WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear organic materials

  1. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  2. Nonlinear optics and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1994-07-01

    We shall consider an interesting topic relating nonlinear optics and organic materials: how nonlinear optics can be used to study organic materials. One of the main differences between linear and nonlinear responses of a medium to incoming radiation is in their symmetries. It leads to the possibility that some properties of the medium could be more sensitively probed by nonlinear, rather than linear, optical means, or vise versa. A well-known example is that some vibrational modes of a medium could be Raman-active but infrared-inactive, and would be more readily observed by Raman scattering, which is a two-photon transition process. In this paper, we shall discuss, with the help of three examples, how we can use second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG) to obtain unique information about a material. We shall focus on thin films, surfaces, and interfaces.

  3. Design of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    This project deals with a new approach to designing organic nonlinear optical materials for second harmonic generation based on the use of hydrogen...patterns for even simple organic molecules. For organic nonlinear optical materials this dilemma means that even the most promising organic molecule may

  4. Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-22

    10 SOVRCE Of FUNO#NG NUM#E*S DM J .j PROGRAM PR0jECT TA5. ~ *0. I1I TITLE &Vila* So.Ivety ClaUMC400NJ Development of Organic NonLinear Optical Materials (U...0102-LF-014-6603 UNCLASSIFIED (U) AFOSR Contract: F4962040-C 0097 FINAL REPORT Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials by J. Sounnk IL

  5. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  6. Molecular and crystal design of nonlinear optical organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suponitsky, Kirill Yu; Antipin, Mikhail Yu [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Timofeeva, Tatiana V [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Highlands University (United States)

    2006-06-30

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the second-order molecular and crystal nonlinear optical susceptibilities of organic and several classes of organoelement compounds are summarised. Modern methods used in these studies are briefly characterised, their advantages and drawbacks are outlined as regards their application to the systematic search for efficient nonlinear optical materials. Recent achievements and the main challenges in the field are thoroughly discussed and an optimum algorithm of the design of such materials is proposed.

  7. Organic/Organometallic Hybrids as Broadband Nonlinear Transmission Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    property correlation in organometallic complexes in order to develop broadband nonlinear transmission materials . To realize this goal, we have...platinum complexes and 10 zinc phthalocyanine derivatives provided by collaborators in China. From these studies, we have discovered that in order to...in the near-IR region still limited their application as broadband nonlinear absorbing materials . To solve this problem, two approaches were

  8. Eye/Sensor Protection against Laser Irradiation Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    Recent developments in organic nonlinear optical materials for application to eye and sensor protection are reviewed. This compendium includes a...noteworthy organic third-order nonlinear optical materials is included as an appendix. Lasers are playing an important and increasing role in modern

  9. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  10. Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials by the Z-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials (vegetable oil, juice, wine, cognac, Coca-Cola and Fanta drinks, Nescafé coffee, tea, gasoline, clock oil, glycerol, and polyphenyl ether) that are used in everyday life. Their nonlinearities have been studied by the Z-scan method in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. We have shown that the majority of samples possess a nonlinear absorption; however, some of the studied materials show a strong saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction. Red wine and glycerol proved to be the most interesting materials. For these samples, we have observed a change in the sign of the nonlinear absorption with increasing laser intensity, which was attributed to the competition between two-photon absorption and saturated absorption.

  11. Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.C.; Driessen, A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Schoot, J.B.P.; van Schoot, Jan B.P.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the long trajectory from the synthesis of organic nonlinear optical materials to the completed all-optical device it is highly desirable to be able to concentrate already in an early state on only a few promising materials. Third harmonic generation (THG) is a very convenient method as it allows

  12. Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Freek C.; Driessen, Alfred; Hoekstra, Hugo J.W.M.; Schoot, van Jan B.P.; Popma, Th.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the long trajectory from the synthesis of organic nonlinear optical materials to the completed all-optical device it is highly desirable to be able to concentrate already in an early state on only a few promising materials. Third harmonic generation (THG) is a very convenient method as it allows

  13. Organic nonlinear optical materials: where we have been and where we are going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R

    2006-01-14

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials can be useful for a variety of applications varying from modulation of optical signals facilitated by the electro-optic effect-the effect whereby the refractive index of a material changes in response to an applied electric field-to microfabrication, sensing, imaging, and cancer therapy facilitated by multiphoton absorption, wherein molecules simultaneously absorb two or more photons of light. This short Focus article is a brief personal perspective of some of the key advances in second-order NLO materials and in multiphoton-absorbing materials, and of how and why these advances have led to renewed interest in organic NLO materials.

  14. Metal-organic frameworks as competitive materials for non-linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingabudinova, L R; Vinogradov, V V; Milichko, V A; Hey-Hawkins, E; Vinogradov, A V

    2016-09-26

    The last five years have witnessed a huge breakthrough in the creation and the study of the properties of a new class of compounds - metamaterials. The next stage of this technological revolution will be the development of active, controllable, and non-linear metamaterials, surpassing natural media as platforms for optical data processing and quantum information applications. However, scientists are constantly faced with the need to find new methods that can ensure the formation of quantum and non-linear metamaterials with higher resolution. One such method of producing metamaterials in the future, which will provide scalability and availability, is chemical synthesis. Meanwhile, the chemical synthesis of organized 3D structures with a period of a few nanometers and a size of up to a few millimeters is not an easy task and is yet to be resolved. The most promising avenue seems to be the use of highly porous structures based on metal-organic frameworks that have demonstrated their unique properties in the field of non-linear optics (NLO) over the past three years. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine current progress and the possibilities of using metal-organic frameworks in the field of non-linear optics as chemically obtained metamaterials of the future. The review begins by presenting the theoretical principles of physical phenomena represented by mathematical descriptions for clarity. Major attention is paid to the second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. In this section we compare inorganic single crystals, which are most commonly used to study the effect in question, to organic materials, which also possess the required properties. Based on these data, we present a rationale for the possibility of studying the non-linear optical properties of metal-organic structures as well as describing the use of synthetic approaches and the difficulties associated with them. The second part of the review explicitly acquaints the reader with a new class of materials

  15. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  16. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties of semi-organic nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Gunasekaran; G Anand; R Arun Balaji; J Dhanalakshmi; S Kumaresan

    2010-10-01

    Single crystals of urea thiourea mercuric sulphate (UTHS) and urea thiourea mercuric chloride (UTHC), semi-organic nonlinear optical materials, were grown by low-temperature solution growth technique by slow evaporation method using water as the solvent. Good quality single crystals were grown within three weeks. The nonlinear nature of the crystals was confirmed by SHG test. The UV–Vis spectrum showed the transmitting ability of the crystals in the entire visible region. FTIR spectrum was recorded and vibrational assignments were made. The degree of dopant inclusion was ascertained by AAS. The TGA–DTA studies showed the thermal properties of the crystals.

  17. Metal-organic frameworks for electronics: emerging second order nonlinear optical and dielectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Shruti; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Usman, Muhammad; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2015-10-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been intensively studied over the past decade because they represent a new category of hybrid inorganic-organic materials with extensive surface areas, ultrahigh porosity, along with the extraordinary tailorability of structure, shape and dimensions. In this highlight, we summarize the current state of MOF research and report on structure-property relationships for nonlinear optical (NLO) and dielectric applications. We focus on the design principles and structural elements needed to develop potential NLO and low dielectric (low-κ) MOFs with an emphasis on enhancing material performance. In addition, we highlight experimental evidence for the design of devices for low-dielectric applications. These results motivate us to develop better low-dielectric and NLO materials and to perform in-depth studies related to deposition techniques, patterning and the mechanical performance of these materials in the future.

  18. The Synthesis of Third—order Optical Nonlinear Organic Polyheterocyclic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianRongGAO; LuBaiCHENG; 等

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of the third-order nonlinear materials:bis (1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene) tetrathiafulvalene and bis (1,4-dialkoxylnaphthalene) tetrathiafulvalene has been achieved in four steps, starting from 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthaquinone. The materials exhibit larger third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ.

  19. Crystal growth of an organic non-linear optical material from the vapour phase

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, W

    1999-01-01

    Due to the potential applications of organic non-linear optical materials in the areas of optical processing and communication, the investigation of the crystal growth of new organic NLO materials has been an active field for the last 20 years. For such uses it is necessary to produce single crystals of high quality and perfection, free of strain and defects. When crystals are grown from the solution and the melt, solvent and the decomposition component in the melt can introduce impurities and imperfection to the as-grown crystals. For crystals grown from vapour phase, in the absence of the solvent, this cannot occur and the method promises to yield single crystals of higher quality. Despite this attraction, little attention has been paid to the vapour phase growth of organic NLO crystals. It was with this in mind that the following investigation was carried out. Using Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (p-MHB), a potential organic NLO material, a comparison investigation was made of its crystal growth from both the va...

  20. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  1. Growth and characterization of an organic nonlinear optical material: L-Histidine malonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, K.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2016-10-01

    L-Histidine malonate is one of the potential organic material for nonlinear optical applications. Single crystals of L-Histidine malonate were grown by the liquid diffusion method. The lattice parameter values were evaluated from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectral studies were employed to identify the different modes of vibrations of molecular groups in the crystal. Optical characterization and the percentage of optical transmission were recorded using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure was established by proton and carbon Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral studies. The thermal behavior of the material has been studied by Thermo gravimetric and Differential thermal plots. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency was found out from the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry.

  2. L-Cystine hydrochloride: A novel semi-organic nonlinear optical material for optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraju, K.; Valluvan, R.; Kirubavathi, K.; Kumararaman, S.

    2007-01-01

    A new semi-organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material L-cystine hydrochloride (LCHCl) was grown in large size measuring 19 × 5 × 3 mm 3 by slow solvent evaporation technique for the first time in literature. The cell parameter values were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic analysis was carried out on the grown sample to ascertain the fundamental functional groups. Thermal behavior of the grown LCHCl sample was analyzed by TG & DTA analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The optical transmission studies and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency studies justified the device quality of the grown crystal and the SHG study reveals that the grown sample has nearly 1.2 times higher efficiency than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), a well known NLO material.

  3. Prediction of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. General theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, B.; Moore, C.; Zutaut, S.

    1993-01-01

    The prediction of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials is geared to assist materials scientists in the selection of good candidate molecules. A brief summary of the quantum mechanical methods used for estimating hyperpolarizabilities will be presented. The advantages and limitations of each technique will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the finite-field method for calculating first and second order hyperpolarizabilities, since this method is better suited for large molecules. Corrections for dynamic fields and bulk effects will be discussed in detail, focusing on solvent effects, conformational isomerization, core effects, dispersion, and hydrogen bonding. Several results will be compared with data obtained from third-harmonic-generation (THG) and dc-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) measurements. These comparisons will demonstrate the qualitative ability of the method to predict the relative strengths of hyperpolarizabilities of a class of compounds. The future application of molecular mechanics, as well as other techniques, in the study of bulk properties and solid state defects will be addressed. The relationship between large values for nonlinear optical properties and large conjugation lengths is well known, and is particularly important for third-order processes. For this reason, the materials with the largest observed nonresonant third-order properties are conjugated polymers. An example of this type of polymer is polydiacetylene. One of the problems in dealing with polydiacetylene is that substituents which may enhance its nonlinear properties may ultimately prevent it from polymerizing. A model which attempts to predict the likelihood of solid-state polymerization is considered, along with the implications of the assumptions that are used. Calculations of the third-order optical properties and their relationship to first-order properties and energy gaps will be discussed. The relationship between monomeric and

  4. The Synthesis of Third-order Optical Nonlinear Organic Polyheterocyclic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of the third-order nonlinear materials: bis (l,4-dihydroxynaphthalene)tetrathiafulvalene and bis (1,4-dialkoxylnaphthalene) tetrathiafulvalene has been achieved in four steps, starting from 2,3-dichloro-l,4-naphthaquinone. The matcrials exhibit larger third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities X(3).

  5. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  6. Growth of thin films of organic nonlinear optical materials by vapor growth processes - An overview and examination of shortfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Penn, B. G.; Witherow, W. K.; Paley, M. S.

    1991-01-01

    Research on the growth of second- and third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic thin film by vapor deposition is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the experimental methods for growing thin films of p-chlorophenylurea, diacetylenes, and phthalocyanines; characteristics of the resulting films; and approaches for advancing thin film technology. It is concluded that the growth of NLO thin films by vapor processes is a promising method for the fabrication of planar waveguides for nonlinear optical devices. Two innovative approaches are proposed including a method of controlling the input beam frequency to maximize nonlinear effects in thin films and single crystals, and the alternate approach to the molecular design of organic NLO materials by increasing the transition dipole moment between ground and excited states of the molecule.

  7. Organized chromophoric assemblies for nonlinear optical materials: towards (sub)wavelength scale architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jialiang; Semin, Sergey; Rasing, Theo; Rowan, Alan E

    2015-03-01

    Photonic circuits are expected to greatly contribute to the next generation of integrated chips, as electronic integrated circuits become confronted with bottlenecks such as heat generation and bandwidth limitations. One of the main challenges for the state-of-the-art photonic circuits lies in the development of optical materials with high nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities, in particular in the wavelength and subwavelength dimensions which are compatible with on-chip technologies. In this review, the varied approaches to micro-/nanosized NLO materials based on building blocks of bio- and biomimetic molecules, as well as synthetic D-π-A chromophores, have been categorized as supramolecular self-assemblies, molecular scaffolds, and external force directed assemblies. Such molecular and supramolecular NLO materials have intrinsic advantages, such as structural diversities, high NLO susceptibilities, and clear structure-property relationships. These "bottom-up" fabrication approaches are proposed to be combined with the "top-down" techniques such as lithography, etc., to generate multifunctionality by coupling light and matter on the (sub)wavelength scale. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  9. Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical characterization of an organic nonlinear optical material: 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, M. Divya; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Organic single crystals of 4-methyl-3-nitrobenzoic acid (4M3N) have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4M3N crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The crystalline perfection of the crystal was analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. The functional groups present in 4M3N have been identified from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The lower cut-off wavelength of 4M3N is found to be 404 nm and the optical band gap is calculated as 2.91 eV. The refractive index shows normal behavior with wavelength. The physio chemical changes, decomposition and stability of the 4M3N compound were established by TG-DTA studies. Vickers microhardness measurement concludes that 4M3N belongs to soft material (n=2.5) category. The LDT value is found to be higher than that of KDP and some of the important organic NLO materials. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the 4M3N have been measured by Z-scan studies. The imaginary and real parts of the third-order susceptibility values were determined as Im χ3=9.129×10-11 esu and Re χ3=1.4034×10-9 esu respectively. The dislocation density was calculated to be 3.0448×106 cm-2 which indicates the quality of the crystal.

  10. Photon interaction study of organic nonlinear optical materials in the energy range 122-1330 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasarmol, Vishal V.; Gaikwad, Dhammajyot K.; Raut, Siddheshwar D.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mass attenuation coefficient (μm) of six organic nonlinear optical materials has been calculated in the energy range 122-1330 keV and compared with the obtained values from the WinXCOM program. It is found that there is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental values (<3%). The linear attenuation coefficients (μ) total atomic cross section (σt, a), and total electronic cross section (σt, el) have also been calculated from the obtained μm values and their variations with photon energy have been plotted. From the present work, it is observed that the variation of obtained values of μm, μ, σt, a, and σt, el strongly depends on the photon energy and decreases or increases due to chemical composition and density of the sample. All the samples have been studied extensively using transmission method with a view to utilize the material for radiation dosimetry. Investigated samples are good material for radiation dosimetry due their low effective atomic number. The mass attenuation coefficient (μm), linear attenuation coefficients (μ), total atomic cross section (σt, a), total electronic cross section (σt, el), effective atomic numbers (Zeff), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective atomic energy absorption cross section (σa, en) of all sample materials have been carried out and transmission curves have been plotted. The transmission curve shows that the variation of all sample materials decreases with increasing photon energy.

  11. Synthesis, growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical material: N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivanan, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of the organic nonlinear optical compound N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) was carried out in a newer chemical environment using the mixture of benzyl chloride and 2-methl-4-nitroaniline by a preferred laboratory synthesis process. The synthesized BNA compound was separated by column chromatography (CC) with low pressure silica gell using petrollium benzine and purity of the separated resultant product was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Further, the material was recrystallized atleast four times in methanol and the highly purified BNA was used for the growth of single crystals from solutions with selected solvents by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystals having natural growth morphology were harvested and their different growth faces were identified by optical goniometry. The grown crystals were subjected to different characterization techniques such as powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-vis-Near IR spectroscopy. Further, the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown BNA crystal was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser as fundamental source and found to be twice that of inorganic standard KDP.

  12. Optically nonlinear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Whittam, A J

    2001-01-01

    susceptibility from 26 pm/V (same film without octadecanoic acid) to 40 pm/V. This increase in the second-order susceptibility occurred even though the amount of NLO-active dye was effectively diluted by the addition of the inactive octadecanoic acid. The wavelength of the absorption maximum ranged from 346-440 nm and there was direct correlation between the susceptibilities and the transparency of the films at the harmonic wavelength. Hemicyanine dyes were synthesised, with the general formulae: - (a) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH-C sub 6 H sub 4] sub x -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I (b) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH] sub y -C sub 6 H sub 4 -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I where A sup + is a pyridinium or isoquinolinium acceptor, and x = 1 or 2, and y = 1 or 2. The optically nonlinear dyes were investigated via the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The dyes all produced isotherm data, with molecular areas of 22-60 A sup 2 per molecule, which are consistent with the cross-sectional areas of the chromo...

  13. New nonlinear optical materials based on ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J P [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Yu, K W [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-01-01

    We exploit theoretically a new class of magneto-controlled nonlinear optical material based on ferrofluids in which ferromagnetic nanoparticles are coated with a nonmagnetic metallic nonlinear shell. Such an optical material can have anisotropic nonlinear optical properties and a giant enhancement of nonlinearity, as well as an attractive figure of merit.

  14. Graphene - a rather ordinary nonlinear optical material

    CERN Document Server

    khurgin, Jacob B

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the nonlinear refractive index of graphene has been derived and used to obtain the performance metrics of third order nonlinear devices using graphene as a nonlinear medium. None of the metrics is found to be superior to the existing nonlinear optical materials.

  15. Variational principles for nonlinear piezoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, R.; Guinovart-Diaz, R. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Pobedria, B.E. [Moscow State University M. V. Lomonosov, Composites Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Padilla, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas (IIMAS), Cd. Universitaria, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Bravo-Castillero, J. [Universidad de la Habana, Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, Vedado, Habana (Cuba); Campus Estado de Mexico. Division de Arquitectura e Ingenieria, Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Atizapan de Zaragoza, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Maugin, G.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. Case 162, UMR 7607 CNRS, Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique, Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, we consider the behavior of nonlinear piezoelectric materials by generalization for this case of the Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. The new general formulation used here differs from others, because, it gives the possibility to evaluate the upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for specific physical nonlinearities of piezoelectric materials. Geometrical nonlinearities are not considered. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterizations of bis ( l-proline) cadmium iodide: a new semi-organic nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K.; Jagan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-07-01

    Novel semi-organic single crystals of bis ( l-proline) cadmium iodide (BLPC) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study shows that [BLPC] crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group P212121. 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies were conducted for the grown crystal. Functional groups present in the compound were identified by FTIR spectral studies. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was studied to analyse the optical properties of the grown crystals. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to study thermal behaviour of the materials. Vickers microhardness measurement was carried out for different loads. Etching studies were carried out using water as etchant. The second harmonic generation efficiency was determined by the Kurtz powder method and it was found to be higher than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

  17. Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes. Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices, and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices.

  18. Crystal structure, optical and thermal studies of a new organic nonlinear optical material: L-Histidinium maleate 1.5-hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsago, C. Alosious [Department of Physics, A. J. College of Engineering, Chennai 603103 (India); Albert, Helen Merina [Department of Physics, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Karthikeyan, J. [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India); Sagayaraj, P. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, Chennai 600034 (India); Pragasam, A. Joseph Arul, E-mail: drjosephsu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► L-Histidinium maleate 1.5-hydrate, a new organic crystal has been grown for the first time. ► The crystal structure is reported for the first time (CCDC 845975). ► The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P2{sub 1}, Z = 4, a = 11.4656(7) Å, b = 8.0530(5) Å, c = 14.9705(9) Å and β = 101.657(2)°. ► The optical absorption study substantiates the complete transparency of the crystal. ► Kurtz powder SHG test confirms the nonlinear property of the crystal. -- Abstract: A new organic nonlinear optical material L-histidinium maleate 1.5-hydrate (LHM) with the molecular formula C{sub 10}H{sub 16}N{sub 3}O{sub 7.5} has been successfully synthesized from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation method. The structural characterization of the grown crystal was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction at 293(2) K. In the crystal, molecules are linked through inter and intramolecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generate edge fused ring motif. The hydrogen bonded motifs are linked to each other to form a three dimensional network. The FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify the functional groups of the synthesized compound. The optical behavior of the grown crystal was examined by UV–visible spectral analysis, which shows that the optical absorption is almost negligible in the wavelength range 280–1300 nm. The nonlinear optical property was confirmed by the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry. The thermal behavior of the grown crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis.

  19. Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials and Devices Symposium Held in San Francisco, California on 6-9 April 1999. Volume 561

    Science.gov (United States)

    electroluminescent materials and devices for displays. The symposium highlighted developments in materials chemistry and physics relevant to such devices and struck a balance between basic science and technology.

  20. Gamma ray interaction studies of organic nonlinear optical materials in the energy range 122 keV-1330 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasarmol, V. V.; Gaikwad, D. K.; Raut, S. D.; Pawar, P. P.

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μm) for organic nonlinear optical materials measured at 122-1330 keV photon energies were investigated on the basis of mixture rule and compared with obtained values of WinXCOM program. It is observed that there is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental values of the samples. All samples were irradiated with six radioactive sources such as 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, 137Cs, 54Mn and 60Co using transmission arrangement. Effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities (Zeff and Neff), molar extinction coefficient (ε), mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and effective atomic energy absorption cross section (σa,en) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μm values for investigated samples and graphs have been plotted. The graph shows that the variation of all samples decreases with increasing photon energy.

  1. New Materials Directions for the Realization of Ultra-High Performance 3rd Order Non-Linear Optical Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-13

    number and part number, if applicable. On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER. Enter all...Enter security classification in accordance with security classification regulations, e.g. U, C, S, etc. If this form contains classified ...enhancement of the Cy-TICT nonlinear response. Orbital hybridization also resulted in spectral shifts of the resonances, so there is an exciting

  2. Nonlinear acoustics and honeycomb materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. O.

    2012-05-01

    The scope of research activity that Bruce Thompson embraced was very large. In this talk three different research topics that the author shared with Bruce are reviewed. They represent Bruce's introduction to NDE and include nonlinear acoustics, nondestructive measurements of adhesive bond strengths in honeycomb panels, and studies of flexural wave dispersion in honeycomb materials. In the first of these, four harmonics of a 30 Mhz finite amplitude wave were measured for both fused silica and aluminum single crystals with varying lengths and amounts of cold work using a capacity microphone with heterodyne receiver with a flat frequency response from 30 to 250 Mhz. The results for fused silica with no dislocation structure could be described by a model due to Fubini, originally developed for gases, that depends upon only the second and third order elastic constants and not the fourth and higher order constants. The same was not true for the aluminum with dislocation structures. These results raised some questions about models for harmonic generation in materials with dislocations. In the second topic, experiments were made to determine the adhesive bond strengths of honeycomb panels using the vibrational response of the panels (Chladni figures). The results showed that both the damping characteristics of panel vibrations as a whole and velocity of propagation of elastic waves that travel along the surface and sample the bondline can be correlated with destructively determined bond strengths. Finally, the phase velocity of flexural waves traveling along a 1-inch honeycomb sandwich panel was determined from 170 Hz to 50 Khz, ranging from 2.2×104 cm/sec at the low end to 1.18×105 cm/sec at 40 Khz. The dispersion arises from the finite thickness of the panel and agreed with the results of continuum models for the honeycomb. Above 40 Khz, this was not the case. The paper concludes with a tribute to Bruce for his many wonderful contributions and lessons beyond his

  3. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  4. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal and microhardness studies of a new hydrogen bonded organic nonlinear optical material: L-valinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LVPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, M.; Bahadur, S. Asath; Athimoolam, S.

    2016-05-01

    A new organic hydrogen bonded material, L-valinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LVPT), was synthesized and grown as a single crystal by slow evaporation solution growth technique with the dimension of 29 × 7 × 4 mm3. A good X-ray quality single crystal was selected from the grown crop and used for single crystal diffraction study. It reveals that the compound crystallized in a non-centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21 with two set of molecules in unit cell. The plane of the carboxyl group of the cation is making dihedral angle of 85.4(1)° with the plane of the aromatic ring of the anion. The crystal packing features intricate three dimensional hydrogen bonding network through chain and ring motifs. These hydrogen bonded motifs are observed at x = 0 or 1 and aromatic rings of the cations are stacked at x = 1/2 leading to alternate hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers, respectively, along a-axis of the unit cell. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (FT-Raman) spectral studies have been performed to identify the functional groups. The optical transmittance and the lower cutoff wavelength of the LVPT have been identified by UV-Vis absorption studies. Second harmonic generation test using a laser with wavelength of 1064 nm confirms the nonlinear optical efficiency of the sample as 1.5 greater than KDP. The thermal and mechanical properties of the sample were examined by TG/DTA and Vicker's microhardness tests, respectively. Further, the solid state properties were calculated and found to be better than the known nonlinear optical material KDP.

  5. Modulational instability in periodic quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the modulational instability of plane waves in quadratic nonlinear materials with linear and nonlinear quasi-phase-matching gratings. Exact Floquet calculations, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that the periodicity can drastically alter the gain spectrum but never complete...

  6. A Strategy for the Development of Macromolecular Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF MACROMOLECULAR NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS Braja K. Mandala , Jan-Chan...materials is significantly different from the conventional inorganic NLO materials. The extent of second order (quadratic) NLO effect such as second...is a criterion of paramount importance for a large second order electro-optic effect in organic materials 8 ,9 . The most common approach to obtain

  7. Growth, structural, physical and computational perspectives of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline: a promising organic nonlinear optical material with large laser-induced damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Ramaiah; Anitha, Kandasamy

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a systematic study of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (THP), C5H9NO3 is reported. An optical quality single crystals of THP have been successfully grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis reveals that grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group (NCS), P212121. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows relatively a good crystalline nature. The molecular structure of THP was recognized by NMR (1H and 13C) studies and its vibrational modes were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational studies. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of grown crystal shows high optical transparency in the visible and near-IR region with low near-UV cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. Photoluminescence study confirms ultraviolet wavelength emission of THP crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal is 1.6 times greater with respect to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Nonlinear refractive index (n 2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) were determined using the Z-scan technique. The title compound owns high thermal stability of 294 °C and specific heat capacity (C P) of 1.21 J g-1 K-1 at 300 K and 11.33 J g-1 K-1 at 539 K (melting point). The laser-induced damage threshold (LDT) value of grown crystal was measured as 7.25 GW cm-2. The crystal growth mechanism and defects of grown crystal were studied by chemical etching technique. Mechanical strength was extensively studied by Vickers microhardness test and crystal void percentage analysis. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to probe the Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the optimized molecular structure to get a better insight of the molecular properties. These characterization results endorse that grown THP crystal as a

  8. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Paul M; Kalainathan, S

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6×2×3 mm(3)) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  9. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): A potential NLO material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S.

    2013-07-01

    4-Chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS) a new organic nonlinear optical material has been synthesized. Employing slow evaporation method, good optical quality single crystals (dimensions up to 6 × 2 × 3 mm3) have been grown using ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) as a solvent. The grown crystals have been subjected to various characterizations such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton NMR, solid UV absorption, SHG studies. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal system belongs to monoclinic with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum has been recorded and found that the cut off wavelength is 380 nm. Functional groups and the structure of the title compound have been confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses respectively. Molecular mass of the CONS confirmed by the high resolution mass spectral analysis .The thermal behavior of the grown crystal has been studied by TG/DTA analysis and it shows the melting point is at 188.66 °C. Dislocations and growth pattern present in the grown crystal revealed by the etching study. The mechanical strength of the CONS crystal has been studied by Vicker's hardness measurement. The SHG efficiency of the grown crystal has been determined by Kurtz and Perry powder test which revealed that the CONS crystal (327 mV) has 15 times greater efficiency than that of KDP (21.7 mV).

  10. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, C.N.; Feldman, L.C.; Gonella, F.; Haglund, R.F.; Luepke, G.; Magruder, R.H.; Mazzoldi, P.; Osborne, D.H.; Solis, J.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.

  11. Synthesis, crystal growth, structural, spectral, thermal, mechanical, linear and nonlinear optical studies of organic single crystal 4-Iodo 4-nitrostilbene (IONS): A potential NLO material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinakaran, Paul M.; Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com

    2013-12-16

    An organic nonlinear optical material 4-Iodo 4-nitrostilbene (IONS) has been synthesized and good optical quality single crystal was grown from ethyl methyl ketone solvent by the solution growth technique. Single and powder X-ray diffraction analyses reveals that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group ‘P2{sub 1}’ and it has good crystalline nature. Functional groups and molecular structure of the title compound were confirmed by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR respectively. The UV–Vis–NIR absorption study reveals no absorption in the visible region and the cut-off wavelength was found to be at 412.84 nm, TG/DTA, mass spectral analysis, photoluminescence and microhardness studies have been carried out for the grown crystals and results are discussed in detail. The second harmonic efficiency of the IONS was determined by Kurtz–Perry powder technique which reveals that the IONS crystal (3.1 V) has greater efficiency i.e., 143 times to that of KDP (21.7 mV). - Highlights: • The 4-Iodo 4-nitrostilbene (IONS) material has been synthesized by Wittig reaction. • The single crystal was grown for the first time with dimensions of 9.5 × 4 × 1.5 mm{sup 3}. • SHG efficiency of IONS is 143 times greater than that of KDP crystal. • The UV–Vis absorption study reveals that the transparency was found to be good. • IONS crystal is a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Laser and nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 21 papers. Some of the titles are: Frequency conversion materials from a device perspective; Recent developments in area; Recent developments in barium borate; Growth of laser crystals at Airtron; Crystal growth and the future of solid state lasers; Faraday rotator materials for laser systems; and Mechanical properties of single crystal ceramics.

  13. Design of materials with prescribed nonlinear properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    We systematically design materials using topology optimization to achieve prescribed nonlinear properties under finite deformation. Instead of a formal homogenization procedure, a numerical experiment is proposed to evaluate the material performance in longitudinal and transverse tensile tests un....... The numerical examples illustrate optimized materials with rubber-like behavior and also optimized materials with extreme strain-independent Poisson's ratio for axial strain intervals of εi ∈ [0.00,0.30]. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... under finite deformation, i.e. stress-strain relations and Poisson's ratio. By minimizing errors between actual and prescribed properties, materials are tailored to achieve the target. Both two dimensional (2D) truss-based and continuum materials are designed with various prescribed nonlinear properties...

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Structures with Material Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, P.; Wagg, D. J.; Pinna, C.; Whear, R.; Briody, C.

    2016-09-01

    Structures usually experience deterioration during their working life. Oxidation, corrosion, UV exposure, and thermo-mechanical fatigue are some of the most well-known mechanisms that cause degradation. The phenomenon gradually changes structural properties and dynamic behaviour over their lifetime, and can be more problematic and challenging in the presence of nonlinearity. In this paper, we study how the dynamic behaviour of a nonlinear system changes as the thermal environment causes certain parameters to vary. To this end, a nonlinear lumped mass modal model is considered and defined under harmonic external force. Temperature dependent material functions, formulated from empirical test data, are added into the model. Using these functions, bifurcation parameters are defined and the corresponding nonlinear responses are observed by numerical continuation. A comparison between the results gives a preliminary insight into how temperature induced properties affects the dynamic response and highlights changes in stability conditions of the structure.

  15. Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Rosario; Zayat, Marcos; Levy, David

    2011-02-01

    Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted considerable attention owing to their potential application in photoactive devices, such as optical memories, windows, photochromic decorations, optical switches, filters or non-linear optics materials. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the use of photochromic materials for the purpose of improving existing materials and exploring new photochromic hybrid systems. This tutorial review summarizes the design and preparation of photochromic hybrid materials, and particularly those based on the incorporation of organic molecules in organic-inorganic matrices by the sol-gel method. This is the most commonly used method for the preparation of these materials as it allows vitreous hybrid materials to be obtained at low temperatures, and controls the interaction between the organic molecule and its embedding matrix, and hence allows tailoring of the performance of the resulting devices.

  16. A nonlinear constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin'en Liu; Xiaojing Zheng

    2005-01-01

    A general nonlinear constitutive model is proposed for magnetostrictive materials, based on the important physical fact that a nonlinear part of the elastic strain produced by a pre-stress is related to the magnetic domain rotation or movement and is responsible for the change of the maximum magnetostrictive strain with the pre-stress. To avoid the complicity of determining the tensor function describing the nonlinear elastic strain part, this paper proposes a simplified model by means of linearizing the nonlinear function.For the convenience of engineering applications, the expressions of the 3-D (bulk), 2-D (film) and 1-D (rod) models are, respectively, given for an isotropic material and their applicable ranges are also discussed. By comparison with the experimental data of a Terfenol-D rod, it is found that the proposed model can accurately predict the magnetostrictive strain curves in low, moderate and high magnetic field regions for various compressive pre-stress levels. The numerical simulation further illustrates that, for either magnetostrictive rods or thin films, the proposed model can effectively describe the effects of the pre-stress or residual stress on the magnetization and magnetostrictive strain curves, while none of the known models can capture all of them. Therefore, the proposed model enjoys higher precision and wider applicability than the previous models, especially in the region of the high field.

  17. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Interactions in Energetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M A; Moore, D S

    2016-01-01

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for non-ionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional Raman spectra in the terahertz range for planar slabs made of PETN and ammonium nitrate. We discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for stand-off explosive detection.

  18. Organic Materials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    connecting more modules Carbon nanotubes + Paper (cellulose fibers) Carbon nanotubes + Poly- ethyleneimeine ( PEI ) + NaBH4 treatment 21...Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) are stabilized with two different molecules in poly(vinyl acetate) latex:  PEDOT:PSS (conductive)  TCPP...correlation orders due very small dephasing A Thick BSO Crystal Point source (δ- function input) A T Nitt Denko Organic Material Thick

  19. Organic photomechanical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyung; Zhu, Lingyan; Al-Kaysi, Rabih O; Bardeen, Christopher J

    2014-02-24

    Organic molecules can transform photons into Angstrom-scale motions by undergoing photochemical reactions. Ordered media, for example, liquid crystals or molecular crystals, can align these molecular-scale motions to produce motion on much larger (micron to millimeter) length scales. In this Review, we describe the basic principles that underlie organic photomechanical materials, starting with a brief survey of molecular photochromic systems that have been used as elements of photomechanical materials. We then describe various options for incorporating these active elements into a solid-state material, including dispersal in a polymer matrix, covalent attachment to a polymer chain, or self-assembly into molecular crystals. Particular emphasis is placed on ordered media, such as liquid-crystal elastomers and molecular crystals, that have been shown to produce motion on large (micron to millimeter) length scales. We also discuss other mechanisms for generating photomechanical motion that do not involve photochemical reactions, such as photothermal expansion and photoinduced charge transfer. Finally, we identify areas for future research, ranging from the study of basic phenomena in solid-state photochemistry, to molecular and host matrix design, and the optimization of photoexcitation conditions. The ultimate realization of photon-fueled micromachines will likely involve advances spanning the disciplines of chemistry, physics and engineering.

  20. MACROSCOPIC STRAIN POTENTIALS IN NONLINEAR POROUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘熠; 黄筑平

    2003-01-01

    By taking a hollow sphere as a representative volume element (RVE), the macroscopic strain potentials of porous materials with power-law incompressible matrix are studied in this paper.According to the principles of the minimum potential energy in nonlinear elasticity and the variational procedure, static admissible stress fields and kinematic admissible displacement fields are constructed,and hence the upper and the lower bounds of the macroscopic strain potential are obtained. The bounds given in the present paper differ so slightly that they both provide perfect approximations of the exact strain potential of the studied porous materials. It is also found that the upper bound proposed by previous authors is much higher than the present one, and the lower bounds given by Cocks is much lower. Moreover, the present calculation is also compared with the variational lower bound of Ponte Castafneda for statistically isotropic porous materials. Finally, the validity of the hollow spherical RVE for the studied nonlinear porous material is discussed by the difference between the present numerical results and the Cocks bound.

  1. Nonlinear optical studies of organic monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1988-02-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical effects are forbidden in a medium with inversion symmetry, but are necessarily allowed at a surface where the inversion summary is broken. They are often sufficiently strong so that a submonolayer perturbation of the surface can be readily detected. They can therefore be used as effective tools to study monolayers adsorbed at various interfaces. We discuss here a number of recent experiments in which optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) are employed to probe and characterize organic monolayers. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Growth, spectral and optical characterization of a novel nonlinear optical organic material: D-Alanine DL-Mandelic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An organic nonlinear optical single crystal, D-alanine DL-mandelic acid was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature using solvent of aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters were assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups and vibrational modes were identified using Fourier Transform Infra Red and Fourier Transform Raman spectral analyses. The chemical structure of grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic study. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis reveal that the crystal has lower cut-off wavelength down to 259 nm, is a key factor to exhibit second harmonic generation signal. The electronic optical band gap and Urbach energy is calculated as 5.31 eV and 0.2425 eV respectively from the UV absorption profile. The diverse optical properties such as, extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, optical conductivity was calculated using UV-visible data. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.81 times greater than that of KH2PO4 (KDP). The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. The luminescence spectrum exhibited two peaks (520 nm, 564 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out employing one of the as-grown hard crystal and there by hardness number (Hv), Meyer's index (n), yield strength (σy), elastic stiffness constant (C11) and Knoop hardness number (HK) were assessed. The dielectric behaviour of the as-grown crystal was analyzed for different temperatures (313 K, 333 K, 353 K, and 373 K) at different frequencies.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Materials for the Smart Filtering of Optical Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Danilo; Calvete, Mário J F; Hanack, Michael

    2016-11-23

    The control of luminous radiation has extremely important implications for modern and future technologies as well as in medicine. In this Review, we detail chemical structures and their relevant photophysical features for various groups of materials, including organic dyes such as metalloporphyrins and metallophthalocyanines (and derivatives), other common organic materials, mixed metal complexes and clusters, fullerenes, dendrimeric nanocomposites, polymeric materials (organic and/or inorganic), inorganic semiconductors, and other nanoscopic materials, utilized or potentially useful for the realization of devices able to filter in a smart way an external radiation. The concept of smart is referred to the characteristic of those materials that are capable to filter the radiation in a dynamic way without the need of an ancillary system for the activation of the required transmission change. In particular, this Review gives emphasis to the nonlinear optical properties of photoactive materials for the function of optical power limiting. All known mechanisms of optical limiting have been analyzed and discussed for the different types of materials.

  4. Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Andres D.; Olivier, Nicolas; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical materials comprise the foundation of modern photonics, offering functionalities ranging from ultrafast lasers to optical switching, harmonic and soliton generation. Optical nonlinearities are typically strong near the electronic resonances of a material and thus provide limited tuneability for practical use. Here we show that in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials, the Kerr-type nonlinearity is not limited by the nonlinear properties of the constituents. Compared with gold's nonlinearity, the measured nonlinear absorption and refraction demonstrate more than two orders of magnitude enhancement over a broad spectral range that can be engineered via geometrical parameters. Depending on the metamaterial's effective plasma frequency, either a focusing or defocusing nonlinearity is observed. The ability to obtain strong and fast optical nonlinearities in a given spectral range makes these metamaterials a flexible platform for the development of low-intensity nonlinear applications. PMID:26195182

  5. Laser And Nonlinear Optical Materials For Laser Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2005-01-01

    NASA remote sensing missions involving laser systems and their economic impact are outlined. Potential remote sensing missions include: green house gasses, tropospheric winds, ozone, water vapor, and ice cap thickness. Systems to perform these measurements use lanthanide series lasers and nonlinear devices including second harmonic generators and parametric oscillators. Demands these missions place on the laser and nonlinear optical materials are discussed from a materials point of view. Methods of designing new laser and nonlinear optical materials to meet these demands are presented.

  6. Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical C: F49620-93-C-0039 Switching and Modulation 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr. Sandip K. Sengupta, Dr...D FINAL REPORT for Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation Prepared for: USAF, AFMC (AFOSR) Air Force...34Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation," contract number F49620-93-C-0039. The work has been performed by Dr

  7. Characterizaticr of Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-02

    materials useful in the different methods for obtaining frequency agility: narrow line emitters with multiple lasing channels and nonlinear optical materials . In...codoped with two or more rare earth ions were studied and computers models developed to explain their spectral dynamics. The nonlinear optical materials investigated

  8. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  9. A physico-chemical approach to study the experimental and theoretical properties of L-ornithine monohydrochloride: An organic nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkir, Mohd, E-mail: shkirphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box. 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box. 9004, Abha 61413 (Saudi Arabia); Abbas, Haider [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna College of Engineering, Faridabad, Haryana 121001 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [CSIR – National Physical Laboratory, Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the current work the authors report the experimental and theoretical investigation on L-ornithine monohydrochloride (LOHCL). Single crystals of LOHCL were grown by slow cooling technique and its crystal system was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection was evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis which indicates that the crystalline perfection of the grown crystal is fairly good. Vibrational modes of LOHCL were identified by experimentally recorded and theoretically calculated FT-Raman and IR spectrums and found in good agreement with the reported values. Optical absorbance and reflectance were recorded by using UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer and various optical parameters were calculated. Detailed theoretical analysis was done by density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent TD-DFT using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of method. HOMO-LUMO gap was found to be 6.09 eV whereas by experiment it is 4.8 eV. The excited state is more polar in comparison to ground state during excitation, dipole moment increases from 3.06 D in ground state to 3.90 D in excited state. The average polarizability (α{sub tot}), anisotropy of polarizability (Δα), first static and second order hyperpolarizability (β{sub tot}, β{sub 0}, γ) were calculated. The total first hyperpolarizability of LOHCL is found to be 2 times higher than prototype urea molecule which is very promising for nonlinear optical applications. - Graphical abstract: Grown crystal, molecular geometry and HOMO-LUMO of LOHCL. - Highlights: • A dual approach has been applied on LOHCL molecule to study its various needful properties. • Structural and vibrational (IR and Raman) analysis was done and found in close agreement earlier reports. • Various optical parameters were calculated and discussed using experimental and theoretical studies. • First and second order hyperpolarizability values were calculated and found to be comparable with others materials.

