} m/V, which is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in one-dimensional QDs. It is found that the second-order nonlinear optical properties of exciton states in a QD are strongly affected by the confinement strength and the electric field. - Research highlights: {yields} The magnitude of the nonlinear optical rectification of the excitons confined in a disc-like quantum dot may reach 10{sup -2} m/V. It is much higher than that of the other low-dimensional semiconductors, e.g., quantum wells, and one-dimensional semiparabolic quantum dots. {yields} The nonlinear optical rectification of the excitons confined in a disc-like quantum dot is strongly dependent on the confinement frequency. In order to obtain the larger optical rectification coefficients in quantum dots, we can change the confinement frequency. {yields} The calculated results also reveal that an applied electric field has a great influence on the nonlinear optical rectification susceptibility. In order to obtain the larger optical rectification coefficients in quantum dots we can induce the electric field.

  5. Giant kerr nonlinearity, controlled entangled photons and polarization phase gates in coupled quantum-well structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengjie; Huang, Guoxiang

    2011-11-07

    We study linear and nonlinear propagations of probe and signal pulses in a multiple quantum-well structure with a four-level, double Λ-type configuration. We show that slow, mutually matched group velocities and giant Kerr nonlinearity of the probe and the signal pulses may be achieved with nearly vanishing optical absorption. Based on these properties we demonstrate that two-qubit quantum polarization phase gates can be constructed and highly entangled photon pairs may be produced. In addition, we show that coupled slow-light soliton pairs with very low generation power can be realized in the system.

  6. Nonlinear excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells. Coherent dynamical screening effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a strongly nonlinear process of ultrafast photoexcitation of a biased quantum well. This process is governed by coherent dynamical screening, where the instantaneously polarized photoexcited carriers screen initial bias field. This results in a dynamic modification...... of the bandstructure of the quantum well, which is totally coherent with the temporal intensity distribution of the excitation laser pulse. We developed a time-resolved theoretical model of coherent dynamical screening, which predicts interesting fundamental consequences, such as nonlinear absorption and ultra......-broadband THz emission. The results of our THz and optical experiments are in good agreement with the theoretical model....

  7. A Nonlinear Blind Source Separation Method Based On Radial Basis Function and Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind source separation is a hot topic in signal processing. Most existing works focus on dealing with linear combined signals, while in practice we always encounter with nonlinear mixed signals. To address the problem of nonlinear source separation, in this paper we propose a novel algorithm using radial basis function neutral network, optimized by multi-universe parallel quantum genetic algorithm. Experiments show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Dynamics of Atom Laser: Mean-Field Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Hui

    2002-01-01

    Quantum dynamics and statistics of an atom laser with nonlinear binary interactions are investigated inthe framework of mean-field approximation. The linearized effective Hamiltonian of the system is accurately solvable.It is shown that, although the input radio frequency field is in an ordinary Glauber coherent state, the output matterwave will periodically exhibit quadrature squeezing effects purely originated from the nonlinear atom-atom collisions.

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Plasmonics from Isotropic and Anisotropic Integrated Nanocomposites for Quantum Information Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    nanoparticles (NPs) were added to luminescent porous silicon by drop casting. These NPs interact with this system by modifying its optical properties ...response by Au NPs in sapphire: Nonlinear optical response of Au metallic NPs, synthesized and embedded in sapphire by using ion implantation, as a...Linear and nonlinear plasmonics from isotropic and anisotropic integrated nanocomposites for quantum information applications. Jorge-Alejandro Reyes

  10. Generation of Photon-Plasmon Quantum States in Nonlinear Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubny, Alexander N.; Iorsh, Ivan V.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a general theoretical framework of integrated paired photon-plasmon generation through spontaneous wave mixing in nonlinear plasmonic and metamaterial nanostructures, rigorously accounting for material dispersion and losses in quantum regime through the electromagnetic Green function. We identify photon-plasmon correlations in layered metal-dielectric structures with 70% internal heralding quantum efficiency, and reveal novel mechanism of broadband generation enhancement due to topological transition in hyperbolic metamaterials.

  11. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  12. Time-evolution of quantum systems via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation. II. Dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Hans; Schuch, Dieter; Castaños, Octavio; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    In our former contribution (Cruz et al., 2015), we have shown the sensitivity to the choice of initial conditions in the evolution of Gaussian wave packets via the nonlinear Riccati equation. The formalism developed in the previous work is extended to effective approaches for the description of dissipative quantum systems. By means of simple examples we show the effects of the environment on the quantum uncertainties, correlation function, quantum energy contribution and tunnelling currents. We prove that the environmental parameter γ is strongly related with the sensitivity to the choice of initial conditions.

  13. The transition from the classical to the quantum regime in nonlinear Landau damping

    CERN Document Server

    Brodin, G; Mendonca, J T

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Wigner-Moyal equation coupled to Poisson's equation, a simplified set of equations describing nonlinear Landau damping of Langmuir waves is derived. This system is studied numerically, with a particular focus on the transition from the classical to the quantum regime. In the quantum regime several new features are found. This includes a quantum modified bounce frequency, and the discovery that bounce-like amplitude oscillations can take place even in the absence of trapped particles. The implications of our results are discussed.

  14. Rational extension and Jacobi-type X{sub m} solutions of a quantum nonlinear oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States); Roy, Barnana [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)

    2013-12-15

    We construct a rational extension of a recently studied nonlinear quantum oscillator model. Our extended model is shown to retain exact solvability, admitting a discrete spectrum and corresponding closed-form solutions that are expressed through Jacobi-type X{sub m} exceptional orthogonal polynomials.

  15. Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2016-03-01

    Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells are studied theoretically. Both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification depend dramatically on the direction and the strength of the electric field. Numerical results show that both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification are always weakened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is along the growth direction of the quantum wells, which is in contrast to the conventional case. However, the second-harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened, but the nonlinear optical rectification is strengthened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is against the growth direction of the quantum wells. Also it is the blue (or red) shift of the resonance that is induced by increasing of the electric field when the direction of the electric field is along (or against) the growth direction of the quantum wells. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.

  16. Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders

    In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...

  17. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner;

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  18. Introductive Backgrounds of Modern Quantum Mathematics with Application to Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prykarpatsky, Anatoliy K; Golenia, Jolanta; Taneri, Ufuk

    2009-01-01

    Introductive backgrounds of a new mathematical physics discipline - Quantum Mathematics - are discussed and analyzed both from historical and analytical points of view. The magic properties of the second quantization method, invented by V. Fock in 1932, are demonstrated, and an impressive application to the nonlinear dynamical systems theory is considered.

  19. At the edge of nuclear stability nonlinear quantum amplifiers, pt. 2

    CERN Document Server

    Csoto, A; Schlattl, H; Csoto, Attila; Oberhummer, Heinz; Schlattl, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    We show that nuclei lying at the edge of stability can behave as nonlinear quantum amplifiers. A tiny change in the nucleon-nucleon interaction can trigger a much bigger change in the binding energy of these systems, relative to the few-cluster breakup threshold.

  20. Weinberg's nonlinear quantum mechanics and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The constraints imposed on observables by the requirement that transmission not occur in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) experiment are determined, leading to a different treatment of separated systems from that originally proposed by Weinberg (1989). It is found that forbidding EPR communication in nonlinear quantum mechanics necessarily leads to another sort of unusual communication: that between different branches of the wave function.

  1. From Classical Nonlinear Integrable Systems to Quantum Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Manaka; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2016-08-01

    Using shortcuts to adiabaticity, we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that is reduced to a classical nonlinear integrable equation. For a given time-dependent Hamiltonian, the counterdiabatic term is introduced to prevent nonadiabatic transitions. Using the fact that the equation for the dynamical invariant is equivalent to the Lax equation in nonlinear integrable systems, we obtain the counterdiabatic term exactly. The counterdiabatic term is available when the corresponding Lax pair exists and the solvable systems are classified in a unified and systematic way. Multisoliton potentials obtained from the Korteweg-de Vries equation and isotropic X Y spin chains from the Toda equations are studied in detail.

  2. Hybrid quantum systems for enhanced nonlinear optical susceptibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Dennis; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been expended in the search for materials with ultra-fast nonlinear-optical susceptibilities, but most fall far below the fundamental limits. This work applies a theoretical materials development program that has identified a promising new hybrid made of a nanorod and a molecule. This system uses the electrostatic dipole moment of the molecule to break the symmetry of the metallic nanostructure that shifts the energy spectrum to make it optimal for a nonlinear-optical response near the fundamental limit. The structural parameters are varied to determine the ideal configuration, providing guidelines for making the best structures.

  3. Attractor-repeller pair of topological zero modes in a nonlinear quantum walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Y.; Tarasinski, B.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2016-02-01

    The quantum-mechanical counterpart of a classical random walk offers a rich dynamics that has recently been shown to include topologically protected bound states (zero modes) at boundaries or domain walls. Here we show that a topological zero mode may acquire a dynamical role in the presence of nonlinearities. We consider a one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walk that combines zero modes with a particle-conserving nonlinear relaxation mechanism. The presence of both particle-hole and chiral symmetry converts two zero modes of opposite chirality into an attractor-repeller pair of the nonlinear dynamics. This makes it possible to steer the walker towards a domain wall and trap it there.

  4. Dynamics of a qubit coupled to a dissipative nonlinear quantum oscillator: an effective bath approach

    CERN Document Server

    Vierheilig, Carmen; Grifoni, Milena

    2010-01-01

    We consider a qubit coupled to a nonlinear quantum oscillator, the latter coupled to an Ohmic bath, and investigate the qubit dynamics. This composed system can be mapped onto that of a qubit coupled to an effective bath. An approximate mapping procedure to determine the spectral density of the effective bath is given. Specifically, within a linear response approximation the effective spectral density is given by the knowledge of the linear susceptibility of the nonlinear quantum oscillator. To determine the actual form of the susceptibility, we consider its periodically driven counterpart, the problem of the quantum Duffing oscillator within linear response theory in the driving amplitude. Knowing the effective spectral density, the qubit dynamics is investigated. In particular, an analytic formula for the qubit's population difference is derived. Within the regime of validity of our theory, a very good agreement is found with predictions obtained from a Bloch-Redfield master equation approach applied to the...

  5. Weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic excitations in a relativistic model for dense quantum plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behery, E E; Haas, F; Kourakis, I

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of linear and nonlinear ionic-scale electrostatic excitations propagating in a magnetized relativistic quantum plasma is studied. A quantum-hydrodynamic model is adopted and degenerate statistics for the electrons is taken into account. The dispersion properties of linear ion acoustic waves are examined in detail. A modified characteristic charge screening length and "sound speed" are introduced, for relativistic quantum plasmas. By employing the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetzov-type equation is derived. Using the small-k expansion method, the stability profile of weakly nonlinear slightly supersonic electrostatic pulses is also discussed. The effect of electron degeneracy on the basic characteristics of electrostatic excitations is investigated. The entire analysis is valid in a three-dimensional as well as in two-dimensional geometry. A brief discussion of possible applications in laboratory and space plasmas is included.

  6. Quantum analysis of a nonlinear microwave cavity-embedded dc SQUID displacement detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Buks, E.

    2008-09-01

    We carry out a quantum analysis of a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) mechanical displacement detector, comprising a SQUID with mechanically compliant loop segment, which is embedded in a microwave transmission line resonator. The SQUID is approximated as a nonlinear current-dependent inductance, inducing an external flux tunable nonlinear Duffing self-interaction term in the microwave resonator mode equation. Motion of the compliant SQUID loop segment is transduced inductively through changes in the external flux threading SQUID loop, giving a ponderomotive radiation pressure-type coupling between the microwave and mechanical resonator modes. Expressions are derived for the detector signal response and noise, and it is found that a soft-spring Duffing self-interaction enables a closer approach to the displacement detection standard quantum limit, as well as cooling closer to the ground state.

  7. Quantum noise and mixedness of a pumped dissipative non-linear oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Bajer, J; Andrzejewski, M; Bajer, Jiri; Miranowicz, Adam; Andrzejewski, Mateusz

    2004-01-01

    Evolutions of quantum noise, characterized by quadrature squeezing parameter and Fano factor, and of mixedness, quantified by quantum von Neumann and linear entropies, of a pumped dissipative non-linear oscillator are studied. The model can describe a signal mode interacting with a thermal reservoir in a parametrically pumped cavity with a Kerr non-linearity. It is discussed that the initial pure states, including coherent states, Fock states, and finite superpositions of coherent states evolve into the same steady mixed state as verified by the quantum relative entropy and the Bures metric. It is shown analytically and verified numerically that the steady state can be well approximated by a nonclassical Gaussian state exhibiting quadrature squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics for the cold thermal reservoir. It is found a rapid increase in the mixedness, especially for the initial Fock states and superpositions of coherent states, during a very short time interval, and then for longer evolution times a dec...

  8. Strong quantum squeezing near the pull-in instability of a nonlinear beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic silicon-based suspended mechanical oscillators, constituting an extremely sensitive force probe, transducer, and actuator, are being increasingly employed in many developing microscopies, spectroscopies, and emerging optomechanical and chem-bio sensors. We predict a significant squeezing in the quantum state of motion of an oscillator constrained as a beam and subject to an electrically induced nonlinearity. By taking into account the quantum noise, the underlying nonlinear dynamics is investigated in both the transient and stationary regimes of the driving force leading to the finding that strongly squeezed states are accessible in the vicinity of the pull-in instability of the oscillator. We discuss a possible application of this strong quantum squeezing as an optomechanical method for detecting broad-spectrum single or low-count photons, and further suggest other novel sensing actions.

  9. Quantum non-demolition measurement of photon number using weak nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)], E-mail: christopher.gerry@lehman.cuny.edu; Bui, Trung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)

    2008-12-08

    We propose an alternative method for the quantum non-demolition measurement of photon numbers wherein weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities are to be used. The usual approach to quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum number involves encoding the photon number, through a cross-Kerr interaction, into a phase shift of a probe coherent state which is then detected through balanced homodyning. Weak nonlinearities produce small phase shifts which are difficult to detect and distinguish. In the method we propose, unbalanced homodyning acts as a displacement operator on the probe beam coherent state such that the cross-Kerr interaction encodes the photon number into the amplitude of a new coherent state. The value of the photon number can be determined by inefficient photon counting on the new coherent state. Our proposed method requires fewer resources than does the usual approach.

  10. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter is gra...

  11. UV Nano-Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    nanomaterials systems for nonlinear optics. PROJECT TIMELINE The project timeline was segmented into 3 monthly intervals. The PhD students, assisted by...technique to remove the scattering component of light from the fluorescence emission with commonly-used fluorometers [Shortell, Optics Express...nanostructure light interaction and also has helped understand and remove unwanted signal contamination through optical element interference effects as

  12. Nonlinear carrier dynamics in a quantum dash optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Ek, Sara; Yvind, Kresten

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental pump-probe spectroscopy of a quantum dash optical amplifier biased at transparency are presented. Using strong pump pulses we observe a competition between free carrier absorption and two-photon induced stimulated emission that can have drastic effects on the transmission ...

  13. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  14. Quantum cosmology on (k = -1)-Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe evolving from stiff matter era to the dust dominated one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the spatially open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe evolving from the stiff matter era to the dust dominated one. Within the quantum analysis based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, we derive the wave function of the (k = -1)-FRW Universe with combined matter sources. On the classical level, one has to deal with the Friedmann equation which leads on a dependence of the scale function on time generally expressed from functional relations involving elliptic integrals.

  15. Quantum nonlinear optics with polar J-aggregates in microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Felipe; Pachon, Leonardo A; Saikin, Semion K; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    We show that an ensemble of organic dye molecules with permanent electric dipole moments embedded in a microcavity can lead to strong optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. The strong long-range electrostatic interaction between chromophores due to their permanent dipoles introduces the desired nonlinearity of the light-matter coupling in the microcavity. We obtain the absorption spectra of a weak probe field under the influence of strong exciton-photon coupling with the cavity field. Using realistic parameters, we demonstrate that a single cavity photon can significantly modify the absorptive and dispersive response of the medium to a probe photon at a different frequency. Finally, we show that the system is in the regime of cavity-induced transparency with a broad transparency window for dye dimers. We illustrate our findings using pseudoisocyanine chloride (PIC) J-aggregates in currently-available optical microcavities.

  16. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  17. Correlations in complex nonlinear systems and quantum information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Innsbruck (Austria); Galla, Tobias [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The dynamical evolution of classical complex systems such as coupled logistic maps or simple models of lattice gases and cellular automata can result in correlations between distant parts of the system. For the understanding of these systems, it is crucial to develop methods to characterize and quantify these multi-party correlations. On the other hand, the study of correlations between distant particles is also a central problem in the field of quantum information theory. There, correlations are often viewed as a resource and many tools have been developed for their characterization. In this talk, we explore the extent to which the tools from quantum information can be applied to study classical complex systems and whether they allow to study complex systems from a different perspective.

  18. Classical and quantum signatures of competing $X^{2}$ nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    White, A G; Taubman, M S; Marte, M A M; Schiller, S; McClelland, D E; Bachor, H A

    1997-01-01

    We report the first observation of the quantum effects of competing competition, namely clamping of the second harmonic power and production of nondegenerate frequencies in the visible. Theory is presented that describes the observations as resulting from competition between various $\\chi^{(2)}$ upconversion and downconversion processes. We show that competition imposes hitherto unsuspected limits to both power generation and squeezing. The observed signatures are expected to be significant effects in practical systems.

  19. Optical nonlinearity for few-photon pulses on a quantum dot-pillar cavity device

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Vivien; Gazzano, Olivier; Lemaitre, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Giant optical nonlinearity is observed under both continuous-wave and pulsed excitation in a deterministically-coupled quantum dot-micropillar system, in a pronounced strong-coupling regime. Using absolute reflectivity measurements we determine the critical intracavity photon number as well as the input and output coupling efficiencies of the device. Thanks to a near-unity input-coupling efficiency, we demonstrate a record nonlinearity threshold of only 8 incident photons per pulse. The output-coupling efficiency is found to strongly influence this nonlinearity threshold. We show how the fundamental limit of single-photon nonlinearity can be attained in realistic devices, which would provide an effective interaction between two coincident single photons.

  20. Quantum noise and spatio-temporal pattern formation in nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten

    2002-01-01

    -harmonic field, and the distinct peaks at the critical wave numbers reveal a quantum image. A microscopical model is suggested as a guide to understanding the processes involved in producing a classical pattern. Finally, the quantum nature of the correlations leads to spatial multimode nonclassical light, which......This work concerns analytical and numerical investigations of cavity enhanced x2 frequency conversion processes, specifically second-harmonic generation (SHG). We focus on how the transverse degrees of freedom affect the dynamics, where the interaction between nonlinearity and diffraction gives...... rise to spatially modulated structures, patterns. The two main parts of the thesis are the classical model and the quantum mechanical model, the latter being an extension of the former by including the inherent quantum fluctuations of light. From a theoretical point of view the classical dynamics...

  1. Analysis on nonlinear optical properties of Cd (Zn) Se quantum dots synthesized using three different stabilizing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Joy Sebastian Prakash; G, Vinitha; Ramachandran, Murugesan; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi

    2017-10-01

    Three different stabilizing agents, namely, L-cysteine, Thioglycolic acid and cysteamine hydrochloride were used to synthesize Cd(Zn)Se quantum dots (QDs). It was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The non-linear optical properties (non-linear absorption and non-linear refraction) of synthesized Cd(Zn)Se quantum dots were studied with z-scan technique using diode pumped continuous wavelaser system at a wavelength of 532 nm. Our (organic) synthesized quantum dots showed optical properties similar to the inorganic materials reported elsewhere.

  2. Nonlinear ion-acoustic structures in a nonextensive electron–positron–ion–dust plasma: Modulational instability and rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shimin, E-mail: gsm861@126.com [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Research Group MAC, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam, 1098XG (Netherlands); Mei, Liquan, E-mail: lqmei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Center for Computational Geosciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Sun, Anbang [Research Group MAC, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam, 1098XG (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The nonlinear propagation of planar and nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron–positron–ion–dust plasma with two-electron temperature distributions is investigated in the context of the nonextensive statistics. Using the reductive perturbation method, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the potential wave amplitude. The effects of plasma parameters on the modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves are discussed in detail for planar as well as for cylindrical and spherical geometries. In addition, for the planar case, we analyze how the plasma parameters influence the nonlinear structures of the first- and second-order ion-acoustic rogue waves within the modulational instability region. The present results may be helpful in providing a good fit between the theoretical analysis and real applications in future spatial observations and laboratory plasma experiments. -- Highlights: ► Modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves in a new plasma model is discussed. ► Tsallis’s statistics is considered in the model. ► The second-order ion-acoustic rogue wave is studied for the first time.

  3. Enhancing a slow and weak optomechanical nonlinearity with delayed quantum feedback to implement a CPHASE gate

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhaoyou

    2016-01-01

    We show that the effective optical nonlinearity of a cavity optomechanical system can be used to implement quantum gates between propagating photons. By using quantum feedback, we can enhance a slow and small optical nonlinearity to generate a large nonlinear phase shift between two spatially separated temporal modes of a propagating electromagnetic field. This allows us to implement a CPHASE gate between the two modes. After presenting a semiclassical derivation of the operation of the gate, we verify the result by a full simulation of the state of the quantum field in the waveguide coupled to a cavity. To efficiently solve the Schr\\"odinger equation of the full system, we develop a matrix product state approach that keeps track of the entangled full quantum state of the coupled system. These simulations verify the operation of the gate in the weak coupling regime where the semiclassical approximation is valid. In addition, we observe a major reduction in gate fidelity as we approach the vacuum strong coupli...

  4. Features and states of microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum-mechanics systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we present the elementary principles of nonlinear quantum mechanics(NLQM),which is based on some problems in quantum mechanics.We investigate in detail the motion laws and some main properties of microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum systems using these elementary principles.Concretely speaking,we study in this paper the wave-particle duality of the solution of the nonlinear Schr6dinger equation,the stability of microscopic particles described by NLQM,invariances and conservation laws of motion of particles,the Hamiltonian principle of particle motion and corresponding Lagrangian and Hamilton equations,the classical rule of microscopic particle motion,the mechanism and rules of particle collision,the features of reflection and the transmission of particles at interfaces,and the uncertainty relation of particle motion as well as the eigenvalue and eigenequations of particles,and so on.We obtained the invariance and conservation laws of mass,energy and momentum and angular momenturn for the microscopic particles,which are also some elementary and universal laws of matter in the NLQM and give further the methods and ways of solving the above questions.We also find that the laws of motion of microscopic particles in such a case are completely different from that in the linear quantum mechanics(LQM).They have a lot of new properties;for example,the particles possess the real wave-corpuscle duality,obey the classical rule of motion and conservation laws of energy,momentum and mass,satisfy minimum uncertainty relation,can be localized due to the nonlinear interaction,and its position and momentum can also be determined,etc.From these studies,we see clearly that rules and features of microscopic particle motion in NLQM is different from that in LQM.Therefore,the NLQM is a new physical theory,and a necessary result of the development of quantum mechanics and has a correct representation of describing microscopic particles in nonlinear systems,which can

  5. Optical nonlinearities of iron doped zinc sulphide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinumon, K. V.; Prasanth, S.; Raj, D. Rithesh; Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped pure and Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Cubic zinc blende phase of the samples was confirmed from X-ray diffraction. The average grain size was found to be in the range of 2-3 nm and was confirmed with TEM. The undoped and doped ZnS samples show blue emission with emission wavelength at 360 nm. A rapid luminescence quenching with increasing dopant concentration was observed. The nonlinear absorption coefficients of the doped and undoped samples were calculated using Z-scan technique.

  6. Classical and Quantum Nonlinear Integrable Systems: Theory and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzezinski, Tomasz [Department of Mathematics, University of Wales Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-12

    This is a very interesting collection of introductory and review articles on the theory and applications of classical and quantum integrable systems. The book reviews several integrable systems such as the KdV equation, vertex models, RSOS and IRF models, spin chains, integrable differential equations, discrete systems, Ising, Potts and other lattice models and reaction--diffusion processes, as well as outlining major methods of solving integrable systems. These include Lax pairs, Baecklund and Miura transformations, the inverse scattering method, various types of the Bethe Ansatz, Painleve methods, the dbar method and fusion methods to mention just a few. The book is divided into two parts, each containing five chapters. The first part is devoted to classical integrable systems and introduces the subject through the KdV equation, and then proceeds through Painleve analysis, discrete systems and two-dimensional integrable partial differential equations, to culminate in the review of solvable lattice models in statistical physics, solved through the coordinate and algebraic Bethe Ansatz methods. The second part deals with quantum integrable systems, and begins with an outline of unifying approaches to quantum, statistical, ultralocal and non-ultralocal systems. The theory and methods of solving quantum integrable spin chains are then described. Recent developments in applying Bethe Ansatz methods in condensed matter physics, including superconductivity and nanoscale physics, are reviewed. The book concludes with an introduction to diffusion-reaction processes. Every chapter is devoted to a different subject and is self-contained, and thus can be read separately. A reader interesting in classical methods of solitons, such as the methods of solving the KdV equation, can start from Chapter 1, while a reader interested in the Bethe Ansatz method can immediately proceed to Chapter 5, and so on. Thus the book should appeal and be useful to a wide range of theoretical

  7. Nonlinear carrier dynamics in a quantum dash optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Ek, Sara; Yvind, Kresten;

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental pump-probe spectroscopy of a quantum dash optical amplifier biased at transparency are presented. Using strong pump pulses we observe a competition between free carrier absorption and two-photon induced stimulated emission that can have drastic effects on the transmission...... dynamics. Thus, both enhancement as well as suppression of the transmission can be observed even when the amplifier is biased at transparency. A simple theoretical model taking into account two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption is presented that shows good agreement with the measurements....

  8. Nonlinear Riccati equations as a unifying link between linear quantum mechanics and other fields of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical physics seems to be in a kind of schizophrenic state. Many phenomena in the observable macroscopic world obey nonlinear evolution equations, whereas the microscopic world is governed by quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory that is supposedly linear. In order to combine these two worlds in a common formalism, at least one of them must sacrifice one of its dogmas. I claim that linearity in quantum mechanics is not as essential as it apparently seems since quantum mechanics can be reformulated in terms of nonlinear Riccati equations. In a first step, it will be shown where complex Riccati equations appear in time-dependent quantum mechanics and how they can be treated and compared with similar space-dependent Riccati equations in supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the time-independent Schrödinger equation can also be rewritten as a complex Riccati equation. Finally, it will be shown that (real and complex) Riccati equations also appear in many other fields of physics, like statistical thermodynamics and cosmology.

  9. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of CO2 molecular aggregates: A quantum chemical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarun K Mandal; Sudipta Dutta; Swapan K Pati

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the structural aspects of several carbon dioxide molecular aggregates and their spectroscopic and nonlinear optical properties within the quantum chemical theory framework. We find that, although the single carbon dioxide molecule prefers to be in a linear geometry, the puckering of angles occur in oligomers because of the intermolecular interactions. The resulting dipole moments reflect in the electronic excitation spectra of the molecular assemblies. The observation of significant nonlinear optical properties suggests the potential application of the dense carbon dioxide phases in opto-electronic devices.

  10. Quantum correlations and entanglement in a model comprised of a short chain of nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, J. K.; Kowalewska-Kudłaszyk, A.; Leoński, W.; Barasiński, A.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a model comprised of a chain of three Kerr-like nonlinear oscillators pumped by two modes of external coherent field. We show that the system can be treated as nonlinear quantum scissors and behave as a three-qubit model. For such situation, different types of tripartite entangled states can be generated, even when damping effects are present in the system. Some amount of such entanglement can survive even in a long-time limit. The flow of bipartite entanglement between subsystems of the model and relations among first-order correlations, second-order correlations, and the entanglement are discussed.

