Sample records for nonlinear optical waveguides

  1. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG


    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  2. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides (United States)

    Kuyken, B.; Leo, F.; Clemmen, S.; Dave, U.; Van Laer, R.; Ideguchi, T.; Zhao, H.; Liu, X.; Safioui, J.; Coen, S.; Gorza, S. P.; Selvaraja, S. K.; Massar, S.; Osgood, R. M.; Verheyen, P.; Van Campenhout, J.; Baets, R.; Green, W. M. J.; Roelkens, G.


    The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  3. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016......)]. The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication...

  4. Nonlinear Integrated Optical Waveguides in Chalcogenide Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinlan; Ruan; Barry; Luther-Davies; Weitang; Li; Andrei; Rode; Marek; Samoc


    This paper reports on the study and measurement of the third order optical nonlinearity in bulk sulfide-based chalcogenide glasses; The fabrication process of the ultrafast laser deposited As-S-(Se)-based chalcogenide films and optical waveguides using two techniques: wet chemistry etching and plasma etching.

  5. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebel, Falko, E-mail:; Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia [Institut für Angewandte Physik and Center for Nonlinear Science (CeNoS), Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)


    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  6. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in air-cladding silicon pedestal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yaojing; Yao, Yifei; Tsang, Hon Ki


    The third-order optical nonlinearity in optical waveguides has found applications in optical switching, optical wavelength conversion, optical frequency comb generation, and ultrafast optical signal processing. The development of an integrated waveguide platform with a high nonlinearity is therefore important for nonlinear integrated photonics. Here, we report the observation of an enhancement in the nonlinearity of an air-cladding silicon pedestal waveguide. We observe enhanced nonlinear spectral broadening compared to a conventional silicon-on-insulator waveguide. At the center wavelength of 1555 nm, the nonlinear-index coefficient of air-cladding silicon pedestal waveguide is measured to be about 5% larger than that of a conventional silicon-on-insulator waveguide. We observe enhanced spectral broadening from self-phase modulation of an optical pulse in the pedestal waveguide. The interaction of light with the confined acoustic phonons in the pedestal structure gives rise to a larger nonlinear-index coeffi...

  7. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshan Li


    Full Text Available We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm2, using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass.

  8. Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Optomechanical Nanoscale Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zoubi, Hashem


    We explore the possibility of achieving a significant nonlinear phase shift among photons propagating in nanoscale waveguides exploiting interactions among photons that are mediated by vibrational modes and induced through Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). We introduce a configuration that allows slowing down the photons by several orders of magnitude via SBS involving sound waves and two pump fields. We extract the conditions for maintaining vanishing amplitude gain or loss for slowly propagating photons while keeping the influence of thermal phonons to the minimum. The nonlinear phase among two counter-propagating photons can be used to realize a deterministic phase gate.

  9. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Nonlinear optical processes in planar waveguides and excitation of surface polaritons (United States)

    Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.


    An investigation is made of nonlinear optical interaction of light propagating in a planar waveguide with surface polaritons. Reduced wave equations for the amplitudes of the waveguide modes and surface polaritons are used to study the characteristics of generation of surface polaritons of difference frequency, parametric frequency up-conversion of the polaritons, and stimulated Raman scattering by the polaritons. An analysis is made of the characteristic properties of the investigated nonlinear optical processes.

  10. Power-transfer effects in monomode optical nonlinear waveguiding structures. (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Z; Jerominek, H; Patela, S; Tremblay, R; Delisle, C


    We describe power-transfer effects, over a certain threshold, among constituents of planar waveguiding structures consisting of an optical linear layer deposited onto a nonlinear substrate (CdS(x)Se(1-x)-doped glass). Proper selection of the thickness of the linear waveguiding film and the refractive index of the linear cladding allows one to obtain optical transistor action and to construct all-optical AND, OR, NOT, and XOR logic gates. The effects appear for the TE(0) guided mode.

  11. Optical pulse engineering and processing using optical nonlinearities of nanostructured waveguides made of silicon (United States)

    Lavdas, Spyros; You, Jie; Osgood, Richard M.; Panoiu, Nicolae C.


    We present recent results pertaining to pulse reshaping and optical signal processing using optical nonlinearities of silicon-based tapered photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides. In particular, we show how nonlinearity and dispersion engineering of tapered photonic wires can be employed to generate optical similaritons and achieve more than 10× pulse compression. We also discuss the properties of four-wave mixing pulse amplification and frequency conversion efficiency in long-period Bragg waveguides and photonic crystal waveguides. Finally, the influence of linear and nonlinear optical effects on the transmission bit-error rate in uniform photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides made of silicon is discussed.

  12. Extremely nonlocal optical nonlinearities in atoms trapped near a waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Stimming, Hans Peter; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon


    Nonlinear optical phenomena are typically local. Here we predict the possibility of highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities for light propagating in atomic media trapped near a nano-waveguide, where long-range interactions between the atoms can be tailored. When the atoms are in an electromagnetically-induced transparency configuration, the atomic interactions are translated to long-range interactions between photons and thus to highly nonlocal optical nonlinearities. We derive and analyze the governing nonlinear propagation equation, finding a roton-like excitation spectrum for light and the emergence of long-range order in its output intensity. These predictions open the door to studies of unexplored wave dynamics and many-body physics with highly-nonlocal interactions of optical fields in one dimension.

  13. Dynamics of optical rogue waves in inhomogeneous nonlinear waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie-Fang; Jin Mei-Zhen; He Ji-Da; Lou Ji-Hui; Dai Chao-Qing


    We propose a unified theory to construct exact rogue wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation with varying coefficients.And then the dynamics of the first-and the second-order optical rogues are investigated.Finally,the controllability of the optical rogue propagating in inhomogeneous nonlinear waveguides is discussed.By properly choosing the distributed coefficients,we demonstrate analytically that rogue waves can be restrained or even be annihilated,or emerge periodically and sustain forever.We also figure out the center-of-mass motion of the rogue waves.

  14. Optical nonlinearity enhancement with graphene-decorated silicon waveguides (United States)

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Kou, Rai; Goto, Takahiro; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Hitachi, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Yamada, Koji; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki


    Broadband on-chip optical frequency combs (OFCs) are important for expanding the functionality of photonic integrated circuits. Here, we demonstrate a huge local optical nonlinearity enhancement using graphene. A waveguide is decorated with graphene by precisely manipulating graphene’s area and position. Our approach simultaneously achieves both an extremely efficient supercontinuum and ultra-short pulse generation. With our graphene-decorated silicon waveguide (G-SWG), we have achieved enhanced spectral broadening of femtosecond pump pulses, along with an eightfold increase in the output optical intensity at a wavelength approximately 200 nm shorter than that of the pump pulses. We also found that this huge nonlinearity works as a compressor that effectively compresses pulse width from 80 to 15.7 fs. Our results clearly show the potential for our G-SWG to greatly boost the speed and capacity of future communications with lower power consumption, and our method will further decrease the required pump laser power because it can be applied to decorate various kinds of waveguides with various two-dimensional materials.

  15. Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a resonator-array waveguide. (United States)

    E Heebner, John; Boyd, Robert W; Park, Q-Han


    We describe an optical transmission line that consists of an array of wavelength-scale optical disk resonators coupled to an optical waveguide. Such a structure leads to exotic optical characteristics, including ultraslow group velocities of propagation, enhanced optical nonlinearities, and large dispersion with a controllable magnitude and sign. This device supports soliton propagation, which can be described by a generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation.

  16. Slow light enhanced optical nonlinearity in a silicon photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Takumi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya


    We demonstrate highly enhanced optical nonlinearity in a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW) in a four-wave mixing experiment. Using a CROW consisting of 200 coupled resonators based on width-modulated photonic crystal nanocavities in a line defect, we obtained an effective nonlinear constant exceeding 10,000 /W/m, thanks to slow light propagation combined with a strong spatial confinement of light achieved by the wavelength-sized cavities.

  17. FIBER-OPTIC AND OTHER WAVEGUIDES: Characteristics of nonlinear optical excitation of modes in planar waveguide structures (United States)

    Yashkir, O. V.; Yashkir, Yu N.


    A theoretical investigation is made of nonlinear excitation of planar waveguide modes at frequencies ω when external plane optical waves of frequency ω1 are incident on the waveguide surface. The general formulas for the efficiency of the excitation of modes by a monochromatic wave are obtained and analyzed for the case of self-interaction of the ω = ω1 + ω1 - ω1 type and by a biharmonic wave in the case of generation of the difference frequency ω = ω1 - ω1'. The efficiency of parametric conversion of waveguide modes ω accompanied by an increase of the frequency to the range ω' is considered for the case when the sum frequency ω + ω1 = ω1' is generated. The numerical method developed by the authors is used to analyze the characteristic features of these processes in some specific cases.

  18. Ultrafast nonlinear all-optical processes in silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Usechak, N.; Först, M.; Driessen, A.


    In this review we present an overview of the progress made in recent years in the field of integrated silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide photonics with a strong emphasis on third-order nonlinear optical processes. Although the focus is on simple waveguide structures the utilization of complex stru

  19. Polymer waveguide systems for nonlinear and electro-optic applications (United States)

    Pantelis, Philip; Hill, Julian R.; Kashyap, Raman


    Waveguides with photochromic or electro-optic properties have been fabricated by a new technique using spin coating of polymers, or guest/host-polymer systems, on to grooves etched in an indium phosphide wafer. Monomoded waveguides at 633 nm, and at 1320 and 1550 nm (wavelengths of telecommunications interest) have been fabricated. These guides have good quality cleaved ends which allow efficient coupling of light from monomoded standard lensed silica fibers. An example of an electro-optic application is given in the form of a phase modulator. This device uses a side-chain polymer as the waveguide core that develops linear electro-optic properties following an electric field alignment process. It was found to have a switching voltage of 30 V, for a (pi) phase change, and had a total insertion loss of 9.4 dB. Waveguides with photochromic properties have also been produced using Aberchrome 670 (a commercially available fulgide) as a guest in a poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer host. Refractive index, optical loss, photochromic activity, and film forming properties of differing concentrations of guest (up to 20% concentration by weight) have been measured and are reported.

  20. Nonlinear Optics in Optoelectronic Integration with Some Novel Waveguide Devices. (United States)

    Vakhshoori, Daryoosh

    By integration we mean realizing an integrable solution to existing discrete devices which perform some useful operation. Systems are built from these functional parts. System integration requires compatible integration of these parts. At present the most important example that also relates to our work is communication systems. For this system to work reliably, the optical pulses should be stable in time and shape (small time and amplitude jitter.) The devices that measure these properties are optical correlators. These devices are bulky, occupying a cubic foot of volume with no satisfactory integrable counterpart. Here we present an integrable waveguide correlator which experimentally measured pulses from 150fsec to 12psec with an average guide power of sub mW to 2mW in the spectral range of 1.7mum to 1.06mu m. All these measurements were performed on the same waveguide structure without mechanical movements where the spectral range was limited to the band gap of the waveguide material, GaAs in our case. The other communication scheme uses wavelength division multiplexing. Optical spectrometers are ~1 meter long devices capable of 0.1A spectral resolution. Again, like correlators, there is no satisfactory integrable counterpart. In this thesis, we present an integrable parametric waveguide spectrometer capable of measuring individual modes of semiconductor laser diodes and their movement as a function of laser current. For our experiments, the resolving power of the waveguide device was about 3A and is easily extendible to the sub A range. It should be pointed out that these spectrometer devices can also be used in stabilizing laser diode frequencies which are required for the realization of reliable wavelength division multiplexed systems. Last, but not least, a possible coherent visible surface emitting waveguide device capable of mW range powers is also presented. The motivation for this study is the ever growing market for shorter wavelength semiconductor

  1. Ultrafast, broadband, and configurable midinfrared all-optical switching in nonlinear graphene plasmonic waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin J. A. Ooi


    Full Text Available Graphene plasmonics provides a unique and excellent platform for nonlinear all-optical switching, owing to its high nonlinear conductivity and tight optical confinement. In this paper, we show that impressive switching performance on graphene plasmonic waveguides could be obtained for both phase and extinction modulations at sub-MW/cm2 optical pump intensities. Additionally, we find that the large surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement that comes from the tight confinement effect can potentially drive the propagating plasmon pump power down to the pW range. The graphene plasmonic waveguides have highly configurable Fermi-levels through electrostatic-gating, allowing for versatility in device design and a broadband optical response. The high capabilities of nonlinear graphene plasmonics would eventually pave the way for the adoption of the graphene plasmonics platform in future all-optical nanocircuitry.

  2. Ultra-Fast Optical Signal Processing in Nonlinear Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao;


    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon nanowires for processing Tbit/s optical data signals. We perform demultiplexing and optical waveform sampling of 1.28 Tbit/s and wavelength conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals....

  3. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epping, J.P.; Hoekman, M.; Mateman, R.; Leinse, A.; Heideman, R.G.; Rees, van A.; Slot, van der P.J.M.; Lee, C.J.; Boller, K-J.


    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4

  4. Femtosecond studies of nonlinear optical switching in GaAs waveguides using time-domain interferometry (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin K.; LaGasse, Michael J.; Haus, Hermann A.; Fujimoto, James G.


    We describe the application of a new femtosecond measurement technique, time division interferometry, for investigating the transient nonlinear index in waveguides. This technique performs an interferometric measurement using a time division multiplexed reference pulse and achieves high sensitivity with increased immunity to acoustic and thermal parasitics. Using a tunable femtosecond laser source, direct measurements of the wavelength dependent nonresonant nonlinear index have been performed in A1GaAs waveguides. In addition, conventional pump and probe absorption measurements permit the investigation of carrier dynamics, band filling, and two photon absorption effects. Two photon absorption is found to be a potentially serious limiting effect for obtaining all optical switching.

  5. Stable scalable control of soliton propagation in broadband nonlinear optical waveguides (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Nguyen, Quan M.; Huynh, Toan T.


    We develop a method for achieving scalable transmission stabilization and switching of N colliding soliton sequences in optical waveguides with broadband delayed Raman response and narrowband nonlinear gain-loss. We show that dynamics of soliton amplitudes in N-sequence transmission is described by a generalized N-dimensional predator-prey model. Stability and bifurcation analysis for the predator-prey model are used to obtain simple conditions on the physical parameters for robust transmission stabilization as well as on-off and off-on switching of M out of N soliton sequences. Numerical simulations for single-waveguide transmission with a system of N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with 2 ≤ N ≤ 4 show excellent agreement with the predator-prey model's predictions and stable propagation over significantly larger distances compared with other broadband nonlinear single-waveguide systems. Moreover, stable on-off and off-on switching of multiple soliton sequences and stable multiple transmission switching events are demonstrated by the simulations. We discuss the reasons for the robustness and scalability of transmission stabilization and switching in waveguides with broadband delayed Raman response and narrowband nonlinear gain-loss, and explain their advantages compared with other broadband nonlinear waveguides.

  6. Discourse on the Characterization of Waveguide Distributed Bragg Reflectors for Application to Nonlinear Optics (United States)

    Grieco, Andrew Lewis

    Precise characterization of waveguide parameters is necessary for the successful design of nonlinear photonic devices. This dissertation contains a description of methods for the experimental characterization of distributed Bragg reflectors for use in nonlinear optics and other applications. The general coupled-mode theory of Bragg reflection arising from a periodic dielectric perturbation is developed from Maxwell's equations. This theory is then applied to develop a method of characterizing the fundamental parameters that describe Bragg reflection by comparing the spectral response of Bragg reflector resonators. This method is also extended to characterize linear loss in waveguides. A model of nonlinear effects in Bragg reflector resonators manifesting in bistability is also developed, as this phenomenon can be detrimental to the characterization method. Specific recommendations are made regarding waveguide fabrication and experimental design to reduce sources of experimental error.

  7. Optical sampling of ultrahigh bitrate signals using highly nonlinear chalcogenide planar waveguides or tapered fibers (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Luan, Feng; Pelusi, Mark D.; Mägi, Eric; Iredale, Tim; Madden, Steve; Choi, Duk Yong; Bulla, Douglas A.; Luther-Davies, Barry; Thienpont, Hugo; Eggleton, Benjamin J.


    As the bit rates of optical networks increase, the ability of accurate monitoring of optical waveforms has become increasingly important. In recent years, optical sampling has emerged as a technique to perform time-resolved measurements of optical data signals at high data rates with a bandwidth that cannot be reached by conventional photodetectors and oscilloscopes. In an optical sampling system, the optical signal is sampled in the optical domain by a nonlinear optical sampling gate before the resulting samples are converted to an electrical signal. This avoids the need for high bandwidth electronics if the optical sampling gate is operated with a modest repetition frequency. In this paper, we present an optical sampling system using the optical Kerr effect in a highly nonlinear chalcogenide device, enabling combined capability for femtosecond resolution and broadband signal wavelength tunability. A temporal resolution 450-fs is achieved using four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-engineered chalcogenide waveguides: on one hand a 7-cm long planar waveguide (integrated on a photonic chip) and on the other hand a 5-cm long tapered fiber. The use of a short length, dispersion-shifted waveguide with ultrahigh nonlinearity (10000/W/km) enables high-resolution optical sampling without the detrimental effect of chromatic dispersion on the temporal distortion of the signal and sampling pulses, as well as their phase mismatch (which in turn would degrade the FWM efficiency and the sensitivity of the measurement). Using these chalcogenide devices, we successfully monitor a 640-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) datastream, showcasing its potential for monitoring of signals at bitrates approaching and beyond Tb/s. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and discuss fundamental limitations as well as potential improvements.

  8. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical application

    CERN Document Server

    Epping, Jörn P; Mateman, Richard; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Rees, Albert; van der Slot, Peter J M; Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J


    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

  9. Exponential Attractor for Coupled Ginzburg-Landau Equations Describing Bose-Einstein Condensates and Nonlinear Optical Waveguides and Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Mu


    Full Text Available The existence of the exponential attractors for coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations describing Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical waveguides and cavities with periodic initial boundary is obtained by showing Lipschitz continuity and the squeezing property.

  10. Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures (United States)

    Ferrera, M.; Razzari, L.; Duchesne, D.; Morandotti, R.; Yang, Z.; Liscidini, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Chu, S.; Little, B. E.; Moss, D. J.


    Photonic integrated circuits are a key component of future telecommunication networks, where demands for greater bandwidth, network flexibility, and low energy consumption and cost must all be met. The quest for all-optical components has naturally targeted materials with extremely large nonlinearity, including chalcogenide glasses and semiconductors, such as silicon and AlGaAs (ref. 4). However, issues such as immature fabrication technology for chalcogenide glass and high linear and nonlinear losses for semiconductors motivate the search for other materials. Here we present the first demonstration of nonlinear optics in integrated silica-based glass waveguides using continuous-wave light. We demonstrate four-wave mixing, with low (5 mW) continuous-wave pump power at λ = 1,550 nm, in high-index, doped silica glass ring resonators. The low loss, design flexibility and manufacturability of our device are important attributes for low-cost, high-performance, nonlinear all-optical photonic integrated circuits.

  11. Stable scalable control of soliton propagation in broadband nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Peleg, Avner; Huynh, Toan T


    We develop a method for achieving scalable transmission stabilization and switching of $N$ colliding soliton sequences in optical waveguides with broadband delayed Raman response and narrowband nonlinear gain-loss. We show that dynamics of soliton amplitudes in $N$-sequence transmission is described by a generalized $N$-dimensional predator-prey model. Stability and bifurcation analysis for the predator-prey model are used to obtain simple conditions on the physical parameters for robust transmission stabilization as well as on-off and off-on switching of $M$ out of $N$ soliton sequences. Numerical simulations with a system of $N$ coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations with $2 \\le N \\le 4$ show excellent agreement with the predator-prey model's predictions and stable propagation over significantly larger distances compared with other broadband nonlinear waveguides. Moreover, stable on-off and off-on switching of multiple soliton sequences and stable multiple transmission switching events are demonstrated b...

  12. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Coherent laser spectroscopy of matter utilizing waveguide structures (United States)

    Chaus, A. I.; Yashkir, Yu N.


    Some features of CARS spectroscopy in waveguide structures are investigated theoretically taking into account stimulated Raman amplification of a weak pump wave in the field of a strong wave and allowing for the phase matching. A four-photon intermode coupling which occurs under amplification conditions results in energy diffusion between different modes. General expressions for the intensities of the pump waves undergoing stimulated amplification and for the anti-Stokes signal are derived and analyzed.

  13. Electric Field-Induced Second Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Timurdogan, E; Watts, M R


    The demand for nonlinear effects within a silicon platform to support photonic circuits requiring phase-only modulation, frequency doubling, and/or difference frequency generation, is becoming increasingly clear. However, the symmetry of the silicon crystal inhibits second order optical nonlinear susceptibility, $\\chi^{(2)}$. Here, we show that the crystalline symmetry is broken when a DC field is present, inducing a $\\chi^{(2)}$ in a silicon waveguide that is proportional to the large $\\chi^{(3)}$ of silicon. First, Mach-Zehnder interferometers using the DC Kerr effect optical phase shifters in silicon ridge waveguides with p-i-n junctions are demonstrated with a $V_{\\pi}L$ of $2.4Vcm$ in telecom bands $({\\lambda}_{\\omega}=1.58{\\mu}m)$ without requiring to dope the silicon core. Second, the pump and second harmonic modes in silicon ridge waveguides are quasi-phase matched when the magnitude, spatial distribution of the DC field and $\\chi^{(2)}$ are controlled with p-i-n junctions. Using these waveguides, sec...

  14. Linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding in bio-inspired peptide nanotubes. (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Turko, Nir; Rosenman, Gil


    Unique linear and nonlinear optical properties of bioinspired peptide nanostructures such as wideband transparency and high second-order nonlinear optical response, combined with elongated tubular shape of variable size and rapid self-assembly fabrication process, make them promising for diverse bio-nano-photonic applications. This new generation of nanomaterials of biological origin possess physical properties similar to those of biological structures. Here, we focus on new specific functionality of ultrashort peptide nanotubes to guide light at fundamental and second-harmonic generation (SHG) frequency in horizontal and vertical peptide nanotubes configurations. Conducted simulations and experimental data show that these self-assembled linear and nonlinear optical bio-waveguides provide strong optical power confinement factor, demonstrate pronounced directionality of SHG and high conversion efficiency of SHG ∼10(-5). Our study gives new insight on physics of light propagation in nanostructures of biological origin and opens the avenue towards new and unexpected applications of these waveguiding effects in bio-nanomaterials both for biomedical nonlinear microscopy imaging recognition and development of novel integrated nanophotonic devices.

  15. Subpicosecond pulse compression in nonlinear photonic crystal waveguides based on the formation of high-order optical solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiong-Wen; Lin Xu-Sheng; Lan Sheng


    We investigate by numerical simulation the compression of subpicosecond pulses in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal (PC) waveguides. The compression originates from the generation of high-order optical solitons through the interplay of the huge group-velocity dispersion and the enhanced self-phase modulation in nonlinear PC waveguides.Both the formation of Bragg grating solitons and gap solitons can lead to efficient pulse compression. The compression factors under different excitation power densities and the optimum length for subpicosecond pulse compression have been determined. As a compressor, the total length of the nonlinear PC waveguide is only ten micrometres and therefore can be easily incorporated into PC integrated circuits.

  16. TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillotel, E; Langlois, C; Ghiglieno, F; Leo, G; Ricolleau, C, E-mail: cyril.langlois@univ-paris-diderot.f [Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, CNRS-UMR 7162 Universite Paris Diderot - Paris 7 Case courrier 7021, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)


    The internal interfaces of multilayer Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow prediction of the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm{sup -1}. We also find that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As layers adjacent to oxidized AlAs tend to be oxidized through the interfaces, even for low Al fraction, with typical oxidation depths of 9 nm for x = 0.7 and 2 nm for x = 0.

  17. Nonlinear Optics in Doped Silica Glass Integrated Waveguide Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Duchesne, David; Razzari, Luca; Morandotti, Roberto; Little, Brent; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J


    Integrated photonic technologies are rapidly becoming an important and fundamental milestone for wideband optical telecommunications. Future optical networks have several critical requirements, including low energy consumption, high efficiency, greater bandwidth and flexibility, which must be addressed in a compact form factor.

  18. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in CMOS-compatible ultra-silicon-rich nitride photonic crystal waveguides (United States)

    Sahin, E.; Ooi, K. J. A.; Chen, G. F. R.; Ng, D. K. T.; Png, C. E.; Tan, D. T. H.