  10. Unsymmetrical squaraines for nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Chen, Chin-Ti (Inventor); Cheng, Lap-Tak (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Compositions for use in non-linear optical devices. The compositions have first molecular electronic hyperpolarizability (.beta.) either positive or negative in sign and therefore display second order non-linear optical properties when incorporated into non-linear optical devices.

  11. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.M. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J.A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  12. Magnetic Characterization of Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    and lasers. Given this expectation, we believe that our research on magnetic characterization of organic materials will translate into innovative...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0005 Magnetic Characterization of Organic Materials Dongho Kim YONSEI UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY FOUNDATION Final Report 12...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10 Sep 2015 to 09 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Magnetic Characterization of Organic Materials 5a.  CONTRACT

  13. Control of self-organizing nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klapp, Sabine; Hövel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The book summarizes the state-of-the-art of research on control of self-organizing nonlinear systems with contributions from leading international experts in the field. The first focus concerns recent methodological developments including control of networks and of noisy and time-delayed systems. As a second focus, the book features emerging concepts of application including control of quantum systems, soft condensed matter, and biological systems. Special topics reflecting the active research in the field are the analysis and control of chimera states in classical networks and in quantum systems, the mathematical treatment of multiscale systems, the control of colloidal and quantum transport, the control of epidemics and of neural network dynamics.

  14. Laser and nonlinear optical materials: SPIE volume 681

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers arranged under the following session headings: Nonlinear optical crystals; Laser host crystals; Electro-optic and magneto-optic materials; and Characterization of optical materials.

  15. Investigating nonlinear distortion in the photopolymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    Propagation and diffraction of a light beam through nonlinear materials are effectively compensated by the effect of selftrapping. The laser beam propagating through photo-sensitive polymer PVA/AA can generate a waveguide of higher refractive index in direction of the light propagation. In order to investigate this phenomenon occurring in light-sensitive photopolymer media, the behaviour of a single light beam focused on the front surface of photopolymer bulk is investigated. As part of this work the self-bending of parallel beams separated in spaces during self-writing waveguides are studied. It is shown that there is strong correlation between the intensity of the input beams and their separation distance and the resulting deformation of waveguide trajectory during channels formation. This self-channeling can be modelled numerically using a three-dimension model to describe what takes place inside the volume of a photopolymer media. Corresponding numerical simulations show good agreement with experimental observations, which confirm the validity of the numerical model that was used to simulate these experiments.

  16. Organic photoresponse materials and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huanli; Zhu, Hongfei; Meng, Qing; Gong, Xiong; Hu, Wenping

    2012-03-07

    Organic photoresponse materials and devices are critically important to organic optoelectronics and energy crises. The activities of photoresponse in organic materials can be summarized in three effects, photoconductive, photovoltaic and optical memory effects. Correspondingly, devices based on the three effects can be divided into (i) photoconductive devices such as photodetectors, photoreceptors, photoswitches and phototransistors, (ii) photovoltaic devices such as organic solar cells, and (iii) optical data storage devices. It is expected that this systematic analysis of photoresponse materials and devices could be a guide for the better understanding of structure-property relationships of organic materials and provide key clues for the fabrication of high performance organic optoelectronic devices, the integration of them in circuits and the application of them in renewable green energy strategies (critical review, 452 references).

  17. Comment on the paper "Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-chloro 4-nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material" by P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan [Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Dhuri, Sunder N; Nadkarni, V S

    2014-01-03

    We argue that (trans)-4-chloro-4'-nitrostilbene is not a new organic nonlinear optical material as claimed by Dinakaran and Kalainathan [P.M. Dinakaran, S. Kalainathan, Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal, chemical etching, linear and nonlinear optical and mechanical studies of an organic single crystal 4-Chloro 4-Nitrostilbene (CONS): a potential NLO material, Spectrochim. Acta A 111 (2013) 123-130], but instead a well-known compound whose synthesis, spectral data, single crystal structure and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency are well documented in the literature. The title paper is completely erroneous. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. All-optical signal processing in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2002-01-01

    of materials with a second order nonlinearity, the so-called X(2) materials, is faster and stronger than that of more conventional materials with a cubic nonlinearity. The X(2) materials support spatial solitons consisting of two coupled components, the fundamental wave (FW) and its second harmonic (SH......). During this project the interaction between such spatial solitons has been investigated theoretically through perturbation theory and experimentally via numerical simulations. The outcome of this research isnew theoretical tools for quantitatively predicting the escape angle, i.e. the angle of incidence...... and exploitation of these cubic nonlinearities in two-period QPM wave-guides has been another area of investigation. Introducing the second period might make practical engineering of the nonlinearities possible. A major result is the discovery that cubic nonlinearities leads to an enhancement of the bandwidth...

  19. Nonlinear constitutive behavior of ferroelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric specimen is considered as an aggregation of many randomly oriented domains. According to this mechanism,a multi-domain mechanical model is developed in this paper. Each domain is represented by one element. The applied stress and electric field are taken to be the stress and electric field in the formula of the driving force of domain switching for each element in the specimen. It means that the macroscopic switching criterion is used for calculating the volume fraction of domain switching for each element. By using the hardening relation between the driving force of domain switching and the volume fraction of domain switching calibrated,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated. Substituting the stress and electric field and the volume fraction of domain switching into the constitutive equation of ferroelectric material,one can easily get the strain and electric displacement for each element. The macroscopic behavior of the ferroelectric specimen is then directly calculated by volume averaging. Mean-while,the nonlinear finite element analysis for the ferroelectric specimen is carried out. In the finite element simulation,the volume fraction of domain switching for each element is calculated by using the same method mentioned above. The in-teraction between different elements is taken into account in the finite element simulation and the local stress and electric field for each element is obtained. The macroscopic behavior of the specimen is then calculated by volume averaging. The computation results involve the electric butterfly shaped curves of axial strain versus the axial electric field and the hysteresis loops of electric displacement versus the electric field for ferroelectric specimens under the uniaxial coupled stress and electric field loading. The present theoretical prediction agrees reasonably with the experimental results.

  20. Nanoscale metal-organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carné, Arnau; Carbonell, Carlos; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Metal-organic materials are found to be a fascinating novel class of functional nanomaterials. The limitless combinations between inorganic and organic building blocks enable researchers to synthesize 0- and 1-D metal-organic discrete nanostructures with varied compositions, morphologies and sizes, fabricate 2-D metal-organic thin films and membranes, and even structure them on surfaces at the nanometre length scale. In this tutorial review, the synthetic methodologies for preparing these miniaturized materials as well as their potential properties and future applications are discussed. This review wants to offer a panoramic view of this embryonic class of nanoscale materials that will be of interest to a cross-section of researchers working in chemistry, physics, medicine, nanotechnology, materials chemistry, etc., in the next years.

  1. Tunable Optical Sources and Synthetic Nonlinear Media: Growth and Characterization of Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-13

    niobate and absolute measurements of nonlinear optical coefficients of six different commonly used nonlinear optical materials. The refractometry data for...applied radiation and is now an established technology for Nd:YAG lasers. Optical parametric oscillation and amplification provide a method of generating...continuously tunable output -3- The relative advantages of nonlinear optical frequency conversion compared to other methods for the generation of near

  2. Prediction of nonlinear optical properties of large organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of materials with large nonlinear responses usually requires involved synthetic processes. Thus, it is very advantageous for materials scientists to have a means of predicting nonlinear optical properties. The prediction of nonlinear optical properties has to be addressed first at the molecular level and then as bulk material. For relatively large molecules, two types of calculations may be used, which are the sum-over-states and the finite-field approach. The finite-field method was selected for this research, because this approach is better suited for larger molecules.

  3. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Organic Adduct Nonlinear Optical Material: 3,5-Dinitrobenzonic Acid·ethanolamine (3,5-DNBEA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The title compound (C2H7NO·C7H4N2O6) has been obtained by the reaction of etha- nolamine with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid in deionized water at room temperature. The crystal crystal- lizes in orthorhombic, space group P212121 with a = 6.048(2), b = 9.146(3), c = 21.955(7)(A), C9H11N3O7, Mr = 273.21, Z = 4, V = 1214.3(7)(A)3, Dc = 1.494 g/cm3, F(000) = 568, μ(MoKα) = 0.131 mm-1, R1 = 0.0338 and wR2 = 0.0497. The new organic adduct is composed of one ethanolamine and one 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, which are linked up by O-H…O and N-H…O types of hydrogen bonds to form a nine-membered ring and an eleven-membered ring, extending into a one-dimensional network structure.

  4. Second-order nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloatti, L; Korn, D; Weimann, C; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2012-08-27

    We describe a concept for second-order nonlinear optical processes in silicon photonics. A silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) double slot waveguide is dispersion-engineered for mode phase-matching (MPM). The proposed waveguide enables highly efficient nonlinear processes in the mid-IR range. With a cladding nonlinearity of χ(2) = 230 pm/V and 20 dBm pump power at a CW wavelength of 1550 nm, we predict a gain of 14.7 dB/cm for a 3100 nm signal. The suggested structure enables for the first time efficient second-order nonlinear optical mixing in silicon photonics with standard technology.

  5. A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K., E-mail: singlecerystalxrd@gmail.ciom [School of Physics, Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV–Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  6. Printed organic smart devices characterized by nonlinear optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolo; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to characterize organic printed electronics. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced photoluminescence....... With this technique, we can recognize different nanomaterials and we propose that the TPPL is a good indicator to map and monitor the charge carrier density and the molecular packing of the printed polymer material. Importantly, simple calculations based on the signal levels, suggest that this technique can...... be extended to the real time mapping of the polymer semiconductor film, even during the printing process, in which the high printing speed poses the need for equally high acquisition rates....

  7. Nonlinear elastic behavior of phantom materials for elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, Theo Z; Madsen, Ernest L; Frank, Gary R; Hall, Timothy J [Medical Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Room 1005, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705 (United States); Adilton O Carneiro, Antonio, E-mail: tjhall@wisc.ed [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-05-07

    The development of phantom materials for elasticity imaging is reported in this paper. These materials were specifically designed to provide nonlinear stress/strain relationship that can be controlled independently of the small strain shear modulus of the material. The materials are mixtures of agar and gelatin gels. Oil droplet dispersions in these materials provide further control of the small strain shear modulus and the nonlinear parameter of the material. Since these materials are mostly water, they are assumed to be incompressible under typical experimental conditions in elasticity imaging. The Veronda-Westman model for strain energy density provided a good fit to all materials used in this study. Materials with a constant gelatin concentration (3.0% dry weight) but varying agar concentration (0.6-2.8% dry weight) demonstrated the same power law relationship between elastic modulus and agar concentration found for pure agar (1.89 {+-} 0.02), consistent with percolation theory, and provided a consistent nonlinearity parameter of 4.5 {+-} 0.3. The insights provided by this study will form the basis for stable elastography phantoms with stiffness and nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the background that differ from those in the target.

  8. Nonlinear Optical Absorption of Organic Molecules for Applications in Optical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Boni, Leonardo De; Daniel S. Correa; Mendonca, Cleber R.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter aimed to describe the resonant nonlinear optical properties of four important organic molecules: Chlorophyll A, Indocyanine Green, Ytterbium Bisphthalocyanine and Cytochrome C, which are materials that present interesting optical nonlinearities for applications in optical devices. It was shown that Chlorophyll A solution exhibits a RSA process for Q-switched and mode-locked laser pulses, with an intersystem-crossing time relatively fast and a triplet state cross section value twi...

  9. Organic materials for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, M; Nilsson, D; Robinson, N D

    2007-01-01

    Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences - via molecular-level control of functionality - compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable.

  10. Design of advanced materials for linear and nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Niels Morten Marslev

    The primary catalyst of this PhD project has been an ambition to design advanced materials and structural systems including, and possibly even exploiting, nonlinear phenomena such as nonlinear modal interaction leading to energy conversion between modes. An important prerequisite for efficient...... design is accurate and somewhat simple analysis tools, as well as a fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena responsible for the relevant effects. The emphasis of this work lies primarily in the investigation of various advanced material models, developing the necessary analytical tools...... to reveal the fundamental dynamic characteristics and thus the relevant design parameters.The thesis is built around the characterization of two one-dimensional, periodic material systems. The first is a nonlinear mass-spring chain with periodically varying material properties, representing a simple...

  11. Geometric and material nonlinear analysis of tensegrity structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hoang Chi Tran; Jaehong Lee

    2011-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for the large deflection in elastic analysis of tensegrity structures including both geometric and material nonlinearities.The geometric nonlinearity is considered based on both total Lagrangian and updated Lagrangian formulations,while the material nonlinearity is treated through elastoplastic stressstrain relationship.The nonlinear equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative scheme in conjunction with the modified Newton-Raphson method.A computer program is developed to predict the mechanical responses of tensegrity systems under tensile,compressive and flexural loadings.Numerical results obtained are compared with those reported in the literature to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed program.The flexural behavior of the double layer quadruplex tensegrity grid is sufficiently good for lightweight large-span structural applications.On the other hand,its bending strength capacity is not sensitive to the self-stress level.

  12. Application of Novel Nonlinear Optical Materials to Optical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha P.

    1999-01-01

    We describe wave mixing and interactions in nonlinear photorefractive polymers and disodium flourescein. Higher diffracted orders yielding forward phase conjugation can be generated in a two-wave mixing geometry in photorefractive polymers, and this higher order can be used for image edge enhancement and correlation. Four-wave mixing and phase conjugation is studied using nonlinear disodium floureschein, and the nature and properties of gratings written in this material are investigated.

  13. Dielectric and Elastic Characterization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Giordano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper deals with the dielectric and elastic characterization of composite materials constituted by dispersions of nonlinear inclusions embedded in a linear matrix. The dielectric theory deals with pseudo-oriented particles shaped as ellipsoids of revolution: it means that we are dealing with mixtures of inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio and arbitrary non-random orientational distributions. The analysis ranges from parallel spheroidal inclusions to completely random oriented inclusions. Each ellipsoidal inclusion is made of an isotropic dielectric material described by means of the so-called Kerr nonlinear relation. On the other hand, the nonlinear elastic characterization takes into consideration a dispersion of nonlinear (spherical or cylindrical inhomogeneities. Both phases are considered isotropic (actually it means polycrystalline or amorphous solids. Under the simplifying hypotheses of small deformation for the material body and of small volume fraction of the embedded phase, we describe a theory for obtaining the linear and nonlinear elastic properties (bulk and shear moduli and Landau coefficients of the overall material.

  14. Nonlinear mechanics of soft fibrous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of the fundamental theories, established models and ongoing research related to the modeling of these materials. Two approaches are conventionally used to develop constitutive relations for highly deformable fibrous materials. According to the phenomenological approach, a strain energy density function can be defined in terms of strain invariants. The other approach is based on kinetic theories, which treats a fibrous material as a randomly oriented inter-tangled network of long molecular chains bridged by permanent and temporary junctions. At the micro-level, these are associated with chemical crosslinks and active entanglements, respectively. The papers include carefully crafted overviews of the fundamental formulation of the three-dimensional theory from several points of view, and address their equivalences and differences. Also included are solutions to boundary-value problems which are amenable to experimental verification. A further aspect is the elasticity...

  15. Thermoelectrical Characterization of Organic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are prime candidates for thermoelectric applications, because one can maximize the dimensionless figure of merit ZT (by maximizing the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity) while simultaneously minimizing the thermal conductivity. In this work, we explore a few materials and try to find their thermoelectric characteristics. For the n-leg of the thermogenerator, we studied a modified fullerene (PCBM) which is doped with TDAE vapor. For the p-leg, we studied PE...

  16. On the Prediction of the Nonlinear Absorption in Reverse Saturable Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A.; Day, Paul N.; Kennel, Joshua C.

    2001-03-01

    In our continuing efforts to design materials that exhibit reverse saturable absorption (RSA), we systematically examine the ability of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method using local, nonlocal, and hybrid functionals, to predict the experimental nonlinear absorption for a variety of organic and organometallic molecular systems, including a number of free-base porphyrins, phthalocyanine and their metal complexes. The ground and triplet-triplet excitation energies, as well as the oscillator strengths are calculated, indicating good agreement with experiment. We conclude that the TDDFT approach with a hybrid functional provides good estimates for the nonlinear absorption of RSA materials.

  17. Materials for Nonlinear Optics Chemical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    introduced into LB muldilayers built from 1/1 mixtures with an amphiphilic cyclodextrin . The polyenic chains are again perpendicular to the substrate...molecules in inorganic matrices. The encapsulated molecules can be used to induce new optical properties in the material or to probe the changes at the...glass are discussed here. First, laser dyes including rhodamines and coumarins are encapsulated . The resulting doped gel-glasses exhibit optical gain

  18. Mesomorphic glass nanocomposites made of metal alkanoates and nanoparticles as emerging nonlinear-optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbovskiy, Y.; Klimusheva, G.; Mirnaya, T.

    2016-09-01

    Mesomorphic metal alkanoates is very promising yet overlooked class of nonlinear-optical materials. Metal alkanoates can exhibit a broad variety of condensed states of matter including solid crystals, plastic crystals, lyotropic and thermotropic ionic liquid crystals, liquids, mesomorphic glasses, and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Glass-forming properties of metal alkanoates combined with their use as nano-reactors and anisotropic host open up simple and efficient way to design various photonic nanomaterials. Despite very interesting physics, the experimental data on optical and nonlinearoptical properties of such materials are scarce. The goal of the present paper is to fill the gap by discussing recent advances in the field of photonic materials made of metal alkanoates, organic dyes, and nanoparticles. Optical and nonlinear-optical properties of the following materials are reviewed: (i) mesomorphic glass doped with organic dyes; (ii) smectic glass composed of cobalt alkanoates; (iii) semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a glassy host; (iv) metal nanoparticles - glass (the cobalt octanoate) nanocomposites.

  19. Nonlinear Optical Properties of a MMA-Silica Nanohybrid Material Doped with Rhodamine 6G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima-Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanohybrid material based on MMA-Silica has been synthesized with an organic dye dopant (R6G to tailor the optical properties. This novel material can be used on several devices such as active laser media for an organic solid state laser, OLEDs, or as a characterization media for new organic dye molecules. Thin films were deposited by dip-coating and characterized by absorption and reflection UV-VIS, photoluminescence, SEM, and Z-scan technique to verify their nonlinear behavior. R6G dye dopant has been used to verify that the nanohybrid matrix does not inhibit its optical properties.

  20. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  1. Modeling of Z-scan characteristics for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqi; Zang, Weiping; Schülzgen, Axel; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jianguo; Moloney, Jerome V; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2009-12-01

    We propose a Z-scan theory for one-dimensional nonlinear photonic bandgap materials. The Z-scan characteristics for this material are analyzed. Results show that the Z-scan curves for photonic bandgap materials with nonlinear refraction are similar to those of uniform materials exhibiting both nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption simultaneously. Effects of nonlinear absorption on reflected and transmitted Z-scan results are also discussed.

  2. Enhanced nonlinear refractive index in epsilon-near-zero materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspani, L; Clerici, M; Ferrera, M; Roger, T; Di Falco, A; Kim, J; Kinsey, N; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A; Faccio, D

    2016-01-01

    New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a six-fold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index ($n_2$) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics.

  3. Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twieg, R.J. (comp.)

    1985-03-31

    Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)

  4. Nonlinearity-induced PT-symmetry without material gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Parity-time symmetry has raised a great deal of attention in optics in recent years, yet its application has been so far hindered by the stringent requirements on coherent gain balanced with loss. In this paper, we show that the conditions to enable parity and time symmetry can be simultaneously satisfied for a pair of modes with mixed frequencies interacting in a nonlinear medium, without requiring the presence of material gain. First, we consider a guided wave structure with second order nonlinearity and we derive the PT-symmetric Hamiltonian that governs the interaction of two waves of mixed frequencies when accompanied by a high intensity pump beam at the sum frequency. We also extend the results to an array of coupled nonlinear waveguide channels. It is shown that the evolution dynamics of the low-frequency waves is associated with a periodic PT-symmetric lattice while the phase of the pump beams can be utilized as a control parameter to modify the gain and loss distribution, thus realizing different PT lattices by design. Our results suggest that nonlinear wave mixing processes can form a rich platform to realize PT-symmetric Hamiltonians of arbitrary dimensions in optical systems, without requiring material gain.

  5. Preparation of Main-Chain Polymers Based on Novel Monomers with D-π-A Structure for Application in Organic Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials with Good Long-Term Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Canbin; Liu, Jialei; Liu, Qi; Li, Yuan; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2017-03-29

    Main-chain nonlinear optical polymers based on novel chromophores with special structures presented good solubility in most of the organic solvents. Polymers PE-1 and PE-2 attained the thermal decomposition temperatures of 305 and 223 °C and glass transition temperatures of 113 and 108 °C, and exhibited only negligible decay in the SHG signal baked at 85 °C over hundreds of hours, respectively. The SHG coefficients of poled films from polymers PE-1 and PE-2 were 26.3 and 35.8 pm/V, respectively. These results indicated that this class of polymers can be used in the preparation of organic electro-optic devices.

  6. A donor-nanotube paradigm for nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dequan; Bulat, Felipe A; Yang, Weitao; Beratan, David N

    2008-09-01

    Studies of the nonlinear electronic response of donor/acceptor substituted nanotubes suggest a behavior that is both surprising and qualitatively distinct from that in conventional conjugated organic species. We find that the carbon nanotubes serve as both electronic bridges and acceptors, leading to a donor-nanotube paradigm for the effective design of large first hyperpolarizabilities. We also find that tuning the donor orientation, relative to the nanotube, can significantly enhance the first hyperpolarizability.

  7. Functional organic materials for electronics industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, K.; Ono, H.

    1982-01-01

    Topics closely related with organic, high molecular weight material synthesis are discussed. These are related to applications such as display, recording, sensors, semiconductors, and I.C. correlation. New materials are also discussed. General principles of individual application are not included. Materials discussed include color, electrochromic, thermal recording, organic photoconductors for electrophotography, and photochromic materials.

  8. NONLINEAR BUCKLING CHARACTERISTIC OF GRADED MULTIWEB STRUCTURE OF HETEROGENEOUS MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; ZHANG Zhi-min

    2005-01-01

    The graded multiweb structure of heterogeneous anisotropic materials, which makes full use of the continuous, gradual and changing physical mechanical performance of material properties, has a widespread application in aeroplane aerofoil structure and automobile lightweight structure. On the basis of laminate buckling theory,the equivalent rigidity method is adopted to establish the corresponding constitutive relation and the non-linear buckling governing equation for the graded multiweb structure. In finding the solution, the critical load of buckling under different complicated boundary conditions together with combined loads were obtained and testification of the experimental analysis shows that the calculation results can satisfy the requirements of engineering design in a satisfactory way. Results obtained from the research say that: graded materials can reduce the concentrated stress on the interface in an effective way and weaken the effect of initial defect in materials and thereby improve the strength and toughness of materials.

  9. Nonlinear Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis of Polymer Foam Cored Sandwich Structures including Geometrical and Material Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Taher, Siavash Talebi;

    In this paper, polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads will be analysed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS® incorporating both material and geometrical nonlinearity. Large displacements and rotations ar...... are included in the analysis. The full nonlinear stress-strain curves up to failure will be considered for the polymer foams at different temperatures to study the effect of material nonlinearity in detail....

  10. Intrinsic optical bistability between left-handed material and nonlinear optical materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Hong-Yan; Jiang Yong-Yuan; Sun Xiu-Dong; Guo Ru-Hai; Zhao Yi-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the interface between a left-handed material and a conventional nonlinear material were investigated theoretically and numerically. We found a new phenomenon-optical bistability of the interface.It was shown that the incident intensity, incident angle and permeability ratio between the left-handed and the nonlinear materials could dramatically affect the optical bistable behaviour. We also compared the bistable behaviours of different electromagnetic modes. The results indicated that the TE mode was prior to the TM mode to obtain optical bistability for the same parameter.

  11. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  12. Time-Dependent Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility of an Out-of-Equilibrium Soft Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofraniha, Neda; Conti, Claudio; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Zamponi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the time-dependent nonlinear optical absorption of a clay dispersion (Laponite) in an organic dye (rhodamine B) water solution displaying liquid-arrested state transition. Specifically, we determine the characteristic time τD of the nonlinear susceptibility buildup due to the Soret effect. By comparing τD with the relaxation time provided by standard dynamic light scattering measurements we report on the decoupling of the two collective diffusion times at the two very different length scales during the aging of the out-of-equilibrium system. With this demonstration experiment we also show the potentiality of nonlinear optics measurements in the study of the late stage of arrest in soft materials.

  13. Recent development of organic electron transport materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the recent development of organic electron transport materials applied in the fields of organic photoconductors, light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and solar cells. Several technologies for charge carrier mobility measurement are summarized and compared, and a series of basic principles for designing high-performance organic electron transport materials are suggested as well.

  14. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Platforms for Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuanjing; Li, Bin; He, Huajun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

    2016-03-15

    , carbon dioxide capture, and separations. The intrinsic optical and photonic properties of metal ions and organic ligands, and guest molecules and/or ions can be collaboratively assembled and/or encapsulated into their frameworks, so we have realized a series of novel MOF materials as ratiometric luminescent thermometers, O2 sensors, white-light-emitting materials, nonlinear optical materials, two-photon pumped lasing materials, and two-photon responsive materials for 3D patterning and data storage. Thanks to the interplay of the dual functionalities of metal-organic frameworks (the inherent porosity, and the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of inorganic and organic building blocks and encapsulated guest species), our research efforts have led to the development of functional MOF materials beyond our initial imaginations.

  15. Computation of the effective nonlinear mechanical response of lattice materials considering geometrical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNady, Khaled; Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is presently developed in the framework of geometrical nonlinearities to derive the large strains effective elastic response of network materials viewed as repetitive beam networks. This works extends the small strains homogenization method developed with special emphasis on textile structures in Goda et al. (J Mech Phys Solids 61(12):2537-2565, 2013). A systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of these structures in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the chosen equivalent continuum. Internal scale effects of the initially discrete structure are captured by the consideration of a micropolar effective continuum model. Applications to the large strain response of 3D hexagonal lattices and dry textiles exemplify the powerfulness of the proposed method. The effective mechanical responses obtained for different loadings are validated by FE simulations performed over a representative unit cell.

  16. Nonlinear phononics and structural control of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankowsky, Roman

    2016-01-20

    Mid-infrared light pulses can be used to resonantly excite infrared-active vibrational modes for the phase control of strongly correlated materials on subpicosecond timescales. As the energy is transferred directly into atomic motions, dissipation into the electronic system is reduced, allowing for the emergence of unusual low energy collective properties. Light-induced superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions and melting of magnetic order demonstrate the potential of this method. An understanding of the mechanism, by which these transitions are driven, is however missing. The aim of this work is to uncover this process by investigating the nonlinear lattice dynamics induced by the excitation and to elucidate their contribution to the modulation of collective properties of strongly correlated materials. The first signature of nonlinear lattice dynamics was reported in the observation of coherent phonon oscillations, resonant with the excitation of an infrared-active phonon mode in a manganite. This nonlinear phononic coupling can be described within a model, which predicts not only oscillatory coherent phonons dynamics but also directional atomic displacements along the coupled modes on average, which could cause the previously observed transitions. We verified this directional response and quantified the anharmonic coupling constant by tracing the atomic motions in a time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction experiment with sub-picometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. In a subsequent study, we investigated the role of nonlinear lattice dynamics in the emergence of superconductivity far above the equilibrium transition temperature, an intriguing effect found to follow lattice excitation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the anharmonic coupling constants with time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments, we identified a structural rearrangement, which appears and decays with the same temporal

  17. Nonlinear material behaviour of spider silk yields robust webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven W; Tarakanova, Anna; Pugno, Nicola M; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-02-01

    Natural materials are renowned for exquisite designs that optimize function, as illustrated by the elasticity of blood vessels, the toughness of bone and the protection offered by nacre. Particularly intriguing are spider silks, with studies having explored properties ranging from their protein sequence to the geometry of a web. This material system, highly adapted to meet a spider's many needs, has superior mechanical properties. In spite of much research into the molecular design underpinning the outstanding performance of silk fibres, and into the mechanical characteristics of web-like structures, it remains unknown how the mechanical characteristics of spider silk contribute to the integrity and performance of a spider web. Here we report web deformation experiments and simulations that identify the nonlinear response of silk threads to stress--involving softening at a yield point and substantial stiffening at large strain until failure--as being crucial to localize load-induced deformation and resulting in mechanically robust spider webs. Control simulations confirmed that a nonlinear stress response results in superior resistance to structural defects in the web compared to linear elastic or elastic-plastic (softening) material behaviour. We also show that under distributed loads, such as those exerted by wind, the stiff behaviour of silk under small deformation, before the yield point, is essential in maintaining the web's structural integrity. The superior performance of silk in webs is therefore not due merely to its exceptional ultimate strength and strain, but arises from the nonlinear response of silk threads to strain and their geometrical arrangement in a web.

  18. Analysis of Tagish Lake macromolecular organic material

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, I; Pearson, V. K.; Sephton, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Macromolecular material is, by far, the major organic component of meteorites. Flash pyrolysis GCMS has been used to investigate this organic component in Tagish Lake. It is more condensed, less susbtituted than Murchson.

  19. Organic solar cells materials and device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, Wallace CH

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses synthesis, properties and uses of new materials in devices from electrodes, interface and carrier transport materials to the active layer of donors and acceptors. Covers polymers, exciton and charge dynamics, organic photovoltaics and more.

  20. Synthesis, growth and characterization of π conjugated organic nonlinear optical chalcone derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, A.N., E-mail: ashwatha.prabhu@manipal.edu [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Upadhyaya, V. [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Jayarama, A., E-mail: jayaram@mite.ac.in [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering (MITE), Moodabidri 574225 (India); Subrahmanya Bhat, K. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2013-02-15

    A new potentially useful nonlinear optical organic material, 1-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one, has been synthesized and grown as a high-quality single crystal by the slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, thermal analysis, and UV–visible spectroscopy. The material is thermally stabile up to 111 °C. The mechanical property of the grown crystals was studied using Vickers microhardness tester and the load dependence hardness was observed. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the material such as real and imaginary part of χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were determined using nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm wavelength by employing Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index is found to be of the order of 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2} W{sup −1}. The magnitude of third order susceptibility is of the order of 10{sup −13} esu. The observed increase in the third order nonlinearity in these molecules clearly indicates the electronic origin. The compounds exhibit good optical limiting at 532 nm. The best optical limiting behavior of this molecule is due to the substituted strong electron donor. - Highlights: ► A novel thiophene substituted NLO crystal has been grown using methanol as solvent. ► The crystals were characterized by using FTIR, TGA/DTA and UV–visible spectroscopy. ► The n{sub 2} and χ{sup (3)} values is of the order of 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2} W{sup −1} and 10{sup −13} esu respectively. ► The crystals show better optical limiting behavior.

  1. Thermal conductivities of some novel nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J D

    1994-02-20

    Results of thermal conductivity measurements are reported for several of the more recently developed nonlinear optical crystals. New or substantially revised values of thermal conductivity were obtained in six materials. Notable thermal conductivities measured were those for AgGaS(2) [0.014 W/(cm K) and 0.015 W/(cm K)], AgGaSe(2) [0.010 W/(cm K) and 0.011 W/(cm K)], beta barium borate [0.016 W/(cm K) and 0.012 W/(cm K)], and ZnGeP(2) [0.36 W/(cm K) and 0.35 W/(cm K)], with values quoted for directions respectively parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis for each material. These new data provide necessary input for the design of high-power optical frequency converters.

  2. Thioborates: potential nonlinear optical materials with rich structural chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu-Kun; Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Ling

    2017-03-27

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal materials with good performance are urgently needed. Various compounds have been explored to date. Metal chalcogenides and borates are common sources of potential NLO materials with desirable properties, particularly in the IR and UV regions, respectively. However, these two types of crystals have their specific drawbacks. Thioborates, as an emerging system, have unique advantages by combining the merits of borates and sulfides, i.e., the high laser damage thresholds and rich structural diversity of borates with large optical nonlinearity and the favorable transparency range of sulfides. However, only a limited number of thioborates are known. This paper summarizes the known thioborates according to structural motifs that range from zero-dimension to three-dimension, most of which are formed by sharing corners of the basic building units (BS3)(3-) and (BS4)(5-). Although nearly one-third of the known thioborates are noncentrosymmetric, most of their properties, especially their NLO behaviors, are unexplored. Further attempts and additional investigations are required with respect to design syntheses, property improvements and micro-mechanism studies.

  3. Field-enhanced nonlinear optical properties of organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    Second harmonic generation in nonlinearly optically active organic nanofibers, generated via self-assembled surface growth from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules, has been investigated. After the growth on mica templates, nanofibers have been transferred onto...... lithographically defined regular arrays of metal and dielectric nanostructures. Such hybrid systems were employed to correlate the second harmonic response to both morphology of the fibers i.e. local field enhancement due to local changes in the fiber’s morphology and field enhancement effects appearing...

  4. Field-enhanced nonlinear optical properties of organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    2014-01-01

    Second harmonic generation in nonlinearly optically active organic nanofibers, generated via self-assembled surface growth from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules, has been investigated. After the growth on mica templates, nanofibers have been transferred onto...... lithographically defined regular arrays of metal and dielectric nanostructures. Such hybrid systems were employed to correlate the second harmonic response to both morphology of the fibers i.e. local field enhancement due to local changes in the fiber’s morphology and field enhancement effects appearing...

  5. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Garrot, D.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ˜100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (energy.

  6. Kyropoulos method for growth of nonlinear optical organic crystal ABP (4-aminobenzophenone) from the melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shoukui; Okano, Y.; Tsunekawa, S.; Fukuda, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Kyropoulus method was used to grow nonlinear optical organic crystals ABP (4-aminobenzophenone). The crystals were characterized by nonlinear optical measurements and had a large effect of frequency doubling.

  7. Organic optoelectronics:materials,devices and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; CUI Tian-hong

    2005-01-01

    The interest in organic materials for optoelectronic devices has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has been propelled by the exciting advances in organic thin films for displays, low-cost electronic circuits, etc. An increasing number of products employing organic electronic devices have become commercialized, which has stimulated the age of organic optoelectronics. This paper reviews the recent progress in organic optoelectronic technology. First, organic light emitting electroluminescent materials are introduced. Next, the three kinds of most important organic optoelectronic devices are summarized, including light emitting diode, organic photovoltaic cell, and photodetectors. The various applications of these devices are also reviewed and discussed in detail. Finally, the market and future development of optoelectronic devices are also demonstrated.

  8. New organic photochromic materials and selected applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Małachowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to perform the review of the recent most important results of experimental and theoretical investigations connected with the photochromic materials and their selected applications.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods of organic photochromic materials and devices operating as tree-dimensional optical data storage.Findings: We pointed out the important role that play the photochromic effect in organic materials and which can be used as the above mentioned devices.Research limitations/implications: The main disadvantage of organic materials are reported to be to short their lives and weak resistivity to the moist but the improvements are advancing.Originality/value: Our review concerns the most recent findings in this area. We also show some recent examples of photochromic organic material application in 3D memory devices.

  9. Emerging Multifunctional Metal-Organic Framework Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wen, Hui-Min; Cui, Yuanjing; Zhou, Wei; Qian, Guodong; Chen, Banglin

    2016-10-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as coordination polymers, represent an interesting type of solid crystalline materials that can be straightforwardly self-assembled through the coordination of metal ions/clusters with organic linkers. Owing to the modular nature and mild conditions of MOF synthesis, the porosities of MOF materials can be systematically tuned by judicious selection of molecular building blocks, and a variety of functional sites/groups can be introduced into metal ions/clusters, organic linkers, or pore spaces through pre-designing or post-synthetic approaches. These unique advantages enable MOFs to be used as a highly versatile and tunable platform for exploring multifunctional MOF materials. Here, the bright potential of MOF materials as emerging multifunctional materials is highlighted in some of the most important applications for gas storage and separation, optical, electric and magnetic materials, chemical sensing, catalysis, and biomedicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Basic Studies of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Eye and Sensor Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-10

    1 BASIC STUDIES OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS FOR EYE AND SENSOR PROTECTION I. Abstract: We have studied the spectroscopy, kinetics and...study liquid or solid materials from CW to 100x10-15 seconds. Basic Studies of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Eye and Sensor Protection

  11. On the prediction of stress relaxation from known creep of nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, D.; Cederbaum, G. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    1997-04-01

    A method to predict the nonlinear relaxation behavior from creep experiments of nonlinear viscoelastic materials is presented. It is shown that for given nonlinear creep properties, and creep compliance represented by the Prony series, the Schapery creep model can be transformed into a set of first order nonlinear equations. The solution of these equations enables the obtaining of the nonlinear stress relaxation curves. The strain-dependent constitutive equation can then be constructed for a given nonlinear viscoelastic model, as needed for engineering applications. A comparison example of the calculated stress relaxation curves, with test data for polyurethane demonstrates the very good accuracy of the proposed method.

  12. Recent advances in organic semiconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana

    2011-10-01

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their low cost, easy fabrication, and tunable properties. Applications of organic materials in thin-film transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and many other devices have been actively explored. Recent advances in organic synthesis, material processing, and device fabrication led to significant improvements in (opto)electronic device performance. However, a number of challenges remain. These range from lack of understanding of basic physics of intermolecular interactions that determine optical and electronic properties of organic materials to difficulties in controlling film morphology and stability. In this presentation, current state of the field will be reviewed and recent results related to charge carrier and exciton dynamics in organic thin films will be presented.[4pt] In collaboration with Whitney Shepherd, Mark Kendrick, Andrew Platt, Oregon State University; Marsha Loth and John Anthony, University of Kentucky.

  13. Phosphorus-containing materials for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus-based materials have received widespread attention in recent years, in particular as possible candidates for practical application in organic electronics. The geometry and electronic nature of phosphorus make it a favorable heteroatom for property tuning in order to obtain better performing organic electronics. This Focus Review discusses recent structural modifications and syntheses of phosphorus-based materials, illustrates property tuning at the same time, and highlights specific examples for device applications.

  14. Organic material from Phoebe to Iapetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazzulla, G.

    1986-05-01

    It is demonstrated on the basis of experiments in which organic materials were ion-irradiated that the dust going to Iapetus from Phoebe can be organic, though Phoebe appears to be carbonaceous. Only the outer layers of Phoebe's crust would be carbonized by the cosmic protons, so that meteorite impacts on Phoebe would lead to the ejection of material from deeper layers which is of different color from that carbonized on the surface. 13 references.

  15. Hydrophobic Porous Material Adsorbs Small Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.

    1994-01-01

    Composite molecular-sieve material has pore structure designed specifically for preferential adsorption of organic molecules for sizes ranging from 3 to 6 angstrom. Design based on principle that contaminant molecules become strongly bound to surface of adsorbent when size of contaminant molecules is nearly same as that of pores in adsorbent. Material used to remove small organic contaminant molecules from vacuum systems or from enclosed gaseous environments like closed-loop life-support systems.

  16. Influence of spiral framework on nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-Yang; Sun, Shi-Ling; Tian, Wen-Tao; Tian, Wei Quan; Xu, Hong-Liang; Su, Zhong-Min

    2014-04-04

    A series of spiral donor-π-acceptor frameworks (i.e. 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, and 5-5) based on 4-nitrophenyldiphenylamine with π-conjugated linear acenes (naphthalenes, anthracenes, tetracenes, and pentacenes) serving as the electron donor and nitro (NO2 ) groups serving as the electron acceptor were designed to investigate the relationships between the nonlinear optical (NLO) responses and the spirality in the frameworks. A parameter denoted as D was defined to describe the extent of the spiral framework. The D value reached its maximum if the number of NO2 groups was equal to the number of fused benzene rings contained in the linear acene. A longer 4-nitrophenyldiphenylamine chain led to a larger D value and, further, to a larger first hyperpolarizability. Different from traditional NLO materials with charge transfer occurring in the one-dimensional direction, charge transfer in 2-2, 3-3, 4-4, and 5-5 occur in three-dimensional directions due to the attractive spiral frameworks, and this is of great importance in the design of NLO materials. The origin of such an enhancement in the NLO properties of these spiral frameworks was explained with the aid of molecular orbital analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Non-linear Constitutive Model for the Oligocarbonate Polyurethane Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Pawlikowski

    2014-01-01

    The polyurethane,which was the subject of the constitutive research presented in the paper,was based on oligocarbonate diols Desmophen C2100 produced by Bayer@.The constitutive modelling was performed with a view to applying the material as the inlay of intervertebral disc prostheses.The polyurethane was assumed to be non-linearly viscohyperelastic,isotropic and incompressible.The constitutive equation was derived from the postulated strain energy function.The elastic and rheological constants were identified on the basis of experimental tests,i.e.relaxation tests and monotonic uniaxial tests at two different strain rates,i.e.λ =0.1 min-1 and λ =1.0 min-1.The stiffness tensor was derived and introduced to Abaqus@finite element (FE) software in order to numerically validate the constitutive model.The results of the constants identification and numerical implementation show that the derived constitutive equation is fully adequate to model stress-strain behavior of the polyurethane material.