  11. General solution to nonlinear optical quantum graphs using Dalgarno-Lewis summation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lytel, Rick; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    We develop an algorithm to apply the Dalgarno-Lewis (DL) perturbation theory to quantum graphs with multiple, connected edges. We use it to calculate the nonlinear optical hyperpolarizability tensors for graphs and show that it replicates the sum over states computations, but executes ten to fifty times faster. DL requires only knowledge of the ground state of the graph, eliminating the requirement to determine all possible degeneracies of a complex network. The algorithm is general and may be applied to any quantum graph.

  12. Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss phase-locking phenomenon at low-level of quanta and quantum statistics for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR). Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the distribution of photon-number states, the second-order correlation function of photons, the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space, and we analyze formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime of the PDNR.

  13. Construction and exact solution of a nonlinear quantum field model in quasi-higher dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Anjan, E-mail: anjan.kundu@saha.ac.in

    2015-10-15

    Nonperturbative exact solutions are allowed for quantum integrable models in one space-dimension. Going beyond this class we propose an alternative Lax matrix approach, exploiting the hidden multi-space–time concept in integrable systems and construct a novel nonlinear Schrödinger quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions. An intriguing field commutator is discovered, confirming the integrability of the model and yielding its exact Bethe ansatz solution with rich scattering and bound-state properties. The universality of the scheme is expected to cover diverse models, opening up a new direction in the field.

  14. Interference control of nonlinear excitation in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoqing; Tan, Zheng; Zou, Bichen; Zhu, Yifu

    2014-12-01

    We show that by manipulating quantum interference in a multi-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system, the nonlinear excitation of the cavity-atom polariton can be resonantly enhanced while the linear excitation is suppressed. Under the appropriate conditions, it is possible to selectively enhance or suppress the polariton excitation with two free-pace laser fields. We report on an experiment with cold Rb atoms in an optical cavity and present experimental results that demonstrate such interference control of the CQED excitation and its direct application to studies of all-optical switching and cross-phase modulation of the cavity-transmitted light.

  15. The preparation of the nonlinear optical quantum dots in organic polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guochang; Yu, Dabin; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Dapeng; Pan, Maosen

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) is some material which particle size is between 1 to 10 nanometers. Because of the unique nonlinear optical properties, QDs has been widely applied in optical, electrical, magnetic, biological fields etc. Though the size of the nanoscale is bringing the QDs a series of characteristic advantages, it has also brought some problems for further application, such as QDs are easily degenerative according to their small size. However, The preparation of quantum dots with special polymer composite film can avoid this phenomenon, This means that the composite is usually with inert matrix can be realized for further application.

  16. Nonlinear dust acoustic waves with polarization force effects in Kappa distribution plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhou, Suyun; Luo, Rongxiang; Liu, Sanqiu

    2017-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of dust acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in dusty plasmas with the effects of polarization force and superthermal ions are studied. First, the polarization force induced by superthermal ions is obtained. It is shown that the superthermality of background ions affect the Debye screening of dust grains as well as the polarization force significantly. Then for small amplitude solitary waves, the KdV equation is obtained by applying the reductive perturbation technique. And for the arbitrary amplitude solitary waves, the Sagdeev potential method is employed and the Sagdeev potential is analyzed. In both case, the effects of the polarization force associated the ions’ superthermality on the characteristic of the DASWs are analyzed.

  17. Complex Korteweg-de Vries equation and Nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in a magnetoplasma with a pair of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A P

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with a pair of trapped ions is investigated. Starting from a set of hydrodynamic equations for massive dust fluids as well as kinetic Vlasov equations for ions, and applying the reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like equation with a complex coefficient of nonlinearity is derived, which governs the evolution of small-amplitude DA waves in plasmas. The complex coefficient arises due to vortex-like distributions of both positive and negative ions. An analytical as well as numerical solution of the KdV equation are obtained and analyzed with the effects of external magnetic field, the dust pressure as well as different mass and temperatures of positive and negative ions.

  18. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Aniruddha; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar; Bhar, Radhaballav; Khan, Manoranjan

    2017-02-01

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through 'viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation' in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem.

  19. Zeolite Y Films as Ideal Platform for Evaluation of Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sung Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are ideal host material for generation and stabilization of regular ultrasmall quantum dots (QDs array with the size below 1.5 nm. Quantum dots (QDs with high density and extinction absorption coefficient have been expected to give high level of third-order nonlinear optical (3rd-NLO and to have great potential applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we carried out a systematic elucidation of the third-order nonlinear optical response of various types of QDs including PbSe, PbS, CdSe, CdS, ZnSe, ZnS, Ag2Se, and Ag2S by manipulation of QDs into zeolites Y pores. In this respect, we could demonstrate that the zeolite offers an ideal platform for capability comparison 3rd-NLO response of various types of QDs with high sensitivities.

  20. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2015-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s2, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  1. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  2. Intrinsic nonlinearity of interaction of an electromagnetic field with quantum plasma and its research

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with quantum collisionless plasma is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in quantum collisionless plasma at any temperature are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal classical current, received at the classical linear analysis. The case of degenerate electronic plasma is considered. The concept of longitudinal-transversal conductivity is entered. The graphic analysis of the real and imaginary parts of dimensionless coefficient of longitudinal-transversal conductivity is made. It is shown, that for degenerate plasmas the electric current is calculated under the formula, not containing quadratures. In this formula we have allocated known Kohn's singularities (W. Kohn, 1959).

  3. Nonlinear quantum optics in the (ultra)strong light-matter coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo; García-Ripoll, Juan José; Martín-Moreno, Luis; Zueco, David

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of $N$ photons in one dimensional waveguides coupled to $M$ qubits is discussed, both in the strong and ultrastrong qubit-waveguide coupling. Special emphasis is placed on the characterisation of the nonlinear response and its linear limit for the scattered photons as a function of $N$, $M$, qubit inter distance and light-matter coupling. The quantum evolution is numerically solved via the Matrix Product States technique. Both the time evolution for the field and qubits is com...

  4. A nonlinear ordinary differential equation associated with the quantum sojourn time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benguria, Rafael D [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Duclos, Pierre [Universite de Toulon, CPT-CNRS (France); Fernandez, Claudio [Anestoc-Facultad de Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Sing-Long, Carlos, E-mail: rbenguri@fis.puc.c, E-mail: cfernand@mat.puc.c, E-mail: casinglo@gmail.co [Centro de Imagenes Biomedicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-11-26

    We study a nonlinear ordinary differential equation on the half-line, with the Dirichlet boundary condition at the origin. This equation arises when studying the local maxima of the sojourn time for a free quantum particle whose states belong to an adequate subspace of the unit sphere of the corresponding Hilbert space. We establish several results concerning the existence and asymptotic behavior of the solutions.

  5. Fractional quantum Hall edge: Effect of nonlinear dispersion and edge roton

    OpenAIRE

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Sen, Diptiman; Jain, Jainendra K.

    2010-01-01

    According to Wen's theory, a universal behavior of the fractional quantum Hall edge is expected at sufficiently low energies, where the dispersion of the elementary edge excitation is linear. A microscopic calculation shows that the actual dispersion is indeed linear at low energies, but deviates from linearity beyond certain energy, and also exhibits an "edge roton minimum." We determine the edge exponent from a microscopic approach, and find that the nonlinearity of the dispersion makes a s...

  6. A Nonlinear Schrödinger Model for Many-Particle Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering both effects of the s-wave scattering and the atom-atom interaction rather than only the effect of the s-wave scattering, we establish a nonlinear Schrödinger model for many-particle quantum systems and we prove the global existence of a solution to the model and obtain the expression of the solution. Furthermore, we show that the Hamilton energy and the total particle number both are conservative quantities.

  7. Higher-dimensional realization of a nonlinear, one-parameter quantum oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Morris, John R.

    2013-05-01

    We generalize a recently introduced quantum model of a nonlinear oscillator to arbitrary dimensions. In our realization of the model we impose hyperspherical symmetry, which allows for separation of variables in the governing equation. We obtain the discrete spectrum in closed form, as well as the corresponding orthogonal set of normalizable eigenfunctions, located in a weighted Hilbert space. Furthermore, conditions for emptiness of the discrete spectrum are obtained, as well as spectral bounds for the eigenvalues.

  8. Nonlinear spectroscopy of photon-dressed Dirac electrons in a quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.

    2013-01-01

    We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short-lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross-peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional photon-echo spectra are discussed.

  9. Quantum-enhanced tunable second-order optical nonlinearity in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sanfeng; Mao, Li; Jones, Aaron M; Yao, Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Xu, Xiaodong

    2012-04-11

    Second order optical nonlinear processes involve the coherent mixing of two electromagnetic waves to generate a new optical frequency, which plays a central role in a variety of applications, such as ultrafast laser systems, rectifiers, modulators, and optical imaging. However, progress is limited in the mid-infrared (MIR) region due to the lack of suitable nonlinear materials. It is desirable to develop a robust system with a strong, electrically tunable second order optical nonlinearity. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that AB-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) can exhibit a giant and tunable second order nonlinear susceptibility χ((2)) once an in-plane electric field is applied. χ((2)) can be electrically tuned from 0 to ~10(5) pm/V, 3 orders of magnitude larger than the widely used nonlinear crystal AgGaSe(2). We show that the unusually large χ((2)) arise from two different quantum enhanced two-photon processes thanks to the unique electronic spectrum of BLG. The tunable electronic bandgap of BLG adds additional tunability on the resonance of χ((2)), which corresponds to a tunable wavelength ranging from ~2.6 to ~3.1 μm for the up-converted photon. Combined with the high electron mobility and optical transparency of the atomically thin BLG, our scheme suggests a new regime of nonlinear photonics based on BLG. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Extensions of Born’s rule to non-linear quantum mechanics, some of which do not imply superluminal communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-08-01

    Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics have a troubled history. They were initially studied for many promising reasons: resolving the measurement problem, formulating a theory of quantum mechanics and gravity, and understanding the limits of standard quantum mechanics. However, certain non-linear theories have been experimentally tested and failed. More significantly, it has been shown that, in general, deterministic non-linear theories can be used for superluminal communication. We highlight another serious issue: the distribution of measurement results predicted by non-linear quantum mechanics depends on the formulation of quantum mechanics. In other words, Born’s rule cannot be uniquely extended to non-linear quantum mechanics. We present these generalizations of Born’s rule, and then examine whether some exclude superluminal communication. We determine that a large class do not allow for superluminal communication, but many lack a consistent definition. Nonetheless, we find a single extension of Born’s rule with a sound operational definition, and that does not exhibit superluminal communication. The non-linear time-evolution leading to a certain measurement event is driven by the state conditioned on measurements that lie within the past light cone of that event.

  11. Optical Nonlinear Properties of CdSeS/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng; TIAN Wei; MA Li-Na; CHEN Wen-Ju; ZHANG Gui-Lan; ZHAO Guo-Feng; CAO Shi-Dong; XIE Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The optical nonlinear properties of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are investigated by Z-scan technique using fundamental harmonic generation (1064nm) of mode-locked Nd:YAG laser for the first time. The experimental results show that two photon absorptions (TPA) occur at input intensity up to 12.5 GW/cm2. CdSeS/ZnS QDs have an average TPA cross section of 13710GM and large nonlinear refractive index on order of 10-7 esu. The large optical nonlinearities perhaps allow the CdSeS/ZnS QDs to be one kind of candidate material for bioimaging and fluorescence label, optical limiting and all-optical switching.

  12. A quantum quasi-harmonic nonlinear oscillator with an isotonic term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rañada, Manuel F., E-mail: mfran@unizar.es [Dep. de Física Teórica and IUMA, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    The properties of a nonlinear oscillator with an additional term k{sub g}/x², characterizing the isotonic oscillator, are studied. The nonlinearity affects to both the kinetic term and the potential and combines two nonlinearities associated to two parameters, κ and k{sub g}, in such a way that for κ = 0 all the characteristics of the standard isotonic system are recovered. The first part is devoted to the classical system and the second part to the quantum system. This is a problem of quantization of a system with position-dependent mass of the form m(x) = 1/(1 − κx²), with a κ-dependent non-polynomial rational potential and with an additional isotonic term. The Schrödinger equation is exactly solved and the (κ, k{sub g})-dependent wave functions and bound state energies are explicitly obtained for both κ < 0 and κ > 0.

  13. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-06-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process.

  14. Size Dependent Optical Nonlinearity and Optical Limiting Properties of Water Soluble CdSe Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju K. Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present third-order optical nonlinear absorption in CdSe quantum dots (QDs with particle sizes in the range of 4.16–5.25 nm which has been evaluated by the Z-scan technique. At an excitation irradiance of 0.54 GW/cm2 the CdSe QDs exhibit reverse saturation indicating a clear nonlinear behavior. Nonlinearity increases with particle size in CdSe QDs within the range of our investigations which in turn depends on the optical band gap. The optical limiting threshold of the QDs varies from 0.35 GW/cm2 to 0.57 GW/cm2 which makes CdSe QDs a promising candidate for reverse-saturable absorption based devices at high laser intensities such as optical limiters.

  15. Nonlinear optics response of semiconductor quantum wells under high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemla, D.S.

    1993-07-01

    Recent investigations on the nonlinear optical response of semiconductor quantum wells in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, H, are reviewed. After some introductory material the evolution of the linear optical properties of GaAs QW`s as a function of H is discussed; an examination is made of how the magneto-excitons (MX) extrapolate continuously between quasi-2D QW excitons (X) when H = 0, and pairs of Landau levels (LL) when H {yields} {infinity}. Next, femtosecond time resolved investigations of their nonlinear optical response are presented; the evolution of MX-MX interactions with increasing H is stressed. Finally, how, as the dimensionality is reduced by application of H, the number of scattering channels is limited and relaxation of electron-hole pairs is affected. How nonlinear optical spectroscopy can be exploited to access the relaxation of angular momentum within magneto-excitons is also discussed.

  16. Quantum Local Symmetry of the D-Dimensional Non-Linear Sigma Model: A Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quadri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We summarize recent progress on the symmetric subtraction of the Non-Linear Sigma Model in D dimensions, based on the validity of a certain Local Functional Equation (LFE encoding the invariance of the SU(2 Haar measure under local left transformations. The deformation of the classical non-linearly realized symmetry at the quantum level is analyzed by cohomological tools. It is shown that all the divergences of the one-particle irreducible (1-PI amplitudes (both on-shell and off-shell can be classified according to the solutions of the LFE. Applications to the non-linearly realized Yang-Mills theory and to the electroweak theory, which is directly relevant to the model-independent analysis of LHC data, are briefly addressed.

  17. Nonlinear interactions between electromagnetic waves and electron plasma oscillations in quantum plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2007-08-31

    We consider nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in a dense quantum plasma, taking into account the electron density response in the presence of the relativistic ponderomotive force and mass increase in the CPEM wave fields. The dynamics of the CPEM waves and EPOs is governed by the two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations and Poisson's equation. The nonlinear equations admit the modulational instability of an intense CPEM pump wave against EPOs, leading to the formation and trapping of localized CPEM wave pipes in the electron density hole that is associated with a positive potential distribution in our dense plasma. The relevance of our investigation to the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments is discussed.

  18. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs. II. Application of canonical perturbation theory in basic graph structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We consider exact and asymptotic solutions of the stationary cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on metric graphs. We focus on some basic example graphs. The asymptotic solutions are obtained using the canonical perturbation formalism developed in our earlier paper [S. Gnutzmann and D. Waltner, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032204]. For closed example graphs (interval, ring, star graph, tadpole graph), we calculate spectral curves and show how the description of spectra reduces to known characteristic functions of linear quantum graphs in the low-intensity limit. Analogously for open examples, we show how nonlinear scattering of stationary waves arises and how it reduces to known linear scattering amplitudes at low intensities. In the short-wavelength asymptotics we discuss how genuine nonlinear effects may be described using the leading order of canonical perturbation theory: bifurcation of spectral curves (and the corresponding solutions) in closed graphs and multistability in open graphs.

  19. Nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling in quantum phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimborn, F [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Witthaut, D [QUANTOP, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kegel, V; Korsch, H J, E-mail: friederike.trimborn@itp.uni-hannover.d [Fachbereich Physik, TU Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We present a detailed analysis of the Landau-Zener problem for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a time-varying double-well trap, especially focusing on the relation between the full many-particle problem and the mean-field approximation. Due to the nonlinear self-interaction a dynamical instability occurs, which leads to a breakdown of adiabaticity and thus fundamentally alters the dynamics. It is shown that essentially all the features of the Landau-Zener problem including the depletion of the condensate mode can be already understood within a semiclassical phase-space picture. In particular, this treatment resolves the formerly imputed incommutability of the adiabatic and semiclassical limits. The possibility of exploiting Landau-Zener sweeps to generate squeezed states for spectroscopic tasks is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we study the influence of phase noise and propose a Landau-Zener sweep as a sensitive yet readily implementable probe for decoherence, since the noise has significant effect on the transition rate for slow parameter variations.

  20. Nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling in quantum phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Trimborn, F; Kegel, V; Korsch, H J; 10.1088/1367-2630/12/5/053010

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Landau-Zener problem for an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a time-varying double-well trap, especially focussing on the relation between the full many-particle problem and the mean-field approximation. Due to the nonlinear self-interaction a dynamical instability occurs, which leads to a breakdown of adiabaticity condition and thus fundamentally alters the dynamics. It is shown that essentially all features of the Landau-Zener problem including the depletion of the condensate mode can be already understood within a semiclassical phase space picture. In particular, this treatment resolves the formerly imputed incommutability of the adiabatic and semiclassical limits. The possibility to exploit Landau-Zener sweeps to generate squeezed states for spectroscopic tasks is analysed in detail. Moreover, we study the influence of phase noise and propose a Landau-Zener sweep as a sensitive, yet readily implementable probe for decoherence, since this has a significant effec...

  1. Geometric methods for nonlinear many-body quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewin, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Geometric techniques have played an important role in the seventies, for the study of the spectrum of many-body Schr\\"odinger operators. In this paper we provide a formalism which also allows to study nonlinear systems. We start by defining a weak topology on many-body states, which appropriately describes the physical behavior of the system in the case of lack of compactness, that is when some particles are lost at infinity. We provide several important properties of this topology and use them to provide a simple proof of the famous HVZ theorem in the repulsive case. In a second step we recall the method of geometric localization in Fock space as proposed by Derezi\\'nski and G\\'erard, and we relate this tool to our weak topology. We then provide several applications. We start by studying the so-called finite-rank approximation which consists in imposing that the many-body wavefunction can be expanded using finitely many one-body functions. We thereby emphasize geometric properties of Hartree-Fock states and ...

  2. Effect of quantum correction on nonlinear thermal wave of electrons driven by laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafari, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-08-01

    In thermal interaction of laser pulse with a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane, the thermal waves of electrons are generated instantly. Since the thermal conductivity of electron is a nonlinear function of temperature, a nonlinear heat conduction equation is used to investigate the propagation of waves in solid DT. This paper presents a self-similar analytic solution for the nonlinear heat conduction equation in a planar geometry. The thickness of the target material is finite in numerical computation, and it is assumed that the laser energy is deposited at a finite initial thickness at the initial time which results in a finite temperature for electrons at initial time. Since the required temperature range for solid DT ignition is higher than the critical temperature which equals 35.9 eV, the effects of quantum correction in thermal conductivity should be considered. This letter investigates the effects of quantum correction on characteristic features of nonlinear thermal wave, including temperature, penetration depth, velocity, heat flux, and heating and cooling domains. Although this effect increases electron temperature and thermal flux, penetration depth and propagation velocity are smaller. This effect is also applied to re-evaluate the side-on laser ignition of uncompressed DT.

  3. Nonlinear Quantum Hall effects in Rarita-Schwinger gas

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xi; Wan, Xiangang; Yu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of higher spin relativistic fermionic materials becomes a new favorite in the study of condensed matter physics. Massive Rarita-Schwinger 3/2-spinor was known owning very exotic properties, such as the superluminal fermionic modes and even being unstable in an external magnetic field. Due to the superluminal modes and the non-trivial constraints on the Rarita-Schwinger gas, we exposit anomalous properties of the Hall effects in (2+1)-dimensions which subvert the well-known quantum Hall paradigms. First, the Hall conductance of a pure Rarita-Schwinger gas is step-like but not plateau-quantized, instead of the linear dependence on the filling factor for a pure spin-1/2 Dirac gas. In reality, the Hall conductance of the Dirac gas is of quantized integer plateaus with the unit $\\frac{e^2}h$ due to the localization away from the Landau level centers. If the general localization rule is applicable to the disordered Rarita-Schwinger gas, the Hall plateaus are also expected to appear but they are nonlinearl...

  4. Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, Jaime H. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Correa, J.D., E-mail: jcorrea@udem.edu.co [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Cra. 87 No. 30-65, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.

  5. Second-order nonlinear susceptibility in quantum dot structure under applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Noori, Farah T. Mohammed; Al-Khursan, Amin H.

    2015-06-01

    A model for quantum dot (QD) subbands, when the dots are in the form of quantum disks, under applied electric field was stated. Then, subbands of dots with different disk radii and heights were calculated under applied field. The competition between the shift due to confinement by field and the size was shown for subbands. Second-order nonlinear susceptibility in quantum dots (QDs) was derived using density matrix theory which is, then, simulated using the calculated subbands. Both interband (IB) and intersubband (ISB) transitions were discussed. High second-order susceptibility in QDs was predicted. The results show a reduction in the susceptibility with the applied field while the peak wavelength was mainly relates to energy difference between subbands. A good match between theory and laboratory experiments was observed. Laboratory experiments at terahertz region might be possible using valence intersubband which is important in many device applications.

  6. Nonlinear optical switching and optical limiting in colloidal CdSe quantum dots investigated by nanosecond Z-scan measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valligatla, Sreeramulu; Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Patra, Amitava; Desai, Narayana Rao

    2016-10-01

    The semiconductor nanocrystals are found to be promising class of third order nonlinear optical materials because of quantum confinement effects. Here, we highlight the nonlinear optical switching and optical limiting of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) using nanosecond Z-scan measurement. The intensity dependent nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of CdSe QDs were investigated by applying the Z-scan technique with 532 nm, nanosecond laser pulses. At lower intensities, the nonlinear process is dominated by saturable absorption (SA) and it is changed to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) at higher intensities. The SA behaviour is attributed to the ground state bleaching and the RSA is ascribed to free carrier absorption (FCA) of CdSe QDs. The nonlinear optical switching behaviour and reverse saturable absorption makes CdSe QDs are good candidate for all-optical device and optical limiting applications.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of free standing films of PbS quantum dots in the nonresonant femtosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Pushpa Ann; Vijayan, C.; Nag, Amit; Goswami, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Devices based on optical technology for high speed communication networks require materials with large nonlinear optical response in the ultrafast regime. Nonlinear optical materials have also attracted wide attention as potential candidates for the protection of optical sensors and eyes while handling lasers. Optical limiters have a constant transmittance at low input influence and a decrease in transmittance at higher fluences and are based on a variety of mechanisms such as nonlinear refraction, nonlinear scattering, multiphoton absorption and free carrier absorption. As we go from bulk to nanosized materials especially in the strong quantum confinement regime where radius of the nanoparticle is less than the bulk exciton Bohr radius, the optical nonlinearity is enhanced due to quantum confinement effect. This paper is on the ultrafast nonresonant nonlinearity in free standing films of PbS quantum dots stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix by a simple chemical route which provides flexibility of processing in a variety of physical forms. Optical absorption spectrum shows significant blue shift from the bulk absorption onset indicating strong quantum confinement. PbS quantumdots of mean size 3.3nm are characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption giving rise to optical limiting is probed using open z-scan technique with laser pulses of 150 fs pulse duration at 780 nm and the results are presented in the nonresonant femtosecond regime. Irradiance dependence on nonlinear absorption are discussed. PMID:24143059

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of free standing films of PbS quantum dots in the nonresonant femtosecond regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Pushpa Ann; Vijayan, C; Nag, Amit; Goswami, Debabrata

    2007-09-17

    Devices based on optical technology for high speed communication networks require materials with large nonlinear optical response in the ultrafast regime. Nonlinear optical materials have also attracted wide attention as potential candidates for the protection of optical sensors and eyes while handling lasers. Optical limiters have a constant transmittance at low input influence and a decrease in transmittance at higher fluences and are based on a variety of mechanisms such as nonlinear refraction, nonlinear scattering, multiphoton absorption and free carrier absorption. As we go from bulk to nanosized materials especially in the strong quantum confinement regime where radius of the nanoparticle is less than the bulk exciton Bohr radius, the optical nonlinearity is enhanced due to quantum confinement effect. This paper is on the ultrafast nonresonant nonlinearity in free standing films of PbS quantum dots stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix by a simple chemical route which provides flexibility of processing in a variety of physical forms. Optical absorption spectrum shows significant blue shift from the bulk absorption onset indicating strong quantum confinement. PbS quantumdots of mean size 3.3nm are characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption giving rise to optical limiting is probed using open z-scan technique with laser pulses of 150 fs pulse duration at 780 nm and the results are presented in the nonresonant femtosecond regime. Irradiance dependence on nonlinear absorption are discussed.

  9. Time-evolution of quantum systems via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation. I. Conservative systems with time-independent Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 México DF (Mexico); Schuch, Dieter [Institut für Theoretische Physik, JW Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Castaños, Octavio, E-mail: ocasta@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 México DF (Mexico); Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar [Physics Department, Cinvestav, A. P. 14-740, 07000 México D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The sensitivity of the evolution of quantum uncertainties to the choice of the initial conditions is shown via a complex nonlinear Riccati equation leading to a reformulation of quantum dynamics. This sensitivity is demonstrated for systems with exact analytic solutions with the form of Gaussian wave packets. In particular, one-dimensional conservative systems with at most quadratic Hamiltonians are studied.

  10. Quantum-Classical correspondence in nonlinear multidimensional systems: enhanced di usion through soliton wave-particles

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    Quantum chaos has emerged in the half of the last century with the notorious problem of scattering of heavy nuclei. Since then, theoreticians have developed powerful techniques to approach disordered quantum systems. In the late 70\\'s, Casati and Chirikov initiated a new field of research by studying the quantum counterpart of classical problems that are known to exhibit chaos. Among the several quantum-classical chaotic systems studied, the kicked rotor stimulated a lot of enthusiasm in the scientific community due to its equivalence to the Anderson tight binding model. This equivalence allows one to map the random Anderson model into a set of fully deterministic equations, making the theoretical analysis of Anderson localization considerably simpler. In the one-dimensional linear regime, it is known that Anderson localization always prevents the diffusion of the momentum. On the other hand, for higher dimensions it was demonstrated that for certain conditions of the disorder parameter, Anderson localized modes can be inhibited, allowing then a phase transition from localized (insulating) to delocalized (metallic) states. In this thesis we will numerically and theoretically investigate the properties of a multidimensional quantum kicked rotor in a nonlinear medium. The presence of nonlinearity is particularly interesting as it raises the possibility of having soliton waves as eigenfunctions of the systems. We keep the generality of our approach by using an adjustable diffusive nonlinearity, which can describe several physical phenomena. By means of Variational Calculus we develop a chaotic map which fully describes the soliton dynamics. The analysis of such a map shows a rich physical scenario that evidences the wave-particle behavior of a soliton. Through the nonlinearity, we trace a correspondence between quantum and classical mechanics, which has no equivalent in linearized systems. Matter waves experiments provide an ideal environment for studying Anderson

  11. Effects of graphene quantum dots on linear and nonlinear optical behavior of malignant ovarian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Salman; Ara, Mohammad Hossein Majles; Serahatjoo, Leila

    2016-07-01

    We investigate linear and nonlinear optical properties of standard human ovarian cancer cells (cell line: A2780cp) in vitro. Cells were treated by graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two special concentrations. Nontoxicity of GQDs was examined in standard biological viability tests. Cancerous cells were fixed on a glass slide; then, interaction of light with biofilms was studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. Absorption spectra of untreated biofilms and biofilms with two different concentrations of GQDs was studied by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Optical behavior of biofilms in a linear regime of intensity (with low-intensity laser exposure) was reported using a simple optical setup. After that, we compared the attenuation of light in biofilm of cancerous cells with and without GQDs. Nonlinear behavior of these biofilms was investigated by a Z-scan setup using a continued wave He-Ne laser. Results showed that GQDs decreased the extinction coefficient and changed the sign and exact value of the nonlinear refractive index of malignant ovarian cells noticeably. The nonlinear refractive index of studied cells with no GQDs treatment was in the order of 10-8 (cm2/w) with a positive sign. This quantity changed to the same order of magnitude with a negative sign after GQDs treatment. Thus, GQDs can be used for cancer diagnosis under laser irradiation.