    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) on an ultra-silicon-rich nitride (USRN) platform, with the goal of augmenting the optical nonlinearities. The design goals are to achieve an optimized group index curve on the PhCW band edge with a non-membrane PhCW with symmetric SiO2 undercladding and overcladding, so as to maintain back-end CMOS compatibility and better structural robustness. Linear optical characterization, as well as nonlinear optical characterization of PhCWs on ultra-silicon-rich nitride is performed at the telecommunication wavelengths. USRN's negligible two-photon absorption and free carrier losses at the telecommunication wavelengths ensure that there is no scaling of two-photon related losses with the group index, thus maintaining a high nonlinear efficiency. Self-phase modulation experiments are performed using a 96.6 μm PhCW. A 1.5π phase shift is achieved with an input peak power of 2.5 W implying an effective nonlinear parameter of 1.97 × 104 (W m)-1. This nonlinear parameter represents a 49× enhancement in the nonlinear parameter from the slow light effect, in good agreement with expected scaling from the measured group index.

  19. Actively coupled optical waveguides (United States)

    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.


    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively coupled (AC) waveguides can act as a stationary or integrate-and-fire comparator sensitive to tiny differences in their input powers.

  20. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George


    This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhe...... bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the subwavelength domain....

  1. On Stability of Flat Band Modes in a Rhombic Nonlinear Optical Waveguide Array

    CERN Document Server

    Maimistov, Andrey I


    The quasi-one-dimensional rhombic array of the waveguides is considered. In the nonlinear case the system of equations describing coupled waves in the waveguides has the solutions that represent the superposition of the flat band modes. The property of stability of these solutions is considered. It was found that the flat band solution is unstable until the power threshold be attained.

  2. Mechanical Kerr nonlinearities due to bipolar optical forces between deformable silicon waveguides. (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Povinelli, Michelle L


    We use an analytical method based on the perturbation of effective index at fixed frequency to calculate optical forces between silicon waveguides. We use the method to investigate the mechanical Kerr effect in a coupled-waveguide system with bipolar forces. We find that a positive mechanical Kerr coefficient results from either an attractive or repulsive force. An enhanced mechanical Kerr coefficient several orders of magnitude larger than the intrinsic Kerr coefficient is obtained in waveguides for which the optical mode approaches the air light line, given appropriate design of the waveguide dimensions.

  3. Optical properties of highly nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) waveguide geometries. (United States)

    Vallaitis, Thomas; Bogatscher, Siegwart; Alloatti, Luca; Dumon, Pieter; Baets, Roel; Scimeca, Michelle L; Biaggio, Ivan; Diederich, François; Koos, Christian; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg


    Geometry, nonlinearity, dispersion and two-photon absorption figure of merit of three basic silicon-organic hybrid waveguide designs are compared. Four-wave mixing and heterodyne pump-probe measurements show that all designs achieve high nonlinearities. The fundamental limitation of two-photon absorption in silicon is overcome using silicon-organic hybrid integration, with a five-fold improvement for the figure of merit (FOM). The value of FOM = 2.19 measured for silicon-compatible nonlinear slot waveguides is the highest value published.

  4. Actively coupled optical waveguides


    Alexeeva, N. V.; Barashenkov, I. V.; Rayanov, K.; Flach, S.


    We consider light propagation through a pair of nonlinear optical waveguides with absorption, placed in a medium with power gain. The active medium boosts the in-phase component of the overlapping evanescent fields of the guides, while the nonlinearity of the guides couples it to the damped out-of-phase component creating a feedback loop. As a result, the structure exhibits stable stationary and oscillatory regimes in a wide range of gain-loss ratios. We show that the pair of actively-coupled...

  5. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao;


    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  6. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription. (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng


    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  7. Nonlinear effect induced in thermally poled glass waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-tao


    Thermally poled germanium-doped channel waveguides are presented. Multilayer waveguides containing a silicon oxynitride layer were used as charge trapper in this investigation on the effect of the internal field inside the waveguide. Compared to waveguides without the trapping layer, experimental results showed that the induced linear electro-optic (EO) coefficient increases about 20% after poling, suggesting strongly that the internal field is relatively enhanced, and showed it is a promising means for improving nonlinearity by poling in waveguides.

  8. Nonlinear self-flipping of polarization states in asymmetric waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen Qi; Monro, Tanya M; Afshar, V Shahraam


    Waveguides of subwavelength dimensions with asymmetric geometries, such as rib waveguides, can display nonlinear polarization effects in which the nonlinear phase difference dominates the linear contribution, provided the birefringence is sufficiently small. We demonstrate that self-flipping polarization states can appear in such rib waveguides at low (mW) power levels. We describe an optical power limiting device with optimized rib waveguide parameters that can operate at low powers with switching properties.

  9. Observation of nonlinear bands in near-field scanning optical microscopy of a photonic-crystal waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amandev; Huisman, Simon R; Korterik, Jeroen P; Mosk, Allard P; Herek, Jennifer L; Pinkse, Pepijn W H


    We have measured the photonic bandstructure of GaAs photonic-crystal waveguides with high energy and momentum resolution using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Intriguingly, we observe additional bands that are not predicted by eigenmode solvers, as was recently demonstrated by Huisman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012)]. We study the presence of these additional bands by performing measurements of these bands while varying the incident light power, revealing a non-linear power dependence. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the observed additional bands are caused by a waveguide-specific near- field tip effect not previously reported, which can significantly phase-modulate the detected field.

  10. Second-order optical nonlinearities in dilute melt proton exchange waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben Erik; Skettrup, Torben; Pedersen, Kjeld


    Planar optical waveguides with different refractive indices are made in z-cut LiNbO3 with a dilute proton exchange method using a system of glycerol containing KHSO4 and lithium benzoate. The optical second-order susceptibilities of these waveguides are measured by detecting the 266 nm reflected...... second-harmonic signal generated by a 532 nm beam directed onto the waveguide surface. It is found for this kind of waveguides that in the waveguide region all the second-order susceptibilities take values of at least 90% of the original LiNbO; values for refractive index changes less than similar to 0...

  11. Single-Photon Nonlinear Optics in Integrated Hollow-Core Waveguides (United States)


    for achieving the effective EIT as well as other nonlinear optics phenomena that rely on large optical depth. Here, we introduced a technique to...there is an interesting threshold phenomena with the increase of 194 195 signal power and after this threshold, the efficiency of idler generation...34, Optics Letters, 21, 1936-38, (1996). 27. V. Bali , D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of Paired Photons with

  12. Spatial solitons in nonlinear liquid waveguides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Barillé; G Rivoire


    Spatial solitons are studied in a planar waveguide filled with nonlinear liquids. Spectral and spatial measurements for different geometries and input power of the laser beam show the influence of different nonlinear effects as stimulated scatterings on the soliton propagation and in particular on the beam polarization. The stimulated scattering can be used advantageously to couple the two polarization components. This effect can lead to multiple applications in optical switching.

  13. Temporal mode selectivity by frequency conversion in second-order nonlinear optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, D. V.; Raymer, M. G.; McKinstrie, C. J.;


    in a transparent optical network using temporally orthogonal waveforms to encode different channels. We model the process using coupled-mode equations appropriate for wave mixing in a uniform second-order nonlinear optical medium pumped by a strong laser pulse. We find Green functions describing the process...... in this optimal regime. We also find an operating regime in which high-efficiency frequency conversion without temporal-shape selectivity can be achieved while preserving the shapes of a wide class of input pulses. The results are applicable to both classical and quantum frequency conversion....

  14. Optical waveguide sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.; Popma, Th.


    An overview of the field of optical waveguide sensors is presented. Some emphasis is laid on the development of a single scheme under which the diversity of sensor principles can be arranged. First three types of sensors are distinguished: intrinsic, extrinsic and active. Next, two steps are disting

  15. Second-order nonlinear silicon-organic hybrid waveguides. (United States)

    Alloatti, L; Korn, D; Weimann, C; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J


    We describe a concept for second-order nonlinear optical processes in silicon photonics. A silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) double slot waveguide is dispersion-engineered for mode phase-matching (MPM). The proposed waveguide enables highly efficient nonlinear processes in the mid-IR range. With a cladding nonlinearity of χ(2) = 230 pm/V and 20 dBm pump power at a CW wavelength of 1550 nm, we predict a gain of 14.7 dB/cm for a 3100 nm signal. The suggested structure enables for the first time efficient second-order nonlinear optical mixing in silicon photonics with standard technology.

  16. Nonlinear light propagation in chalcogenide photonic crystal slow light waveguides. (United States)

    Suzuki, Keijiro; Baba, Toshihiko


    Optical nonlinearity can be enhanced by the combination of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass and photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) providing strong optical confinement and slow-light effects. In a Ag-As(2)Se(3) chalcogenide PCW, the effective nonlinear parameter γeff reaches 6.3 × 10(4) W(-1)m(-1), which is 200 times larger than that in Si photonic wire waveguides. In this paper, we report the detailed design, fabrication process, and the linear and nonlinear characteristics of this waveguide at silica fiber communication wavelengths. We show that the waveguide exhibits negligible two-photon absorption, and also high-efficiency self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing, which are assisted by low-dispersion slow light.

  17. Optical properties of silicon germanium waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths. (United States)

    Hammani, Kamal; Ettabib, Mohamed A; Bogris, Adonis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Syvridis, Dimitris; Brun, Mickael; Labeye, Pierre; Nicoletti, Sergio; Richardson, David J; Petropoulos, Periklis


    We present a systematic experimental study of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of silicon-germanium (SiGe) waveguides, conducted on samples of varying cross-sectional dimensions and Ge concentrations. The evolution of the various optical properties for waveguide widths in the range 0.3 to 2 µm and Ge concentrations varying between 10 and 30% is considered. Finally, we comment on the comparative performance of the waveguides, when they are considered for nonlinear applications at telecommunications wavelengths.

  18. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas


    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  19. Optimal geometry of nonlinear silicon slot waveguides accounting for the effect of waveguide losses. (United States)

    Ong, Jun Rong; Chen, Valerian H


    The optimal geometry of silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides is investigated in the context of the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM), a χ(3) nonlinear optical process. We study the effect of slot and waveguide widths, as well as waveguide asymmetry on the two-photon absorption (TPA) figure of merit and the roughness scattering loss. The optimal waveguide core width is shown to be 220nm (symmetric) with a slot width of 120nm, at a fixed waveguide height of 220nm. We also show that state-of-the-art slot waveguides can outperform rib waveguides, especially at high powers, due to the high TPA figure-of-merit.

  20. Experimental Study on Near-IR Nonlinear Optical Waveguide Sensor for Refractive Index of Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-rong; WANG Dong; CAO Chang-xiu; ZHUANG Ling


    To determine the refractive index of liquids in near infrared(IR),a method is presented by measuring the output angle of the visible Cerenkov-radiation-mode when liquids are placed as the cover on a planar lithium niobate waveguide.The system configuration and the principle of the method are analyzed and some experimental results are given out.Both the experimental result and simulation show that this method is simple,rapid and of sufficient precision.

  1. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W


    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  2. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi


    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  3. Dispersion engineering silicon nitride waveguides for broadband nonlinear frequency conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epping, J.P.


    In this thesis, we investigated nonlinear frequency conversion of optical wavelengths using integrated silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides. Two nonlinear conversion schemes were considered: seeded four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. The first—seeded four-wave mixing—is investigated by a n

  4. A phase insensitive all-optical router based on nonlinear lenslike planar waveguides. (United States)

    Mateo, Eduardo; Liñares, Jesús


    We present the design of an all-optical router based on the properties of both propagation and interaction of Gaussian beams in lenslike planar guides. Variational results of single co- and counterpropagation are derived and used to design three integrated optical devices, that is, a header extraction device, an optical bistable device and a data routing device, which perform an ultrafast, phase-insensitive and fiber compatible routing operation in the optical domain.

  5. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W


    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  6. Nonlinear characterization of GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguides (United States)

    Choi, Ju Won; Han, Zhaohong; Sohn, Byoung-Uk; Chen, George F. R.; Smith, Charmayne; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Richardson, Kathleen A.; Agarwal, Anuradha M.; Tan, Dawn T. H.


    GeSbS ridge waveguides have recently been demonstrated as a promising mid – infrared platform for integrated waveguide – based chemical sensing and photodetection. To date, their nonlinear optical properties remain relatively unexplored. In this paper, we characterize the nonlinear optical properties of GeSbS glasses, and show negligible nonlinear losses at 1.55 μm. Using self – phase modulation experiments, we characterize a waveguide nonlinear parameter of 7 W‑1/m and nonlinear refractive index of 3.71 × 10‑18 m2/W. GeSbS waveguides are used to generate supercontinuum from 1280 nm to 2120 nm at the ‑30 dB level. The spectrum expands along the red shifted side of the spectrum faster than on the blue shifted side, facilitated by cascaded stimulated Raman scattering arising from the large Raman gain of chalcogenides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements show that these glasses are optically transparent up to 25 μm, making them useful for short – wave to long – wave infrared applications in both linear and nonlinear optics.

  7. Optical waveguide enhanced photovoltaics. (United States)

    Rühle, Sven; Greenwald, Shlomit; Koren, Elad; Zaban, Arie


    Enhanced light to electric power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells with a low absorbance was achieved using waveguide integration. We present a proof of concept using a very thin dye-sensitized solar cell which absorbed only a small fraction of the light at normal incidence. The glass substrate in conjunction with the solar cells reflecting back contact formed a planar waveguide, which lead to more than four times higher conversion efficiency compared to conventional illumination at normal incidence. This illumination concept leads to a new type of multi-junction PV systems based on enforced spectral splitting along the waveguide.

  8. Ultra-large nonlinear parameter in graphene-silicon waveguide structures. (United States)

    Donnelly, Christine; Tan, Dawn T H


    Mono-layer graphene integrated with optical waveguides is studied for the purpose of maximizing E-field interaction with the graphene layer, for the generation of ultra-large nonlinear parameters. It is shown that the common approach used to minimize the waveguide effective modal area does not accurately predict the configuration with the maximum nonlinear parameter. Both photonic and plasmonic waveguide configurations and graphene integration techniques realizable with today's fabrication tools are studied. Importantly, nonlinear parameters exceeding 10(4) W(-1)/m, two orders of magnitude larger than that in silicon on insulator waveguides without graphene, are obtained for the quasi-TE mode in silicon waveguides incorporating mono-layer graphene in the evanescent part of the optical field. Dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides incorporating mono-layer graphene are observed to generate nonlinear parameters as large as 10(5) W(-1)/m, three orders of magnitude larger than that in silicon on insulator waveguides without graphene. The ultra-large nonlinear parameters make such waveguides promising platforms for nonlinear integrated optics at ultra-low powers, and for previously unobserved nonlinear optical effects to be studied in a waveguide platform.

  9. Omnidirectional optical waveguide (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.


    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  10. Silicon Nitride Waveguides for Plasmon Optical Trapping and Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal


    We demonstrate a silicon nitride trench waveguide deposited with bowtie antennas for plasmonic enhanced optical trapping. The sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguides were fabricated with conventional optical lithography in a low cost manner. The waveguides embrace not only low propagation loss and high nonlinearity, but also the inborn merits of combining micro-fluidic channel and waveguide together. Analyte contained in the trapezoidal trench channel can interact with the evanescent field from the waveguide beneath. The evanescent field can be further enhanced by plasmonic nanostructures. With the help of gold nano bowtie antennas, the studied waveguide shows outstanding trapping capability on 10 nm polystyrene nanoparticles. We show that the bowtie antennas can lead to 60-fold enhancement of electric field in the antenna gap. The optical trapping force on a nanoparticle is boosted by three orders of magnitude. A strong tendency shows the nanoparticle is likely to move to the high field strength region,...

  11. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor


    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet...

  12. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  13. Photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Feng, Tianrun; Wang, Sainan; Han, Rong; Hu, Zhijian; Zhang, Tianhao; Tian, Jianguo; Xu, Jingjun


    We report an alternate type of nonlinear waveguides, photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays, which can be directly induced by photorefractive surface waves in virtue of diffusion and drift nonlinearities. The amplitude of such nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays has an apodized envelope owing to the diffusion nonlinearity. The refractive-index change of the apodized tails converges to a nonzero value which can be handily adjusted by an external electric field. Moreover, the chirp parameters such as amplitude, sign (positive or negative), and initial position can be conveniently adjusted by an external electric field, background illumination, incident beam, etc. Then the guided-wave properties of this type of waveguide arrays are analyzed by using the transfer matrix method. Owing to the flexible tail and the nonlinear chirp, the dispersion curves of the index-guided modes can be tailored by an external electric field and the dispersion curves of ordinary and extraordinary Bragg guided modes couple, intertwine, and anticross with each other. Meanwhile, there is a clear "competition" in the coupling hybrid mode near anticrossing.

  14. Loop coupled resonator optical waveguides. (United States)

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Lian-Wee; Luo, Xianshu; Zhou, Haifeng; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Lo, Guo-Qiang


    We propose a novel coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) structure that is made up of a waveguide loop. We theoretically investigate the forbidden band and conduction band conditions in an infinite periodic lattice. We also discuss the reflection- and transmission- spectra, group delay in finite periodic structures. Light has a larger group delay at the band edge in a periodic structure. The flat band pass filter and flat-top group delay can be realized in a non-periodic structure. Scattering matrix method is used to calculate the effects of waveguide loss on the optical characteristics of these structures. We also introduce a tunable coupling loop waveguide to compensate for the fabrication variations since the coupling coefficient of the directional coupler in the loop waveguide is a critical factor in determining the characteristics of a loop CROW. The loop CROW structure is suitable for a wide range of applications such as band pass filters, high Q microcavity, and optical buffers and so on.

  15. Nonlinear Photonics in Waveguides for Telecommunications (United States)

    Herrera, Oscar D.

    The work presented in this dissertation demonstrates the use of various nonlinear optical effects in new photonic device and system designs towards the generation and manipulation of high-speed optical pulses. First, an all fiber-based system utilizing an integrated carbon disulfide-filled liquid- core optical fiber (i-LCOF) and co-propagating pulses of comparable temporal lengths is presented. The slow light effect was observed in 1-meter of i-LCOF, where 18 ps pulses were delayed up to 34 ps through the use of stimulated Raman scattering. Delays greater than a pulse width indicate a potential application as an ultrafast controllable delay line for time division multiplexing in multi-Gb/s telecommunication systems. Similarly, an optically tunable frequency shift was observed using this system. Pulses experienced a full spectral bandwidth shift at low peak pump powers when utilizing the Raman-induced frequency shift and slow light effects. Numerical simulations of the pulse-propagation equations agree well with the observed shifts. Included in our simulations are the contributions of both the Raman cross-frequency shift and slow light effects to the overall frequency shift. These results make the system suitable for numerous applications including low power wavelength converters. Second, a silica/electro-optic (EO) polymer phase modulator with an embedded bowtie antenna is proposed for use as a microwave radiation receiver. The detection of high-frequency electromagnetic fields has been heavily studied for wireless data transfer. Recently there has been growing interest in the field of microwave photonics. We present the design and optimization of a silica/EO polymer waveguide. The effect of electrodes on the insertion losses and poling efficiency are also analyzed, and conditions for low-loss and high poling efficiency are established. Experimental results for a fabricated device with microwave-response between 10 - 14 GHz are presented. Finally, we present the

  16. Optical waveguides in laser crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.


    This article reviews the recent research on different types of planar and channel crystalline optical waveguides, fabrication methods such as liquid phase epitaxy, pulsed laser deposition, thermal bonding, reactive ion or ion beam etching, wet chemical etching, ion in-diffusion, proton exchange, ion

  17. Engineering chromatic dispersion and effective nonlinearity in a dual-slot waveguide. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Han, Genquan


    In this paper, we propose a new dual slot based on rib-like structure, which exhibits a flat and near-zero dispersion over a 198 nm wide wavelength range. Chromatic dispersion of dual-slot silicon (Si) waveguide is mainly determined by waveguide dispersion due to the manipulating mode effective area rather than by the material dispersion. Moreover, the nonlinear coefficient and effective mode area of the waveguide are also explored in detail. A nonlinear coefficient of 1460/m/W at 1550 nm is achieved, which is 10 times larger than that of the Si rib waveguide. By changing different waveguide variables, both the dispersion and nonlinear coefficient can be tailored, thus enabling the potential for a highly nonlinear waveguide with uniform dispersion over a wide wavelength range, which could benefit the performance of broadband optical signal systems.

  18. Dichromatic nonlinear eigenmodes in slab waveguide with chi(2) nonlinearity. (United States)

    Darmanyan, S A; Nevière, M


    The existence of purely nonlinear eigenmodes in a waveguiding structure composed of a slab with quadratic nonlinearity surrounded by (non)linear claddings is reported. Modes having bright and dark solitonlike shapes and consisting of two mutually locked harmonics are identified. Asymmetrical modes are shown to exist in symmetrical environments. Constraints for the existence of the modes are derived in terms of parameters of guiding structure materials.

  19. Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuyken, B.; Ji, Hua; Clemmen, S.


    We propose hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanowires as a platform for nonlinear optics in the telecommunication wavelength range. Extraction of the nonlinear parameter of these photonic nanowires reveals a figure of merit larger than 2. It is observed that the nonlinear optical properties...... of these waveguides degrade with time, but that this degradation can be reversed by annealing the samples. A four wave mixing conversion efficiency of + 12 dB is demonstrated in a 320 Gbit/s serial optical waveform data sampling experiment in a 4 mm long photonic nanowire....

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of ultrathin metal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg


    . The optical characterization of the plasmonic waveguides is performed using femtosecond and picosecond optical pulses. Two nonlinear optical effects in the strip plasmonic waveguides are experimentally observed and reported. The first effect is the nonlinear power transmission of the plasmonic mode......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the plasmonic mode in the gold strip waveguides significantly depends on the metal layer thickness and laser pulse duration. This dependence is explained in detail in terms of the free-electron temporal dynamics in gold. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold layer...... duration dependence of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of gold is calculated in the broad range from tens of femtoseconds to tens of picoseconds using the two-temperature model of the free-electron temporal dynamics of gold, and shows the saturation of the thirdorder nonlinear susceptibility...

  1. Uniform Core Field in Symmetrical Planar Waveguides and Circular Fibers with Nonlinear Claddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞霖; 严瑛白; 金国藩; 邬敏贤; 郭履容; 陈波


    It is known that no uniform electric field profile exists in a planar linear waveguide. The uniform core field can be shown to exist in symmetrical planar waveguides and circular fibers with nonlinear claddings. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations are carried out to show that when the modal index equals to the core refractive-index, the core field becomes uniform at an appropriate optical power. Analysis for a step-index circular fiber with nonlinear cladding have also shown that the core field becomes uniform under similar conditions. The occurrence of a uniform field in a waveguide core may believe to have promising applications in waveguide, optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  2. Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan


    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  3. Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Power Due to Self-Construction of an Anti-Guide Structure in a Thin-Film Waveguide of a Nonlinear-Optical Photoconducting Polymer (United States)

    Sassa, Takafumi; Umegaki, Shinsuke


    A theoretical analysis, to explain the increase of the Cerenkov-radiation-type second-harmonic power with time in a thin-film waveguide of a nonlinear-optical photoconducting polymer, is given. An anti-guide structure, which confines both a fundamental wave and its second-harmonic wave, is gradually constructed by reorientation of the nonlinear-optical chromophores within the fundamental beam width in the thin-film polymer. The space-charge field formed by the initially weak second-harmonic wave itself causes the reorientation.

  4. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios


    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  5. 40 GHz electro-optic modulation in hybrid silicon-organic slotted photonic crystal waveguides. (United States)

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Prorok, Stefan; Hampe, Jan; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K-Y; Jenett, Martin; Jacob, Arne


    In this Letter we demonstrate broadband electro-optic modulation with frequencies of up to 40 GHz in slotted photonic crystal waveguides based on silicon-on-insulator substrates covered and infiltrated with a nonlinear optical polymer. Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides in silicon enable integrated optical devices with an extremely small geometric footprint on the scale of micrometers. The slotted waveguide design optimizes the overlap of the optical and electric fields in the second-order nonlinear optical medium and, hence, the interaction of the optical and electric waves.

  6. Nonlinear Optics in AlGaAs on Insulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta;


    AlGaAs on insulator is a powerful nonlinear platform sporting a high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to fabricate complex designs. We will present low loss waveguides enabling efficient optical signal processing and Kerr comb generation.......AlGaAs on insulator is a powerful nonlinear platform sporting a high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to fabricate complex designs. We will present low loss waveguides enabling efficient optical signal processing and Kerr comb generation....