  18. Nonlinear Absorption and Refraction in Multilevel Organic Molecular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Fei; DENG Xiao-Xu; WANG Yu-Xiao

    2000-01-01

    The nonlinear absorption and refraction in a multilevel organic molecular system is described by using the density matrix theory. The total absorptive coefficient of the system in the low-density case is equal to a linear sum of contributions from each energy level. Similarly, the total refractive index is equal to a linear sum of contributions from each energy level plus the refractive index of the vacuum. The absorption coefficient or refractive index due to each level is proportional to the population of that level, where the constant of proportionality is called the absorption cross-section or the refraction volume, respectively. The relation between the absorption cross-section and the refraction volume for each level is also given.

  19. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of organic azo dyes by using strength of nonlinearity parameter and Z-scan technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiei, H.; Jafari, A.; Naderali, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, two chemically synthesized organic azo dyes, 2-(2,5-Dichloro-phenyazo)-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (i)) and 5,5-Dimethyl-2-tolylazo-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (ii)), have been studied from optical Kerr nonlinearity point of view. These materials were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Experiments were performed using a continous wave diode-pumped laser at 532 nm wavelength in three intensities of the laser beam. Nonlinear absorption (β), refractive index (n2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)) of dyes, were calculated. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of dyes have been calculated from two methods; 1) using theoretical fits and experimental data in the Z-scan technique, 2) using the strength of nonlinearity curves. The values of β obtained from both of the methods were approximately the same. The results demonstrated that azo dye (ii) displays better nonlinearity and has a lower two-photon absorption threshold than azo dye (i). Calculated parameter related to strength of nonlinearity for azo dye (ii) was higher than azo dye (i), It may be due to presence of methyl in azo dye (ii) instead of chlorine in azo dye (i). Furthermore, The measured values of third order susceptibility of azo dyes were from the order of 10-9 esu . These azo dyes can be suitable candidate for optical switching devices.

  20. Research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of nonlinear optical materials based on the effect of second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Xuan; Wei, Yong; Huang, Cheng-Hui; Zhuang, Feng-Jiang; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the authors report a research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of optical materials in visible and infrared band. Based on the second order nonlinear optic principle and the photoelectric signal detection technology, the authors have proposed a new testing scheme in which a infrared OPO laser and a method for separating the beams arising from frequency matching and the light produced by other optical effects were used. The OPO laser is adopted as light source to avoid the error of measurement caused by absorption because the double frequency signal of the material is in the transmittance band Our research work includes testing system composition, operational principle and experimental method. The experimental results of KTP, KDP, AGS tested by this method were presented. In the experiment several new infrared non-linear materials were found. This method possesses the merits of good stability and reliability, high sensitivity, simple operation and good reproducibility, which can effectively make qualitative and semi-quantitative test for optical material's nonlinear optical properties from visible to infrared. This work provides an important test -method for the research on second order nonlinear optical materials in visible, infrared and ultraviolet bands.

  1. Organic electronics II more materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klauk, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessor this book is devoted to the materials, manufacturing and applications aspects of organic thin-film transistors. Onceagain authored by the most renowned experts from this fascinating and fast-moving area of research, it offers a joint perspective bothbroad and in-depth on the latest developments in the areas of materials chemistry, transport physics, materials characterization, manufacturing technology, and circuit integration of organic transistors. With its many figures and detailed index, this book once again also serves as a ready reference.

  2. EDITORIAL Light-induced material organization Light-induced material organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainos, Nikos; Rode, Andrei V.

    2010-12-01

    horizons to production processing (Koroleva et al). The use of femtosecond lasers enables polymerization for flexible production of micro-optics and integrated optics (Malinauskas et al). Laser beams of moderate intensity are used to create surface relief patterning in polymer and hybrid matter (Babeva et al) while the use of optimized acrylamide photopolymers results in submicron holographic structures (Trainer et al). In a different concept, the application of laser radiation forces in soft polymer matter offers intriguing, yet unexplored, means for the organization of dense structures and filaments in polymer solutes, pointing to nonlinear optical applications (Anyfantakis et al). Finally, high laser intensities are used for the processing of soft polymer and hybrid matter. In the two modes of operation available, laser-induced forward transfer of polymers is a promising alternative for the creation of controlled structures (Palla-Papavlu et al), while ablative structuring creates interfaces with enhanced properties by excimer laser irradiation at the deep ultraviolet 193 nm and 157 nm wavelengths (Athanasekos et al). Such methods provide flexible tools for the fabrication of optimized photonic sensor structures based on hybrid nanocomposites incorporating diffractive optic interfaces, a technology enabling the recent advent of remote point sensing of chemical and physical agents by light (Vasileiades et al). A substantial part of this work has been supported in the framework of COST MP0604 Action `Optical Micro-Manipulation by Nonlinear Nanophotonics' of the European Science Foundation. We are confident that this collection of papers on light-induced material organization will guide the reader in this emerging field, inspire the interested scientific community and stimulate further research and innovation in this exciting and growing field.

  3. Nonlinear wave mixing and susceptibility properties of negative refractive index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aref; Tataronis, John A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of second-order and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities and wave-mixing properties of negative refractive index materials. We show that the nonlinear susceptibilities for noncentrosymmetric and centrosymmetric media may be positive or negative and away from resonance depending on the frequency of interest relative to the resonant frequencies of the material. Manipulation of the signs of the nonlinear susceptibilities is important in the field of optics, particularly for solitons and compensation of nonlinear effects. We also show that three- and four-wave mixing can be naturally phase matched in the material.

  4. Composite structures for the enhancement of nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeves, A E; Birnboim, M H

    1988-12-01

    Calculations of the nonlinear optical behavior are developed for model composites consisting of nanospheres with a metallic core and a nonlinear shell suspended in a nonlinear medium. The concept for the enhancement of optical phase conjugation from all these nonlinear regions is that the optical field can be concentrated both inside and in the neighborhood of the metallic core, aided by surface-mediated plasmon resonance. Calculations for gold cores and aluminum cores indicate that phase-conjugate reflectivity enhancements of 10(8) may be possible.

  5. Inclusion Tuning of Nonlinear Optical Materials: KTP (Potassium Titanyl Phosphate) Isomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    o OFCE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-87-K-0457 V R&T Code 4134015-01 0) Technical. Report No. 23 "Inclusion Tuning of Nonlinear Optical Materials : KIP...bry block nuum.ber) see attached #11 Inclusion Tuning of Nonlinear Optical Materials : KTP Isomorphs * Q1 UISTRISUTION/AVAII..ASILITY 00 ABSTRACT 21

  6. Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.

  7. Thermally Stable Heterocyclic Imines as New Potential Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Volodymyr V.; Antipin, Mikhail Y.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Moore, Craig E.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a search for new thermostable acentric nonlinear optical crystalline materials, several heterocyclic imine derivatives were designed, with the general structure D-pi-A(D'). Introduction of a donor amino group (D') into the acceptor moiety was expected to bring H-bonds into their crystal structures, and so to elevate their melting points and assist in an acentric molecular packing. Six heterocycle-containing compounds of this type were prepared, single crystals were grown for five of them, and these crystals were characterized by X-ray analysis. A significant melting temperature elevation was found for all of the synthesized compounds. Three of the compounds were also found to crystallize in acentric space groups. One of the acentric compounds is built as a three-dimensional H-bonded molecular network. In the other two compounds, with very similar molecular structure, the molecules form one-dimensional H-bonded head-to-head associates (chains). These chains are parallel in two different crystallographic directions and form very unusual interpenetrating chain patterns in an acentric crystal. Two of the compounds crystallized with centrosymmetric molecular packing.

  8. Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor–acceptor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Pachter, Ruth [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Nguyen, Kiet A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au{sub 2}S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.

  9. Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare

  10. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR EFFECTIVE NONLINEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical methods have been reported to deal with nonlinear problems of composite materials but the accuracy is not so good. In the meantime, a lot of nonlinear problems are difficult to be managed by the theoretical methods. The present study aims to use the developed method, the random microstructure finite element method, to deal with these nonlinear problems. In this paper, the random microstructure finite element method is used to deal with all three kinds of nonlinear property problems of composite materials. The analyzed results suggest that the influences of the nonlinear phenomena on the effective properties of composite materials are significant and the random microstructure finite element method is an efficient tool to investigate the nonlinear problems.

  11. Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  12. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  13. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torello, David [GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Qu, Jianmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); Jacobs, Laurence J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech and GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  14. DNA-based polymers as chiral templates for second-order nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapun, Duangporn; Hall, Victoria J; Begue, Nathan J; Grote, James G; Simpson, Garth J

    2009-10-19

    The unique symmetry properties of chiral systems allow the emergence of coherent second harmonic generation in polymeric materials lacking polar order. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) treated with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) was drop-cast to spontaneously form films that are active for coherent second harmonic generation (SHG). SHG images acquired as a function of incident and exigent polarization are in good agreement with theoretical predictions assuming nonpolar D(infinity) symmetry for the double-stranded DNA chains. Doping the DNA films with crystal violet substantially increases the efficiency of SHG, but does not significantly alter the polarization-dependence, suggesting that the SHG generated upon doping arises from the same chiral-specific origin, presumably templated by the DNA. These results raise the possibility of new design strategies for organic nonlinear optical materials based on soft chiral polymers that do not require polar order.

  15. Analysis of a Beam Made of Physical Nonlinear Material on Nonlinear Elastic Foundation under a Moving Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mardani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prismatic beam made of a behaviorally nonlinear material was analyzed under a concentrated load moving with a known velocity on a nonlinear elastic foundation with a reaction the vibration equation of motion was derived using Hamilton principle and Euler Lagrange equation. The amplitude of vibration, circular frequency, bending moment, stress and deflection of the beam can be calculated by the presented solution. Considering the response of the beam, in the sense of its resonance, it was found that there is no critical velocity when the behavior of the beam and foundation material is assumed to be physically nonlinear and there are finite values for the deflection, stress and bending moment of the beam when

  16. High-accuracy acoustic detection of nonclassical component of material nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Rivière, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Johnson, Paul A; Laugier, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    The aim is to assess the nonclassical component of material nonlinearity in several classes of materials with weak, intermediate, and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, an optimized nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples is described. The protocol is used to overcome the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic nonlinearity. External temperature fluctuation is identified as a primary source of measurement contamination. For instance, a variation of 0.1 °C produced a frequency variation of 0.01%, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to overcome environmental effects, the reference frequency measurements are repeated before each excitation level and then used to compute nonlinear parameters. Using this approach, relative resonant frequency shifts of 10(-5) can be measured, which is below the limit of 10(-4) often considered as the limit of NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Due to enhanced sensitivity resulting from the correction procedure applied in this work, nonclassical nonlinearity in materials that before have been assumed to only be classically nonlinear in past work (steel, brass, and aluminum) is reported.

  17. Exciton dynamics and non-linearities in two-dimensional hybrid organic perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Baki, K.; Boitier, F.; Diab, H.; Lanty, G.; Jemli, K.; Lédée, F.; Deleporte, E.; Lauret, J. S., E-mail: jean-sebastien.lauret@lac.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, ENS Cachan, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Garrot, D. [GEMAC, CNRS, UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 avenue des États Unis 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2016-02-14

    Due to their high potentiality for photovoltaic applications or coherent light sources, a renewed interest in hybrid organic perovskites has emerged for few years. When they are arranged in two dimensions, these materials can be considered as hybrid quantum wells. One consequence of the unique structure of 2D hybrid organic perovskites is a huge exciton binding energy that can be tailored through chemical engineering. We present experimental investigations of the exciton non-linearities by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The exciton dynamics is fitted with a bi-exponential decay with a free exciton life-time of ∼100 ps. Moreover, an ultrafast intraband relaxation (<150 fs) is also reported. Finally, the transient modification of the excitonic line is analyzed through the moment analysis and described in terms of reduction of the oscillator strength and linewidth broadening. We show that excitonic non-linearities in 2D hybrid organic perovskites share some behaviours of inorganic semiconductors despite their high exciton binding energy.

  18. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  19. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

    2011-01-20

    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  20. Sub-wavelength modulation of χ(2) optical nonlinearity in organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yixin; Yuan, Yakun; Wang, Baomin; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-01-01

    Modulating the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(2)) of materials at the nanoscale represents an ongoing technological challenge for a variety of integrated frequency conversion and nonlinear nanophotonic applications. Here we exploit the large hyperpolarizability of intermolecular charge transfer states, naturally aligned at an organic semiconductor donor-acceptor (DA) interface, as a means to control the magnitude and sign of χ(2) at the nanoscale. Focusing initially on a single pentacene-C60 DA interface, we confirm that the charge transfer transition is strongly aligned orthogonal to the heterojunction and find that it is responsible for a large interfacial nonlinearity probed via second harmonic generation that is sufficient to achieve d33>10 pm V-1, when incorporated in a non-centrosymmetric DA multilayer stack. Using grating-shadowed oblique-angle deposition to laterally structure the DA interface distribution in such multilayers subsequently enables the demonstration of a χ(2) grating with 280 nm periodicity, which is the shortest reported to date.

  1. Growth and characterization of an organic nonlinear optical crystal: Glycinium trichloroacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, M. Esthaku [Department of Physics, Easwari Engineering College, Chennai 600089 (India); Ramasamy, P., E-mail: proframasamy@hotmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Single crystal of glycinium trichloroacetate, an organic nonlinear optic (NLO) material, has been grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction for confirming the coordination formed, and the presence of various functional groups was studied by FTIR in the range 4000-450 cm{sup -1}. UV-Visible transmittance studies were performed to analyze optical transparency of the crystal and second harmonic generation was investigated to explore the NLO property of the material. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis have been performed to study thermal properties of the grown crystal. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied at different temperatures and frequencies. Vicker's microhardness testing was carried out on the as grown crystal to reveal the mechanical properties of the crystal. Etching studies were made on the as grown crystal to analyze the structural imperfection of the crystal.

  2. Finding the Next Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Material: NH4B4O6F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhang, Bingbing; Yang, Zhihua; Hou, Xueling; Pan, Shilie; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2017-08-09

    Nonlinear optical materials are essential for the development of solid-state lasers. KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF) is a unique nonlinear optical material for generation of deep-ultraviolet coherent light; however, its industrial application is limited. Here, we report a new material NH4B4O6F, which exhibits a wide deep-ultraviolet transparent range and suitable birefringence that enables frequency doubling below 200 nm. NH4B4O6F possesses large nonlinear coefficients about 2.5 times that of KBBF. In addition, it is easy to grow bulk crystals and does not contain toxic elements.

  3. A review of recent theoretical studies in nonlinear crystals: towards the design of new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Eleonora; Véniard, Valérie

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear optics is an important and exciting field of fundamental and applied research, with applications in many different disciplines such as physics chemistry, material science and biology. In the recent years, nonlinear optical phenomena started to be also widely used in technological applications for optoelectronics and photovoltaics. This coincided with an important experimental and theoretical search for new materials with an efficient and exploitable nonlinear optical response. Here, starting from the discovery of nonlinear optics, we review the most important theoretical formalisms developed to understand, interpret and predict the nonlinear optical phenomena. We show the different level of approximation of the many-electrons interactions that these formalisms can describe which are fundamental in the interpretation of the experiments. The impact of the theory is then analyzed on different classes of new materials particularly studied in these years: silicon bulk to nano, compound semiconductors, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide, hexagonal boron nitride and borate crystals.

  4. Lanthanide Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Green, Mark A.; Briber, Robert M.

    2009-03-01

    A series of lanthanide metal-organic framework materials (MOF) with variable organic linkages including benzene-dicarboxylic acid (BDC); 1,3,5-benzene-tricarboxylic acid (BTC); and 1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene (BTB) have been synthesized. The low density and high porosity of MOFs make them candidates molecular sieve or hydrogen storage materials. The crystal structures have been determined using a combination of single crystal X-ray diffractometer and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction work. Holmium with the BDC ligand material (Ho-BDC) crystallizes in a monoclinic C2/c space group, with lattice parameters of a = 17.06 å, b = 10.67 å, c = 10.57 å, b = 96.12^o. The crystal structure of Ho-BTC is in tetragonal P 41 2 2 space group and Ho-BTB is in a triclinic P-1 space group. A comprehensive examination of Ho-MOF with different ligands by x-ray and thermogravimetric analysis shows that there is a stable nanoporous structure for dehydrated Ho-BTC up to 250^oC. The same phenomenon is not observed in the Ho-BDC and Ho-BTB materials. The collapsed structure with BDC and BTB indicates the stability of dehydrated samples is strongly related to the interactions between the metal and the organic linkers.

  5. Exact solutions of optical pulse propagation in nonlinear meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2017-01-01

    An analytical and simulation based method has been used to exactly solve the nonlinear wave propagation in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability. The method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material with negative refractive index where both ɛ and μ are dispersive and negative in nature.

  6. Material challenge for flexible organic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lewis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Outside of the active device layers, there are a variety of requisite functional layers in flexible organic electronic devices. Whether the application is in displays, lighting, integrated circuits, or photovoltaics, there are materials challenges in implementing flexible and/or organic devices into practical applications. We highlight two topics that are common to most flexible electronic technologies. First, we describe the difficulty in developing suitable permeation barriers on polymer substrates, the approaches being taken to solve this problem, and their current status. Second, we highlight the limited mechanical ruggedness of brittle inorganic films and present approaches for improving overall device flexibility.

  7. Pyrene-Based Small Molecular Nonlinear Optical Materials Modified by ``Click-Reaction''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengxia; Li, Zhengqiang; Mi, Yongsheng; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Dong; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai

    2015-08-01

    Two pyrene derivatives were successfully synthesized via an efficient copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The photophysical and electrochemical properties were characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammograms and density functional theory modulations. These results showed that the symmetry structure of these derivatives formed an electron-delocalized organic system, which have larger effects in achieving a third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The third-order nonlinear properties including the nonlinear absorption and the nonlinear susceptibilities investigated by Z-scan technique indicate that the title compounds can serve as a promising candidate for third-order NLO applications.

  8. Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan, C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P.; Remillieux, M. C.; Saleh, T. A.

    2014-04-01

    In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.

  9. Probing material nonlinearity at various depths by time reversal mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan, C. [LMA UPR CNRS 7051, Aix Marseille Université, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402 Marseille (France); Ulrich, T. J.; Le Bas, P. Y.; Remillieux, M. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, EES-17, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Griffa, M.; Schuetz, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Saleh, T. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-16, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    In this Letter, the time reversal mirror is used to focus elastic energy at a prescribed location and to analyze the amplitude dependence of the focus signal, thus providing the nonlinearity of the medium. By varying the frequency content of the focused waveforms, the technique can be used to probe the surface, by penetrating to a depth defined by the wavelength of the focused waves. The validity of this concept is shown in the presence of gradual and distributed damage in concrete by comparing actual results with a reference nonlinear measurement and X ray tomography images.

  10. A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A framework for the multiscale design and analysis of composite materials and structures is presented. The ImMAC software suite, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, embeds efficient, nonlinear micromechanics capabilities within higher scale structural analysis methods such as finite element analysis. The result is an integrated, multiscale tool that relates global loading to the constituent scale, captures nonlinearities at this scale, and homogenizes local nonlinearities to predict their effects at the structural scale. Example applications of the multiscale framework are presented for the stochastic progressive failure of a SiC/Ti composite tensile specimen and the effects of microstructural variations on the nonlinear response of woven polymer matrix composites.

  11. Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials for Photonic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program targets the development of new highly anisotropic nonlinear optical nanocomposite materials for NASA and non-NASA applications in advanced photonic and...

  12. Spatial localization of nonlinear waves spreading in materials in the presence of dislocations and point defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, V. I.; Leontieva, A. V.; Malkhanov, A. O.

    2017-06-01

    Within the framework of self consistent dynamic problems, the impact of dislocations and point defects on the spatial localization of nonlinear acoustic waves propagating in materials has been studied.

  13. Behaviour of organic materials in radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tavlet, M

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects in polymers are reminded together with the ageing factors. Radiation-ageing results are mainly discussed about thermosetting insulators, structural composites and cable-insulating materials. Some hints are given about high-voltage insulations, cooling fluids, organic scintillators and light-guides. Some parameters to be taken into account for the estimate of the lifetime of components in radiation environment are also shown. (23 refs).

  14. Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic bandgap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ishella S.; Bendickson, Jon M.; Tocci, Michael D.; Bloemer, Mark J.; Scalora, Michael; Bowden, Charles M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1998-03-01

    We summarize and review our theoretical and experimental work on spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in one-dimensional, photonic bandgap (PBG) structures. We present a new result: a method for calculating the normal-mode solutions - and hence the spontaneous emission of embedded emitters - in an arbitrary, linear, lossless, one-dimensional, PBG structure.

  15. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    materials, such as energy transfer, charge separation, and exciton-plasmon coupling, a series of novel nanophotonic devices could be achieved for light signal manipulation. First, we provide an overview of the research evolution of organic nanophotonics, which arises from attempts to explore the photonic potentials of low-dimensional structures assembled from organic molecules. Then, recent advances in this field are described from the viewpoints of molecules, materials, and devices. Many kinds of optofunctional molecules are designed and synthesized according to the demands in high luminescence yield, nonlinear optical response, and other optical properties. Due to the weak interactions between these molecules, numerous micro- or nanostructures could be prepared via self-assembly or vapor-deposition, bringing the capabilities of light transport and confinement at the wavelength scale. The above advantages provide great possibilities in the fabrication of organic nanophotonic devices, by rationally combining these functional components to manipulate light signals. Finally, we present our views on the current challenges as well as the future development of organic nanophotonic materials and devices. This Account gives a comprehensive understanding of organic nanophotonics, including the design and fabrication of organic micro- or nanocrystals with specific photonic properties and their promising applications in functional nanophotonic components and integrated circuits.

  16. Physics and Materials Issues of Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Shawn R.; McGehee, Michael D.

    Organic materials hold promise for use in photovoltaic (PV) devices because of their potential to reduce the cost of electricity per kWh ultimately to levels below that of electricity produced by coal-fired power plants. Deposition of organics by techniques such as screen printing, doctor blading, inkjet printing, spray deposition, and thermal evaporation lends itself to incorporation in high-throughput low-cost roll-to-roll coating systems. These are low-temperature deposition techniques which allow the organics to be deposited on plastic substrates such that flexible devices can easily be made. In addition to the inherent economics of high-throughput manufacturing, lightweight and flexibility are qualities claimed to offer a simple way to reduce the price of PV panels by reducing installation costs. Flexible PVs also open niche markets like portable power generation and aesthetic-PV in building design.

  17. Non-Linear Optical Studies of IR Materials with Infrared Femtosecond Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0055 TR-2016-0055 NON-LINEAR OPTICAL STUDIES OF IR MATERIALS WITH INFRARED FEMTOSECOND LASER Enam...ANDREAS SCHMITT-SODY, DR-III ERIN PETTYJOHN, DR-III Program Manager Deputy Chief, High Power Electromagnetics Division This...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Non-Linear Optical Studies of IR Materials with Infrared Femtosecond Laser 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9451-14-1

  18. Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for Applications in Power Limiting and Photorefractive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/01/2007 to 11/30/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0307 Hybrid Nonlinear Optical Materials for...Hybrid  Nonlinear   Optical   Materials  for Applications in Power  Limiting and Photorefractive devices      Prime Contract: FA95500710307

  19. Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary; Kelly, Stephen M

    2011-02-01

    We present a critical review of semiconducting/light emitting, liquid crystalline materials and their use in electronic and photonic devices such as transistors, photovoltaics, OLEDs and lasers. We report that annealing from the mesophase improves the order and packing of organic semiconductors to produce state-of-the-art transistors. We discuss theoretical models which predict how charge transport and light emission is affected by the liquid crystalline phase. Organic photovoltaics and OLEDs require optimization of both charge transport and optical properties and we identify the various trade-offs involved for ordered materials. We report the crosslinking of reactive mesogens to give pixellated full-colour OLEDs and distributed bi-layer photovoltaics. We show how the molecular organization inherent to the mesophase can control the polarization of light-emitting devices and the gain in organic, thin-film lasers and can also provide distributed feedback in chiral nematic mirrorless lasers. We update progress on the surface alignment of liquid crystalline semiconductors to obtain monodomain devices without defects or devices with spatially varying properties. Finally the significance of all of these developments is assessed.

  20. Effect of Organic Materials With and Without Mineral Fertilizer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Organic Materials With and Without Mineral Fertilizer on Grain Yield and ... of organic materials; compost, farm yard manure (FYM) and municipal refuse ... yield of millet nutrient content in addition to the reduction of organic wastes.

  1. Acetylene-based materials in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Marrocchi, Assunta

    2010-04-08

    Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (poly)arylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (poly)arylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (co)polymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C(60), and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  2. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (polyarylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (polyarylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (copolymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  3. Microcrack Identification in Cement-Based Materials Using Nonlinear Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Qu, J.; Kurtis, K. E.; Wu, S. C.; Jacobs, L. J.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents results from tests that use nonlinear acoustic waves to distinguish microcracks in cement-based materials. Portland cement mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive aggregate were exposed to an aggressive environment to induce cracking were compared to control samples, of the same composition, but which were not exposed to aggressive conditions. Two nonlinear ultrasonic methods were used to characterize the samples, with the aim of identifying the time and extent of microcracking; these techniques were a nonlinear acoustical modulation (NAM) method and a harmonic amplitude relation (HAR) method. These nonlinear acoustic results show that both methods can distinguish damaged samples from undamaged ones, demonstrating the potential of nonlinear acoustic waves to provide a quantitative evaluation of the deterioration of cement-based materials.

  4. A Stable Blue Organic Electroluminescent Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新友; 吴有智; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to compare two kinds of blue electroluminescent materials,we have investigated two kinds of blue OLEDs with the similar structure ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(J)] and ITO/CuPc/NPB/DPVBi:perylene/Alq/Mg:Ag[device(D)].The difference of luminance and efficiency was not obvious for the two devices,However,there was remarkable difference for their lifetime.The device(J) achieved longer half lifetime of 1035h at initial luminance of 100 cd/m2,and that of device(D) was only255h,According to their energy level diagrams,the differentce of their stability may originate from different host materials in the two devices.It may be attributed to the better thermal stability of JBEM molecues than that of DPVBi.It is shown that JBEM may be a promising blue organic electroluminescent material with great stability.

  5. Modeling charge transport in organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Kirkpatrick, James; Frost, Jarvist M

    2009-11-17

    The performance of an organic photovoltaic cell depends critically on the mobility of charge carriers within the constituent molecular semiconductor materials. However, a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales control charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. This Account describes a set of computational methods, specifically molecular modeling methods, to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. Using case studies, we show how this combination of methods can reproduce experimental mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Although currently applied to material systems of high symmetry or well-defined structure, further developments of this approach could address more complex systems such anisotropic or multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers. Even with an approximate treatment of packing disorder, these computational methods simulate experimental mobilities within an order of magnitude at high electric fields. We can both reproduce the relative values of electron and hole mobility in a conjugated small molecule and rationalize those values based on the symmetry of frontier orbitals. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of molecular packing, we can quantitatively replicate vertical charge transport along stacks of discotic liquid crystals which vary only in the structure of their side chains. We can reproduce the trends in mobility with molecular weight for self-organizing polymers using a cheap, coarse

  6. Electrets in soft materials: nonlinearity, size effects, and giant electromechanical coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Development of soft electromechanical materials is critical for several tantalizing applications such as soft robots and stretchable electronics, among others. Soft nonpiezoelectric materials can be coaxed to behave like piezoelectrics by merely embedding charges and dipoles in their interior and assuring some elastic heterogeneity. Such so-called electret materials have been experimentally shown to exhibit very large electromechanical coupling. In this work, we derive rigorous nonlinear expressions that relate effective electromechanical coupling to the creation of electret materials. In contrast to the existing models, we are able to both qualitatively and quantitatively capture the known experimental results on the nonlinear response of electret materials. Furthermore, we show that the presence of another form of electromechanical coupling, flexoelectricity, leads to size effects that dramatically alter the electromechanical response at submicron feature sizes. One of our key conclusions is that nonlinear deformation (prevalent in soft materials) significantly enhances the flexoelectric response and hence the aforementioned size effects.

  7. Homogeneous solutions for elliptically polarized light in a cavity containing materials with electric and magnetic nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, D A

    2015-01-01

    We study evolution equations and stationary homogeneous solutions for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with flat mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative refraction index material with third order Kerr-like electric nonlinearities and also magnetic nonlinearities, which can be relevant in metamaterials. We consider the degree of freedom of polarization in the incident beam. It is found that considering a magnetic nonlinearity increases the variety of possible qualitatively different solutions. A classification of solutions is proposed in terms of the number of bifurcations. The analysis can be useful for the implementation of optical switching or memory storage using ring cavities with non linear materials.

  8. Growth and characterization of organic material 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebin, R. P.; Suthan, T.; Rajesh, N. P.; Vinitha, G.; Madhusoodhanan, U.

    2015-01-01

    The organic material 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. The functional groups of the crystal have been identified from the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman studies. The optical property of the grown crystal was analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectral measurements. The thermal behavior of the grown crystal was analyzed by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). Dielectric measurements were carried out with different frequencies by using parallel plate capacitor method. The third order nonlinear optical properties of 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde was measured by the Z-scan technique using 532 nm diode pumped continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser.

  9. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  10. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  11. New Organic Semiconductor Materials Applied in Organic Photovoltaic and Optical Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andre F. S. Guedes; Vilmar P. Guedes; Simone Tartari; Mônica L. Souza; Idaulo J. Cunha

    2015-01-01

    The development of flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry...

  12. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency during anterior-posterior stretching. Method Three materially linear and three materially nonlinear models were created and stretched up to 10 mm in 1 mm increments. Phonation onset pressure (Pon) and fundamental frequency (F0) at Pon were recorded for each length. Measurements were repeated as the models were relaxed in 1 mm increments back to their resting lengths, and tensile tests were conducted to determine the stress-strain responses of linear versus nonlinear models. Results Nonlinear models demonstrated a more substantial frequency response than did linear models and a more predictable pattern of F0 increase with respect to increasing length (although range was inconsistent across models). Pon generally increased with increasing vocal fold length for nonlinear models, whereas for linear models, Pon decreased with increasing length. Conclusions Nonlinear synthetic models appear to more accurately represent the human vocal folds than linear models, especially with respect to F0 response. PMID:22271874

  13. Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallaitis, Thomas; Bogatscher, Siegwart; Alloatti, Luca; Dumon, Pieter; Baets, Roel; Scimeca, Michelle L; Biaggio, Ivan; Diederich, François; Koos, Christian; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg

    2009-09-28

    Geometry, nonlinearity, dispersion and two-photon absorption figure of merit of three basic silicon-organic hybrid waveguide designs are compared. Four-wave mixing and heterodyne pump-probe measurements show that all designs achieve high nonlinearities. The fundamental limitation of two-photon absorption in silicon is overcome using silicon-organic hybrid integration, with a five-fold improvement for the figure of merit (FOM). The value of FOM = 2.19 measured for silicon-compatible nonlinear slot waveguides is the highest value published.

  14. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, MW; Gu, ZY; Bosch, M; Perry, Z; Zhou, HC

    2015-06-15

    Nature has evolved a great number of biological molecules which serve as excellent constructional or functional units for metal-organic materials (MOMs). Even though the study of biomimetic MOMs is still at its embryonic stage, considerable progress has been made in the past few years. In this critical review, we will highlight the recent advances in the design, development and application of biomimetic MOMs, and illustrate how the incorporation of biological components into MOMs could further enrich their structural and functional diversity. More importantly, this review will provide a systematic overview of different methods for rational design of MOMs with biomimetic features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. High-order nonlinear optical processes in ablated carbon-containing materials: Recent approaches in development of the nonlinear spectroscopy using harmonic generation in the extreme ultraviolet range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    The nonlinear spectroscopy using harmonic generation in the extreme ultraviolet range became a versatile tool for the analysis of the optical, structural and morphological properties of matter. The carbon-contained materials have shown the advanced properties among other studied species, which allowed both the definition of the role of structural properties on the nonlinear optical response and the analysis of the fundamental features of carbon as the attractive material for generation of coherent short-wavelength radiation. We review the studies of the high-order harmonic generation by focusing ultrashort pulses into the plasmas produced during laser ablation of various organic compounds. We discuss the role of ionic transitions of ablated carbon-containing molecules on the harmonic yield. We also show the similarities and distinctions of the harmonic and plasma spectra of organic compounds and graphite. We discuss the studies of the generation of harmonics up to the 27th order (λ = 29.9 nm) of 806 nm radiation in the boron carbide plasma and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this target compared with the ingredients comprising B4C (solid boron and graphite) by comparing plasma emission and harmonic spectra from three species. We also show that the coincidence of harmonic and plasma emission wavelengths in most cases does not cause the enhancement or decrease of the conversion efficiency of this harmonic.

  16. Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Shahar; Therien, Michael J; Beratan, David N; Yang, Weitao

    2008-11-27

    Nonlinear optical chromophores containing (porphyrinato)Zn(II), proquinoid, and (terpyridyl)metal(II) building blocks were optimized in a library containing approximately 10(6) structures using the linear combination of atomic potentials (LCAP) methodology. We report here the library design and molecular property optimizations. Two basic structural types of large beta(0) chromophores were examined: linear and T-shaped motifs. These T-shaped geometries suggest a promising NLO chromophoric architecture for experimental investigation and further support the value of performing LCAP searches in large chemical spaces.

  17. Creep characterization of gels and nonlinear viscoelastic material model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotaka; Fujikawa, Masaki; Makabe, Chobin; Tanaka, Kou

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we examine gel creep behavior and develop a material model for useful and simple numerical simulation of this behavior. This study has three stages and aims: (1) gel creep behavior is examined; (2) the material model is determined and the material constants are identified; and (3) the versatility of the material model and the constants are evaluated. The creep behavior is found to be independent of the initial stress level in the present experiment. Thus, the viscoelastic model proposed by Simo is selected, and its material constants are identified using the results of creep tests. Moreover, from the results of numerical calculations and experiments, it is found that the chosen material model has good reproducibility, predictive performance and high versatility.

  18. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  19. Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-17

    0IJUN93 to 31MAY94 4. 1I1Lk ANDLSUBI1ILIE D. ?-UNUING NUMBERS •’• Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based On C:N00014-90-J-1148...release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. I Stable Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials Based On Interpenetrating Polymer Networks S... Optical Materials Based On Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by S. Marturunkakul, J. I. Chen, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, R. J. Jeng, S. K. Sengupta, J. Kumar

  20. A thermodynamic approach to nonlinear ultrasonics for material state awareness and prognosis

    CERN Document Server

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We develop a thermodynamic framework for modeling nonlinear ultrasonic damage sensing and prognosis in materials undergoing progressive damage. The framework is based on the internal variable approach and relies on the construction of a pseudo-elastic strain energy function that captures the energetics associated with the damage progression. The pseudo-elastic strain energy function is composed of two energy functions - one that describes how a material stores energy in an elastic fashion and the other describes how material dissipates energy or stores it in an inelastic fashion. Experimental motivation for the choice of the above two functionals is discussed and some specific choices pertaining to damage progression during fatigue and creep are presented. The thermodynamic framework is employed to model the nonlinear response of material undergoing stress relaxation and creep-like degradation. For each of the above cases, evolution of the nonlinearity parameter with damage as well as with macroscopic measura...

  1. {open_quotes}Quadrupoled{close_quotes} materials for second-order nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, S.F.; Petschek, R.G.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new approach to second-order nonlinear optical materials, namely quadrupoling. This approach is valid in the regime of Kleinman (full permutation) symmetry breaking, and thus requires a two- or three dimensional microscopic nonlinearity at wavelengths away from material resonances. This {open_quotes}quadrupolar{close_quotes} nonlinearity arises from the second rank pseudotensor of the rotationally invariant representation of the second-order nonlinear optical tensor. We have experimentally investigated candidate molecules comprised of chiral camphorquinone derivatives by measuring the scalar invariant associated with the rank two pseudotensor using hyper-Rayleigh scattering. We have found sizable scalar figures of merit for several compounds using light for which the second harmonic wavelengths are greater than 100 nm longer than the absorption peak location. At these wavelengths, the quadrupolar scalar is as large as the polar (EFISH) scalar of p-nitroaniline. Prospects for applications are discussed.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and third-order nonlinear optical properties of symmetrical ferrocenyl Schiff base materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguo; Jia, Jianhong; Gao, Jianrong; Han, Liang; Li, Yujin

    2015-03-01

    Six symmetrical ferrocenyl Schiff base materials were synthesized and characterized by UV, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and elemental analysis. Their off-resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties were measured using femtosecond laser and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) were 1.961-6.363 × 10-13 esu. The nonlinear refractive indexes n2 were 3.609-11.716 × 10-12 esu. The second-order hyperpolarizabilities γ of these molecules were 1.967-6.388 × 10-31 esu. The response time were 45.759-73.079 fs. The results indicate that these materials have potential nonlinear optical applications.

  3. An exact approach to intensity analysis of optical pulses in nonlinear meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2016-05-01

    The nonlinear pulse propagation has been analytically studied by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric permittivity(ɛ) and magnetic permeability(μ). The exact solutions obtained are shown to be of trigonometric & localized types. The analytical and simulation based method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material which behaves as a negative refractive medium (NRM), where both ɛ and μ are shown to be dispersive and negative in nature.

  4. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  5. Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed growth in the derived ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... of organic mulch materials (Plant and Animal) on the performance of maize and ...

  6. Mathematical modeling of materially nonlinear problems in structural analyses, Part II: Application in contemporary software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of nonlinear material models in the software package Ansys. The development of the model theory is presented in the paper of the mathematical modeling of material nonlinear problems in structural analysis (part I - theoretical foundations, and here is described incremental-iterative procedure for solving problems of nonlinear material used by this package and an example of modeling of spread footing by using Bilinear-kinematics and Drucker-Prager mode was given. A comparative analysis of the results obtained by these modeling and experimental research of the author was made. Occurrence of the load level that corresponds to plastic deformation was noted, development of deformations with increasing load, as well as the distribution of dilatation in the footing was observed. Comparison of calculated and measured values of reinforcement dilatation shows their very good agreement.

  7. Material and Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Functionally Graded Plate-Shell Type Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, J. S.; Araújo, A. L.; Mota Soares, C. M.; Mota Soares, C. A.; Herskovits, J.

    2016-08-01

    A nonlinear formulation for general Functionally Graded Material plate-shell type structures is presented. The formulation accounts for geometric and material nonlinear behaviour of these structures. Using the Newton-Raphson incremental-iterative method, the incremental equilibrium path is obtained, and in case of snap-through occurrence the automatic arc-length method is used. This simple and fast element model is a non-conforming triangular flat plate/shell element with 24 degrees of freedom for the generalized displacements. It is benchmarked in the solution of some illustrative plate- shell examples and the results are presented and discussed with numerical alternative models. Benchmark tests with material and geometrically nonlinear behaviour are also proposed.

  8. Computation of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter in organic liquid binary mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on Jacobson's molecular free length theory in liquids and the relationship between the ultrasonic velocity and the molecular free length in organic liquids,the equation of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter in organic liquid binary mixtures is derived.The calculated values from the equation are in good agreement both with those from Apfel's and from Sehgal's mixture laws.

  9. Self-Organization of Light in Optical Media with Competing Nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucher, F; Pohl, T; Skupin, S; Krolikowski, W

    2016-04-22

    We study the propagation of light beams through optical media with competing nonlocal nonlinearities. We demonstrate that the nonlocality of competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities gives rise to self-organization and stationary states with stable hexagonal intensity patterns, akin to transverse crystals of light filaments. Signatures of this long-range ordering are shown to be observable in the propagation of light in optical waveguides and even in free space. We consider a specific form of the nonlinear response that arises in atomic vapor upon proper light coupling. Yet, the general phenomenon of self-organization is a generic consequence of competing nonlocal nonlinearities, and may, hence, also be observed in other settings.

  10. Self-organized quasiperiodicity in oscillator ensembles with global nonlinear coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2007-02-09

    We describe a transition from fully synchronous periodic oscillations to partially synchronous quasiperiodic dynamics in ensembles of identical oscillators with all-to-all coupling that nonlinearly depends on the generalized order parameters. We present an analytically solvable model that predicts a regime where the mean field does not entrain individual oscillators, but has a frequency incommensurate to theirs. The self-organized onset of quasiperiodicity is illustrated with Landau-Stuart oscillators and a Josephson junction array with a nonlinear coupling.

  11. Metal oxide charge transport material doped with organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2016-08-30

    Doping metal oxide charge transport material with an organic molecule lowers electrical resistance while maintaining transparency and thus is optimal for use as charge transport materials in various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic photovoltaic devices and organic light emitting devices.

  12. Growth and Study of Nonlinear Optical Materials for Frequency Conversion Devices with Applications in Defense and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2015-0068 GROWTH AND STUDY OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS FOR FREQUENCY CONVERSION DEVICES WITH APPLICATIONS IN DEFENCE AND...2015 Technical Paper 1 August 2013 – 1 August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GROWTH AND STUDY OF NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS FOR FREQUENCY CONVERSION...SUBJECT TERMS hydride vapor phase epitaxy, nonlinear optical materials , quasi-phase matching 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  13. Wave propagation in parallel-plate waveguides filled with nonlinear left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burhan Zamir; Rashid Ali

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of field components for transverse electric mode in the parallel-plate waveguides has been studied. In this analysis two different types of waveguide structures have been discussed, i.e., (a) normal good/perfect conducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material and (b) high-temperature-superconducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material. The dispersion relations of transverse electric mode have also been discussed for these two types of waveguide structures.