  12. Optimizing optical nonlinearities in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Aleksandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the huge advances made in the design and fabrication of mid-infrared and terahertz quantum cascade lasers, success in accessing the ~3-4 mm region of the electromagnetic spectrum has remained limited. This fact has brought about the need to exploit resonant intersubband transitions as powerful nonlinear oscillators, consequently enabling the occurrence of large nonlinear optical susceptibilities as a means of reaching desired wavelengths. In this work, we present a computational model developed for the optimization of second-order optical nonlinearities in In0.53Ga0.47As/Al0.48In0.52As quantum cascade laser structures based on the implementation of the Genetic algorithm. The carrier transport and the power output of the structure were calculated by self-consistent solutions to the system of rate equations for carriers and photons. Both stimulated and simultaneous double-photon absorption processes occurring between the second harmonic generation-relevant levels are incorporated into rate equations and the material-dependent effective mass and band non-parabolicity are taken into account, as well. The developed method is quite general and can be applied to any higher order effect which requires the inclusion of the photon density equation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45010

  13. Transport of quantum excitations coupled to spatially extended nonlinear many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iubini, Stefano; Boada, Octavi; Omar, Yasser; Piazza, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    The role of noise in the transport properties of quantum excitations is a topic of great importance in many fields, from organic semiconductors for technological applications to light-harvesting complexes in photosynthesis. In this paper we study a semi-classical model where a tight-binding Hamiltonian is fully coupled to an underlying spatially extended nonlinear chain of atoms. We show that the transport properties of a quantum excitation are subtly modulated by (i) the specific type (local versus non-local) of exciton-phonon coupling and by (ii) nonlinear effects of the underlying lattice. We report a non-monotonic dependence of the exciton diffusion coefficient on temperature, in agreement with earlier predictions, as a direct consequence of the lattice-induced fluctuations in the hopping rates due to long-wavelength vibrational modes. A standard measure of transport efficiency confirms that both nonlinearity in the underlying lattice and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling promote transport efficiency at high temperatures, preventing the Zeno-like quench observed in other models lacking an explicit noise-providing dynamical system.

  14. Nonlinear gauge interactions: a possible solution to the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Two fundamental, and unsolved problems in physics are: i) the resolution of the "measurement problem" in quantum mechanics ii) the quantization of strongly nonlinear (nonabelian) gauge theories. The aim of this paper is to suggest that these two problems might be linked, and that a mutual, simultaneous solution to both might exist. We propose that the mechanism responsible for the "collapse of the wave function" in quantum mechanics is the nonlinearities already present in the theory via nonabelian gauge interactions. Unlike all other models of spontaneous collapse, our proposal is, to the best of our knowledge, the only one which does not introduce any new elements into the theory. A possible experimental test of the model would be to compare the coherence lengths - here defined as the distance over which quantum mechanical superposition is still valid - for, \\textit{e.g}, electrons and photons in a double-slit experiment. The electrons should have a finite coherence length, while photons should have a much ...

  15. Non-linear behaviour of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device coupled to a radio frequency oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Murrell, J K J

    2001-01-01

    previously unexplored regions of parameter space. We show that these calculations predict a range of previously unreported dynamical I-V characterises for SQUID rings in the strongly hysteretic regime. Finally, we present the successful realisation of a novel experimental technique that permits the weak link of a SQUID to be probed independently of the associated ring structure by mechanically opening and closing the ring. We demonstrate that this process can be completed during the same experimental run without the need for warming and re-cooling of the sample. This thesis is concerned with the investigation of the non-linear behaviour of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) coupled to a RF tank circuit. We consider two regimes, one where the underlying SQUID behaviour is non-hysteretic with respect to an externally applied magnetic flux, and the other where hysteretic (dissipative) behaviour is observed. We show that, by following non-linearities induced in the tank circuit response, the un...

  16. Nonlinear Absorptions of CdSeTe Quantum Dots under Ultrafast Laser Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Chai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil-soluble alloyed CdSeTe quantum dots (QDs are prepared by the electrostatic method. The basic properties of synthesized CdSeTe QDs are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscope. The off-resonant nonlinear optical properties of CdSeTe QDs are studied by femtosecond Z-scan at 1 kHz (low-repetition rate and 84 MHz (high-repetition rate. Nonlinear absorption coefficients are calculated under different femtosecond laser excitations. Due to the long luminescent lifetime of CdSeTe QDs, under the conditions of high-repetition rate, for open-aperture curve, heat accumulation and bleaching of ground state are responsible for the decrease of two-photon absorption (TPA coefficient.

  17. Superoperator representation of nonlinear response: unifying quantum field and mode coupling theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamel, Shaul

    2003-08-01

    Computing response functions by following the time evolution of superoperators in Liouville space (whose vectors are ordinary Hilbert space operators) offers an attractive alternative to the diagrammatic perturbative expansion of many-body equilibrium and nonequilibrium Green's functions. The bookkeeping of time ordering is naturally maintained in real (physical) time, allowing the formulation of Wick's theorem for superoperators, giving a factorization of higher order response functions in terms of two fundamental Green's functions. Backward propagations and analytic continuations using artificial times (Keldysh loops and Matsubara contours) are avoided. A generating functional for nonlinear response functions unifies quantum field theory and the classical mode coupling formalism of nonlinear hydrodynamics and may be used for semiclassical expansions. Classical response functions are obtained without the explicit computation of stability matrices.

  18. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-fard, T.; Vazifehshenas, T.

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field.

  19. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: rrestre@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.

  20. Photon antibunching and nonlinear effects for a quantum dot coupled to a semiconductor cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, F.; Whittaker, D. M.

    2010-09-01

    The models presented simulate pumping techniques that can be used on modern semiconductor devices which are capable of coupling a quantum dot and cavity mode in order to determine a more efficient method of producing a single-photon emitter while taking into consideration typical parameters which are achievable given today’s standards of coupling strength. Cavity quantum electrodynamics are incorporated in the calculations as we compare various pumping schemes for the system that either use on-resonant laser excitation or nonresonant excitation due to a wetting layer. In particular, we look to study how antibunching effects change for each method as the cavity finesse is increased toward the strong coupling regime. Experimentally these studies are equivalent to nonlinear pump-probe measurements, where a strong pump, either resonant or nonresonant, is used to excite the coupled system, and the resulting state is characterized using a weak, resonant probe beam.

  1. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos [Center for High Performance Simulation and Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  2. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  3. Nonlinear q-Generalizations of Quantum Equations: Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Cases—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Nobre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments on the generalizations of two important equations of quantum physics, namely the Schroedinger and Klein–Gordon equations, are reviewed. These generalizations present nonlinear terms, characterized by exponents depending on an index q, in such a way that the standard linear equations are recovered in the limit q → 1 . Interestingly, these equations present a common, soliton-like, traveling solution, which is written in terms of the q-exponential function that naturally emerges within nonextensive statistical mechanics. In both cases, the corresponding well-known Einstein energy-momentum relations, as well as the Planck and the de Broglie ones, are preserved for arbitrary values of q. In order to deal appropriately with the continuity equation, a classical field theory has been developed, where besides the usual Ψ ( x → , t , a new field Φ ( x → , t must be introduced; this latter field becomes Ψ * ( x → , t only when q → 1 . A class of linear nonhomogeneous Schroedinger equations, characterized by position-dependent masses, for which the extra field Φ ( x → , t becomes necessary, is also investigated. In this case, an appropriate transformation connecting Ψ ( x → , t and Φ ( x → , t is proposed, opening the possibility for finding a connection between these fields in the nonlinear cases. The solutions presented herein are potential candidates for applications to nonlinear excitations in plasma physics, nonlinear optics, in structures, such as those of graphene, as well as in shallow and deep water waves.

  4. Nanofiber Fabry-Perot microresonator for non-linear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wuttke, C; Brückner, S; Rothhardt, M; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally realize a Fabry-Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings which enclose a sub-wavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F = 86 while the on-resonance transmission is T = 11 %. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of non-linear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. In combination with its demonstrated ease of use and its advantageous mode geometry, it thus opens a realm of applications.

  5. Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Rasch, Kevin M; Mitas, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (twofold or more) in valence fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row atom systems for single-configuration trial wave functions. The differences are studied on a set of atoms, molecules, and Si, C solids. These systems are valence isoelectronic and have similar correlation energies, bond patterns, geometries, ground states, and symmetries. We show that the key reasons are the differences between the electron densities combined with the degree of node nonlinearities. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems and provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases.

  6. Nonlinear relativistic and quantum equations with a common type of solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, F D; Rego-Monteiro, M A; Tsallis, C

    2011-04-08

    Generalizations of the three main equations of quantum physics, namely, the Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations, are proposed. Nonlinear terms, characterized by exponents depending on an index q, are considered in such a way that the standard linear equations are recovered in the limit q→1. Interestingly, these equations present a common, solitonlike, traveling solution, which is written in terms of the q-exponential function that naturally emerges within nonextensive statistical mechanics. In all cases, the well-known Einstein energy-momentum relation is preserved for arbitrary values of q.

  7. Nanofiber Fabry-Perot microresonator for nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, C; Becker, M; Brückner, S; Rothhardt, M; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2012-06-01

    We experimentally realize a Fabry-Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings that enclose a subwavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F=86 while the on-resonance transmission is T=11%. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. These characteristics, combined with the demonstrated ease of use and advantageous mode geometry, open a realm of applications.

  8. Coupled force-balance and scattering equations for nonlinear transport in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danhong; Gumbs, Godfrey

    2009-07-01

    The coupled force-balance and scattering equations have been derived and applied to study nonlinear transport of electrons subjected to a strong dc electric field in an elastic-scattering-limited quantum wire. Numerical results have demonstrated both field-induced heating-up and cooling-down behaviors in the nonequilibrium part of the total electron-distribution function by varying the impurity density or the width of the quantum wire. The obtained asymmetric distribution function in momentum space invalidates the application of the energy-balance equation to our quantum-wire system in the center-of-mass frame. The experimentally observed suppression of mobility by a driving field for the center-of-mass motion in the quantum-wire system has been reproduced [see K. Tsubaki , Electr. Lett. 24, 1267 (1988); M. Hauser , Sci. Technol. 9, 951 (1994)]. In addition, the thermal enhancement of mobility in the elastic-scattering-limited system has been demonstrated, in accordance with a similar prediction made for graphene nanoribbons [see T. Fang , Phys. Rev. B 78, 205403 (2008)]. This thermal enhancement has been found to play a more and more significant role with higher lattice temperature and becomes stronger for a low-driving field.

  9. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  10. Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with collaborative attractors for nonlinear numerical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianyu; Jiao, Licheng; Ma, Wenping; Shang, Ronghua

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, an improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (CL-QPSO), which adopts a new collaborative learning strategy to generate local attractors for particles, is proposed to solve nonlinear numerical problems. Local attractors, which directly determine the convergence behavior of particles, play an important role in quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). In order to get a promising and efficient local attractor for each particle, a collaborative learning strategy is introduced to generate local attractors in the proposed algorithm. Collaborative learning strategy consists of two operators, namely orthogonal operator and comparison operator. For each particle, orthogonal operator is used to discover the useful information that lies in its personal and global best positions, while comparison operator is used to enhance the particle's ability of jumping out of local optima. By using a probability parameter, the two operators cooperate with each other to generate local attractors for particles. A comprehensive comparison of CL-QPSO with some state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms on nonlinear numeric optimization functions demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Bright and dark small amplitude nonlinear localized modes in a quantum one-dimensional Klein-Gordon chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yang; Tang Yi

    2008-01-01

    By means of the Glauber's coherent state method combined with multiple-scale method,this paper investigates the localized modes in a quantum one-dimensional Klein-Gordon chain and finds that the equation of motion of annihilation operator is reduced to the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation.Interestingly,the model can support both bright and dark small amplitude travelling and non-travelling nonlinear localized modes in different parameter spaces.

  12. Terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors: spectrum, generation, nonlinear and quantum phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, Sergey; Yampol' skii, V A; Rakhmanov, A L; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The recent growing interest in terahertz (THz) and sub-THz science and technology is due to its many important applications in physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and medicine, including THz imaging, spectroscopy, tomography, medical diagnosis, health monitoring, environmental control, as well as chemical and biological identification. We review the problem of linear and nonlinear THz and sub-THz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and their excitations produced by moving Josephson vortices. We start by discussing the coupled sine-Gordon equations for the gauge-invariant phase difference of the order parameter in the junctions, taking into account the effect of breaking the charge neutrality, and deriving the spectrum of Josephson plasma waves. We also review surface and waveguide Josephson plasma waves. The spectrum of these waves is presented, and their excitation is discussed. We review the propagation of weakly nonlinear Josephson plasma waves below the plasma frequency, {omega}{sub J}, which is very unusual for plasma-like excitations. In close analogy to nonlinear optics, these waves exhibit numerous remarkable features, including a self-focusing effect and the pumping of weaker waves by a stronger one. In addition, an unusual stop-light phenomenon, when {partial_derivative}{omega}/{partial_derivative}k {approx} 0, caused by both nonlinearity and dissipation, can be observed in the Josephson plasma waves. At frequencies above {omega}{sub J}, the current-phase nonlinearity can be used for transforming continuous sub-THz radiation into short, strongly amplified, pulses. We also present quantum effects in layered superconductors, specifically, the problem of quantum tunneling of fluxons through stacks of Josephson junctions. Moreover, the nonlocal sine-Gordon equation for Josephson vortices is reviewed. We discuss the Cherenkov and transition radiations of the Josephson plasma waves produced by moving Josephson vortices, either in a single

  13. Tunable strong nonlinearity of a micromechanical beam embedded in a dc-superconducting quantum interference device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ella, Lior, E-mail: lior.ella@weizmann.ac.il; Yuvaraj, D.; Suchoi, Oren; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-01-07

    We present a study of the controllable nonlinear dynamics of a micromechanical beam coupled to a dc-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device). The coupling between these systems places the modes of the beam in a highly nonlinear potential, whose shape can be altered by varying the bias current and applied flux of the SQUID. We detect the position of the beam by placing it in an optical cavity, which sets free the SQUID to be used solely for actuation. This enables us to probe the previously unexplored full parameter space of this device. We measure the frequency response of the beam and find that it displays a Duffing oscillator behavior which is periodic in the applied magnetic flux. To account for this, we develop a model based on the standard theory for SQUID dynamics. In addition, with the aim of understanding if the device can reach nonlinearity at the single phonon level, we use this model to show that the responsivity of the current circulating in the SQUID to the position of the beam can become divergent, with its magnitude limited only by noise. This suggests a direction for the generation of macroscopically distinguishable superposition states of the beam.

  14. Dark-gray soliton transformations: possibility to study microscopic quantum phenomena by nonlinear optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tenorio, C.; Serkin, V. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Peña-Moreno, R.; Morales-Lara, L.

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) model with an external harmonic potential is one of the most important in modern science. This model makes it possible to analyze a variety of nonlinear phenomena, in nonlinear optics and laser physics, biophysics and in the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms. It is shown that the main specific feature of the dynamics of dark GP matter wave solitons in a parabolic trap is the formation of solitons with dynamically changing form-factors producing the periodic variation in the modulation depth (the degree of "blackness") of dark solitons. In general, the period of dark soliton oscillations in trapping potential depends on the specific conditions of the experiment and does not coincide with the oscillation period of a linear quantum-mechanical oscillator. In the case of an immobile pedestal in the trap, the oscillation period of the black soliton considerably increases because of the periodic transformation of the black soliton to the gray one and vice versa. Surprisingly, that if the dark soliton is superimposed on the base pedestal oscillating in the trap and displaced from the trap center, the oscillation period of the dark soliton coincides with the period of oscillations of the linear harmonic oscillator, while the dynamics of the dark soliton is similar to that of a classical particle obeying the Newton mechanics laws.

  15. Polarization entangled photon-pair source based on quantum nonlinear photonics and interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, F.; Ngah, L. A.; Issautier, A.; Delord, T.; Aktas, D.; D'Auria, V.; De Micheli, M. P.; Kastberg, A.; Labonté, L.; Alibart, O.; Martin, A.; Tanzilli, S.

    2014-09-01

    We present a versatile, high-brightness, guided-wave source of polarization entangled photons, emitted at a telecom wavelength. Photon-pairs are generated using an integrated type-0 nonlinear waveguide, and subsequently prepared in a polarization entangled state via a stabilized fiber interferometer. We show that the single photon emission wavelength can be tuned over more than 50 nm, whereas the single photon spectral bandwidth can be chosen at will over more than five orders of magnitude (from 25 MHz to 4 THz). Moreover, by performing entanglement analysis, we demonstrate a high degree of control of the quantum state via the violation of the Bell inequalities by more than 40 standard deviations. This makes this scheme suitable for a wide range of quantum optics experiments, ranging from fundamental research to quantum information applications. We report on details of the setup, as well as on the characterization of all included components, previously outlined in Kaiser et al. (Laser Phys. Lett. 10 (2013) 045202).

  16. The characteristics of nonlinear chaotic dynamics in quantum cellular neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sen; Cai Li; Kang Qiang; Wu Gang; Li Qin

    2008-01-01

    With the polarization of quantum-dot cell and quantum phase serving as state variables, this paper does both theoretical analysis and simulation for the complex nonlinear dynamical behaviour of a three-cell-coupled Quantum Cel- lular Neural Network (QCNN), including equilibrium points, bifurcation and chaotic behaviour. Different phenomena, such as quasi-periodic, chaotic and hyper-chaotic states as well as bifurcations are revealed. The system's bifurcation and chaotic behaviour under the influence of the different coupling parameters are analysed. And it finds that the unbalanced ceils coupled QCNN is easy to cause chaotic oscillation and the system response enters into chaotic state from quasi-periodic state by quasi-period bifurcation; however, the balanced cells coupled QCNN also can be chaotic when coupling parameters is in some region. Additionally, both the unbalanced and balanced cells coupled QCNNs can possess hyper-chaotic behaviour. It provides valuable information about QCNNs for future application in high-parallel signal processing and novel ultra-small chaotic generators.

  17. Nonlinear optical properties of near-infrared region Ag2S quantum dots pumped by nanosecond laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates near-infrared region Ag2S quantum dots (QDs and their nonlinear optical response under 532 nm nanosecond laser pulses. Our experimental result shows that nonlinear transmission is reduced from 0.084 to 0.04. The observed narrowing behavior of the output pulse width shows superior optical limiting. We discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear optical response of the QDs. The average size of the nanocrystals was 5.5 nm. Our results suggest the possibility of using these Ag2S QDs for photoelectric, biosensor, optical ranging, and self-adaptive technologies.

  18. Spin–orbit interaction effect on nonlinear optical rectification of quantum wire in the presence of electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lahon, Siddhartha, E-mail: sid.lahon@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, Pradip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, DDU College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-04-01

    Here we have investigated the influence of external electric field and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification of a parabolic confinement wire in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum wire radius, electric field, magnetic field, Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate an increase of electric field gives the red-shift of the peak positions of nonlinear optical rectification. The role of confinement strength and spin–orbit interaction strength as control parameters on this nonlinear property have been demonstrated.

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorptions of a Hydrogenic Donor in a Quantum Dot Under a Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in a disc-like parabolic quantum dot in the presence of an external magnetic field are studied. The calculations were performed within the effective mass approximation, using the matrix diagonalization method and the compact density-matrix approach. The linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients between the ground (L = 0) and the first excited state (L = 1) have been examined based on the computed energies and wave functions. We find that the linear, nonlinear third-order, and total optical absorption coefficients are strongly affected by the confinement strength of QDs, the external magnetic field, and the incident optical intensity.

  20. 2 + 1 dimensional de Sitter universe emerging from the gauge structure of a nonlinear quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Chon-Fai; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2017-08-29

    Berry phases and gauge structures are fundamental quantum phenomena. In linear quantum mechanics the gauge field in parameter space presents monopole singularities where the energy levels become degenerate. In nonlinear quantum mechanics, which is an effective theory of interacting quantum systems, there can be phase transitions and hence critical surfaces in the parameter space. We find that these critical surfaces result in a new type of gauge field singularity, namely, a conic singularity that resembles the big bang of a 2 + 1 dimensional de Sitter universe, with the fundamental frequency of Bogoliubov excitations acting as the cosmic scale, and mode softening at the critical surface, where the fundamental frequency vanishes, causing a causal singularity. Such conic singularity may be observed in various systems such as Bose-Einstein condensates and molecular magnets. This finding offers a new approach to quantum simulation of fundamental physics.

  1. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics due to quantum tunneling of phase slips in superconducting Nb nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trezza, M.; Cirillo, C.; Sabatino, P.; Carapella, G.; Attanasio, C. [CNR-SPIN Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica “E. R. Caianiello”, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Prischepa, S. L. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browka 6, Minsk 220013 (Belarus)

    2013-12-16

    We report on the transport properties of an array of N∼30 interconnected Nb nanowires, grown by sputtering on robust porous Si substrates. The analyzed system exhibits a broad resistive transition in zero magnetic field, H, and highly nonlinear V(I) characteristics as a function of H, which can be both consistently described by quantum tunneling of phase slips.

  2. Role of dynamical screening in excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells: Nonlinear absorption and ultrabroadband terahertz emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, B. S.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2006-01-01

    calculations, in particular, predict the strongly nonlinear dependency of the effective optical absorption coefficient on the excitation pulse fluence, and ultrabroadband terahertz emission. Our theoretical model is free of fitting parameters. Calculations performed for internally biased InFaN/GaN quantum...

  3. Non-linear quantum dynamics in strong and short electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Alexander I; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    In our contribution we give a brief overview of two widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.m.) (e.g.\\ laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that at small and moderate laser field intensities the shape and duration of the pulse are very important for the probability of considered processes. However, at high intensities the multi-photon interactions of the fermions with laser field are decisive and completely determined all aspects of subthreshold electron-positron pairs and photon production

  4. Nanoscale displacement sensing based on nonlinear frequency mixing in quantum cascade lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzapesa, F P; De Risi, G; Brambilla, M; Dabbicco, M; Spagnolo, V; Scamarcio, G

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a sensor scheme for nanoscale target displacement that relies on a single Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) subject to optical feedback. The system combines the inherent sensitivity of QCLs to optical re-injection and their ultra-stability in the strong feedback regime where nonlinear frequency mixing phenomena are enhanced. An experimental proof of principle in the micrometer wavelength scale is provided. We perform real-time measurements of displacement with {\\lambda}/100 resolution by inserting a fast-shifting reference etalon in the external cavity. The resulting signal dynamics at the QCL terminals shows a stroboscopic-like effect that relates the sensor resolution with the reference etalon speed. Intrinsic limits to the measurement algorithm and to the reference speed are discussed, disclosing that nanoscale ranges are attainable.

  5. Waveguide quantum electrodynamics - nonlinear physics at the few-photon level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Michael; Sproll, Tobias; Martens, Christoph [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schmitteckert, Peter [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Busch, Kurt [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Theoretische Optik und Photonik, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of few photons in 1D structures coupled to a fermionic impurity gives rise to a set of non-linear effects, induced by an effective interaction due to Pauli blocking such as photon bunching and the formation of atom-photon bound states. We analyze a specific example of such systems, namely a 1-D waveguide coupled to a 2-level system, for the case of one and two-photon transport. Therefore we have developed a general theoretical framework, which contains analytic approaches originating in methods of quantum field theory, like path integrals and Feynman diagrams as well as powerful numerical tools based on solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Owing its generality, our approach is also applicable to more involved setups, including disorder and dissipation as well as more complicated impurities such as driven and undriven 3-level systems.

  6. Effects of Electron-Phonon Interaction on Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Cylindrical Quantum Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU You-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The electron-phonon interaction influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption in cylindrical quantum wires (CQW) with an infinite confining potential are investigated. The optical absorption coefficients are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method, and the numerical results are presented for GaAs CQW. The results show that the electron-phonon interaction makes a distinct influence on optical absorption in CQW. The electron-phonon interaction on the wave functions of electron dominates the values of absorption coefficients and the correction of the electron-phonon effect on the energies of the electron makes the absorption peaks blue shift and become wider. Moreover, the electron-phonon interaction influence on optical absorption with an infinite confining potential is different from that with a finite confining potential.

  7. Nonlinear random gravity. I. Stochastic gravitational waves and spontaneous conformal fluctuations due to the quantum vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Charles H -T; Bingham, Robert; Mendonca, J Tito

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the problem of metric fluctuations in the presence of the vacuum fluctuations of matter fields and critically assess the usual assertion that vacuum energy implies a Planckian cosmological constant. A new stochastic classical approach to the quantum fluctuations of spacetime is developed. The work extends conceptually Boyer's random electrodynamics to a theory of random gravity but has a considerably richer structure for inheriting nonlinearity from general relativity. Attention is drawn to subtleties in choosing boundary conditions for metric fluctuations in relation to their dynamical consequences. Those compatible with the observed Lorentz invariance must allow for spontaneous conformal fluctuations, in addition to stochastic gravitational waves due to zero point gravitons. This is implemented through an effective metric defined in terms of the random spacetime metric modulo a fluctuating conformal factor. It satisfies an effective Einstein equation coupled to an effective stress-energy tens...

  8. First Example of Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Nanoconjugates of Sandwich Phthalocyanines with Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, David O; Yagodin, Alexey V; Mkhize, Nhlakanipho C; Sekhosana, Kutloano E; Martynov, Alexander G; Gorbunova, Yulia G; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-02-24

    We report original, selective, and efficient approaches to novel nonlinear optical (NLO) materials, namely homoleptic double- and triple-decker europium(III) complexes 2 and 3 with the A3 B-type phthalocyanine ligand (2,3-bis[2'-(2''-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexa-n-butoxyphthalocyanine 1) bearing two anchoring diethyleneglycol chains terminated with OH groups. Their covalently linked nanoconjugates with mercaptosuccinic acid-capped ternary CdSeTe/CdTeS/ZnSeS quantum dots are prepared in the presence of an ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide activating agent. Optical limiting (OL) properties of the obtained low-symmetry complexes and their conjugates with quantum dots (QDs) are measured for the first time by the open-aperture Z-scan technique (532 nm laser and pulse rate of 10 ns). For comparison, symmetrical double- and triple-decker Eu(III) octa-n-butoxyphthalocyaninates 5 and 6 and their mixtures with trioctylphosphine oxide-capped QDs are also synthesized and studied. It is revealed that both lowering of molecular symmetry and expansion of the π-electron system upon moving from double- to triple-decker complexes significantly improves the OL characteristics, making the low-symmetry triple-decker complex 3 the most efficient optical limiter in the studied family of sandwich complexes, affording 50 % lowering of light transmittance below 0.5 J cm(-2) input fluence. Conjugation (both covalent and noncovalent) with QDs affords further enhancement of the OL properties of both double- and triple-decker complexes. Altogether, the obtained results contribute to the development of novel nonlinear optical materials for future nanoelectronic and optical device applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Analysis of optical parity gates of generating Bell state for quantum information and secure quantum communication via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity under decoherence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyung-Jin; Hong, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seong-Gon

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the advantages of an optical parity gate using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), quantum bus (qubus) beams, and photon number resolving (PNR) measurement through our analysis, utilizing a master equation under the decoherence effect (occurred the dephasing and photon loss). To generate Bell states, parity gates based on quantum non-demolition measurement using XKNL are extensively employed in quantum information processing. When designing a parity gate via XKNL, the parity gate can be diversely constructed according to the measurement strategies. In practice, the interactions of XKNLs in optical fiber are inevitable under the decoherence effect. Thus, by our analysis of the decoherence effect, we show that the designed parity gate employing homodyne measurement would not be expected to provide reliable quantum operation. Furthermore, compared with a parity gate using a displacement operator and PNR measurement, we conclude there is experimental benefit from implementation of a parity gate via qubus beams and PNR measurement under the decoherence effect.