  7. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong


    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  8. Nonlinear waves in waveguides with stratification

    CERN Document Server

    Leble, Sergei B


    S.B. Leble's book deals with nonlinear waves and their propagation in metallic and dielectric waveguides and media with stratification. The underlying nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs) are derived giving also their solutions for specific situations. The reader will find new elements to the traditional approach. Various dispersion and relaxation laws for different guides are considered as well as the explicit form of projection operators, NEEs, quasi-solitons and of Darboux transforms. Special points relate to: 1. the development of a universal asymptotic method of deriving NEEs for guide propagation; 2. applications to the cases of stratified liquids, gases, solids and plasmas with various nonlinearities and dispersion laws; 3. connections between the basic problem and soliton- like solutions of the corresponding NEEs; 4. discussion of details of simple solutions in higher- order nonsingular perturbation theory.

  9. Optical waveguide materials, structures, and dispersion modulation (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Li, Wenxiu; Xue, Xia; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong


    Optical waveguide is used in most integrated optic devices to confine and guide light in higher refractive index channels. The structures and materials of slot waveguides are reviewed in this paper. Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) can be used for a rotation sensor with compact size, low power consumption and low cost. The loss determines the ultimate sensitivity of CROW gyros. Resonator-based optical gyroscope's sensitivity for measuring rotation is enhanced via using the anomalous dispersion characteristic of superluminal light propagation, which can be also generated by using passive optical resonators.

  10. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto


    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  11. Compact surface plasmon amplifier in nonlinear hybrid waveguide (United States)

    Shu-shu, Wang; Dan-qing, Wang; Xiao-peng, Hu; Tao, Li; Shi-ning, Zhu


    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP), a sub-wavelength surface wave promising for photonic integration, always suffers from the large metallic loss that seriously restricts its practical application. Here, we propose a compact SPP amplifier based on a nonlinear hybrid waveguide (a combination of silver, LiNbO3, and SiO2), where a couple of Bragg gratings are introduced in the waveguide to construct a cavity. This special waveguide is demonstrated to support a highly localized SPP-like hybrid mode and a low loss waveguide-like hybrid mode. To provide a large nonlinear gain, a pumping wave input from the LiNbO3 waveguide is designed to resonate inside the cavity and satisfy the cavity phase matching to fulfill the optical parametric amplification (OPA) of the SPP signal. Proper periods of gratings and the cavity length are chosen to satisfy the impedance matching condition to ensure the high input efficiency of the pump wave from the outside into the cavity. In theoretical calculations, this device demonstrates a high performance in a very compact scheme (∼ 3.32 μm) and a much lower pumping power for OPA compared with single-pass pumping. To obtain a comprehensive insight into this cavity OPA, the influences of the pumping power, cavity length, and the initial phase are discussed in detail. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11322439, 11274165, 11321063, and 91321312), the Dengfeng Project B of Nanjing University, China, and the PAPD of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Konev


    Full Text Available Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.

  13. Optical simulation of neutrino oscillations in binary waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Marini, Andrea; Biancalana, Fabio


    We theoretically propose and investigate an optical analogue of neutrino oscillations in a pair of vertically displaced binary waveguide arrays with longitudinally modulated effective refractive index. Optical propagation is modelled through coupled-mode equations, which in the continuous limit lead to two coupled Dirac equations for fermionic particles with different mass states, i.e. neutrinos. We demonstrate that neutrino oscillations can be quenched by nonlinear effects, and we predict the existence of neutrino solitons. Incidentally, these phenomena are expected to play an important role in massive supernova stars. Our results pave the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical laboratory for predicting exotic effects in particle physics and astrophysics.

  14. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong; Kim; Sang-Yung; Shin; Doo-Sun; Choi


    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than -10 dB.

  15. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong Kim; Sang-Yung Shin; Doo-Sun Choi


    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than-10 dB.

  16. Silicon Nanoridge Array Waveguides for Nonlinear and Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Puckett, Matthew W; Vallini, Felipe; Shahin, Shiva; Monifi, Faraz; Barrina, Peter N; Mehravar, Soroush; Kieu, Khanh; Fainman, Yeshaiahu


    We fabricate and characterize waveguides composed of closely spaced and longitudinally oriented silicon ridges etched into silicon-on-insulator wafers. Through both guided mode and bulk measurements, we demonstrate that the patterning of silicon waveguides on such a deeply subwavelength scale is desirable for nonlinear and sensing applications alike. The proposed waveguide geometry simultaneously exhibits comparable propagation loss to similar schemes proposed in literature, an enhanced effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and high sensitivity to perturbations in its environment.

  17. Mesoscale cavities in hollow-core waveguides for quantum optics with atomic ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haapamaki C.M.


    Full Text Available Single-mode hollow-core waveguides loaded with atomic ensembles offer an excellent platform for light–matter interactions and nonlinear optics at low photon levels. We review and discuss possible approaches for incorporating mirrors, cavities, and Bragg gratings into these waveguides without obstructing their hollow cores. With these additional features controlling the light propagation in the hollow-core waveguides, one could potentially achieve optical nonlinearities controllable by single photons in systems with small footprints that can be integrated on a chip. We propose possible applications such as single-photon transistors and superradiant lasers that could be implemented in these enhanced hollow-core waveguides.

  18. Reduced nonlinearities in 100-nm high SOI waveguides (United States)

    Lacava, C.; Marchetti, R.; Vitali, V.; Cristiani, I.; Giuliani, G.; Fournier, M.; Bernabe, S.; Minzioni, P.


    Here we show the results of an experimental analysis dedicated to investigate the impact of optical non linear effects, such as two-photon absorption (TPA), free-carrier absorption (FCA) and free-carrier dispersion (FCD), on the performance of integrated micro-resonator based filters for application in WDM telecommunication systems. The filters were fabricated using SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) technology by CEA-Leti, in the frame of the FP7 Fabulous Project, which aims to develop low-cost and high-performance integrated optical devices to be used in new generation passive optical- networks (NG-PON2). Different designs were tested, including both ring-based structures and racetrack-based structures, with single-, double- or triple- resonator configuration, and using different waveguide cross-sections (from 500 x 200 nm to 825 x 100 nm). Measurements were carried out using an external cavity tunable laser source operating in the extended telecom bandwidth, using both continuous wave signals and 10 Gbit/s modulated signals. Results show that the use 100-nm high waveguide allows reducing the impact of non-linear losses, with respect to the standard waveguides, thus increasing by more than 3 dB the maximum amount of optical power that can be injected into the devices before causing significant non-linear effects. Measurements with OOK-modulated signals at 10 Gbit/s showed that TPA and FCA don't affect the back-to-back BER of the signal, even when long pseudo-random-bit-sequences (PRBS) are used, as the FCD-induced filter-detuning increases filter losses but "prevents" excessive signal degradation.

  19. Modal theory of slow light enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides. (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Sun, Junqiang; Li, Linsen


    In this paper, we derive the couple-mode equations for third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides by employing the modal theory. These nonlinear interactions include self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and degenerate four-wave mixing. The equations similar to that in nonlinear fiber optics could be expanded and applied for third-order nonlinear processes in other periodic waveguides. Based on the equations, we systematically analyze the group-velocity dispersion, optical propagation loss, effective interaction area, slow light enhanced factor and phase mismatch for a slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Considering the two-photon and free-carrier absorptions, the wavelength conversion efficiencies in two low-dispersion regions are numerically simulated by utilizing finite difference method. Finally, we investigate the influence of slow light enhanced multiple four-wave-mixing process on the conversion efficiency.

  20. On-chip plasmonic waveguide optical waveplate (United States)

    Gao, Linfei; Huo, Yijie; Zang, Kai; Paik, Seonghyun; Chen, Yusi; Harris, James S.; Zhou, Zhiping


    Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems.

  1. Optical waveguides in hard crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, M.


    The recent results of our research group and collaborators in the field of fabrication, characterization, and applications of optical waveguides in hard crystalline materials, specifically in sapphire and Ti:sapphire, are reviewed.

  2. Long-Period Gratings in Planar Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin; Seng; Chiang


    Our progress in the study of long-period gratings (LPGs) in planar optical waveguides is reviewed. In particular, experimental LPGs in glass and polymer waveguides are presented to demonstrate the potential of LPG-based waveguide devices.

  3. Long-Period Gratings in Planar Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin Seng Chiang


    Our progress in the study of long-period gratings (LPGs) in planar optical waveguides is reviewed. In particular,experimental LPGs in glass and polymer waveguides are presented to demonstrate the potential of LPG-based waveguide devices.

  4. Classical Simulation of Squeezed Vacuum in Optical Waveguide Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Sipe, John


    We reveal that classical light diffraction in arrays of specially modulated coupled optical waveguides can simulate the quantum process of two-mode squeezing in nonlinear media, with the waveguide mode amplitudes corresponding the signal and idler photon numbers. The whole Fock space is mapped by a set of arrays, where each array represents the states with a fixed difference between the signal and idler photon numbers. We demonstrate a critical transition from photon number growth to Bloch oscillations with periodical revivals of an arbitrary input state, associated with an increase of the effective phase mismatch between the pump and the squeezed photons.

  5. Organic nonlinear optical materials (United States)

    Umegaki, S.


    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  6. A Non-Hermitian Approach to Non-Linear Switching Dynamics in Coupled Cavity-Waveguide Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper


    We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations.......We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations....

  7. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance (United States)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.


    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  8. Optical micromanipulation of freestanding microstructures with embedded waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton


    Optically micromanipulated waveguides can be arbitrarily positioned and oriented for targeted light delivery. At the same time, controlled light deflection in designed waveguides can be exploited to exert optical forces for new optical micromanipulation modalities.......Optically micromanipulated waveguides can be arbitrarily positioned and oriented for targeted light delivery. At the same time, controlled light deflection in designed waveguides can be exploited to exert optical forces for new optical micromanipulation modalities....

  9. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width (United States)

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.


    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  10. Nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal slow light waveguides fabricated using CMOS-compatible process. (United States)

    Shinkawa, Mizuki; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hama, Yosuke; Suzuki, Keijiro; Baba, Toshihiko


    We have studied low-dispersion slow light and its nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal waveguides. In this work, we fabricated the waveguides using Si CMOS-compatible process. It enables us to integrate spotsize converters, which greatly simplifies the optical coupling from fibers as well as demonstration of the nonlinear enhancement. Two-photon absorption, self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing were observed clearly for picosecond pulses in a 200-μm-long device. In comparison with Si wire waveguides, a 60-120 fold higher nonlinearity was evaluated for a group index of 51. Unique intensity response also occurred due to the specific transmission spectrum and enhanced nonlinearities. Such slow light may add various functionalities in Si photonics, while loss reduction is desired for ensuring the advantage of slow light.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴正德; 杜先云


    In this paper the authors consider the initial boundary value problems of the generalized nonlinear strain waves in elastic waveguides and prove the existence of global attractors and thefiniteness of the Hausdorff and the fractal dimensions of the attractors.

  12. Nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szameit A.


    Full Text Available We report on recent achievements in the field of nonlinear light propagation in fs laser-written waveguide lattices. Particular emphasis is thereby given on discrete solitons in such systems.

  13. Highly nonlinear sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguide coated with gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Sharac, Nicholas; Ragan, Regina; Boyraz, Ozdal


    We demonstrate the fabrication of a highly nonlinear sub-micron silicon nitride trench waveguide coated with gold nanoparticles for plasmonic enhancement. The average enhancement effect is evaluated by measuring the spectral broadening effect caused by self-phase-modulation. The nonlinear refractive index n2 was measured to be 7.0917×10-19 m2/W for a waveguide whose Wopen is 5 μm. Several waveguides at different locations on one wafer were measured in order to take the randomness of the nanoparticle distribution into consideration. The largest enhancement is measured to be as high as 10 times. Fabrication of this waveguide started with a MEMS grade photomask. By using conventional optical lithography, the wide linewidth was transferred to a wafer. Then the wafer was etched anisotropically by potassium hydroxide (KOH) to engrave trapezoidal trenches with an angle of 54.7º. Side wall roughness was mitigated by KOH etching and thermal oxidation that was used to generate a buffer layer for silicon nitride waveguide. The guiding material silicon nitride was then deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The waveguide was then patterned with a chemical template, with 20 nm gold particles being chemically attached to the functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) domains. Since the particles attached only to the PMMA domains, they were confined to localized regions, therefore forcing the nanoparticles into clusters of various numbers and geometries. Experiments reveal that the waveguide has negligible nonlinear absorption loss, and its nonlinear refractive index can be greatly enhanced by gold nano clusters. The silicon nitride trench waveguide has large nonlinear refractive index, rendering itself promising for nonlinear applications.

  14. Flexible parylene-film optical waveguide arrays (United States)

    Yamagiwa, S.; Ishida, M.; Kawano, T.


    Modulation of neuronal activities by light [e.g., laser or light-emitting diode] using optogenetics is a powerful tool for studies on neuronal functions in a brain. Herein, flexible thin-film optical waveguide arrays based on a highly biocompatible material of parylene are reported. Parylene-C and -N thin layers with the different refractive indices form the clad and the core of the waveguide, respectively, and neural recording microelectrodes are integrated to record optical stimuli and electrical recordings simultaneously using the same alignment. Both theoretical and experimental investigations confirm that light intensities of more than 90% can propagate in a bent waveguide with a curvature radius of >5 mm. The proposed flexible thin-film waveguide arrays with microelectrodes can be used for numerous spherical bio-tissues, including brain and spinal cord samples.

  15. Waveguide-based optical chemical sensor (United States)

    Grace, Karen M.; Swanson, Basil I.; Honkanen, Seppo


    The invention provides an apparatus and method for highly selective and sensitive chemical sensing. Two modes of laser light are transmitted through a waveguide, refracted by a thin film host reagent coating on the waveguide, and analyzed in a phase sensitive detector for changes in effective refractive index. Sensor specificity is based on the particular species selective thin films of host reagents which are attached to the surface of the planar optical waveguide. The thin film of host reagents refracts laser light at different refractive indices according to what species are forming inclusion complexes with the host reagents.

  16. Simulation of Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper


    In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated.......In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of slowlight enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor Photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of group index on nonlinear modal gain saturation is investigated....

  17. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper


    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  18. Enhanced continuous-wave four-wave mixing efficiency in nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides. (United States)

    Apiratikul, Paveen; Wathen, Jeremiah J; Porkolab, Gyorgy A; Wang, Bohan; He, Lei; Murphy, Thomas E; Richardson, Christopher J K


    Enhancements of the continuous-wave four-wave mixing conversion efficiency and bandwidth are accomplished through the application of plasma-assisted photoresist reflow to reduce the sidewall roughness of sub-square-micron-modal area waveguides. Nonlinear AlGaAs optical waveguides with a propagation loss of 0.56 dB/cm demonstrate continuous-wave four-wave mixing conversion efficiency of -7.8 dB. Narrow waveguides that are fabricated with engineered processing produce waveguides with uncoated sidewalls and anti-reflection coatings that show group velocity dispersion of +0.22 ps²/m. Waveguides that are 5-mm long demonstrate broadband four-wave mixing conversion efficiencies with a half-width 3-dB bandwidth of 63.8-nm.

  19. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P


    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  20. Self-similar asymptotic optical beams in semiconductor waveguides doped with quantum dots (United States)

    He, Jun-Rong; Yi, Lin; Li, Hua-Mei


    The self-similar propagation of asymptotic optical beams in semiconductor waveguides doped with quantum dots is reported. The possibility of controlling the shape of output asymptotic optical beams is demonstrated. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. We give a possible experimental protocol to generate the obtained asymptotic parabolic beams in realistic waveguides. As a generalization to the present work, the self-similar propagation of asymptotic optical beams is proposed in a power-law nonlinear medium.

  1. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo


    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  2. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touchin...... finger is also demonstrated....

  3. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Jakobsen, Michael L.; Hanson, Steen G.; Mosgaard, Morten; Iversen, Theis; Korsgaard, Jorgen


    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching finger is also demonstrated.

  4. Pulse dispersion in hollow optical waveguides (United States)

    Ben-David, M.; Ilev, Ilko K.; Waynant, Ronald W.; Gannot, Israel


    A study of laser (near- and mid-infrared) pulse dispersion in hollow waveguides is presented. We developed an analytical model to describe the pulse dispersion in hollow waveguides and compared our theoretical calculations with measurements done by us and also by two other groups. The pulse dispersion was experimentally measured for a short Q-switched Er:YAG laser in the nanosecond range and for femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses transmitted by hollow optical waveguides. For analytical calculation of the pulse dispersion in these waveguides, a refined ray tracing program was developed. This approach took into account roughness of the internal reflecting and refracting inner layers. A comparison analysis between the measurements and calculations conducted at identical parameters demonstrates good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

  5. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov


    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  6. Solitons in magneto-optic waveguides by extended trial function scheme (United States)

    Ekici, Mehmet; Zhou, Qin; Sonmezoglu, Abdullah; Moshokoa, Seithuti P.; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Biswas, Anjan; Belic, Milivoj


    This paper obtains soliton solutions to magneto-optic waveguides that appear with Kerr, power and log-law nonlinearities. The extended trial function method is employed to obtain these solutions. Thus, bright, dark and singular soliton solutions are retrieved. In addition, Gaussons are obtained for log-law nonlinear waveguides. All of these solutions appear with constraints that guarantees the existence of solitons and Gaussons.

  7. Nonlinear optical materials. (United States)

    Eaton, D F


    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  8. Thermo-optic Goos-Hänchen effect in silicon-on-insulator waveguide (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Luo, Li; Liu, Wenli; He, Xiujun; Zhang, Yanfen


    We study the thermo-optic Goos-Hänchen (TOGH) effect in a prism-waveguide coupling structure with silicon-on-insulator waveguide. Stationary-phase method is utilized to calculate the TOGH shift. When the waveguide is regarded as a two-dimensional planar waveguide, a nonlinear relation between GH shift and temperature is obtained. Based on the noticeable TOGH effect, a sensitive temperature modulator or sensor can be realized. As the waveguide width is limited, the proposed structure can be regarded as a three-dimensional rectangular waveguide. We explore the GH shift and TOGH effect for different modes propagating in rectangular waveguide which show different linear relations between GH shift and temperature, which can be used to design mode-selective device based on TO effect.

  9. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing (United States)

    Anne, Marie-Laure; Keirsse, Julie; Nazabal, Virginie; Hyodo, Koji; Inoue, Satoru; Boussard-Pledel, Catherine; Lhermite, Hervé; Charrier, Joël; Yanakata, Kiyoyuki; Loreal, Olivier; Le Person, Jenny; Colas, Florent; Compère, Chantal; Bureau, Bruno


    Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg) glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (bio)sensors. PMID:22423209

  10. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S


    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  11. Three-dimensional modes of a symmetric nonlinear plane waveguide (United States)

    Akhmediev, N. N.; Nabiev, R. F.; Popov, Yu. M.


    The three-dimensional problem of a symmetric nonlinear plane waveguide, which consist of a linear medium layer surrounded by nonlinear media, is investigated. The stationary solution of this problem is a mode whose field is falling to zero at infinity in all directions perpendicular to the propagation direction. The even, odd and assymetrical solutions of the problem are obtained.

  12. Ultra-fast pulse propagation in nonlinear graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. (United States)

    Liu, Ken; Zhang, Jian Fa; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Zhi Hong; Guo, Chu Cai; Li, Xiu Jian; Qin, Shi Qiao


    We report the femtosecond laser propagation in a hybrid graphene/silicon ridge waveguide with demonstration of the ultra-large Kerr coefficient of graphene. We also fabricated a slot-like graphene/silicon ridge waveguide which can enhance its effective Kerr coefficient 1.5 times compared with the graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. Both transverse-electric-like (TE-like) mode and transverse-magnetic-like (TM-like) mode are experimentally measured and numerically analyzed. The results show nonlinearity dependence on mode polarization not in graphene/silicon ridge waveguide but in slot-like graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. Great spectral broadening was observed due to self-phase modulation (SPM) after propagation in the hybrid waveguide with length of 2 mm. Power dependence property of the slot-like hybrid waveguide is also measured and numerically analyzed. The results also confirm the effective Kerr coefficient estimation of the hybrid structures. Spectral blue shift of the output pulse was observed in the slot-like graphene/silicon ridge waveguide. One possible explanation is that the blue shift was caused by the ultra-fast free carrier effect with the optical absorption of the doped graphene. This interesting effect can be used for soliton compression in femtosecond region. We also discussed the broadband anomalous dispersion of the Kerr coefficient of graphene.

  13. Femtosecond dynamics of the nonlinear index near the band edge in AlGaAs waveguides (United States)

    Anderson, K. K.; LaGasse, M. J.; Wang, C. A.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Haus, H. A.


    The transient behavior of the nonresonant nonlinear index is investigated in AlGaAs waveguides with femtosecond time resolution. Both the refractive index and the absorption changes are measured by time division interferometry and pump probe techniques. Different mechanisms which contribute to the nonlinear index are distinguished by examining their dynamics, including the optical Stark effect, resonantly excited carriers, and two-photon absorption processes. The relative contribution from each mechanism is a strong function of wavelength near the band edge.

  14. Proposal for detection of QED vacuum nonlinearities in Maxwell's equations by the use of waveguides. (United States)

    Brodin, G; Marklund, M; Stenflo, L


    We present a novel method for detecting nonlinearities, due to quantum electrodynamics through photon-photon scattering, in Maxwell's equation. The photon-photon scattering gives rise to self-interaction terms which are similar to the nonlinearities due to the polarization in nonlinear optics. These self-interaction terms vanish in the limit of parallel propagating waves, but if, instead of parallel propagating waves, the modes generated in waveguides are used, there will be a nonzero total effect. Based on this idea, we calculate the nonlinear excitation of new modes and estimate the strength of this effect. Furthermore, we suggest a principal experimental setup.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Planar optical waveguide comprising a core region and a cladding region comprising a photonic crystal material, said photonic crystal material having a lattice of column elements, wherein at least a number of said column elements are elongated substantially in an axial direction for said core reg...

  16. Isolated Hexaphenyl Nanofibers as Optical Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Bordo, Vladimir; Simonsen, Adam Cohen


    to guiding single optical modes at = 425.5 nm. An analytical theory for such organic waveguides can reproduce quantitatively the experimentally observed behavior. From the measured damping of propagating, vibrationally dressed excitons the imaginary part of the dielectric function of isolated nanoscaled...

  17. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides (United States)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power transmission. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.

  18. Integrated nanoplasmonic waveguides for magnetic, nonlinear, and strong-field devices (United States)

    Sederberg, Shawn; Firby, Curtis J.; Greig, Shawn R.; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y.


    As modern complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry rapidly approaches fundamental speed and bandwidth limitations, optical platforms have become promising candidates to circumvent these limits and facilitate massive increases in computational power. To compete with high density CMOS circuitry, optical technology within the plasmonic regime is desirable, because of the sub-diffraction limited confinement of electromagnetic energy, large optical bandwidth, and ultrafast processing capabilities. As such, nanoplasmonic waveguides act as nanoscale conduits for optical signals, thereby forming the backbone of such a platform. In recent years, significant research interest has developed to uncover the fundamental physics governing phenomena occurring within nanoplasmonic waveguides, and to implement unique optical devices. In doing so, a wide variety of material properties have been exploited. CMOS-compatible materials facilitate passive plasmonic routing devices for directing the confined radiation. Magnetic materials facilitate time-reversal symmetry breaking, aiding in the development of nonreciprocal isolators or modulators. Additionally, strong confinement and enhancement of electric fields within such waveguides require the use of materials with high nonlinear coefficients to achieve increased nonlinear optical phenomenon in a nanoscale footprint. Furthermore, this enhancement and confinement of the fields facilitate the study of strong-field effects within the solid-state environment of the waveguide. Here, we review current state-of-the-art physics and applications of nanoplasmonic waveguides pertaining to passive, magnetoplasmonic, nonlinear, and strong-field devices. Such components are essential elements in integrated optical circuitry, and each fulfill specific roles in truly developing a chip-scale plasmonic computing architecture.

  19. Finite element analysis of optical waveguides (United States)

    Mabaya, N.; Lagasse, P. E.; Vandenbulcke, P.


    Several finite element programs for the computation of the guided modes of optical waveguides are presented. The advantages and limitations of a very general program for the analysis of anisotropic guides are presented. A possible solution to the problem of the spurious numerical modes, encountered when calculating higher order modes, is proposed. For isotropic waveguides, it is shown that both EH- and HE-type modes can be very accurately approximated by two different scalar finite element programs. Finally, a boundary perturbation method is outlined that makes it possible to calculate the attenuation coefficient of leaky modes in single material guides, starting from a finite element calculation.