  14. Chip scale low dimensional materials: optoelectronics & nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingyi

    The CMOS foundry infrastructure enables integration of high density, high performance optical transceivers. We developed integrated devices that assemble resonators, waveguide, tapered couplers, pn junction and electrodes. Not only the volume standard manufacture in silicon foundry is promising to low-lost optical components operating at IR and mid-IR range, it also provides a robust platform for revealing new physical phenomenon. The thesis starts from comparison between photonic crystal and micro-ring resonators based on chip routers, showing photonic crystal switches have small footprint, consume low operation power, but its higher linear loss may require extra energy for signal amplification. Different designs are employed in their implementation in optical signal routing on chip. The second part of chapter 2 reviews the graphene based optoelectronic devices, such as modulators, lasers, switches and detectors, potential for group IV optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEIC). In chapter 3, the highly efficient thermal optic control could act as on-chip switches and (transmittance) tunable filters. Local temperature tuning compensates the wavelength differences between two resonances, and separate electrode is used for fine tuning of optical pathways between two resonators. In frequency domain, the two cavity system also serves as an optical analogue of Autler-Towns splitting, where the cavity-cavity resonance detuning is controlled by the length of pathway (phase) between them. The high thermal sensitivity of cavity resonance also effectively reflects the heat distribution around the nanoheaters, and thus derives the thermal conductivity in the planar porous suspended silicon membrane. Chapter 4 & 5 analyze graphene-silicon photonic crystal cavities with high Q and small mode volume. With negligible nonlinear response to the milliwatt laser excitation, the monolithic silicon PhC turns into highly nonlinear after transferring the single layer graphene with

  15. Structural analysis of composite wind turbine blades nonlinear mechanics and finite element models with material damping

    CERN Document Server

    Chortis, Dimitris I

    2013-01-01

    This book concerns the development of novel finite elements for the structural analysis of composite beams and blades. The introduction of material damping is also an important aspect of composite structures and it is presented here in terms of their static and dynamic behavior. The book thoroughly presents a new shear beam finite element, which entails new blade section mechanics, capable of predicting structural blade coupling due to composite coupling and/or internal section geometry. Theoretical background is further expanded towards the inclusion of nonlinear structural blade models and damping mechanics for composite structures. The models effectively include geometrically nonlinear terms due to large displacements and rotations, improve the modeling accuracy of very large flexible blades, and enable the modeling of rotational stiffening and buckling, as well as, nonlinear structural coupling. Validation simulations on specimen level study the geometric nonlinearities effect on the modal frequencies and...

  16. Comment on "Nonlinear refraction measurements of materials using the moiré deflectometry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian Vaziri, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    In an influential paper Jamshidi-Ghaleh and Mansour [1] (Opt. Commun. 234 (2004) 419), have reported on a new method for measuring the nonlinear refractive index of materials using the rotational moiré deflectometry technique. In the cited work, the authors apply the ray matrix theory for finding the beam deflection angle on the plane of the first grating in the used geometry. To this end, using the parabolic approximation, the exponential term in the beam irradiance is expanded and retaining the first two resultant terms, the nonlinear sample is treated as a thin lens with a position dependent focal length. In this comment, the effective focal length of the nonlinear sample has been rederived in detail using the Gaussian beam theory and it is shown that it must contain a correction factor. The relative error introduced by ignoring this factor can be as large as 73.5-84.4% in determining the nonlinear refractive index of thin samples.

  17. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-07-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  18. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-08-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  19. Role of spatial distortions on the quadratic nonlinear optical properties of octupolar organic and metallo-organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidault, Sébastien; Brasselet, Sophie; Zyss, Joseph; Maury, Olivier; Le Bozec, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Following on the recent experimental demonstration of a discrepancy between the nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior of several π-conjugated chromophores and their assumed octupolar symmetry, the authors investigate how geometrical distortions influence the NLO response of multipolar push-pull molecules. Their analytical model is set on a basis of valence-bond and charge-transfer states to estimate the hyperpolarizability of organic and metallo-organic chromophores using the lowest possible number of variables. Since symmetry breakdown changes the definition of the molecular Cartesian framework, tensorial spherical coordinates are implemented. The evolution of the nonlinear molecular anisotropy with possible rotational deviations is then evaluated for two recently studied chromophores. Zero-frequency calculations show that, outside optical resonance, weak geometrical distortions lead to strong anisotropy variations in agreement with experimental data. Their goal is to underscore which molecular engineering strategies should be applied when designing a photoisomerizable nonlinear octupole.

  20. Growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and nonlinear optical studies of semi organic nonlinear optical crystal - L-Alanine lithium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S.

    2012-02-01

    A new and efficient semi organic nonlinear optical crystal (NLO) from the amino acid family L-alanine lithium chloride (LAL) has been grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The functional groups were identified from NMR spectral studies. Mass spectral analysis shows the molecular ion mass. Dielectric studies has been done for the grown crystal and relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.43 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. The compound crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The results have been discussed in detail.

  1. Growth, spectroscopic, dielectric and nonlinear optical studies of semi organic nonlinear optical crystal--L-alanine lithium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S

    2012-02-01

    A new and efficient semi organic nonlinear optical crystal (NLO) from the amino acid family L-alanine lithium chloride (LAL) has been grown by slow evaporation technique from aqueous solution. The functional groups were identified from NMR spectral studies. Mass spectral analysis shows the molecular ion mass. Dielectric studies has been done for the grown crystal and relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.43 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. The compound crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The results have been discussed in detail.

  2. All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Changjun; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chunchong; Deng, Yan; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Ning, Tingyin; Zhou, Yueliang; Yang, Guozhen

    2008-04-15

    All-optical switching based on a subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials has been proposed and numerically investigated. Metal-dielectric composite material is used in the switching for its larger third-order nonlinear susceptibility (approximately 10(-7)esu) and ultrafast response properties. The calculated dependence of the signal light intensity on the pump light intensity shows a bistable behavior, which results in a significant switch effect. It rests on a surface plasmon's enhanced intensity-dependent change of the effective dielectric constant of Kerr nonlinear media, corresponding to a transition of the far-field transmission from a low- to high-transmission state. The study of this switching structure shows great advantages of smaller size, lower requirement of pump light intensity, and shorter switching time at approximately the picosecond level.

  3. Non-linear modeling of active biohybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Paetsch, C.

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in engineered muscle tissue attached to a synthetic substrate motivate the development of appropriate constitutive and numerical models. Applications of active materials can be expanded by using robust, non-mammalian muscle cells, such as those of Manduca sexta. In this study, we propose a model to assist in the analysis of biohybrid constructs by generalizing a recently proposed constitutive law for Manduca muscle tissue. The continuum model accounts (i) for the stimulation of muscle fibers by introducing multiple stress-free reference configurations for the active and passive states and (ii) for the hysteretic response by specifying a pseudo-elastic energy function. A simple example representing uniaxial loading-unloading is used to validate and verify the characteristics of the model. Then, based on experimental data of muscular thin films, a more complex case shows the qualitative potential of Manduca muscle tissue in active biohybrid constructs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamics and nonlinear mechanics of materials with photoresponsive microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, William S.; Bin, Jonghoon

    2014-03-01

    The ability to directly convert visible light radiation into useful mechanical work provides many opportunities in the field of smart materials and adaptive structures ranging from biomedical applications to control of heliostat mirrors for solar harvesting. The complexities associated with coupling time-dependent Maxwell's equations with linear momentum and mechanics is discussed by introducing a set of electronic order parameters that govern the coupling between electromagnetic radiation and mechanics of a deformable solid. Numerical examples are given illustrating how this methodology is applied to a special class of liquid crystal polymer networks containing azobenzene. The dynamics associated with light absorption and its effect on deformation of the polymer are solved in three dimensions using finite difference methods and compared to experimental results. Particular emphasis is placed on the effect of polarized light on microstructure evolution and stresses that occur during photoisomerization of the optically active microstructure.

  5. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  6. A new approach of binary addition and subtraction by non-linear material based switching technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archan Kumar Das; Partha Partima Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-02-01

    Here, we refer a new proposal of binary addition as well as subtraction in all-optical domain by exploitation of proper non-linear material-based switching technique. In this communication, the authors extend this technique for both adder and subtractor accommodating the spatial input encoding system.

  7. Predicting the dielectric nonlinearity of anisotropic composite materials via tensorial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy); Rocchia, W [NEST CNR-INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2006-11-29

    The discovery of new materials with peculiar optical properties as well as the prediction of their behaviour given the microstructure is a matter of remarkable interest in the community of material scientists. A complete theory allowing such a prediction is not yet available. We have formulated a theory able to analytically predict the effective second- and third-order nonlinear electrical behaviour of a dilute dispersion of randomly oriented anisotropic nonlinear spheres in a linear host. The inclusion medium has non-vanishing second- and third-order nonlinear hypersusceptibilities. As a result, the overall composite material is nonlinear but isotropic because of the random orientation of the inclusions. We derive the expressions for the equivalent permittivity and for the Kerr equivalent hypersusceptibility in terms of the characteristic electric tensors describing the electrical behaviour of the spheres. The complete averaging over inclusion positions and orientations led to general results in the dilute limit. We show that these results are consistent with earlier theories and that they provide null second-order hypersusceptibility as expected in a macroscopically isotropic medium. This theory generalizes the well-known Maxwell-Garnett formula and it can be easily specialized to any of the 32 crystallographic symmetry classes. Despite this study assuming static conditions, it can be generalized to the sinusoidal regime, pointing at an interesting way to engineer optically active materials with desired behaviour.

  8. Experimental observations of the characteristics of hot electron and nonlinear processes produced in special material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Making use of disk targets composed of several peculiar materials (foam Au, foam C8H8)and hohlraum with a special structure, experiments have been done at"Xing Guang - II" laser facility,which study the characteristics of hot electrons and therelated nonlinear processes such as StimulatedRaman Scattering (SRS), Two Plasma Decay (TPD), StimulatedBrillouin Scattering (SBS), etc.

  9. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  10. Effect of carbonation on the linear and nonlinear dynamic properties of cement-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, Jesus N.; Kundu, Tribikram; Popovics, John S.; Monzó, José; Borrachero, María V.; Payá, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation causes a physicochemical alteration of cement-based materials, leading to a decrease of porosity and an increase of material hardness and strength. However, carbonation will decrease the pH of the internal pore water solution, which may depassivate the internal reinforcing steel, giving rise to structural durability concerns. Therefore, the proper selection of materials informed by parameters sensitive to the carbonation process is crucial to ensure the durability of concrete structures. The authors investigate the feasibility of using linear and nonlinear dynamic vibration response data to monitor the progression of the carbonation process in cement-based materials. Mortar samples with dimensions of 40×40×160 mm were subjected to an accelerated carbonation process through a carbonation chamber with 55% relative humidity and >95% of CO2 atmosphere. The progress of carbonation in the material was monitored using data obtained with the test setup of the standard resonant frequency test (ASTM C215-14), from a pristine state until an almost fully carbonated state. Linear dynamic modulus, quality factor, and a material nonlinear response, evaluated through the upward resonant frequency shift during the signal ring-down, were investigated. The compressive strength and the depth of carbonation were also measured. Carbonation resulted in a modest increase in the dynamic modulus, but a substantive increase in the quality factor (inverse attenuation) and a decrease in the material nonlinearity parameter. The combined measurement of the vibration quality factor and nonlinear parameter shows potential as a sensitive measure of material changes brought about by carbonation.

  11. Porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric smart material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Wang, Yan; Zu, Jean W.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates by using both analytical and numerical methods. The FGPM plates contain porosities owing to the technical issues during the preparation of FGPMs. Two types of porosity distribution, namely, even and uneven distribution, are considered. A modified power law model is adopted to describe the material properties of the porous FGPM plates. Using D’Alembert’s principle, the out-of-plane equation of motion is derived by taking into account the Kármán nonlinear geometrical relations. After that, the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, resulting in a set of ordinary differential equations with respect to time. These ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by employing the harmonic balance method. The approximate analytical results are verified by using the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge–Kutta method. By means of the perturbation technique, the stability of approximate analytical solutions is examined. An interesting nonlinear broadband vibration phenomenon is detected in the FGPM plates with porosities. Nonlinear frequency-response characteristics of the present smart structures are investigated for various system parameters including the porosity type, the porosity volume fraction, the electric potential, the external excitation, the damping and the constituent volume fraction. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the nonlinear vibration characteristics of porous FGPM plates.

  12. Bulk growth, structure, optical properties and laser damage threshold of organic nonlinear optical crystals of Imidazolium L-Ascorbate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-09-01

    Bulk, transparent organic nonlinear optical (NLO) single-crystals of imidazolium L-Ascorbate (ImLA) were grown using slow-evaporation. Crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Preliminary linear optical measurements through UV-Visible and infrared spectroscopy revealed good optical transmittance and a low near-UV cutoff wavelength at 256 nm. Kurtz and Perry powder test revealed that ImLA is a phase-matchable NLO material with a second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of 1.2 times larger than that of standard KH2PO4 (KDP). Laser damage thresholds were determined for ImLA.

  13. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter, thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  14. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Several organic compounds were synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given for each class of materials...batteries. Several organic compounds were synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given for each class of materials... synthesized , characterized and tested in battery configurations. The details are given below for each class of materials.Various macrocycles, their synthesis

  15. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Liu; Lei Xu; Wencheng Wang

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter,thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  16. Grants Management Training Materials for Tribal Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Grants & Debarment (OGD) worked with the national Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (NPETE) to develop training materials. Training materials, including the training manuals & webinar recordings, are available for download.

  17. Self-consistent photonic band structure of dielectric superlattices containing nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousse, V; Vigneron, J P

    2001-02-01

    The theory of photonic crystals is extended to include the optical Kerr effect taking place in weak third-order, nonlinear materials present in the unit cell. The influence on the dispersion relations of the illumination caused by a single Bloch mode transiting through the crystal structure is examined. Special attention is given to the modification of the photonic gap width and position. Assuming an instantaneous change of refractive index with illumination, the nonlinear band structure problem is solved as a sequence of ordinary, linear band structure calculations, carried out in a plane-wave field representation.

  18. Cavity equations for a positive- or negative-refraction-index material with electric and magnetic nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártin, Daniel A.; Hoyuelos, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    We study evolution equations for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with plane mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative-refraction-index material with third-order effective electric and magnetic nonlinearities. Two coupled nonlinear equations for the electric and magnetic amplitudes are obtained. We prove that the description can be reduced to one Lugiato-Lefever equation with generalized coefficients. A stability analysis of the homogeneous solution, complemented with numerical integration, shows that any combination of the parameters should correspond to one of three characteristic behaviors.

  19. Multilevel adaptive solution procedure for material nonlinear problems in visual programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Ghanem, R. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid solution technique to solve a material nonlinear problem in a visual programming environment using the finite element method is discussed. The nonlinear equation of equilibrium is linearized to incremental form using Newton-Rapson technique, then multigrid solution technique is used to solve linear equations at each Newton-Rapson step. In the process, adaptive mesh refinement, which is based on the bisection of a pair of triangles, is used to form grid hierarchy for multigrid iteration. The solution process is implemented in a visual programming environment with distributed computing capability, which enables more intuitive understanding of solution process, and more effective use of resources.

  20. Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of Edge Cracked Timoshenko Beams Composed of Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically nonlinear static analysis of edge cracked cantilever Timoshenko beams composed of functionally graded material (FGM subjected to a nonfollower transversal point load at the free end of the beam is studied with large displacements and large rotations. Material properties of the beam change in the height direction according to exponential distributions. The cracked beam is modeled as an assembly of two subbeams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. In the study, the finite element of the beam is constructed by using the total Lagrangian Timoshenko beam element approximation. The nonlinear problem is solved by using incremental displacement-based finite element method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The convergence study is performed for various numbers of finite elements. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, and various material distributions on the nonlinear static response of the FGM beam are investigated in detail. Also, the difference between the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of edge cracked FGM beam is investigated in detail.

  1. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Guang Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.

  2. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao, E-mail: zhouhm@cjlu.edu.cn [College of Information Engineering, China Jiliang University, 310018, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-10-15

    For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications.

  3. A stable numerical solution method in-plane loading of nonlinear viscoelastic laminated orthotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the tremendous growth in the development of advanced materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials, a new numerical method is developed to analyze and predict the time-dependent properties of these materials. Basic concepts in viscoelasticity, laminated composites, and previous viscoelastic numerical methods are presented. A stable numerical method, called the nonlinear differential equation method (NDEM), is developed to calculate the in-plane stresses and strains over any time period for a general laminate constructed from nonlinear viscoelastic orthotropic plies. The method is implemented in an in-plane stress analysis computer program, called VCAP, to demonstrate its usefulness and to verify its accuracy. A number of actual experimental test results performed on Kevlar/epoxy composite laminates are compared to predictions calculated from the numerical method.

  4. A non-linear homogeneous model for bone-like materials under compressive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, M; Voide, R; de Bien, C; Freichels, H; Jérôme, C; Léonard, A; Toye, D; Müller, R; van Lenthe, G H; Ponthot, J P

    2012-02-01

    Finite element (FE) models accurately compute the mechanical response of bone and bone-like materials when the models include their detailed microstructure. In order to simulate non-linear behavior, which currently is only feasible at the expense of extremely high computational costs, coarser models can be used if the local morphology has been linked to the apparent mechanical behavior. The aim of this paper is to implement and validate such a constitutive law. This law is able to capture the non-linear structural behavior of bone-like materials through the use of fabric tensors. It also allows for irreversible strains using an elastoplastic material model incorporating hardening. These features are expressed in a constitutive law based on the anisotropic continuum damage theory coupled with isotropic elastoplasticity in a finite strain framework. This material model was implemented into metafor (LTAS-MNNL, University of Liège, Belgium), a non-linear FE software. The implementation was validated against experimental data of cylindrical samples subjected to compression. Three materials with bone-like microstructure were tested: aluminum foams of variable density (ERG, Oakland, CA, USA), polylactic acid foam (CERM, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium), and cancellous bone tissue of a deer antler (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium).

  5. Organic nanoclusters for nonlinear optics: from model systems to cooperative nanoassemblies with enhanced NLO responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenziani, Francesca; Parthasarathy, Venkatakrishnan; Ghosh, Sampa; Pandey, Ravindra; Das, Puspendu K.; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2009-08-01

    While structure-properties relationships are quite actively and successfully investigated at the molecular level of engineering of optical nonlinear responses, supramolecular structure-property relationships are an appealing field. The realization that interchromophoric interactions between strongly polar/polarizable NLO chromophores can significantly affect the NLO response of each chromophoric unit as well as promote associations has opened new dimensions for molecular design. Several elegant routes have been implemented to hinder or counterbalance dipole-dipole interactions between dipolar NLO chromophores for the elaboration of second-order materials (for SHG or electro-optical modulation). At opposite, we have implemented a reverse strategy by confining discrete numbers of NLO push-pull chromophores in close proximity within covalent organic nanoclusters with the aim to exploit interchromophoric interactions in order to achieve enhanced NLO responses. As a proof of concept, we present here the investigation of two-series of multichromophoric covalent assemblies built from NLO push-pull chromophores showing that cooperative enhancement can be achieved both for second-order optical responses (first hyperpolarizabilities) or third-order responses (two-photon absorption cross-sections).

  6. Modeling of nonlinear optic and ESR response of CDW MX materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, A.; Gammel, J.T.; Bishop, A.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Shuai, Z.; Bredas, J.L. [Center de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moleculaires, Universite de Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Batistic, I. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Alouani, M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-09-01

    We report results on the nonlinear optic and ESR response of the PtX MX chain materials calculated using a discrete, 3/4-filled, two-band, tight-binding Peierls-Hubbard model. We calculated electroabsorption (EA) spectra for the three PtX (X=Cl, Br, 1) charge-density-wave (CDW) materials and find good agreement with the experimental data. We also obtain EA spectra for localized defects in PtBr. In addition, the field orientation dependence of the electron spin resonance spectra associated with the spin carrying defects is calculated for PtX materials and compared with ESR data on photoinduced defects.

  7. Non-linear model of impurity diffusion in nanoporous materials upon ultrasonic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Peleshchak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear theory of diffusion of impurities in porous materials upon ultrasonic treatment is described. It is shown that at a defined value of deformation amplitude, an average concentration of vacancies and temperature as a result of the effect of ultrasound possibly leads to the formation of nanoclusters of vacancies and to their periodic educations in porous materials. It is shown that at a temperature smaller than some critical value, a significant growth of a diffusion coefficient is observed in porous materials.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, growth, optical and third order nonlinear optical studies of 8HQ2C5N single crystal - An efficient third-order nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya Bharathi, M.; Ahila, G.; Mohana, J. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005 (India); Chakkaravarthi, G. [Department of Physics, CPCL Polytechnic College, Chennai 600068 (India); Anbalagan, G., E-mail: anbu24663@yahoo.co.in [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-05-01

    A neoteric organic third order nonlinear optical material 8-hydroxyquinolinium 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoate dihydrate (8HQ2C5N) was grown by slow cooling technique using ethanol: water (1:1) mixed solvent. The calculated low value of average etch pit solidity (4.12 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup −2}) indicated that the title crystal contain less defects. From the single crystal X-ray diffraction data, it was endowed that 8HQ2C5N crystal belongs to the monoclinic system with centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}/c and the cell parameters values, a = 9.6546 (4) Ǻ, b = 7.1637(3) Ǻ, c = 24.3606 (12) Ǻ, α = γ = 90°, β = 92.458(2)° and volume = 1683.29(13) Ǻ{sup 3}. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectrum were used to affirm the functional group of the title compound. The chemical structure of 8HQ2C5N was scrutinized by {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectral analysis and thermal stability through the differential scanning calorimetry study. Using optical studies the lower cut-off wavelength and optical band gap of 8HQ2C5N were found to be 364 nm and 3.17 eV respectively. Using the single oscillator model suggested by Wemple – Didomenico, the oscillator energy (E{sub o}), the dispersion energy (E{sub d}) and static dielectric constant (ε{sub o}) were estimated. The third-order susceptibility were determined as Im χ{sup (3)} = 2.51 × 10{sup −5} esu and Re χ{sup (3)} = 4.46 × 10{sup −7} esu. The theoretical third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} was calculated and the results were compared with experimental value. Photoluminescence spectrum of 8HQ2C5N crystal showed the yellow emission. The crystal had the single shot laser damage threshold of 5.562 GW/cm{sup 2}. Microhardness measurement showed that 8HQ2C5N belongs to a soft material category. - Highlights: • A new organic single crystals were grown and the crystal structure was reported. • Crystal possess, good transmittance, thermal and mechanical stability. • Single shot LDT value is found to be

  9. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  10. Self-organized Hydrodynamics in an Annular Domain: Modal Analysis and Nonlinear Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre; Yu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Self-Organized Hydrodynamics model of collective behavior is studied on an annular domain. A modal analysis of the linearized model around a perfectly polarized steady-state is conducted. It shows that the model has only pure imaginary modes in countable number and is hence stable. Numerical computations of the low-order modes are provided. The fully non-linear model is numerically solved and nonlinear mode-coupling is then analyzed. Finally, the efficiency of the modal decomposition to a...

  11. Nonlinear optical properties of a self-organized dye thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Kang; Yizhong Yuan; Zhenrong Sun; Zugeng Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ A self-organized thin film of a cyanine dye is fabricated by the spin-coating technique and is characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction, ellipsometer,and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nonlinear optical properties of the thin films are investigated by degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The cyanine dye thin film sample exhibits high optical nonlinearities (χ(3) = 2.55 × 10-12 esu), and the mechanism is analyzed by the exciton coupling theory.

  12. Organic thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting and temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Boris; Glaudell, Anne; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2016-10-01

    Conjugated polymers and related processing techniques have been developed for organic electronic devices ranging from lightweight photovoltaics to flexible displays. These breakthroughs have recently been used to create organic thermoelectric materials, which have potential for wearable heating and cooling devices, and near-room-temperature energy generation. So far, the best thermoelectric materials have been inorganic compounds (such as Bi2Te3) that have relatively low Earth abundance and are fabricated through highly complex vacuum processing routes. Molecular materials and hybrid organic-inorganic materials now demonstrate figures of merit approaching those of these inorganic materials, while also exhibiting unique transport behaviours that are suggestive of optimization pathways and device geometries that were not previously possible. In this Review, we discuss recent breakthroughs for organic materials with high thermoelectric figures of merit and indicate how these materials may be incorporated into new module designs that take advantage of their mechanical and thermoelectric properties.

  13. Organic inclusion complex novel materials for optical second-harmonic generation in ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqing; Lu, Mengkai

    1996-10-01

    Herein is presented a new class of materials for second harmonic generation (SHG) -- organic inclusion complex, in which 'SHG-active units' (guest) are incorporated into chiral handle polycondensed anions (host) through short hydrogen bonds. The former can provide nonlinear optical response. The latter is expected to produce noncentrosymmetric structural 'molecular framework' and improve fundamental properties of materials such as thermal stability, mechanical strength and fabrication behavior, et al. Several new SHG active inclusion complexes were synthesized. In particular, optically fine bulk crystals of urea-(d)tartaric acid (UDT) and urea-(dl)tartaric acid (UDLT) have been obtained. They have good powder SHG intensity and short cutoff wavelengths.

  14. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Lynn; Hyon, Jinho; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement. In particular, the development of high-performance organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on high-quality single crystals that show optimal intrinsic charge-transport properties and electrical performance. Moreover, the heterogeneous integration of organic materials on a single substrate in a monolithic way is highly demanded for the production of fundamental organic electronic components as well as complex integrated circuits. Many of the various methods that have been designed to pattern multiple heterogeneous organic materials on a substrate and the heterogeneous integration of organic single crystals with their crystal growth are described here. Critical issues that have been encountered in the development of high-performance organic integrated electronics are also addressed.

  15. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y. C.; Kang, P. H.; Choi, J. H.; and others

    2012-01-15

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we have developed the radiation-based new therapeutic agents such as hydrogel patch, paste, naganol, nanoparticles and nano fibers containing natural medicinal materials for the treatment of atomic dermatitis and diabetic ulcer. Also, we have developed the separator, the polymer gel electrolyte, and proton exchange membranes for lithium secondary battery and fuel cell by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology. In the 3rd project, the crucial radiation-induced surface modification technologies for the fabrication of the advanced biosensors/chips and electronic devices have been successfully developed.

  16. Modeling Granular Materials as Compressible Non-Linear Fluids: Heat Transfer Boundary Value Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss three boundary value problems in the flow and heat transfer analysis in flowing granular materials: (i) the flow down an inclined plane with radiation effects at the free surface; (ii) the natural convection flow between two heated vertical walls; (iii) the shearing motion between two horizontal flat plates with heat conduction. It is assumed that the material behaves like a continuum, similar to a compressible nonlinear fluid where the effects of density gradients are incorporated in the stress tensor. For a fully developed flow the equations are simplified to a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The equations are made dimensionless and a parametric study is performed where the effects of various dimensionless numbers representing the effects of heat conduction, viscous dissipation, radiation, and so forth are presented.

  17. The effect of large deformation and material nonlinearity on gel indentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Duan; Yonghao An; Jiaping Zhang; Hanqing Jiang

    2012-01-01

    A gel,an aggregate of polymers with solvents,has dual attributes of solid and liquid as solvent migrates in and out of the polymer network.Indentation has recently been used to characterize the mechanical properties of gels.This paper evaluates the effects of large deformation and material nonlinearity on gel indentation through theoretical modeling and finite element analysis.It is found that large deformation significantly affects the interpretation of the experimental observations and the classical relation between indentation force and depth has limitations for large deformation.The material nonlinearity does not play a very important role on indentation experiment so that the poroelasticity is a good approximation.Based on these observations,this paper proposes an alternative approach to measure the mechanical properties of gels,namely,uniaxial compression experiment.

  18. (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear propagation equation for ultrashort pulsed beam in left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yong-Hua; Fu Xi-Quan; Wen Shuang-Chun; Su Wen-Hua; Fan Dian-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a comprehensive framework for treating the nonlinear propagation of ultrashort pulse in metamaterial with dispersive dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability is presented. Under the slowly-evolving-wave approximation, a generalized (3+1)-dimensional wave equation first order in the propagation coordinate and suitable for both right-handed material (RHM) and left-handed material (LHM) is derived. By the commonly used Drude dispersive model for LHM, a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation describing ultrashort pulsed beam propagation in LHM is obtained, and its difference from that for conventional RHM is discussed. Particularly, the self-steeping effect of ultrashort pulse is found to be anomalous in LHM.

  19. Beyond the perturbative description of the nonlinear optical response of low-index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Orad; Giese, Enno; Zahirul Alam, M; De Leon, Israel; Upham, Jeremy; Boyd, Robert W

    2017-08-15

    We show that standard approximations in nonlinear optics are violated for situations involving a small value of the linear refractive index. Consequently, the conventional equation for the intensity-dependent refractive index, n(I)=n0+n2I, becomes inapplicable in epsilon-near-zero and low-index media, even in the presence of only third-order effects. For the particular case of indium tin oxide, we find that the χ((3)), χ((5)), and χ((7)) contributions to refraction eclipse the linear term; thus, the nonlinear response can no longer be interpreted as a perturbation in these materials. Although the response is non-perturbative, we find no evidence that the power series expansion of the material polarization diverges.

  20. Nonlinear systems modeling based on self-organizing fuzzy-neural-network with adaptive computation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Wu, Xiao-Long; Qiao, Jun-Fei

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a self-organizing fuzzy-neural-network with adaptive computation algorithm (SOFNN-ACA) is proposed for modeling a class of nonlinear systems. This SOFNN-ACA is constructed online via simultaneous structure and parameter learning processes. In structure learning, a set of fuzzy rules can be self-designed using an information-theoretic methodology. The fuzzy rules with high spiking intensities (SI) are divided into new ones. And the fuzzy rules with a small relative mutual information (RMI) value will be pruned in order to simplify the FNN structure. In parameter learning, the consequent part parameters are learned through the use of an ACA that incorporates an adaptive learning rate strategy into the learning process to accelerate the convergence speed. Then, the convergence of SOFNN-ACA is analyzed. Finally, the proposed SOFNN-ACA is used to model nonlinear systems. The modeling results demonstrate that this proposed SOFNN-ACA can model nonlinear systems effectively.

  1. [Cells in the system of multicelular organisms from positions of non-linear dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotolupov, V A; Isaeva, V V

    2012-01-01

    The organism physiological systems forming a hierarchic network with mutual dependence and subordination can be considered as systems with non-linear dynamics including positive and negative feedbacks. In the course of evolution there occurred selection of robust, flexible, modular systems capable for adaptive self-organization by non-linear interaction of components, which leads to formation of the ordered in space and time robust and plastic organization of the whole. Cells of multicellular organisms are capable for coordinated "social" behavior with formation of ordered cell assemblies, which provides a possibility of morphological and functional variability correlating with manifestations of the large spectrum of adaptive reactions. The multicellular organism is the multilevel system with hierarchy of numerous subsystems capable for adaptive self-organization; disturbance of their homeostasis can lead to pathological changes. The healthy organism regulates homeostasis, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of cells serving its parts and construction blocks by preserving its integrity and controlling behavior of cells. The systemic approach taking into account biological regularities of the appearance and development of functions in evolution of multicellular organisms opens new possibilities for diagnostics and treatment of many diseases.

  2. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K.

    2013-02-01

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  3. Study of nonlinear refraction of organic dye by Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhekar, S.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Choubey, R. K. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi - 835215, Jharkhand (India)

    2013-02-05

    Laser induced third-order nonlinear optical responses of Brilliant Green solution has been investigated by utilizing single beam Z-scan technique with a continuous-wave He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It was observed that the material exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The measurements of nonlinear refraction were carried out at different dye concentrations and found that the increase in solution concentration leads to the linear increase of the nonlinear refractive index. The experimental results confirm great potential of the Brilliant Green for the application in nonlinear optical devices.

  4. Amorphous electron-accepting materials for organic optoelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesan, P.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of organic materials for use in electronic devices such as OLEDs, OFETs and photovoltaic cells has increased significantly over the past decade. Organic materials have been attractive candidates for such electronic devices because of their compatibility with high-throughput, low-cost

  5. Amorphous electron-accepting materials for organic optoelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesan, P.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of organic materials for use in electronic devices such as OLEDs, OFETs and photovoltaic cells has increased significantly over the past decade. Organic materials have been attractive candidates for such electronic devices because of their compatibility with high-throughput, low-cost

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical materials: practical issues and theoretical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoć, Marek

    2011-09-01

    The renewed interest in all-optical switching has led to more detailed experimental investigations of nonlinear optical properties of materials within wide wavelength ranges. The objectives of these studies are discussed here in the context of the availability of suitable computational data that might be compared with the results of the experimental research. It is concluded that the currently available data are insufficient and should be augmented to provide better guidance for experimental work.

  7. Understanding of Materials State and its Degradation using Non-Linear Ultrasound (NLU) Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    at Ultrasonic Frequencies, Journal of Applied Physics 105, 043520, Hikata A., Chick B. B., and Elbaum C., (1965) Dislocation Contribution to the...Second Harmonic Generation of ultrasonic waves, Journal of Applied Physics Vol. 36 Number1 Hikata A. and Elbaum C., (1966) Generation of...Material Damage in a Nickel-base Superalloy using Nonlinear Rayleigh Surface Waves, Journal of Applied Physics 99, 124913 Hurley D. C., Balzar D

  8. Implementation of tristate logic based all optical flip-flop with nonlinear material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Partha Ghosh; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    @@ The advantages of multivalued logic in optical parallel computation need no introduction. There are lots of proposals, already reported, where tristate, quarternary state logic operations can be performed with optics. Here we report a new approach to implement tristate logic based all optical flip-flop using optical nonlinear material. The concept and the principle of operation of this type of flip-flop are different from that of the conventional binary one.

  9. A contribution to the development of wide band-gap nonlinear optical laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Sundberg, Jennifer Leigh

    The primary focus of this work is on examining structure-property relationships of interest for high-power nonlinear optical and laser crystals. An intuitive and simply illustrated method for assessing the nonlinear optical potential of structurally characterized noncentrosymmetric materials is introduced. This method is applied to materials including common quartz and tourmaline and then extended to synthetic materials including borates, silicates, aluminates, and phosphates. Particularly, the contributions of symmetric tetrahedral and triangular anionic groups are inspected. It is shown that both types of groups significantly contribute to the optical frequency converting abilities of noncentrosymmetric crystals. In this study, several known materials are included as well as several new materials. The roles of the orientation, composition, and packing density of these anionic groups are also discussed. The structures and optical properties of the known materials BPO 4, NaAlO2, LaCa4O(BO3)3, and tourmaline; the new compounds La0.8Y0.2Sc3 (BO3)4 and Ba2B10O 17; and the laser host Sr3Y0.75Yb0.25(BO 3)3 are described.

  10. Cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in conjugated energetic materials: A TD-DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifain, Andrew E; Tadesse, Loza F; Bjorgaard, Josiah A; Chavez, David E; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Scharff, R Jason; Tretiak, Sergei

    2017-03-21

    Conjugated energetic molecules (CEMs) are a class of explosives with high nitrogen content that posses both enhanced safety and energetic performance properties and are ideal for direct optical initiation. As isolated molecules, they absorb within the range of conventional lasers. Crystalline CEMs are used in practice, however, and their properties can differ due to intermolecular interaction. Herein, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of monomers and dimers obtained from experimentally determined crystal structures of CEMs. OPA scales linearly with the number of chromophore units, while TPA scales nonlinearly, where a more than 3-fold enhancement in peak intensity, per chromophore unit, is calculated. Cooperative enhancement depends on electronic delocalization spanning both chromophore units. An increase in sensitivity to nonlinear laser initiation makes these materials suitable for practical use. This is the first study predicting a cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in energetic materials composed of relatively small molecules. The proposed model quantum chemistry is validated by comparison to crystal structure geometries and the optical absorption of these materials dissolved in solution.

  11. Crystal structure, growth and nonlinear optical studies of isonicotinamide p-nitrophenol: A new organic crystal for optical limiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, A.; Vidyavathy, B.; Vinitha, G.

    2016-08-01

    Isonicotinamide p-nitrophenol (ICPNP), a new organic material, was synthesized using methanol solvent. Single crystals of ICPNP were grown using a slow evaporation solution growth technique. Crystal structure of ICPNP is elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. It forms two dimensional networks by O-H…O, N-H…O and C-H…O hydrogen bonds. The molecular structure of ICPNP was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. The optical transmittance range and the lower cut-off wavelength (421 nm) with the optical band gap (2.90 eV) of the ICPNP crystal were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectral study. Thermal behavior of ICPNP was studied by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA). The relative dielectric permittivity was calculated for various temperature ranges. Laser damage threshold of ICPNP crystal was found to be 1.9 GW/cm2 using an Nd:YAG laser. A Z-scan technique was employed to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility. Optical limiting behavior of ICPNP was observed at 35 mW input power.

  12. Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water Using Superwetting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2017-08-02

    The frequent occurrence of water pollution accidents and the leakage of organic pollutants have caused severe environmental and ecological crisis. It is thus highly imperative to find efficient materials to solve the problem. Inspired by the lotus leaf, superwetting materials are receiving increasing attention in the field of removal of organic pollutants from water. Various superwetting materials have been successfully generated and integrated into devices for removal of organic pollutants from water. On the basis of our previous work in the field, we summarized in this account the progress of removal of (1) floating and underwater insoluble, (2) emulsified insoluble, and (3) both insoluble and soluble organic pollutants from water using superwetting materials including superhydrophobic & superoleophilic materials, superhydrophilic & underwater superoleophobic materials, and materials with controllable wettability. The superwetting materials are in the forms of 2D porous materials, 3D porous materials and particles, etc. Finally, the current state and future challenges in this field are discussed. We hope this account could shed light on the design of novel superwetting materials for efficient removal of organic pollutants from water. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... not increase in proportion with square root time when e.g. sewage sludge and manure are filtered. Different explanations have been suggested. However, organic slurries are complex mixtures and it is therefore difficult to evaluate the suggested explanations and develops new models. One possible solution...

  14. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Choi, Jae Hak

    2010-04-15

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we carried out the radiation-based new research to apply long-term moisturizing effects and effective natural herbal extracts on the atopic wounds using gamma-ray irradiation. Also, we have developed the separator and the polymer gel electrolyte for lithium secondary battery by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology for TFT-LCD panel by radiation. In the 3rd project, we have developed the various radiation-based techniques for the surface modification of polymers and ceramics, biomolecules immobilization and patterning, prevention of biomolecule's non-specific adhesion, and surface modification of carbon nanotubes

  15. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Oda, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Organisms produce various organic/inorganic hybrid materials, which are called biominerals. They form through the self-organization of organic molecules and inorganic elements under ambient conditions. Biominerals often have highly organized and hierarchical structures from nanometer to macroscopic length scales, resulting in their remarkable physical and chemical properties that cannot be obtained by simple accumulation of their organic and inorganic constituents. These observations motivate us to create novel functional materials exhibiting properties superior to conventional materials--both synthetic and natural. Herein, we introduce recent progress in understanding biomineralization processes at the molecular level and the development of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by these processes. We specifically outline fundamental molecular studies on silica, iron oxide, and calcium carbonate biomineralization and describe material synthesis based on these mechanisms. These approaches allow us to design a variety of advanced hybrid materials with desired morphologies, sizes, compositions, and structures through environmentally friendly synthetic routes using functions of organic molecules.

  16. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Paul F.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    1993-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  17. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

    1993-10-05

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  18. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...

  19. Metal-nanocluster composites made by ion implantation: A novel third-order nonlinear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Yang, L.; Magruder, R.H. III; Becker, K.; Wittig, J.E. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); White, C.W.; Zhur, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yang, L.; Dorsinville, R.; Alfano, R.R. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)

    1993-03-01

    We describe our recent studies of metal-insulator nanocluster composites made by ion implantation in such substrates as glass and sapphire. The metal clusters have diameters ranging from 3 to 30 nm. The composites exhibit an electronic nonlinear optical response which is fast on the picosecond time scale. In addition to possibilities for technological application, these materials also offer a way of studying unusual properties of composite materials, such as the quantum confinement of conduction-band electrons and the transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} as a function of cluster size.

  20. Metal-nanocluster composites made by ion implantation: A novel third-order nonlinear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.; Yang, L.; Magruder, R.H. III; Becker, K.; Wittig, J.E. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)); White, C.W.; Zhur, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Yang, L.; Dorsinville, R.; Alfano, R.R. (City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    We describe our recent studies of metal-insulator nanocluster composites made by ion implantation in such substrates as glass and sapphire. The metal clusters have diameters ranging from 3 to 30 nm. The composites exhibit an electronic nonlinear optical response which is fast on the picosecond time scale. In addition to possibilities for technological application, these materials also offer a way of studying unusual properties of composite materials, such as the quantum confinement of conduction-band electrons and the transverse relaxation time T[sub 2] as a function of cluster size.

  1. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area.

  2. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinearities on the Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1997-01-01

    Previously developed analytical formulations for piezoelectric composite plates are extended to account for the nonlinear effects of temperature on material properties. The temperature dependence of the composite and piezoelectric properties are represented at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. In addition to capturing thermal effects from temperature dependent material properties, this formulation also accounts for thermal effects arising from: (1) coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the various composite and piezoelectric plies and (2) pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric material. The constitutive equations are incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory to provide a unified representation of the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of smart structures. Corresponding finite element equations are derived and implemented for a bilinear plate element with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of piezoelectric composite laminates. Numerical studies are conducted on a simply supported composite plate with attached piezoceramic patches under thermal gradients to investigate the nonlinear effects of material property temperature dependence on the displacements, sensory voltages, active voltages required to minimize thermal deflections, and the resultant stress states.