  10. Effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency based nonlinear frequency conversion in quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sukirti; Gambhir, Monica; Jha, Pradip Kumar; Mohan, Man

    2016-10-01

    We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in χ(3) is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.

  11. Enhancement of surface plasmon resonances on the nonlinear optical properties in a GaAs quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiancong; Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Yang, Tao; Yang, Yanlian

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear optical properties of a metallic nanoparticle (MNP)-semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) hybrid nanosystem with the hybrid exciton effect have been studied. Considering the influence of quantum-size effect to the dielectric function of MNP, the quantum corrected dielectric function was applied to our calculation. By using the compact-density-matrix method, the interaction between MNP and SQD has been studied theoretically. The results show that the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of MNP enhance indeed the nonlinear optical properties of SQD. Further more, the enhancement depends on two factors: (a) the center-to-center 7distance between MNP and SQD; (b) the radius ratio between MNP and SQD.

  12. Linear and nonlinear intersubband optical properties in a triangular quantum ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasri, Djillali [Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, Département de Génie Electrique, Université Ibn-Khaldoun de Tiaret, Zaaroura BP No.78, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Laboratoire de Microphysique et de Nanophysique (LaMiN), Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d’Oran, BP 1523 EL M’Naouer, Oran 31000 (Algeria); Bettahar, N [Faculté des Sciences de la matière, Département de Physique, Université Ibn-Khaldoun de Tiaret, Zaaroura, BP No.78, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria)

    2015-12-01

    Using the effective mass approximation, within the plane wave expansion, the linear and nonlinear coefficients absorption and the refractive index changes relative to the intersubband transitions in the conduction band of an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/ GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As triangular quantum ring for an x-polarization and an y-polarization of the incident light are calculated. It is found that the transition energy between the ground state and the first two excited states and their related optical matrix are strongly influenced by the length of the side of the inner triangle, leading to a red-shift and blue-shift of the resonant peaks of the intersubband optical absorption, for an x-polarized light absorption and an y-polarized light absorption respectively. Our results are qualitatively similar to those of a triangular quantum wire in the presence of an intense laser field in recent literature.

  13. Nonlinear quantum piston for the controlled generation of vortex rings and soliton trains

    KAUST Repository

    Pinsker, Florian

    2013-05-29

    We propose a simple way to generate nonlinear excitations in a controllable way by managing interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates. Under the action of a quantum analog of a classical piston, the condensed atoms are pushed through the trap, generating vortex rings infully three-dimensional condensates or soliton trains in quasi-one-dimensional scenarios. The vortex rings form due to transverse instability of the shock-wave train, enhanced and supported by the energy transfer between waves. We elucidate in what sense the self-interactions within the atom cloud define the properties of the generated vortex rings and soliton trains. Based on the quantum-piston scheme we study the behavior of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates and analyze how the presence of an additional superfluid influences the generation of vortex rings or solitons in the other component, and vice versa. Finally, we show the dynamical emergence of skyrmions within two-component systems in the immiscible regime. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  14. Nonlinear optical rectification in laterally-coupled quantum well wires with applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Hassanbadi, Hassan; Lu, Liangliang

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear optical rectification coefficient χ0(2) in laterally-coupled AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well wires with an applied electric field is theoretically investigated using the effective mass approximation as well as the numerical energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons. We find that χ0(2) is greatly influenced by the electric field as well as both the distance and the radius of the coupled system. A blue shift of χ0(2) with increasing electric field is exhibited while a red shift followed by a blue shift with increasing distance or radius is exhibited. A nonmonotonic behavior can be found in the resonant peak values of χ0(2) along with the increase of the electric field, the distance or the radius. One or two of the following physical mechanisms: the increased localization of the ground and first-excited states, the reduced coupling and the reduced quantum confinement effect are applied to elucidate the results above. Our results play a potential role in infrared photodetectors based on the coupled system.

  15. Three-photon interactions and spin exchange in a quantum nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Sergio; Liang, Qi-Yu; Thompson, Jeff; Nicholson, Travis; Venkatramani, Aditya; Gullans, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey; Choi, Soonwon; Lukin, Mikhail; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    Robust quantum gates for photonic qubits are a longstanding goal of quantum information science. One promising approach to achieve this goal requires strong nonlinear interactions between single photons, which is impossible with conventional optical media. We realize these interactions with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and strongly interacting Rydberg states to mediate strong interactions between photons. Operating in the dispersive regime of EIT, we have recently shown that two photons propagating in our system can bind into a photonic molecule. Extending these two-photon experiments to many-body physics would lead to exotic phenomena like photon crystallization. To that end, we have scaled up our two-photon measurements to three-photon experiments. We are now able to discern signatures of three-photon molecules from a variety of two- and three-photon interactions. Three-photon bound states manifest as an increase in photon bunching in g (3) correlation measurements. We also present a recent observation of coherent spin exchange interactions in Rydberg EIT.

  16. Perspectives for quantum state engineering via high non-linearity in a double-EIT regime

    CERN Document Server

    Paternostro, M; Ham, B S

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the possibilities for quantum state engineering offered by a model for Kerr-type non-linearity enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which was recently proposed by Petrosyan and Kurizki [{\\sl Phys. Rev. A} {\\bf 65}, 33833 (2002)]. We go beyond the semiclassical treatment and derive a quantum version of the model with both a full Hamiltonian approach and an analysis in terms of dressed states. The preparation of an entangled coherent state via a cross-phase modulation effect is demonstrated. We briefly show that the violation of locality for such an entangled coherent state is robust against low detection efficiency. Finally, we investigate the possibility of a bi-chromatic photon blockade realized via the interaction of a low density beam of atoms with a bi-modal electromagnetic cavity which is externally driven. We show the effectiveness of the blockade effect even when more than a single atom is inside the cavity. The possibility to control two different cavity modes allows ...

  17. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabshahi, H., E-mail: arabshahi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad [Physics Department, Al-Zahra University, Vanak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OptiOptical Non-Linear. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Effective Length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schroedinger equation solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructure.

  18. The complete quantum collapse scenario of 2+1 dust shell: Preliminary Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, L

    2007-01-01

    If we consider the gravitational collapse of a material object to a black hole, we would expect, for ranges of mass where a black hole would form, the following scenario. A large enough object would collapse classically until an event horizon forms, and to an external observer the object would be lost fom view. However, once the horizon has formed the black hole will begin to emit Hawking radiation and the hole will lose mass and the horizon will shrink. The final state of this process could be either a zero-mass "black hole" with consequent information loss, or some sort of "quantum remnant. A complete investigation of this process would require: 1) A complete and consistent theory of quantum gravity coupled to some kind of field that would provide the Hawking radiation (which could be the gravitational field itself --gravitons); 2) Some kind of definition of a "horizon" in this quantum gravity, and; 3) The calculational tools to achieve a description of the scenario. Lacking these, one may resort to toy mod...

  19. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  20. Nonlinear quantum critical transport and the Schwinger mechanism for a superfluid-mott-insulator transition of bosons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A G; Sondhi, S L

    2005-12-31

    Scaling arguments imply that quantum-critical points exhibit universal nonlinear responses to external probes. We investigate the origins of such nonlinearities in transport, which is especially problematic since the system is necessarily driven far from equilibrium. We argue that for a wide class of systems the new ingredient that enters is the Schwinger mechanism--the production of carriers from the vacuum by the applied field--which is then balanced against a scattering rate that is itself set by the field. We show by explicit computation how this works for the case of the symmetric superfluid-Mott insulator transition of bosons.

  1. Optical nonlinear response function with linear and diagonal quadratic electron-vibration coupling in mixed quantum-classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Mohamad

    2005-03-22

    While an optical linear response function of linearly and quadratically coupled mixed quantum-classical condensed-phase systems was derived by Toutounji [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 2228 (2004)], the corresponding analytical optical line shape is derived. The respective nonlinear correlation functions are also derived. Model calculations involving photon-echo, pump-probe, and hole-burning signals of model systems with both linear and quadratic coupling are provided. Hole-burning formula of Hayes-Small is compared to that of Mukamel in mixed quantum-classical systems.

  2. All-electrical nonlinear fano resonance in coupled quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shiran

    This thesis is motivated by recent interest in the Fano resonance (FR). As a wave-interference phenomenon, this resonance is of increasing importance in optics, plasmon-ics, and metamaterials, where its ability to cause rapid signal modulations under variation of some suitable parameter makes it desirable for a variety of applications. In this thesis, I focus on a novel manifestation of this resonance in systems of coupled quantum point contacts (QPCs). The major finding of this work is that the FR in this system may be ma-nipulated by applying a nonlinear DC bias to the system. Under such conditions, we are able to induce significant distortions of resonance lineshape, providing a pathway to all-electrical manipulation of the FR. To interpret this behavior we apply a recently-developed model for a three-path FR, involving an additional "intruder" continuum. We have previously used this model to account for the magnetic-field induced distortions of the FR observed in coupled QPCs, and show here that this model also provides a frame-work for understanding the observed nonlinear behavior. Our work therefore reveals a new manifestation of the FR that can be sensitively tailored by external control, a finding that may eventually allow the application of this feature to nanoelectronics. Since the in-terference scheme involves in this thesis is a completely general one, it should be broadly applicable across a variety of different wave-based systems, including those in both pho-tonics and electronics and opening up the possibility of new applications in areas such as chemical and biological sensing and secure communications.

  3. Linear and nonlinear intraband optical properties of ZnO quantum dots embedded in SiO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Maikhuri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate some optical properties of semiconductor ZnO spherical quantum dot embedded in an amorphous SiO2 dielectric matrix. Using the framework of effective mass approximation, we have studied intraband S-P, and P-D transitions in a singly charged spherical ZnO quantum dot. The optical properties are investigated in terms of the linear and nonlinear photoabsorption coefficient, the change in refractive index, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility and oscillator strengths. Using the parabolic confinement potential of electron in the dot these parameters are studied with the variation of the dot size, and the energy and intensity of incident radiation. The photoionization cross sections are also obtained for the different dot radii from the initial ground state of the dot. It is found that dot size, confinement potential, and incident radiation intensity affects intraband optical properties of the dot significantly.

  4. Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories and nonlinear random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V

    2010-01-01

    We study stochastic methods for solving Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories. Expectation values of single-trace operators are sampled by stationary probability distributions of so-called nonlinear random processes. The set of all histories of such processes corresponds to the set of all planar diagrams in the perturbative expansion of the theory. We describe stochastic algorithms for summation of planar diagrams in matrix-valued scalar field theory and in the Weingarten model of random planar surfaces on the lattice. For compact field variables, the method does not converge in the physically most interesting weak-coupling limit. In this case one can absorb the divergences into the self-consistent redefinition of expansion parameters. Stochastic solution of the self-consistency conditions can be implemented as a random process with memory. We illustrate this idea on the example of two-dimensional O(N) sigma-model. Extension to non-Abelian lattice gauge theories is discussed.

  5. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  6. Non-linear hydrodynamics of axion dark matter: relative velocity effects and "quantum forces"

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, David J E

    2015-01-01

    The non-linear hydrodynamic equations for axion/scalar field dark matter (DM) in the non-relativistic Madelung-Shcr\\"{o}dinger form are derived in a simple manner, including the effects of universal expansion and Hubble drag. The hydrodynamic equations are used to investigate the relative velocity between axion DM and baryons, and the moving-background perturbation theory (MBPT) derived. Axions massive enough to be all of the DM do not affect the coherence length of the relative velocity, but the MBPT equations are modified by the inclusion of the axion effective sound speed. These MBPT equations are necessary for accurately modelling the effects of axion DM on the formation of the first cosmic structures, and suggest that the 21cm power spectrum could improve constraints on axion mass by up to four orders of magnitude with respect to the current best constraints. A further application of these results uses the "quantum force" analogy to model scalar field gradient energy in a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics ...

  7. Investigation of Properties of Motion of Superconductive Electrons in Superconductors by Nonlinear Quantum Mechanical Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Pang

    2008-01-01

    The properties and rules of motion of superconductive electrons in steady and time-dependent non-equilibrium states of superconductors are studied by using the Ginzberg-Landau (GL) equations and nonlinear quantum theory. In the absence of external fields, the superconductive electrons move in the solitons with certain energy and velocity in a uniform system, The superconductive electron is still a soliton under action of an electromagnetic field, but its amplitude, phase and shape are changed. Thus we conclude that super- conductivity is a result of motion of soliton of superconductive electrons. Since soliton has the feature of motion for retaining its energy and form, thus a permanent current occurs in superconductor. From these solutions of GL equations under action of an electromagnetic field, we gain the structure of vortex lines-magnetic flux lines observed experimentally in type-II superconductors. In the time-dependent non- equilibrium states of superconductor, the motions of superconductive electrons exhibit still the soliton features, but the shape and amplitude have changed. In an invariant electric-field, it moves in a constant acceleration. In the medium with dissipation, the superconductive electron behaves still like a soliton, although its form, amplitude, and velocity are altered. Thus we have to convince that the superconductive electron is essentially a soliton in both non-equilibrium and equilibrium superconductors.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.J. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei2001@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, M. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs.

  9. Electronic states and the resonant optical non-linearity of exciton in a narrow band InSb quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M. [Department of Physics, Yadava College Govindarajan Campus, Thiruppalai, Madurai-625 014 (India); John Peter, A., E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chang Kyoo [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Binding energy, interband emission energy and the non-linear optical properties of exciton in an InSb/InGa{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} quantum dot are computed as functions of dot radius and the Ga content. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The dependence of non-linear optical processes on the dot sizes is investigated for different Ga concentrations. The linear, third order non-linear optical absorption coefficients, susceptibility values and the refractive index changes of the exciton are calculated for different concentrations of gallium content. It is found that gallium concentration has great influence on the optical properties of InSb/InGa{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} dots.

  10. Lossless synthesis of graphene nanosheets decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots with excellent nonlinear optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Miao; Sun, Ruiqing; Zhan, Hongbing; Chen, Yu

    2010-02-19

    The implantation and growth of metal nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets (GNS) leads directly to severe damage to the regular structure of the graphene sheets, which disrupts the extended pi conjugation, resulting in an impaired device performance. In this paper, we describe a facile approach for achieving the lossless formation of graphene composite decorated with tiny cadmium sulfide quantum dots (QDs) with excellent nonlinear optical properties by using benzyl mercaptan (BM) as the interlinker. The mercapto substituent of BM binds to the CdS QDs during their nucleation and growth process, and then the phenyl comes into contact with the GNS via the pi-pi stacking interaction. Using this strategy, CdS QDs with an average diameter of 3 nm are uniformly dispersed over the surface of graphene, and the resulting QD-graphene composite exhibits excellent optical limiting properties, mainly contributed by nonlinear scattering and nonlinear absorption, upon both 532 and 1064 nm excitations, in the nanosecond laser pulse regime.

  11. Quantum associative memory with linear and non-linear algorithms for the diagnosis of some tropical diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Njafa, Jean-pierre Tchapet

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a model of Quantum Associative Memory (QAM) which can be a helpful tool for physicians without experience or laboratory facilities, for the diagnosis of four tropical diseases (malaria, typhoid fever, yellow fever and dengue) which have several similar symptoms. The memory can distinguish single infection from multi-infection. The two algorithms used for the Quantum Associative Memory are improve models of original linear algorithm made by Ventura for Quantum Associative Memory and the non-linear quantum search algorithm of Abrams and Lloyd. From the simulation results given, it appears that the efficiency of recognition is good when a particular symptom of a disease with the similar symptoms are inserted as linear algorithm is the main algorithm. The non-linear algorithm allows to confirm the diagnosis or to give some advices to the physician. So our QAM which have a graphical user interface for desktop and smartphone is a sensitive, low-cost diagnostic tools that enable rapid and ac...

  12. Signatures of chaotic and non-chaotic-like behaviour in a non-linear quantum oscillator through photon detection

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, M J; Stiffell, P B; Ralph, J F; Bulsara, A R; Harland, C J

    2005-01-01

    The driven non-linear duffing osillator is a very good, and standard, example of a quantum mechanical system from which classical-like orbits can be recovered from unravellings of the master equation. In order to generated such trajectories in the phase space of this oscillator in this paper we use a the quantum jumps unravelling together with a suitable application of the correspondence principle. We analyse the measured readout by considering the power spectra of photon counts produced by the quantum jumps. Here we show that localisation of the wave packet from the measurement of the oscillator by the photon detector produces a concomitant structure in the power spectra of the measured output. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this spectral analysis can be used to distinguish between different modes of the underlying dynamics of the oscillator.

  13. A Static and Dynamic Investigation of Quantum Nonlinear Transport in Highly Dense and Mobile 2D Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Scott

    Heterostructures made of semiconductor materials may be one of most versatile environments for the study of the physics of electron transport in two dimensions. These systems are highly customizable and demonstrate a wide range of interesting physical phenomena. In response to both microwave radiation and DC excitations, strongly nonlinear transport that gives rise to non-equilibrium electron states has been reported and investigated. We have studied GaAs quantum wells with a high density of high mobility two-dimensional electrons placed in a quantizing magnetic field. This study presents the observation of several nonlinear transport mechanisms produced by the quantum nature of these materials. The quantum scattering rate, 1tau/q, is an important parameter in these systems, defining the width of the quantized energy levels. Traditional methods of extracting 1tau/q involve studying the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. We analyze the quantum positive magnetoresistance due to the cyclotron motion of electrons in a magnetic field. This method gives 1tau/q and has the additional benefit of providing access to the strength of electron-electron interactions, which is not possible by conventional techniques. The temperature dependence of the quantum scattering rate is found to be proportional to the square of the temperature and is in very good agreement with theory that considers electron-electron interactions in 2D systems. In quantum wells with a small scattering rate - which corresponds to well-defined Landau levels - quantum oscillations of nonlinear resistance that are independent of magnetic field strength have been observed. These oscillations are periodic in applied bias current and are connected to quantum oscillations of resistance at zero bias: either Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for single subband systems or magnetointersubband oscillations for two subband systems. The bias-induced oscillations can be explained by a spatial variation of electron

  14. Nonlinear electrostatic waves in inhomogeneous dense dusty magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, S., E-mail: shahzad_mahmoodpk@yahoo.co [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-01-25

    The nonlinear electrostatic drift waves are studied using quantum hydrodynamic model in dusty quantum magnetoplasmas. The dissipative effects due to collisions between ions and dust particles have also been taken into account. The Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) like equation is derived and analytical solution is obtained using tanh method. The limiting cases of KdV type solitary waves, Burger type monotonic shock waves and oscillatory shock solutions are also presented. It is found that both hump and dip type solitary structures are possible in quantum dusty plasmas. However, amplitude and width of the nonlinear structure depend on the dust charge polarity and its concentration in electron-ion quantum plasmas. The monotonic shock like structure is independent of the quantum parameter. It is found that shock strength is increased in the presence of positively charged particles in comparison with negatively charged dust particles. The oscillatory shock structures are also obtained and it is found that change in dust charge polarity only shifts the phase of the oscillatory shock in plasmas. The numerical results are also presented for illustration.

  15. Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyronel, Thibault; Firstenberg, Ofer; Liang, Qi Yu

    2012-01-01

    The realization of strong nonlinear interactions between individual light quanta (photons) is a long-standing goal in optical science and engineering, being of both fundamental and technological significance. In conventional optical materials, the nonlinearity at light powers corresponding...

  16. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  17. Impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical response in quantum-well wires with triangular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Sari, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    The 1s-like and 2p-like donor impurity energy states are studied in a semiconductor quantum wire of equilateral triangular cross section as functions of the impurity position and the geometrical size of the structure. Linear and nonlinear coefficients for the optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with 1s→2p transitions are calculated for both the x-polarization and y-polarization of the incident light. The results show a mixed effect of redshift and blueshift depending on the location of the donor atom. Also, strong nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient are obtained for both polarizations in the on-center impurity case. -- Highlights: • The 1s- and 2p-like impurity states in triangular quantum-well wires. • Optical absorption and relative refractive index changes are calculated. • Redshift and blueshift in the optical structures depend on the donor position. • Strong nonlinear contributions to the absorption coefficient have been obtained.

  18. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects on nonlinear optical rectification in a lens shape InAs/GaAs quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzaieene, L., E-mail: lotfi.bouzaiene@fsm.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Micro-optoelectronique et Nanostructures, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Universite de Monastir (Tunisia); Ben Mahrsia, R.; Baira, M.; Sfaxi, L.; Maaref, H. [Laboratoire de Micro-optoelectronique et Nanostructures, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Universite de Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-03-15

    We have performed theoretical calculation of the nonlinear optical rectification in a lens shape InAs/GaAs quantum dot (0D). The combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the nonlinear optical rectification in lens-shaped InAs QDs are studied under the compact density matrix formalism and the effective mass approximation. From our calculation, it is found that the subband energies and optical rectification susceptibility are quite sensitive to the applied hydrostatic pressure and temperature. The results show that the resonant peak of the optical rectification can be red-shifted or blue-shifted and their intensity also varied by external probes such as hydrostatic pressure and temperature. In addition, the oscillator strength is strongly affected by these parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical calculation of the nonlinear optical rectification in a lens shape InAs/GaAs quantum dot was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical rectification susceptibility is quite sensitive to the applied hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oscillator strength is strongly affected by the applied hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of a three-electron quantum dot with account of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanabadi, Hassan, E-mail: h.hasanabadi@shahroodut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimov, Hamed [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lu Liangliang [Department of Physics, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Chao [Institute of Public Administration, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, a detailed investigation of the nonlinear optical properties such as optical absorption and refractive index change associated with intersubband transitions in a three-electron quantum dot in two dimensions in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction has been carried out. We present the exact wave functions and energy levels of the system. Numerical results on typical GaAs/AlGaAs materials show that the decrease of the quantum dot radius blueshifts and amplifies the absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes, as expected. Additionally, an increase of the optical intensity and relaxation time considerably changes the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider a three-electron quantum dot in 2D in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the exact wave functions and energy levels of the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We apply this model for GaAs/AlGaAs materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detailed nonlinear optical properties have been investigated.

  20. Quantum and semiclassical physics behind ultrafast optical nonlinearity in the midinfrared: the role of ionization dynamics within the field half cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryannikov, E E; Zheltikov, A M

    2014-07-25

    Ultrafast ionization dynamics within the field half cycle is shown to be the key physical factor that controls the properties of optical nonlinearity as a function of the carrier wavelength and intensity of a driving laser field. The Schrödinger-equation analysis of a generic hydrogen quantum system reveals universal tendencies in the wavelength dependence of optical nonlinearity, shedding light on unusual properties of optical nonlinearities in the midinfrared. For high-intensity low-frequency fields, free-state electrons are shown to dominate over bound electrons in the overall nonlinear response of a quantum system. In this regime, semiclassical models are shown to offer useful insights into the physics behind optical nonlinearity.

  1. Nonlinear Interactions of Zinc Phthalocyanine-Graphene Quantum Dots Nanocomposites: Investigation of Effects of Surface Functionalization with Heteroatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, Owolabi M; Achadu, Ojodomo J; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-03-01

    This study reports the development of functional optical limiting materials composed of pristine graphene (GQDs), nitrogen-doped (NGQDs) and sulfur-nitrogen co-doped (SNGQDs) graphene quantum dots covalently linked to mono-amino substituted zinc phthalocyanine (Pc). Open aperture Z-scan technique was employed to monitor the behaviour of the conjugates under tightly focussed Gaussian laser beam using a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser delivering 10 nanosecond (FWHM) pulses at 532 nm wavelength. Nonlinear effect due to reverse saturable absorption was the predominant mechanism; and was attributed to the moderately enhanced triplet population. The major factor(s) responsible for the enhanced nonlinearities in the Pc-NGQDs and Pc-SNGQDs was fully described and attributed to the surface defects caused by the presence of heteroatoms of N and S.

  2. Fast response of the optical nonlinearity in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, S H; Sawaki, N

    1999-01-01

    The time response of the optical nonlinear behavior in a GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric triple quantum well structure is estimated by using a picosecond pump-probe method at 77 K. From the results of the transmission of the probe pulse as a function of the delay time at the excitation wavelengths, a rise time of 5 approx 10 ps and a fall time of 8 approx 16 ps are obtained. The nonlinear behavior is attributed to the triple resonance of the electronic states due to the build-up of the internal field induced by the separation of photo-excited electrons and holes. It is found that the rise time is determined by the tunneling transfer time of the electrons in the narrowest well to an adjacent well separated by a thin potential barrier.

  3. Quantum phase transitions between bosonic symmetry-protected topological states without sign problem: Nonlinear sigma model with a topological term

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Bi, Zhen; Mao, Dan; Xu, Cenke

    2016-03-01

    We propose a series of simple two-dimensional (2D) lattice interacting fermion models that we demonstrate at low energy describe bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states and quantum phase transitions between them. This is because due to interaction, the fermions are gapped both at the boundary of the SPT states and at the bulk quantum phase transition, thus these models at low energy can be described completely by bosonic degrees of freedom. We show that the bulk of these models is described by a Sp (N ) principal chiral model with a topological Θ term, whose boundary is described by a Sp (N ) principal chiral model with a Wess-Zumino-Witten term at level 1. The quantum phase transition between SPT states in the bulk is tuned by a particular interaction term, which corresponds to tuning Θ in the field theory, and the phase transition occurs at Θ =π . The simplest version of these models with N =1 is equivalent to the familiar O(4) nonlinear sigma model (NLSM) with a topological term, whose boundary is a (1 +1 )D conformal field theory with central charge c =1 . After breaking the O(4) symmetry to its subgroups, this model can be viewed as bosonic SPT states with U(1), or Z2 symmetries, etc. All of these fermion models, including the bulk quantum phase transitions, can be simulated with the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method without the sign problem. Recent numerical results strongly suggest that the quantum disordered phase of the O(4) NLSM with precisely Θ =π is a stable (2 +1 )D conformal field theory with gapless bosonic modes.

  4. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of asymmetric double quantum well under intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.; Sökmen, I.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in asymmetric double quantum well under the intense non-resonant laser field is theoretically investigated. We calculate the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation within the compact density-matrix approach. The theoretical findings show that the influence of electric, magnetic, and intense laser fields leads to significant changes in the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification, second and third harmonic generation.