  20. Nonlinear Optical Rectennas

    CERN Document Server

    Stolz, A; Markey, L; Francs, G Colas des; Bouhelier, A


    We introduce strongly-coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion and demonstrate that a two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method of temperature stabilising optical waveguides having positive thermal optical path length expansion, in particular fiber Bragg gratings or optical fiber DFB lasers or optical fiber DBR lasers, comprising affixing the optical waveguide to at least two points of a negative expanding fixture...

  2. Explicit finite-difference time domain for nonlinear analysis of waveguide modes (United States)

    Barakat, N. M.; Shabat, M. M.; El-Azab, S.; Jaeger, Dieter


    The Finite Difference Time Domain Technique is at present the most widely used tool employed in the study of light propagation in various photonic waveguide structure. In this paper we derived an explicit finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for solving the wave equation in a four optical waveguiding rectangular structure. We derive the stability condition to achieve the stability in nonlinear media region, we also check that the wave equation used is consistence and convergent with the approximate finite difference equation. Our method is tested against some previous problems and we find a high degree of accuracy, moreover it is easy for programming. Numerical results are illustrated for a rectangular waveguide with four layers, where one of these layers is a nonlinear medium.

  3. Micromolded U-shaped PDMS optical waveguide for biosensing applications (United States)

    Punjabi, Nirmal; Khatri, Anjali; Mukherji, Soumyo


    Integrated optical waveguide sensors are usually fabricated using materials like silicon, silica, SU-8, etc. Their fabrication requires clean room processes which are expensive and time-consuming. We demonstrated the fabrication of PDMS based optical waveguide in non-cleanroom environment using soft lithography technique. A master-mold was fabricated using Acralyn. PDMS polymer was chosen for waveguide fabrication, as it provides low refractive index contrast in the sensing region. These PDMS waveguides were found to be 5-times more sensitive than SU-8 waveguides. High sensitivity along with mechanical robustness and ease of fabrication of PDMS waveguides provides a promising and versatile platform for biosensor application.

  4. Achromatic multiple beam splitting by adiabatic passage in optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, Andon A


    A novel variable achromatic optical beam splitter with one input and $N$ output waveguide channels is introduced. The physical mechanism of this multiple beam splitter is adiabatic passage of light between neighboring optical waveguides in a fashion reminiscent of the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in quantum physics. The input and output waveguides are coupled via a mediator waveguide and the ratios of the light intensities in the output channels are controlled by the couplings of the respective waveguides to the mediator waveguide. Due to its adiabatic nature the beam splitting efficiency is robust to variations in the experimental parameters.

  5. Design of microstructured waveguide devices for applications in optical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Town, G.E.; McCosker, R.; Yuan, Scott Wu;


    Microstructured waveguides provide a versatile platform for controlling interactions between light and their environment. We show how microstructured waveguides may be designed to improve the performance of optical sensors, and discuss their practical implementation.......Microstructured waveguides provide a versatile platform for controlling interactions between light and their environment. We show how microstructured waveguides may be designed to improve the performance of optical sensors, and discuss their practical implementation....

  6. Waveguide structure optimization of arrayed waveguide gratings concatenation in cascaded optical add/drop multiplexers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanliang Chu(初元量); Hanyi Zhang(张汉一)


    The dimensions of input waveguide and output waveguide of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) determinethe crosstalk, insertion loss and 1-dB bandwidth. In cascaded optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs),the value of these parameters will largely affect the power penalty of system. The power penalty ofcascaded OADMs is calculated with different waveguide dimensions of AWGs in this paper. Consideringof wavelength misalignment, an optimization design of AWGs is obtained.

  7. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck


    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  8. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F


    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  9. NITINOL Interconnect Device for Optical Fiber Waveguides (United States)


    LE EL,~NAVSEA REPORT NO. S27L~kV-NL 4P fNSWNC TR 81-129 1 JULY 1981 0 NITINOL INTERC&INECT DEVICE FOR OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES FINAL REPORT A...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NSWC TR 81-129I 1-19 -A )ci , ’ 4 TI TL E (and Sbtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED NITINOL ... NITINOL Optical Fibers 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if neceeewy and identify by block number) Two different interconnect devices for optical

  10. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors (United States)


    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  11. Computer Modeling for Optical Waveguide Sensors. (United States)


    COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessary and cleritify by DIock numnerl FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP Optical waveguide sensors Computer...reflection. The resultant probe beam transmission may be plotted as a function of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding fluid medium. BASIC...all angles of incidence about the critical angle ecr. It should be noted that N in equation (3) is a function of e, since = sin - l sin 8 , see

  12. Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition. (United States)

    Säynätjoki, A; Karvonen, L; Alasaarela, T; Tu, X; Liow, T Y; Hiltunen, M; Tervonen, A; Lo, G Q; Honkanen, S


    We demonstrate low-loss silicon slot waveguides patterned with 248 nm deep-UV lithography and filled with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide. Propagation losses less than 5 dB/cm are achieved with the waveguides. The devices are fabricated using low-temperature CMOS compatible processes. We also demonstrate simple, compact and efficient strip-to-slot waveguide couplers. With a coupler as short as 10 µm, coupling loss is less than 0.15 dB. The low-index and low-nonlinearity filling material allows nonlinearities nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than in silicon waveguides. Therefore, these waveguides are a good candidate for linear photonic devices on the silicon platform, and for distortion-free signal transmission channels between different parts of a silicon all-optical chip. The low-nonlinearity slot waveguides and robust couplers also facilitate a 50-fold local change of the waveguide nonlinearity within the chip by a simple mask design.

  13. All-optical switching in a symmetric three-waveguide coupler with phase-mismatched absorptive central waveguide. (United States)

    Chen, Yijing; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Krishnamurthy, Vivek


    All-optical switching operation based on manipulation of absorption in a three-waveguide directional coupler is theoretically investigated. The proposed structure consists of one absorptive central waveguide and two identical passive side waveguides. Optically induced absorption change in the central waveguide effectively controls the coupling of light between the two side waveguides, leading to optical switching action. The proposed architecture alleviates the fabrication challenges and waveguide index matching conditions that limit previous demonstrations of similar switching schemes based on a two-waveguide directional coupler. The proposed device accommodates large modal index difference between absorptive and passive waveguides without compromising the switching extinction ratio.

  14. Quantum Computations with Transverse Modes of an Optical Field Propagating in Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符建; 唐少芳


    A fully optical method to perform quantum computation with transverse modes of the optical field propagating in waveguide is proposed by supplying the prescriptions for a universal set of quantum gates. The proposal for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two normal modes of multi-mode waveguides. The proposed C-NOT gate has the potential of being more compact and easily realized than some optical implementations, since it is based on planar lightwave circuit technology and can be constructed by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer having semiconductor optical amplifiers with very large refractive nonlinearity in its arms.

  15. Observation of second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride waveguides through bulk nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Puckett, Matthew W; Lin, Hung-Hsi; Yang, Muhan; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu


    We present experimental results on the observation of a bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility derived from both free-space and integrated measurements in silicon nitride. Phase-matching is achieved through dispersion engineering of the waveguide cross-section, independently revealing multiple components of the nonlinear susceptibility, namely X(2)yyy and X(2)xxy. Additionally, we show how the generated second-harmonic signal may be actively tuned through the application of bias voltages across silicon nitride. The nonlinear material properties measured here are anticipated to allow for the practical realization of new nanophotonic devices in CMOS-compatible silicon nitride waveguides, adding to their viability for telecommunication, data communication, and optical signal processing applications.

  16. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois


    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  17. Robust transmission stabilization and dynamic switching in broadband hybrid waveguide systems with nonlinear gain and loss (United States)

    Nguyen, Quan M.; Peleg, Avner; Tran, Thinh P.


    We develop a method for transmission stabilization and robust dynamic switching for colliding optical soliton sequences in broadband waveguide systems with nonlinear gain and loss. The method is based on employing hybrid waveguides, consisting of spans with linear gain and cubic loss, and spans with linear loss, cubic gain, and quintic loss. We show that the amplitude dynamics is described by a hybrid Lotka-Volterra (LV) model, and use the model to determine the physical parameter values required for enhanced transmission stabilization and switching. Numerical simulations with coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations confirm the predictions of the LV model, and show complete suppression of radiative instability and pulse distortion. This enables stable transmission over distances larger by an order of magnitude compared with uniform waveguides with linear gain and cubic loss. Moreover, multiple on-off and off-on dynamic switching events are demonstrated over a wide range of soliton amplitudes, showing the superiority of hybrid waveguides compared with static switching in uniform waveguides.

  18. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E


    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  19. Vortices and ring dark solitons in nonlinear amplifying waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Lu; Mihalache, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A


    We consider the generation and propagation of (2+1)-dimensional beams in a nonlinear waveguide with the linear gain. Simple self-similar evolution of the beams is achieved at the asymptotic stage, if the input beams represent the fundamental mode. On the contrary, if they carry vorticity or amplitude nodes (or phase slips), vortex tori and ring dark solitons (RDSs) are generated, featuring another type of the self-similar evolution, with an exponentially shrinking vortex core or notch of the RDS. Numerical and analytical considerations reveal that these self-similar structures are robust entities in amplifying waveguides, being \\emph{stable} against azimuthal perturbations.

  20. Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaoping; Vlasov, Yurii A; Green, William M J


    All-optical signal processing is envisioned as an approach to dramatically decrease power consumption and speed up performance of next-generation optical telecommunications networks. Nonlinear optical effects, such as four-wave mixing (FWM) and parametric gain, have long been explored to realize all-optical functions in glass fibers. An alternative approach is to employ nanoscale engineering of silicon waveguides to enhance the optical nonlinearities by up to five orders of magnitude, enabling integrated chip-scale all-optical signal processing. Previously, strong two-photon absorption (TPA) of the telecom-band pump has been a fundamental and unavoidable obstacle, limiting parametric gain to values on the order of a few dB. Here we demonstrate a silicon nanophotonic optical parametric amplifier exhibiting gain as large as 25.4 dB, by operating the pump in the mid-IR near one-half the band-gap energy (E~0.55eV, lambda~2200nm), at which parasitic TPA-related absorption vanishes. This gain is high enough to comp...

  1. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin


    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  2. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.


    , provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  3. Improved nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguide: a full study

    CERN Document Server

    Elsawy, Mahmoud M R; Chauvet, Mathieu; Renversez, Gilles


    We present a full study of an improved nonlinear plasmonic slot waveguides (NPSWs) in which buffer linear dielectric layers are added between the Kerr type nonlinear dielectric core and the two semi-infinite metal regions. For TM polarized waves, the inclusion of these supplementary layers have two consequences. First, they reduced the overall losses. Secondly, they modify the types of solutions that propagate in the NPSWs adding new profiles enlarging the possibilities offered by these nonlinear waveguides. Our structure also provides longer propagation length due to the decrease of the losses compared to the simple nonlinear slot waveguide and exhibits, for well-chosen refractive index or thickness of the buffer layer, a spatial transition of its main modes that can be controlled by the power. We provide a full phase diagram of the TM wave operating regimes of these improved NPSWs. The stability of the main TM modes is then demonstrated numerically using the FDTD. We also demonstrate the existence of TE wav...

  4. Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N


    This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics

  5. Negative refraction and spatial echo in optical waveguide arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Khomeriki, Ramaz


    The special symmetry properties of the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation allow a complete revival of the initial wavefunction. That is employed in the context of stationary propagation of light in a waveguide array. As an inverting system we propose a short array of almost isolated waveguides which cause a relative pi phase shift in the neighboring waveguides. By means of numerical simulations of the model equations we demonstrate a novel mechanism for the negative refraction of spatial solitons.

  6. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind


    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  7. Linear and nonlinear photonic Jackiw-Rebbi states in interfaced binary waveguide arrays (United States)

    Tran, Truong X.; Biancalana, Fabio


    We study analytically and numerically the optical analog of the Jackiw-Rebbi states in quantum-field theory. These solutions exist at the interface of two binary waveguide arrays, which are described by two Dirac equations with masses of opposite sign. We show that these special states are topologically robust not only in the linear regime, but also in the nonlinear one (with both focusing and defocusing nonlinearities). We also reveal that one can effectively generate Jackiw-Rebbi states starting from Dirac solitons.

  8. Femtosecond all-optical switching in AlGaAs waveguides using a time division interferometer (United States)

    Lagasse, M. J.; Anderson, K. K.; Haus, H. A.; Fujimoto, J. G.


    All-optical switching of femtosecond pulses in AlGaAs waveguides is investigated using a novel time division interferometric technique which eliminates thermal imbalances. In addition to an instantaneous refractive index nonlinearity, free-carrier generation via two-photon absorption produces a response of several hundred picoseconds.

  9. Optimization design of optical waveguide control by nanoslit-enhanced THz field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim;


    We discuss design issues of devices which were proposed recently [Opt. Lett. 37 (2012) 3903] for terahertz (THz) control of the propagation of an optical waveguide mode. The mode propagates through a nonlinear dielectric material placed in a metallic nanoslit illuminated by THz radiation. The THz...

  10. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.;


    numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem and in this case localized excitations are found to persist. We found also interesting relaxational dynamics. Analogies of the present problem in context related to atomic physics and particularly to Bose–Einstein condensation are discussed....

  11. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S


    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  12. Diffractive beam shaping, tracking and coupling for wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas


    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). The full strength of this structure-mediated paradigm can be harnessed by addressing multiple WOWs and manipulating them to work in tandem. We propose the use of diffractive...

  13. Spatial nonlinearity in anisotropic metamaterial plasmonic slot waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Elsawy, Mahmoud M R


    We study the main nonlinear solutions of plasmonic slot waveguides made from an anisotropic metamaterial core with a positive Kerr-type nonlinearity surrounded by two semi-infinite metal regions. First, we demonstrate that for a highly anisotropic diagonal elliptical core, the bifurcation threshold of the asymmetric mode is reduced from GW/m threshold for the isotropic case to 50 MW/m one indicating a strong enhancement of the spatial nonlinear effects, and that the slope of the dispersion curve of the asymmetric mode stays positive, at least near the bifurcation, suggesting a stable mode. Second, we show that for the hyperbolic case there is no physically meaningful asymmetric mode, and that the sign of the effective nonlinearity can become negative.

  14. Femtosecond investigations of optical switching and χ(3) in GaAs waveguides (United States)

    LaGasse, Michael J.; Anderson, Kristin K.; Wang, Christine A.; Haus, Hermann A.; Fujimoto, James G.


    We describe a new technique for performing femtosecond transient measurements of nonlinear index and absorption in waveguide devices. Using a time division interferometry technique in conjunction with a tunable femtosecond laser source we have performed the first measurement of the wavelength dependent nonresonant nonlinear index in A1GaAs. Contributions to nonlinear index arise from both virtual as well as real population mediated processes depending on the wavelength detuning from resonance. Complementary pump-probe measurements of transient absorption provide information on excited state population as well as two-photon induced absorption processes. These measurements provide imformation on the mechanism and dynamics of fundamental nonlinear optical processes below the band edge in semiconductors and are relevant to possible all optical switching applications in waveguide devices.

  15. Total longitudinal momentum in a dispersive optical waveguide. (United States)

    Yu, Jianhui; Chen, Chunyan; Zhai, Yanfang; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lijun; Huang, Furong; Xiao, Yi


    Using the Lorentz force law, we derived simpler expressions for the total longitudinal (conserved) momentum and the mechanical momentums associated with an optical pulse propagating along a dispersive optical waveguide. These expressions can be applied to an arbitrary non-absorptive optical waveguide having continuous translational symmetry. Our simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method verified that the total momentum formula is valid in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide. We studied the conservation of the total momentum and the transfer of the momentum to the waveguide for the case when an optical pulse travels from a finite waveguide to vacuum. We found that neither the Abraham nor the Minkowski momentum expression for an electromagnetic wave in a waveguide represents the complete total (conserved) momentum. Only the total momentum as we derived for a mode propagating in a dispersive optical waveguides is the 'true' conserved momentum. This total momentum can be expressed as PTot = -U Die/(vg) + neff (U/c). It has three contributions: (1) the Abraham momentum; (2) the momentum from the Abraham force, which equals to the difference between the Abraham momentum and the Minkowski momentum; and (3) the momentum from the dipole force which can be expressed as -UDie/vg. The last two contributions constitute the mechanical momentum. Compared with FDTD-Lorentz-force method, the presently derived total momentum formula provides a better method in terms of analyzing the permanent transfer of optical momentum to a waveguide.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Luneburg Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera N. Smolyaninova


    Full Text Available Transformation optics gives rise to numerous unusual optical devices, such as novel metamaterial lenses and invisibility cloaks. Very recently, Mattheakis et al. (Luneburg lens waveguide networks. J. Opt. 2012, 14, 114006 have suggested theoretical design of an optical waveguide, based on a network of Luneburg lenses, which may be useful in sensing and nonlinear optics applications. Here, we report the first experimental realization of such Luneburg waveguides. We have studied wavelength and polarization dependent performance of the waveguides.

  17. Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry (United States)


    Boyd , Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, Burlington, MA, 2008). [13] M. Scully and S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6703--14-9548 Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry PhilliP SPrangle...b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Remote Atmospheric Nonlinear Optical Magnetometry Phillip Sprangle, Luke

  18. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.


    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...

  19. Optical bistability in a high-Q racetrack resonator based on small SU-8 ridge waveguides. (United States)

    Jin, Li; Fu, Xin; Yang, Bo; Shi, Yaocheng; Dai, Daoxin


    A racetrack resonator with a high Q value (~34,000) is demonstrated experimentally based on small SU-8 optical ridge waveguides, which were fabricated with an improved etchless process. Optical bistability is observed in the present racetrack resonator even with a low input optical power (5.6-7.3 mW), which is attributed to the significant thermal nonlinear optical effect due to the high Q value and the large negative thermo-optical coefficient of SU-8. Theoretical modeling for the optical bistability is also given, and it agrees well with the experimental result.

  20. Ultra-high speed all-optical signal processing using silicon waveguides and a carbon nanotubes based mode-locked laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua

    This thesis concerns the use of nano-engineered silicon waveguides for ultra-high speed optical serial data signal processing. The fundamental nonlinear properties of nano-engineered silicon waveguides are characterized. Utilizing the nonlinear effect in nano-engineered silicon waveguides...... for demultiplexing of 1.28 Tbit/s optical time division multiplexing data signal is investigated. A sampling system for ultra-high speed signal waveforms based on nano-engineered silicon waveguide is explored. To set up a sampling source, using carbon nanotubes for generating ultra-short pulses is pursued. A silicon...

  1. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid......-infrared applications and the THz applications. In the mid-infrared, it is investigated whether soft glasses are a suitable candidate for supercontinuum generation (SCG). A few commercially available fluoride fibers are tested for their zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), a key property when determining the possibility...... of SCG in a fiber. A group of soft glasses, namely the chalcogenides, are known to display two photon absorption (TPA) which could potentially limit the SCG when this is initiated within the frequency range where this nonlinear process occur. An analytic model is presented to estimate the soliton self...

  2. Nonlinear behavior of vibrating molecules on suspended graphene waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amrita


    Suspended graphene waveguides were deposited on micron-scale periodic metal (plasmonic) structures. Raman scattering of test molecules (B. Megaterium), deposited on the waveguides' surface, exhibited azimuthal cycles upon rotation: at these micron scales, spontaneous Raman ought to be independent of phase matching conditions. In addition, we observed angular-selective quadratic intensity dependence contrary to the typical linear behavior of spontaneous Raman. The effects were observed at very modest pump laser intensities (<10 MW/cm2 at the sample surface, oftenly used in Raman experiments). We attributed these observations to nonlinear coupling between the vibrating molecules and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the molecular vibration frequency. It was assessed that the polariton mode propagates through fairly long distances (over 100 microns).

  3. Nonlinear Quantum Optics in Artificially Structured Media (United States)

    Helt, Lukas Gordon

    This thesis presents an analysis of photon pairs generated via either spontaneous parametric downconversion or spontaneous four-wave mixing in channel waveguides as well as in microring resonators side-coupled to channel waveguides. The state of photons exiting a particular device is calculated within a general Hamiltonian formalism that simplifies the link between quantum nonlinear optics experiments and classical nonlinear optics experiments. This state contains information regarding photon pair production efficiency as well as modal and spectral correlations between the two photons, characterized by a two-dimensional spectral distribution function called the biphoton wave function. In the limit of a low probability of pair production, photon pair production efficiencies are cast into forms resembling corresponding well-known classical nonlinear optical frequency conversion efficiencies, making it easy to see what plays the role of a classical "seed" field in an un-seeded (quantum) process. This also allows photon pair production efficiencies to be calculated based on the results of classical nonlinear optical experiments. It is further calculated that, unless generated photons are collected over a very narrow frequency range, their generation efficiency does not scale the same way with device length in a channel waveguide, or resonance quality factor in a microring resonator, as might be expected from the corresponding classical frequency conversion efficiency. Although calculations do not include self- or cross-phase modulation, nor two-photon absorption or free-carrier absorption, it is calculated that their neglect is justified in the low pair production probability limit. Linear (scattering) loss is also neglected, though partially addressed in the final chapter of this thesis. Biphoton wave functions are calculated explicitly, such that their shape and orientation, including approximate analytic expressions for their widths, can easily be determined. This

  4. Nonlinear optical thin films (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.


    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  5. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach is based on high-Q optical WGM resonators made with a nonlinear crystal. Such resonators have been demonstrated to dramatically enhance nonlinear...

  6. Crystal Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Layers of Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials for Thin-Disk and Waveguide laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Bolanos; M Segura; J Cugat; J Carvajal; X Mateos; M Pujol; R Solé; F Díaz; M Aguiló; et. al.


    This paper summarizes the main results we obtained in our laboratories in relation with crystalline layers obtained by liquid phase epitaxial growth of lanthanide doped KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Nb:RbTiOPO{sub 4} grown on KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} and RbTiOPO{sub 4} substrates, respectively. Macroscopic defect free epitaxial layers were grown and characterized in terms of their compositional homogeneity, structural stress in the layer/substrate interface and laser and waveguiding performances.

  7. An Integrated Optical Memory based on Laser Written Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Corrielli, Giacomo; Mazzera, Margherita; Osellame, Roberto; de Riedmatten, Hugues


    We report on the first realization of an integrated optical memory for light based on a laser written waveguide in a doped crystal. Using femto-second laser micromachining, we fabricate waveguides in Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal. We demonstrate that the waveguide inscription does not affect the coherence properties of the material and that the light confinement in the waveguide increases the interaction with the active ions by a factor 6. We also demonstrate that, analogously to the bulk crystals, we can operate the optical pumping protocols necessary to prepare the population in atomic frequency combs, that we use to demonstrate light storage in excited and spin states of the Praseodymium ions. Our results represent the first realization of laser written waveguides in a Pr$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal and the first implementation of an integrated on-demand spin wave optical memory. They open new perspectives for integrated quantum memories.

  8. Ultrafast, low-power, all-optical switching via birefringent phase-matched transverse mode conversion in integrated waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwig, Tim; Schnack, Martin; Boller, Klaus -J; Fallnich, Carsten


    We demonstrate the potential of birefringence-based, all-optical, ultrafast conversion between the transverse modes in integrated optical waveguides by modelling the conversion process by numerically solving the multi-mode coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The observed conversion is induced by a control beam and due to the Kerr effect, resulting in a transient index grating which coherently scatters probe light from one transverse waveguide mode into another. We introduce birefringent phase matching to enable efficient all-optically induced mode conversion at different wavelengths of the control and probe beam. It is shown that tailoring the waveguide geometry can be exploited to explicitly minimize intermodal group delay as well as to maximize the nonlinear coefficient, under the constraint of a phase matching condition. The waveguide geometries investigated here, allow for mode conversion with over two orders of magnitude reduced control pulse energy compared to previous schemes and thereby promise ...

  9. Wave propagation in parallel-plate waveguides filled with nonlinear left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Burhan Zamir; Rashid Ali


    A theoretical investigation of field components for transverse electric mode in the parallel-plate waveguides has been studied. In this analysis two different types of waveguide structures have been discussed, i.e., (a) normal good/perfect conducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material and (b) high-temperature-superconducting parallel-plate waveguide filled with nonlinear left-handed material. The dispersion relations of transverse electric mode have also been discussed for these two types of waveguide structures.