  3. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  4. Emerging Low-Dimensional Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Guo, Qiangbing; Qiu, Jianrong

    2017-02-22

    Low-dimensional (LD) materials demonstrate intriguing optical properties, which lead to applications in diverse fields, such as photonics, biomedicine and energy. Due to modulation of electronic structure by the reduced structural dimensionality, LD versions of metal, semiconductor and topological insulators (TIs) at the same time bear distinct nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as compared with their bulk counterparts. Their interaction with short pulse laser excitation exhibits a strong nonlinear character manifested by NLO absorption, giving rise to optical limiting or saturated absorption associated with excited state absorption and Pauli blocking in different materials. In particular, the saturable absorption of these emerging LD materials including two-dimensional semiconductors as well as colloidal TI nanoparticles has recently been utilized for Q-switching and mode-locking ultra-short pulse generation across the visible, near infrared and middle infrared wavelength regions. Beside the large operation bandwidth, these ultrafast photonics applications are especially benefit from the high recovery rate as well as the facile processibility of these LD materials. The prominent NLO response of these LD materials have also provided new avenues for the development of novel NLO and photonics devices for all-optical control as well as optical circuits beyond ultrafast lasers.

  5. Nature Inspired Strategies for New Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-14

    mechanism involving a hydride transfer from the II (Scheme 2), formed from addition of NHC to the aldehyde (instead of the formal 1,2- hydrogen shift), to the...have been prepared from 3d 0 -N Ar and 3e as dyads for use in metal organic Ar frameworks ( MOFs ) (6 from the facile Sonogashira coupling of 3d and 3e, 7

  6. Trace Organic Analysis of Microencapsulated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    TERIS (Continue qn reverse if necessary and identify by block number)FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Trace organic analysis Dynamic headspace IE 06 03Automated...mixtures have benefitted from the advantages of combined dynamic headspace analysis (DHS) with pulse and/or programmed pyrolysis. Careful thermal processing...established the significance of the pyrolysis technology to study the selected microcapsules (see Section 5). 17 In a Dynamic Headspace (DHS) experiment, a

  7. Nonlinear Transport in Organic Thin Film Transistors with Soluble Small Molecule Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeok; Song, Dong-Seok; Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Do-Kyung; Kim, SeonMin; Kang, In Man; Park, Jonghoo; Tae, Heung-Sik; Battaglini, Nicolas; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear transport is intensively explained through Poole-Frenkel (PF) transport mechanism in organic thin film transistors with solution-processed small molecules, which is, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene. We outline a detailed electrical study that identifies the source to drain field dependent mobility. Devices with diverse channel lengths enable the extensive exhibition of field dependent mobility due to thermal activation of carriers among traps.

  8. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  9. First International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics. Section B: Nonlinear Optics, Principles, Materials, Phenomena, and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    LEDOUX3 and J. ZYSS 3 1 Chimie des Interactions Mol6culaires (UPR 285 of the CNRS), Collbge de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005 Paris, France...CHARRAa, N. PFEFFER’, T. P. NGUYENb and V. H. TRAN’ aLeti (CEA-Technologies Avanc6es), DEIN-SPE, Groupe Composants Organiques , Centre d’Etudes de Saclay...Institut des Mat6riaux, 2 rue de la Houssini~re, F44072 Nantes cedex 03, France cLaboratoire des Mat6riaux Organiques c Propri6t6s Sp6cifiques, UPR-CNRS

  10. Growth and characterization of dexterous nonlinear optical material: Dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol (DMAPNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.

    2016-08-01

    The crystals (dimethyl amino pyridinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol [DMAPNP] suitable for NLO applications were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of DMAPNP specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of P212121. The ocular precision in the intact visible region was found to be good for non-linear optical claim. Quality of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of DMAPNP sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The third order nonlinear optical properties of DMAPNP crystals were premeditated by Z-scan method. Birefringence and optical homogeneity of the crystal were evaluated using modified channel spectrum method. The half wave voltage of the grown crystal deliberate from the elector optic experimentation. Photoconductivity measurement specified consummate of inducing dipoles owing to brawny incident radiation and also disclose the nonlinear activities of the grown specimen.

  11. Second harmonic generation of near millimeter wave radiation by nonlinear bulk material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B. H.

    1980-06-01

    Bulk crystals have been used frequently to obtain second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of radiation from the fundamental input frequency, particularly in the optical region. For example ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, semiconductor materials, and ferroelectric materials were used for the SHG of input laser beams. SHG and THG have also been realized in the microwave region. Boyd, et. al., reported on the nonlinear coefficients and other important parameters at 55 GHz. Later, Boyd and Pollack published a comprehensive paper on the nonlinear coefficients of LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 in the microwave region. DiDomenico, Jrl, et. al., obtained a 9 GHz TH output with an efficiency of 8.5% from a 2200 watt 3 GHz source by use of a 73% BaTiO3 - 27% SrTiO3 ceramic in a coaxial cavity configuration. Impetus for bulk harmonic generation in the microwave region was given by the discovery that some ferroelectric crystals have very large nonlinear coefficients, large enough to compensate for the lower frequencies of the microwave region in comparison to those of the optical region.

  12. Metal-Organic and Organic TADF-Materials: Status, Challenges and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Larissa; Zink, Daniel M; Bräse, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas; Volz, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This section covers both metal-organic and organic materials that feature thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). Such materials are especially useful for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a technology that was introduced in commercial displays only recently. We compare both material classes to show commonalities and differences, highlighting current issues and challenges. Advanced spectroscopic techniques as valuable tools to develop solutions to those issues are introduced. Finally, we provide an outlook over the field and highlight future trends.

  13. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  14. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica-Alina Oltean

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  15. Bipolar Host Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-02-01

    It is important to balance holes and electrons in the emitting layer of organic light-emitting diodes to maximize recombination efficiency and the accompanying external quantum efficiency. Therefore, the host materials of the emitting layer should transport both holes and electrons for the charge balance. From this perspective, bipolar hosts have been popular as the host materials of thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. In this review, we have summarized recent developments of bipolar hosts and suggested perspectives of host materials for organic light-emitting diodes.

  16. A computer program for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Thompson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program was developed for predicting nonlinear uniaxial material responses using viscoplastic constitutive models. Four specific models, i.e., those due to Miller, Walker, Krieg-Swearengen-Rhode, and Robinson, are included. Any other unified model is easily implemented into the program in the form of subroutines. Analysis features include stress-strain cycling, creep response, stress relaxation, thermomechanical fatigue loop, or any combination of these responses. An outline is given on the theoretical background of uniaxial constitutive models, analysis procedure, and numerical integration methods for solving the nonlinear constitutive equations. In addition, a discussion on the computer program implementation is also given. Finally, seven numerical examples are included to demonstrate the versatility of the computer program developed.

  17. Three-dimensional Material and Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Single Lap Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narasimhan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 3-D viscoplastic analysis of adhesively bonded single lap joint considering material and geometric nonlinearity. Total Lagrangian formulation is used to develop a 3-D finite element for geometric nonlinear analysis. The overall geometry of the single lap joint, the loading, and the boundary conditions has been considered, both according to the ASTM testing standards and from those adopted in earlier investigations. The constitutive relations for the adhesive are developed using a pressure-dependant (modified von Mises yield function and Ramberg-Osgood idealisation for the experimental stress-strain curve. The adherends and adhesive layers are both modelled using 20-noded solid elements. However, observations have been made, in particular, on peel and shear stresses in the adhesive layer, which provide useful insight into the 3-D nature of the problem.

  18. Crystal growth and characterizations of L-cystine dihydrobromide—A semiorganic nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

    2010-02-01

    Single crystal of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-cystine dihydrobromide, was grown successfully from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to determine the cell parameters. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the structure of the grown title compound. The functional groups and vibrational frequencies have been identified using FTIR and FT Raman spectral data. Transmittance of the title compound was analyzed using UV-Vis spectrum. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was found using Vickers microhardness measurement. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was determined with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behavior of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test and its SHG efficiency was found as deff=0.38 deff (KDP).

  19. Crystal growth and characterizations of L-cystine dihydrobromide-A semiorganic nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbuchezhiyan, M. [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur 603 203, Chennai (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.co [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Chennai (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Chennai (India)

    2010-02-15

    Single crystal of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-cystine dihydrobromide, was grown successfully from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to determine the cell parameters. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the structure of the grown title compound. The functional groups and vibrational frequencies have been identified using FTIR and FT Raman spectral data. Transmittance of the title compound was analyzed using UV-Vis spectrum. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was found using Vickers microhardness measurement. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was determined with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behavior of the grown crystal has been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test and its SHG efficiency was found as d{sub eff}=0.38d{sub eff} (KDP).

  20. A nonlinear manifold-based reduced order model for multiscale analysis of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Satyaki; Matouš, Karel

    2016-05-01

    A new manifold-based reduced order model for nonlinear problems in multiscale modeling of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials is presented. The model relies on a global geometric framework for nonlinear dimensionality reduction (Isomap), and the macroscopic loading parameters are linked to the reduced space using a Neural Network. The proposed model provides both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution in the context of computational homogenization. To construct the manifold, we perform a number of large three-dimensional simulations of a statistically representative unit cell using a parallel finite strain finite element solver. The manifold-based reduced order model is verified using common principles from the machine-learning community. Both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution are demonstrated on a large three-dimensional example and the local microscopic fields as well as the homogenized macroscopic potential are obtained with acceptable engineering accuracy.

  1. Nonlinear constitutive law for ferroelectric/ ferroelastic material and its finite element realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YaoChen

    2007-01-01

    The hysteresis phenomena of ferroelectric/ferroelastic material in polarization procedure are investigated.Some assumptions are presented based on the published experimental data.The electrical yielding criterion,mechanical yielding criterion and isotropic hardening model are established.The flow theory in incremental forms in polarization procedure is presented.The nonlinear constitutive law for electrical-mechanical coupling is proposed phenomenologically.Finally,the nonlinear constitutive law expressed in a form of matrices and vectors,which is immediately associated with finite element analysis,is formulated.In the example problem of a rectangular specimen subjected to a uniaxial electric field,the procedure from virgin state to fully polarized state is simulated.Afterward,a uniaxial compressive loading is applied to depolarizing the specimen.Results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Nonlinear constitutive law for ferroelectric/ferroelastic material and its finite element realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hysteresis phenomena of ferroelectric/ferroelastic material in polarization procedure are investigated. Some assumptions are presented based on the published experimental data. The electrical yielding criterion, mechanical yielding criterion and isotropic hardening model are established. The flow theory in incremental forms in polarization procedure is presented. The nonlinear constitutive law for electrical-mechanical coupling is proposed phenomenologically. Finally, the nonlinear constitutive law expressed in a form of matrices and vectors, which is immediately associated with finite element analysis, is formulated. In the example problem of a rectangular specimen subjected to a uniaxial electric field, the procedure from virgin state to fully polarized state is simulated. Afterward, a uniaxial compressive loading is applied to depolarizing the specimen. Results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Recent Advances as Materials of Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, also known as hybrid inorganic-organic materials, represent an emerging class of materials that have attracted the imagination of solid-state chemists because MOFs combine unprecedented levels of porosity with a range of other functional properties that occur through the metal moiety and/or the organic ligand. The purpose of this critical review is to give a representative and comprehensive overview of the arising developments in the field of functional metal-organic frameworks, including luminescence, magnetism, and porosity through presenting examples. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design multifunctional MOFs.

  4. Spectroscopic and nonlinear photophysical characterization of organic octupolar-compounds supported by anodic-alumina nanotube-arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Saavedra, O.G., E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx [Lab. of Nonlinear Optics, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CCADET-UNAM Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Ontiveros-Barrera, F.G. [Lab. of Nonlinear Optics, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CCADET-UNAM Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Hennrich, G. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mata-Zamora, M.E.; Rodriguez-Rosales, A.A.; Banuelos, J.G. [Lab. of Nonlinear Optics, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CCADET-UNAM Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Preparation of organic-inorganic nanostructured hybrid materials. > Insertion of octupolar compounds in alumina nanotube arrays. > Linear and nonlinear photophysical characterization of solid-state hybrid structures. > Fabrication of photonic materials. - Abstract: Amorphous anodic alumina membranes (AAM) comprising highly ordered nanometric porous arrays (porous anodic aluminas: PAA) with 1D-nanotube dimensions of {approx}75 nm in diameter and 45 microns in depth were successfully prepared and used as nanostructured host networks for different functionalized octupolar chromophores (named here Oct-(n)). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies performed on the developed hybrid systems confirmed a homogeneous insertion of these organic molecules into the PAA nanotube-arrays. Samples with high structural quality were selected for several photophysical characterizations: Comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectroscopic characterizations performed according to UV-vis absorption, photoluminescent (PL) and Raman measurements revealed the structural and optical performance of these molecules within the PAA-confinement. Since the implemented optical chromophores were specifically functionalized for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, the obtained Oct-(n)/PAA-based amorphous hybrids were also characterized according to cubic NLO-techniques such as third harmonic generation (THG) and the Z-Scan method. PAA-confined octupolar chromophores have shown interesting linear and NLO optical properties which have not yet been intensively investigated in bulk hybrid systems; hence, the obtained hybrid nanostructures represent a promising field of investigation in the route to functional octupolar-based materials, where different self-assembled molecular structures may be formed, giving rise to enhanced linear and NLO-properties.

  5. Second sphere coordination of hybrid metal-organic materials: solid state reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Martí-Rujas, Javier

    2016-09-21

    When compared to other hybrid metal organic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, hydrogen bonded materials self-assembled by metals and organic molecules using second sphere interactions have been poorly investigated. Consequently, their solid-sate properties are also scarce. In this perspective, earlier research mainly on host-guest chemistry and its evolution towards more extended structures by applying crystal engineering principles using second sphere coordination is described. Crystal-to-crystal guest exchange reactions, permanently porous hybrid metal organic materials, mechanochemical reactivity, thermally induced phase transformations as well as some examples of functional technological applications using second sphere adducts such as gas adsorption, separation and non-linear optical phenomena are also reported. Although some tutorial reviews on second sphere adducts have been conducted mainly in the solution state focusing on metal based anion receptors, to the best of our knowledge, an overview on relevant works that focus on the solid-state properties has not been carried out. The aim of this article is to highlight from some of the early fundamental work to the latest reports on hybrid metal-organic materials self-assembled via second sphere interactions with a focus on solid-state chemistry.

  6. Classifying content-based Images using Self Organizing Map Neural Networks Based on Nonlinear Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Parcham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Classifying similar images is one of the most interesting and essential image processing operations. Presented methods have some disadvantages like: low accuracy in analysis step and low speed in feature extraction process. In this paper, a new method for image classification is proposed in which similarity weight is revised by means of information in related and unrelated images. Based on researchers’ idea, most of real world similarity measurement systems are nonlinear. Thus, traditional linear methods are not capable of recognizing nonlinear relationship and correlation in such systems. Undoubtedly, Self Organizing Map neural networks are strongest networks for data mining and nonlinear analysis of sophisticated spaces purposes. In our proposed method, we obtain images with the most similarity measure by extracting features of our target image and comparing them with the features of other images. We took advantage of NLPCA algorithm for feature extraction which is a nonlinear algorithm that has the ability to recognize the smallest variations even in noisy images. Finally, we compare the run time and efficiency of our proposed method with previous proposed methods.

  7. Ultrafast Z-scan measurements of nonlinear optical constants of window materials at 772, 1030, and 1550 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Steven R; Beadie, Guy; Bayya, Shyam S; Shaw, Brandon; Auxier, Jason M

    2015-11-01

    Femtosecond Z-scan measurements have been performed on six window materials at 772, 1030, and 1550 nm. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index are presented for reference materials, fused silica and BK7 and four near-infrared window materials, multispectral ZnS (CLEARTRAN), aluminum oxynitride (AlON), spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic, and barium gallogermanate (BGG) glass.

  8. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS-. The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  9. Porous materials: Lining up metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champness, Neil R.

    2017-03-01

    A new report demonstrates an innovative approach to aligning crystallites of metal-organic frameworks such that thin films are created with oriented channels -- potentially overcoming one of the major barriers to application of these highly topical materials.

  10. A novel class of nonlinear optical materials based on host-guest composites: zeolites as inorganic crystalline hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sung; Pham, Tung Cao Thanh; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2012-05-16

    The demand for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with exceptional NLO properties is very large, and hence the search for such materials should be continued not only to enhance their functions in current applications but also to help expedite the materialization of photonics in which photons instead of electrons are used for signal processing, transmission, and storage. This article summarizes the preparation, characteristics, and the future perspectives of novel second order nonlinear optical (2NLO) materials prepared by orientation-controlled incorporation of 2NLO molecules into zeolite channels and third order nonlinear optical (3NLO) materials prepared by compartmentalization of very small (<1.3 nm) PbS QDs within zeolite nanopores under different environments, and the novel chemistry newly unveiled during the preparation of novel zeolite based NLO materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  11. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic perspective on organic pigment proliferation and biological evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, Karo

    2013-01-01

    The most important thermodynamic work performed by life today is the dissipation of the solar photon flux into heat through organic pigments in water. From this thermodynamic perspective, biological evolution is thus just the dispersal of organic pigments and water throughout Earth's surface, while adjusting the gases of Earth's atmosphere to allow the most intense part of the solar spectrum to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the surface to be intercepted by these pigments. The covalent bonding of atoms in organic pigments provides excited levels compatible with the energies of these photons. Internal conversion through vibrational relaxation to the ground state of these excited molecules when in water leads to rapid dissipation of the solar photons into heat, and this is the major source of entropy production on Earth. A non-linear irreversible thermodynamic analysis shows that the proliferation of organic pigments on Earth is a direct consequence of the pigments catalytic properties in dissipating the so...

  12. Measurement of nonlinear optical refraction of composite material based on sapphire with silver by Kerr-lens autocorrelation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-xiang; Wang, Yu-hua

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n(2) = -1.1 × 10(-15) cm(2)W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

  13. Cluster primary ion bombardment of organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmer, F

    2004-06-15

    In order to evaluate their potential for molecular surface analysis, we applied monoatomic (Ga, Cs, Au, Bi) as well as polyatomic (SF{sub 5}, Au{sub n}, Bi{sub n}, C{sub 60}) primary ions to a series of organic samples. For the model system Irganox 1010 on LDPE we determined the secondary ion yield, the disappearance cross section and the resulting ion formation efficiency as a function of the primary ion energy. As a general result the efficiency is improved with the mass of the monoatomic primary ion. A further increase is obtained by the use of polyatomic primary ions. According to this, highest efficiencies are obtained for C{sub 60}, the lowest for Ga. Additionally, molecular imaging was performed on real world samples (electronic components, pharmaceuticals): for this a cluster LMIS operated with Ga, AuGe or Bi was applied. The results reveal the potential of cluster SIMS to overcome existing limitations and to establish TOF-SIMS for new applications in the fields of polymers, biology and medicine.

  14. Cluster primary ion bombardment of organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmer, F.

    2004-06-01

    In order to evaluate their potential for molecular surface analysis, we applied monoatomic (Ga, Cs, Au, Bi) as well as polyatomic (SF 5, Au n, Bi n, C 60) primary ions to a series of organic samples. For the model system Irganox 1010 on LDPE we determined the secondary ion yield, the disappearance cross section and the resulting ion formation efficiency as a function of the primary ion energy. As a general result the efficiency is improved with the mass of the monoatomic primary ion. A further increase is obtained by the use of polyatomic primary ions. According to this, highest efficiencies are obtained for C 60, the lowest for Ga. Additionally, molecular imaging was performed on real world samples (electronic components, pharmaceuticals): for this a cluster LMIS operated with Ga, AuGe or Bi was applied. The results reveal the potential of cluster SIMS to overcome existing limitations and to establish TOF-SIMS for new applications in the fields of polymers, biology and medicine.

  15. Redox-promoted associative assembly of metal-organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavinović, Martin; Qi, Feng; Katsenis, Athanassios D; Friščić, Tomislav; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2016-01-01

    We develop an associative synthesis of metal-organic materials that combines solid-state metal oxidation and coordination-driven self-assembly into a one-step, waste-free transformation. The methodology hinges on the unique reactivity of ortho-quinones, which we introduce as versatile oxidants for mechanochemical synthesis. Our strategy opens a previously unexplored route to paramagnetic metal-organic materials from elementary metals.

  16. A review of predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matouš, Karel; Geers, Marc G. D.; Kouznetsova, Varvara G.; Gillman, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial age, material performance and design have been in the midst of innovation of many disruptive technologies. Today's electronics, space, medical, transportation, and other industries are enriched by development, design and deployment of composite, heterogeneous and multifunctional materials. As a result, materials innovation is now considerably outpaced by other aspects from component design to product cycle. In this article, we review predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials. Deeper attention is given to multiscale modeling in space and to computational homogenization in addressing challenging materials science questions. Moreover, we discuss a state-of-the-art platform in predictive image-based, multiscale modeling with co-designed simulations and experiments that executes on the world's largest supercomputers. Such a modeling framework consists of experimental tools, computational methods, and digital data strategies. Once fully completed, this collaborative and interdisciplinary framework can be the basis of Virtual Materials Testing standards and aids in the development of new material formulations. Moreover, it will decrease the time to market of innovative products.

  17. A review of predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matouš, Karel, E-mail: kmatous@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Geers, Marc G.D.; Kouznetsova, Varvara G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gillman, Andrew [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial age, material performance and design have been in the midst of innovation of many disruptive technologies. Today's electronics, space, medical, transportation, and other industries are enriched by development, design and deployment of composite, heterogeneous and multifunctional materials. As a result, materials innovation is now considerably outpaced by other aspects from component design to product cycle. In this article, we review predictive nonlinear theories for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous materials. Deeper attention is given to multiscale modeling in space and to computational homogenization in addressing challenging materials science questions. Moreover, we discuss a state-of-the-art platform in predictive image-based, multiscale modeling with co-designed simulations and experiments that executes on the world's largest supercomputers. Such a modeling framework consists of experimental tools, computational methods, and digital data strategies. Once fully completed, this collaborative and interdisciplinary framework can be the basis of Virtual Materials Testing standards and aids in the development of new material formulations. Moreover, it will decrease the time to market of innovative products.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a new organic semiconductor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffour, Imane [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Département de Physique, Université de Tiaret, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Dehbi, Abdelkader [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Département de Physique, Université de Tiaret, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I., E-mail: ahmourad@uaeu.ac.ae [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 15551 (United Arab Emirates); Belfedal, Abdelkader [Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); LPCMME, Département de Physique, Université d' Oran Es-sénia, 3100 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to create an ideal mixture of Acetaminophen/Curcumin leading to a new and improved semiconductor material, by a study of the electrical, thermal and optical properties. This new material will be compared with existing semiconductor technology to discuss its viability within the industry. The electrical properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy and optical properties were studied by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The electric conductivity σ, the dielectric constant ε{sub r}, the activation energy E{sub a}, the optical transmittance T and the gap energy E{sub g} have been investigated in order to characterize our organic material. The electrical conductivity of the material is approximately 10{sup −5} S/m at room temperature, increasing the temperature causes σ to increase exponentially to approximately 10{sup −4} S/m. The activation energy obtained for the material is equal to 0.49 ± 0.02 ev. The optical absorption spectra show that the investigating material has absorbance in the visible range with a maximum wavelength (λ{sub max}) 424 nm. From analysis, the absorption spectra it was found the optical band gap equal to 2.6 ± 0.02 eV and 2.46 ± 0.02 eV for the direct and indirect transition, respectively. In general, the study shows that the developed material has characteristics of organic semiconductor material that has a promising future in the field of organic electronics and their potential applications, e.g., photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • Development of a new organic acetaminophen/Curcumin semiconductor material. • The developed material has characteristics of an organic semiconductor. • It has electrical conductivity comparable to available organic semiconductors. • It has high optical transmittance and low permittivity/dielectric constant.

  19. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  20. White and Red Organic Light Emitting Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOW Tahsin J.; CHIU Ching-Wen; TSAI Mu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Derivatives of 2,3-(1,4-dialkoxyaceno)norbornadiene underwent ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) upon the catalysis of a ruthenium complex to afford the corresponding polymers. The polymeric materials containing anthracene chromophores emit white electro-luminescence, which can be fabricated into light-emitting diodes (LED). The broad emission band is composed of a blue emission from anthracene and a red emission from aggregates. A single layer device, ITO/polymer/Ca/Al, can be turned on at 7V and exhibits maximum intensity 427 cd/m2 at 15 V. A double layer device, ITO/polymer/TPBI/Mg:Ag (TPBI = (2,2′,2"-(1,3,5-benzenetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole)) displayed blue light with turn-on voltage 6 V and maximal intensity 930 cd/m2 at 15 V.Derivatives of bisindolylmaleimide were found to form amorphous solid films which exhibit intensive red luminescence. The property of forming glasses can be ascribed to the nonplanar geometry of these molecules. LED devices were fabricated by a layer of pure dye sandwiched between two charge transporting films. The yellow emission spectrum of the devices utilizing Alq (tris(8-hydoxyquinolinato)aluminum) contains a green component from Alq. Pure red emissions can be achieved by replacing Alq with TPBI. Typical devices can be turned on at ~3 V with maximal intensity 2000 cd/m2. White color devices are under current investigation, in which the green Alq layer is replaced by its blue derivative (bis(2-methyl-8-hydoxyquinolinato)(phenolato)aluminum).

  1. First principles crystal engineering of nonlinear optical materials. I. Prototypical case of urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunov, Artëm E.; Tannu, Arman; Dyakov, Alexander A.; Matveeva, Anastasia D.; Freidzon, Alexandra Ya.; Odinokov, Alexey V.; Bagaturyants, Alexander A.

    2017-06-01

    The crystalline materials with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are critically important for several technological applications, including nanophotonic and second harmonic generation devices. Urea is often considered to be a standard NLO material, due to the combination of non-centrosymmetric crystal packing and capacity for intramolecular charge transfer. Various approaches to crystal engineering of non-centrosymmetric molecular materials were reported in the literature. Here we propose using global lattice energy minimization to predict the crystal packing from the first principles. We developed a methodology that includes the following: (1) parameter derivation for polarizable force field AMOEBA; (2) local minimizations of crystal structures with these parameters, combined with the evolutionary algorithm for a global minimum search, implemented in program USPEX; (3) filtering out duplicate polymorphs produced; (4) reoptimization and final ranking based on density functional theory (DFT) with many-body dispersion (MBD) correction; and (5) prediction of the second-order susceptibility tensor by finite field approach. This methodology was applied to predict virtual urea polymorphs. After filtering based on packing similarity, only two distinct packing modes were predicted: one experimental and one hypothetical. DFT + MBD ranking established non-centrosymmetric crystal packing as the global minimum, in agreement with the experiment. Finite field approach was used to predict nonlinear susceptibility, and H-bonding was found to account for a 2.5-fold increase in molecular hyperpolarizability to the bulk value.

  2. An isogeometric Reissner-Mindlin shell element for dynamic analysis considering geometric and material nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Paul; Dornisch, Wolfgang; Klinkel, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The present approach deals with the dynamical analysis of thin structures using an isogeometric Reissner-Mindlin shell formulation. Here, a consistent and a lumped mass matrix are employed for the implicit time integration method. The formulation allows for large displacements and finite rotations. The Rodrigues formula, which incorporates the axial vector is used for the rotational description. It necessitates an interpolation of the director vector in the current configuration. Two concept for the interpolation of the director vector are presented. They are denoted as continuous interpolation method and discrete interpolation method. The shell formulation is based on the assumption of zero stress in thickness direction. In the present formulation an interface to 3D nonlinear material laws is used. It leads to an iterative procedure at each integration point. Here, a J2 plasticity material law is implemented. The suitability of the developed shell formulation for natural frequency analysis is demonstrated in numerical examples. Transient problems undergoing large deformations in combination with nonlinear material behavior are analyzed. The effectiveness, robustness and superior accuracy of the two interpolation methods of the shell director vector are investigated and are compared to numerical reference solutions.

  3. L-Histidinium thiocyanurate: Experimental and theoretical studies of a new nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Gonçalves, Mauro A.; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Paixão, José A.

    2017-02-01

    A new organic compound, L-histidinium thiocyanurate thiocyanuric acid dihydrate, has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and nonlinear optical measurements. The efficiency of the second-harmonic generation was evaluated with the Kurtz and Perry powder method at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. By using the experimental structure, the molecular first hyperpolarizability tensor was determined with Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The second-order susceptibility tensor of the crystal was evaluated using the oriented gas model with the Lorenz-Lorentz and the Wortmann-Bishop local-field corrections.

  4. Effects of transverse profile of pump field on second harmonic generation in periodic nonlinear materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJin-Yue; ZhangHan-Zhuang; YangJian-Bing

    2003-01-01

    We report on a theoreticalanalysis of the effects of a converging pump field of Gaussian transverse profile on second harmonic generation in a periodic nonlinear material with quasi-phase-matching. The outputs of the centre intensity and the intensity flux for second harmonic generation are derived by simulation, based on the parameters of quasi-phase-mismatch, the waist and focus positions of the input pump beam. The results show that when the transverse profile of the pump field is taken into account, the quasi-phase-match value and focus position of input beam for maximal second harmonic generation flollow new criteria.

  5. Effects of transverse profile of pump field on second harmonic generation in periodic nonlinear materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉壮; 杨建冰; 高锦岳

    2003-01-01

    We report on a theoretical analysis of the effects of a converging pump field of Gaussian transverse profile on second harmonic generation in a periodic nonlinear material with quasi-phase-matching. The outputs of the centre intensity and the intensity flux for second harmonic generation are derived by simulation, based on the parameters of quasi-phase-mismatch, the waist and focus positions of the input pump beam. The results show that when the transverse profile of the pump field is taken into account, the quasi-phase-match value and focus position of input beam for maximal second harmonic generation follow new criteria.

  6. Experimental parameter estimation method for nonlinear viscoelastic composite material models: an application on arterial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunbuloglu, Emin; Bozdag, Ergun; Toprak, Tuncer; Islak, Civan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at setting a method of experimental parameter estimation for large-deforming nonlinear viscoelastic continuous fibre-reinforced composite material model. Specifically, arterial tissue was investigated during experimental research and parameter estimation studies, due to medical, scientific and socio-economic importance of soft tissue research. Using analytical formulations for specimens under combined inflation/extension/torsion on thick-walled cylindrical tubes, in vitro experiments were carried out with fresh sheep arterial segments, and parameter estimation procedures were carried out on experimental data. Model restrictions were pointed out using outcomes from parameter estimation. Needs for further studies that can be developed are discussed.

  7. An all-optical matrix multiplication scheme with non-linear material based switching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archan Kumar Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a potential candidate in information, data, and image processing. In all-optical data and information processing, optics has been used as information carrying signal because of its inherent advantages of parallelism. Several optical methods are proposed in support of the above processing. In many algebraic,arithmetic, and image processing schemes fundamental logic and memory operations are conducted exploring all-optical devices. In this communication we report an all-optical matrix multiplication operation with non-linear material based switching circuit.

  8. Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.

  9. Strength of anisotropy in a granular material: Linear versus nonlinear contact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ragione, Luigi; Gammariello, Marica; Recchia, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we deal with anisotropy in an idealized granular material made of a collection of frictional, elastic, contacting particles. We present a theoretical analysis for an aggregate of particles isotropically compressed and then sheared, in which two possible contacts laws between particles are considered: a linear contact law, where the contact stiffness is constant; and a nonlinear contact law, where the contact stiffness depends on the overlapping between particles. In the former case the anisotropy observed in the aggregate is associated with particle arrangement. In fact, although the aggregate is initially characterized by an isotropic network of contacts, during the loading, an anisotropic texture develops, which is measured by a fabric tensor. With a nonlinear contact law it is possible to develop anisotropy because contacting stiffnesses are different, depending on the orientation of the contact vectors with respect to the axis of the applied deformation. We find that before the peak load is reached, an aggregate made of particles with a linear contact law develops a much smaller anisotropy compared with that of an aggregate with a nonlinear law.

  10. Nonlinear waves in lattice materials: Adaptively augmented directivity and functionality enhancement by modal mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, R.; Gonella, S.

    2017-02-01

    The motive of this work is to understand the complex spatial characteristics of finite-amplitude elastic wave propagation in periodic structures and leverage the unique opportunities offered by nonlinearity to activate complementary functionalities and design adaptive spatial wave manipulators. The underlying assumption is that the magnitude of wave propagation is small with respect to the length scale of the structure under consideration, albeit large enough to elicit the effects of finite deformation. We demonstrate that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity and modal complexity involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary wave packets that feature multiple characteristics, one of which conforms to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. This provides an opportunity to engineer desired wave characteristics through a geometric and topological design of the unit cell, and results in the ability to activate complementary functionalities, typical of high frequency regimes, while operating at low frequencies of excitation - an effect seldom observed in linear periodic structures. The ability to design adaptive switches is demonstrated here using lattice configurations whose response is characterized by geometric and/or material nonlinearities.

  11. Two-photon Absorption and Nonlinear Optical Properties of A New Organic Dye DEASPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyong ZHOU; Xiaomei WANG; Dong WANG; Chun WANG; Xian ZHAO; Zongshu SHAO; Minhua JIANG

    2001-01-01

    A new organic dye trans-4- [p-(N,N-diethylamino) styryl ]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (abbreviatedas DEASPI thereafter) with large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section and excellent upconverted lasing properties was synthesized. The melting point and decompound point were measured to be 230℃ and 264.7℃ respectively. The molecular TPA cross section was meaThe linear and nonlinear optical properties of this dye were systematically studied. The highest net upconversion efficiency from the absorbed pump energy to the output upconverted lasing energy is as high as 18.6% at the pump energy of 2.17 mJ from a mode-locked Nd:YAG ps laser.The nonlinear transmittance at the wavelengths from 720 to 1100 nm was measured. The dye solution also shows a clear optical power limiting effect.

  12. Growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical single crystal 2,7-dihydroxy naphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhasivam, S.; Rajesh, N. P.

    2017-08-01

    The organic nonlinear optical crystals of 2,7-dihydroxy naphthalene (2,7-DN) were grown by slow evaporation method using acetone as a solvent. Optically transparent single crystal with sizes up to 15 × 7 × 4 mm3 were grown. Non-centrosymmetry has been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and functional group of 2,7-DN were studied by Raman scattering and FTIR spectral analysis. The optical transmittance was characterized and to be 28%. The melting point of 2,7-DN is 465 K. 2,7-DN found exhibit low dielectric constant of 20-22 in the frequency range of 10 Hz-10 MHz at room temperature. The nonlinear optical and phase matching properties were characterized by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency test.

  13. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrade, Brian; Esler, James

    2011-10-18

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  14. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Rhonda F.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-01-27

    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  15. Fluorooxoborates: Beryllium-Free Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials without Layered Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingbing; Shi, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhihua; Zhang, Fangfang; Pan, Shilie

    2017-03-27

    Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical (DUV NLO) crystals are the key materials to extend the output range of solid-state lasers to below 200 nm. The only practical material KBe2 BO3 F2 suffers high toxicity through beryllium and strong layered growth. Herein, we propose a beryllium-free material design and synthesis strategy for DUV NLO materials. Introducing the (BO3 F)(4-) , (BO2 F2 )(3-) , and (BOF3 )(2-) groups in borates could break through the fixed 3D B-O network that would produce a larger birefringence without layering and simultaneously keep a short cutoff edge down to DUV. The theoretical and experimental studies on a series of fluorooxoborates confirm this strategy. Li2 B6 O9 F2 is identified as a DUV NLO material with a large second harmonic generation efficiency (0.9×KDP) and a large predicted birefringence (0.07) without layering. This study provides a feasible way to break down the DUV wall for NLO materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.

    1991-12-31

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  17. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials: from self-organization to nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Figus, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The advantage of inorganic–organic hybrids is that they can combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in one material; this provides the opportunity to invent new materials with a large spectrum properties. The synthesis of hybrid materials through the precise structure control from the molecular to the macroscopic level is a key point for a variety of applications. 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is one of the most common precursors for the prepar...

  18. Non-linear, visual-rich supplemental material designed for an introductory course in veterinary anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Doris H

    2003-01-01

    A possible reason for superficial learning in an introductory anesthesia course was considered to be a lack of visual reinforcement at the time of examination preparation. Students had limited access to live animal laboratories and clinical cases during the course, reducing their ability to depend on experiential learning. In an attempt to improve student learning, simple presentation software was used to develop a supplemental CD. The design involved multiple PowerPoint presentations that incorporated text, pictures, videos, and self-assessments. Non-linear exploration of the topics covered was made possible by extensive use of hyperlinks within and between presentations, moving the student to definitions, background material, videos, advanced details, and previously covered information. Comments received from students on a prototype were positive overall, and improvements were made related to their feedback. Other supplemental materials and lecture presentations can easily incorporate the techniques described here.

  19. Performance analysis of flow lines with non-linear flow of material

    CERN Document Server

    Helber, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Flow line design is one of the major tasks in production management. The decision to install a set of machines and buffers is often highly irreversible. It determines both cost and revenue to a large extent. In order to assess the economic impact of any possible flow line design, production rates and inventory levels have to be estimated. These performance measures depend on the allocation of buffers whenever the flow of material is occasionally disrupted, for example due to machine failures or quality problems. The book describes analytical methods that can be used to evaluate flow lines much faster than with simulation techniques. Based on these fast analytical techniques, it is possible to determine a flow line design that maximizes the net present value of the flow line investment. The flow of material through the line may be non-linear, for example due to assembly operations or quality inspections.

  20. Solution Growth of a Novel Nonlinear Optical Material: L-Histidine Tetrafluoroborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Choi, J.; Wang, W. S.; Bhat, K.; Lal, R. B.; Shields, Angela D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Single crystals of L-Histidine tetrafluoroborate (L-HFB), a semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) material have been successfully grown by the temperature lowering and evaporation methods in our laboratory. Solubility curves of L-HFB have been determined in different solvents, such as water, ethanol and acetone. The solubility of L-HFB is very low in acetone, and ethanol, therefore, it is not feasible to grow L-HFB single crystals using these solvents. Good quality single crystals of a novel nonlinear optical material L-HFB have been grown from aqueous solution. Effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-HFB crystals were studied. The advantages and disadvantage of both the evaporation and the temperature lowering techniques are compared. The single crystals in size 20 x 20 x 10 cubic mm were grown with deionized water as solvent in two weeks with an approximate growth rate of 1.4mm/day. The transmission range for these crystals has been found to be from 250 nm to 1500 nm.

  1. Dynamic acousto-elastic test using continuous probe wave and transient vibration to investigate material nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J N; Vu, Q A; Lott, M; Payá, J; Garnier, V; Payan, C

    2016-07-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of the dynamic acousto-elastic effect of a continuous high frequency wave for investigating the material nonlinearity upon transient vibration. The approach is demonstrated on a concrete sample measuring 15×15×60cm(3). Two ultrasonic transducers (emitter and receiver) are placed at its middle span. A continuous high frequency wave of 500kHz propagates through the material and is modulated with a hammer blow. The position of the hammer blow on the sample is configured to promote the first bending mode of vibration. The use of a continuous wave allows discrete time extraction of the nonlinear behavior by a short-time Fourier transform approach, through the simultaneous comparison of a reference non-modulated signal and an impact-modulated signal. The hammer blow results in phase shifts and variations of signal amplitude between reference and perturbed signals, which are driven by the resonant frequency of the sample. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the relaxation mechanisms (modulus and attenuation recovery) is conducted to untangle the coupled fast and slow hysteretic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A nonlinear dynamical system approach for the yielding behaviour of a viscoplastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Teodor; Moyers-Gonzalez, Miguel; Sainudiin, Raazesh

    2017-02-15

    A nonlinear dynamical system model that approximates a microscopic Gibbs field model for the yielding of a viscoplastic material subjected to varying external stresses recently reported in R. Sainudiin, M. Moyers-Gonzalez and T. Burghelea, Soft Matter, 2015, 11(27), 5531-5545 is presented. The predictions of the model are in fair agreement with microscopic simulations and are in very good agreement with the micro-structural semi-empirical model reported in A. M. V. Putz and T. I. Burghelea, Rheol. Acta, 2009, 48, 673-689. With only two internal parameters, the nonlinear dynamical system model captures several key features of the solid-fluid transition observed in experiments: the effect of the interactions between microscopic constituents on the yield point, the abruptness of solid-fluid transition and the emergence of a hysteresis of the micro-structural states upon increasing/decreasing external forces. The scaling behaviour of the magnitude of the hysteresis with the degree of the steadiness of the flow is consistent with previous experimental observations. Finally, the practical usefulness of the approach is demonstrated by fitting a rheological data set measured with an elasto-viscoplastic material.

  3. Simulations of heart valves by thin shells with non-linear material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Hedayat, Mohammadali

    2016-11-01

    The primary function of a heart valve is to allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart. Triangular thin-shell finite element formulation is implemented, which considers only translational degrees of freedom, in three-dimensional domain to simulate heart valves undergoing large deformations. The formulation is based on the nonlinear Kirchhoff thin-shell theory. The developed method is intensively validated against numerical and analytical benchmarks. This method is added to previously developed membrane method to obtain more realistic results since ignoring bending forces can results in unrealistic wrinkling of heart valves. A nonlinear Fung-type constitutive relation, based on experimentally measured biaxial loading tests, is used to model the material properties for response of the in-plane motion in heart valves. Furthermore, the experimentally measured liner constitutive relation is used to model the material properties to capture the flexural motion of heart valves. The Fluid structure interaction solver adopts a strongly coupled partitioned approach that is stabilized with under-relaxation and the Aitken acceleration technique. This work was supported by American Heart Association (AHA) Grant 13SDG17220022 and the Center of Computational Research (CCR) of University at Buffalo.

  4. Nonlinear optical properties of Pb-La metal-organic chelidamic acid frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min; Chen, Ruiqi; Yang, Sanjun; Liu, Qiming

    2017-04-01

    Chelidamic acid, acting as ligands, reacted with metal cation of lead and lanthanum. Both of them were dissolved in water and resulted in novel MOFs complexes by using solvothermal synthesis method. The complexes were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectrophotometer and Z-scan measurements to investigate their morphology and optical properties. The Z-scan measurements indicated that the obtained lead metal-organic chelidamic acid frameworks showed 6.09 × 10-12 esu of χ(3)/SUP>. The special structure and properties, especially the empty f-electron orbital of the rare earth elements, were used to enhance optical nonlinearity. Using one-step solvothermal synthesis method, we added lanthanum into the lead-chelidamic acid metal organic complexes. By changing the spatial configuration of the ligand in the self-assembly process, novel structural complex metals of the lead-lanthanum metal-organic chelidamic acid frameworks have been successfully synthetized, and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of χ(3)/SUP>was enhanced to be 1.13 × 10-11 esu.