  5. Genuinely quantum effects in nonlinear spectroscopy: vacuum fluctuations and their induced superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    León-Montiel, R de J; Yuen-Zhou, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The classical or quantum nature of optical spectroscopy signals is a topic that has attracted great attention recently. Spectroscopic techniques have been classified as quantum or classical depending on the light-source used in their implementations. In this way, experiments performed with quantum light---such as entangled photon pairs---have been labeled as quantum spectroscopies, whereas those performed with coherent laser pulses are generally referred to as classical ones. In this work, we highlight the fact that typical laser-spectroscopy signals should sometimes be deemed quantum too, as they contain information about the quantum vacua of the modes that interact with the sample. Using a minimalistic model, namely frequency-integrated pump-probe spectroscopy, we demonstrate that vacuum contributions can be expressed as a correction term to the \\emph{classical} pump-probe signals, which scales linearly with the intensity of the pump field. Remarkably, we show that these vacuum contributions may not be negl...

  6. Understanding How Isotopes Affect Charge Transfer in P3HT/PCBM: A Quantum Trajectory-Electronic Structure Study with Nonlinear Quantum Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jakowski, Jacek; Garashchuk, Sophya; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2016-09-13

    The experimentally observed effect of selective deuterium substitution on the open circuit voltage for a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM; Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 3180) is explored using a 221-atom model of a polymer-wrapped PCBM molecule. The protonic and deuteronic wave functions for the H/D isotopologues of the hexyl side chains are described within a quantum trajectory/electronic structure approach where the dynamics is performed with newly developed nonlinear corrections to the quantum forces, necessary to describe the nuclear wave functions; the classical forces are generated with a density functional tight binding method. The resulting protonic and deuteronic time-dependent wave functions are used to assess the effects of isotopic substitution (deuteration) on the energy gaps relevant to the charge transfer for the donor and acceptor electronic states. While the isotope effect on the electronic energy levels is found negligible, the quantum-induced fluctuations of the energy gap between the charge transfer and charge separated states due to nuclear wave functions may account for experimental trends by promoting charge transfer in P3HT:PCBM and increasing charge recombination on the donor in the deuterium substituted P3HT:PCBM.

  7. Nonlinear Acoustics in a Dispersive Continuum: Random Waves, Radiation Pressure, and Quantum Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Karpman , Nonlinear Waves in Dispersive Media, Pergamon Press, New York, 1975, p. 76. 26. R. Beyers, Nonlinear Acoustics, U.S. Government Printing...20301 U. S. Army Research nffice 2 copies Box 12211 Research Triangle Park tlorth Carolina 27709 Defense Technical Information Center 12 copies Cameron

  8. Creation technique and nonlinear optics of dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystals in colloidal solution of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Golinskaya, A. D.; Ezhova, K.; Kozlova, M.; Stebakova, J. V.; Valchuk, Y. V.

    2017-05-01

    One-dimensional dynamic photonic crystal was formed by a periodic spatial modulation of dielectric permittivity induced by the two ultrashort laser pulses interference in semiconductor quantum dots CdSe/ZnS (QDs) colloidal solution intersecting at angle θ. The fundamental differences of dynamic photonic crystals from static ones which determine the properties of these transient structures are the following. I. Dynamic photonic crystals lifetimes are determined by the nature of nonlinear changes of dielectric permittivity. II. The refractive index changing is determined by the intensity of the induced standing wave maxima and nonlinear susceptibility of the sample. We use the pump and probe method to create the dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystal and to analyze its features. Two focused laser beams are the pump beams, that form in the colloidal solution of quantum dots dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystal. The picosecond continuum, generated by the first harmonic of laser (1064 nm) passing through a heavy water is used as the probe beam. The self-diffraction of pumping beams on self induced dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystal provides information about spatial combining of laser beams.

  9. Stark effect-dependent of impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption of a (In,Ga)N-GaN spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Zorkani, Izeddine; Jorio, Anouar

    2015-03-01

    The nonlinear intra-conduction band optical properties of a wurtzite (In,Ga)N-GaN spherical quantum dot are investigated. The linear, third-order nonlinear, and total absorption coefficients (ACs) of the 1s-1p transition are computed via a combination of the quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) method. The external applied electric field effect is examined within the single-band effective mass and the one-parabolic-band approximations under a finite potential barrier. It is found that the electric field has a great impact on the optical properties of QDs: (i) a significant redshift of the resonant peak is obtained, (ii) the maximum of the amplitude of the optical total AC decreases nonlinearly, and (iii) the Stark shift increases nonlinearly, tending toward the saturation regime. Compared with findings, good agreement is shown.

  10. Preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce: BaTiO3 quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师文生; 陈正豪; 刘宁宁; 吕惠宾; 周岳亮; 崔大复; 杨国桢

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation epitaxial Strancky-Krastanow growth of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots on MgO(100) substrates is demonstrated. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to observe the structure and the growth process of the self-organized complex oxide quantum dots. The average dimension, height, and the density of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots are given. The nonlinear refractive indexes of the wetting layer and the self-organized ordered quantum dots are determined by the single beam Z-scan method. The mechanisms of the nonlinear effect enhancement for these low-dimensional structure are discussed.

  11. Preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation epitaxial Strancky-Krastanow growth of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots on MgO(100) substrates is demonstrated.Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to observe the structure and the growth process of the self-organized complex oxide quantum dots.The average dimension,height,and the density of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots are given.The nonlinear refractive indexes of the wetting layer and the self-organized ordered quantum dots are determined by the single beam Z-scan method.The mechanisms of the nonlinear effect enhancement for these low-dimensional structure are discussed.

  12. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron-positron-ion-dust plasmas with dust size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Kai-Biao [Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong (China)

    2014-06-15

    Nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves which are described with a Kortweg-de vries (KdV) equation by using the reductive perturbation method, are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively-charged dust particles of different sizes and masses. The effects of the power-law distribution of dust and other plasma parameters on the dust-acoustic solitary waves are studied. Numerical results show that the dust size distribution has a significant influence on the propagation properties of dust-acoustic solitons. The amplitudes of solitary waves in the case of a power-law distribution is observed to be smaller, but the soliton velocity and width are observed to be larger, than those of mono-sized dust grains with an average dust size. Our results indicate that only compressed solitary waves exist in dusty plasma with different dust species. The relevance of the present investigation to interstellar clouds is discussed.

  13. Quasi-phase-matched concurrent nonlinearities in periodically poled KTiOPO(4) for quantum computing over the optical frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pysher, Matthew; Bahabad, Alon; Peng, Peng; Arie, Ady; Pfister, Olivier

    2010-02-15

    We report the successful design and experimental implementation of three coincident nonlinear interactions, namely ZZZ (type 0), ZYY (type I), and YYZ/YZY (type II) second-harmonic generation of 780 nm light from a 1560 nm pump beam in a single, multigrating, periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal. The resulting nonlinear medium is the key component for making a scalable quantum computer over the optical frequency comb of a single optical parametric oscillator.

  14. Nonlinear optical rectification in a vertically coupled lens-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dots with wetting layers under hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Mahrsia, R.; Choubani, M., E-mail: mohsenchoubani3@yahoo.fr; Bouzaiene, L.; Maaref, H.

    2016-06-25

    In this paper we explore the structure parameters, hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects on Nonlinear optical rectification (NOR) in an asymmetric vertically coupled lens-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. During epitaxial growth, lens-shaped quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the wetting layer (WL). Many theoretical works have neglected WL and its effect on nonlinear optical properties of QD-based systems for sake of simplicity. However, in this work the WL has been shown to be so influential in the intersubband energy and nonlinear optical rectification magnitude. Also, a detailed and comprehensive study of the nonlinear optical rectification is theoretical investigated within the framework of the compact density-matrix approach and finite difference method (FDM). It's found that nonlinear optical rectification coefficient is strongly affected not only by the WL, but also by the pressure, temperature and the coupled width between the QDs. Obtained results revealed that a red or a blue shift cane be observed. This behavior in the NOR gives a new degree of freedom in regions of interest for device applications. - Highlights: • Vertically coupled lens-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dots is investigated. • Photon energy shifts towards the red with increasing pressure. • Photon energy shifts towards the blue with increasing temperature. • Intersubband energy decreases with increasing the wetting layer width. • Nonlinear optical rectification magnitude is controlled and adjusted.

  15. Nonlinear acoustics in a dispersive continuum: Random waves, radiation pressure, and quantum noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, M. A.

    The nonlinear interaction of sound with sound is studied using dispersive hydrodynamics which derived from a variational principle and the assumption that the internal energy density depends on gradients of the mass density. The attenuation of sound due to nonlinear interaction with a background is calculated and is shown to be sensitive to both the nature of the dispersion and decay bandwidths. The theoretical results are compared to those of low temperature helium experiments. A kinetic equation which described the nonlinear self-inter action of a background is derived. When a Deybe-type cutoff is imposed, a white noise distribution is shown to be a stationary distribution of the kinetic equation. The attenuation and spectrum of decay of a sound wave due to nonlinear interaction with zero point motion is calculated. In one dimension, the dispersive hydrodynamic equations are used to calculate the Langevin and Rayleigh radiation pressures of wave packets and solitary waves.

  16. Quantum-classical correspondence in multimensional nonlinear systems: Anderson localization and "superdiffusive" solitons

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    We have theoretically studied Anderson localization in a 2D+1 nonlinear kicked rotor model. The system shows a very rich dynamical behavior, where the Anderson localization is suppressed and soliton wave-particles undergo a superdiffusive motion.

  17. Lectures on light nonlinear and quantum optics using the density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between introductory quantum mechanics and the research front of modern optics and scientific fields that make use of light. While suitable as a reference for the specialist in quantum optics, it also targets non-specialists from other disciplines who need to understand light and its uses in research. It introduces a single analytic tool, the density matrix, to analyze complex optical phenomena encountered in traditional as well as cross-disciplinary research. It moves swiftly in a tight sequence from elementary to sophisticated topics in quantum optics, including optical tweezers, laser cooling, coherent population transfer, optical magnetism, electromagnetically induced transparency, squeezed light, and cavity quantum electrodynamics. A systematic approach starts with the simplest systems—stationary two-level atoms—then introduces atomic motion, adds more energy levels, and moves on to discuss first-, second-, and third-order coherence effects that are the basis for analyzing n...

  18. Nonlinear transport in coupled quantum dots:A stationary probability approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The stationary tunneling current and differential conductance of the coupled quantum dots system with split-gates are calculated by generalizing the Beenaker’s linear response theory for the description of the Coulomb-blockade oscillations of the conductance in the single quantum dot.The calculation of the charging diagram in parallel through the double dot as function of the two side-gate voltages shows a remarkable agreement with the recent experimental results by Hatano et al.

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of near-infrared region Ag2S quantum dots pumped by nanosecond laser pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Li-wei Liu; Si-yi Hu; Yin-ping Dou; Tian-hang Liu; Jing-quan Lin; Yue Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates near-infrared region Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) and their nonlinear optical response under 532 nm nanosecond laser pulses. Our experimental result shows that nonlinear transmission is reduced from 0.084 to 0.04. The observed narrowing behavior of the output pulse width shows superior optical limiting. We discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear optical response of the QDs. The average size of the nanocrystals was 5.5 nm. Our results suggest the possib...

  20. Third-order non-linear optical susceptibilities in diffusion modified AlxGa1-xN/GaN single quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Panda, M.; Panda, S.; Panda, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the variation of optical properties in the AlGaN/GaN quantum well after thermal annealing is studied. The potential profile change of the quantum well resulting from the interdiffusion of Ga and Al atoms across the interface of the well and the barrier during the thermal treatments is assumed to follow Fick's law. The results show that the thermal annealing can induce an increase of the optical susceptibilities in the AlGaN/GaN quantum well. However the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities are red shifted with increasing in diffusion lengths.

  1. A Fabry-Perot interferometer with quantum mirrors: nonlinear light transport and rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Fratini, F; Safari, L; Poizat, J-Ph; Valente, D; Auffèves, A; Gerace, D; Santos, M F

    2014-01-01

    Optical transport represents a natural route towards fast communications, and it is currently used in large scale data transfer. The progressive miniaturization of devices for information processing calls for the microscopic tailoring of light transport and confinement at length scales appropriate for the upcoming technologies. With this goal in mind, we present a theoretical analysis of a one-dimensional Fabry-Perot interferometer built with two highly saturable nonlinear mirrors: a pair of two-level systems. Our approach captures non-linear and non-reciprocal effects of light transport that were not reported previously. Remarkably, we show that such an elementary device can operate as a microscopic integrated optical rectifier.

  2. Nonlinear photonic diode behavior in energy-graded core-shell quantum well semiconductor rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Suk-Min; Gong, Su-Hyun; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2014-09-10

    Future technologies require faster data transfer and processing with lower loss. A photonic diode could be an attractive alternative to the present Si-based electronic diode for rapid optical signal processing and communication. Here, we report highly asymmetric photonic diode behavior with low scattering loss, from tapered core-shell quantum well semiconductor rods that were fabricated to have a large gradient in their bandgap energy along their growth direction. Local laser illumination of the core-shell quantum well rods yielded a huge contrast in light output intensities from opposite ends of the rod.

  3. Non-linear optical processes involving excited subbands in laser-dressed quantum wires with triangular cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, A.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    The conduction subband structure of a triangular cross-section GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well wire under intense laser field is theoretically investigated by taking into account a finite confining potential. The calculation of the subband energy levels is based on a two-dimensional finite element method within the effective mass approximation. It is shown that a transversally polarized laser field non-uniformly shifts the subband energy levels and could be used for tuning the intersubband transitions and altering the related optical susceptibilities. We found that the non-resonant laser field allows the magnification and the red- or blueshift of the third-order non-linear susceptibility peaks for particular polarizations of the pump light and proper laser parameter values. The effects of the laser dressing field on the intersubband third harmonic generation and quadratic electro-optical process are discussed.

  4. Composition dependent structural, Raman and nonlinear optical properties of PVA capped Zn1-x-yCdxCuyS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Rithesh Raj, D.; Prasanth, S.; Sankar, Pranitha; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2016-08-01

    Composition dependent structural, optical nonlinear and limiting properties of PVA capped Zn1-x-yCdxCuyS quantum dots at different Cu:Zn ratio synthesized by insitu technique is subjected to detailed investigation. Cubic phase of the quantum dots were identified from XRD with particle size in the range 2.5 nm-3.5 nm find excellent correlation with the particle size measured from TEM. With increase in Cu concentration: systematic increment in lattice parameter, red shift in absorption edges and luminescence quenching is observed. Raman scattering reveals good photoactivity evidenced by intensity variation and shifting of LO and TO phonon modes. The intensity dependent third order nonlinearity is studied using Q switched Nd: YAG laser with 532 nm irradiation. Progressive increase in 3 PA coefficient indicated that prepared samples exhibit good nonlinear and optical limiting properties.

  5. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  6. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  7. Generation of quantum entangled states in nonlinear plasmonic structures and metamaterials (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubny, Alexander N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    The practical development of quantum plasmonic circuits incorporating non-classical interference [1] and sources of entangled states calls for a versatile quantum theoretical framework which can fully describe the generation and detection of entangled photons and plasmons. However, majority of the presently used theoretical approaches are typically limited to the toy models assuming loss-less and nondispersive elements or including just a few resonant modes. Here, we present a rigorous Green function approach describing entangled photon-plasmon state generation through spontaneous wave mixing in realistic metal-dielectric nanostructures. Our approach is based on the local Huttner-Barnett quantization scheme [2], which enables problem formulation in terms of a Hermitian Hamiltonian where the losses and dispersion are fully encoded in the electromagnetic Green functions. Hence, the problem can be addressed by the standard quantum mechanical perturbation theory, overcoming mathematical difficulties associated with other quantization schemes. We derive explicit expressions with clear physical meaning for the spatially dependent two-photon detection probability, single-photon detection probability and single-photon density matrix. In the limiting case of low-loss nondispersive waveguides our approach reproduces the previous results [3,4]. Importantly, our technique is far more general and can quantitatively describe generation and detection of spatially-entangled photons in arbitrary metal-dielectric structures taking into account actual losses and dispersion. This is essential to perform the design and optimization of plasmonic structures for generation and control of quantum entangled states. [1] J.S. Fakonas, H. Lee, Y.A. Kelaita and H.A. Atwater, Nature Photonics 8, 317(2014) [2] W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch, Quantum Optics, Wiley (2006). [3] D.A. Antonosyan, A.S. Solntsev and A.A. Sukhorukov, Phys. Rev. A 90 043845 (2014) [4] L.-G. Helt, J.E. Sipe and M.J. Steel, ar

  8. Electric field-induced nonlinearity enhancement in strained semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots coupled to wetting layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sabaeian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of vertical electric field on the electronic and optical properties of strained semi-spheroid-shaped InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD coupled to its wetting layer (WL aimed to enhance the nonlinear optical properties were investigated. The dependence of energy eigenvalues of S- and P- states and intersubband P-to-S transition energy on applied electric field was studied. A ∼∓ߙ10 meV Stark shift in the intersubband P-to-S transition energy was calculated for a semi-spheroid-shaped QD with height of 5 nm and base-length of 20 nm when bias voltage was varied from 0 V to ±0.8V. The dependence of transition dipole moment and linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system on bias voltage was also studied. It was concluded that increasing the bias voltage from -0.8V to +0.8V leads to increase in figure of merit of the system from ∼0.153 to ∼0.198.

  9. Non-linear optical response of an impurity in a cylindrical quantum dot under the action of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacio, Alfonso A.; Rodríguez, Boris A.; Villamil, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical response in a cylindrical quantum dot (CQD) of GaAs / Ga0.6Al0.4 As with a donor impurity in a uniform magnetic field applied in the axial direction of the cylinder is studied theoretically. The calculations were carried out in approximations of effective mass and two-level quantum systems. Using the variational method, the binding energies and the wave functions of the 1s-like y 2pz-like states for different positions of the impurity inside the CQD were found. It was found that the binding energy is greatest in the center of the CQD and diminishes as the impurity moves radially and/or axially. The optical rectification, the change in the refractive index, and the optical absorption were studied as functions of the energy of a photon incident on the CQD and different intensities of the magnetic field, with an impurity located at various positions. It was found that in a CDQ with an impurity inside, the effect of the variation of the intensity of the magnetic field on the optical response is much less than the effect produced by the variation of the position of the impurity. The physical reason for this behavior is that in nanostructures with impurities the Coulomb confinement is stronger than the magnetic confinement. It was also found that when the impurity is in the center of the quantum dot, the optical rectification coefficient is zero, due to the symmetry that the wave function of the impurity exhibits at this geometric point. When the impurity moves in the axial direction, the symmetry is broken and the optical rectification coefficient is different from zero, and its value increases as the impurity moves away from the center of the CQD.

  10. Non-linear dynamics, entanglement and the quantum-classical crossover of two coupled SQUID rings

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, M J

    2009-01-01

    We explore the quantum-classical crossover of two coupled, identical, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) rings. We note that the motivation for this work is based on a study of a similar system comprising two coupled Duffing oscillators. In that work we showed that the entanglement characteristics of chaotic and periodic (entrained) solutions differed significantly and that in the classical limit entanglement was preserved only in the chaotic-like solutions. However, Duffing oscillators are a highly idealised toy model. Motivated by a wish to explore more experimentally realisable systems we now extend our work to an analysis of two coupled SQUID rings. We observe some differences in behaviour between the system that is based on SQUID rings rather than on Duffing oscillators. However, we show that the two systems share a common feature. That is, even when the SQUID ring's trajectories appear to follow (semi) classical orbits entanglement persists.

  11. Pitchfork Bifurcation and Zharov Splitting in Nonlinear Mid-infrared Photothermal Spectroscopy in a liquid crystal using a Quantum Cascade Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Mertiri, Alket; Hong, M K; Mehta, P; Mertz, J; Ziegler, L D; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2013-01-01

    We report on the mid-infrared nonlinear photothermal spectrum of the neat liquid crystal 4-Octyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (8CB) using a tunable Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL). The nonequilibrium steady state characterized by the nonlinear photothermal infrared response undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The bifurcation, observed in heterodyne two-color pump-probe detection, leads to ultrasharp nonlinear infrared spectra similar to those reported in the visible region. A systematic study of the peak splitting as function of absorbed infrared power shows the bifurcation has a critical exponent of 0.5. The surprising observation of an apparently universal critical exponent in a nonequilibrium state is explained using a simple model reminiscent of mean field theory. Apart from the intrinsic interest for nonequilibrium studies, nonlinear photothermal methods lead to a dramatic narrowing of spectral lines, giving rise to a potential new contrast mechanism for the rapidly emerging new field of mid-infrared micros...

  12. Effect of size and indium-composition on linear and nonlinear optical absorption of InGaN/GaN lens-shaped quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Jbara; Zulkafli, Othaman; M, A. Saeed

    2016-05-01

    Based on the Schrödinger equation for envelope function in the effective mass approximation, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in a multi-subband lens quantum dot are investigated. The effects of quantum dot size on the interband and intraband transitions energy are also analyzed. The finite element method is used to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Strain and In-mole-fraction effects are also studied, and the results reveal that with the decrease of the In-mole fraction, the amplitudes of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients increase. The present computed results show that the absorption coefficients of transitions between the first excited states are stronger than those of the ground states. In addition, it has been found that the quantum dot size affects the amplitudes and peak positions of linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients while the incident optical intensity strongly affects the nonlinear absorption coefficients. Project supported by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq, Ibnu Sina Institute and Physics Department of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM RUG Vote No. 06-H14).

  13. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transitions in a quantum disk with flat cylindrical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Monica, E-mail: monica.gambhir@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, P.K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110015 (India); Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and changes in the refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum disk in the form of a flat cylinder are investigated theoretically in the presence of a static magnetic and a laser field within the framework of the compact-density matrix approach. It is found that the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes depend not only on the optical wave intensity but also on the strength of the static magnetic field. The intersubband relaxation time, also, has an important influence on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a quantum disk. -- Highlights: • The study is carried out in a quantum disk having quantum dot geometry. • The linear and non-linear optical properties are studied using density matrix approach. • The study is carried out in the presence of a laser field and a magnetic field. • Influence of incident photon energy and static magnetic field is analyzed. • The optical properties are found to be greatly influenced by the relaxation time.

  14. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we solved the coupled-mode equations for Bragg scattering (BS) in the low- and high-conversion regimes, but without the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM). We now present solutions and Green functions in the low-conversion regime that include NPM. We find that NPM does not change...... are still possible, even when the effects of NPM are included. Finally, the effects of using different input signals are considered, and we conclude that using the natural input modes of the system drastically increases the efficiency. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers...

  15. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  16. Nonlinear extension of the U(2) algebra as the symmetry algebra of the planar anisotropic quantum harmonic oscillator with rational ratio of frequencies and "pancake" nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Kolokotronis, P; Lenis, D; Bonatsos, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    The symmetry algebra of the two-dimensional anisotropic quantum harmonic oscillator with rational ratio of frequencies, which is characterizing ``pancake'' nuclei, is identified as a non-linear extension of the u(2) algebra. The finite dimensional representation modules of this algebra are studied and the energy eigenvalues are determined using algebraic methods of general applicability to quantum superintegrable systems. For labelling the degenerate states an ``angular momentum'' operator is introduced, the eigenvalues of which are roots of appropriate generalized Hermite polynomials. In the special case with frequency ratio 2:1 the resulting algebra is identified as the finite W algebra W_3^{(2)}.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Mono-O-Hydroxy Bidentate Schiff Base: Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Labidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiempirical AM1 SCF method is used to study the first static hyperpolarizabilities β of some novel mono-O-Hydroxy bidentate Schiff base in which electron donating (D and electron accepting (A groups were introduced on either side of the Schiff base ring system. Geometries of all molecules were optimized at the semiempirical AM1. The first static hyperpolarizabilities of these molecules were calculated using Hyperchem package. To understand this phenomenon in the context of molecular orbital picture, we examined the molecular HOMO and molecular LUMO generated via Hyperchem. The study reveals that the mono-O-Hydroxy bidentate Schiff bases have large β values and hence in general may have potential applications in the development of nonlinear optical materials.

  18. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from -1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  19. A Projector Quantum Monte Carlo Method for non-linear wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Lauretta R; Booth, George H

    2016-01-01

    We reformulate the projected imaginary-time evolution of Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo in terms of a Lagrangian minimization. This naturally leads to the admission of polynomial complex wavefunction parameterizations, circumventing the exponential scaling of the approach. While previously these functions have traditionally inhabited the domain of Variational Monte Carlo, we consider recently developments for the identification of deep-learning neural networks to optimize this Lagrangian, which can be written as a modification of the propagator for the wavefunction dynamics. We demonstrate this approach with a form of Tensor Network State, and use it to find solutions to the strongly-correlated Hubbard model, as well as its application to a fully periodic ab-initio Graphene sheet. The number of variables which can be simultaneously optimized greatly exceeds alternative formulations of Variational Monte Carlo, allowing for systematic improvability of the wavefunction flexibility towards exa...

  20. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from −1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  1. Effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation within the framework of effective mass approximation. The analytic expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The numerical results are presented for a typical GaAs/Ga1- x Al x As quantum well. The results show that the nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation coefficients are considerably affected by the electromagnetic fields and intense laser field.

  2. Structure versus solvent effects on nonlinear optical properties of push-pull systems: a quantum-mechanical study based on a polarizable continuum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corozzi, Alessandro; Mennucci, Benedetta; Cammi, Roberto; Tomasi, Jacopo

    2009-12-31

    A quantum mechanical investigation on the effects of the solvent and the structure on nonlinear optical activity of a class of merocyanine compounds has been conducted. The interplay of the two effects on the first hyperpolarizability, computed at density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset level, has been analyzed in combination with ground state properties and geometries and excited state energies and dipoles. A critical analysis of the simplified two-level model has also been presented.

  3. Spin–orbit interaction effect on the linear and nonlinear properties of quantum wire in the presence of electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahon, Siddhartha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: manojmalikdu@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, Pradip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, DDU College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Here we have investigated the influence of external electric field and magnetic field on the optical absorption and refractive index changes of a parabolically confinement wire in the presence of Rashba spin orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum wire radius, electric field, magnetic field, Rashba spin orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate an increase of electric field redshifts the peak positions of absorption coefficient and refractive index changes. The role of confinement strength and spin orbit interaction strength as control parameters on the linear and nonlinear properties have been demonstrated. -- Highlights: • We study nonlinear properties in a quantum wire. • We have solved the effect of external electric and magnetic field with Rashba spin orbit interaction on linear and nonlinear properties in quantum wire. • We have used density matrix theory approach. • We find that the absorption coefficients and changes in refractive index are shifted.

  4. Effects of magnetic field on the terahertz nonlinear optical properties in donor-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Hasan [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Karabuek University, Karabuek 78050 (Turkey); Aslan, Bulent [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Effects of the magnetic field on nonlinear optical properties at THz range in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells doped with donor atoms are investigated. Expressions for the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities are obtained through the solution of the density matrix equations of motion within the rotating wave approximation. Donor binding energies are calculated variationally by means of an iterative shooting algorithm. Magnetic field has strong effect on the nonlinear susceptibility: it removes the degeneracy in energies of 2p{sub {+-}} impurity states and increases the absolute value of the nonlinearity. It is also shown that a large and tunable optical nonlinear figure of merit is possible with the magnetic field applied in the growth direction. The nonlinear optical quantities are also calculated for donor distributions with different full width at half maximum values in the absence of magnetic field and the observed features at low energy part are attributed to the increasing homogeneity in the donor distribution. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and solitons of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2011-12-01

    We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t) = (nh/τ)/cosh(t/τ), with n being an integer and τ being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning.