  10. Optical waveguide focusing system with short free-working distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Groen, F.H.; Pereira, S.F.; Braat, J.J.M.


    In photonics, light usually diffracts in all directions when it emerges from a planar optical waveguide. Besides this fact, in this letter we show that a waveguide with a rectangular cross section can be turned to a focusing system by using three-dimensional self-imaging technique. We obtained a con

  11. Topological optical Bloch oscillations in a deformed slab waveguide. (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano


    Spatial Bloch oscillations of light waves of purely topological origin are theoretically shown to exist in weakly deformed slab waveguides. As the optical rays trapped in the deformed waveguide can roll freely, wave diffraction is strongly affected by the topology of the deformed surface, which can be tailored to simulate the effect of a tilted periodic refractive index.

  12. Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil;


    Photonic crystals form a new class of intriguing building blocks to be utilized in future optoelectronics and electromagnetics. One of the most exciting possiblilties offered by phtonic crystals is the realization of new types of electromagnetic waveguides. In the optical domain, the most mature...... technology for such photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguides is in optical fibre configurations. These new fibres can be classified in a fundamentally different way to all optical waveguides and possess radically different guiding properties due to PBG guidance, as opposed to guidance by total internal refelction...

  13. Optical waveguide mode control by nanoslit-enhanced terahertz field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu


    In this Letter we propose a scheme providing control over an optical waveguide mode by a terahertz (THz) wave. The scheme is based on an optimization of the overlap between the optical waveguide mode and the THz field, with the THz field strength enhanced by the presence of a metallic nanoslit...... surrounding the waveguide. We find an optimum balance between the optical mode attenuation and Kerr-induced change in the propagation constant. The criterion for a π/2-cumulative phase shift, for instance for application in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer configuration, requires 10  kV/cm THz field, which...

  14. Wave-guided Optical Waveguides tracked and coupled using dynamic diffractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-actuation requ......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro- and nano-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and near-field light delivery in advanced actuation and control atthe smallest physical dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro......-actuation requires the optimization of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires the optimization of the underlying light-matter interaction [1]. We have previously proposed and demonstrated micro-targeted light-delivery and the opto-mechanical capabilities of so-called wave-guided optical...

  15. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Boulanger, Benoît; Cundiff, Steven T; Gauthier, Daniel J; Karlsson, Magnus; Lu, Yan-Qing; Norwood, Robert A; Skryabin, Dmitry; Taira, Takunori


    It is now fifty years since the original observation of second harmonic generation ushered in the field of nonlinear optics, close on the heels of the invention of the laser. This feature issue celebrates this anniversary with papers that span the range from new nonlinear optical materials, through the increasingly novel methods that have been developed for phase matching, to emerging areas such as nonlinear metamaterials and plasmonic enhancement of optical properties. It is clear that the next fifty years of nonlinear optics will witness a proliferation of new applications with increasing technological impact.

  16. Switching management by adiabatic passage in two periodically modulated nonlinear waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaobing; Yu, Xiaoguang


    We theoretically investigate light propagation in two periodically modulated nonlinear waveguides with certain propagation constant detuning between two guides. By slowly varying the amplitude of modulation, we can steer the light to the desired output waveguide when equal amounts of lights are launched into each waveguide. We also reveal that the light propagation dynamics depends sensitively on the detuning between two guides. Our findings can be explained qualitatively by means of adiabatic navigation of the extended nonlinear Floquet states.

  17. Enhanced continuous-variable entanglement by a pair of nonlinearly coupled waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We seek to analyze a three-level cascade laser with a pair of nonlinearly coupled waveguides inside the cavity. Applying the pertinent master equation, we investigate the squeezing and entanglement properties intracavity produced by our system. It is shown that with the help of nonlinearly coupled waveguides highly squeezed as well as macroscopic entangled light with high intensity can be achieved.

  18. Amplifying waveguide optical isolator with an integrated electromagnet



    We have demonstrated an amplifying waveguide optical isolator with an integrated electromagnet. This provides a solution to the generally poor magnetic remanence of this type of isolator. The proof of principle is presented and optimization routes are discussed.

  19. Sub-micrometer waveguide for nano-optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg; Andersen, Karin Nordström;


    With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide for prob......With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide...... for probing the reflection of light against a nano structure. The planar waveguide is based on a silicon nitride core layer, surrounded by a silica cladding region. In our design we utilize this waveguide to couple light into a nano-structure....

  20. Nonlinear properties of dispersion engineered InGaP photonic wire waveguides in the telecommunication wavelength range. (United States)

    Dave, Utsav D; Kuyken, Bart; Leo, François; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Combrie, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo; Raineri, Fabrice; Roelkens, Gunther


    We propose high index contrast InGaP photonic wires as a platform for the integration of nonlinear optical functions in the telecom wavelength window. We characterize the linear and nonlinear properties of these waveguide structures. Waveguides with a linear loss of 12 dB/cm and which are coupled to a single mode fiber through gratings with a -7.5 dB coupling loss are realized. From four wave mixing experiments, we extract the real part of the nonlinear parameter γ to be 475 ± 50 W(-1)m(-1) and from nonlinear transmission measurements we infer the absence of two-photon absorption and measure a three-photon absorption coefficient of (2.5 ± 0.5) x 10(-2) cm(3)GW(-2).

  1. Spatial synchronization between optical waveguides in arrays of Kerr fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Pando, L C L


    We study a new family of solutions of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation (DNLSE), whose initial conditions are close to the resonances of a suitable area preserving map. We show that some of these solutions are stable. We study the DNLSE in the context of arrays consisting of a finite number of coupled Kerr waveguides. Partial as well as complete spatial synchronization arises between the electric fields of some waveguides as light propagates.

  2. Spatial synchronization between optical waveguides in arrays of Kerr fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Pando, L C L


    We study a new family of solutions of the discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (DNLSE), whose initial conditions are close to the resonances of a suitable area preserving map. We show that some of these solutions are stable. We study the DNLSE in the context of arrays consisting of a finite number of coupled Kerr waveguides. Partial as well as complete spatial synchronization arises between the electric fields of some waveguides as light propagates.

  3. Membranized semiconductor rib waveguides for acousto-optic modulation enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    Membranized rib waveguides are proposed as an efficient way to increase acousto-optic modulation by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the traditional structures, opening up possibilities of constructing more compact and power-saving devices.......Membranized rib waveguides are proposed as an efficient way to increase acousto-optic modulation by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the traditional structures, opening up possibilities of constructing more compact and power-saving devices....

  4. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bao-Lai, E-mail: [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Simmonds, Paul J. [Department of Physics and Micron School of Materials Science & Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wang, Zhao-Qi [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons. - Highlights: • A coherent 4-f system with the spatial soliton waveguide as spatial frequency filter. • Manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image. • Achieve edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations of an optical image.

  5. Improved optical planar waveguides for lasers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate efficacy of a novel growth technique for planar waveguides (PWG) Enable PWG laser technology with improved performance, efficiency and manufacturability....

  6. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind


    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  7. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear optics 2013. (United States)

    Dadap, Jerry I; Karlsson, Magnus; Panoiu, Nicolae C


    Nonlinear Optics has continued to develop over the last few years at an extremely fast pace, with significant advances being reported in nonlinear optical metamaterials, optical signal processing, quantum optics, nonlinear optics at subwavelength scale, and biophotonics. These exciting new developments have generated significant potential for a broad spectrum of technological applications in which nonlinear-optical processes play a central role.

  8. Efficient supercontinuum generation in quadratic nonlinear waveguides without quasi-phase matching

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hairun; Steinert, Michael; Setzpfandt, Frank; Pertsch, Thomas; Chung, Hung-ping; Chen, Yen-Hung; Bache, Morten


    Efficient supercontinuum generation (SCG) requires excitation of solitons at the pump laser wavelength. Quadratic nonlinear waveguides may support an effective self-defocusing nonlinearity so solitons can directly be generated at common ultrafast laser wavelengths without any waveguide dispersion engineering. We here experimentally demonstrate efficient SCG in a standard lithium niobate (LN) waveguide without using quasi-phase matching (QPM). By using femtosecond pumps with wavelengths in the $1.25-1.5 \\mu\\rm m$ range, where LN has normal dispersion and thus supports self-defocusing solitons, octave-spanning SCG is observed. An optimized mid-IR waveguide design is expected to support even broader spectra. The QPM-free design reduces production complexity, allows longer waveguides, limits undesired spectral resonances and effectively allows using nonlinear crystals where QPM is inefficient or impossible. This result is important for mid-IR SCG, where QPM-free self-defocusing waveguides in common mid-IR nonline...

  9. Supercontinuum generation in quadratic nonlinear waveguides without quasi-phase matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Steinert, Michael


    bandwidths (even octave spanning), together with other experimental data, indicate that negative nonlinearity solitons are indeed excited, which is backed up by numerical simulations. The QPM-free design reduces production complexity, extends the maximum waveguide length, and limits undesired spectral...... resonances. Finally, nonlinear crystals can be used where QPM is inefficient or impossible, which is important for mid-IR SCG. QPM-free waveguides in mid-IR nonlinear crystals can support negative nonlinearity solitons, as these waveguides have a normal dispersion at the emission wavelengths of mid...

  10. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  11. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E


    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  12. Modeling, Simulation, and Characterization of Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguide Devices. (United States)

    Ma, Jiong

    The primary objective of this thesis is to investigate the properties of optical polymer waveguides and switches, develop a phenomenological CAD tool, and to use this phenomenological tool to design optical polymer devices for high-speed interconnects in VLSI systems. In the investigations of optical polymer waveguides, a new phenomenological bleaching model that is able to predict optical index profiles for photobleached polymer films was developed. The theoretical model shows good agreement with measured results for the effective index and optical field distributions of waveguides, and the absorption of films. Based on this bleaching model, we can predict the index profile for polymer channel waveguides and formulate design rules for active optical switches and modulators. The model has been successfully applied to photobleached PMMA/DR1 and Ultem/DEDR1 waveguides. An experimental technique to determine the poling -induced optical birefringence and optical nonlinearity is also discussed. In this technique, absorption measurements are performed immediately after poling. The poling-induced index changes as a function of wavelength are obtained from the absorption changes using a Kramers-Kronig transformation. An alternative method for predicting the poling-induced index changes, requiring a combination of waveguide measurement techniques and order parameter calculations, exhibits good agreement. By combining the poling effects with the photobleaching index profile, a CAD tool has been developed to calculate the optical field distribution and loss which allows the design of active electro-optical modulators. Using the CAD tool together with an equivalent circuit model of electro-optic polymer switches, circuit level comparisons of a CMOS strip line interconnect with an external polymer modulator interconnect were performed in terms of power dissipation, bandwidth, and connection density. HSPICE was used as a circuit simulation tool. Based on this analysis, it is

  13. Effect of patterns and inhomogeneities on the surface of waveguides used for optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Voros, J.; Graf, R.


    It has been found that patterns acid inhomogeneities on the surface of the waveguide used fur optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications can produce broadening and fine structure in the incoupled light peak spectra. During cell spreading on the waveguide, a broadening of the incoupling...

  14. Incorporating an optical waveguide into a neural interface (United States)

    Tolosa, Vanessa; Delima, Terri L.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tooker, Angela C.


    An optical waveguide integrated into a multielectrode array (MEA) neural interface includes a device body, at least one electrode in the device body, at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, at least one optical channel in the device body, and waveguide material in the at least one optical channel. The fabrication of a neural interface device includes the steps of providing a device body, providing at least one electrode in the device body, providing at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, providing at least one optical channel in the device body, and providing a waveguide material in the at least one optical channel.

  15. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei


    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  16. "Unmanned” optical micromanipulation using waveguide microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson


    be shaped more arbitrarily, engineered light deflection could lead to more control in the resulting motion. We demonstrated this principle with the autonomous translation of bent waveguides though pre-defined light tracks. In our experiment, incoming light makes a near 90 degree turn, hence the resulting...... force has a behavior similar to that from the reflection of light from an angled mirror. A force with a component opposite to light’s propagation through the waveguide drives the waveguide microstructure. Another bend at the opposite of the microstructure could slow it down, offering a way...

  17. Surface optical Bloch oscillations in semi-infinite waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Chremmos, I D; Efremidis, N K


    We predict that surface optical Bloch oscillations can exist in semi-infinite waveguide arrays with a linear index variation, if the array parameters close to the boundary are appropriately perturbed. The perturbation is such that the surface states obtain the Wannier-Stark ladder eigenvalues of the unperturbed infinite array. The number of waveguides, whose parameters need to be controlled, decreases with increasing ratio of index gradient over coupling. The configuration can find applications as a "matched" termination of waveguide arrays to eliminate the distortion of Bloch oscillations due to reflection on the boundaries.

  18. Nonreciprocal Bloch oscillations in magneto-optic waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Levy, Miguel; Kumar, Pradeep


    We show that nonreciprocal optical Bloch-like oscillations can emerge in transversely magnetized waveguide arrays in the presence of an effective index step between the waveguides. Normal modes of the system are shown to acquire different wavenumbers in opposite propagation directions. Significant differences in phase coherence and decoherence between these normal modes are presented and discussed. Nonreciprocity is established by imposing unequal vertical refractive index gradients at the substrate/core and core/cover interfaces in the presence of transverse magnetization.

  19. Mask-less lithography for fabrication of optical waveguides (United States)

    Dubov, M.; Natarajan, S. R.; Williams, J. A. R.; Bennion, I.


    A flexible method for fabricating shallow optical waveguides by using femtosecond laser writing of patterns on a metal coated glass substrate followed by ion-exchange is described. This overcomes the drawbacks of low index contrast and high induced stress in waveguides directly written using low-repetition rate ultrafast laser systems. When compared to conventional lithography, the technique is simpler and has advantages in terms of flexibility in the types of structures which can be fabricated.

  20. Optical Waveguiding in Individual Nanometer-Scale Organic Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Bordo, Vladimir G.; Simonsen, Adam Cohen;


    We show by a combination of spectrally resolved fluorescence and atomic force microscopy that individual, single crystalline, needlelike aggregates of hexaphenyl molecules with submicron cross-sectional dimensions act as optical waveguides (“nanofibers”) in the blue spectral range. The nanofibers...... the waveguiding behavior. From measurements of the damping of propagating 425-nm light the imaginary part of the dielectric function of individual nanoscaled organic aggregates is determined....

  1. Optically nonlinear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Whittam, A J


    susceptibility from 26 pm/V (same film without octadecanoic acid) to 40 pm/V. This increase in the second-order susceptibility occurred even though the amount of NLO-active dye was effectively diluted by the addition of the inactive octadecanoic acid. The wavelength of the absorption maximum ranged from 346-440 nm and there was direct correlation between the susceptibilities and the transparency of the films at the harmonic wavelength. Hemicyanine dyes were synthesised, with the general formulae: - (a) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH-C sub 6 H sub 4] sub x -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I (b) C sub 1 sub 8 H sub 3 sub 7 -A sup + -[CH=CH] sub y -C sub 6 H sub 4 -N(CH sub 3) sub 2 I where A sup + is a pyridinium or isoquinolinium acceptor, and x = 1 or 2, and y = 1 or 2. The optically nonlinear dyes were investigated via the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The dyes all produced isotherm data, with molecular areas of 22-60 A sup 2 per molecule, which are consistent with the cross-sectional areas of the chromo...

  2. Adapting an optical nanoantenna for high E-field probing applications to a waveguided optical waveguide (WOW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Glückstad, Jesper


    light wavelength while admitting other wavelengths of light which address certain functionalities, e.g. drug release, in the WOW. In particular, we study a bow-tie optical nano-antenna to circular dielectric waveguides in aqueous environments. It is shown with finite element computer simulations......In the current work we intend to use the optical nano-antenna to include various functionalities for the recently demonstrated waveguided optical waveguide (WOW) by Palima et al. (Optics Express 2012). Specifically, we intend to study a WOW with an optical nano-antenna which can block the guiding...... that the nanoantenna can be made to operate in a bandstop mode around its resonant wavelength where there is a very high evanescent strong electrical probing field close to the antennas, and additionally the fluorescence or Raman excitations will be be unpolluted by stray light from the WOW due to the band...

  3. Highly efficient optical parametric generation in proton exchanged PPLN waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Chanvillard, L; Baldi, P; De Micheli, M; Ostrowsky, D B; Huang, L; Bamford, G


    Summary form only given. Parametric fluorescence, amplification, and oscillation in PPLN waveguides have already been demonstrated. In all previous experiments, the measured efficiencies were smaller than the theoretically predicted values since the waveguide fabrication process utilized, annealed proton exchange (APE) can reduce or even destroy the nonlinear coefficient and/or the periodic domain orientation in a portion of the guiding structure. In the experiment reported here, we used a 2 cm long, Z-cut PPLN with a 18 mu m domain inversion period. The waveguides are created using a direct proton exchange process in a highly diluted melt, which induces no crystallographic phase transition. This allows preserving both the nonlinear coefficient and the domain orientation while fully benefiting from the power confinement associated with the guided wave configuration. (4 refs).

  4. Copper ion-exchanged channel waveguides optimization for optical trapping. (United States)

    Reshak, A H; Khor, K N; Shahimin, M M; Murad, S A Z


    Optical trapping of particles has become a powerful non-mechanical and non-destructive technique for precise particle positioning. The manipulation of particles in the evanescent field of a channel waveguide potentially allows for sorting and trapping of several particles and cells simultaneously. Channel waveguide designs can be further optimized to increase evanescent field prior to the fabrication process. This is crucial in order to make sure that the surface intensity is sufficient for optical trapping. Simulation configurations are explained in detail with specific simulation flow. Discussion on parameters optimization; physical geometry, optical polarization and wavelength is included in this paper. The effect of physical, optical parameters and beam spot size on evanescent field has been thoroughly discussed. These studies will continue toward the development of a novel copper ion-exchanged waveguide as a method of particle sorting, with biological cell propulsion studies presently underway.

  5. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...

  6. Polymer integrated waveguide optical biosensor by using spectral splitting effect (United States)

    Han, Xiaonan; Han, Xiuyou; Shao, Yuchen; Wu, Zhenlin; Liang, Yuxin; Teng, Jie; Bo, Shuhui; Morthier, Geert; Zhao, Mingshan


    The polymer waveguide optical biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) by using spectral splitting effect is investigated. The MZI based biosensor has two unequal width sensing arms. With the different mode dispersion responses of the two-arm waveguides to the cladding refractive index change, the spectral splitting effect of the output interference spectrum is obtained, inducing a very high sensitivity. The influence of the different mode dispersions between the two-arm waveguides on the spectral splitting characteristic is analyzed. By choosing different lengths of the two unequal width sensing arms, the initial dip wavelength of the interference spectrum and the spectral splitting range can be controlled flexibly. The polymer waveguide optical biosensor is designed, and its sensing property is analyzed. The results show that the sensitivity of the polymer waveguide optical biosensor by using spectral splitting effect is as high as 104 nm/RIU, with an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude compared with the slot waveguide based microring biosensor.

  7. Fabrication and Characterisation of Silicon Waveguides for High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    This Ph.D. thesis treats various aspects of silicon photonics. From the limitations of silicon as a linear and nonlinear waveguide medium to its synergy with other waveguide materials. Various methods for reducing sidewall roughness and line edge roughness of silicon waveguides are attempted....... The methods include enhancements of etch mask roughness as well as etch isotropy and direct reduction of already present sidewall roughness. Although promising roughness assessments were made based on electron microscopy images it did not translate into significantly lower propagation loss in fabricated...... signal processing could be demonstrated. This includes four wave mixing based wavelength conversion of a 320Gb/s Nyquist OTDM signal and cross phase modulation based signal regeneration of a 40Gb/s OTDM signal. Finally, a new type of low loss electrically driven optical modulator in silicon and silicon...

  8. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  9. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter, thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  10. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Liu; Lei Xu; Wencheng Wang


    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter,thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  11. Compact surface plasmonic waveguide component for integrated optical processor (United States)

    Gogoi, Nilima; Sahu, Partha Pratim


    A compact surface plasmonic two mode interference waveguide component having silicon core and silver and GaAsInP side cladding is proposed for optical processor elements. Coupling operation is obtained by using index modulation of GaAsInP cladding with applied optical pulse.

  12. Nonlinear light behaviors near phase transition in non-parity-time-symmetric complex waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Sean


    Many classes of non-parity-time (PT) symmetric waveguides with arbitrary gain and loss distributions still possess all-real linear spectrum or exhibit phase transition. In this article, nonlinear light behaviors in these complex waveguides are probed analytically near a phase transition. Using multi-scale perturbation methods, a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived for the light's amplitude evolution. This ODE predicts that the first class of these non-PT-symmetric waveguides support continuous families of solitons and robust amplitude-oscillating solutions both above and below phase transition, in close analogy with PT-symmetric systems. For the other classes of waveguides, the light's intensity always amplifies under the effect of nonlinearity even if the waveguide is below phase transition. These analytical predictions are confirmed by direct computations of the full system.

  13. Nonlinear optics: the next decade. (United States)

    Kivshar, Yuri S


    This paper concludes the Focus Serial assembled of invited papers in key areas of nonlinear optics (Editors: J.M. Dudley and R.W. Boyd), and it discusses new directions for future research in this field.

  14. Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip. (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Poon, Andrew W


    We study optical trapping of microparticles on an optofluidic chip using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions. We demonstrate the trapping of single 1 μm-sized polystyrene particles using the evanescent field of waveguide junctions connecting a submicrometer-sized input-waveguide and a micrometer-sized output-waveguide. Particle trapping is localized in the vicinity of the junction. We also demonstrate trapping of one and two 1μm-sized polystyrene particles using tapered-waveguide junctions connecting a submicrometer-sized singlemode input-waveguide and a micrometer-sized multimode output-waveguide. Particle trapping occurs near the taper output end, the taper center and the taper input end, depending on the taper aspect ratio.

  15. Geometry and transport in a model of two coupled quadratic nonlinear waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stirling, James R.; Bang, Ole; Christiansen, Peter Leth;


    This paper applies geometric methods developed to understand chaos and transport in Hamiltonian systems to the study of power distribution in nonlinear waveguide arrays. The specific case of two linearly coupled X(2) waveguides is modeled and analyzed in terms of transport and geometry in the pha...

  16. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation. (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping


    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  17. UV writing of advanced Bragg gratings in optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm


    The subject of this ph.d. thesis is the fabrication of Bragg gratings in optical waveguides. During the study Bragg gratings were written in both planar waveguides and optical fibers using pulsed or continuous-wave lasers operating in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The main result is the development...... of the novel polarization control method for UV writing of Bragg gratings with advanced apodization profiles including phase shifts. The principle of the polarization control method relies on a spatial separation of the s- and p-polarized components of a linearly polarized UV beam corresponding to half...... were then translated into a polarizer angle profile and the Bragg grating were written using a pulsed excimer laser. Only optical fibers were used in this part of the thesis. The high quality planar waveguides used during the study were produced in the cleanroom facility at the Microelectronic Center...

  18. Linear Amplification of Optical Signal in Coupled Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jandieri, Vakhtang


    We introduce a weakly coupled photonic crystal waveguide as a promising and realistic model for all-optical amplification. A symmetric pillar type coupled photonic crystal waveguide consisting of dielectric rods periodically distributed in a free space is proposed as all-optical amplifier. Using the unique features of the photonic crystals to control and guide the light, we have properly chosen the frequency at which only one mode (odd mode) becomes the propagating mode in the coupled photonic crystal waveguide, whereas another mode (even mode) is completely reflected from the guiding structure. Under this condition, the all-optical amplification is fully realized. The amplification coefficient for the continuous signal and the Gaussian pulse is calculated.

  19. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin Xiao-Gang; Liu Wen-Jun; Lei Ming


    Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota’s bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  20. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzan, Marco, E-mail:; Sada, Cinzia, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  1. Sign-Reversal Coupling in Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile


    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs), which play a significant role in modern photonics, achieve waveguiding through near-field coupling between tightly localized resonators. The coupling factor, a critical parameter in CROW theory, determines the coupling strength between two resonators and the waveguiding dispersion of a CROW. However, the original CROW theory proposed by Yariv et al. only demonstrated one value of coupling factor for a multipole resonance mode. Here, by imaging the tight-binding Bloch waves on a CROW consisting of designer-surface-plasmon resonators in the microwave regime, we demonstrate that the coupling factor in the CROW theory can reverse its sign for a multipole resonance mode. This determines two different waveguiding dispersion curves in the same frequency range, experimentally confirmed by matching Bloch wavevectors and frequencies in the CROW. Our study supplements and extends the original CROW theory, and may find novel use in functional photonic systems.