  5. Study on the nonlinear electromagnetic acoustic resonancee method for th evaluation of hidden damage in a metallic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun; Park, Choon Su; Seo, Dae Cheol [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Wan [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunngkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Kyung Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, much attention has been paid to nonlinear ultrasonic technology as a potential tool to assess hidden damages that cannot be detected by conventional ultrasonic testing. One nonlinear ultrasonic technique is measurement of the resonance frequency shift, which is based on the hysteresis of the material elasticity. Sophisticated measurement of resonance frequency is required, because the change in resonance frequency is usually quite small. In this investigation, the nonlinear electromagnetic acoustic resonance (NEMAR) method was employed. The NEMAR method uses noncontact electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in order to minimize the effect of the transducer on the frequency response of the object. Aluminum plate specimens that underwent three point bending fatigue were tested witha shear wave EMAT. The hysteretic nonlinear parameter α, a key indicator of damage, was calculated from the resonance frequency shift at several levels of input voltage. The hysteretic nonlinear parameter of a damaged sample was compared to that of an intact one, showing a difference in the values.

  6. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Based on a Self-Organizing Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hong-Gui; Zhang, Lu; Hou, Ying; Qiao, Jun-Fei

    2016-02-01

    A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) scheme is developed in this paper based on a self-organizing recurrent radial basis function (SR-RBF) neural network, whose structure and parameters are adjusted concurrently in the training process. The proposed SR-RBF neural network is represented in a general nonlinear form for predicting the future dynamic behaviors of nonlinear systems. To improve the modeling accuracy, a spiking-based growing and pruning algorithm and an adaptive learning algorithm are developed to tune the structure and parameters of the SR-RBF neural network, respectively. Meanwhile, for the control problem, an improved gradient method is utilized for the solution of the optimization problem in NMPC. The stability of the resulting control system is proved based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the proposed SR-RBF neural network-based NMPC (SR-RBF-NMPC) is used to control the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Comparisons with other existing methods demonstrate that the SR-RBF-NMPC can achieve a considerably better model fitting for WWTP and a better control performance for DO concentration.

  7. The preparation of the nonlinear optical quantum dots in organic polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guochang; Yu, Dabin; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhao, Minghui; Zhao, Dapeng; Pan, Maosen

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) is some material which particle size is between 1 to 10 nanometers. Because of the unique nonlinear optical properties, QDs has been widely applied in optical, electrical, magnetic, biological fields etc. Though the size of the nanoscale is bringing the QDs a series of characteristic advantages, it has also brought some problems for further application, such as QDs are easily degenerative according to their small size. However, The preparation of quantum dots with special polymer composite film can avoid this phenomenon, This means that the composite is usually with inert matrix can be realized for further application.

  8. Non-linear states of a positive or negative refraction index material in a cavity with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártin, D. A.; Hoyuelos, M.

    2010-06-01

    We study a system composed by a cavity with plane mirrors containing a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. The aim of the work is to present a general picture of possible non-linear states in terms of the relevant parameters of the system. The parameters are the ones that appear in a reduced description that has the form of the Lugiato-Lefever equation. This equation is obtained from two coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations for the electric and magnetic field amplitudes.

  9. Semiconductor Metal-Organic Frameworks: Future Low-Bandgap Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2017-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with low density, high porosity, and easy tunability of functionality and structural properties, represent potential candidates for use as semiconductor materials. The rapid development of the semiconductor industry and the continuous miniaturization of feature sizes of integrated circuits toward the nanometer (nm) scale require novel semiconductor materials instead of traditional materials like silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide etc. MOFs with advantageous properties of both the inorganic and the organic components promise to serve as the next generation of semiconductor materials for the microelectronics industry with the potential to be extremely stable, cheap, and mechanically flexible. Here, a perspective of recent research is provided, regarding the semiconducting properties of MOFs, bandgap studies, and their potential in microelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Theoretical Investigation of Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Transition Metal Hybrid Azobenzene Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cai-Ping; LIU Ping; WU Ke-Chen

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report a theoretical exploration of the responses of organic azo-benzene dendrimers. The polarizabilities, the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of the azobenzene monomers (GO), and the first, second and third generation (G1, G2 and G3, respectively) are investigated by semi-empirical methods. The calculated results show that the nonlinear optical (NLO)properties of these organic dendrimers are mainly determined by the azobenzene chromospheres.Additionally, the values of β and γ increase almost in proportion to the number of chromophores. On the other hand, two types of transition metal hybrid azobenzene dendrimers (core-hybrid and branch-end hybrid according to the sites combined with transition metals) are simulated and discussed in detail in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The calculated results reveal that the NLO responses of these metal dendrimers distinctly varied as a result of altering the charge transfer transition scale and the excitation energies.

  11. Microscopic mechanism for self-organized quasiperiodicity in random networks of nonlinear oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burioni, Raffaella; di Santo, Serena; di Volo, Matteo; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Self-organized quasiperiodicity is one of the most puzzling dynamical phases observed in systems of nonlinear coupled oscillators. The single dynamical units are not locked to the periodic mean field they produce, but they still feature a coherent behavior, through an unexplained complex form of correlation. We consider a class of leaky integrate-and-fire oscillators on random sparse and massive networks with dynamical synapses, featuring self-organized quasiperiodicity, and we show how complex collective oscillations arise from constructive interference of microscopic dynamics. In particular, we find a simple quantitative relationship between two relevant microscopic dynamical time scales and the macroscopic time scale of the global signal. We show that the proposed relation is a general property of collective oscillations, common to all the partially synchronous dynamical phases analyzed. We argue that an analogous mechanism could be at the origin of similar network dynamics.

  12. Manifold Learning with Self-Organizing Mapping for Feature Extraction of Nonlinear Faults in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.

  13. Near-infrared organic materials and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlighting emerging applications of near-infrared (NIR) organic materials that are currently receiving great attention due to their potential use in optical communications, biomedicine, and camouflage materials, this cutting-edge book reviews important recent advances in an accessible style suitable for researchers and graduates in the field on organic/polymer solar cells, optical communications, and advanced optoelectronics. A beacon in the field literature, this comprehensive work discusses several areas of research and development including thermal control and emission detectors in which

  14. Advances in Organic Near-Infrared Materials and Emerging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Qiao, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the field of research on organic near-infrared materials for potential applications in photonics, communications, energy, and biophotonics. This account mainly describes our research work on organic near-infrared materials; in particular, donor-acceptor small molecules, organometallics, and donor-acceptor polymers with the bandgaps less than 1.2 eV. The molecular designs, structure-property relationships, unique near-infrared absorption, emission and color/wavelength-changing properties, and some emerging applications are discussed.

  15. Supramolecular Soft Matter Applications in Materials and Organic Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The pivotal text that bridges the gap between fundamentals and applications of soft matter in organic electronics Covering an expanding and highly coveted subject area, Supramolecular Soft Matter enlists the services of leading researchers to help readers understand and manipulate the electronic properties of supramolecular soft materials for use in organic opto-electronic devices, such as photovoltaics and field effect transistors, some of the most desired materials for energy conservation. Rather than offering a compilation of current trends in supramolecular soft matter, this book bridges

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials processing and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Mennig, Martin; Nonninger, Ralph; Oliveira, Peter William de; Schirra, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid materials as inorganic-organic nanostructured composites require tailored surface chemistry in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For this reason, nanoparticles with organic functions have been synthesized, first, to provide the desired æ-potential at a given pH value, second, to avoid irreversible agglomeration due to the spacing effect, and third, to provide the appropriate surface chemistry. I could be shown that using this approach, it is...

  17. Memory devices based on organic electric bistable materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qi; BAI Hua; SHI GaoQuan

    2007-01-01

    Organic/metallic composites have demonstrated electrical bistability, as well as memory effects. These advanced materials have shown potential applications in digital information storage because of their good stability, flexibility and fast response speed. The electric bistability phenomenon can be explained by electric field-induced electron transfer/storage. This article reviews the recent progress of memory devices based on organic/metallic and polymeric composites with electric bistability.

  18. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  19. Synthesis and study of composite organic silica sorption materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nikolaevna Shipulya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of the promising areas of applied chemistry is research and development of composite absorption materials used as sorbents with a wide range of action, as well as media for biologic preparations and drugs. We have performed research on the development of composite organic silica chitosan-silica based materials with certain composition and biochemical action. Silica was used as the main component, and chitosan - as bio-compatible polymer in the composition of the composite sorbent.

  20. The interaction of iodine with organic material in containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, J.C.; Ball, J.M.; Glown, G.A.; Portmann, R.; Sanipelli, G.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic containment materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. A research program has been designed to determine the impact of organic impurities on iodine volatility under accident conditions. The program consists of experimental, literature and modelling studies on the radiolysis or organic compounds in the aqueous phase, thermal and radiolytic formation and decomposition of organic iodides, dissolution of organic solvents from various painted surfaces into the aqueous phase, and iodine deposition on painted surfaces. The experimental studies consist of bench-scale `separate effects` tests as well as intermediate-scale `integrated effects` in the Radioiodine Test facility. The studies have shown that organic impurities will be found in containment water, arising from the dissolution of organic compounds from various surface paints and that these compounds can potentially have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. The main impact of surface paints will occur through aqueous-phase reactions of the organic compounds that they release to the aqueous phase. Under the radiation conditions expected during an accident, these compounds will react to reduce the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, consequently increasing the formation of I{sub 2} from I{sup -} that is present in the sump. It appears that the rates of these processes may be controlled by the dissolution kinetics of the organic compounds from the surface coatings. Moreover, the organic compounds may also react thermally and radiolytically with I{sub 2} to form organic iodides in the aqueous phase. Our studies have shown that the formation of organic iodides from soluble organics such as ketones, alcohols and phenols may have more impact on the total iodine volatility than the formation of CH{sub 3}I. (author) 13 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs.

  1. Nonlinearities and transit times in soil organic matter models: new developments in the SoilR package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    SoilR is an R package for implementing diverse models representing soil organic matter dynamics. In previous releases of this package, we presented the implementation of linear first-order models with any number of pools as well as radiocarbon dynamics. We present here new improvements of the package regarding the possibility to implement models with nonlinear interactions among state variables and the possibility to calculate ages and transit times for nonlinear models with time dependencies. We show here examples on how to implement model structures with Michaelis-Menten terms for explicit microbial growth and resource use efficiency, and Langmuir isotherms for representing adsorption of organic matter to mineral surfaces. These nonlinear terms can be implemented for any number of organic matter pools, microbial functional groups, or mineralogy, depending on user's requirements. Through a simple example, we also show how transit times of organic matter in soils are controlled by the time-dependencies of the input terms.

  2. The rise of organic electrode materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Tyler B; McAllister, Bryony T; Li, Peng-Fei; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-11-07

    Organic electrode materials are very attractive for electrochemical energy storage devices because they can be flexible, lightweight, low cost, benign to the environment, and used in a variety of device architectures. They are not mere alternatives to more traditional energy storage materials, rather, they have the potential to lead to disruptive technologies. Although organic electrode materials for energy storage have progressed in recent years, there are still significant challenges to overcome before reaching large-scale commercialization. This review provides an overview of energy storage systems as a whole, the metrics that are used to quantify the performance of electrodes, recent strategies that have been investigated to overcome the challenges associated with organic electrode materials, and the use of computational chemistry to design and study new materials and their properties. Design strategies are examined to overcome issues with capacity/capacitance, device voltage, rate capability, and cycling stability in order to guide future work in the area. The use of low cost materials is highlighted as a direction towards commercial realization.

  3. Dimerization of merocyanine dyes. Structural and energetic characterization of dipolar dye aggregates and implications for nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würthner, Frank; Yao, Sheng; Debaerdemaeker, Tony; Wortmann, Rüdiger

    2002-08-14

    Aggregation of polar merocyanine dyes has been identified as an important problem in the fabrication of organic materials for photonic applications. In this work, a series of merocyanine dyes is synthesized, and their aggregation is investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques to reveal structure-property relationships. These studies provide clear evidence for the formation of centrosymmetric dimers for all investigated merocyanines in concentrated solution and in the solid state. The thermodynamics of dimerization in liquid solution is studied by concentration-dependent permittivity measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrooptical absorption experiments. A centrosymmetric dimer structure with antiparallel ordering of the dipole moments is observed in solution by 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as in the solid state by X-ray crystallography and interpreted in terms of dipolar and pi-pi interactions. The optical properties of the dimer aggregates are satisfactorily explained by an excitonic coupling model. The effect of an external electric field on the dimerization equilibrium is considered and quantitatively determined by electrooptical absorption measurements. Implications of the observed findings on the design of nonlinear optical and photorefractive materials are discussed.

  4. Computational Study of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Single Molecules and Clusters of Organic Electro-Optic Chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Kerry

    Organic electro-optic (OEO) materials integrated into silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) devices afford significant improvements in size, weight, power, and bandwidth (SWAP) performance of integrated electronic/photonic systems critical for current and next generation telecommunication, computer, sensor, transportation, and defense technologies. Improvement in molecular first hyperpolarizability, and in turn electro-optic activity, is crucial to further improvement in the performance of SOH devices. The timely preparation of new chromophores with improved molecular first hyperpolarizability requires theoretical guidance; however, common density functional theory (DFT) methods often perform poorly for optical properties in systems with substantial intramolecular charge transfer character. The first part of this dissertation describes the careful evaluation of popular long-range correction (LC) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) density functional theory (DFT) for definition of structure/function relationships crucial for the optimization of molecular first hyperpolarizability, beta. In particular, a benchmark set of well-characterized OEO chromophores is used to compare calculated results with the corresponding experimentally measured linear and nonlinear optical properties; respectively, the wavelength of the peak one-photon absorption energy, lambdamax, and beta. A goal of this work is to systematically determine the amount of exact exchange in LC/RSH-DFT methods required for accurately computing these properties for a variety OEO chromophores. High-level electron correlation (post-Hartree-Fock) methods are also investigated and compared with DFT. Included are results for the computation of beta using second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and the double-hybrid method, B2PLYP. The second part of this work transitions from single-molecule studies to computing bulk electronic and nonlinear optical properties of molecular crystals and isotropic ensembles of a

  5. Perturbations of flows of incompressible nonlinearly viscous and viscoplastic fluids caused by variations in material functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievskii, D. V.

    2007-06-01

    Material functions are necessary element of the constitutive relations determining any model of continuum. These functions can be defined as a collection of objects from which the operator of constitutive relations can be reconstructed completely. The material functions are found in test experiments and show the differences between a given medium and other media in the framework of the same model [1]. The "test experiment theory" is an important part of modern experimental mechanics. Just as in any experiment, from determining the viscosity coefficient by using the rotational viscosimeters to constructing the yield surface by using machines combined loading, the material functions are determined with an unavoidable error. For example, experimenters know that, in experiments with arbitrary accuracy, the moduli of elasticity can only be measured with an unimprovable tolerance of about 7%. Starting already from [2], the investigators' attention has been repeatedly drawn to the fact that it is necessary to take into account this tolerance in determining the material constants, functions, and functionals in problems of mechanics and especially in analyzing the stability of deformation processes. Mathematically, this means that problems of stability under perturbations of the initial data, external constantly acting forces, domain boundaries, etc. should be supplemented with the assumption that the material functions have unknown perturbations of a certain class [3]. The variations of material functions in the framework of the linearized stability theory were considered in [2, 4, 5]. In what follows, we study isotropic tensor functions in the most general case of scalar and tensor nonlinearity. These functions are assigned the meaning of constitutive relations between the stress and strain rate tensors in continuum. These constitutive relations contain scalar material functions of invariants on which, as follows from the above, some variations proportional to a small

  6. Efficient split field FDTD analysis of third-order nonlinear materials in two-dimensionally periodic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, Jorge; Bleda, Sergio; Bej, Subhajit; Tervo, Jani; Navarro-Fuster, Víctor; Fenoll, Sandra; Martínez-Gaurdiola, Francisco J.; Neipp, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    In this work the split-field finite-difference time-domain method (SF-FDTD) has been extended for the analysis of two-dimensionally periodic structures with third-order nonlinear media. The accuracy of the method is verified by comparisons with the nonlinear Fourier Modal Method (FMM). Once the formalism has been validated, examples of one- and two-dimensional nonlinear gratings are analysed. Regarding the 2D case, the shifting in resonant waveguides is corroborated. Here, not only the scalar Kerr effect is considered, the tensorial nature of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is also included. The consideration of nonlinear materials in this kind of devices permits to design tunable devices such as variable band filters. However, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is usually small and high intensities are needed in order to trigger the nonlinear effect. Here, a one-dimensional CBG is analysed in both linear and nonlinear regime and the shifting of the resonance peaks in both TE and TM are achieved numerically. The application of a numerical method based on the finite- difference time-domain method permits to analyse this issue from the time domain, thus bistability curves are also computed by means of the numerical method. These curves show how the nonlinear effect modifies the properties of the structure as a function of variable input pump field. When taking the nonlinear behaviour into account, the estimation of the electric field components becomes more challenging. In this paper, we present a set of acceleration strategies based on parallel software and hardware solutions.

  7. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS-. The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  8. (Dis)organizing through imbrications of human and material agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    and material agencies. However there is a lack of insight into how human and material agencies are imbricated during the emergence of (dis)order, and how different imbrications lead to (dis)order. This paper addresses this gap by presenting a content analysis of a book reporting the Battle of Stalingrad during...... to organize different activities within one and the same organizational context, which led to (dis)order. Whether order or disorder emerged was dependent on how human and material agencies were imbricated within the conduct of particular activities, and how they related to internal or external influencing...

  9. One-dimensional Nanostructured Materials From Organic Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. F. Cai

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction One-dimensional nanostructured materials, such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanotubes and nanocables have been attracting a great research interest in the last decade due to their superior electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties, and many methods have been explored to synthesis of the materials, e.g., arc discharge, laser ablation, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, sol-gel method, template method and so on. In this work, we present a novel and simple method to one-dimensional nanostructured materials by pyrolysis of organic precursor.

  10. Numerical estimation of 3D mechanical forces exerted by cells on non-linear materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, J; Jorge-Peñas, A; Muñoz-Barrutia, A; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C; de Juan-Pardo, E; García-Aznar, J M

    2013-01-04

    The exchange of physical forces in both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play a significant role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell migration, cancer metastasis, inflammation and wound healing. Therefore, great interest exists in accurately quantifying the forces that cells exert on their substrate during migration. Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is the most widely used method for measuring cell traction forces. Several mathematical techniques have been developed to estimate forces from TFM experiments. However, certain simplifications are commonly assumed, such as linear elasticity of the materials and/or free geometries, which in some cases may lead to inaccurate results. Here, cellular forces are numerically estimated by solving a minimization problem that combines multiple non-linear FEM solutions. Our simulations, free from constraints on the geometrical and the mechanical conditions, show that forces are predicted with higher accuracy than when using the standard approaches.

  11. Graphene Oxides as Tunable Broadband Nonlinear Optical Materials for Femtosecond Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Neo, Shu Ting; Venkatesan, T; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2012-03-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films on glass and plastic substrates were found to display interesting broadband nonlinear optical properties. We have investigated their optical limiting activity for femtosecond laser pulses at 800 and 400 nm, which could be tuned by controlling the extent of reduction. The as-prepared GO films were found to exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting behaviors, which were significantly enhanced upon partial reduction by using laser irradiation or chemical reduction methods. The laser-induced reduction of GO resulted in enhancement of effective two-photon absorption coefficient at 400 nm by up to ∼19 times and enhancement of effective two- and three-photon absorption coefficients at 800 nm by ∼12 and ∼14.5 times, respectively. The optical limiting thresholds of partially reduced GO films are much lower than those of various previously reported materials. Highly reduced GO films prepared by using the chemical method displayed strong saturable absorption behavior.

  12. New approaches for the fabrication of photonic structures of nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvajal, J.J., E-mail: joanjosep.carvajal@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pena, A.; Kumar, R.; Pujol, M.C.; Mateos, X.; Aguilo, M. [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Diaz, F., E-mail: f.diaz@urv.ca [Fisica i Cristal lografia de Materials i Nanomaterials (FiCMA-FiCNA), Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), Campus Sescelades, Marcel li Domingo, s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Vazquez de Aldana, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Moreno, P.; Roso, L. [Servicio Laser, Univ. Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Trifonov, T.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Kral, Z.; Ferre-Borrull, J.; Pallares, J.; Marsal, L.F. [Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Univ. Rovira i Virgili (URV), E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Di Finizio, S.; Macovez, R. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We revisited two different strategies to fabricate 1D photonic crystals of nonlinear optical dielectric materials based on ultrafast laser ablation of the surface of an RbTiOPO{sub 4} crystal, and selective etching of ferroelectric domains of the surface of a periodically poled LiNbO{sub 4} crystal. We evaluated their behaviour as Bragg diffraction gratings. We also presented the recent advances we developed in a new procedure of fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic crystals of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) grown on the surface of a KTP substrate by liquid phase epitaxial means within the pores of a silicon macroporous template. Optical, structural, morphological, and compositional characterization for the photonic crystals produced through this technique are presented.

  13. Growth and characterization of proficient second order nonlinear optical material: L-asparaginium picrate (LASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Senthil, A.; Rajasekar, S. Abraham

    2016-09-01

    Good optical quality, potential second order nonlinear optical crystal L-asparaginium picrate (LASP) was grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width of LASP specimen was studied. The LASP crystal belongs to monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. UV-Visible-NIR transmittance spectrum determines the optical band gap of LASP. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of LASP sample was investigated at different temperatures. The piezoelectric nature, Photoconductive nature and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for various particle sizes) of the material were also studied. Birefringence and ocular (optical) homogeneity of the crystal were assessed using modified channel spectrum method.

  14. Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; McSween, H. Y.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Fonte, S.; Formisano, M.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; McFadden, L. A.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-02-01

    Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is characteristic of aliphatic organic matter and is mainly localized on a broad region of ~1000 square kilometers close to the ~50-kilometer Ernutet crater. The combined presence on Ceres of ammonia-bearing hydrated minerals, water ice, carbonates, salts, and organic material indicates a very complex chemical environment, suggesting favorable environments to prebiotic chemistry.

  15. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  16. Metal-organic Frameworks as A Tunable Platform for Designing Functional Molecular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Liu, Demin

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as coordination polymers, represent an interesting class of crystalline molecular materials that are synthesized by combining metal-connecting points and bridging ligands. The modular nature of and mild conditions for MOF synthesis have permitted the rational structural design of numerous MOFs and the incorporation of various functionalities via constituent building blocks. The resulting designer MOFs have shown promise for applications in a number of areas, including gas storage/separation, nonlinear optics/ferroelectricity, catalysis, energy conversion/storage, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, and drug delivery. The structure-property relationships of MOFs can also be readily established by taking advantage of the knowledge of their detailed atomic structures, which enables fine-tuning of their functionalities for desired applications. Through the combination of molecular synthesis and crystal engineering MOFs thus present an unprecedented opportunity for the rational and precise design of functional materials. PMID:23944646

  17. First Example of Nonlinear Optical Materials Based on Nanoconjugates of Sandwich Phthalocyanines with Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, David O; Yagodin, Alexey V; Mkhize, Nhlakanipho C; Sekhosana, Kutloano E; Martynov, Alexander G; Gorbunova, Yulia G; Tsivadze, Aslan Yu; Nyokong, Tebello

    2017-02-24

    We report original, selective, and efficient approaches to novel nonlinear optical (NLO) materials, namely homoleptic double- and triple-decker europium(III) complexes 2 and 3 with the A3 B-type phthalocyanine ligand (2,3-bis[2'-(2''-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexa-n-butoxyphthalocyanine 1) bearing two anchoring diethyleneglycol chains terminated with OH groups. Their covalently linked nanoconjugates with mercaptosuccinic acid-capped ternary CdSeTe/CdTeS/ZnSeS quantum dots are prepared in the presence of an ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide activating agent. Optical limiting (OL) properties of the obtained low-symmetry complexes and their conjugates with quantum dots (QDs) are measured for the first time by the open-aperture Z-scan technique (532 nm laser and pulse rate of 10 ns). For comparison, symmetrical double- and triple-decker Eu(III) octa-n-butoxyphthalocyaninates 5 and 6 and their mixtures with trioctylphosphine oxide-capped QDs are also synthesized and studied. It is revealed that both lowering of molecular symmetry and expansion of the π-electron system upon moving from double- to triple-decker complexes significantly improves the OL characteristics, making the low-symmetry triple-decker complex 3 the most efficient optical limiter in the studied family of sandwich complexes, affording 50 % lowering of light transmittance below 0.5 J cm(-2) input fluence. Conjugation (both covalent and noncovalent) with QDs affords further enhancement of the OL properties of both double- and triple-decker complexes. Altogether, the obtained results contribute to the development of novel nonlinear optical materials for future nanoelectronic and optical device applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology i

  19. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad;

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an exampl...

  20. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects on the structu...

  1. Delivery of Organic Material and Water through Asteroid Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Frantseva, Kateryna; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites, specifically carbonaceous chondrites, are frequently invoked as the primary source of Earth's water and organic materials, crucial ingredients for the formation of life. We have started developing a dynamical model of the delivery of their parent bodies, primitive low-albedo asteroids, f

  2. Delivery of Organic Material and Water through Asteroid Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Frantseva, Kateryna; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites, specifically carbonaceous chondrites, are frequently invoked as the primary source of Earth's water and organic materials, crucial ingredients for the formation of life. We have started developing a dynamical model of the delivery of their parent bodies, primitive low-albedo asteroids,

  3. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  4. Bistable organic materials in optoelectrical switches: Two-electrode devices vs. organic field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Sworakowski, Juliusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a short overview of research into properties of organic materials and structures that could be used in optoelectrical switches, i.e., switches in which changes in electrical properties are triggered by light of appropriate wavelengths. In particular, described are the structures acting by virtue of reversible photochemical reactions occurring in photochromic molecular materials.

  5. Study of novel nonlinear optical material based on Poly(aryl ether ketone) and its application in SHG imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Hui; Qin, Guangjiong; Gui, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhimao; Liu, Jialei

    2017-10-01

    Novel nonlinear optical polymer based on poly(aryl ether ketone) was designed and prepared. Such kind of materials showed excellent water solubility and thermal properties, its onset decomposition temperature can reach 314 °C; glass transition temperature can reach 170 °C. Though the nonlinear optical coefficients (d33) is not very large at 1310 nm, just about 13.9 pm/V; such kind of materials show us a low absorption spectral window at red and infrared light area (wavelength longer than 650 nm). Under the laser of 1310 nm, the morphology of the poled films can be detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) scanning microscopy.

  6. Synthesis of phthalocyanine derivatives as materials for organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ramos, Aura

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are used to convert sunlight into electricity by using thin films of organic semiconductors. OPVs have the potential to produce low cost, lightweight, flexible devices with an eased manufacturing process. This technology contains the potential to increase the use of clean, sustainable solar energy, helping manage the global energy and environmental crisis that results majorly from the constant use of fossil fuels as an energy source. The ability to modulate the physical properties of organic molecules by tuning their chemical structure is an advantage for OPVs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are highly pi-conjugated synthetic porphyrin analogs that have been explored as active layer components in OPVs due to their high extinction coefficients and hole mobilities. The Pc structure can be modified by the introduction of metals in the core and the incorporation of substituents into the periphery. These modifications tend to tune the solubility, photophysical properties and condensed phase organization of Pcs. The research work in this dissertation describes improved methods towards substituted Pc derivatives addressing: (1) the use of mass spectrometry techniques for Pcs characterization, (2) efforts to achieve materials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption, and (3) the potential of Pc as electron-acceptor materials. Herein, the synthesis of a series of asymmetric and symmetric metallated Pcs has been established, which resulted in interesting chemical, photophysical and electrochemical properties. The materials investigated in this thesis increase the potential of Pcs as organic semiconductors for OPVs.

  7. Charge-Transfer Interactions in Organic Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Yaw Jin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this review is three-fold. First, we provide an overview of a number of quantum-chemical methods that can abstract charge-transfer (CT information on the excited-state species of organic conjugated materials, which can then be exploited for the understanding and design of organic photodiodes and solar cells at the molecular level. We stress that the Composite-Molecule (CM model is useful for evaluating the electronic excited states and excitonic couplings of the organic molecules in the solid state. We start from a simple polyene dimer as an example to illustrate how interchain separation and chain size affect the intercahin interaction and the role of the charge transfer interaction in the excited state of the polyene dimers. With the basic knowledge from analysis of the polyene system, we then study more practical organic materials such as oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVn, oligothiophenes (OTn, and oligophenylenes (OPn. Finally, we apply this method to address the delocalization pathway (through-bond and/or through-space in the lowest excited state for cyclophanes by combining the charge-transfer contributions calculated on the cyclophanes and the corresponding hypothetical molecules with tethers removed. This review represents a step forward in the understanding of the nature of the charge-transfer interactions in the excited state of organic functional materials.

  8. Organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Yimeng; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-10-29

    The abundance of solar thermal energy and the widespread demands for waste heat recovery make thermoelectric generators (TEGs) very attractive in harvesting low-cost energy resources. Meanwhile, thermoelectric refrigeration is promising for local cooling and niche applications. In this context there is currently a growing interest in developing organic thermoelectric materials which are flexible, cost-effective, eco-friendly and potentially energy-efficient. In particular, the past several years have witnessed remarkable progress in organic thermoelectric materials and devices. In this review, thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers and small molecules are summarized, with recent progresses in materials, measurements and devices highlighted. Prospects and suggestions for future research efforts are also presented. The organic thermoelectric materials are emerging candidates for green energy conversion.

  9. The diffusivity-mobility ratio in heavily doped nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Pahari, S. [Administrative Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sarkar, R. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF-142, Salt Lake City, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ghosh, S. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Howrah 711 103 (India); Ghatak, K.P. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Achryya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)], E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.in

    2008-10-01

    We study the diffusivity-mobility ratio (DMR) in heavily doped nonlinear compounds forming band tails on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law and III-V, ternary and quaternary materials form a special case of our generalized analysis. The complex nature of the energy spectrum and creation of a new forbidden zone is the consequence of anisotropic energy band constants and the interaction of the impurity atoms in the tails with spin-orbit splitting of valence bands for the other compounds. Analytically, the presence of non-removable poles in the dispersion relation of the undoped material creates the complex energy spectrum for the corresponding heavily doped sample. The DMR for the heavily doped II-VI, IV-VI and stressed materials has been studied. It has been found taking n-type CdGeAs{sub 2,}, Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}, InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, CdS, PbTe, PbSnTe, Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se and stressed InSb as examples that the DMR increases with the increasing electron concentration with different numerical values and the nature of variations are totally band structure dependent. An experimental method of determining the DMR in heavily doped materials for arbitrary dispersion relations together with three applications in the area of material science in general has been suggested.

  10. Self-organization of functional materials in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Valle, Francesco; Albonetti, Cristiano; Liscio, Fabiola; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2014-08-19

    This Account aims to describe our experience in the use of patterning techniques for addressing the self-organization processes of materials into spatially confined regions on technologically relevant surfaces. Functional properties of materials depend on their chemical structure, their assembly, and spatial distribution at the solid state; the combination of these factors determines their properties and their technological applications. In fact, by controlling the assembly processes and the spatial distribution of the resulting structures, functional materials can be guided to technological and specific applications. We considered the principal self-organizing processes, such as crystallization, dewetting and phase segregation. Usually, these phenomena produce defective molecular films, compromising their use in many technological applications. This issue can be overcome by using patterning techniques, which induce molecules to self-organize into well-defined patterned structures, by means of spatial confinement. In particular, we focus our attention on the confinement effect achieved by stamp-assisted deposition for controlling size, density, and positions of material assemblies, giving them new chemical/physical functionalities. We review the methods and principles of the stamp-assisted spatial confinement and we discuss how they can be advantageously exploited to control crystalline order/orientation, dewetting phenomena, and spontaneous phase segregation. Moreover, we highlight how physical/chemical properties of soluble functional materials can be driven in constructive ways, by integrating them into operating technological devices.

  11. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials: challenges for ab initio methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxl, Claudia; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hannewald, Karsten

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are most exciting since one can expect new properties that are absent in either of their building blocks. They open new perspectives toward the design and tailoring of materials with desired features and functions. Prerequisite for real progress is, however, the in-depth understanding of what happens on the atomic and electronic scale. In this respect, hybrid materials pose a challenge for electronic-structure theory. Methods that proved useful for describing one side may not be applicable for the other one, and they are likely to fail for the interfaces. In this Account, we address the question to what extent we can quantitatively describe hybrid materials and where we even miss a qualitative description. We note that we are dealing with extended systems and thus adopt a solid-state approach. Therefore, density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the GW approach for charged and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for neutral excitations, are our methods of choice. We give a brief summary of the used methodology, focusing on those aspects where problems can be expected when materials of different character meet at an interface. These issues are then taken up when discussing hybrid materials. We argue when and why, for example, standard DFT may fall short when it comes to the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces or where the framework of MBPT can or must take over. Selected examples of organic/inorganic interfaces, structural properties, electronic bands, optical excitation spectra, and charge-transport properties as obtained from DFT and MBPT highlight which properties can be reliably computed for such materials. The crucial role of van der Waals forces is shown for sexiphenyl films, where the subtle interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions is decisive for growth and morphologies. With a PTCDA monolayer on metal surfaces we discuss the performance of DFT in

  12. Small organic molecular imprinted materials: their preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoman; Jiang, Na; Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Mancang

    2007-09-01

    Molecular imprinting is a technique for preparing polymeric materials that are capable of recognizing and binding the desired molecular target with a high affinity and selectivity. The materials can be applied to a wide range of target molecules, even those for which no natural binder exists or whose antibodies are difficult to raise. The imprinting of small organic molecules (e.g., pharmaceuticals, pesticides, amino acids, steroids, and sugars) is now almost routine. In this review, we pay special attention to the synthesis and application of molecular imprinted polymer (MIPs) imprinted with small organic molecules, including herbicides, pesticides, and drugs. The advantages, applications, and recent developments in small organic molecular imprinted technology are highlighted.

  13. Design of biomimetic camouflage materials based on angiosperm leaf organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhiMing; WU WenJian; HU BiRu

    2008-01-01

    The micro structures and reflectance spectra of angiosperm leaves were compared with those of angiosperm petals. The study indicated that angiosperm leaf organs had identical micro structures and reflectance characteristics in the wave band of near infrared. Micro structures and compositions of leaf organs were the crucial factors influencing their reflectance spectra. The model of biomimetic materials based on angiosperm leaf organs was introduced and verified. From 300 to 2600 nm, the similarity coefficients of reflectance spectra of the foam containing water and Platanus Orientalis Linn. leaves were all above 0.969. The biomimetic camou-flage material exhibited almost the same reflectance spectra with those of green leaves in ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wave bands, And its "concolor and conspectrum" effect might take on reconnaissance of hyperspectral and ultra hyperspectral imaging.

  14. Design of biomimetic camouflage materials based on angiosperm leaf organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The micro structures and reflectance spectra of angiosperm leaves were compared with those of angiosperm petals. The study indicated that angiosperm leaf organs had identical micro structures and reflectance characteristics in the wave band of near infrared. Micro structures and compositions of leaf organs were the crucial factors influencing their reflectance spectra. The model of biomimetic materials based on angiosperm leaf organs was introduced and verified. From 300 to 2600 nm, the similarity coefficients of reflectance spectra of the foam containing water and Platanus Orientalis Linn. leaves were all above 0.969. The biomimetic camou- flage material exhibited almost the same reflectance spectra with those of green leaves in ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wave bands. And its "concolor and conspectrum" effect might take on reconnaissance of hyperspectral and ultra hy- perspectral imaging.

  15. Nanoporous metal organic framework materials for hydrogen storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Xiao; Qingchun Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to play an important role in future transportation as a promising alternative clean energy source to carbon-based fuels.One of the key challenges to commercialize hydrogen energy is to develop appropriate onboard hydrogen storage systems,capable of charging and discharging large quantities of hydrogen with fast enough kinetics to meet commercial requirements.Metal organic framework (MOF) is a new type of inorganic and organic hybrid nanoporous particulate materials.Its diverse networks can enhance hydrogen storage through tuning the structure and property of MOFs.The MOF materials so far developed adsorb hydrogen through weak disperston interactions,which allow significant quantity of hydrogen to be stored at cryogenic temperatures with fast kinetics.Novel MOFs are being developed to strengthen the interactions between hydrogen and MOFs in order to store hydrogen under ambient conditions.This review surveys the development of such candidate materials,their performance and future research needs.

  16. The polymer-like organic material in the Orgueil meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, E. L.; Nagy, B.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of polymeric organic material contained in powder from the Orgueil chondrite, using a stepwise high-vacuum pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Pyrolysis products obtained include a series of alkanes and alkenes to C8, an extensive series of alkylbenzene isomers, thiophene, alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzonitrile, acetone, and phenol. Most of these products are shown to be similar both qualitatively and quantitatively to those previously obtained from solvent-extracted Allende powder, indicating a basically aromatic and heteroaromatic polymer matrix with short aliphatic bridges or side chains. The production of acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, and benzonitrile (common breakdown products of amino acids) from the insoluble organic material is taken to suggest that amino acids exist in an insoluble form, perhaps as peptides, in the meteorite's polymeric component. Similarities between the structure of the Orgueil polymeric material and terrestrial kerogen are discussed which raise the possibility that both might have been produced in part by similar reactions.

  17. Materials and Systems for Organic Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Pan, Wenxiao; Duan, Wentao; Hollas, Aaron M.; Yang, Zheng; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Reed, David M.; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-08-25

    Redox flow batteries are propitious stationary energy storage technologies with exceptional scalability and flexibility to improve the stability, efficiency and sustainability of our power grid. The redox-active materials are the central component to RFBs for achieving high energy density and good cyclability. Traditional inorganic-based materials encounter critical technical and economic limitations such as low solubility, inferior electrochemical activity, and high cost. Redox-active organic materials (ROMs) are promising alternative “green” candidates to push the boundaries of energy storage because of the significant advantages of molecular diversity, structural tailorability, and natural abundance. Here the recent development of a variety of ROM families and associated battery designs in both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes are reviewed. Moreover, the critical challenges and potential research opportunities for developing practically relevant organic flow batteries are discussed.

  18. POSSIBILITY OF THE ENERGY SAVING SNAP OF SOME ORGANIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov V.K.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The volt - amperes characteristic of various water solutions of ethyl alcohol and multicomponent organic substances of juices and wines were investigated. Three characteristic zones are revealed. A zone of low voltage (0-3.5V and small currents fading in time. The zone of linear dependence of a current on the application voltage (4-14V and a zone of nonlinear dependence of electrical conductivity at voltage more then 15 V for the given design of a measuring cell. The linear parts of characteristics can be used to develop the techniques for express train analysis of the volumetric contents of ethyl alcohol in a solution at low expenses of energy. It is established that the short-term influence of an electric field does not result in seen changes of initial parameters of a product.

  19. Growth of single crystals of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities by solution processes for devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Data obtained from the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) and Kurtz Powder Methods will be provided to MSFC for further refinement of their method. A theoretical model for predicting the second-order nonlinearities of organic salts is being worked on. Another task is the synthesis of a number of salts with various counterions. Several salts with promising SHG activities and new salts will be tested for the presence of two crystalline forms. The materials will be recrystallized from dry and wet solvents and compared for SHG efficiency. Salts that have a high SHG efficiency and no tendency to form hydrates will be documented. The synthesis of these materials are included in this report. A third task involves method to aid in the growth of large, high quality single crystals by solution processes. These crystals will be characterized for their applicability in the fabrication of devices that will be incorporated into optical computers in future programs. Single crystals of optimum quality may be obtained by crystal growth in low-gravity. The final task is the design of a temperature lowering single crystal growth apparatus for ground based work. At least one prototype will be built.

  20. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  1. Mixed-Metal Carbonate Fluorides as Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T Thao; Young, Joshua; Rondinelli, James M; Halasyamani, P Shiv

    2017-01-25

    Noncentrosymmetric mixed-metal carbonate fluorides are promising materials for deep-ultraviolet (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. We report on the synthesis, characterization, structure-property relationships, and electronic structure calculations on two new DUV NLO materials: KMgCO3F and Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5. Both materials are noncentrosymmetric (NCS). KMgCO3F crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar NCS space group P6̅2m, whereas Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5 is found in the polar space group Pmn21. The compounds have three-dimensional structures built up from corner-shared magnesium oxyfluoride and magnesium oxide octahedra. KMgCO3F (Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5) exhibits second-order harmonic generation (SHG) at both 1064 and 532 nm incident radiation with efficiencies of 120 (20) × α-SiO2 and 0.33 (0.10) × β-BaB2O4, respectively. In addition, short absorption edges of <200 and 208 nm for KMgCO3F and Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5, respectively, are observed. We compute the electron localization function and density of states of these two compounds using first-principles density functional theory, and show that the different NLO responses arise from differences in the denticity and alignment of the anionic carbonate units. Finally, an examination of the known SHG active AMCO3F (A = alkali metal, M = alkaline earth metal, Zn, Cd, or Pb) materials indicates that, on average, smaller A cations and larger M cations result in increased SHG efficiencies.

  2. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and organic material substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations are widespread and form between ca. two-thirds of all land plants and fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota. The association is a mutualistic symbiosis with the fungi enhancing nutrient capture for the plant while obtaining carbon in return. Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) lack any substantial saprophytic capability they do preferentially associate with various organic substrates and respond by hyphal proliferation, indicating the fungus derives a benefit from the organic substrate. AMF may also enhance decomposition of the organic material. The benefit to the host plant of this hyphal proliferation is not always apparent, particularly regarding nitrogen (N) transfer, and there may be circumstances under which both symbionts compete for the N released given both have a large demand for N. The results of various studies examining AMF responses to organic substrates and the interactions with other members of the soil community will be discussed.