  6. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of functionalized CdSe quantum dots prepared by plasma sputtering and wet chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Christophe; Dahi, Abdellatif; Dalstein, Laetitia; Busson, Bertrand; Lismont, Marjorie; Colson, Pierre; Dreesen, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    We develop an innovative manufacturing process, based on radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), to prepare neat CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on glass and silicon substrates and further chemically functionalize them. In order to validate the fabrication protocol, their optical properties are compared with those of QDs obtained from commercial solutions and deposited by wet chemistry on the substrates. Firstly, AFM measurements attest that nano-objects with a mean diameter around 13 nm are located on the substrate after RFMS treatment. Secondly, the UV-Vis absorption study of this deposited layer shows a specific optical absorption band, located at 550 nm, which is related to a discrete energy level of QDs. Thirdly, by using two-color sum-frequency generation (2C-SFG) nonlinear optical spectroscopy, we show experimentally the functionalization efficiency of the RFMS CdSe QDs layer with thiol derived molecules, which is not possible on the QDs layer prepared by wet chemistry due to the surfactant molecules from the native solution. Finally, 2C-SFG spectroscopy, performed at different visible wavelengths, highlights modifications of the vibration mode shape whatever the QDs deposition method, which is correlated to the discrete energy level of the QDs.

  7. Fabricating third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots in the presence of Gaussian white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-03-01

    We perform a meticulous analysis of profiles of third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in the presence and absence of noise. We have invoked Gaussian white noise in the present study and noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The QD is doped with a Gaussian impurity. A magnetic field applied perpendicularly serves as a confinement source and the doped system has been exposed to a static external electric field. The TONOS profiles have been monitored against a continuous variation of incident photon energy when several important parameters such as electric field strength, magnetic field strength, confinement energy, dopant location, Al concentration, dopant potential, relaxation time, anisotropy, and noise strength assume different values. Moreover, the influence of mode of introduction of noise (additive/multiplicative) on the TONOS profiles has also been addressed. The said profiles are found to be consisting of interesting observations such as shift of TONOS peak position and maximization/minimization of TONOS peak intensity. The presence of noise alters the features of TONOS profiles and sometimes enhances the TONOS peak intensity from that of noise-free state. Furthermore, the mode of application of noise also often tailors the TONOS profiles in diverse fashions. The observations accentuate the possibility of tuning the TONOS of doped QD systems in the presence of noise.

  8. A high repetition rate experimental setup for quantum non-linear optics with cold Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Hannes; Ball, Simon W.; Huillery, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Using electromagnetically induced transparency and photon storage, the strong dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms and the resulting dipole blockade can be mapped onto light fields to realise optical non-linearities and interactions at the single photon level. We report on the realisation of an experimental apparatus designed to study interactions between single photons stored as Rydberg excitations in optically trapped microscopic ensembles of ultracold 87Rb atoms. A pair of in-vacuum high numerical aperture lenses focus excitation and trapping beams down to 1 μm, well below the Rydberg blockade. Thanks to efficient magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading from an atomic beam generated by a 2D MOT and the ability to recycle the microscopic ensembles more than 20000 times without significant atom loss, we achieve effective repetition rates exceeding 110 kHz to obtain good photon counting statistics on reasonable time scales. To demonstrate the functionality of the setup, we present evidence of strong photon interactions including saturation of photon storage and the retrieval of non-classical light. Using in-vacuum antennae operating at up to 40 GHz, we perform microwave spectroscopy on photons stored as Rydberg excitations and observe an interaction induced change in lineshape depending on the number of stored photons.

  9. Quantum chemical computations and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies of a nonlinear food dye E110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, M; Sekar, N; Jayakumar, V S; Joe, I Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of a well-known food dye sunset yellow FCF (E110) has been recorded and analysed. Assignments of the vibrational spectrum has been facilitated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results of the optimized molecular structure obtained on the basis of B3LYP with 6-31G(d) along with the 'LANL2DZ' basis sets give clear evidence for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and strong hydrogen bonding enhancing the optical nonlinearity of the molecule. The first hyperpolarizability of the acidic monoazo dye 'E110' is computed. Azo stretching frequencies have been lowered due to conjugation and pi-electron delocalization. Hydroxyl vibrations with intramolecular H-bonding are analyzed, supported by the computed results. The natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis confirms this strong hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group and nitrogen of the azo group of the molecule. Assignments of benzene and naphthalene ring vibrations are found to agree well with the theoretical wave numbers.

  10. Metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots: Linear and nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. O.; My, R.; Tung, Y.; Ueda, A.; Zhu, J.; Collins, W. E.; Hall, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantion for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. In general the host material is typically a glass such as optical grade silica. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga and As. An emphasis is placed on host guest interactions between the matrix and the implanted ion and how the matrix effects and implantation parameters can be used to obtain designer level optical devices tailored for specific applications. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. In this part of the program, we are particularly interested in characterizing the thermodynamic and optical properties of these non-composite materials. We also address how phase diagram of the confined material is altered by the interfacial properties between the confined material and the pore wall.

  11. Metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots: Linear and nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. O.; My, R.; Tung, Y.; Ueda, A.; Zhu, J.; Collins, W. E.; Hall, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantion for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. In general the host material is typically a glass such as optical grade silica. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga and As. An emphasis is placed on host guest interactions between the matrix and the implanted ion and how the matrix effects and implantation parameters can be used to obtain designer level optical devices tailored for specific applications. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. In this part of the program, we are particularly interested in characterizing the thermodynamic and optical properties of these non-composite materials. We also address how phase diagram of the confined material is altered by the interfacial properties between the confined material and the pore wall.

  12. Nonlinear piezoelectric properties of GaN quantum dots nucleated at the edge of threading dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dluzewski, Pawel; Young, Toby D.; Jurczak, Gregorz [Interdisciplinary Center of Materials Modeling, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, PAS, Swietokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw (Poland); Majewski, Jacek A. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Interdisciplinary Center of Materials Modeling, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland)

    2007-06-15

    It was observed experimentally by Rouviere et al. that GaN/AlN Quantum Dots (QDs) nucleate at the edge of threading dislocations (Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2632 (1999)). The preferred nucleation of QDs in this way is generally assumed to be due to the influence of the stress/strain field around the dislocation core, which in turn, gives the chemical and geometric conditions for nucleation of the QDs. We solve the finite element problem for QDs situated at the edge of threading dislocations where different lattice parameters, piezoelectric and spontaneous polarisation coefficients are assumed for the QD and its matrix. By solving the elastic and electric equilibrium problems we obtain both the residual stress and electric fields. The computational scheme employed here was obtained by linking two previous finite element algorithms described in references (P. Dluzewski et al., Comput. Mater. Sci. 29, 379 (2004)) and (G. Jurczak et al., phys. stat. sol. (c) 2, 972 (2005) and S.P. Lepkowski et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 245201 (2005)). This approach allows us to get a deeper physical insight into the mechanics and electrical properties of QDs and ultimately determine the efficiency of light emission from these objects. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Quantum Generation Dynamics of Coherent Phonon in Semiconductors: Transient and Nonlinear Fano Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-Ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    The coherent phonon (CP) generation is one of the representative phenomena induced by ultrashort pulsed laser. In particular, in the initial stage of the CP generation in lightly n-doped Si, the vestige of Fano resonance (FR) manifested in a flash was observed in time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, in which it was speculated that this phenomenon results from the birth of transient polaronic quasiparticles composed of electrons and phonons strongly interacting each other. This study is aimed at constructing a fully-quantum-mechanical model for the CP generation and tracking the origin of the transient FR. We calculate two physical quantities in both of polar and non-polar semiconductors such as GaAs and undoped Si. One is a retarded longitudinal susceptibility which allows one to calculate a transient induced photoemission spectrum. The other is the Fourier-transform of LO-phonon displacement into frequency domain. We have succeeded in showing that the transient FR is exclusively caused in Si in harmony with the experiments, though, not observed in GaAs.

  14. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  15. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in modulation-doped quantum wells: Effects of the magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, M.; Karimi, M.J., E-mail: karimi@sutech.ac.ir; Keshavarz, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the linear, the third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a modulation-doped GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As quantum well are investigated numerically. In the effective-mass approximation, the electronic structure of modulation-doped quantum well is calculated by solving the Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The effects of structure parameters, the applied magnetic field and the hydrostatic pressure on the optical properties of the modulation-doped quantum well are studied. Results show that the resonant peaks shift toward the higher (lower) energies with the increase in the magnetic field (pressure). The magnitude of the resonant peaks of the optical properties decreases with the increasing magnetic field or pressure.

  16. Intense laser field effects on the linear and nonlinear intersubband optical properties in a strained InGaN/GaN quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.J., E-mail: karimi@sutech.ac.ir; Vafaei, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a strained InGaN/GaN quantum well are investigated numerically. In the effective-mass approximation, the electronic energy levels and the corresponding wave functions are calculated by taking into account the effects of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields on the conduction band edge. Effects of intense laser field, In composition and the well width on the optical properties of the strained quantum well are studied. Results indicate that the laser field as well as the strain induced piezoelectric field considerably affects the confining potential of the quantum well. Results also show that the resonant peaks experience a red-shift (blue-shift) with the increase in the laser field intensity and well width (In composition)

  17. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and relative refraction index change for an asymmetrical double δ-doped quantum well in GaAs with a Schottky barrier potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-09-01

    In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.

  18. Optical bistability at 980 nm in a strained InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well microcavity with resonant periodic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.; Leroux, G.; Dugrand, L.; Raffle, Y.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Oudar, J. L.

    1993-05-01

    We report on a novel monolithic all-optical bistable device operating at 980 nm, based on the dispersive optical nonlinearity of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells located at the antinodes of the microcavity optical field. This design maximizes the interaction with the intracavity field, and allowed the use of only twelve quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. The first observation of all-optical bistability with strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells is reported, with a contrast ratio of 7:1 and a threshold intensity of 1 kW/sq cm. The operating wavelength offers such key advantages as substrate transparency and compatibility with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers.

  19. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and optically detected electrophonon resonance in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires with different confined phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Doan Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Hoi, Bui Dinh

    2017-03-01

    A quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with confined phonons is used to investigate the nonlinear absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave by electrons in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires. The analytic expression for absorption coefficient is calculated for three models of confined optical phonons: the dielectric continuum (DC), hydrodynamic continuum (HC), and Huang-Zhu (HZ) models. The absorption coefficient depends on the square of the electromagnetic wave amplitude. The electrophonon resonance and optically detected electrophonon resonance (ODEPR) are observed through the absorption spectrum. The full width at half maximum (the line-width) of the ODEPR peaks is obtained by a computational method. The line-width is found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing the quantum wire radius. In particular, numerical results show that the DC and HZ models lead to a similar behaviour of electron - confined phonon interaction whereas the HC model results in a quite different one, especially at small quantum wire radius. For large quantum wire radii, above mentioned phonon models have equivalent contributions to the ODEPR line-width.

  20. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas, E-mail: michael.kopp@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de, E-mail: thomas.haugg@physik.lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, 80333 (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  1. Nonlinear optical rectification and the second and third harmonic generation in Pöschl–Teller quantum well under the intense laser field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şakiroğlu, S., E-mail: serpil.sakiroglu@deu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 İzmir (Turkey); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, İ. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 İzmir (Turkey)

    2012-05-07

    In this work, the effect of a non-resonant intense laser field on the optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation in a Pöschl–Teller quantum well is theoretically investigated. In this regard, the coefficients of nonlinear optical rectification and second and third harmonic generation are obtained by using the compact-density matrix approach and an iterative method. Different values of the asymmetry parameters of the Pöschl–Teller potential as well as intense laser field strength have been considered. Numerical results presented for a typical GaAs quantum wells show that higher-order optical effects are considerably sensitive to intense laser field and can be adjusted by a correct choice of asymmetry parameters of the potential. -- Highlights: ► Higher-order optical effects are considerably sensitive to the intense laser field. ► Increasing ILF shifts the maximum peaks of NOR, SHG and THG toward higher-energies. ► NOR and SHG increase with an enhancement in the asymmetry of the quantum well. ► Nonlinearities can be adjusted by a correct choice of asymmetry parameters.

  2. Dust vortex flows in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, P.K

    2002-12-30

    Coherent nonlinear structures in the form of dust vortex flows have been observed in unmagnetized laboratory dusty plasmas. Our objective here is show that the dynamics of such dust vortices is governed by a modified Navier-Stokes equation (MNSE) and that the stationary solutions of the MNSE can be represented as monopolar as well as a row of identical Stuart and a row of counter-rotating vortices.

  3. The nonlinear optical rectification and second harmonic generation in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum well: Effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature and magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zou, LiLi; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhi-Hai; Yuan, Jian-Hui

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, the effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification (OR) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum well (QW) have been investigated theoretically. Here, the expressions for the optical properties are calculated by the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Simultaneously, the energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions have been obtained by using the finite difference method. The energy eigenvalues and the shape of the confined potential are modulated by the hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. So the results of a number of numerical experiments indicate that the nonlinear OR and SHG strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. This gives a new degree of freedom in various device applications based on the intersubband transitions of electrons.

  4. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J. D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M. E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C. A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  5. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-01

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  6. Nonlinear optical rectification and second-harmonic generation in a semi-parabolic quantum well under intense laser field: Effects of electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Restrepo, R. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical rectification and second harmonic generation coefficients related with intersubband transitions in a semi-parabolic quantum well under intense laser field are theoretically studied. The energy levels and corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving the conduction band Schrödinger-like equation in the parabolic approximation and the envelope function approach. Numerical calculations are presented for a typical GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs quantum well. The results show that both the non-resonant intense laser field and the static external fields have significant influences on the magnitude and resonant peak energy positions of the coefficients under study.

  7. Dielectric confinement on exciton binding energy and nonlinear optical properties in a strained Zn1-xinMgxinSe/Zn1-xoutMgxoutSe quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Abraham Hudson Mark; A. John Peter

    2012-01-01

    The band offsets for a Zn1-xinMgxin Se/Zn1-xoutMgxout Se quantum well heterostructure are determined using the model solid theory.The heavy hole exciton binding energies are investigated with various Mg alloy contents.The effect of mismatch between the dielectric constants between the well and the barrier is taken into account.The dependence of the excitonic transition energies on the geometrical confinement and the Mg alloy is discussed.Non-linear optical properties are determined using the compact density matrix approach.The linear,third order non-linear optical absorption coefficient values and the refractive index changes of the exciton are calculated for different concentrations of magnesium.The results show that the occurred blue shifts of the resonant peak due to the Mg incorporation give the information about the variation of two energy levels in the quantum well width.

  8. Coherent structures in presence of dust charge fluctuations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kakati; K S Goswami

    2000-05-01

    This paper shows the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in a dusty plasma in presence of dust charge fluctuations. Using the typical plasma parameters the potential of the nonlinear coherent structures is derived.

  9. Non-linear exciton spin-splitting in single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum structures in ultrahigh magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Babinski, A.; Ortner, G.; Raymond, S.; Potemski, M.; Bayer, M.; Hawrylak, P.; Forchel, A.; Wasilewski, Z.; Fafard,S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the magnetic field dispersion of the exciton spin-splitting and diamagnetic shift in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) and dot molecules (QDMs) up to $B$ = 28 T. Only for systems with strong geometric confinement, the dispersions can be well described by simple field dependencies, while for dots with weaker confinement considerable deviations are observed: most importantly, in the high field limit the spin-splitting shows a non-linear dependence on $B$, clearly indicating light...

  10. Nonlinear optical properties of free standing films of PbS quantum dots in the nonresonant femtosecond regime

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Pushpa Ann; Vijayan, C.; Nag, Amit; Goswami, Debabrata

    2007-01-01

    Devices based on optical technology for high speed communication networks require materials with large nonlinear optical response in the ultrafast regime. Nonlinear optical materials have also attracted wide attention as potential candidates for the protection of optical sensors and eyes while handling lasers. Optical limiters have a constant transmittance at low input influence and a decrease in transmittance at higher fluences and are based on a variety of mechanisms such as nonlinear refra...

  11. 采用非线性量子比特的形态滤波及其应用%Morphological Filtering Using Nonlinear Quantum Bit and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦龙; 张培林; 李兵; 李胜

    2015-01-01

    针对数学形态学结构元素无法动态调整尺寸的问题,结合量子理论提出一种基于非线性量子比特的形态滤波方法,提升形态学的机械振动信号处理效果。分析机械信号与量子理论结合的可行性,并在此基础上构建机械振动信号的峰值波谷的量子表达形式;结合振动信号的最大值和最小值,通过数学分析提出非线性量子比特的表达式,用于表达振动信号的瞬时状态;根据振动信号邻域的关联性,分析振动信号的局部特点,建立振动信号的三量子位系统;根据机械振动信号的峰值波谷的量子表达形式,在三量子位系统的框架内,提出机械振动信号在量子概率特征下的结构元素尺寸收缩算子,并基于尺寸收缩算子实现结构元素长度的自适应调整。运用轴承故障信号进行分析,结果表明,该方法能够比传统方法更加有效地提取出故障脉冲信息。%Aiming at the problem that mathematical morphology structuring element is unable to adjust its length dynamically, a morphological filtering method using nonlinear quantum bit integrating quantum theory is presented, to enhance mechanical vibration signal processing effect of morphology. Firstly the feasibility of combination between mechanical signal and quantum theory is analyzed. Based on the analysis, the quantum expressions of crest and trough in mechanical vibration signal are presented. Then combining both maximum and minimum of vibration signal, an expression of nonlinear quantum bit is proposed after mathematical analysis, which is used to depict the instantaneous state of vibration signal. The next according to the relevance in the neighbourhood of mechanical vibration signal, a quantum system with multiple quantum bits for mechanical vibration signals is proposed after local characteristics of vibration signals are analyzed. Based on the quantum expressions of crest and trough in

  12. Non-Equilibrium Real-Time Dynamics of Quantum Fields Linear and Non-Linear Relaxation in Scalar and Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Kumar, S P; Pisarski, R D; Salgado, J; Pisarski, Rob D.

    1998-01-01

    The real time evolution of field condensates is solved for small and large field amplitudes in scalar theories.For small amplitudes,the quantum equations of motion for the condensate can be linearized and solved by Laplace transform. The late time evolution turns to be determined by the singularities in the complex plane (one-particle poles, two- and multi- particle cuts, Landau cuts for non-zero initial temperature). In hot scalar electrodynamics, we solve the real time evolution of field condensates with soft length scales \\sim k^{-1}>(eT)^{-1}. Transverse gauge invariant condensates relax as 1/t^2 to amplitudes determined by the quasiparticle poles. We rederive the HTL action using the non-equilibrium field theory techniques.In the nonlinear regime (for large initial energy densities) we analyze the dynamics of dissipation and relaxation in scalar theory after linear unstabilities are shut-off by the quantum back-reaction. A new time scale emerges that separates the linear from the non-linear regimes. This...

  13. Maximal-entropy-production-rate nonlinear quantum dynamics compatible with second law, reciprocity, fluctuation-dissipation, and time-energy uncertainty relations

    CERN Document Server

    Beretta, G P

    2001-01-01

    In view of the recent quest for well-behaved nonlinear extensions of the traditional Schroedinger-von Neumann unitary dynamics that could provide fundamental explanations of recent experimental evidence of loss of quantum coherence at the microscopic level, in this paper, together with a review of the general features of the nonlinear quantum (thermo)dynamics I proposed in a series of papers [see references in G.P. Beretta, Found.Phys. 17, 365 (1987)], I show its exact equivalence with the maximal-entropy-production variational-principle formulation recently derived in S. Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, Phys.Rev. A 63, 022105 (2001). In addition, based on the formalism of general interest I developed for the analysis of composite systems, I show how the variational derivation can be extended to the case of a composite system to obtain the general form of my equation of motion, that turns out to be consistent with the demanding requirements of strong separability. Moreover, I propose a new intriguing fundamental ansat...

  14. Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N

    1991-01-01

    This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics

  15. Working Beyond Moore’s Limit - Coherent Nonlinear Optical Control of Individual and Coupled Single Electron Doped Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Assembled InAs Quantum Dot,”, Applied Physics Letters 97, p. 113110 (2010). DOI: 10.1063/1.3487783 http://scitation.aip.org/content/ aip /journal/apl/97/11...in an InAs quantum dot. Conference on Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication III, JAN 27- 28, 2010 San Francisco, CA...invited Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Vol 64, Su- sanne Yelin, editor, Elsevier, Oxford (2015). 15. A. P. Burgers, J. R

  16. Steady-state linear optical properties and Kerr nonlinear optical response of a four-level quantum dot with phonon-assisted transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Chao, She; Ting-Ting, Luo; Wei-Xi, Zhang; Mao-Wu, Ran; Deng-Long, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The linear optical properties and Kerr nonlinear optical response in a four-level loop configuration GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum dot are analytically studied with the phonon-assisted transition (PAT). It is shown that the changes among a single electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, a double EIT window and the amplification of the probe field in the absorption curves can be controlled by varying the strength of PAT κ. Meanwhile, double switching from the anomalous dispersion regime to the normal dispersion regime can likely be achieved by increasing the Rabi energy of the external optical control field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the group velocity of the probe field can be practically regulated by varying the PAT and the intensity of the optical control field. In the nonlinear case, it is shown that the large SPM and XPM can be achieved as linear absorption vanishes simultaneously, and the PAT can suppress both third-order self-Kerr and the cross-Kerr nonlinear effect of the QD. Our study is much more practical than its atomic counterpart due to its flexible design and the controllable interference strength, and may provide some new possibilities for technological applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61367003), the Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 12A140), and the Scientific Research Fund of Guizhou Provincial Education Department, China (Grant Nos. KY[2015]384 and KY[2015]446).

  17. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  18. Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashviliequation for dust acoustic waves with dust size distribution and two-charges-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Annou; S Bahamida; R Annou

    2011-03-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas with negative as well as positive ions and the combined effects of bounded spherical geometry and the transverse perturbation and the size distribution of dust grains are studied. Using the perturbation method, a spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation that describes the dust acoustic waves is deduced.

  19. Role of surface states and defects in the ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of CuS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary, K. A. Ann; Unnikrishnan, N. V., E-mail: nvu100@yahoo.com [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2014-07-01

    We report facile preparation of water dispersible CuS quantum dots (2–4 nm) and nanoparticles (5–11 nm) through a nontoxic, green, one-pot synthesis method. Optical and microstructural studies indicate the presence of surface states and defects (dislocations, stacking faults, and twins) in the quantum dots. The smaller crystallite size and quantum dot formation have significant effects on the high energy excitonic and low energy plasmonic absorption bands. Effective two-photon absorption coefficients measured using 100 fs laser pulses employing open-aperture Z-scan in the plasmonic region of 800 nm reveal that CuS quantum dots are better ultrafast optical limiters compared to CuS nanoparticles.

  20. Role of nonthermal electrons on dust ion acoustic double layer with variable dust charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Prathana; Gogoi, Deepshikha; Das, Nilakshi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of nonthermal electron may play an important role in the formation of nonlinear structures in plasma. On the other hand, fluctuation of dust charge is an important and unique feature of complex plasma and it gives rise to a dissipative effect in the system leading to the formation of nonlinear structures due to the balance between nonlinearity and dissipation. In this paper, the propagation of nonlinear dust ion acoustic (DIA) wave in unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of ions, nonthermal electrons and dust grains with variable negative charge has been investigated using the Sagdeev potential method. The existence domain of rarefactive double layer (DL) in the DIA wave has been investigated for the range of plasma parameters. The real potential has been obtained by numerically solving the Poisson equation and dust charging equation. It is observed that the presence of nonthermal electrons strengthens the DIA DL.

  1. Controlling Quantum Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Bibek; Pattanayak, Arjendu

    2014-05-01

    We have recently computed Lyapunov exponents describing the chaotic behavior of the quantum trajectories of an open quantum nonlinear oscillator using the Quantum State Diffusion formalism. We have seen several interesting features as a function of changing system parameters. We report on progress towards controlling the observed quantum chaotic behavior using the classical Ott-Grebogi-Yorke protocol.

  2. Second-order nonlinear optical properties in a strained InGaN/AlGaN quantum well under the intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M. J.; Vafaei, H.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the optical rectification and the second harmonic generation coefficients in a strained InGaN/AlGaN quantum well are studied. Impacts of the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields on the potential profile are taken into account. The energy levels and wave functions are calculated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. Effects of intense laser field, In composition, Al composition, the well width and barrier width on the second-order nonlinear optical properties are investigated. Results reveal that the confinement potential is considerably affected by the laser field and internal electric field. Results also indicate that the resonant peaks experience a red-shift with increasing the laser field strength and barrier width. Moreover, the resonant peaks suffer a blue-shift with the increase in In and Al compositions.

  3. Coherent control of ground state excitons in the nonlinear regime within an ensemble of self-assembled InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldaschl, Thomas; Mueller, Thomas; Golka, Sebastian; Parz, Wolfgang; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl [Photonics Institute and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    In this work femtosecond spectral hole burning spectroscopy is used to resonantly excite ground state excitons in an ensemble of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots with a strong pump pulse. Two fundamental coherent nonlinear effects are observed with the aid of the intrinsic time- and frequency resolution of the setup: The low temperature Rabi oscillation of the two-level system associated with the excitonic ground state transition and the observation of two-photon absorption in the surrounding GaAs crystal matrix. The emergence of the latter effect also infers the existence of charged excitons in the nominally undoped QD sample, backed up by the observation of additional spectral holes next to the excitonic transitions. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Discrete quantum Fourier transform using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity and displacement operator and photon-number-resolving measurement under the decoherence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Kang, Min-Sung; Hong, Chang-Ho; Yang, Hyeon; Choi, Seong-Gon

    2016-12-01

    We present a scheme for implementing discrete quantum Fourier transform (DQFT) with robustness against the decoherence effect using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs). The multi-photon DQFT scheme can be achieved by operating the controlled path and merging path gates that are formed with weak XKNLs and linear optical devices. To enhance feasibility under the decoherence effect, in practice, we utilize a displacement operator and photon-number-resolving measurement in the optical gate using XKNLs. Consequently, when there is a strong amplitude of the coherent state, we demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally implement the DQFT scheme, utilizing current technology, with a certain probability of success under the decoherence effect.

  5. Preconditioner and convergence study for the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) nonlinear poisson problem posed on the Ottawa Flat 270 design geometry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikova, Irina

    2012-05-01

    A numerical study aimed to evaluate different preconditioners within the Trilinos Ifpack and ML packages for the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) non-linear Poisson problem implemented within the Albany code base and posed on the Ottawa Flat 270 design geometry is performed. This study led to some new development of Albany that allows the user to select an ML preconditioner with Zoltan repartitioning based on nodal coordinates, which is summarized. Convergence of the numerical solutions computed within the QCAD computational suite with successive mesh refinement is examined in two metrics, the mean value of the solution (an L{sup 1} norm) and the field integral of the solution (L{sup 2} norm).

  6. Nonlinear pulse propagation in InAs/InP quantum-dot optical amplifiers: Rabi-oscillations in the presence of non-resonant nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gad; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay between coherent light-matter interactions and non-resonant pulse propagation effects when ultra-short pulses propagate in room-temperature quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). The signatures observed on a pulse envelope after propagating in a transparent SOA, when coherent Rabi-oscillations are absent, highlight the contribution of two-photon absorption (TPA), and its accompanying Kerr-like effect, as well as of linear dispersion, to the modification of the pulse complex electric field profile. These effects are incorporated into our previously developed finite-difference time-domain comprehensive model that describes the interaction between the pulses and the QD SOA. The present, generalized, model is used to investigate the combined effect of coherent and non-resonant phenomena in the gain and absorption regimes of the QD SOA. It confirms that in the QD SOA we examined, linear dispersion in the presence of the Kerr-like effect causes pulse compression, which coun...