  2. Nonlinear optics and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.R.


    We shall consider an interesting topic relating nonlinear optics and organic materials: how nonlinear optics can be used to study organic materials. One of the main differences between linear and nonlinear responses of a medium to incoming radiation is in their symmetries. It leads to the possibility that some properties of the medium could be more sensitively probed by nonlinear, rather than linear, optical means, or vise versa. A well-known example is that some vibrational modes of a medium could be Raman-active but infrared-inactive, and would be more readily observed by Raman scattering, which is a two-photon transition process. In this paper, we shall discuss, with the help of three examples, how we can use second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum frequency generation (SFG) to obtain unique information about a material. We shall focus on thin films, surfaces, and interfaces.

  3. Novel optical waveguides by in-depth controlled electronic damage with swift ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, J. [Instituto de Optica ' Daza de Valdes' , CSIC, C/Serrano 121, E-28006-Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Garcia-Navarro, A. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), UAM, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Mendez, A. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), UAM, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), UAM, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Depto. Fisica de Materiales (C-IV), UAM, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), UAM, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Cabanes, A. [Depto. Fisica de Materiales (C-IV), UAM, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Carrascosa, M. [Depto. Fisica de Materiales (C-IV), UAM, E-28049-Madrid (Spain)


    We review recent results on a novel method to modify crystalline dielectric materials and fabricate optical waveguides and integrated optics devices. It relies on irradiation with medium-mass high-energy ions (2-50 MeV) where the electronic stopping power is dominant over that one associated to nuclear collisions. By exploiting the processing capabilities of the method, novel optical structures can be achieved at moderate (10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}) and even low and ultralow (10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}) fluences. In particular, step-like waveguides with a high index jump {delta}n {approx} 0.1-0.2, guiding both ordinary and extraordinary modes, have been prepared with F and O ions (20 MeV) at moderate fluences. They present good non-linear and electrooptic perfomance and low losses. (1 dB/cm). Moreover, useful optical waveguiding has been also achieved at ultralow frequencies (isolated track regime), using Cl and Si ions (40-45 MeV). In this latter case, the individual amorphous nanotracks, whose radius increases with depth, create an effective optical medium causing optical trapping.

  4. Phase-sensitive optical processing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petermann, Klaus; Gajda, A.; Dziallas, Claudia


    Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals......Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals...

  5. Transparent and flexible force sensor array based on optical waveguide. (United States)

    Kim, Youngsung; Park, Suntak; Park, Seung Koo; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk; Sun, Kyung


    This paper suggests a force sensor array measuring contact force based on intensity change of light transmitted throughout optical waveguide. For transparency and flexibility of the sensor, two soft prepolymers with different refractive index have been developed. The optical waveguide consists of two cladding layers and a core layer. The top cladding layer is designed to allow light scattering at the specific area in response to finger contact. The force sensor shows a distinct tendency that output intensity decreases with input force and measurement range is from 0 to -13.2 dB.

  6. Silicon waveguide based 320 Gbit/s optical sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael; Pu, Minhao


    A silicon waveguide-based ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained.......A silicon waveguide-based ultra-fast optical sampling system is successfully demonstrated using a free-running fiber laser with a carbon nanotube-based mode-locker as the sampling source. A clear eye-diagram of a 320 Gbit/s data signal is obtained....

  7. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...

  8. Unidirectional optical Bloch oscillations in asymmetric waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Levy, Miguel


    We present an analytical proof of the existence of unidirectional optical Bloch oscillations in a waveguide array system. It is shown that the presence of nonreciprocity in the system allows for a complete normal-mode dephasing in one of the propagation directions, resulting in a unidirectional breakdown in Bloch oscillations. A model system consisting of an array of transversely magnetized asymmetric Si/SiO2 waveguides with a magneto-optic cover layer is presented. Large index contrasts between film and cover are critical for practical realizations.

  9. Quasi-BLOCH oscillations in curved coupled optical waveguides. (United States)

    Joushaghani, Arash; Iyer, Rajiv; Poon, Joyce K S; Aitchison, J Stewart; de Sterke, C Martijn; Wan, Jun; Dignam, Marc M


    We report the observation of quasi-Bloch oscillations, a recently proposed, new type of dynamic localization in the spatial evolution of light in a curved coupled optical waveguide array. By spatially resolving the optical intensity at various propagation distances, we show the delocalization and final relocalization of the beam in the waveguide array. Through comparisons with other structures, we show that this dynamic localization is robust beyond the nearest-neighbor tight-binding approximation and exhibits a wavelength dependence different from conventional dynamic localization.

  10. Nonlinear plasmonic dispersion and coupling analysis in the symmetric graphene sheets waveguide (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Yuan, Haiming; Sun, Xiudong


    We study the nonlinear dispersion and coupling properties of the graphene-bounded dielectric slab waveguide at near-THz/THz frequency range, and then reveal the mechanism of symmetry breaking in nonlinear graphene waveguide. We analyze the influence of field intensity and chemical potential on dispersion relation, and find that the nonlinearity of graphene affects strongly the dispersion relation. As the chemical potential decreases, the dispersion properties change significantly. Antisymmetric and asymmetric branches disappear and only symmetric one remains. A nonlinear coupled mode theory is established to describe the dispersion relations and its variation, which agrees with the numerical results well. Using the nonlinear couple model we reveal the reason of occurrence of asymmetric mode in the nonlinear waveguide.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Ultrashort Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Pulses in Gold Strip Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Olivier, Nicolas


    We study experimentally and theoretically nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The nonlinear absorption of the plasmonic modes in the waveguides is measured with femtosecond pulses revealing a strong dependence of the third......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold core on the pulse duration and layer thickness. A comprehensive model for the pulse duration dependence of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility is developed on the basis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for plasmonic mode propagation in the waveguides....... The model accounts for the intrinsic delayed (noninstantaneous) nonlinearity of free electrons of gold as well as the thickness of the gold film and is experimentally verified. The obtained results are important for the development of active plasmonic and nanophotonic components....

  12. Properties of nonreciprocal light propagation in a nonlinear optical isolator


    Roy, Dibyendu


    Light propagation in a nonlinear optical medium is nonreciprocal for spatially asymmetric linear permittivity. We here examine physical mechanism and properties of such nonreciprocity (NR). For this, we calculate transmission of light through a two-level atom asymmetrically coupled to light inside open waveguides. We determine the critical intensity of incident light for maximum NR and a dependence of the corresponding NR on asymmetry in the coupling. Surprisingly, we find that it is mainly c...

  13. Nonlinear switching in multicore versus multimode waveguide junctions for mode-locked laser applications. (United States)

    Nazemosadat, Elham; Mafi, Arash


    The main differences in nonlinear switching behavior between multicore versus multimode waveguide couplers are highlighted. By gradually decreasing the separation between the two cores of a dual-core waveguide and interpolating from a multicore to a multimode scenario, the role of the linear coupling, self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and four-wave mixing terms are explored, and the key reasons are identified behind higher switching power requirements and lower switching quality in multimode nonlinear couplers.

  14. Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Chen, Yaohui; Yvind, Kresten


    Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects.......Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects....

  15. Transmission stability and Raman-induced amplitude dynamics in multichannel soliton-based optical waveguide systems (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Nguyen, Quan M.; Tran, Thinh P.


    We study transmission stability and dynamics of pulse amplitudes in N-channel soliton-based optical waveguide systems, taking into account second-order dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, delayed Raman response, and frequency dependent linear gain-loss. We carry out numerical simulations with systems of N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations and compare the results with the predictions of a simplified predator-prey model for Raman-induced amplitude dynamics. Coupled-NLS simulations for single-fiber transmission with 2 ≤ N ≤ 4 frequency channels show stable oscillatory dynamics of soliton amplitudes at short-to-intermediate distances, in excellent agreement with the predator-prey model's predictions. However, at larger distances, we observe transmission destabilization due to resonant formation of radiative sidebands, which is caused by Kerr nonlinearity. The presence of linear gain-loss in a single fiber leads to a limited increase in transmission stability. Significantly stronger enhancement of transmission stability is achieved in a nonlinear N-waveguide coupler due to efficient suppression of radiative sideband generation by the linear gain-loss. As a result, the distances along which stable Raman-induced dynamics of soliton amplitudes is observed are significantly larger in the waveguide coupler system compared with the single-fiber system.

  16. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide (United States)

    Liang, Bao-Lai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Simmonds, Paul J.; Wang, Zhao-Qi


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons.

  17. Nonlinear Optics and Turbulence (United States)


    currently at Queen Mary College, London Patrick Dunne, (Ph.D., 1987, M.I.T., Hydrodynamic Stability, Nonlinear Waves), 1987-1988. Alecsander Dyachenko...U I I I U I I 3 9 3 V. BIOGRAPHIES A. FACULTY BRUCE BAYLY, 31, Ph.D. 1986, Princeton University. Postdoctoral visiting member 1986-88 at Courant...Caputo, A. C. Newell, and M. Shelley , "Nonlinear Wave Propagation Through a Random Medium and Soliton Tunneling", Integrable Systems and

  18. Planar Silicon Optical Waveguide Light Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto; Bak, H.


    serve as carrier injectors for controling absorption. Light confinement of single mode devices is good, giving spot sizes of 9 ¿m FWHM. Insertion loss measurements indicate that the absorption losses for these waveguides are extremely low, less 1 dB/cm. Estimates of the switching speed indicate...

  19. Propagation of Gaussian beam in longitudinally inhomogeneous nonlinear graded index waveguides with gain and losses

    CERN Document Server

    Yesayan, G L


    The equations for the width and curvature radius of the wave front for a Gaussian beam of light propagating along the axis of the longitudinally inhomogeneous graded index waveguide with gain and losses in the presence of third-order nonlinearity are obtained. By means of numerical calculations it is shown that in such waveguides the mode of stabilization of the beam width is possible, when the absorption of radiation on the edges of the beam compensates its spreading caused by the longitudinal inhomogeneity and nonlinearity of the waveguide

  20. Spatiotemporal collapse in a nonlinear waveguide with a randomly fluctuating refractive index. (United States)

    Gaididei, Y B; Christiansen, P L


    Analytical results, based on the virial theorem and the Furutsu-Novikov theorem, of the spatiotemporal evolution of a pulse in a nonlinear waveguide with a randomly fluctuating refractive index are presented. For initial conditions in which total collapse occurs in a homogeneous waveguide, random fluctuations postpone the collapse. Sufficiently large-amplitude and short-wavelength fluctuations can cause an initially localized pulse to spread instead of contracting. We show that the disorder can be applied to induce a high degree of controllability of the spatiotemporal extent of the pulses in the nonlinear waveguide.

  1. Analysis of Semi-conductor Laser Diode with Two-dimension Nonlinearly Tapered Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; HAUNG Dexiu


    A novel semiconductor laser diode with a two-dimension nonlinearly tapered waveguide is proposed and its property is studied by Fourier expanding method. It is shown that coupling loss between the semiconductor laser diode and a single mode fiber is reduced effectively, the reduction role of the nonlinearly tapered waveguide is more apparent than that of a linearly tapered waveguide , the minimum coupling loss is 0.36 dB, and the far field divergence is decreased. The reduction mechanism is discussed.

  2. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical......The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index of the films can be controlled by germanium co...

  3. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar...... fluoresence level. In addition the first measurement of the diffusion coefficient of erbium in silica is presented and it is shown that eribum rich precipitaties are formed in areas of high erbium concentration. The manufacturing of planar waveguide structures using RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) is described...... and it is shown that sidewall roughness resulting from micro masking by non-volatile reaction products can be minimised through a carful choice of etching parameters. This results in low propagation loss for the fabricated waveguides. It is shown that the achivable population inversion depends on the erbium...

  4. New nonlinear optical materials based on ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J P [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Yu, K W [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)


    We exploit theoretically a new class of magneto-controlled nonlinear optical material based on ferrofluids in which ferromagnetic nanoparticles are coated with a nonmagnetic metallic nonlinear shell. Such an optical material can have anisotropic nonlinear optical properties and a giant enhancement of nonlinearity, as well as an attractive figure of merit.

  5. Numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in uniform waveguides with arbitrary cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng, E-mail: [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhou, Yu [Advanced Remanufacturing and Technology Center (ARTC), 3 Clean Tech Loop, CleanTech Two, Singapore 637143 (Singapore)


    Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.

  6. Nonlinear evolution of Airy-like beams generated by modulated waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Xiaojun; Qi, Xinyuan


    We numerically study the formation of modulated waveguide generated Airy-like beams and their subsequent evolution in homogeneous medium. The results show that the Airy-like beams could be generated from narrow Gaussian beams propagating in one-dimensional transverse separation modulated unbent, cosine bent, or logarithm bent waveguide arrays, respectively. The waveguide-generated Airy-like beams maintain their characteristics when propagating without nonlinearity or under the self-defocusing nonlinearity in homogeneous medium, while the beams are distorted under the self-focusing nonlinearity. The deformation depends on the waveguide bending and the outgoing angles of the Airy-like beams. Our results provide a new way to generate and manipulate the Airy-like beam.

  7. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias


    nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...

  8. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa


    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  9. Measurement of the thermo-optical effect of integrated waveguides (United States)

    Kremmel, Johannes; Lamprecht, Tobias; Michler, Markus


    Thermo-optical switches are widely used in integrated optics and various types of integrated optical structures have been reported in literature. These structures include, but are not limited to Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer (MZI) switches and digital optical switches. The thermo-optical effect depends on the refractive index, the polarizability and the density of a material. The polarizability effect can often be neglected and the change of refractive index is dominated by a density change due to the thermal expansion of the material. We report herein a new method to measure the thermo-optical effect of waveguides directly, using integrated MZIs fabricated in polymer waveguide technology. Common methods rely on macroscopic samples, but the properties can differ significantly for micro-structured waveguides. Using a floodlight halogen rod lamp and metal-shields, we realized a radiation heater with a trapezoidal-shaped heating pattern. While the heating occurred from the bottom side, a thermocouple was placed on top of the sample. By dynamically measuring the temperature and the corresponding output-power of the MZI, the temperature difference between constructive and destructive interference can be determined. Multiple measurements of different sample MZIs exhibit an average thermo-optical coefficient (TOC) of 1.6 ∗ 10-4 1/K .

  10. Optical Code Generating Device Using 1×N Asymmetric Hollow Waveguide Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abang Annuar EHSAN; Sahbudin SHAARI; Mohd Kamil ABD.RAHMAN; Kee Mohd Rafique KEE ZAINAL ABIDIN


    An optical code generating device for security access system application is presented. The code generating device constructed using asymmetric hollow optical waveguide coupler design provides a unique series of output light intensities which are successively used as an optical code. The design of the waveguide is made using two major components which are asymmetric Y-junction splitter and a linear taper. Waveguiding is done using a hollow waveguide structure. Construction of higher level 1×N hollow waveguide coupler is done utilizing a basic 1×2 asymmetric waveguide coupler design together with a cascaded design scheme. Non-sequential ray tracing of the asymmetric hollow optical waveguide couplers is performed to predict the optical transmission properties of the waveguide. A representation of the code combination that can be generated from the device is obtained using combinatory number theory.

  11. Direction-dependent Optical Modes in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Jacob T


    On-chip photonic networks have the potential to transmit and route information more efficiently than electronic circuits. Recently, a number of silicon-based optical devices including modulators, buffers, and wavelength converts have been reported. However, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before these devices can be combined into network-level architectures. In particular, due to the high refractive index contrast between the core and cladding of semiconductor waveguides, nanoscale defects along the waveguide often scatter light into the backward-propagating mode. These reflections could result in unwanted feedback to optical sources or crosstalk in bidirectional interconnects such as those employed in fiber-optic networks. It is often assumed that these reflected waves spatially overlap the forward-propagating waves making it difficult to implement optical circulators or isolators which separate or attenuate light based on its propagation direction. Here, we individually identify and map...

  12. Comparison of different modelling techniques for longitudinally invariant integrated optical waveguides (United States)

    de Zutter, D.; Lagasse, P.; Buus, J.; Young, T. P.; Dillon, B. M.


    In order to compare various modeling techniques for the eigenmode analysis of integrated optical waveguides, twelve different methods are applied to the analysis of two typical III-V rib waveguides. Both a single and a coupled waveguide case are considered. Results focus on the effective refractive index value for the lowest order TE-mode in the case of the single waveguide, and on the coupling length between the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric TE-modes of the coupled waveguides.

  13. Integrated optic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers (United States)

    van Tomme, Emmanuel; van Daele, Peter P.; Baets, Roel G.; Lagasse, Paul E.


    An examination is made of the state of the art of nonlinear optical polymeric materials in view of their potential advantages. It is shown that these organic materials have many attractive features compared to LiNbO3 and III-V semiconductors with regard to their use in integrated optic circuits, especially since the level of integration is ever increasing. Considering more specifically electro-optic devices, a description is given of some of the theoretical background and basic properties. These polymers have already demonstrated a very high and extremely fast electro-optic effect compared to LiNbO3. It is also shown how low-loss waveguides can be fabricated by using easy techniques such as direct UV bleaching. The performance of phase modulators, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and 2 x 2 space switches built with such polymers is already very promising. The results described in this study indicate a rapid rate of progress made by this technology, and one can expect that polymers in general and NLO polymers in particular will play an increasingly important role in integrated optics.

  14. Design of integrated hybrid silicon waveguide optical gyroscope. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Moreira, Renan; Blumenthal, Daniel; Bowers, John E


    We propose and analyze a novel highly integrated optical gyroscope using low loss silicon nitride waveguides. By integrating the active optical components on chip, we show the possibility of reaching a detection limit on the order of 19°/hr/√Hz in an area smaller than 10 cm(2). This study examines a number of parameters, including the dependence of sensitivity on sensor area.

  15. Effects of the Planar Optical Waveguide Thickness on the Transmission Attenuation①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJian; SUHansong


    By analyzing and computing,according to the wave theory of planar optical waveguide attenuation,a new opinion is put forward.A series of transmission atteenuation with waveguide film-thickness are given and it illustrates that optical transmission is not carrying out efficiently within some waveguide film-thickness.

  16. Optical waveguides using PDMS-metal oxide hybrid nanocomposites (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Arash; Middlebrook, Christopher T.; Mullins, Michael E.


    Development of passive and active polymer based optical materials for high data rate waveguide routing and interconnects has gained increased attention because of their excellent properties such as low absorption, cost savings, and ease in fabrication. However, optical polymers are typically limited in the range of their refraction indices. Combining polymeric and inorganic optical materials provides advantages for as development of nano-composites with higher refractive indices with the possibility of being used as an active optical component. In this paper a new composite material is proposed based on polymer-metal oxide nano-composites for use as optical wave guiding structures and components. PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) is utilized for the polymer portion while the inorganic material is titanium dioxide. Refraction indices as high as 1.74 have been reported using these composites. For PDMS-TiO2 hybrids, the higher the ratio of titanium dioxide to PDMS, the higher the resulting refractive index. The index of refraction as a function of the PDMS:TiO2 ratio is reported with an emphasis on use as optical waveguide devices. Absorption spectrum of the nano-composites is measured showing low absorption at 850 nm and high absorption in the UV regime for direct UV laser/light curing. Prototype multimode waveguides are fabricated using soft imprint embossing that is compatible with the low viscosity nano-composite material. Cross dimensional shape and profile show the potential for full scale development utilizing the material set.

  17. Gel-based optical waveguides with live cell encapsulation and integrated microfluidics. (United States)

    Jain, Aadhar; Yang, Allen H J; Erickson, David


    In this Letter, we demonstrate a biocompatible microscale optical device fabricated from agarose hydrogel that allows for encapsulation of cells inside an optical waveguide. This allows for better interaction between the light in the waveguide and biology, since it can interact with the direct optical mode rather than the evanescent field. We characterize the optical properties of the waveguide and further incorporate a microfluidic channel over the optical structure, thus developing an integrated optofluidic system fabricated entirely from agarose gel.

  18. Variational analysis of eigenmodes of integrated optical waveguides and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An iterative procedure is proposed for the variational analysis of Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguides. A trial solution for the dominant electric field profile of arbitrary-order eigenmodes in strip waveguides and two coupled waveguides is proposed and its parameters are determined using the variational method. The results calculated using this method agree well with those obtained using the finite-element method. The present method has been used to check the accuracy of the effective index method as well as a quasi-analytical technique based on the effective index method. The results show that the effective index method is generally accurate for the fundamental mode and becomes less accurate for higher-order vertical modes.

  19. Optical waveguide arrays: quantum effects and PT symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Scott, Derek D; Vemuri, Gautam


    Over the last two decades, advances in fabrication have led to significant progress in creating patterned heterostructures that support either carriers, such as electrons or holes, with specific band structure or electromagnetic waves with a given mode structure and dispersion. In this article, we review the properties of light in coupled optical waveguides that support specific energy spectra, with or without the effects of disorder, that are well-described by a Hermitian tight-binding model. We show that with a judicious choice of the initial wave packet, this system displays the characteristics of a quantum particle, including transverse photonic transport and localization, and that of a classical particle. We extend the analysis to non-Hermitian, parity and time-reversal ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric Hamiltonians which physically represent waveguide arrays with spatially separated, balanced absorption or amplification. We show that coupled waveguides are an ideal candidate to simulate $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetri...

  20. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu


    thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length...

  1. Four-wave mixing and nonlinear losses in thick silicon waveguides. (United States)

    Morrison, Blair; Zhang, Yanbing; Pagani, Mattia; Eggleton, Benjamin; Marpaung, David


    We experimentally investigate four-wave mixing and nonlinear losses in low-loss 3 μm thick silicon strip waveguides. Adiabatic bends allow for single-mode operation in an ultra-compact 35 cm long spiral. The waveguides exhibited reduced nonlinear losses due to the large mode area of 2.75  μm2. The nonlinear coefficient γ was measured as 5.5  m-1  W-1. These features, along with the low propagation loss of 0.17 dB/cm, enable large idler power generation at 1550 nm.

  2. Optimization design of optical waveguide in Mach-Zehnder electro-optical polymer modulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuan; ZHANG Xiao-xia; LIAO Jin-kun


    @@ In order to reduce transmission loss of the optical waveguide in Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) electro-optical (EO) polymer modulator,the basic iterative formula of semi-vector finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) is obtained from the scalar wave equation.The transition waveguide is combined with S-type bend branch waveguide for the M-Z EO modulator in the branch waveguide.The effects of structure parameters such as ridge width, length of the branch waveguide and interferometer spacing on the transmission loss are systematically studied by using the semi-vector FD-BPM method.The structure is optimized as an S-sine bend branch waveguide, with rib width w=7 μm, length of branch waveguide L=1200μm and interferometer spacing G=22 μm.The results show that the optimized structure can reduce transmission loss to 0.083 dB,which have a certain reference value to the design of optical waveguide in M-Z polymer modulator.

  3. Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links. (United States)

    Witzens, Jeremy; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael


    Slot waveguides allow joint confinement of the driving electrical radio frequency field and of the optical waveguide mode in a narrow slot, allowing for highly efficient polymer based interferometers. We show that the optical confinement can be simply explained by a perturbation theoretical approach taking into account the continuity of the electric displacement field. We design phase matched transmission lines and show that their impedance and RF losses can be modeled by an equivalent circuit and linked to slot waveguide properties by a simple set of equations, thus allowing optimization of the device without iterative simulations. We optimize the interferometers for analog optical links and predict record performance metrics (V(pi) = 200 mV @ 10 GHz in push-pull configuration) assuming a modest second order nonlinear coefficient (r(33) = 50 pm/V) and slot width (100 nm). Using high performance optical polymers (r(33) = 150 pm/V), noise figures of state of the art analog optical links can be matched while reducing optical power levels by approximately 30 times. With required optical laser power levels predicted at 50 mW, this could be a game changing improvement by bringing high performance optical analog link power requirements in the reach of laser diodes. A modified transmitter architecture allows shot noise limited performance, while reducing power levels in the slot waveguides and enhancing reliability.

  4. Nonlinear Optics of Hexaphenyl Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Neuendorf, Rolf


    measurements reveal that the nonlinear optical transition dipole moment is oriented with an angle of 75° with respect to the needles long axes. The absolute value of the macroscopic second-order susceptibility, averaged over a size distribution of p-6P nanoaggregates, is estimated to be of the order of 6...