  3. Graphene - a promising material for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui; Huang, Lu; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-12-01

    As a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene has been proposed for many applications. In this Progress Report we summarize and discuss comprehensively the advances made so far for applications of graphene in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, including that for transparent electrodes, active layers and interfaces layer in OPV. It is concluded that graphene may very likely play a major role in new developments/improvements in OPVs. The future studies for this area are proposed to focus on the following: i) improving the conductivity without comprising the transparency as a transparent electrode material; ii) controlling the sheet sizes, band structure and surface morphology for use as a electron acceptor material, and iii) controlling and improving the functionalization and compatibility with other materials as interface layer material.

  4. The Survival of Presolar Organic Material in CR Chondrites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, R. D.; Morse, A. D.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-07-01

    The CR chondrites are now well established as an entity to be considered alongside other carbonaceous chondrites and can no longer be classified as a subset of another group. The isotopic composition of nitrogen and hydrogen in these meteorites is diagnostic of the group, each being highly enriched in the heavy isotope. The source and history of these isotopic signatures can be explained by the survival of presolar organic materials in these meteorites. Astronomical Observations of organic material in interstellar clouds imply D/H ratios in the region of 1 (ca. 10^6%o). The much lower observed meteoritic deuterium overabundance (up to 5750%o [1]) is generally attributed to the survival of small quantities of presolar organic material, but in a form much diluted by solar system-produced material. The concentration of deuterium observed in the interstellar cloud organics is produced by low temperature ion-molecule reactions and a similar, but smaller scale, phenomenon in ^15N distribution has been postulated by some authors [2] with some astronomical measurements appearing to support this [3,4]. From chemical considerations it is not feasible for the carbon to produce such isotopic signatures from interstellar chemical reactions. While deuterium enrichments accompanied by ^15N enrichments have been found in some meteorites (e.g. Semarkona Delta D = +5740%o [5], Delta^15N = +65%o) the effects in nitrogen are generally small. The CR chondrites, however, show an enrichment in both deuterium (up to +1300%o for whole rock values) and a substantial enrichment in ^15N (up to +185%o) and some authors have postulated a possible correlation of ^15N and deuterium ennchments [e.g., 6]. New data obtained by stepped combustion support this hypothesis (see Fig. 1), and also show that the material is carbonaceous and burns at a low (A297. [6] Kerridge (1985) GCA, 49, 1707. Fig. 1 appears here in the hard copy.

  5. Evaluation of frost damage in cement-based materials by a nonlinear elastic wave technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.

    2014-03-01

    Frost resistance of concrete is a major concern in cold regions. RILEM (International union of laboratories and experts in construction materials, systems and structures) recommendations provide two alternatives for evaluating frost damage by nondestructive evaluation methods for concrete like materials. The first method is based on the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement, while the second alternative technique is based on the resonant vibration test. In this study, we monitor the frost damage in Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5 and aggregate to cement ratio of 3. The samples are completely saturated by water and are frozen for 24 hours at -25°C. The frost damage is monitored after 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 freezing-thawing cycles by nonlinear impact resonance acoustic spectroscopy (NIRAS). The results obtained are compared with those obtained by resonant vibration tests, the second alternative technique recommended by RILEM. The obtained results show that NIRAS is more sensitive to early stages of damage than the standard resonant vibration tests.

  6. A theoretical analysis of formation flight as a nonlinear self-organizing phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    2003-10-01

    This study analyses the existence, stability and self-organization of formation flight utilized by migrant birds. Air is approximated as an incompressible inviscid flow, while birds are modelled as elliptically loaded lifting-lines. Application of conventional wing theory leads to newly derived, basic equations that describe the problem as a dynamical system of multiple wings interacting with each other through induced flow field. Formation flight is defined as the steady-state solution of the basic equations, in particular the solution that all the birds fly at the same speed. In the case of a prescribed thrust, constant transverse interval between adjacent birds, and a flock of physically identical birds, analytical study of the basic equations reveals the facts that (1) formation flight is self-organized and (2) this formation flight is stable. The new implication is that a configuration of formation emerges as a result of nonlinear dynamical interaction between many birds and that this nonlinear dynamical system does not exhibit chaotic behaviour. Numerical calculation has also been done for cormorant-type birds with the same transverse interval between flock members. The proposed numerical scheme quickly converges to very accurate results owing to the recently derived, closed-form expression of induced velocity distribution around an elliptically loaded lifting-line. Transverse intervals between birds are found to be a more important factor than the number of birds. Configurations of formations are found to be inverted U rather than inverted V. In these formations every bird enjoys the same amount of drag reduction.

  7. Does Prigogine’s Non-linear Thermodynamics Support Popular Philosophical Discussions of Self-Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pechenkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the philosophical talks which became popular in the 1980s and have kept their popularity till now–the philosophical essays about self-organization. The author attempts to find out as to which extent are these essays founded on the scientific theory to which they regularly refer, that is, Ilya Prigogine’s non-linear thermodynamics. The author insists that the equivalent of self-organization in Prigogine’s theoretical physics is the concept of dissipative structure. The concept of selforganization, as it is used in philosophical literature, presupposes a sequence of extrapolations, the first extrapolation being conducted by Prigogine and his coauthors. They became to use the concept of dissipative structure beyond the rigorous theory of this phenomenon. The subsequent step was that the scientific term “dissipative structure” was replaced by the vague concept “self-organization” in many popular and semi-popular books and papers. The author also emphasizes that by placing the concept of self-organization into the framework of philosophical concepts (the picture of the world, the ideals of scientific thought, the contemporary scientific revolution, etc. a philosopher conducts the extrapolation of extrapolation and comes to a kind of what Edmund Husserl called Weltanschauung (‘worldview’ philosophy.

  8. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela

    2015-08-12

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials.

  9. Studies on growth and characterization of a novel nonlinear optical and ferroelectric material - N,N-dimethylurea picrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, A.; Krishnan, C.; Selvarajan, P.

    2014-05-01

    A novel organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material viz. N,N-dimethylurea picrate (NNDMP) was grown by the slow evaporation technique using N,N-dimethyl formamide as a solvent. The solubility of the grown sample has been estimated for various temperatures. The XRD study reveals that the grown crystal crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system and the corresponding lattice parameters were determined. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the NNDMP was found to be 1.045 times that of KDP by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. FTIR and FT-Raman spectral analyses explain the various functional groups present in the sample. The optical spectral analysis of the grown crystal has been performed by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and the band gap energy was found out. The thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) reveal that the NNDMP crystal is stable at up to 172 °C. A prominent first-order ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition at 323 K has been observed and activation energy was determined for the AC conduction process in the sample.

  10. Growth and characterization studies of sodium Di(L-Malato) borate bulk single crystal: A promising nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, A.; Loganayaki, M.; Lenin, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-06-01

    A semi-organic nonlinear optical material, sodium di(L-malato) borate (NaDMB) has been synthesized. Optically good quality bulk single crystal of NaDMB was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method at 36 °C. Transparent, colourless crystal of size 22 mm X 8 mm X 6 mm with well defined morphology was grown by SEST and oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 48 mm length and 16 mm diameter was grown by SR method. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal belongs to monoclinic structure with space group P21. The grown crystals were characterized by UV-vis studies. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) rocking curve measurements. The differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis traces reveal the thermal stability of the sample. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was estimated by Kurtz and Perry powder technique.

  11. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects...... on the structural integrity of bone was investigated. Metapodial roe deer bone samples were artificially aged under humidity and atmospheres of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in room temperature. Elemental micro-analysis of bone material through SEM-EDX and molecular investigations through FTIR and Raman spectroscopy......, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA) were realized. Results show damage within the inorganic and the organic matrix; incorporation of sulfur and nitrogen groups, minor reduction of specific aminoacids and changes in collagen integrity were...

  12. Organic Insulation Materials, the Effect on Indoor Humidity, and the Necessity of a Vapor Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    is not needed when using organic insulation materials" and "Organic insulation materials have a stabilizing effect on the indoor humidity".The paper presents some numerical analyses of the hygrothermal behavior of wall constructions and the occupied spaces they surround when an organic insulation material...... either inorganic or organic insulation materials in the surrounding walls....

  13. Parameters for the Pyrolysis of Organic Material - Perchlorate Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA-lead Mars rover ExoMars (launch in 2018) will carry a suit of instruments, one of the in-struments is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer MOMA. Organic material in the Martian soil will be either pyrolyzed at temperatures of up to 1000°C and separated by gas chromatography or volatilized with the help of an UV-laser. A mass spectrometer will be the detector for both methods. Chlorinated organics have been detected in pyroly-sis GC-MS experiments on Mars two times. The first time during the Viking mission in 1976 and a second time with the Sample Analysis on Mars (SAM) in-strument onboard the Curiosity rover in 2012. [1] [2] The presence of perchlorates found by the Phoenix mission in 2008 [3] lead to the discovery that organic molecules not only get oxidized during pyrolysis, but also chlorinated organic compounds can be pro-duced. [4] The parameters used for pyrolysis and the sample composition especially the distribution of organics and perchlorates within the sample and the concentrations of organics and perchlorate have a huge influence on the products created. It is possible to change the condi-tions of the pyrolysis by spatially separating the organ-ics from the perchlorates that the chloromethanes get the major product of the pyrolysis. This might help to understand the results of the (SAM) instrument yield-ing mono-, di- and trichloromethane and a chlorinated 4-hydrocarbon molecule. References: [1] Biemann K et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4641-4658. [2] Grotzinger J. P et al. (2011) AGU Fall Meeting U13A-01 [3] Hecht M. H., et al. (2009) Science, 325 64-67. [4] Steininger H., Goesmann F., Goetz W. (2011) Planet. & Space Sci., 71, 9-17. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by DLR (FKZ 50QX1001)

  14. Particle Rebound and Phase State of Secondary Organic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, A.; Bertram, A. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) is produced in the atmosphere from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. Aerosol particles, composed in part of SOM, play important roles in climate and air quality by scattering/absorbing radiation and serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The magnitude of climate-relevant perturbations depends on particle chemical composition, hygroscopic growth, and phase state, among other factors. Herein, the hygroscopic influence on particle rebound and the phase state of particles composed of isoprene, toluene, and α-pinene secondary organic material (SOM) was studied. Particle rebound measurements were obtained from 5 to 95% RH using a three-arm impaction apparatus. The experimentally determined rebound fractions were compared with results from a model of the rebound process that took into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. Comparison of the experimental and modeled indicated particles softened due to water uptake. For low RH values, the model explained the rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. At higher RH values specific to each SOM, however, particle rebound was no longer observed, and the model did not capture this behavior. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable known viscosities showed the transition from non-rebounding to rebounding particles occurred for viscosity values from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The implication of the differing RH-dependent behaviors among the SOMs is that each SOM has a specific and quantitatively different interaction with water. A linear correlation between rebound fraction and hygroscopic growth factor was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume is the governing factor of viscosity for the studied classes of SOM. The findings of this study suggest that both the chemical composition and the ambient

  15. Organically Doped Metals: A New Family of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    pressed to coins. Fig. 2: The hierarchical structure of the hybrid materials. Shown is the hybrid between poly(styrene sulphonic acid ...this is of course an unorthodox property of this metal). Nafion@Ag was then tested as a heterogeneous acidic catalyst for the pinacol-pinacolone...24 million known organic and bioorganic molecules, which represent a very rich library of chemical, biological, and physical properties that the ~100

  16. Mineral Associated Organic Matter: Plant Litter Compounds or Microbial Material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, C.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral interaction may affect the stabilisation of plant litter directly or indirectly after microbial decomposition and transformation. The importance of both organic matter sources may vary within the soil profile. This talk will synthesize recent work on the composition of mineral associated material in top- as well as subsoil horizons. We used density fractionation to isolate the mineral-associated fraction and characterised their composition by elemental analyses, NMR spectroscopy, analytical pyrolysis as well as nanoSIMS. Our results showed enrichment of mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons. However, material derived from new plant litter may be stabilised at similar rates in top- and subsoil horizons. N-containing compounds are enriched in the mineral associated fraction of subsoil horizons, indicating enrichment of microbial derived material with depth. Nano scale analyses showed that indeed plant-derived material may be associated with metal oxides in topsoil horizons, whereas the mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons may consist of microbial cells. Our results indicate that the nature of OM stabilised by mineral interactions is depth specific. Therefore, we suggest, that plant derived lignocellulosic material may be preserved by mineral interactions in topsoil given its incomplete degradation, thereby leading to the formation of functional groups and favouring adsorption to soil minerals. This is consistent with the higher state of lignin-degradation observed in topsoil horizons as compared to subsoil. At depth, where microorganisms are most likely energy limited, degradation of fresh plant litter may be complete, thereby diminishing the formation of lignocellulosic compounds capable of sorption onto metal oxides. As a result stabilised OM may consist primarily of microbial cells. Thus our study is consistent with the microbial efficiency-matrix stabilisation (MEMS) hypothesis, which says that microbial use efficiency

  17. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors: Materials, Device Configurations, and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Penglei; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-09

    Organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) represent an emerging class of organic optoelectronic devices, wherein the electrical switching capability of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and the light-generation capability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are inherently incorporated in a single device. In contrast to conventional OFETs and OLEDs, the planar device geometry and the versatile multifunctional nature of OLETs not only endow them with numerous technological opportunities in the frontier fields of highly integrated organic electronics, but also render them ideal scientific scaffolds to address the fundamental physical events of organic semiconductors and devices. This review article summarizes the recent advancements on OLETs in light of materials, device configurations, operation conditions, etc. Diverse state-of-the-art protocols, including bulk heterojunction, layered heterojunction and laterally arranged heterojunction structures, as well as asymmetric source-drain electrodes, and innovative dielectric layers, which have been developed for the construction of qualified OLETs and for shedding new and deep light on the working principles of OLETs, are highlighted by addressing representative paradigms. This review intends to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the design of future OLETs.

  18. Single material solar cells: the next frontier for organic photovoltaics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncali, Jean [Group Linear Conjugated Systems, CNRS, Moltech-Anjou, UMR 6200, University of Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier 49045 Angers (France)

    2011-03-18

    An overview of various approaches for the realization of single-material organic solar cells (SMOCs) is presented. Fullerene-conjugated systems dyads, di-block copolymers, and self-organized donor-acceptor molecules all represent different possible approaches towards SMOCs. Although each of them presents specific advantages and poses specific problems of design and synthesis, these different routes have witnessed significant progress in the past few years and SMOCs with efficiencies in the range of 1.50% have been realized. These performances are already higher than those of bi-component bulk heterojunction solar cells some ten years ago, demonstrating that SMOCs can represent a credible approach towards efficient and simple organic solar cells. Possible directions for future research are discussed with the aim of stimulating further research on this exciting topic. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Naphthobischalcogenadiazole Conjugated Polymers: Emerging Materials for Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2017-02-27

    π-Conjugated polymers are an important class of materials for organic electronics. In the past decade, numerous polymers with donor-acceptor molecular structures have been developed and used as the active materials for organic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The choice of the building unit is the primary step for designing the polymers. Benzochalcogenadiazoles (BXzs) are one of the most familiar acceptor building units studied in this area. As their doubly fused system, naphthobischalcogenadiazoles (NXzs), i.e., naphthobisthiadiazole (NTz), naphthobisoxadiazole (NOz), and naphthobisselenadiazole (NSz) are emerging building units that provide interesting electronic properties and highly self-assembling nature for π-conjugated polymers. With these fruitful features, π-conjugated polymers based on these building units demonstrate great performances in OFETs and OPVs. In particular, in OPVs, NTz-based polymers have exhibited more than 10% efficiency, which is among the highest values reported so far. In this Progress Report, the synthesis, properties, and structures of NXzs and their polymers is summarized. The device performance is also highlighted and the structure-property relationships of the polymers are discussed.

  20. Lanthanides: new metallic cathode materials for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Strzalka, Joseph; Jiang, Zhang; Darling, Seth B

    2013-08-21

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are compliant with inexpensive, scalable, and environmentally benign manufacturing technologies. While substantial attention has been focused on optimization of active layer chemistry, morphology, and processing, far less research has been directed to understanding charge transport at the interfaces between the electrodes and the active layer. Electrical properties of these interfaces not only impact efficiency, but also play a central role in stability of organic solar cells. Low work function metals are the most widely used materials for the electron transport layer with Ca being the most common material. In bulk heterojunction OPV devices, low work function metals are believed to mirror the role they play in OLEDs, where such metals are used to control carrier selectivity, transport, extraction, and blocking, as well as interface band bending. Despite their advantages, low work function materials are generally prone to reactions with water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide from air leading to rapid device degradation. Here we discuss the search for a new metallic cathode interlayer material that increases device stability and still provides device efficiency similar to that achieved with a Ca interlayer.

  1. Organic microporous materials and their interactions with different gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Miller, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Chemistry Dept.; Lagasse, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1997-04-01

    This work explored the interactions of various organic microporous materials with different gases. The authors were attempting to make substances that could separate gases through differential adsorption or store gases at reduced pressures. They synthesized xerogels that were highly crosslinked, allowing relatively large amounts of micro- and mesopores within the organic polymers. The monomers were polymerized in a solvent which was removed forming xerogels. Then exhaustive drying was performed to yield the tested microporous materials. The xerogels were exposed to four gases to observe their gas adsorption affinities (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and isobutane). For each microporous polymer the authors measured BET surface area, nitrogen isotherm, bulk density, pycnometric density, and equilibrium gas adsorption. Pore volume and pore size distribution were also calculated for some samples. Adsorption characteristics paralleled, but were not directly proportional to surface area or pore size distribution changes. Changes in adsorption magnitude and selectivity have been made through various formulations and derivatization. Increasing polarity showed increased affinities towards carbon dioxide, slightly increased affinities towards isobutane, and unchanged affinities towards methane and hydrogen. These materials could adsorb significant amounts of gas; about half the amount of some commercial carbons. Considering the minimal processing involved in their synthesis, these materials could be cost effective replacements for carbons in low-cost applications where high adsorption efficiencies are not a priority.

  2. Molecular Design of Benzodithiophene-Based Organic Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huifeng; Ye, Long; Zhang, Hao; Li, Sunsun; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-06-22

    Advances in the design and application of highly efficient conjugated polymers and small molecules over the past years have enabled the rapid progress in the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology as a promising alternative to conventional solar cells. Among the numerous OPV materials, benzodithiophene (BDT)-based polymers and small molecules have come to the fore in achieving outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) and breaking 10% efficiency barrier in the single junction OPV devices. Remarkably, the OPV device featured by BDT-based polymer has recently demonstrated an impressive PCE of 11.21%, indicating the great potential of this class of materials in commercial photovoltaic applications. In this review, we offered an overview of the organic photovoltaic materials based on BDT from the aspects of backbones, functional groups, alkyl chains, and device performance, trying to provide a guideline about the structure-performance relationship. We believe more exciting BDT-based photovoltaic materials and devices will be developed in the near future.

  3. Recent advances in organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Xie, Zongliang; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P

    2017-02-06

    Organic materials that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are an attractive class of functional materials that have witnessed a booming development in recent years. Since Adachi et al. reported high-performance TADF-OLED devices in 2012, there have been many reports regarding the design and synthesis of new TADF luminogens, which have various molecular structures and are used for different applications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress concerning this rapidly developing research field, in which the majority of the reported TADF systems are discussed, along with their derived structure-property relationships, TADF mechanisms and applications. We hope that such a review provides a clear outlook of these novel functional materials for a broad range of scientists within different disciplinary areas and attracts more researchers to devote themselves to this interesting research field.

  4. Monothioanthraquinone as an organic active material for greener lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Adriana; Maurel, Vincent; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Pécaut, Jacques; Dubois, Lionel; Gutel, Thibaut

    2014-12-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact of human activities especially transportation and portable electronics, a more sustainable way is required to produce and store electrical energy. Actually lithium battery is one of the most promising solutions for energy storage. Unfortunately this technology is based on the use of transition metal-based active materials for electrodes which are rare, expensive, extracted by mining, can be toxic and hard to recycle. Organic materials are an interesting alternative to replace inorganic counterparts due to their high electrochemical performances and the possibility to produce them from renewable resources. A quinone derivative is synthetized and investigated as novel active material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries which shows higher performances.

  5. A review on organic spintronic materials and devices: II. Magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and spin organic light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding review paper, Paper I [Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices 1 (2016 128–140], we showed the major experimental and theoretical studies on the first organic spintronic subject, namely organic magnetoresistance (OMAR in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The topic has recently been of renewed interest as a result of a demonstration of the magneto-conductance (MC that exceeds 1000% at room temperature using a certain type of organic compounds and device operating condition. In this report, we will review two additional organic spintronic devices, namely organic spin valves (OSVs where only spin polarized holes exist to cause magnetoresistance (MR, and spin organic light emitting diodes (spin-OLEDs where both spin polarized holes and electrons are injected into the organic emissive layer to form a magneto-electroluminescence (MEL hysteretic loop. First, we outline the major advances in OSV studies for understanding the underlying physics of the spin transport mechanism in organic semiconductors (OSCs and the spin injection/detection at the organic/ferromagnet interface (spinterface. We also highlight some of outstanding challenges in this promising research field. Second, the first successful demonstration of spin-OLEDs is reviewed. We also discuss challenges to achieve the high performance devices. Finally, we suggest an outlook on the future of organic spintronics by using organic single crystals and aligned polymers for the spin transport layer, and a self-assembled monolayer to achieve more controllability for the spinterface.

  6. Cavity equations for a positive or negative refraction index material with electric and magnetic non-linearities

    CERN Document Server

    Mártin, Daniel A; 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.056601

    2012-01-01

    We study evolution equations for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with plane mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. Two coupled non-linear equations for the electric and magnetic amplitudes are obtained. We prove that the description can be reduced to one Lugiato Lefever equation with generalized coefficients. A stability analysis of the homogeneous solution, complemented with numerical integration, shows that any combination of the parameters should correspond to one of three characteristic behaviors.

  7. The nonlinear spectra of transneptunian objects: Evidence for organic absorption bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, W.; Brown, M.; Emery, J.

    2014-07-01

    The reflectance spectra of small (D≲250 km) transneptunian objects (TNOs) are generally quite simple. Water-ice absorption is the only feature firmly detected on the majority of TNOs (Brown et al. 2012). Tentative detections of other materials have been presented (e.g., Barucci et al. 2011), but generally speaking, the spectra of small TNOs are nearly linear in the optical (0.5 Martin et al. 2002, Alvarez-Candal et al. 2008, Fornasier 2009, Hainaut and Delsanti 2012). An interesting candidate for the upward curvature is complex C- and N-bearing hydrocarbons. These organic materials exhibit a broad absorption centered in the UV which is caused by a valence-conduction energy gap (see Moroz et al. 1998). The specific shape of the feature depends on the molecular structure of the organic material, with longer hydrocarbons generally producing wider absorptions. The assertion that the optical spectra of small TNOs are influenced by this hydrocarbon feature is reasonable as the feature is the general result of irradiation of simple organic H-, C-, and N-bearing materials, not dissimilar to that expected to occur on young TNOs (Brunetto et al. 2006). The interpretation of this feature as an absorption due to organics is compatible with the conclusions of Fraser and Brown (2012) who found that the small dynamically excited Kuiper-belt objects exhibit two different compositional classes. They assert that the difference between the neutral and red classes are the result of mixing of a non-icy (likely silicate) material component with two different organic components, one for each class of object. Brown et al. (2011) argue that because there is no quantitative difference between the colors of Centaurs and more distant TNOs, the two separate organic components are not the result of recent surface evolution, but rather is caused by early, post-formation volatile loss from the TNOs. Irradiation then rapidly drove evolution along two separate chemical pathways between those

  8. Synthesis of Novel Arylazothiazolyl-thiophene Dyes for Solar Cell and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Mohamed E; Al-Amoudi, Muhammed S; Gobouri, Adil A; Merazga, Amar; Fadda, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis and investigation of new donor-acceptor conjugated N-(5-arylazothiazol-2-yl)-2-aminothiophene derivatives with the aim to elucidate the contribution of their interaction with solvent molecules upon intramolecular charge transfer for their potential solar cells application. The UV-visible and emission spectra measurements indicated that the properties of the synthesized dyes had a significant effect on the visible absorption and emission maxima. The effect of the donor and acceptor groups were studied for the nonlinearity based on their HOMO-LUMO band gap energy. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the newly synthesized aryl thiazolyl-thiophene dyes as sensitizers. The promising results of J(SC) (2.46 × 10(-2) and 4.07 × 10(-2) mA/cm(2)), the V(OC) (0.429 V and 0.426 V) and the FF (0.66 %) values obtained comparing with other organic and natural sensitizer were due to the better interaction between the carboxyl and carbonyl groups of aryl azo molecule attached to the thiazolyl nucleus and the surface of TiO(2) porous film.

  9. Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.; Schaefer, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The variation of the anion counterion in the presently formulated organic salts, whose cation possesses large molecular hyperpolarizability, will in many cases yield materials with large powder second-harmonic generation efficiencies. The highest such efficiency is three orders of magnitude greater than that of the urea used as a reference compound. It is demonstrated that such nonconventional donors as Br(-) and the pyrenyl moiety can be incorporated into molecules which, in the requisite crystallographic environment, will exhibit substantial bulk susceptibilities.

  10. Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Seth R.; Perry, Joseph W.; Schaefer, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The variation of the anion counterion in the presently formulated organic salts, whose cation possesses large molecular hyperpolarizability, will in many cases yield materials with large powder second-harmonic generation efficiencies. The highest such efficiency is three orders of magnitude greater than that of the urea used as a reference compound. It is demonstrated that such nonconventional donors as Br(-) and the pyrenyl moiety can be incorporated into molecules which, in the requisite crystallographic environment, will exhibit substantial bulk susceptibilities.

  11. SYNTHESIS AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A NOVEL ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID NONLINEAR OPTICAL POLYMER VIA SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xia Xi; Zhong Li; Zhao-xi Liang

    2001-01-01

    A new organic/inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical (NLO) material was developed by the sol-gel process of an alkoxysilane dye with tetraethoxysilane. A NLO moiety based on 4-nitro-4′-hydroxy azobenzene was covalently bonded to the triethoxysilane derivative, i.e. γ-isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane. The preparation process and properties of the sol-gel derived NLO polymer were studied and characterized by SEM, FTIR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis, DSC and second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement. The results indicated that the chemical bonding of the chromophores to the inorganic SiO2 networks induces Iow dipole alignment relaxation and preferable orientational stability. The SHG measurements also showed that the bonded polymer film containing 75 wt% of the akoxysilane dye has a high electro-optic coefficient (r33) of7. 1 pm/V at 1.1 μm wavelength, and exhibit good SHG stability, the r33 values can maintain about 92.7% of its initial value at room temperature for 90 days, and can maintain about 59.3% at 100℃ for 300 min.``

  12. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  13. On the response of nonlinear viscoelastic materials in creep and stress relaxation experiments in the lubricated squeeze flow setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řehoř, Martin; Pr&oring; ša, Vít; T&oring; ma, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Rigorous analysis of the response of nonlinear materials to step inputs requires one to simultaneously handle the discontinuity, differentiation, and nonlinearity. This task is however beyond the reach of the standard theories such as the classical theory of distributions and presents a considerable mathematical difficulty. New advanced mathematical tools are necessary to handle the challenge. An elegant and relatively easy-to-use framework capable of accomplishing the task is provided by the Colombeau algebra, which is a generalisation of the classical theory of distributions to the nonlinear setting. We use the Colombeau algebra formalism and derive explicit formulae describing the response of incompressible Maxwell viscoelastic fluid subject to step load/deformation in the lubricated squeeze flow setting.

  14. Secondary organic material formed by methylglyoxal in aqueous aerosol mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sareen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that methylglyoxal forms light-absorbing secondary organic material in aqueous ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosol particles. The kinetics were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results suggest that the bimolecular reaction of methylglyoxal with an ammonium or hydronium ion is the rate-limiting step for the formation of light-absorbing species, with kNH4+II=5×10−6 M−1 min−1 and kH3O+II≤10−3 M−1 min−1. Evidence of aldol condensation products and oligomeric species up to 759 amu was found using chemical ionization mass spectrometry with a volatilization flow tube inlet (Aerosol-CIMS. Tentative identifications of carbon-nitrogen species and a sulfur-containing compound were also made using Aerosol-CIMS. Aqueous solutions of methylglyoxal, with and without inorganic salts, exhibit significant surface tension depression. These observations add to the growing body of evidence that dicarbonyl compounds may form secondary organic material in the aerosol aqueous phase, and that secondary organic aerosol formation via heterogeneous processes may affect seed aerosol properties.

  15. Optoelectronic Organic MaterialsFrom Synthetic Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH Tien-Yau

    2001-01-01

    @@ Most organic materials for optoelectronic applications are conjugated organic system. The burgeoning synthetic methodologies using organometallic catalysts or reagents have provided a powerful arsenal to design and synthesize new conjugated organic materials. It is particularly noteworthy that carbon-carbon bond formation involving a Csp2 or Csp at the reaction center can readily be achieved. For examples, cross-coupling reactions (e.g. Kumada-Corriu reaction, Stille reaction, and Suzuki reaction) are extremely powerful for the synthesis of Csp2-Csp2 single bond. Sonogashira reaction, on the other hand, serves as a useful entry for the preparation of alkynylarenes or conjugated enynes. Heck reaction furnishes a coupling between an aryl halide and an alkene. Alternatively, olefination reactions provides a practical route for the synthesis of carbon-carbon double bond. In the past decade, we have uncovered four new kinds of transformations staring from the dithioacetal functionality (Scheme).1,2 Three of them have been employed in the synthesis of conjugated small molecules as well as conjugated oligomers/polymers. Their syntheses, photophysical as well as electroluminescent properties will briefly be discussed.

  16. Optoelectronic Organic MaterialsFrom Synthetic Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH; Tien-Yau

    2001-01-01

    Most organic materials for optoelectronic applications are conjugated organic system. The burgeoning synthetic methodologies using organometallic catalysts or reagents have provided a powerful arsenal to design and synthesize new conjugated organic materials. It is particularly noteworthy that carbon-carbon bond formation involving a Csp2 or Csp at the reaction center can readily be achieved. For examples, cross-coupling reactions (e.g. Kumada-Corriu reaction, Stille reaction, and Suzuki reaction) are extremely powerful for the synthesis of Csp2-Csp2 single bond. Sonogashira reaction, on the other hand, serves as a useful entry for the preparation of alkynylarenes or conjugated enynes. Heck reaction furnishes a coupling between an aryl halide and an alkene. Alternatively, olefination reactions provides a practical route for the synthesis of carbon-carbon double bond. In the past decade, we have uncovered four new kinds of transformations staring from the dithioacetal functionality (Scheme).1,2 Three of them have been employed in the synthesis of conjugated small molecules as well as conjugated oligomers/polymers. Their syntheses, photophysical as well as electroluminescent properties will briefly be discussed.  ……

  17. Metal-organic frameworks as sensory materials and imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Demin; Lu, Kuangda; Poon, Christopher; Lin, Wenbin

    2014-02-17

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid materials self-assembled from organic bridging ligands and metal ion/cluster connecting points. The combination of a variety of organic linkers, metal ions/clusters, and structural motifs can lead to an infinite array of new materials with interesting properties for many applications. In this Forum Article, we discuss the design and applications of MOFs in chemical sensing and biological imaging. The first half of this article focuses on the development of MOFs as chemical sensors by highlighting how unique attributes of MOFs can be utilized to enhance sensitivity and selectivity. We also discuss some of the issues that need to be addressed in order to develop practically useful MOF sensors. The second half of this article focuses on the design and applications of nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs) as imaging contrast agents. NMOFs possess several interesting attributes, such as high cargo loading capacity, ease of postmodification, tunable size and shape, and intrinsic biodegradability, to make them excellent candidates as imaging contrast agents. We discuss the use of representative NMOFs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and optical imaging. Although still in their infancy, we believe that the compositional tunability and mild synthetic conditions of NMOF imaging agents should greatly facilitate their further development for clinical translation.

  18. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  19. Virtual screening of electron acceptor materials for organic photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Djurovich, Peter J.; Giesen, David J.; Goldberg, Alexander; Sommer, Jonathan; McAnally, Eric; Thompson, Mark E.

    2013-10-01

    Virtual screening involves the generation of structure libraries, automated analysis to predict properties related to application performance and subsequent screening to identify lead systems and estimate critical structure-property limits across a targeted chemical design space. This approach holds great promise for informing experimental discovery and development efforts for next-generation materials, such as organic semiconductors. In this work, the virtual screening approach is illustrated for nitrogen-substituted pentacene molecules to identify systems for development as electron acceptor materials for use in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. A structure library of tetra-azapentacenes (TAPs) was generated by substituting four nitrogens for CH at 12 sites on the pentacene molecular framework. Molecular properties (e.g. ELUMO, Eg and μ) were computed for each candidate structure using hybrid DFT at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. The resulting TAPs library was then analyzed with respect to intrinsic properties associated with OPV acceptor performance. Marcus reorganization energies for charge transport for the most favorable TAP candidates were then calculated to further determine suitability as OPV electron acceptors. The synthesis, characterization and OPV device testing of TAP materials is underway, guided by these results.

  20. Application of organic waste composts when producing forest planting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Evgeny M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most seedlings and saplings of woody plants in the Russian Federation are produced in the open ground in forest nurseries. In order to produce high quality planting material it is necessary to support and preserve soil fertility, which can be obtained by using organic wastes and organic-based fertilizers. Our research is aimed at the assessment of the influence of non-conventional organic fertilizers on fertility of podzols and on the growth rate of seedlings and saplings of woody plants in forest nurseries. Our research shows, that the application of non-conventional organic fertilizers does not result in any accumulation of heavy metal salts in podzols, but optimizes hydro physical and agrochemical properties of the ploughed horizon. The efficiency of non-conventional organic fertilizers depends on their composition, physical and chemical characteristics of the original components, their doses applied and original fertility of soils. A combined application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and sand results in the optimization of practically all soil fertility parameters in middle clay-loam soils, while application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and clay is optimal for application on light soils. The optimal application dose of non-conventional fertilizers depends on soil texture, woody species and the fertilizer composition. An optimal application dose for Norway spruce on a light clay-loam soil is 50-80 tons/ha, and on a middle clay-loam soil is 149-182 tons/ha. It is 50 tons/ha for Scots pine growing on a sandy loam soil, and 100 tons/ha for the same species growing on a sandy soil or a light clay-loam. For Siberian larch growing on a light clay-loam soil the dose of fertilizer applied should be 150 tons/ha. It is recommended to apply composts containing over 50% (by weight of Category II wastes (substrate for the amelioration of light soils, and composts containing over 40% (by weight of Category I wastes (filler for the

  1. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  2. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanostructured materials for organic electronics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, M P; Magurudeniya, H D; Rainbolt, E A; Huang, P; Dissanayake, D S; Biewer, M C; Stefan, M C

    2014-02-01

    Semiconducting polymers have been developed during the last few decades and are currently used in various organic electronics applications. Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is the most employed semiconducting polymer for organic electronics applications. The development of living Grignard metathesis polymerization (GRIM) allowed the synthesis of P3HT with well-defined molecular weights and functional end groups. A large number of block copolymers containing P3HT have been reported, and their opto-electronic properties have been investigated. The performance of P3HT homopolymer and block copolymers in field-effect transistors and bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed in this review. The morphology of the P3HT materials is also discussed.

  3. Organic Electrofluorescent Materials Using Pyridine-Containing Macrocyclic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingxi LI; Long FU; Wenwen YU; Renhe HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Novel pyridine-containing macrocyclic compounds, such as 6,12,19,25-tetramethyl-7,11,20,24-dinitrilo-dibenzo[b,m]l,4,12,15-tetra-azacyclodoc osine (TMCD), were synthesized and used as electron transport layer in organic electroluminescent devices. Devices with a structure of glass/indium-tin oxide/arylamine derivative/tris(quinolinolato)aluminum(Ⅲ) (AIq)/TMCD/LiF/AI exhibited green emission from the Alq layer with external quantum efficiency of 0.84% and luminous efficiency of 1.3 lm/W. The derivatives of TMCD were synthesized and characterized as well. These compounds were also found to be useful as the electron-transporting materials in organic electroluminescent devices.

  4. Advanced Tomography Techniques For Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, James E.; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tomography using electrons and x-rays has pushed our understanding of the micro- and nanoscale spatial organization for biological, organic and inorganic materials. While significant impact has already been realized from tomography applications, new advanced methods are quickly expanding the versatility of this approach to better link structure, composition and function of complex 3D assemblies across multiple scales. In this article we highlight several frontiers where new developments in tomography are empowering all new science across biology, chemistry and physics. The 5 articles that appear in this MRS Bulletin Issue describe in detail these latest developments in analytical electron tomography, atomic resolution electron tomography, advanced recording schemes in scanning transmission electron (STEM) tomography, cryo-STEM tomography of whole cells, and multiscale correlative tomography.

  5. Anomalous carbon-isotope ratios in nonvolatile organic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, I R; Nissenbaum, A

    1966-08-12

    Organic mats are associated with sulfur deposits in Upper Pleistocene sand ridges of the coastal plain of southern Israel; black, brittle, and non-volatile, they show parallel layering but no other apparent cellular structure. Two independent carbon-14 determinations yielded ages of 27,750+/-500 and 31,370+/-1400 years. Four carbon-13:carbon-12 determinations fell within the range deltaC(13) =-82.5 to -89.3 per mille relative to the PDB standard; these appear to be the lowest values yet reported for naturally occurring high-molecular-weight organic material. The origin of the carbon is probably complex; it must have passed through at least one biologic cycle before final deposition.

  6. Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties of Semiconducting Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Calzado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N´-bis(3-methylphenyl-N,N´-diphenylbenzidine (TPD, several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs, as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

  7. Amplified spontaneous emission properties of semiconducting organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Eva M; Boj, Pedro G; Díaz-García, María A

    2010-06-18

    This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

  8. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  9. Analysis of accidents with organic material in health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Pinheiro, Regina Dal Castel

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective and descriptive study with a quantitative design aimed to evaluate occupational accidents with exposure to biological material, as well as the profile of workers, based on reporting forms sent to the Regional Reference Center of Occupational Health in Florianópolis/SC. Data collection was carried out through a survey of 118 reporting forms in 2007. Data were analyzed electronically. The occurrence of accidents was predominantly among nursing technicians, women and the mean age was 34.5 years. 73% of accidents involved percutaneous exposure, 78% had blood and fluid with blood, 44.91% resulted from invasive procedures. It was concluded that strategies to prevent the occurrence of accidents with biological material should include joint activities between workers and service management and should be directed at improving work conditions and organization.

  10. ELABORATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYBRID MATERIALS ORGANIC / INORGANIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O BOUBEKKA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials "organic-inorganic" are the subject of immense interest, allowing both to combine some properties of an inorganic material and a polymer. In this work we have carried out a study on conductive polymers, in general, emphasizing the polyaniline. On the other hand, we have presented the inorganic compounds (NbSe2, and ternary compound Nn3Sn SnNb5Se9. From the chemical method, we had to synthesize the following mixtures: PANI/NbSe2, PANI /, Nn3Sn PANI / SnNb5Se9. The structural study of these new compounds are produced by X-ray diffraction and infrared. The morphology of the resulting mixtures to be studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  12. Organic and perovskite solar cells: Working principles, materials and interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Nevena; Valero, Silvia; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2017-02-15

    In the last decades organic solar cells (OSCs) have been considered as a promising photovoltaic technology with the potential to provide reasonable power conversion efficiencies combined with low cost and easy processability. Unexpectedly, Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) have experienced unprecedented rise in Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) thus emerging as a highly efficient photovoltaic technology. OSCs and PSCs are two different kind of devices with distinct charge generation mechanism, which however share some similarities in the materials processing, thus standard strategies developed for OSCs are currently being employed in PSCs. In this article, we recapitulate the main processes in these two types of photovoltaic technologies with an emphasis on interfacial processes and interfacial modification, spotlighting the materials and newest approaches in the interfacial engineering. We discuss on the relevance of well-known materials coming from the OSCs field, which are now being tested in the PSCs field, while maintaining a focus on the importance of the material design for highly efficient, stable and accessible solar cells.

  13. Improved Z-scan adjustment to thermal nonlinearities by including nonlinear absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severiano-Carrillo, I.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Méndez-Otero, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a modified mathematical model of thermal optical nonlinearities which allow us to obtain the nonlinear refraction index and the nonlinear absorption coefficient with only one measurement. This modification is motivated by the influence that nonlinear absorption has on the measurement of the nonlinear refraction index at far field, when the material presents a large nonlinearity. This model, where nonlinear absorption is considered to adjust the curves of nonlinear refraction index obtained by Z-scan technique, has the best agreement with experimental data. The model is validated with two ionic liquids and the organic material Eysenhardtia polystachya, in thin media. We present these results after comparing our proposed model to other reported models.

  14. Responses by Benthic Organisms to Inputs of Organic Material to the Ocean Floor: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, A. J.; Turley, Carol M.

    1990-06-01

    Most of the photosynthetically produced organic material reaching the ocean-floor is transported as settling particles, among which larger particles such as faecal pellets and macroaggregates (marine snow) are particularly important. Recent studies in the northeastern Atlantic have demonstrated that macroaggregates originating from the euphotic zone settle at a rate of approximately 100-150 m d-1 to form a deposit (phytodetritus) on the sediment surface. Bacteria and protozoa (flagellates and foraminifers) rapidly colonize and multiply on phytodetritus, while large deposit feeding animals ingest it. Other inputs, for example Sargassum, wood and vertebrate carcasses, also evoke a rapid response by benthic organisms. However, the taxa that respond depend on the form of the organic material. The intermittent or seasonally pulsed nature of phytodetritus and many other inputs regulate the population dynamics and reproductive cycles of some responding species. These are often opportunists that are able to utilize ephemeral food resources and, therefore, undergo rapid fluctuations in population density. In addition, the patchy distribution of much of the organic material deposited on the ocean-floor probably plays a major role in structuring deep-sea benthic ecosystems.