  7. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in quantum ring: effects of applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, Manuk G; Restrepo, Ricardo L; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Duque, Carlos A

    2012-09-28

    : The linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in GaAs three-dimensional single quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and electric field, applied along the growth direction of the heterostructure, the energies of the ground and first excited states of a donor impurity have been found using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states are examined as functions of the dimensions of the structure, electric field, and hydrostatic pressure. We have also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as a function of incident photon energy for several configurations of the system. It is found that the variation of distinct sizes of the structure leads to either a redshift and/or a blueshift of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum. In addition, we have found that the application of an electric field leads to a redshift, whereas the influence of hydrostatic pressure leads to a blueshift (in the case of on-ring-center donor impurity position) of the resonant peaks of the intraband optical spectrum.

  8. Exploring electro-optic effect and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots: Interplay between hydrostatic pressure, temperature and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Saha, Surajit; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2017-03-01

    We study the profiles of electro-optic effect (EOE) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (TONOS) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dots (QDs) under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) taking into account the presence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. The doped dot has been subjected to a polarized monochromatic electromagnetic field. Effect of application of noise is elegantly reflected through prominent change of peak shift (blue/red) and variation of peak height (increase/ıdecrease) of above nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as temperature and pressure are varied over a range. Interestingly, all such changes subtly depend on mode of application (additive/multiplicative) of noise. The noteworthy influence of the interplay between noise strength and its mode of application on the said NLO properties has also been critically scrutinized. The findings highlight remarkable role played by noise in tuning above NLO properties of doped QD system under the prominent presence of both hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

  9. Resonance Rayleigh scattering and resonance non-linear scattering method for the determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics with water solubility CdS quantum dots as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengwen; Liu, Shaopu; Wang, Lei; Peng, Juanjuan; He, Youqiu

    2009-09-01

    In pH 6.6 Britton-Robinson buffer medium, the CdS quantum dots capped by thioglycolic acid could react with aminoglycoside (AGs) antibiotics such as neomycin sulfate (NEO) and streptomycin sulfate (STP) to form the large aggregates by virtue of electrostatic attraction and the hydrophobic force, which resulted in a great enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) and resonance non-linear scattering such as second-order scattering (SOS) and frequency doubling scattering (FDS). The maximum scattering peak was located at 310 nm for RRS, 568 nm for SOS and 390 nm for FDS, respectively. The enhancements of scattering intensity (Δ I) were directly proportional to the concentration of AGs in a certain ranges. A new method for the determination of trace NEO and STP using CdS quantum dots probe was developed. The detection limits (3 σ) were 1.7 ng mL -1 (NEO) and 4.4 ng mL -1 (STP) by RRS method, were 5.2 ng mL -1 (NEO) and 20.9 ng mL -1 (STP) by SOS method and were 4.4 ng mL -1 (NEO) and 25.7 ng mL -1 (STP) by FDS method, respectively. The sensitivity of RRS method was the highest. The optimum conditions and influence factors were investigated. In addition, the reaction mechanism was discussed.

  10. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  11. Quantum Soliton Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Villari, Leone Di Mauro; Biancalana, Fabio; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We have very little experience of the quantum dynamics of the ubiquitous nonlinear waves. Observed phenomena in high energy physics are perturbations to linear waves, and classical nonlinear waves, like solitons, are barely affected by quantum effects. We know that solitons, immutable in classical physics, exhibit collapse and revivals according to quantum mechanics. However this effect is very weak and has never been observed experimentally. By predicting black hole evaporation Hawking first introduced a distinctly quantum effect in nonlinear gravitational physics.Here we show the existence of a general and universal quantum process whereby a soliton emits quantum radiation with a specific frequency content, and a temperature given by the number of quanta, the soliton Schwarzschild radius, and the amount of nonlinearity, in a precise and surprisingly simple way. This result may ultimately lead to the first experimental evidence of genuine quantum black hole evaporation. In addition, our results show that bla...

  12. Dust Mite Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  13. Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities induced by built-in electric field in wurtzite nitride double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Department of Mechanism and Electron, Panyu Polytechnic, Panyu 511483 (China)]. E-mail: zhangli-gz@263.net; Chi Yuemeng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shi, J.-J. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2007-06-25

    Based on the density matrix method and the iterative treatment, the second-harmonic generation (SHG) susceptibility of a wurtzite nitride coupling quantum well (CQW) with strong built-in electric fields have been theoretically investigated. The effect of the band non-parabolicity effect has been taken into account. A typical wurtzite GaN/In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N CQW are chosen to perform numerical calculations. The localized properties of the electronic ground state and the low-excited states in the system are analyzed in detail. The calculated SHG coefficients reach the order of magnitude of 10{sup -7}m/V, which is two-order larger than the corresponding values in wurtzite single quantum wells. Moreover, it is confirmed that the SHG coefficients are not monotonic functions of the well width, barrier width and the doped concentration of the CQW systems, but have complicated dependent relations on them. The reasons resulting in these characteristics can be attributed to the intense competition between the strong built-in electric field effect and the quantum size effect for the electronic confined situation in the wurtzite CQWs. The calculated results also show that a strong SHG effect can be realized in the nitride CQW by choosing a group of optimized structural parameters and doped fraction.

  14. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  15. Momentum Transfer Studies and Studies of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal Colloids and Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Dyer, K.; George, M.; Henderson, D.; Morgan, S.; Mu, R.; Shi, D.; Conner, D; Thompson, E.; Collins, L.; Curry, L.; Mattox, S.; Williams, G.

    1996-01-01

    Phase 1 of this work involved design work on a momentum transfer device. The progress on design and testing will be presented. Phase 2 involved the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project sought to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. The surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be presented. Phase 3 involved metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots. One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantation for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga, and As. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb, and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. The results of some of this work will also be reported.

  16. Momentum Transfer Studies and Studies of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal Colloids and Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Dyer, K.; George, M.; Henderson, D.; Morgan, S.; Mu, R.; Shi, D.; Conner, D; Thompson, E.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Phase 1 of this work involved design work on a momentum transfer device. The progress on design and testing will be presented. Phase 2 involved the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project sought to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. The surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be presented. Phase 3 involved metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots. One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantation for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga, and As. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb, and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. The results of some of this work will also be reported.

  17. Modulational Instability of Dust Ion Acoustic Waves in a Collisional Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEJu-Kui

    2003-01-01

    The modulational instability of dust ion accoustic waves in a dust plasma with ion-dust collision effects is studied.Using the perturbation method,a modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation contains a damping term that comes from the effect of the ion-dust collision is derived.It is found that the inclusion of the ion-dust collision would modify the modulational instability of the wave packet and could not admit any stationary envelope solitary waves.

  18. Synthesis, an experimental and quantum chemical computational study of a new nonlinear optical material: 2-picolinium hydrogensquarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ufuk; Bulut, Ahmet

    2014-09-15

    The experimental and theoretical investigation results of a novel organic non-linear optical (NLO) organic squarate salt of 2-Picolinium hydrogensquarate (1), C6H8N+·C4HO4-, were reported in this study. The space group of the title compound was found in the monoclinic C2/c space group. It was found that the asymmetric unit consists of one monohydrogen squarate anion together with mono protonated 2-Picolinium, forming the (1) salt. The X-ray analysis clearly indicated that the crystal packing has shown the hydrogen bonding ring pattern of D2(2)(10) (α-dimer) through NH⋯O interactions. The hydrogensquarate anions form α-dimer, while 2-Picolinium molecule interacts through NH⋯O and CH⋯O with the hydrogensquarate anion. The structural and vibrational properties of the compound were also studied by computational methods of ab initio performed on the compound at DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) (2) and HF/6-31++G(d,p) (3) level of theory. The calculation results on the basis of two models for both the optimized molecular structure and vibrational properties for the 1 obtained are presented and compared with the X-ray analysis result. On the other the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), electronic absorption spectra, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), conformational flexibility and non-linear optical properties (NLO) of the title compound were also studied at the 2 level and the results are reported. In order to evaluate the suitability for NLO applications thermal analysis (TG, DTA and DTG) data of 1 were also obtained.

  19. Exciton-related nonlinear optical response and photoluminescence in dilute nitrogen In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N{sub y}As{sub 1−y}/GaAs cylindrically shaped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.M.; Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-10-15

    An investigation of the effects of the dilute nitrogen contents in the exciton states of cylindrical In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N{sub y}As{sub 1−y}/GaAs quantum dots is presented. The exciton states in the system are obtained within the effective mass theory and the band anti-crossing model. Exciton-related nonlinear optical absorption and refractive index change, as well as excitonic photoluminescence are studied with the help of the calculated exciton states. - Highlights: • Theoretical study of excitons in cylindrical In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N{sub y}As{sub 1−y}/GaAs quantum dots. • Calculations of binding energy for different configurations of electron-hole pairs. • Nonlinear optical absorption and refractive index changes. • Dependence of photoluminescence energy transitions with several inputs.

  20. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear optics 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadap, Jerry I; Karlsson, Magnus; Panoiu, Nicolae C

    2013-12-16

    Nonlinear Optics has continued to develop over the last few years at an extremely fast pace, with significant advances being reported in nonlinear optical metamaterials, optical signal processing, quantum optics, nonlinear optics at subwavelength scale, and biophotonics. These exciting new developments have generated significant potential for a broad spectrum of technological applications in which nonlinear-optical processes play a central role.

  1. PREFACE: International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear' to celebrate 50 years of the scientific career of Professor Bogdan Mielnik (Mielnik50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón, N.; Fernández, D.; Kielanowski, P.

    2015-06-01

    The International Conference on 'Quantum Control, Exact or Perturbative, Linear or Nonlinear', took place in Mexico City on 22-24 October 2014. It was held with the aim of celebrating the first fifty years of scientific career of Bogdan Mielnik, an outstanding scientist whose professional trajectory spans over Poland and Mexico and who is currently Professor Emeritus in the Physics Department of Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav) in Mexico. Bogdan Mielnik was born on May 6th, 1936 in Warsaw, Poland. He studied elementary and high school until 1953. In the autumn of 1953 he started the studies in the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Warsaw, and at the end of 1957 he did his master work under the direction of Professor Jerzy Plebański. In 1962 he was invited to the newly opened Research Center of IPN (Cinvestav), in Mexico, as an assistant and PhD student of Jerzy Plebański. On October 22nd, 1964, he submitted to Cinvestav his PhD Thesis entitled ''Analytic functions of the displacement operator'', marking the offcial beginning of his scientific career. It is worth mentioning that Bogdan Mielnik is the first PhD graduate of the Physics Department of Cinvestav, so with this Conference our Department was also celebrating an important date on its calendar. A more detailed information can be found in the website http://www.fis.cinvestav.mx/mielnik50/. It was our great pleasure to see that many collaborators and former students of Bogdan Mielnik attended this Conference. The articles collected in this volume are the written contributions of the majority of talks presented at the conference. They have been organized according to the research subjects that Bogdan Mielnik has been involved in. Thus, the articles of JG Hirsch, L Hughston, G Morales-Luna, O Rosas-Ortiz and G Torres-Vega deal with Fundamental Problems in Quantum Mechanics. On the other hand, the papers by F Delgado, H Hernández-Coronado, G Herrera

  2. Combined effects of intense laser field, electric and magnetic fields on the nonlinear optical properties of the step-like quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasapoglu, E., E-mail: ekasap@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Restrepo, R.L. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Sari, H. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, the effects of the intense laser field on total optical absorption coefficient (the linear and third-order nonlinear) and total refractive index change for transition between two lower-lying electronic levels in the step-like GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As quantum well under external electric and magnetic fields are investigated. The calculations were performed within the compact density-matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. The obtained results show that both total absorption coefficient and refractive index change are sensitive to the well dimensions and the effects of external fields. By changing the intensities of the electric, magnetic and non-resonant intense laser fields together with the well dimensions, we can obtain the blue or red shift, without the need for the growth of many different samples. - Highlights: • Augmentation of laser-field results in red shift in total AC spectra. • Magnetic field induces a blue-shift in the resonant peak. • Resonant peak position shifts to red with effect of electric field. • Resonant peak of total AC shifts to the higher photon energies with increasing well width.

  3. Removal of ordering ambiguity for a class of position dependent mass quantum systems with an application to the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chithiika Ruby, V.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India); Chandrasekar, V. K. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401 (India)

    2015-01-15

    We consider the problem of removal of ordering ambiguity in position dependent mass quantum systems characterized by a generalized position dependent mass Hamiltonian which generalizes a number of Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian ordered forms of the Hamiltonian. We implement point canonical transformation method to map one-dimensional time-independent position dependent mass Schrödinger equation endowed with potentials onto constant mass counterparts which are considered to be exactly solvable. We observe that a class of mass functions and the corresponding potentials give rise to solutions that do not depend on any particular ordering, leading to the removal of ambiguity in it. In this case, it is imperative that the ordering is Hermitian. For non-Hermitian ordering, we show that the class of systems can also be exactly solvable and is also shown to be iso-spectral using suitable similarity transformations. We also discuss the normalization of the eigenfunctions obtained from both Hermitian and non-Hermitian orderings. We illustrate the technique with the quadratic Liénard type nonlinear oscillators, which admit position dependent mass Hamiltonians.

  4. Space-time resolved simulation of femtosecond nonlinear light-matter interactions using a holistic quantum atomic model: application to near-threshold harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesik, M; Wright, E M; Andreasen, J; Brown, J M; Carlson, D R; Jones, R J

    2012-07-02

    We introduce a new computational approach for femtosecond pulse propagation in the transparency region of gases that permits full resolution in three space dimensions plus time while fully incorporating quantum coherent effects such as high-harmonic generation and strong-field ionization in a holistic fashion. This is achieved by utilizing a one-dimensional model atom with a delta-function potential which allows for a closed-form solution for the nonlinear optical response due to ground-state to continuum transitions. It side-steps evaluation of the wave function, and offers more than one hundred-fold reduction in computation time in comparison to direct solution of the atomic Schrödinger equation. To illustrate the capability of our new computational approach, we apply it to the example of near-threshold harmonic generation in Xenon, and we also present a qualitative comparison between our model and results from an in-house experiment on extreme ultraviolet generation in a femtosecond enhancement cavity.

  5. Assessing the quantum mechanical level of theory for prediction of linear and nonlinear optical properties of push-pull organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Diego; Santos, Hélio F Dos

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we assessed the quantum mechanical level of theory for prediction of linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of push-pull organic molecules. The electric dipole moment (μ), mean polarizability ([Symbol: see text]α[Symbol: see text]) and total static first hyperpolarizability (βt) were calculated for a set of benzene, styrene, biphenyl and stilbene derivatives using HF, MP2 and DFT (31 different functionals) levels and over 71 distinct basis sets. In addition, we propose two new basis sets, NLO-V and aNLO-V, for NLO properties calculations. As the main outcomes it is shown that long-range corrected DFT functionals such as M062X, ωB97, cam-B3LYP, LC-BLYP and LC-ωPBE work satisfactorily for NLO properties when appropriate basis sets such as those proposed here (NLO-V or aNLO-V) are used. For most molecules with β ranging from 0 to 190 esu, the average absolute deviation was 13.2 esu for NLO-V basis sets, compared to 27.2 esu for the standard 6-31 G(2d) basis set. Therefore, we conclude that the new basis sets proposed here (NLO-V and aNLO-V), together with the cam-B3LYP functional, make an affordable calculation scheme to predict NLO properties of large organic molecules.

  6. Space-time resolved simulation of femtosecond nonlinear light-matter interactions using a holistic quantum atomic model: Application to near-threshold harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolesik, M; Andreasen, J; Brown, J M; Carlson, D R; Jones, R J; 10.1364/OE.20.016113

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new computational approach for femtosecond pulse propagation in the transparency region of gases that permits full resolution in three space dimensions plus time while fully incorporating quantum coherent effects such as high-harmonic generation and strong-field ionization in a holistic fashion. This is achieved by utilizing a one-dimensional model atom with a delta-function potential which allows for a closed-form solution for the nonlinear optical response due to ground-state to continuum transitions. It side-steps evaluation of the wave function, and offers more than one hundred-fold reduction in computation time in comparison to direct solution of the atomic Schr\\"odinger equation. To illustrate the capability of our new computational approach, we apply it to the example of near-threshold harmonic generation in Xenon, and we also present a qualitative comparison between our model and results from an in-house experiment on extreme ultraviolet generation in a femtosecond enhancement cavity.

  7. Study of possible chaotic, quasi-periodic and periodic structures in quantum dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan, E-mail: unghosh1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Kandara J. M. High School, Kandara, Burdwan, West Bengal-713129 (India); Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal-731235 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Existence of chaotic, quasi-periodic, and periodic structures of dust-ion acoustic waves is studied in quantum dusty plasmas through dynamical system approach. A system of coupled differential equations is derived from the fluid model and subsequently, variational matrix is obtained. The characteristic equation is obtained at the equilibrium point, and the behavior of nonlinear waves is studied numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The behavior of the dynamical system changes significantly when any of plasma parameters, such as the dust concentration parameter, temperature ratio, or the quantum diffraction parameter, is varied. The change of the characteristic of solution of the system is extensively studied. It is found that the system changes its behavior from chaotic pattern to limit cycle behavior.

  8. Effect of dust size distribution and dust charge fluctuation on dust ion-acoustic shock waves in a multi-ion dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WANG HONGYAN; ZHANG KAIBIAO

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dust size distribution and dust charge fluctuation of dust grains on the small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust ion-acoustic shock waves, in an unmagnetized multi-ion dusty plasma which contains negative ions, positive ions and electrons, are studied in this paper. A Burgers equation and its stationary solutions are obtained by using the reductive perturbation method. The analytical and numerical results show that the height with polynomial dust size distribution is larger than that of the monosized dusty plasmas with the same dustgrains, but the thickness in the case of different dust grains is smaller than that of the monosized dusty plasmas. Furthermore, the moving speed of the shock waves also depend on different dust size distributions.

  9. Asymmetric GaAs n-type double δ-doped quantum wells as a source of intersubband-related nonlinear optical response: Effects of an applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K.A.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calz. Solidaridad Esq. Paseo a La Bufa S/N. C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the conduction band electron states and the associated intersubband-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change are calculated for an asymmetric double n-type δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs-matrix. The effects of an external applied static electric field are included. Values of the two-dimensional impurities density (N{sub 2d}) of each single δ-doped quantum well are taken to vary within the range of 1.0×10{sup 12} to 7.0×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, consistent with the experimental data growth regime. The optical responses are reported as a function of the δ-doped impurities density and the applied electric field. It is shown that single electron states and the related optical quantities are significantly affected by the structural asymmetry of the double δ-doped quantum well system. In addition, a brief comparison with the free-carrier-related optical response is presented. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear optics in asymmetric double n-type δ-doped quantum well in a GaAs-matrix. • The system is considered under external applied electric field in growth direction. • The 2D impurity density is consistent with the experimental data growth regime. • The optical quantities are significantly affected by the structural asymmetry of the system.

  10. Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  11. Solitons and nonlinear waves along quantum vortex filaments under the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.

  12. Colloquium: Nonlinear Collective Interactions in Dense Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2010-01-01

    The current understanding of some important collective processes in dense quantum plasmas is presented. After reviewing the basic properties of dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons, we present model equations (e.g. the quantum hydrodynamic and effective nonlinear Schr\\"odinger-Poisson equations) that describe collective nonlinear phenomena at nanoscales. The effects of the electron degeneracy arise due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle for overlapping electron wave functions that result in a nonlinear quantum electron pressure and tunneling/diffusion of electrons through a nonlinear quantum Bohm potential. Since degenerate electrons have $1/2-$spin due to their Fermionic nature, there also appear a spin electron current and a spin force acting on the electrons due to the Bohr magnetization. The present nonlinear equations do not include strong electron correlations and electron-exchange interactions. The quantum effects caused by the electron degeneracy produce n...

  13. Nonlinearity without Superluminality

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signalling. As Gisin and Polchinski first pointed out, this is not true for general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signalling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no superluminal signalling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by non-relativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which di...

  14. Dust Dynamics in Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Tom; Keppens, Rony

    2013-04-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a fluid instability which arises when two contacting flows have different tangential velocities. As shearing flows are very common in all sorts of (astro)physical fluid setups, the KHI is frequently encountered. In many astrophysical fluids the gas fluid in loaded with additional dust particles. Here we study the influence of these dust particles on the initiation of the KHI, as well as the effect the KHI has on the density distribution of dust species in a range of different particle sizes. This redistribution by the instability is of importance in the formation of dust structures in astrophysical fluids. To study the effect of dust on the linear and nonlinear phase of the KHI, we use the multi-fluid dust + gas module of the MPI-AMRVAC [1] code to perform 2D and 3D simulations of KHI in setups with physical quantities relevant to astrophysical fluids. A clear dependency on dust sizes is seen, with larger dust particles displaying significantly more clumping than smaller ones.

  15. Quantum spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Z

    2016-01-01

    Quantum systems often exhibit fundamental incapability to entertain vortex. The Meissner effect, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field (the electromagnetic vorticity), for instance, is taken to be the defining attribute of the superconducting state. Superfluidity is another, close-parallel example; fluid vorticity can reside only on topological defects with a limited (quantized) amount. Recent developments in the Bose-Einstein condensates produced by particle traps further emphasize this characteristic. We show that the challenge of imparting vorticity to a quantum fluid can be met through a nonlinear mechanism operating in a hot fluid corresponding to a thermally modified Pauli-Schroedinger spinor field. In a simple field-free model, we show that the thermal effect, represented by a nonlinear, non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, in conjunction with spin vorticity, leads to new interesting quantum states; a spiral solution is explicitly worked out.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in atom optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wenyu; Dyrting, S.; Milburn, G.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    In this paper theoretical work on classical and quantum nonlinear dynamics of cold atoms is reported. The basic concepts in nonlinear dynamics are reviewed and then applied to the motion of atoms in time-dependent standing waves and to the atomic bouncer. The quantum dynamics for the cases of regular and chaotic classical dynamics is described. The effect of spontaneous emission and external noise is also discussed. 104 refs., 1 tab., 21 figs.

  17. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM

    2010-01-01

    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  18. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  19. Dust acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma having dust size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gadadhar; Maitra, Sarit

    2017-07-01

    Propagations of nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous unmagnetized dusty plasma having power law dust distribution are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation technique, a variable coefficient deformed Korteweg-deVries (VCdKdV) equation is derived from the basic set of hydrodynamic equations. The generalized expansion method is employed to obtain a solitary wave solution for the VCdKdV equation. The different propagation characteristics of the solitary waves are studied in the presence of both plasma inhomogeneity and dust distribution.

  20. Quantization of Friedmann cosmological models with two fluids: Dust plus radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto-Neto, N. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Coordenacao de Cosmologia, Relatividade e Astrofisica, ICRA-BR, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nelsonpn@cbpf.br; Sergio Santini, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Coordenacao de Cosmologia, Relatividade e Astrofisica, ICRA-BR, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, Botafogo 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: santini@cbpf.br; Falciano, F.T. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Coordenacao de Cosmologia, Relatividade e Astrofisica, ICRA-BR, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ftovar@cbpf.br

    2005-09-05

    Friedmann models filled with non-interacting dust and radiation are quantized in the framework of the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics. Two main results are obtained: the formation of bounces, and the possibility of quantum creation of normal and exotic dust matter allowing transitions from exotic matter dominated eras to matter dominated ones.

  1. The effects of the intense laser field on the nonlinear optical properties of a cylindrical Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As/GaAs quantum dot under applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasapoglu, E., E-mail: ekasap@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autóonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sökmen, I. [Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the effects of the intense laser field on total optical absorption coefficient (the linear and third-order nonlinear) and total refractive index change (the linear and third-order nonlinear) for transitions between different intersubbands in the Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As/GaAs cylindrical quantum dot under external electric field are investigated. The calculations were performed within the compact density-matrix formalism with the use of the effective mass approximation. The obtained results show that both total absorption coefficient and refractive index change are sensitive to the electric and intense laser fields. By changing the intensities of the electric and laser fields, we can obtain the blue or red shift, without the need for the growth of many different samples. - Highlights: • The effects of the non-resonant intense laser field and electric field on the nonlinear optical properties of cylindrical quantum dot are investigated. • The both total absorption coefficient and refractive index change are sensitive to dot dimensions and the effects of external fields. • By changing the external fields together with dot dimensions a blue or red shift can be obtained.

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Barseghyan, M.G., E-mail: mbarsegh@ysu.am [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, AA 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-02-15

    The linear and nonlinear intra-band optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As two-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration the energies of the ground (n=1,l=0) and the first excited state (n=2,l=1) have been found using the effective mass approximation and the transfer matrix formalism. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the intra-band optical transitions are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration for different sizes of the structure. We also investigated the dependencies of the linear, nonlinear, and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy for different values of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, sizes of the structure, and incident optical intensity. Its is found that the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and the aluminum concentration lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the intra-band optical spectrum. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear and nonlinear intra-band absorption in quantum rings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the hydrostatic pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold energy strongly depends on the stoichiometry and sizes of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption is affected by the incident optical intensity.

  3. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  4. Global coherence of dust density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

  5. Inhaled dust and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following: the respiratory system; respirable dust; the fate of inhaled dust; translocation and some general effects of inhaled dust; silicosis; experimental research on silica-related disease; natural fibrous silicates; asbestos dust levels and dust sources; asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma and other diseases, cancers at sites other than lung and pleura; experimental research relating to asbestos-related diseases; asbestos hazard - mineral types and hazardous occupations, neighbourhood and domestic hazard; silicates other than asbestos-man-made mineral fibres, mineral silicates and cement; metals; coal mine dust, industrial carbon and arsenic; natural and synthetic organic substances; dusts that provoke allergic alveolitis; tobacco smoke.

  6. Galaxy Simulation with Dust Formation and Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by supernova (SN) shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the nonlinear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr: a...

  7. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  8. Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Boyd , Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2008). [13] M. Scully and S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6703--14-9548 Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry PhilliP SPrangle...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry Phillip Sprangle, Luke

  9. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  10. Noise-induced quantum transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Pulak Kumar; Barik, Debashis; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the problem of directed quantum transport induced by external exponentially correlated telegraphic noise. In addition to quantum nature of the heat bath, nonlinearity of the periodic system potential brings in quantum contribution. We observe that quantization, in general, enhances classical current at low temperature, while the differences become insignificant at higher temperature. Interplay of quantum diffusion and quantum correction to system potential is analyzed for various r...

  11. Donor impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As concentric double quantum rings: Effects of geometry, hydrostatic pressure, and aluminum concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G.; Kirakosyan, A.A. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Restrepo, R.L. [Física Teórica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultadde Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21,Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-01-15

    The linear and nonlinear optical absorption associated with the transition between 1s and 2s states corresponding to the electron-donor-impurity complex in GaAs/Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As three-dimensional concentric double quantum rings are investigated. Taking into account the combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and the variation of the aluminum concentration, the energies of the ground and first excited s-like states of a donor impurity in such a system have been calculated using the effective mass approximation and a variational method. The energies of these states and the corresponding threshold energy of the optical transitions are examined as functions of hydrostatic pressure, aluminum concentration, radial impurity position, as well as the geometrical dimensions of the structure. The dependencies of the linear, nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficients as functions of the incident photon energy are investigated for different values of those mentioned parameters. It is found that the influences mentioned above lead to either redshifts or blueshifts of the resonant peaks of the optical absorption spectrum. It is particularly discussed the unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear of becoming positive for photon energies below the resonant transition one. It is shown that this phenomenon is associated with the particular features of the system under study, which determine the values of the electric dipole moment matrix elements. -- Highlights: • Intra-band optical absorption associated to impurity states in double quantum rings. • Combined effects of hydrostatic pressure and aluminum concentration are studied. • The influences mentioned above lead to shifts of resonant peaks. • It is discussed an unusual property exhibited by the third-order nonlinear absorption.