  5. Erbium Doped Phosphate Glass For Optical Waveguide Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.S.F.Wong; S.Q.Man; E.Y.B.Pun; P.S.Chung


    @@ Erbium (Er3+) doped phosphate glasses was prepared and the optical properties of these glasses were investigated. The emission parameters were calculated using the Judd-Ofelt treatment. The radiative lifetime of the 4I13/2 level is calculated to be 7.2ms. The fluorescence lifetime is measured to be 6ms, and the quantum efficiency is estimated to be 83%. Ion-exchanged optical waveguides were fabricated in these glasses by using pure KNO3 meet at 370℃, and diluted AgNO3 molten salt at 270℃. It was found that the lower temperature diluted AgNO3 molten salt is better for the ion exchange process. Planar waveguide with 5 modes at the 633nm and 2 modes at the 1550nm was demonstrated using the diluted AgNO3. Our results show that phosphate glass is a potential candidate for the 1.5μm optical amplifier device.

  6. Ultrafast, low-power, all-optical switching via birefringent phase-matched transverse mode conversion in integrated waveguides. (United States)

    Hellwig, Tim; Epping, Jörn P; Schnack, Martin; Boller, Klaus-J; Fallnich, Carsten


    We demonstrate the potential of birefringence-based, all-optical, ultrafast conversion between the transverse modes in integrated optical waveguides by modelling the conversion process by numerically solving the multi-mode coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The observed conversion is induced by a control beam and due to the Kerr effect, resulting in a transient index grating which coherently scatters probe light from one transverse waveguide mode into another. We introduce birefringent phase matching to enable efficient all-optically induced mode conversion at different wavelengths of the control and probe beam. It is shown that tailoring the waveguide geometry can be exploited to explicitly minimize intermodal group delay as well as to maximize the nonlinear coefficient, under the constraint of a phase matching condition. The waveguide geometries investigated here, allow for mode conversion with over two orders of magnitude reduced control pulse energy compared to previous schemes and thereby promise nonlinear mode switching exceeding efficiencies of 90% at switching energies below 1 nJ.

  7. Optical waveguides in magneto-optical glasses fabricated by proton implantation (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Yu-Wen; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Fu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei


    Planar waveguides in magneto-optical glasses (Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses) have been produced by a 550-keV proton implantation at a dose of 4.0×1016 ions/cm2 for the first time to our knowledge. After annealing at 260 °C for 1.0 h, the dark-mode spectra and near-field intensity distributions are measured by the prism-coupling and end-face coupling methods. The damage profile, refractive index distribution and light propagation mode of the planar waveguide are numerically calculated by SRIM 2010, RCM and FD-BPM, respectively. The effects of implantation on the structural and optical properties are investigated by Raman and absorption spectra. It suggests that the proton-implanted Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glass waveguide is a good candidate for a waveguide isolator in optical fiber communication and all-optical communication.

  8. Comparative analysis of four-wave mixing of optical pulses in slow- and fast-light regimes of a silicon photonic crystal waveguide. (United States)

    Lavdas, Spyros; Panoiu, Nicolae C


    We present an in-depth study of four-wave mixing (FWM) of optical pulses in silicon photonic crystal waveguides. Our analysis is based on a rigorous model that includes all relevant linear and nonlinear optical effects and their dependence on the group velocity, as well as the influence of free carriers on pulse dynamics. In particular, we reveal key differences between FWM in the slow- and fast-light regimes and how they are related to the physical parameters of the pulses and waveguide. Finally, we illustrate how these results can be used to design waveguides with optimized FWM conversion efficiency.

  9. Symmetric metal slot waveguides with nonlinear dielectric core: bifurcations, size effects, and higher order modes

    CERN Document Server

    Walasik, Wiktor; Renversez, Gilles


    We study the nonlinear waves propagating in metal slot waveguides with a Kerr-type dielectric core. We develop two independent semi-analytical models to describe the properties of such waveguides. Using those models we compute the dispersion curves for the first ten modes of a nonlinear slot waveguide. For symmetric waveguides we find symmetric, antisymmetric, and asymmetric modes which are grouped in two families. In addition, we study the influence of the slot width on the first symmetric and asymmetric modes, and we show that the dispersion curve of the first asymmetric mode is invariant with respect to the slot width for high propagation constant values and we provide analytical approximations of this curve.

  10. Metal-slotted hybrid optical waveguides for PCB-compatible optical interconnection. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Tae; Ju, Jung Jin; Park, Suntak


    For development of electro-optical printed circuit board (PCB) systems, PCB-compatible metal-slotted hybrid optical waveguide was proposed and its optical characteristics are investigated at a wavelength of 1.31 μm. To confine light in a metallic multilayered structure, a metal film with a wide trench is inserted at the center of a dielectric medium that is sandwiched between metal films of infinite width. A circularly symmetric spot of the guided mode was measured at the center of the metal-slotted optical waveguide, which is a good agreement with the theoretical prediction by using the finite-element method. The measured propagation loss is about 1.5 dB/cm. Successful transmission of 2.5 Gbps optical signal without any distortion of the eye diagram confirms that the proposed hybrid optical waveguide holds a potential transmission line for the PCB-compatible optical interconnection.

  11. Nonlinear fiber optics formerly quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind


    The field of nonlinear fiber optics has grown substantially since the First Edition of Nonlinear Fiber Optics, published in 1989. Like the First Edition, this Second Edition is a comprehensive, tutorial, and up-to-date account of nonlinear optical phenomena in fiber optics. It synthesizes widely scattered research material and presents it in an accessible manner for students and researchers already engaged in or wishing to enter the field of nonlinear fiber optics. Particular attention is paid to the importance of nonlinear effects in the design of optical fiber communication systems. This is

  12. Silicon Photonics: All-Optical Devices for Linear and Nonlinear Applications (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeffrey B.

    Silicon photonics has grown rapidly since the first Si electro-optic switch was demonstrated in 1987, and the field has never grown more quickly than it has over the past decade, fueled by milestone achievements in semiconductor processing technologies for low loss waveguides, high-speed Si modulators, Si lasers, Si detectors, and an enormous toolbox of passive and active integrated devices. Silicon photonics is now on the verge of major commercialization breakthroughs, and optical communication links remain the force driving integrated and Si photonics towards the first commercial telecom and datacom transceivers; however other potential and future applications are becoming uncovered and refined as researchers reveal the benefits of manipulating photons on the nanoscale. This thesis documents an exploration into the unique guided-wave and nonlinear properties of deeply-scaled high-index-contrast sub-wavelength Si waveguides. It is found that the tight confinement inherent to single-mode channel waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform lead to a rich physics, which can be leveraged for new devices extending well beyond simple passive interconnects and electro-optic devices. The following chapters will concentrate, in detail, on a number of unique physical features of Si waveguides and extend these attributes towards new and interesting devices. Linear optical properties and nonlinear optical properties are investigated, both of which are strongly affected by tight optical confinement of the guided waveguide modes. As will be shown, tight optical confinement directly results in strongly vectoral modal components, where the electric and magnetic fields of the guided modes extend into all spatial dimensions, even along the axis of propagation. In fact, the longitudinal electric and magnetic field components can be just as strong as the transverse fields, directly affecting the modal group velocity and energy transport properties since the longitudinal fields

  13. Enhanced continuous-variable entanglement by a pair of nonlinearly coupled waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG KeQuan; FAN QiuBo


    We seek to analyze a three-level cascade laser with a pair of non,nearly coupled waveguides inside the cavity.Applying the pertinent master equation,we investigate the squeezing and entanglement prop-erties intracavity produced by our system.It is shown that with the help of nonlinearly coupled waveguides highly squeezed as well as macroscopic entangled light with high intensity can be achieved.

  14. Unsymmetrical squaraines for nonlinear optical materials (United States)

    Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Chen, Chin-Ti (Inventor); Cheng, Lap-Tak (Inventor)


    Compositions for use in non-linear optical devices. The compositions have first molecular electronic hyperpolarizability (.beta.) either positive or negative in sign and therefore display second order non-linear optical properties when incorporated into non-linear optical devices.

  15. Coherent all-optical switching in a bistable waveguide-cavity-waveguide system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper


    All optical switching based on non-linear material effects is a promising technique for use in future optical communication systems. Promising advances in the field has been achieved using optical microcavities in photonic crystals to increase the optical field strength and hence reduce...... the required power of the input field [1]. In this work we consider an alternative method of switching, in which the input power is kept constant and only the phase of the input field is varied....

  16. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, Ofer; Segev, Mordechai [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, FL 32816-2700 (United States); Kip, Detlef, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Helmut Schmidt University, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)


    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  17. Telluride films and waveguides for IR integrated optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, Eleonore; Vigreux, Caroline; Pradel, Annie [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR CNRS 5253, Universite Montpellier II, CC1503, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Parent, Gilles [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, Universite de Nancy-Lorraine, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy Cedex (France); Barillot, Marc [Thales Alenia Space, 100 Bld. du midi, BP99, 06156 Cannes La Bocca Cedex (France)


    The fabrication of micro-components for far infrared applications such as spatial interferometry requires the realization of single-mode channel waveguides being able to work in the infrared region. One of the key issues in case of channel waveguides is the selection of materials for the core layer. Amorphous telluride films are particularly attractive for their transparency in a large spectral domain in the infrared region. A second key issue is the selection of an appropriate method for film deposition. Indeed, waveguides for far infrared applications are characterized by a thick core layer (10-15 {mu}m, typically). The challenge is thus to select a deposition method which ensures the deposition of thick films of optical quality. In this paper, it is shown that thermal co-evaporation meets this challenge. In particular, it allows varying the composition of the films very easily and thus adjusting their optical properties (refractive index, optical band gap). The example of thermally co-evaporated Te-Ge films is given. Films with typical thickness of 7-15 {mu}m were elaborated. Their morphological, structural, thermal and optical properties were measured. A particular attention was paid to the checking of the film homogeneity. The realized waveguiding structures and their optical testing are then described. In particular, the first transmission measurements at 10.6 {mu}m are presented. In conclusion, the feasibility of micro-components based on the stacking and etching of chalcogenide films is demonstrated, opening the door to applications related to detection in the mid- and thermal infrared spectral domains (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Optical polarizer/isolator based on a rectangular waveguide with helical grooves

    CERN Document Server

    Shvets, G


    A chirality-based approach to making a one-way waveguide that can be used as an optical isolator or a polarizer is described. The waveguide is rectangular, and chirality is introduced by making slanted rectangular grooves on the waveguide walls. Chirality of the waveguide manifests as a strong circular dichroism, and is responsible for transmitting one circular polarization of light and reflecting the other. Optical isolation of the propagating circular polarization is accomplished when the chiral waveguide is placed in front of a non-chiral optical device. Even the crudest implementations of chirality are shown to exhibit significant circular dichroism.

  19. Natural Silk as a Photonics Component: a Study on Its Light Guiding and Nonlinear Optical Properties (United States)

    Kujala, Sami; Mannila, Anna; Karvonen, Lasse; Kieu, Khanh; Sun, Zhipei


    Silk fibers are expected to become a pathway to biocompatible and bioresorbable waveguides, which could be used to deliver localized optical power for various applications, e.g., optical therapy or imaging inside living tissue. Here, for the first time, the linear and nonlinear optical properties of natural silk fibers have been studied. The waveguiding properties of silk fibroin of largely unprocessed Bombyx mori silkworm silk are assessed using two complementary methods, and found to be on the average 2.8 dB mm-1. The waveguide losses of degummed silk are to a large extent due to scattering from debris on fiber surface and helical twisting of the fiber. Nonlinear optical microscopy reveals both configurational defects such as torsional twisting, and strong symmetry breaking at the center of the fiber, which provides potential for various nonlinear applications. Our results show that nonregenerated B. mori silk can be used for delivering optical power over short distances, when the waveguide needs to be biocompatible and bioresorbable, such as embedding the waveguide inside living tissue.

  20. Plasmonic nanoantennas as integrated coherent perfect absorbers on SOI waveguides for modulators and all-optical switches

    CERN Document Server

    Bruck, Roman


    The performance of plasmonic nanoantenna structures on top of SOI wire waveguides as coherent perfect absorbers for modulators and all-optical switches is explored. The absorption, scattering, reflection and transmission spectra of gold and aluminum nanoantenna-loaded waveguides were calculated by means of 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations for single waves propagating along the waveguide, as well as for standing wave scenarios composed from two counterpropagating waves. The investigated configurations showed losses of roughly 1% and extinction ratios greater than 25 dB for modulator and switching applications, as well as plasmon effects such as strong field enhancement and localization in the nanoantenna region. The proposed plasmonic coherent perfect absorbers can be utilized for ultracompact all-optical switches in coherent networks as well as modulators and can find applications in sensing or in increasing nonlinear effects.

  1. Research progresses of SOI optical waveguide devices and integrated optical switch matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jinzhong; CHEN Shaowu; XIA Jinsong; WANG Zhangtao; FAN Zhongchao; LI Yanping; LIU Jingwei; YANG Di; CHEN Yuanyuan


    SOI (silicon-on-insulator) is a new material with a lot of important perform- ances such as large index difference, low transmission loss. Fabrication processes for SOI based optoelectronic devices are compatible with conventional IC processes. Having the potential of OEIC monolithic integration, SOI based optoelectronic devices have shown many good characteristics and become more and more attractive recently. In this paper, the recent progresses of SOI waveguide devices in our research group are presented. By highly effective numerical simulation, the single mode conditions for SOI rib waveguides with rectangular and trapezoidal cross-section were accurately investigated. Using both chemical anisotropic wet etching and plasma dry etching techniques, SOI single mode rib waveguide, MMI coupler, VOA (variable optical attenuator), 2×2 thermal-optical switch were successfully designed and fabricated. Based on these, 4×4 and 8×8 SOI optical waveguide integrated switch matrixes are demonstrated for the first time.

  2. Modeling of all-optical even and odd parity generator circuits using metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides (United States)

    Singh, Lokendra; Bedi, Amna; Kumar, Santosh


    Plasmonic metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides sustain excellent property of confining the surface plasmons up to a deep subwavelength scale. In this paper, linear and S-shaped MIM waveguides are cascaded together to design the model of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Nonlinear material has been used for switching of light across its output ports. The structures of even and odd parity generators are projected by cascading the MZIs. Parity generator and checker circuit are used for error correction and detection in an optical communication system. Study and analysis of proposed designs are carried out by using the MATLAB simulation and finite-differencetime-domain (FDTD) method.

  3. Optical waveguide Hamiltonians leading to step-2 difference equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico)


    We examine the evolution of an N-point signal produced and sensed at finite arrays of points transverse to a planar waveguide, within the framework of the finite quantization of geometric optics. In contradistinction to the common mechanical Hamiltonians (kinetic plus potential energy terms) the classical waveguide Hamiltonian is the square root of a difference of squares of the refractive index profile minus the optical momentum. The finitely quantized model requires the solution of the square eigenvalue and eigenfunction problem which leads to a step-two difference equation that contains two solutions and two signs of energy. We find the proper linear combinations to fit the Kravchuk functions of the finite oscillator model.

  4. Double-Teeth-Shaped Plasmonic Waveguide Electro-Optical Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jia-Hu; HUANG Xu-Guang; MEI Xian


    @@ An electro-optical switch based on a plasmonic T-shaped waveguide structure with a double-teeth-shaped waveguide filled with 4-dimet4ylamino-N-methyl-4stilbazolium tosylate is proposed and numerically investigated.TheFinite-difference time domain simulation results reveal that the structure can operate as a circuit switch by controlling the external voltages V1 and/or V2.The proposed structure can also operate as a variable optical attenuator, which can continuously attenuate the power of a light beam from 6dB to 30dB by an external electrical field.The structure is of small size of a few hundred nanometers.Our results may open a possibility to construct nanoscale high-density photonic integration circuits.

  5. Optical waveguide Hamiltonians leading to step-2 difference equations (United States)

    Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo


    We examine the evolution of an N-point signal produced and sensed at finite arrays of points transverse to a planar waveguide, within the framework of the finite quantization of geometric optics. In contradistinction to the common mechanical Hamiltonians (kinetic plus potential energy terms) the classical waveguide Hamiltonian is the square root of a difference of squares of the refractive index profile minus the optical momentum. The finitely quantized model requires the solution of the square eigenvalue and eigenfunction problem which leads to a step-two difference equation that contains two solutions and two signs of energy. We find the proper linear combinations to fit the Kravchuk functions of the finite oscillator model.

  6. Electro-optical circuit board with single-mode glass waveguide optical interconnects (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Pernthaler, Dominik; Weber, Daniel; Sirbu, Bogdan; Herbst, Christian; Frey, Christopher; Queisser, Marco; Wöhrmann, Markus; Manessis, Dionysios; Schild, Beatrice; Oppermann, Hermann; Eichhammer, Yann; Schröder, Henning; Hâkansson, Andreas; Tekin, Tolga


    A glass optical waveguide process has been developed for fabrication of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB). Very thin glass panels with planar integrated single-mode waveguides can be embedded as a core layer in printed circuit boards for high-speed board-level chip-to-chip and board-to-board optical interconnects over an optical backplane. Such singlemode EOCBs will be needed in upcoming high performance computers and data storage network environments in case single-mode operating silicon photonic ICs generate high-bandwidth signals [1]. The paper will describe some project results of the ongoing PhoxTroT project, in which a development of glass based single-mode on-board and board-to-board interconnection platform is successfully in progress. The optical design comprises a 500 μm thin glass panel (Schott D263Teco) with purely optical layers for single-mode glass waveguides. The board size is accommodated to the mask size limitations of the fabrication (200 mm wafer level process, being later transferred also to larger panel size). Our concept consists of directly assembling of silicon photonic ICs on cut-out areas in glass-based optical waveguide panels. A part of the electrical wiring is patterned by thin film technology directly on the glass wafer surface. A coupling element will be assembled on bottom side of the glass-based waveguide panel for 3D coupling between board-level glass waveguides and chip-level silicon waveguides. The laminate has a defined window for direct glass access for assembling of the photonic integrated circuit chip and optical coupling element. The paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of glass-based electro-optical circuit board with format of (228 x 305) mm2.

  7. Waveguides with Absorbing Boundaries: Nonlinearity Controlled by an Exceptional Point and Solitons (United States)

    Midya, Bikashkali; Konotop, Vladimir V.


    We reveal the existence of continuous families of guided single-mode solitons in planar waveguides with weakly nonlinear active core and absorbing boundaries. Stable propagation of TE and TM-polarized solitons is accompanied by attenuation of all other modes, i.e., the waveguide features properties of conservative and dissipative systems. If the linear spectrum of the waveguide possesses exceptional points, which occurs in the case of TM polarization, an originally focusing (defocusing) material nonlinearity may become effectively defocusing (focusing). This occurs due to the geometric phase of the carried eigenmode when the surface impedance encircles the exceptional point. In its turn, the change of the effective nonlinearity ensures the existence of dark (bright) solitons in spite of focusing (defocusing) Kerr nonlinearity of the core. The existence of an exceptional point can also result in anomalous enhancement of the effective nonlinearity. In terms of practical applications, the nonlinearity of the reported waveguide can be manipulated by controlling the properties of the absorbing cladding.

  8. Nonlinear Silicon Photonic Signal Processing Devices for Future Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Lacava


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review on silicon-based nonlinear devices for all optical nonlinear processing of complex telecommunication signals. We discuss some recent developments achieved by our research group, through extensive collaborations with academic partners across Europe, on optical signal processing using silicon-germanium and amorphous silicon based waveguides as well as novel materials such as silicon rich silicon nitride and tantalum pentoxide. We review the performance of four wave mixing wavelength conversion applied on complex signals such as Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM and 64-QAM that dramatically enhance the telecom signal spectral efficiency, paving the way to next generation terabit all-optical networks.

  9. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.


    Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).

  10. Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hong; Zhang, Cun-Lin; Long, Gui-Lu


    We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the course of the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.

  11. Quantum Computation with Nonlinear Optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ke; LIU Yang; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHANG Wen-Hong; SUN Yun-Fei; ZHANG Cun-Lin; LONG Gui-Lu


    We propose a scheme of quantum computation with nonlinear quantum optics. Polarization states of photons are used for qubits. Photons with different frequencies represent different qubits. Single qubit rotation operation is implemented through optical elements like the Faraday polarization rotator. Photons are separated into different optical paths, or merged into a single optical path using dichromatic mirrors. The controlled-NOT gate between two qubits is implemented by the proper combination of parametric up and down conversions. This scheme has the following features: (1) No auxiliary qubits are required in the controlled-NOT gate operation; (2) No measurement is required in the courseof the computation; (3) It is resource efficient and conceptually simple.

  12. Two-dimensional solitons in conservative and parity-time-symmetric triple-core waveguides with cubic-quintic nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Feijoo, David; Konotop, Vladimir V


    We analyze a system of three two-dimensional nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations coupled by linear terms and with the cubic-quintic (focusing-defocusing) nonlinearity. We consider two versions of the model: conservative and parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric. These models describe triple-core nonlinear optical waveguides, with balanced gain and losses in the $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric case. We obtain families of soliton solutions and discuss their stability. The latter study is performed using a linear stability analysis and checked with direct numerical simulations of the evolutional system of equations. Stable solitons are found in the conservative and $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric cases. Interactions and collisions between the conservative and $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric solitons are briefly investigated, as well.

  13. Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation (United States)


    Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical C: F49620-93-C-0039 Switching and Modulation 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr. Sandip K. Sengupta, Dr...D FINAL REPORT for Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation Prepared for: USAF, AFMC (AFOSR) Air Force...34Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation," contract number F49620-93-C-0039. The work has been performed by Dr

  14. Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits. (United States)

    Fernandes, Luís A; Grenier, Jason R; Herman, Peter R; Aitchison, J Stewart; Marques, Paulo V S


    Femtosecond laser (300 fs, 500 kHz, 522 nm) fabrication of optical waveguides in bulk silica glass is extended to waveguide retarders. We study the merits of nanograting orientation (perpendicular or parallel to the waveguide) for generating high and low birefringence waveguides. This is used together with other exposure condition to control the waveguide birefringence between 10⁻⁵ and 10⁻⁴ permitting for the simultaneous fabrication of the waveguides and the tuning of the retardance demonstrating quarter and half-wave retarders in the 1200 nm to 1700 nm spectrum. The wavelength dependence of the birefringence is also characterized over a range of exposure conditions.

  15. Optical properties of microcavities and patterned waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Culshaw, I S


    electromagnetic fields. The theoretical and measured spectra are shown to be in excellent agreement. The fitting process enabled the full set of structural parameters to be determined. The photonic dispersions of the modes of the PWGs are shown to be closely related to the calculated band structure of an idealised photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) model, namely a PC of finite thickness clad on either side by perfectly reflecting walls. The photonic bands of the ideal 2-D PCW are of mixed polarisation character owing to TE-TM/TM-TE scattering processes. Strong evidence is found to support this in the reflectivity of the 2-D PWG. Polarisation mixing leads to an anti-crossing of photonic bands of the ideal 2-D PCW, and hence the appearance of heavy photon states, away from the boundaries of the 2-D Brillouin zone. Theoretically, the coupling of external radiation to such heavy photon states is shown to occur for the 2-D PWG. A series of new PWG structures employing thin metallic films are proposed in order to all...

  16. Solitary wave generation from continuum in asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear waveguide coupler (United States)

    Kazantseva, E. V.; Maimistov, A. I.


    In a model which describes asymmetric oppositely directed nonlinear waveguide coupler it was observed in the numerical simulation a phenomenon of solitary wave formation from the input constant continuous wave set at the entrance of a waveguide with negative index of refraction. Threshold value of the amplitude of the constant continuous wave, which defines the condition of appearance of the first solitary wave, decreases with increasing of the parameter of nonlinearity. The period of solitary wave formation decreases with increasing of the continuum wave amplitude.

  17. Effect of loss on photon-pair generation in nonlinear waveguides arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Antonosyan, Diana A; Sukhorukov, Andrey A


    We describe theoretically the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays in the presence of linear loss. We derive a set of discrete Schrodinger-type equations for the biphoton wave function, and the wave function of one photon when the other photon in a pair is lost. We demonstrate effects arising from loss-affected interference between the generated photon pairs and show that nonlinear waveguide arrays can serve as a robust loss-tolerant integrated platform for the generation of entangled photon states with non-classical spatial correlations.