  15. A new method of binary addition scheme with massive use of non-linear material based system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuladeep Roy Chowdhury; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    The limitations in electronics in arithmetic, algebraic & logic processing are well known. Very high speedperformance (above GHz) are not expected at all in conventional electronic mechanism. To achieve highspeed performance we may think on the introduction of optics instead of electronics for information pro-cessing and computing. Non-linear optical material is a successful candidate in this regard to play a majorrole in the optically controlled switching systems and therefore in all-optical parallel computation thesematerials can show a very good potential aspect. In this paper, we have proposed a new method of anoptical half adder as well as full adder circuit for binary addition using non-linear and linear optical ma-terials.

  16. Multiscale modelling of charge transport in organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny

    2010-03-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is controlled by a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. In this presentation we will show how a set of computational methods, namely molecular modelling methods to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport can be used to reproduce experimental charge mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Using case studies, we will show how such simulations can explain the relative values of electron and hole mobility and the effects of grain size, side chains and polymer molecular weight on charge mobility. Although currently applied to material systems of relatively high symmetry or well defined structure, this approach can be developed to address more complex systems such as multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers.

  17. Solar cells based on organic materials; Solceller av organisk materiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    Organic Solar cells are still in the early research phase, and the efficiency so far is merely 5 - 6 %. But since this field of technology is recognised to be highly promising and potentially important, the research and development effort is formidable, and one foresees an improvement in efficiency of 10 -15%. Introduction: Today's commercial solar cells are based on the semiconductive material silicium with an energy efficiency close to 15% , i e this share of the solar energy which hit the cell will be transformed into electric energy. Research versions of silicium cells have efficiencies up towards 25% and certain combined cells from other inorganic materials may attain 30 - 40%. For so called third generation solar cells one even expects figures up to 60%. Organic solar cells are not developed in order to compete with Si cells, but to complement them. They will be cheap, light, pliable and rugged, well suited for use under special conditions, as cruises and expeditions in mountains and wilderness, and the cells may be integrated in equipment and textiles. (EW)

  18. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A

    2012-01-01

    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  19. New Organic Semiconductor Materials Applied in Organic Photovoltaic and Optical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, Poly(3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by Electrical Measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by electrical Measurements has demonstrated that the PET/ITO/PEDOT/P3HT:PCBM Blend/PANI-X1 layer presents the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. The Thin film obtained by electrodeposition of PANI-X1 on P3HT/PCBM Blend was prepared in perchloric acid solution. These flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells presented power conversion efficiency of 12%. The inclusion of the PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation these organic photovoltaic panels induced for solar irradiation. In Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM these studies reveal that the surface of PANI-X1 layers is strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the dielectric.

  20. Monolayer Formation Characteristics of Novel Organic Molecules with Nonlinear Optically Active Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    reviews and special issues5 .6 . We recently reported7 the design and synthesis of a class of organic compounds ( Schiff base ) possessing a large second...RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The molecular structures of the candidate materials are shown in Fig. lb. The molecular structures of the NLO active Schiff base compounds...numerals, l-VII!. Step I in Fig. la shows the synthetic route to the Schiff base compounds MI-M6. Steps 2 and 3 define the approach to the synthesis of

  1. Strategies toward High Performance Organic Photovoltaic Cell: Material and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Gi

    The power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has been rapidly improved during the last few years and currently reaches around 10 %. The performance is evenly governed by absorption, exciton diffusion, exciton dissociation, carrier transfer, and collection efficiencies. Establishing a better understanding of OPV device physics combined with the development of new materials for each executive step contributes to this dramatic improvement. This dissertation focuses mainly on material design and development to correlate the intrinsic properties of organic semiconductors and the OPV performance. The introductory Chapter 1 briefly reviews the motivation of OPV research, its working mechanism, and representative organic materials for OPV application. Chapter 2 discusses the modulation of conjugated polymer's (CP's) absorption behavior and an efficient semi-empirical approach to predict CP's energy levels from its constituent monomers' HOMO/LUMO values. A strong acceptor lowered both the HOMO and LUMO levels of the CP, but the LUMO dropped more rapidly which ultimately produced a narrowed band-gap in the electron donating/accepting alternating copolymer system. In addition, the energy level difference between the CP and the constituent monomers converged to a constant value, providing an energy level prediction tool. Chapter 3 illustrates the systematic investigation on the relationship between the molecular structure of an energy harvesting organic dye and the exciton dissociation efficiency. The study showed that the quantum yield decreased as the exciton binding energy increases, and dipole moment direction should be properly oriented in the dye framework in order to improve photo-current generation when used in a dye sensitized photovoltaic device. Chapter 4 demonstrates the ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly of CPs in solution, rapidly and efficiently. Ultrasonication combined with dipolar media accelerated CP's aggregation, and the effect of CP

  2. Conjugated Polymer Zwitterions: Efficient Interlayer Materials in Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Duzhko, Volodimyr V; Page, Zachariah A; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P

    2016-11-15

    Conjugated polymer zwitterions (CPZs) are neutral, hydrophilic, polymer semiconductors. The pendent zwitterions, viewed as side chain dipoles, impart solubility in polar solvents for solution processing, and open opportunities as interfacial components of optoelectronic devices, for example, between metal electrodes and organic semiconductor active layers. Such interlayers are crucial for defining the performance of organic electronic devices, e.g., field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and photovoltaics (OPVs), all of which consist of multilayer structures. The interlayers reduce the Schottky barrier height and thus improve charge injection in OFETs and OLEDs. In OPVs, the interlayers serve to increase the built-in electric potential difference (Vbi) across the active layer, ensuring efficient extraction of photogenerated charge carriers. In general, polar and even charged electronically active polymers have gained recognition for their ability to modify metal/semiconductor interfaces to the benefit of organic electronics. While conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as interlayer materials are well-documented, open questions remain about the role of mobile counterions in CPE-containing devices. CPZs possess the processing advantages of CPEs, but as neutral molecules lack any potential complications associated with counterions. The electronic implications of CPZs on metal electrodes stem from the orientation of the zwitterion dipole moment in close proximity to the metal surface, and the resultant surface-induced polarization. This generates an interfacial dipole (Δ) at the CPZ/metal interface, altering the work function of the electrode, as confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and improving device performance. An ideal cathode interlayer would reduce electrode work function, have orthogonal processability to the active layer, exhibit good film forming properties (i.e., wettability/uniformity), prevent exciton

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL RELATIONS BEETWEEN RAW MATERIAL PRODUCERS AND PROCESSORS BASED ON NONLINEAR DEMAND FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyko V. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers interested in marketing of raw materials, whereas processing companies are interested in the establishment of raw material zones, providing capacity utilization; therefore, the establishment of sustainable linkages between producers and processors of raw materials is an objective necessity. In the article, with the help of mathematical methods we examine the conditions of mutually beneficial economic relations between agricultural producers and processing enterprises. Mathematical model for estimating the profits of the company is built of the following conditions: producers sell processing plants raw materials, determined by the coefficient of the interest in the partnership at an agreed purchase price, and the remaining raw materials are processed, so they can sell their products independently. Profit of the processing plant is determined by the mathematical model. To describe the nonlinear market-based sales of goods from its retail price we used a hyperbolic demand function

  4. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2011-07-19

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties compared to traditional inorganic materials such as amorphous or crystalline silicon. Some important advantages include their adaptability to low-temperature processing on flexible substrates, low cost, amenability to high-speed fabrication, and tunable electronic properties. These features are essential for a variety of next-generation electronic products, including low-power flexible displays, inexpensive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and printable sensors, among many other applications. Accordingly, the preparation of new materials based on π-conjugated organic molecules or polymers has been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade. Currently, p-channel (hole-transporting) materials are the leading class of organic semiconductors. In contrast, high-performance n-channel (electron-transporting) semiconductors are relatively rare, but they are of great significance for the development of plastic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In this Account, we highlight the advances our team has made toward realizing moderately and highly electron-deficient n-channel oligomers and polymers based on oligothiophene, arylenediimide, and (bis)indenofluorene skeletons. We have synthesized and characterized a "library" of structurally related semiconductors, and we have investigated detailed structure-property relationships through optical, electrochemical, thermal, microstructural (both single-crystal and thin-film), and electrical measurements. Our results reveal highly informative correlations between structural parameters at various length scales and charge transport properties. We first discuss oligothiophenes functionalized with perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroarene substituents, which represent the initial examples of high-performance n-channel semiconductors developed in this project. The OFET characteristics of these compounds are presented with an

  5. Growth and characterization of benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH) single crystal: A proficient second order nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M.; Abraham Rajasekar, S.

    2016-04-01

    The crystals (benzaldehyde 4-nitro phenyl hydrazone (BPH)) appropriate for NLO appliance were grown by the slow cooling method. The solubility and metastable zone width measurement of BPH specimen was studied. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group of Cc. The optical precision in the whole visible region was found to be excellent for non-linear optical claim. Excellence of the grown crystal is ascertained by the HRXRD and etching studies. Laser Damage Threshold and Photoluminescence studies designate that the grown crystal contains less imperfection. The mechanical behaviour of BPH sample at different temperatures was investigated to determine the hardness stability of the grown specimen. The piezoelectric temperament and the relative Second Harmonic Generation (for diverse particle sizes) of the material were also studied. The dielectric studies were executed at varied temperatures and frequencies to investigate the electrical properties. Photoconductivity measurement enumerates consummate of inducing dipoles due to strong incident radiation and also divulge the nonlinear behaviour of the material. The third order nonlinear optical properties of BPH crystals were deliberate by Z-scan method.

  6. Hierarchically organized soft-materials based on fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    Simple chemical modifications of fullerene (C60) with long aliphatic chains provide novel type amphiphilic molecules playing in organic solvents due to the two different intermolecular interactions, namely π-π on C60 and van der Waals interactions on aliphatic chain moieties, respectively, and open a door developing supramolecular soft-materials having hierarchically organized architectures, various morphologies and functions based on fullerenes. By tuning the length and number of aliphatic chains on the derivatives as well as experimental conditions such as solvents, temperature, substrates for preparation of the assemblies, the assembled fullerenes showed various faces such as creating of many unique-shaped objects with controlled their dimensionality. For instance, nanowires and thin disks with single bilayer thickness in nanometer size, globular, fibrous, conical objects in mesoscopic (sub-micrometer) scale and flower-shaped and direction-controlled spiral objects in micrometer scale are obtained. As bulk states, thermotropic liquid crystals and room temperature (isotropic) liquid fullerenes are interestingly prepared from this molecular designs and showed not only their fluid natures and comparably high carrier mobility as fullerene-based organic-semiconductor phenomena. In addition, nano-carbon superhydrophobic surface with fractal morphology of the two-tier roughness on a nano- and microscopic scale was created from one of the supramolecular objects. The all of hierarchical supramolecular assemblies describing in this review is derived from fine-tuning intermolecular interactions of fullerene derivatives bearing long aliphatic chains.

  7. Aging of organic materials around high-energy particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavlet, Marc

    1997-08-01

    Around particle accelerators used for fundamental research on the basic structure of matter, materials and components are exposed to ionizing radiation caused by beam losses in the proton machines and by synchrotron radiation in the lepton machines. Furthermore, with the high-energy and high-intensity collisions produced from future colliders, radiation damage is also to be expected in particle-physics detectors. Therefore, for a safe and reliable operation, the radiation aging of most of the components has to be assessed prior to their selection. An extensive radiation-damage test program has been carried out at CERN for decades on a routine basis and many results have been published. The tests have mainly concentrated on magnet-coil insulations and cable-insulating materials; they are carried out in accordance with the IEC 544 standard which defines the mechanical tests to be performed and the methods of degradation evaluation. The mechanical tests are also used to assess the degradation of composite structural materials. Moreover, electrical properties of high-voltage insulations and optical properties of organic scintillators and wave guides have also been studied. Our long-term experience has pointed out many parameters to be taken into account for the estimate of the lifetime of components in the radiation environment of our accelerators. One of the main parameters is the dose-rate effect, but the influence of other parameters has sometimes to be taken into account.

  8. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)

    1994-01-01

    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  9. Supramolecular organization of functional organic materials in the bulk and at organic/organic interfaces: a modeling and computer simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccioli, Luca; D'Avino, Gabriele; Berardi, Roberto; Orlandi, Silvia; Pizzirusso, Antonio; Ricci, Matteo; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Zannoni, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The molecular organization of functional organic materials is one of the research areas where the combination of theoretical modeling and experimental determinations is most fruitful. Here we present a brief summary of the simulation approaches used to investigate the inner structure of organic materials with semiconducting behavior, paying special attention to applications in organic photovoltaics and clarifying the often obscure jargon hindering the access of newcomers to the literature of the field. Special attention is paid to the choice of the computational "engine" (Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics) used to generate equilibrium configurations of the molecular system under investigation and, more importantly, to the choice of the chemical details in describing the molecular interactions. Recent literature dealing with the simulation of organic semiconductors is critically reviewed in order of increasing complexity of the system studied, from low molecular weight molecules to semiflexible polymers, including the challenging problem of determining the morphology of heterojunctions between two different materials.

  10. Influence of volatile organic compounds of varnish-and-paint materials on the workers organism on the industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.І. Архіпова

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In article describes the reasons of air contamination in working area of endustrial enterprises, defines main ways of incoming and mechanism of action of volatile organic compounds of paintwork material on the organisms of workers.

  11. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.;

    1992-01-01

    content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  12. Diffusion of Small Molecules in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Pieremanuele; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves J.; Thonhauser, T.

    2013-01-01

    Ab initio simulations are combined with in situ infrared spectroscopy to unveil the molecular transport of H2, CO2, and H2O in the metal organic framework MOF-74-Mg. Our study uncovers—at the atomistic level—the major factors governing the transport mechanism of these small molecules. In particular, we identify four key diffusion mechanisms and calculate the corresponding diffusion barriers, which are nicely confirmed by time-resolved infrared experiments. We also answer a long-standing question about the existence of secondary adsorption sites for the guest molecules, and we show how those sites affect the macroscopic diffusion properties. Our findings are important to gain a fundamental understanding of the diffusion processes in these nanoporous materials, with direct implications for the usability of MOFs in gas sequestration and storage applications.

  13. Rational design of organic electro-optic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, L R

    2003-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations are used to optimize the molecular first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores and statistical mechanical calculations are used to optimize the translation of molecular hyperpolarizability to macroscopic electro-optic activity (to values of greater than 100 pm V sup - sup 1 at telecommunications wavelengths). Macroscopic material architectures are implemented exploiting new concepts in nanoscale architectural engineering. Multi-chromophore-containing dendrimers and dendronized polymers not only permit optimization of electro-optic activity but also of auxiliary properties including optical loss (both absorption and scattering), thermal and photochemical stability and processability. New reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques permit the fabrication of three-dimensional optical circuitry and the integration of that circuitry with semiconductor very-large-scale integration electronics and silica fibre optics. Electro-optic devices have been fabricated exploiti...

  14. Numerical scheme for non-linear model of supercritical fluid extraction from polydisperse ground plant material: single transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatin, A.

    2016-11-01

    Numerical algorithm is developed for modelling non-linear mass transfer process in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The ground raw material is considered as polydisperse, characterized by discrete number of effective particle fractions. Two continuous interacting counterparts separated by permeable membrane are distinguished in plant material build-up. The apoplast plays role of transport channels during extraction, and symplast contains extractable oil. The complete SFE model is non-linear as a result of non-linearity of oil dissolution kinetics. The computational scheme is based on the finite-volume approximation method and Thomas elimination procedure. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. Special attention is paid to polydisperse substrates, when particle scale characteristics of all fractions interact with each other through pore phase concentration on the vessel scale. Stability of the developed algorithm is demonstrated in numerical tests. Special iterative procedure guarantees a monotonic decrease of oil content in individual particles of substrate. It is also shown that in the limit of the so-called shrinking core approach the number of mesh nodes on a particle scale should be increased.

  15. of Effect of different organic materials on plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrnosh eskandari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Using organic matter, such as, peat and vermicompost as soil amendment, increases aeration, water infiltration, water holding capacity and nutrients of soil . A greenhouse experiment was performed to study the effect of organic materials on plant growth characteristics, total biomass and grain weight of chickpea with four treatments; 1 Soil + 3% peat (PS, 2 Sterile soil + 3% peat (SPS, 3 Soil + vermicompost (1:6 (VCS, 4 control (C in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that the maximum germination percentage, number of branch and number of pod per plant were observed in SPS treatment due to the avoidance of harmful microbial impacts. Plant height in this treatment reduced, whereas, no significant differences in total dry matter per plant and dry weight of chickpea per plant were observed compared to control. Plant growth consist of plant height, number of branch and number of pod per plant in vermicompost and soil + peat treatment reduced in the early stages probably because of plant - microbes interaction effects. Application of vermicompost increased fresh and dry weight, pod dry weight and single grain weight, probably due to more plant nutrient availability in this treatment when compared with other treatments.

  16. Adsorbed Organic Material and Its Control on Wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Jesper; Hassenkam, Tue; Bovet, Nicolas Emile

    2017-01-01

    , the difference in adhesion between ASW and ASW-low was higher before the ethanol/ozone treatment. We attribute this change in response to the salinity dependent force caused mainly by the electric double layer (EDL) at the sand grain surfaces. We interpret the higher adhesion difference, before a very thorough...... salinity. Here we quantified the response of sandstone core plug material in its preserved state (i.e., after storage in kerosene) and after the same core plug material was treated with ethanol and ozone to remove adsorbed organic compounds. We used the chemical force microscopy (CFM) mode of atomic force...... surfaces in artificial seawater (ASW; 35,600 ppm) and in ASW diluted to ∼1,500 ppm (ASW-low). Both before and after the ethanol/ozone treatment, and for both the alkane and the carboxylate functionalized tips, the adhesion was lower in ASW diluted to ∼1,500 ppm than in ASW. For both alkane and carboxylate...

  17. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  18. Anamet and biomet systems for biomethanation of organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostell, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Anamet system was originally developed to handle wastes from the Swedish sugar industry. It is a combined anaerobic-aerobic waste water treatment process (ANAMET - ANaerobic-Aerobic- METhane) where the waste water is firstly processed in an anaerobic contact reactor and secondly in an activated sludge plant. In the anaerobic stage, 60-95% of incoming biodegradable material is converted to biogas which is recovered as a fuel. In the subsequent aerobic stage, most of the remaining biodegradable material is removed resulting in overall BOD5 reductions of 95-99%. The excess biomass produced in the aerobic stage is digested in the anaerobic stage further increasing yield of biogas. The Anamet process has found wide-spread application in the food industry. In treatment of food industry waste waters, it has been possible to achieve 98-99.9% BOD5 reduction in the Anamet system. Gas recoveries amount to 0.18-0.33 cubic m methane per kg added COD. Recently, the Anamet process was introduced in the pulp and paper industry. The treatment of these waste waters often is somewhat problematic due to the presence of toxic or inhibitory materials and sulphate. This results in a somewhat lower anaerobic efficiency and also in lowered gas yields. In the Anamet system, anaerobic BOD5 reductions of 60-85% have been demonstrated. Totally, 90-95% BOD5 reduction can relatively easily be obtained. The Biomet system has been developed to treat solid organic wastes and energy crops. In this process, a thermophilic methanogenic stage is used up-stream the Anamet process. Promising results were demonstrated in a 50 cubic m pilot plant treating beet pulp. The paper reviews AC Biotechnics' pilot and full scale experience in treating waste waters and solid wastes by methane fermentation. Special attention is paid to the influence of different substrates in the biomethanation process, and on the possible biogas yield.

  19. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of organic molecules on conductive new catalytic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tountian, D. [Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France). Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Physique du Corps Solide; Sherbrooke Univ., Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Electrochimie et Electrocatalyse; Brisach-Wittmeyer, A.; Menard, H. [Sherbrooke Univ., Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie, Centre de Recherche en Electrochimie et Electrocatalyse; Nkeng, P.; Poillerat, G. [Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France). Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Physique du Corps Solide

    2008-07-01

    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) of organic molecules is a process where chemisorbed hydrogen is produced by electroreduction of water which reacts with the species in bulk. Greater emphasis is being placed on improving the nature of the building material of the electrodes in order to increase ECH efficiency. The effectiveness of the ECH is known to be linked to the nature of electrode materials used and their adsorption properties. This work presented the effect of conductive support material on ECH. The conductive catalysts were obtained from tin dioxide which is chemically stable. Palladium was the catalytic metal used in this study. The production of chemisorbed hydrogen was shown to depend on the quantity of metallic nanoaggregates in electrical contact with the reticulated vitreous carbon use as electrode. The conductive support, F-doped tin dioxide, was obtained by the sol-gel method. The electrocatalysts were characterized by different methods as resistivity measurements, linear sweep voltammetry, XRD, SEM, TGA/DSC, and FTIR analysis. The effects of temperature and time of calcination were also investigated. The study showed that the F-doped SnO2 electrocatalyst appeared to increase the rate of phenol electrohydrogenation. It was concluded that the improved electrocatalytic activity of Pd/F-doped SnO2 can be attributed to the simultaneous polarization of all the metallic Pd nanoaggregates present on the surface as well as in the pores of the matrix by contact with RVC. This results in a better production of chemisorbed atomic hydrogen with a large number of adlienation points. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Philip Anthony; Shatabdi Porel; D Narayana Rao; T P Radhakrishnan

    2005-11-01

    Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which form perfectly polar assemblies in their crystalline state are found to organize as uniaxially oriented crystallites in vapor deposited thin films on glass substrate. Optical second harmonic generation from these films is investigated. A simple protocol is developed for the in-situ fabrication of highly monodisperse silver nanoparticles in a polymer film matrix. The methodology can be used to produce free-standing films. Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated.

  1. Organic hydrogels as potential sorbent materials for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardatos, George; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Bokias, George

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable to adsorb large amounts of water or biological fluids. The networks are composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. Depending on the nature of the structural units, swelling or shrinking of these gels can be activated by several external stimuli, such as solvent, heat, pH, electric stimuli. As a consequence, these materials are attractive for several applications in a variety of fields: drug delivery, muscle mimetic soft linear actuators, hosts of nanoparticles and semiconductors, regenerative medicine etc. Of special interest is the application of hydrogels for water purification, since they can effectively adsorb several water soluble pollutants such as metal ions, inorganic or organic anions, organic dyestaff, etc. In the present work, anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged -COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These are based on the anionic monomer sodium acrylate (ANa) and the nonionic one N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). A series of copolymeric hydrogels (P(DMAM-co-ANax) were synthesized. The molar content x of ANa units (expressing the molar charged content of the hydrogel) varies from 0 (nonionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, hydrogel) up to 1 (fully charged poly(sodium acrylate), PANa, hydrogel). The hydrogels were used to extract organic or inorganic solutes from water. Cationic and anionic model dyes, as well as multivalent inorganic ions, have been studied. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly adsorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while adsorbance of anionic dyes was negligible. Both maximum adsorption and equilibrium binding constant depend on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. In the case of metal cations, adsorption depends mostly on the charge of the cation. In addition, crucial factors controlling

  2. Optimization of Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia

    Due to the increasing demand for sustainable clean energy, photovoltaic cells have received intensified attention in the past decade in both academia and industry. Among the types of cells, organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer promise as alternatives to conventional inorganic-type solar cells owning to several unique advantages such as low material and fabrication cost. To maximize power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), extensive research efforts focus on frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy engineering of photoactive materials. Towards this objective, a series of novel donor polymers incorporating a new building block, bithiophene imide (BTI) group are developed, with narrow bandgap and low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies to increase short circuit current density, Jsc, and open circuit voltage, Voc.. Compared to other PV technologies, OPVs often suffer from large internal recombination loss and relatively low fill factors (FFs) thin film morphology, OPVs with PCEs up to 8.7% and unprecedented FF approaching 80% are obtained. Such high FF are close to those typically achieved in amorphous Si solar cells. Systematic variations of polymer chemical structures lead to understanding of structure-property relationships between polymer geometry and the resulting blend film morphology characteristics which are crucial for achieving high local mobilities and long carrier lifetimes. Instead of using fullerene as the acceptors, an alternative type of OPV is developed employing a high electron mobility polymer, P(NDI2OD-T2), as the acceptor. To improve the all-polymer blend film morphology, the influence of basic solvent properties such as solvent boiling point and solubility on polymer phase separation and charge transport properties is investigated, yielding to a high PCE of 2.7% for all-polymer solar cells. To take advantages of the inherent mechanical flexibility associated with organic materials, the development of transparent, flexible

  3. Computational evaluation of optoelectronic properties for organic/carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Peng, Qian; Geng, Hua

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic optoelectronic materials are used in a variety of devices, including light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, spintronics, and chemico- and biosensors. The processes that determine the intrinsic optoelectronic properties occur either in the photoexcited states or within the electron-pumped charged species, and computations that predict these optical and electrical properties would help researchers design new materials. In this Account, we describe recent advances in related density functional theory (DFT) methods and present case studies that examine the efficiency of light emission, carrier mobility, and thermoelectric figures of merit by calculation of the electron-vibration couplings. First we present a unified vibrational correlation function formalism to evaluate the excited-state radiative decay rate constant kr, the nonradiative decay rate constant knr, the intersystem crossing rate constant kISC, and the optical spectra. The molecular parameters that appear in the formalism, such as the electronic excited-state energy, vibrational modes, and vibronic couplings, require extensive DFT calculations. We used experiments for anthracene at both low and ambient temperatures to benchmark the calculated photophysical parameters. In the framework of Fermi's golden rule, we incorporated the non-adiabatic coupling and the spin-orbit coupling to evaluate the phosphorescence efficiency and emission spectrum. Both of these are in good agreement with experimental results for anthracene and iridium compounds. Band electron scattering and relaxation processes within Boltzmann theory can describe charge transport in two-dimensional carbon materials and closely packed organic solids. For simplicity, we considered only the acoustic phonon scattering as modeled by the deformation potential approximation coupled with extensive DFT calculations for band structures. We then related the carrier mobility to the band

  4. Organic thin films as active materials in field effect transistors and electrochemical sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabella, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis is focused on Organic Electronics, an emerging field where different disciplines converge to gain insights into the properties of organic materials and their applications. Under the present work different organic materials have been realized and analysed for application both in Organic Field Effect Transistors and electrochemical sensing with Organic Electrochemical Transistors. An overview about Organic Electronic is reported with the most recent advancement of the last year...

  5. Using sum rules to guide experiential and theoretical studies of the intrinsic nonlinear-optical susceptibility of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juefei

    This dissertation combines theoretical and experimental studies of organic molecules to understand light-matter interactions with the goal of making more efficient nonlinear-optical molecules. We use a finite element method to numerically calculate and optimize the nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of 1-dimensional molecules, which resulted in a new paradigm for fabricating molecules with better nonlinear properties. This approach was used as a guide by researchers to identify and characterize a record-high intrinsic hyperpolarizability. Using the results of a sum rule analysis, we propose a new method for modeling the nonlinear-optical spectra of molecules. We apply our theory to the two-photon absorption cross section of the Air Force dye called AF455, and find that it is consistent with our measurements. The properties of the first two excited states of AF455 determined with a combination of linear absorption spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering measurements are sufficient to predict, within experimental uncertainty, the full two-photon absorption spectrum.

  6. Chiral pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines as second-order nonlinear optical materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, E.; Kelderman, E.; Verboom, Willem; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Heesink, G.J.T.; Heesink, G.J.T.; Lehmusvaara, E.; van Hulst, N.F.; Reinhoudt, David; Derhaeg, L.; Persoons, A.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of a series of chiral pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines la-e is presented. The microscopic hyperpolarizabilities (beta(z)) were determined by EFISH measurements and the macroscopic susceptibilities (X2) were estimated by the Kurtz powder test. A small fixed

  7. Simple setup for rapid testing of third-order nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, P; Blau, W; Byrne, H; Berglund, P

    1990-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive and versatile degenerate four-wave mixing setup is described utilizing a nitrogen laser pumped dye laser. Samples can be screened rapidly, which is demonstrated with the example of a semiconductor doped glass having a nonlinear susceptibility x((3)) ~ 10(-11)-10(-10) esu.

  8. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials: Some structure-function correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sabapathi Gokulnath; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear optical properties of representative core-modified expanded porphyrins have been investigated with an emphasis on the structure-property relationship between the aromaticity and conformational behaviour. It has been shown that the measured two-photon absorption cross section (2) values depend on the structure of macrocycle, its aromaticity and the number of -electrons in conjugation.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and state space representation of a manipulator under viscoelastic material conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the VoigtKelvin constitutive model, nonlinear dynamic modelling and state space representation of a viscoelastic beam acting as a flexible robotic manipulator is investigated. Complete nonlinear dynamic modelling of a viscoelastic beam without premature linearisation of dynamic equations is developed. The adopted method is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as beam stiffening due to centrifugal and Coriolis forces induced by rotation of the joints. Structural damping effects on the models dynamic behaviour are also shown. A reliable model for a viscoelastic beam is subsequently presented. The governing equations of motion are derived using Hamiltons principle, and using the finite difference method, nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations. For the purpose of flexible manipulator control, the standard form of state space equations for the viscoelastic link and the actuator is obtained. Simulation results indicate substantial improvements in dynamic behaviour, and a parameter sensitivity study is carried out to investigate the effect of structural damping on the vibration amplitude.

  10. Asymmetric induced cubic nonlinearities in homogeneous and quasi-phase-matched quadratic materials: signature and importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Corney, Joel Frederick

    2001-01-01

    In continuous-wave operation asymmetric induced nonlinearities induce an intensity-dependent phase mismatch that implies a nonzero so-called separatrix intensity, the crossing of which changes the one-period phase shift of the fundamental by Pi , with obvious use in switching applications.We deri...

  11. Developing stable isotopic records from organic material preserved in speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, A.; Baker, A.

    2011-12-01

    Speleothems form excellent archives of environmental change as they are easy to date and preserve multiple environmental records. However, although the stable isotopic composition of speleothem calcite is well characterised, the isotopic composition of organic matter in speleothems has not been investigated in-depth. The approach has considerable potential value in providing isotopic records directly linked to the overlying ecosystem. For stable carbon isotopes, this will provide records independent of the calcite signal, and enable identification of the local primary controls (vegetation type, climate, soil conditions). However, the detailed measurement of isotopic records in speleothem organic matter is hindered by methodological constraints, including extraction of sufficient material, and recovery without adding carbon contamination. Here we present results from a number of methodological techniques and discuss which show most potential for future palaeoenvironmental work. Isotopic records in organic matter can be divided into two main types - analyses of the bulk organic fraction, and compound-specific analyses of molecules of interest (e.g. plant waxes, bacterial lipids etc.). From the point of view of sample size, bulk analysis is the most amenable. Our work shows that TOC in stalagmites can be as low as sample size of between 100 and 500 mg of calcite powder, which provides a workable temporal resolution at a decadal-centennial scale on many samples. The main obstacle is the recovery of bulk organics without carbon contamination, but whilst avoiding excess acid salts which might damage the instrumentation. One method we propose is the use of an iTOC-CDRS analyser, which measures total organic carbon, and also 12C and 13C isotopes. The approach has the advantage of requiring minimal sample preparation, with drilled powders simply being dissolved in acid. The major limitation is the precision on the CDRS, which at +/- 0.15% does not match that of IRMS

  12. Linear and nonlinear optics of pyronin Y/flexible polymer substrate for flexible organic technology: New optical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Zahran, H. Y.; Alamri, F. H.

    2017-10-01

    Pyronin Y (PY) thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on a flexible polyacetate substrate by using the spin-coating method. Pyronin Y thin films have an amorphous structure as identified by X-ray diffraction method. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of PY thin films were studied in details as a function of wavelengths. Transmittance, absorbance and reflectance spectra of pyronin Y thin films were recorded in the wavelengths range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive and absorption indices have been computed from Fresnel's equation. The optical band gaps were calculated for the studied PY thin film of thicknesses 205, 140 and 95 nm. Both direct and indirect gaps were computed as a function of PY of different thicknesses. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were investigated for the studied material. Spectrophotometric data was used to determine the nonlinear refractive index and the third nonlinear optical susceptibility. Pyronin Y thin films/polymer flexible substrate can be used in many applications such as flexible optoelectronic/electronic devices and for nonlinear optics with specified band gap.

  13. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  14. Polyhedral-based nonlinear optical materials. 2. Theoretical investigation of some new high nonlinear optical response compounds involving polyhedral bridges with charged aromatic donors and acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, D G; Spencer, J T

    2001-07-02

    A theoretical study of several new classes of polyhedral-based molecules has shown that these species display large calculated nonlinear optical responses. These new classes of molecules are based on charged aromatic subunits connected through polyhedral cluster bridges, such as closo-[1-(C(7)H(6))-12-(C(5)Me(4))C(2)B(10)H(10)]. These compounds show calculated first hyperpolarizabilities (beta) ranging from 6.5 to 8413.9 x 10(-30) cm(5) esu(-1). A basis for understanding the origin of these large responses is proposed based on the two-state model and consideration of the orbital and electronic features of the molecules. In general, the highest occupied molecular orbitals for these species are localized on the aromatic donor rings, such as the cyclopentadienyl system, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals are largely on the aromatic acceptor rings, such as the tropylium system. The electronic properties of these polyhedral-based systems appear to be significantly different from the analogous organic [5.6.7]quinarene system (tropyliumcyclopentadienylbenzene). The organic quinarene appears to behave as a completely electron-delocalized system over all three rings while the polyhedral-based compounds can best be described as consisting of two relatively independent, highly polarized regions.

  15. The interfacial chemistry of organic materials on commercial glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joy

    The hydrolytic stability of glass is dependent on its composition. Glasses are exposed to water during their processing and in many applications; therefore, their surface or interface with other materials must withstand hydrolytic attack. Multi-component silicate glasses are widely used but have been the least studied. In coatings-based applications, these glasses come in contact with organosilanes and organic molecules where the adsorption may be affected by surface water. For example, the influence of glass composition on the wet strength of a glass/polymer composite material is unclear, but it is presumed to be driven by the hydrolytic stability of the interfacial chemistry. Organosilanes are critical for increasing the performance of composite materials in humid environments but the precise manner by which the improvement occurs has not been verified. The current school of thought is that the application of silane coatings on a multi-component glass surface transforms the chemically heterogeneous surface into a homogenous and hydrolytically stable surface. In this study, multi-component silicate glass surfaces were silanized by both aqueous and non-aqueous methods. The effect of glass composition and surface hydration on silane coverage was quantified by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The monolayer-level adsorption results showed that the low-sodium content glasses had greater coverage than a high-sodium content glass in dry conditions in contrast to an equivalent coverage in wet conditions. The hydrolytically-stable coverage on multi-component silicate glass surfaces by both silanization methods was found to be sub-monolayer. A thin film model in conjunction with XPS and Infrared Spectroscopy was used to probe the interfacial region of a fiberglass insulation material containing a sodium-rich multi-component silicate glass and an acrylate resin binder. Upon the application of the aqueous binder, the leaching of sodium from the glass promoted

  16. Inorganic-organic electrolyte materials for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Shih-To

    This thesis research is devoted to the development of phosphazene-based electrolyte materials for use in various energy applications. Phosphazenes are inorganic-organic materials that provide unusal synthetic advantages and unique process features that make them useful in energy research. This particular thesis consists of six chapters and is focused on four specific aspects: lithium battery, solar cell, and fuel cell electrolytes, and artificial muscles. Chapter 1 is written as an introduction and review of phosphazene electrolytes used in energy applications. In this introduction the basic history and characteristics of the phosphazenes are discussed briefly, followed by examples of current and future applications of phosphazene electrolytes related to energy. Notes are included on how the rest of the chapters relate to previous work. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss the conductivity and fire safety of ethyleneoxy phosphazene gel electrolytes. The current highly flammable configurations for rechargeable lithium batteries generate serious safety concerns. Although commercial fire retardant additives have been investigated, they tend to decrease the overall efficiency of the battery. In these two chapters the discussion is focused on ionically conductive, non-halogenated lithium battery additives based on a methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomer and the corresponding high polymer, both of which can increase the fire resistance of a battery while retaining a high energy efficiency. Conductivities in the range of 10 -4 Scm-1 have been obtained for self-extinguishing, ion-conductive methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene oligomers. The addition of 25 wt% high polymeric poly[bis(methoxyethoxyethoxy)phosphazene] to propylene carbonate electrolytes lowers the flammability by 90% while maintaining a good ionic conductivity of 2.5x10--3 Scm -1 Chapter 2 is focused more on the electrochemical properties of the electrolytes and how they compare to other similar materials, while Chapter 3

  17. Updated Lagrangian finite element formulations of various biological soft tissue non-linear material models: a comprehensive procedure and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Molly T; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Simplified material models are commonly used in computational simulation of biological soft tissue as an approximation of the complicated material response and to minimize computational resources. However, the simulation of complex loadings, such as long-duration tissue swelling, necessitates complex models that are not easy to formulate. This paper strives to offer the updated Lagrangian formulation comprehensive procedure of various non-linear material models for the application of finite element analysis of biological soft tissues including a definition of the Cauchy stress and the spatial tangential stiffness. The relationships between water content, osmotic pressure, ionic concentration and the pore pressure stress of the tissue are discussed with the merits of these models and their applications.

  18. [?]Nonlinear Issues in the Aerothermochemistry of Gases and Materials and the Associated Physics and Dynamics of Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1996-01-01

    Our research and technology are focused on nonlinear issues in the aerothermochemistry of gases and materials and the associated physics and dynamics of interfaces. Our program is now organized to aggressively support the NASA Aeronautics Enterprise so as to: (a) develop a new generation of environmentally compatible, economic subsonic aircraft; (b) develop the technology base for an economically viable and environmentally compatible high-speed civil transport; (c) develop the technology options for new capabilities in high-performance aircraft; (d) develop hypersonic technologies for air-breathing flight; and (e) develop advanced concepts, understanding of physical phenomena, and theoretical, experimental, and computational tools for advanced aerospace systems. The implications from our research for aeronautical and aerospace technology have been both broad and deep. For example, using advanced computational techniques, we have determined exact solutions for the Schrodinger equation in electron-molecule scattering allowing us to evaluate atmospheric models important to reentry physics. We have also found a new class of exact solutions for the Navier Stokes equations. In experimental fluid dynamics, we have found explicit evidence of turbulence modification of droplet sizes in shock tube flow with condensation. We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the direct estimation of flow velocities at MHz sampling rates in quasi-one dimensional turbulent flow. This procedure suggests an unexpected confirmation of the possibility of 'natural' closure in Reynolds stresses with deep implications for the development of turbulent models. A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of the expected relaminarization. A unique diamond-shaped nozzle has been

  19. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science technology under consignment from NEDO. Report on the R and D of nonlinear optoelectronic materials; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Hisenkei hikari denshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As to the development of organic base materials, the paper is going ahead with an evaluation, higher performance and further use as materials of basic optical properties of quirale nonlinear materials and organic conjugate base materials which are promising among organic low molecular materials. As the development of orientation control crystal growth technology, grooves for orientation control were formed on the surface of the lead glass substrate, from which thin film single crystals were obtained. The nonlinear response was studied of the glass where semiconducting fine particles dispersed in matrix glass. Glass scattering base prototype materials were selected by the sol-gel method and ultra-low melting-point glass method. The glass dispersion base materials by the very fast cooling method was also studied. For the purpose of realizing a high speed switching characteristic, a processing technology was developed of ultra fine particle dispersing polymer light waveguide. As to the technology for super lattice, the optimum nonlinear performance materials were selected mainly with the optimum complex super lattice base. Moreover, the three-dimensional super structuring technology was constructed to improve nonlinear optical characteristics. The comprehensive investigational study was conducted for effective promotion of the research development. 177 refs., 260 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, C; Gagné, F; Férard, J F; Eullaffroy, P

    2008-10-01

    Present knowledge concerning the ecotoxic effects of nano-materials is very limited and merits to be documented more fully. For this purpose, we appraised the toxicity of nine metallic nano-powders (copper zinc iron oxide, nickel zinc iron oxide, yttrium iron oxide, titanium dioxide, strontium ferrite, indium tin oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, and holmium oxide) and of two organic nano- powders (fullerene-C60 and single-walled carbon nanotube or SWCNT). After a simple process where nano-powders (NPs) were prepared in aqueous solution and filtered, they were then bioassayed across several taxonomic groups including decomposers (bacteria), primary producers (micro-algae), as well as primary and secondary consumers (micro-invertebrates and fish). Toxicity data generated on the 11 NPs reflected a wide spectrum of sensitivity that was biological level-, test-, and endpoint-specific. With all acute and chronic tests confounded for these 11 NPs, toxicity responses spanned over three orders of magnitude: >463 mg/L (24 h LC50 of the invertebrate Thamnoplatyurus platyurus for fullerene-C60) / 0.3 mg/L (96 h EC50 of the invertebrate Hydra attenuata for indium tin oxide), that is a ratio of 1543. On the basis of the MARA (Microbial Array for Risk Assessment) assay toxic fingerprint concept, it is intimated that NPs may have different modes of toxic action. When mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a certified reference material (CRM) sediment, two solid phase assays and an elutriate assay, respectively, showed that five NPs (copper zinc iron oxide, samarium oxide, erbium oxide, holmium oxide, and SWCNT) were able to increase both CRM sediment toxicity and its elutriate toxicity. This initial investigation suggests that chemicals emerging from nanotechnology may pose a risk to aquatic life in water column and sediment compartments and that further studies on their adverse effects are to be encouraged.