  12. Dust acoustic and drift waves in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma with dust charge fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir, U.; Haque, Q.; Imtiaz, N.; Qamar, A.

    2015-12-01

    > ) on the wave dispersion and instability are presented. It is found that the presence of the non-thermal electron and ion populations reduce the growth rate of the instability which arises due to the dust charging effect. In addition, the nonlinear vortex solutions are also obtained. For illustration, the results are analysed by using the dusty plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  13. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  14. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  15. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  16. Dust in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  17. Collisionless damping of dust-acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Plasma Physics Group (PPG), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    The charge variation induced nonlinear dust-acoustic wave damping in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions is considered. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation to be described by a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK-dV) equation the coefficients of which depend sensitively on the nonextensive parameter q. The damping term, solely due to the dust charge variation, is affected by the ion nonextensivity. For the sake of completeness, the possible effects of nonextensivity and collisionless damping on weakly nonlinear wave packets described by the dK-dV equation are succinctly outlined by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger-like equation with a complex nonlinear coefficient.

  18. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature nonthermal ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhi-Jian Zhou; Hong-Yan Wang; Kai-Biao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    By using reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of small but finite amplitude nonlinear dust-acoustic waves are examined. It is found that two-temperature nonthermal ions affect the basic properties of the dust-acoustic solitary waves. It is also observed that only compressive solitary waves exist in this system.

  19. Nonlinear Markov Control Processes and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    further research we indicated possible extensions to state spaces with nontrivial geometry, to the controlled nonlinear quantum dynamic semigroups and...space nonlinear Markov semigroup is a one-parameter semigroup of (possibly nonlinear) transformations of the unit simplex in n-dimensional Euclidean...certain mixing property of nonlinear transition probabilities. In case of the semigroup parametrized by continuous time one defines its generator as the

  20. Dust acoustic shock wave generation due to dust charge variation in a dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R Gupta; S Sarkar; M Khan; Samiran Ghosh

    2003-12-01

    In a dusty plasma, the non-adiabaticity of the charge variation on a dust grain surface results in an anomalous dissipation. Analytical investigation shows that this results in a small but finite amplitude dust acoustic (DA) wave propagation which is described by the Korteweg–de Vries–Burger equation. Results of the numerical investigation of the propagation of large-amplitude dust acoustic stationary shock wave are presented here using the complete set of non-linear dust fluid equations coupled with the dust charging equation and Poisson equation. The DA waves are of compressional type showing considerable increase of dust density, which is of significant importance in astrophysical context as it leads to enhanced gravitational attraction considered as a viable process for star formation. The DA shock transition to its far downstream amplitude is oscillatory in nature due to dust charge fluctuations, the oscillation amplitude and shock width depending on the ratio pd/ch and other plasma parameters.

  1. Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Anno, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: dellanno@sa.infn.it; De Siena, Silvio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: desiena@sa.infn.it; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it

    2006-05-15

    We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.

  2. Exact Bethe ansatz solution of a nonlinear quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions linked to the Landau-Lifshitz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anjan

    2016-12-01

    Integrable quantum field models are known to exist mostly in one space-dimension. Exploiting the concept of multi-time in integrable systems and a Lax matrix of higher scaling order, we construct a novel quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions involving interacting fields. The Yang-Baxter integrability is proved for the model by finding a new kind of commutation rule for its basic fields, representing nonstandard scalar fields along the transverse direction. In spite of a close link with the quantum Landau-Lifshitz equation, the present model differs widely from it, in its content and the result obtained. Using further the algebraic Bethe ansatz we solve exactly the eigenvalue problem of this quantum field model for all its higher conserved operators. The idea presented here should instigate the construction of a novel class of integrable field and lattice models and exploration of a new type of underlying algebras.

  3. Exact Bethe ansatz solution of a nonlinear quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions linked to the Landau–Lifshitz equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Anjan, E-mail: anjan.kundu@saha.ac.in

    2016-12-15

    Integrable quantum field models are known to exist mostly in one space-dimension. Exploiting the concept of multi-time in integrable systems and a Lax matrix of higher scaling order, we construct a novel quantum field model in quasi-two dimensions involving interacting fields. The Yang–Baxter integrability is proved for the model by finding a new kind of commutation rule for its basic fields, representing nonstandard scalar fields along the transverse direction. In spite of a close link with the quantum Landau–Lifshitz equation, the present model differs widely from it, in its content and the result obtained. Using further the algebraic Bethe ansatz we solve exactly the eigenvalue problem of this quantum field model for all its higher conserved operators. The idea presented here should instigate the construction of a novel class of integrable field and lattice models and exploration of a new type of underlying algebras.

  4. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  5. Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz

    2009-09-15

    A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.

  6. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  7. Inducing Strong Nonlinearities in a High-$Q$ System: Coupling of a Bulk Acoustic Wave Quartz Resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    A system consisting of a SQUID amplifier coupled to a Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is investigated experimentally from the small to large signal regimes. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are verified. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator operating with a SQUID amplifier as the active device.

  8. Introductory Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Christopher; Knight, Peter

    2004-10-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Field quantization; 3. Coherent states; 4. Emission and absorption of radiation by atoms; 5. Quantum coherence functions; 6. Beam splitters and interferometers; 7. Nonclassical light; 8. Dissipative interactions and decoherence; 9. Optical test of quantum mechanics; 10. Experiments in cavity QED and with trapped ions; 11. Applications of entanglement: Heisenberg-limited interferometry and quantum information processing; Appendix A. The density operator, entangled states, the Schmidt decomposition, and the von Neumann entropy; Appendix B. Quantum measurement theory in a (very small) nutshell; Appendix C. Derivation of the effective Hamiltonian for dispersive (far off-resonant) interactions; Appendix D. Nonlinear optics and spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

  9. Nonlinear evolution equations in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Stasto, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The following lectures are an introduction to the phenomena of partonic saturation and nonlinear evolution equations in Quantum Chromodynamics. After a short introduction to the linear evolution, the problems of unitarity bound and parton saturation are discussed. The nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation in the high energy limit is introduced, and the progress towards the understanding of the properties of its solution is reviewed. We discuss the concepts of the saturation scale, g...

  10. Modulational interactions in quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Fatema; Tyshetskiy, Yuriy; Ishihara, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A formalism for treating modulational interactions of electrostatic fields in collisionless quantum plasmas is developed, based on the kinetic Wigner-Poisson model of quantum plasma. This formalism can be used in a range of problems of nonlinear interaction between electrostatic fields in a quantum plasma, such as development of turbulence, self-organization, as well as transition from the weak turbulent state to strong turbulence. In particular, using this formalism, we obtain the kinetic quantum Zakharov equations, that describe nonlinear coupling of high frequency Langmuir waves to low frequency plasma density variations, for cases of non-degenerate and degenerate plasma electrons.

  11. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  12. Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist.

  13. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  14. Quantum Genetics in terms of Quantum Reversible Automata and Quantum Computation of Genetic Codes and Reverse Transcription

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu,I C

    2004-01-01

    The concepts of quantum automata and quantum computation are studied in the context of quantum genetics and genetic networks with nonlinear dynamics. In previous publications (Baianu,1971a, b) the formal concept of quantum automaton and quantum computation, respectively, were introduced and their possible implications for genetic processes and metabolic activities in living cells and organisms were considered. This was followed by a report on quantum and abstract, symbolic computation based on the theory of categories, functors and natural transformations (Baianu,1971b; 1977; 1987; 2004; Baianu et al, 2004). The notions of topological semigroup, quantum automaton, or quantum computer, were then suggested with a view to their potential applications to the analogous simulation of biological systems, and especially genetic activities and nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks. Further, detailed studies of nonlinear dynamics in genetic networks were carried out in categories of n-valued, Lukasiewicz Logic Algebra...

  15. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  16. Nonlinear effects in Thomson backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Tomassini, P.; Serafini, L.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the nonlinear classical effects of the X/γ radiation produced by Thomson/Compton sources. We confirm the development of spectral fringes of the radiation on axis, which comports broadening, shift, and deformation of the spectrum. For the nominal parameters of the SPARC-LAB Thomson scattering and of the European Proposal for the gamma source ELI-NP, however, the radiation, when collected in the suitable acceptance angle, does not reveal many differences from that predicted by the linear model and the nonlinear redshift is subdominant with respect to the quantum recoil. An experiment aimed to the study of the nonlinearities is proposed on the SPARC-LAB source.

  17. Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    Introduction; Part I. Non-relativistic: 1. Mathematical prelude; 2. Classical mechanics; 3. Quantum mechanics; 4. Single particle; 5. Many particles; 6. Statistical mechanics; Part II. Relativistic: 7. Relativity; 8. Scalar particles and fields; 9. Electrons and photons; 10. Field theory on a manifold; Part III. Probabilistic Methods: 11. Path integrals; 12. Fields as random variables; 13. A nonlinear field theory; Appendices; References; Index.

  18. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron–positron–ion–dust plasmas with dust-size distribution under higher-order transverse perturbations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong-Yan Wang; Kai-Biao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of small but finite nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma, which consists of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively charged dust particles with different sizes and masses. A Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is obtained by using reductive perturbation method. The effect of positron density and positron–electron temperature ratio on dust-acoustic solitary structures are studied. Numerical results show that the increase in positron number density increases the amplitude of hump-like solitons but decreases the dip-like solitary waves. Furthermore, increase in the positron–electron temperature ratio results in the decrease of the amplitude of dip-like solitary waves. It seems that both the dipand hump-like solitary waves can exist in this system. Our results also suggest that the dust-size distribution has a significant role on the amplitude of the solitary waves.

  19. Performance Analysis of High-speed Optical Pulse Transmission in Dispersion-managed Nonlinear Birefringent Fiber Using Quantum Well Laser Diode Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhui; CHEN Jianping

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the high bit-rate optical pulse trasmission in single mode optical fiber with chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (small random birefringence) and nonlinearity. Numerical method employed can precisely describe their interactive effect on transmission performance. Different dispersion maps and the related performance are analysed. Various simulation results and discussion are given. The results show that chromatic dispersion compensation should be carefully designed. Appropriate dispersion management can also alleviate the effect of polarization mode dispersion.

  20. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  1. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  2. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  3. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  4. Dust escape from Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  5. Galactic dust properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence for variations in the dust emissivity law with temperature and wavelength. A recent dust emission model, called TLS model (for two-level systems), based on the description of the disordered internal structure of the amorphous dust grains has been developped to interpret observations in the far-infrared/submillimeter (FIR/submm) domain. A recent work focusing on the comparison between data of the diffuse interstellar medium seen by FIRAS-WMAP, as well as Archeops compact sources, with the TLS model allowed us to constrain the model parameters characterizing the general Galactic dust properties. Using the newly available Herschel/Hi-GAL data of the inner Galactic plane, we report a 500 μm emissivity excess in the peripheral parts of the Galactic plane, that can reach up to 20% of the emissivity. Results of the TLS modeling indicate significant changes in the dust properties from the central to peripheral parts of the Galactic plane.

  6. SEMICLASSICAL LIMIT OF NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATION (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Wigner measure approach to study the semiclassical limit of nonlinear Schrodinger equation in small time. We prove that: the limits of the quantum density: pε =: |ψε|2, and the quantum momentum: Jε =: εIm(ψεψε) satisfy the compressible Euler equations before the formation of singularities in the limit system.

  7. Quantum Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S; Gupta, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    This paper initiates the study of quantum computing within the constraints of using a polylogarithmic ($O(\\log^k n), k\\geq 1$) number of qubits and a polylogarithmic number of computation steps. The current research in the literature has focussed on using a polynomial number of qubits. A new mathematical model of computation called \\emph{Quantum Neural Networks (QNNs)} is defined, building on Deutsch's model of quantum computational network. The model introduces a nonlinear and irreversible gate, similar to the speculative operator defined by Abrams and Lloyd. The precise dynamics of this operator are defined and while giving examples in which nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger's equations are applied, we speculate on its possible implementation. The many practical problems associated with the current model of quantum computing are alleviated in the new model. It is shown that QNNs of logarithmic size and constant depth have the same computational power as threshold circuits, which are used for modeling neural network...

  8. Multiphoton Quantum Optics and Quantum State Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; 10.1016/j.physrep.2006.01.004

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states...

  9. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories. PMID:27695198

  10. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G; Humphreys, Peter C; Bustard, Philip J; Acosta, Victor M; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2016-11-12

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  11. Quantum memories: emerging applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Humphreys, Peter C.; Bustard, Philip J.; Acosta, Victor M.; Nunn, Joshua; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces are at the heart of photonic quantum technologies. Quantum memories for photons, where non-classical states of photons are mapped onto stationary matter states and preserved for subsequent retrieval, are technical realizations enabled by exquisite control over interactions between light and matter. The ability of quantum memories to synchronize probabilistic events makes them a key component in quantum repeaters and quantum computation based on linear optics. This critical feature has motivated many groups to dedicate theoretical and experimental research to develop quantum memory devices. In recent years, exciting new applications, and more advanced developments of quantum memories, have proliferated. In this review, we outline some of the emerging applications of quantum memories in optical signal processing, quantum computation and non-linear optics. We review recent experimental and theoretical developments, and their impacts on more advanced photonic quantum technologies based on quantum memories.

  12. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, P.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S{sub 1}{sup 2} and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S{sub q}{sup 2} and CP{sub q}(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP{sub q}(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  13. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a single dopant in strained AlAs/GaAs spherical core/shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, M.; Talbi, A.; Feddi, E.; El Ghazi, H.; Oukerroum, A.; Dujardin, F.

    2017-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure influence on the binding energy and on the optical properties (linear and third nonlinear) associated to the 1 s - 1 p intersubband transition of single dopant in a AlAs / GaAs spherical core/shell structure is investigated. The combined effects of the problem variables such as the core and shell sizes, the donor position in the structure and the pressure dependence of the physical parameters of the material have been analyzed. Our calculations are performed in the framework of the effective mass approximation and the energies are obtained by using a variational method. The results show that the linear and nonlinear parts of the absorption coefficient and the refractive index associated to the intersubband 1 s - 1 p transition undergo important changes. There are several interesting results to point out such as the shift of the absorption coefficients and refractive index to high values of photon energy. Another significant result is that the donor position considerably affects the optical properties and their corresponding amplitude.

  14. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  15. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  16. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  17. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  18. Sensitivity simulations with direct shortwave radiative forcing by aeolian dust during glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, E.; Ganopolski, A.

    2014-07-01

    Possible feedback effects between aeolian dust, climate and ice sheets are studied for the first time with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity over the late Pleistocene period. Correlations between climate and dust deposition records suggest that aeolian dust potentially plays an important role for the evolution of glacial cycles. Here climatic effects from the dust direct radiative forcing (DRF) caused by absorption and scattering of solar radiation are investigated. Key elements controlling the dust DRF are the atmospheric dust distribution and the absorption-scattering efficiency of dust aerosols. Effective physical parameters in the description of these elements are varied within uncertainty ranges known from available data and detailed model studies. Although the parameters can be reasonably constrained, the simulated dust DRF spans a~wide uncertainty range related to the strong nonlinearity of the Earth system. In our simulations, the dust DRF is highly localized. Medium-range parameters result in negative DRF of several watts per square metre in regions close to major dust sources and negligible values elsewhere. In the case of high absorption efficiency, the local dust DRF can reach positive values and the global mean DRF can be insignificantly small. In the case of low absorption efficiency, the dust DRF can produce a significant global cooling in glacial periods, which leads to a doubling of the maximum glacial ice volume relative to the case with small dust DRF. DRF-induced temperature and precipitation changes can either be attenuated or amplified through a feedback loop involving the dust cycle. The sensitivity experiments suggest that depending on dust optical parameters, dust DRF has the potential to either damp or reinforce glacial-interglacial climate changes.

  19. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  20. Quantum Plasmas An Hydrodynamic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haas, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the basic concepts and new methods in the emerging scientific area known as quantum plasmas. In the near future, quantum effects in plasmas will be unavoidable, particularly in high density scenarios such as those in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma experiment or in compact astrophysics objects. Currently, plasmas are in the forefront of many intriguing questions around the transition from microscopic to macroscopic modeling of charged particle systems. Quantum Plasmas: an Hydrodynamic Approach is devoted to the quantum hydrodynamic model paradigm, which, unlike straight quantum kinetic theory, is much more amenable to investigate the nonlinear realm of quantum plasmas. The reader will have a step-by-step construction of the quantum hydrodynamic method applied to plasmas. The book is intended for specialists in classical plasma physics interested in methods of quantum plasma theory, as well as scientists interested in common aspects of two major areas of...

  1. Levy dusts, Mittag-Leffler statistics, mass fractal lacunarity, and perceived dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenfeld, R. [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Mail Stop B262, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mandelbrot, B.B. [Mathematics Department, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8283 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    We study the Levy dusts on the line on two accounts: the fluctuations around the average power law that characterizes the mass-radius relation for self-similar fractals, and the statistics of the intervals between strides along the logarithmic axis (their tail distribution is related to the dust`s fractal dimension). The Levy dusts are suggested as a yardstick of neutral lacunarity, against which non-neutral lacunarity can be measured objectively. A notion of perceived dimension is introduced. We conclude with an application of the Mittag-Leffler statistics to a nonlinear electrical network. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  3. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  4. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  5. On the Stability of Dust-Laden Protoplanetary Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The formation of planetesimals via gravitational instability of the dust layer in a protoplanetary disks demands that there be local patches where dust is concentrated by a factor of $\\sim$ a few $\\times 10^3$ over the background value. Vortices in protoplanetary disks may concentrate dust to these values allowing them to be the nurseries of planetesimals. The concentration of dust in the cores of vortices increases the dust-gas ratio of the core compared to the background disk, creating a "heavy vortex." In this work, we show that these vortices are subject to an instability which we have called the heavy-core instability. Using Floquet theory, we show that this instability occurs in elliptical protoplanetary vortices when the gas-dust density of the core of the vortex is heavier than the ambient gas-dust density by a few tens of percent. The heavy-core instability grows very rapidly, with a growth timescale of a few vortex rotation periods. While the nonlinear evolution of this instability remains unknown, ...

  6. Identification of Hammerstein Model Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hai Li

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear system identification is a main topic of modern identification. A new method for nonlinear system identification is presented by using Quantum Genetic Algorithm(QGA).The problems of nonlinear system identification are cast as function optimization overprameter space,and the Quantum Genetic Algorithm is adopted to solve the optimization problem. Simulation experiments show that: compared with the genetic algorithm, quantum genetic algorithm is an effective swarm intelligence algorith...

  7. Numerical Studies of Quantum Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Makoto; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Yui, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    We review numerical studies of quantum turbulence. Quantum turbulence is currently one of the most important problems in low temperature physics and is actively studied for superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. A key aspect of quantum turbulence is the dynamics of condensates and quantized vortices. The dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid helium are described by the vortex filament model, while the dynamics of condensates are described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model. Both of these models are nonlinear, and the quantum turbulent states of interest are far from equilibrium. Hence, numerical studies have been indispensable for studying quantum turbulence. In fact, numerical studies have contributed to revealing the various problems of quantum turbulence. This article reviews the recent developments in numerical studies of quantum turbulence. We start with the motivation and the basics of quantum turbulence and invite readers to the frontier of this research. Though there are many important topics in the quantum turbulence of superfluid helium, this article focuses on inhomogeneous quantum turbulence in a channel, which has been motivated by recent visualization experiments. Atomic Bose-Einstein condensates are a modern issue in quantum turbulence, and this article reviews a variety of topics in the quantum turbulence of condensates, e.g., two-dimensional quantum turbulence, weak wave turbulence, turbulence in a spinor condensate, some of which have not been addressed in superfluid helium and paves the novel way for quantum turbulence researches. Finally, we discuss open problems.

  8. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  9. Dependence of third-order nonlinear susceptibility on strain induced piezoelectric field in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaochen Bai(白瑶晨); Jingliang Liu(刘景良); Duanzheng Yao(姚端正)

    2004-01-01

    The third-order susceptibility of InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum well (QW) has been investigated by taking into account the strain-induced piezoelectric (PZ) field, and the effective-mass SchrSdinger equation is solved numerically. It is shovn that the third-order susceptibility for third harmonic generation (THG)of InxGa1-x,N/GaN QW is related to indium content in QW and the intensity of the PZ field. The characteristics ofX(3)THG(-3ω,(3) ω, ω,ω) as the function of the wavelength of incident beam, well width and indium content, have been analyzed.

  10. Effects of quantum noise on the nonlinear dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to two spectrally filtered, time-delayed optical feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suelzer, Joseph S.; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, Rupamanjari; Vemuri, Gautam

    2016-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and computational investigation of the complex dynamics that arise in a semiconductor laser that is subject to two external, time-delayed, filtered optical feedbacks with special attention to the effect of quantum noise. In particular, we focus on the dynamics of the instantaneous optical frequency (wavelength) and its behavior for a wide range of feedback strengths and filter parameters. In the case of two intermediate filter bandwidths, the most significant results are that in the presence of noise, the feedback strengths required for the onset of chaos in a period doubling route are higher than in the absence of noise. We find that the inclusion of noise changes the dominant frequency of the wavelength oscillations, and that certain attractors do not survive in the presence of noise for a range of filter parameters. The results are interpreted by use of a combination of phase portraits, rf spectra, and first return maps.

  11. Hydrogenic impurity, external electric and magnetic fields effects on the nonlinear optical properties of a multi-layer spherical quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhaei, M. H.; Rezaei, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, effects of an on-center hydrogenic impurity, external electric and magnetic fields on the optical rectification coefficient (ORC), second and third harmonic generations (SHG and THG) of a multi-layer spherical quantum dot (MLSQD) are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the direct matrix diagonalization method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. Our results reveal that the hydrogenic impurity and external fields have a great influence on these optical quantities. Hydrogenic impurity reduces the magnitude of the resonant peaks and shifts them to the higher energies. An increase in the magnetic (electric) field, leads to increase (decrease) the interval energies and the dipole moment matrix elements. Therefore, resonant peaks of these optical quantities find an obvious blue (red) shift and their magnitudes enhance (diminish) with increasing the external magnetic (electric) field.

  12. Exciton-related nonlinear optical absorption and refractive index change in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, Miguel E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, Carlos A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    In this work the variations of the exciton-related optical absorption and the change of the refractive index in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As double quantum well as functions of the geometric parameters of the heterostructure are investigated. The variational method is applied within the framework of the parabolic band and effective mass approximations, in order to obtain the 1s-like exciton energy spectrum. The outcome for the related optical coefficients shows a quenched and redshifted light absorption as a result of the increment in the inner barrier and right-hand well widths, with the possibility of an enhancement of the excitonic contribution to the relative change in the refractive index.

  13. Strongly Nonlinear Dependence of Energy Transfer Rate on sp(2) Carbon Content in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Quantum Dot Hybrid Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yitong; Son, Dong Hee

    2015-01-02

    The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the content of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms in the hybrid structures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Mn-doped quantum dot (QD(Mn)) was investigated. Taking advantage of the sensitivity of QD(Mn)'s dopant luminescence lifetime only to the energy transfer process without interference from the charge transfer process, the correlation between the sp(2) carbon content in RGO and the rate of energy transfer from QD(Mn) to RGO was obtained. The rate of energy transfer showed a strongly superlinear increase with increasing sp(2) carbon content in RGO, suggesting the possible cooperative behavior of sp(2) carbon domains in the energy transfer process as the sp(2) carbon content increases.

  14. Studies on the Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Parabolic and Semi-parabolic Quantum Wells with Applied Electric Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; XIE Hong-Jing

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of compact density matrix approach and iterative procedure, a detailed procedure for the calculation of the second-harmonic generation (SHG)susceptibility tensor is given in the electric-field-biased parabolic and semi-parabolic quantum wells (QWs). The simple analytical formula for the SHG susceptibility in the systems is also deduced. Numerical results on typical AlGaAs/GaAs materials show that, for the same effective width,the SHG susceptibility in semi-parabolic QW is larger than that in parabolic QW due to the self-asymmetry of the semiparabolic QW, and the applied electric field can make the SHG susceptibilities in both systems enhance remarkably.Moreover, the SHG susceptibility is also related to the parabolic confinement frequency and the relaxation rate of the systems.

  15. Dust Versus Cosmic Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, A N

    1999-01-01

    Two groups have recently discovered a statistically significant deviation in the fluxes of high-redshift type Ia supernovae from the predictions of a Friedmann model with zero cosmological constant. This letter argues that bright, dusty, starburst galaxies would preferentially eject a dust component with a shallower opacity curve (hence less reddening) and a higher opacity/mass than the observed galactic dust which is left behind. Such dust could cause the falloff in flux at high-z without violating constraints on reddening or metallicity. The specific model presented is of needle-like dust, which is expected from the theory of crystal growth and has been detected in samples of interstellar dust. Carbon needles with conservative properties can supply the necessary opacity, and would very likely be ejected from galaxies as required. The model is not subject to the arguments given in the literature against grey dust, but may be constrained by future data from supernova searches done at higher redshift, in clust...

  16. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  17. An Invisible Quantum Tripwire

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Petr M; McCracken, S Blane; Dowling, Jonathan P

    2010-01-01

    We present here a quantum tripwire, which is a quantum optical interrogation technique capable of detecting an intrusion with very low probability of the tripwire being revealed to the intruder. Our scheme combines interaction-free measurement with the quantum Zeno effect in order to interrogate the presence of the intruder without interaction. The tripwire exploits a curious nonlinear behavior of the quantum Zeno effect we discovered, which occurs in a lossy system. We also employ a statistical hypothesis testing protocol, allowing us to calculate a confidence level of interaction-free measurement after a given number of trials. As a result, our quantum intruder alert system is robust against photon loss and dephasing under realistic atmospheric conditions and its design minimizes the probabilities of false positives and false negatives as well as the probability of becoming visible to the intruder.

  18. Nonlinear opto-mechanical pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Conti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A transparent material exhibits ultra-fast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma, or the Casimir effect. Here we show that an ultra-fast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.

  19. A Quantum Algorithm for Finding a Hamilton Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hao; LONG Gui-Lu; SUN Yang; XIU Xiao-Lin

    2001-01-01

    A quantum algorithm for solving the classical NP-complete problem - the Hamilton circuit is presented. The algorithm employs the quantum SAT and the quantum search algorithms. The algorithm is square-root faster than classical algorithm, and becomes exponentially faster than classical algorithm if nonlinear quantum mechanical computer is used.

  20. Quantum physics. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheck, Florian [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik, Theoretische Elementarteilchenphysik

    2013-11-01

    New edition with added sections on nonlinear quantum mechanics and path integral methods in field theory. Contains an encyclopedic coverage from uncertainty relation to many-body systems, from symmetries to electroweak interation. Includes problems, partly with solutions, partly with hints towards solutions. Starting with basic principles and providing the framework all vital elements of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are explained, even an introduction to quantum electrodynamics is included. Scheck's Quantum Physics presents a comprehensive introductory treatment, ideally suited for a two-semester course. Part One covers the basic principles and prime applications of quantum mechanics, from the uncertainty relations to many-body systems. Part Two introduces to relativistic quantum field theory and ranges from symmetries in quantum physics to electroweak interactions. Numerous worked-out examples as well as exercises, with solutions or hints, enables the book's use as an accompanying text for courses, and also for independent study. For both parts, the necessary mathematical framework is treated in adequate form and detail. The book ends with appendices covering mathematical fundamentals and enrichment topics, plus selected biographical notes on pioneers of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The new edition was thoroughly revised and now includes new sections on quantization using the path integral method and on deriving generalized path integrals for bosonic and fermionic fields.