  18. Hybrid Waveguides and Heterodyne Detectors Integrated Optics for 10 Micron Wavelengths (United States)


    approximate the rectangular waveguide 34 of Figure 2 by two orthogonal slab waveguides. Marcuse indicates that this procedure yields an accurate... Marcuse , Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, Academic Press, 1974. 35. T. Takano ?nd J. Hamasaki, "Propagating Modes of a Metal-Clad

  19. Highly efficient optical filter based on vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and bus waveguide (United States)

    Debnath, Kapil; Welna, Karl; Ferrera, Marcello; Deasy, Kieran; Lidzey, David G.; O'Faolain, Liam


    We experimentally demonstrate a new optical filter design based on a vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and a bus waveguide monolithically integrated on the silicon on insulator platform. The use of a vertically coupled waveguide gives flexibility in the choice of the waveguide material and dimensions, dramatically lowering the insertion loss while achieving very high coupling efficiencies to wavelength scale resonators

  20. Highly efficient optical filter based on vertically coupled Photonic crystal cavity and bus waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Kapil; Ferrera, Marcello; Deasy, Kieran; Lidzey, David G; O'Faolain, Liam


    We experimentally demonstrate a new optical filter design based on a vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and a bus waveguide monolithically integrated on the silicon on insulator platform. The use of a vertically coupled waveguide gives flexibility in the choice of the waveguide material and dimensions, dramatically lowering the insertion loss while achieving very high coupling efficiencies to wavelength scale resonators

  1. Influence of parameters on light propagation dynamics in optically induced planar waveguide arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The diffraction and refraction of light beam in optical periodic structures can be determined by the photonic band-gap structures of spatial frequency.In this paper,by employing the equation governing the nonlinear light propagations in photorefractive crystals,we study the photonic band-gap structures, Bloch modes,and light transmission properties of optically induced planar waveguide arrays.The relationship between the photonic band-gap structures and the light diffraction characteristics is discussed in detail.Then the influence of the parameters of planar waveguide arrays on the band-gaps structures,Bloch modes,and linear light transmissions is analyzed.It is revealed that the linear light transmission properties of waveguide arrays are tightly related to the diffraction relationships determined by band-gap structures.And the Bloch modes corresponding to different transmission bands can be excited by different excitation schemes.Both the increases of the intensity and the period of the array writing beam will lead to the broadening of the forbidden gaps and the concentration of the energy of the Bloch modes to the high-index regions.Furthermore,the broadening of the forbidden gaps will lead to separation and transition between the Bloch modes of neighboring bands around the Bragg angle.Additionally,with the increase of the intensity of the array writing beams,the influences from light intensity will tend to be steady due to the saturation of the photorefractive effect.

  2. Influence of parameters on light propagation dynamics in optically induced planar waveguide arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng; ZHANG Peng; XIAO FaJun; YANG DeXing; ZHAO JianLin


    The diffraction and refraction of light beam in optical periodic structures can be determined by the photonic band-gap structures of spatial frequency. In this paper, by employing the equation governing the nonlinear light propagations in photorefractive crystals, we study the photonic band-gap structures,Bloch modes, and light transmission properties of optically induced planar waveguide arrays. The relationship between the photonic band-gap structures and the light diffraction characteristics is discussed in detail. Then the influence of the parameters of planar waveguide arrays on the band-gaps structures, Bloch modes, and linear light transmissions is analyzed. It is revealed that the linear light transmission properties of waveguide arrays are tightly related to the diffraction relationships determined by band-gap structures. And the Bloch modes corresponding to different transmission bands can be excited by different excitation schemes. Both the increases of the intensity and the period of the array writing beam will lead to the broadening of the forbidden gaps and the concentration of the energy of the Bloch modes to the high-index regions. Furthermore, the broadening of the forbidden gaps will lead to separation and transition between the Bloch modes of neighboring bands around the Bragg angle. Additionally, with the increase of the intensity of the array writing beams, the influences from light intensity will tend to be steady due to the saturation of the photorefractive effect.

  3. Experimental assessment of SU-8 optical waveguides buried in plastic substrate for optical interconnections. (United States)

    Hamid, Hanan H; Fickenscher, Thomas; Thiel, David V


    Multimode polymer waveguides have been developed to create low-cost, high-speed on-board optical interconnects. Buried optical waveguides made from SU-8 in a polymethyl methacrylate polymer (PMMA) substrate covered with a thin PMMA sheet are a low-cost option for electro-optical interconnects. The propagation losses for a 600  μm×600  μm straight waveguide were 1.96, 1.32, and 1.39  dB/cm, respectively, at three different wavelengths (850, 1310, and 1550 nm). The bending loss for a 15 mm bending radius is as high as 6  dB/cm. Transition and radiation losses dominate overall loss when the bending radius is less than 30 mm. The waveguide was excited using a multimode 850 nm VCSEL transmitter and detected using butt-coupled and lens-coupled receivers. The coupling loss was about 1 dB for the butt-coupling technique and 2 dB for lens coupling. The response bandwidth and the group delay of direct modulated (IF) signal were independent of the channel waveguide for communication speeds up to more than 3 GHz. This technique is viable for low-cost, short-length buried optical waveguides.

  4. Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review. (United States)

    Kozma, Peter; Kehl, Florian; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Stamm, Christoph; Bier, Frank F


    Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors are advantageous combinations of evanescent field sensing and optical phase difference measurement methods. By probing the near surface region of a sensor area with the evanescent field, any change of the refractive index of the probed volume induces a phase shift of the guided mode compared to a reference field typically of a mode propagating through the reference arm of the same waveguide structure. The interfering fields of these modes produce an interference signal detected at the sensor׳s output, whose alteration is proportional to the refractive index change. This signal can be recorded, processed and related to e.g. the concentration of an analyte in the solution of interest. Although this sensing principle is relatively simple, studies about integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors can mostly be found in the literature covering the past twenty years. During these two decades, several members of this sensor family have been introduced, which have remarkably advantageous properties. These entail label-free and non-destructive detection, outstandingly good sensitivity and detection limit, cost-effective and simple production, ability of multiplexing and miniaturization. Furthermore, these properties lead to low reagent consumption, short analysis time and open prospects for point-of-care applications. The present review collects the most relevant developments of the past twenty years categorizing them into two main groups, such as common- and double path waveguide interferometers. In addition, it tries to maintain the historical order as it is possible and it compares the diverse sensor designs in order to reveal not only the development of this field in time, but to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches and sensor families, as well.

  5. Extreme optical confinement in a slotted photonic crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric, E-mail: [Institut d' Électronique Fondamentale, Université Paris-Sud CNRS UMR 8622 Bat. 220, Centre scientifique d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France); Combrié, Sylvain, E-mail:; De Rossi, Alfredo [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)


    Using Optical Coherence Tomography, we measure the attenuation of slow light modes in slotted photonic crystal waveguides. When the group index is close to 20, the attenuation is below 300 dB cm{sup −1}. Here, the optical confinement in the empty slot is very strong, corresponding to an ultra-small effective cross section of 0.02 μm{sup 2}. This is nearly 10 times below the diffraction limit at λ = 1.5 μm, and it enables an effective interaction with a very small volume of functionalized matter.

  6. Impact of nonlinear absorption on propagation of microwave in a plasma filled rectangular waveguide (United States)

    Sobhani, H.; Vaziri, M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.


    In collisional and ponderomotive predominant regimes, the propagation of microwave in rectangular waveguide filled with collisional plasma is investigated numerically. The dominant mode is excited through an evacuated waveguide and then enters a similar and co-axis waveguide filled with plasma. In collisional predominant regime, the amplitude of electric field is oscillated along propagation path; outset of propagation path due to the electron-ion collision, the intensity oscillations are reduced. Afterward, under competition between the collisional nonlinearity and absorption, the intensity is increased, so the electron density peak is created in middle of waveguide. In ponderomotive predominant regime, the intensity is slowly decreased due to collision, so the electron density is ramped. Control parameters, like the frequency, input power, collision frequency, and background electron density are surveyed that can be used to control propagation characteristics of microwave. This method can be used to control heating of fusion plasma and accelerate charged particle.

  7. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.


    By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical...

  8. Reflectively Coupled Waveguide Photodetector for High Speed Optical Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsiang Hsu


    Full Text Available To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector’s planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520–1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the −1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 27-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation.

  9. WGM-Resonator/Tapered-Waveguide White-Light Sensor Optics (United States)

    Stekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir


    Theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the feasibility of compact white-light sensor optics consisting of unitary combinations of (1) low-profile whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators and (2) tapered rod optical waveguides. These sensors are highly wavelength-dispersive and are expected to be especially useful in biochemical applications for measuring absorption spectra of liquids. These sensor optics exploit the properties of a special class of non-diffracting light beams that are denoted Bessel beams because their amplitudes are proportional to Bessel functions of the radii from their central axes. High-order Bessel beams can have large values of angular momentum. In a sensor optic of this type, a low-profile WGM resonator that supports modes having large angular momenta is used to generate high-order Bessel beams. As used here, "low-profile" signifies that the WGM resonator is an integral part of the rod optical waveguide but has a radius slightly different from that of the adjacent part(s).

  10. Ultrabroadband Electro-Optic Modulator Based on Hybrid Silicon-Polymer Dual Vertical Slot Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyuan Shi


    Full Text Available We present a novel hybrid silicon-polymer dual slot waveguide for high speed and ultra-low driving voltage electro-optic (EO modulation. The proposed design utilizes the unique properties of ferroelectric materials such as LiNbO3 to achieve dual RF and optical modes within a low index nanoslot. The tight mode concentration and overlap in the slot allow the infiltrated organic EO polymers to experience enhanced nonlinear interaction with the applied electric field. Half-wavelength voltage-length product and electro-optic response are rigorously simulated to characterize the proposed design, which reveals ultrabroadband operation, up to 250 GHz, and subvolt driving voltage for a 1 cm long modulator.

  11. Optical trimer: A theoretical physics approach to waveguide couplers

    CERN Document Server

    Stoffel, A; Rodríguez-Lara, B M


    We study electromagnetic field propagation through an ideal, passive, triangular three-waveguide coupler using a symmetry based approach to take advantage of the underlying $SU(3)$ symmetry. The planar version of this platform has proven valuable in photonic circuit design providing optical sampling, filtering, modulating, multiplexing, and switching. We show that a group-theory approach can readily provide a starting point for design optimization of the triangular version. Our analysis is presented as a practical tutorial on the use of group theory to study photonic lattices for those not familiar with abstract algebra methods. In particular, we study the equilateral trimer to show the relation of pearl-necklace arrays with the Discrete Fourier Transform due to their cyclic group symmetry, and the isosceles trimer to show its relation with the golden ratio and its ability to provide stable output at a single waveguide. We also study the propagation dependent case of an equilateral trimer that linearly increa...

  12. Waveguide-coupled nanowire as an optical antenna. (United States)

    Arnaud, Laurent; Bruyant, Aurélien; Renault, Mikael; Hadjar, Yassine; Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Apuzzo, Aniello; Lérondel, Gilles; Morand, Alain; Benech, Pierre; Le Coarer, Etienne; Blaize, Sylvain


    We study the optical coupling between a gold nanowire and a silver ion-exchanged waveguide, with special emphasis on the nanowire antenna radiation pattern. We measure the radiation patterns of waveguide-coupled gold nanowires with a height of 70 nm and width of 50 or 150 nm in the 450-700 nm spectral range for TE and TM polarizations. We perform a systematic theoretical study on the wavelength, polarization, nanowire size, and material dependences on the properties of the radiation pattern. We also give some elements concerning absorption and near-field. Experiments and calculations show localized plasmon resonance for the polarization orthogonal to the wire (far-field resonance at 580 nm for the smallest wire and 670 nm for the widest). It is shown that a great variety of radiation patterns can be obtained, together with a high sensitivity to a change of one parameter, particularly near-resonance.

  13. Complex coupled-mode theory for tapered optical waveguides. (United States)

    Mu, Jianwei; Huang, Wei-Ping


    A coupled-mode formulation based on complex local modes is developed for tapered and longitudinally varying optical waveguides. Different from the conventional coupled-mode theory that requires integration over the entire spectrum of radiation modes, the new formulation treats the radiation fields via discrete complex modes similarly to the guided modes. Accuracy, convergence, and scope of validity for the solutions of the complex coupled-mode equations are investigated in detail for a typical single-mode waveguide taper. It is demonstrated that the complex coupled-mode theory has overcome the difficulties of the conventional theory in simulation of radiation field effects while preserving the simplicity and intuitiveness of this popular method.

  14. Optical Filters Utilizing Ion Implanted Bragg Gratings in SOI Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Bulk


    Full Text Available The refractive index modulation associated with the implantation of oxygen or silicon into waveguides formed in silicon-on-insulator (SOI has been investigated to determine the feasibility of producing planar, implantation induced Bragg grating optical filters. A two-dimensional coupled mode theory-based simulation suggests that relatively short grating lengths, on the order of a thousand microns, can exhibit sufficient wavelength suppression, of >10 dB, using the implantation technique. Fabricated planar implanted slab-guided SOI waveguides demonstrated an extinction of −10 dB for TE modes and −6 dB for TM modes for the case of oxygen implantation. Extinctions of −5 dB and −2 dB have been demonstrated with silicon implantation.

  15. Optical attenuation in ion-implanted silicon waveguide racetrack resonators. (United States)

    Doylend, J K; Jessop, P E; Knights, A P


    The optical absorption at wavelengths near 1550 nm has been quantified as a function of annealing temperature in ion-implanted silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators. The variation of the output characteristics of the bus waveguide versus the concentration of implantation-induced lattice disorder in the ring is used to develop a novel method for the determination of the coupling and round-trip loss of the resonator, independently. This experimental procedure has general applicability for the determination of these parameters. Significant propagation loss is found to persist following annealing at temperatures previously observed to remove the majority of ion implantation damage. It is suggested that these annealing characteristics are a consequence of an ion implantation range which is greater than the silicon waveguide layer thickness.

  16. SU 8 used as optical waveguide in integrated optical microsensor for biological applications (United States)

    Műller, Raluca; Obreja, P.; Kusko, M.; Esinenco, D.; Tibeica, C.; Conache, G.; Buia, L.; Apostol, D.; Damian, V.; Mateescu, M.; Diaconu, Mirela; Moldovan, Lucia


    We present preliminary experiments for an integrated optical sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for biological applications. The sensor is sensitive to refractive index change produced by the presence of a biological species in the cladding of the optical waveguide. A "window" can be patterned in the upper cladding, so that the evanescent wave can be in direct contact with the environmental (the sensitive layer). We investigated as optical waveguides a new material, SU-8, a negative photoresist well known from the development of 3D micromachmed structures. We structured, by photolithographic techniques, rib and channel optical waveguides. We studied the influence of the silicon substrate on propagation losses and the possibility to use these losses for the selective attenuation of the higher order modes on the vertical direction. As biological materials we experimented collagen, which is a bio-polymer which can bind different enzymes or antibodies.

  17. Graphene - a rather ordinary nonlinear optical material

    CERN Document Server

    khurgin, Jacob B


    An analytical expression for the nonlinear refractive index of graphene has been derived and used to obtain the performance metrics of third order nonlinear devices using graphene as a nonlinear medium. None of the metrics is found to be superior to the existing nonlinear optical materials.

  18. Nonlinear optical crystals a complete survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nikogosyan, David N


    Nonlinear optical crystals are widely used in modern optical science and technology for frequency conversion of laser light, i.e. to generate laser radiation at any specific wavelength in visible, UV or IR spectral regions. This unrivalled reference book contains the most complete and up-to-date information on properties of nonlinear optical crystals. It includes: * Database of 63 common and novel nonlinear optical crystals * Periodically-poled and self-frequency-doubling materials * Full description of linear and nonlinear optical properties * Significant amount of crystallophysical, thermophysical, spectroscopic, electro-optic and magneto-optic information * 7 mini-reviews on novel applications, such as deep-UV light generation, terahertz-wave generation, ultrashort laser pulse compression, photonic band-gap crystals, x3 nonlinearity, etc. * More than 1500 different references with full titles It is a vital source of information for scientists and engineers dealing with modern applications of nonlinear opti...

  19. Quantum nonlinear optics without photons (United States)

    Stassi, Roberto; Macrı, Vincenzo; Kockum, Anton Frisk; Di Stefano, Omar; Miranowicz, Adam; Savasta, Salvatore; Nori, Franco


    Spontaneous parametric down-conversion is a well-known process in quantum nonlinear optics in which a photon incident on a nonlinear crystal spontaneously splits into two photons. Here we propose an analogous physical process where one excited atom directly transfers its excitation to a pair of spatially separated atoms with probability approaching 1. The interaction is mediated by the exchange of virtual rather than real photons. This nonlinear atomic process is coherent and reversible, so the pair of excited atoms can transfer the excitation back to the first one: the atomic analog of sum-frequency generation of light. The parameters used to investigate this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in ultrastrong circuit quantum electrodynamics. This approach can be extended to realize other nonlinear interatomic processes, such as four-atom mixing, and is an attractive architecture for the realization of quantum devices on a chip. We show that four-qubit mixing can efficiently implement quantum repetition codes and, thus, can be used for error-correction codes.

  20. Optical loss and crosstalk in multimode photolithographically fabricated polyacrylate polymer waveguide crossings (United States)

    Baghsiahi, Hadi; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R.


    Complex interconnection patterns in electrical PCBs have to use multiple layers of copper tracks. However, the same interconnections can be made in a single layer using optical waveguides as they cross on the same layer. Waveguide crossings where two waveguides intersect in the same optical layer are particularly important components as they offer OPCB layout designers additional flexibility to solve layout problems such as routing around cutout areas, electrical components and other obstacles on an OPCB. Use of waveguide crossings can also help to avoid sharp bends in the design as these bends are an important cause of optical loss. Despite all of the advantages of waveguide crossings, and although most of the light travels along the intended waveguide, a proportion of the optical power in one waveguide will couple into the crossing waveguide at each intersection point or couple out of the original waveguide and into the cladding. This coupling phenomenon causes optical loss and crosstalk in the system. In this paper, the results of an investigation of the optical loss due to the crossing of multimode polymer waveguide, fabricated on FR4 printed circuit boards, PCBs, as a function of crossing angles are presented theoretically and experimentally. The results from ray tracing simulation is compared with the experiment results and the contrast is discussed.

  1. Optical Cherenkov radiation in an As2S3 slot waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shaofei; Hu, Jungao; Guo, Hairun


    We propose an approach for an efficient generation of optical Cherenkov radiation (OCR) in the near-infrared by tailoring the waveguide dispersion for a zero group-velocity mismatching between the radiation and the pump soliton. Based on an As2S3 slot waveguide with subwavelength dimensions......, dispersion profiles with four zero dispersion wavelengths are found to produce a phase-matching nonlinear process leading to a broadband resonant radiation. The broadband OCR investigated in the chalcogenide waveguide may find applications in on-chip wavelength conversion and near-infrared pulse generation....

  2. Nonlinear propagation of coupled electromagnetic waves in a circular cylindrical waveguide (United States)

    Valovik, D. V.; Smol'kin, E. Yu.


    The problem of the propagation of coupled surface electromagnetic waves in a two-layer cylindrical circular waveguide filled with an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium is considered. A nonlinear coupled TE-TM wave is characterized by two (independent) frequencies ωe and ωm and two propagation constants {\\widehat γ _e} and {\\widehat γ _m}. The physical problem reduces to a nonlinear two-parameter eigenvalue problem for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The existence of eigenvalues ({\\widehat γ _e}, {\\widehat γ _m}) in proven and intervals of their localization are determined.

  3. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith


    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  4. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith


    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss....... A sample double ring add-drop filter is presented....

  5. Optical simulation of neutrino oscillations in binary waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Marini, Andrea; Longhi, Stefano; Biancalana, Fabio


    We theoretically propose and investigate an optical analogue of neutrino oscillations in a pair of vertically displaced binary waveguide arrays with longitudinally modulated effective refractive index. Optical propagation is modeled through coupled-mode equations, which in the continuous limit converge to two coupled Dirac equations for fermionic particles with different mass states, analogously to neutrinos. In addition to simulating neutrino oscillation in the noninteracting regime, our optical setting enables us to explore neutrino interactions in extreme regimes that are expected to play an important role in massive supernova stars. In particular, we predict the quenching of neutrino oscillations and the existence of topological defects, i.e., neutrino solitons, which in our photonic simulator should be observable as excitation of optical gap solitons propagating along the binary arrays at high excitation intensities.

  6. Dispersion characteristics of THz surface plasmons in nonlinear graphene-based parallel-plate waveguide with Kerr-type core dielectric (United States)

    Yarmoghaddam, Elahe; Rakheja, Shaloo


    We theoretically model the dispersion characteristics of surface plasmons in a graphene-based parallel-plate waveguide geometry using nonlinear Kerr-type core (inter-plate) dielectric. The optical nonlinearity of graphene in the terahertz band under high light intensity is specifically included in the analysis. By solving Maxwell's equations and applying appropriate boundary conditions, we show that the waveguide supports four guided plasmon modes, each of which can be categorized as either symmetric or anti-symmetric based on the electric field distribution in the structure. Of the four guided modes, two modes are similar in characteristics to the modes obtained in the structure with linear graphene coating, while the two new modes have distinct characteristics as a result of the nonlinearity of graphene. We note that the group velocity of one of the plasmon modes acquires a negative value under high light intensity. Additionally, the optical nonlinearity of the core dielectric leads to a significant enhancement in the localization length of various plasmon modes. The description of the intra-band optical conductivity of graphene incorporates effects of carrier scatterings due to charged impurities, resonant scatterers, and acoustic phonons at 300 K. The proposed structure offers flexibility to tune the waveguide characteristics and the mode index by changing light intensity and electrochemical potential in graphene for reconfigurable plasmonic devices.

  7. Nanoplasmonic solution for nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    for the silicon dioxide cladding. The blue, cyan and magenta curves correspond to the transmission spectra for the gold waveguides with the width of 10 μm and length of 2, 3, and 4 mm.The polarization of laser beam was tuned to match the transverse magnetic mode of surface plasmonpolaritons in the gold waveguides...

  8. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang


    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  9. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) for efficient and electronically-tuned nonlinear optics in silicon


    Jalali, B.; Hon, NK; Tsia, KK


    Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) induces substantial 2nd order optical nonlinearity and at the same time achieves quasi-phase matching. PePSi is made by alternating strain gradients along the waveguide using periodic arrangement of stressed cladding layers. © 2013 OSA.

  10. Integrated optical gyroscope using active long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator. (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang


    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10(-4) deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide.

  11. The quantum theory of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, Peter D


    Playing a prominent role in communications, quantum science and laser physics, quantum nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field. This book presents a self-contained treatment of field quantization and covers topics such as the canonical formalism for fields, phase-space representations and the encompassing problem of quantization of electrodynamics in linear and nonlinear media. Starting with a summary of classical nonlinear optics, it then explains in detail the calculation techniques for quantum nonlinear optical systems and their applications, quantum and classical noise sources in optical fibers and applications of nonlinear optics to quantum information science. Supplemented by end-of-chapter exercises and detailed examples of calculation techniques in different systems, this book is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, condensed matter physics, quantum information and atomic physics. A solid foundation in quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamic...

  12. Photo-induced reduction of graphene oxide coating on optical waveguide and consequent optical intermodulation. (United States)

    Chong, W Y; Lim, W H; Yap, Y K; Lai, C K; De La Rue, R M; Ahmad, H


    Increased absorption of transverse-magnetic (TM)-polarised light by a graphene-oxide (GO) coated polymer waveguide has been observed in the presence of transverse-electric (TE)-polarised light. The GO-coated waveguide exhibits very strong photo-absorption of TE-polarised light--and acts as a TM-pass waveguide polariser. The absorbed TE-polarised light causes a significant temperature increase in the GO film and induces thermal reduction of the GO, resulting in an increase in optical-frequency conductivity and consequently increased optical propagation loss. This behaviour in a GO-coated waveguide gives the action of an inverted optical switch/modulator. By varying the incident TE-polarised light power, a maximum modulation efficiency of 72% was measured, with application of an incident optical power level of 57 mW. The GO-coated waveguide was able to respond clearly to modulated TE-polarised light with a pulse duration of as little as 100 μs. In addition, no wavelength dependence was observed in the response of either the modulation (TE-polarised light) or the signal (TM-polarised light).

  13. Waveguide Studies for Fiber Optics and Optical Signal Processing Applications. (United States)


    a written policy governing the release of the copyright appearing on pages 66- 68 , which gives full permission to reproduce same. This report has been...symmetric and asymmetric, again requiring the same propagation vector in each waveguide. 5-7 These losses were calculated from equations of Marcuse ... Marcuse in microbend loss calculations of slab guides with a parabolic index profile . This reduc- tion of radiation loss at small periodicities of

  14. Advanced Waveguide Lasers Based on Optically Transparent Polycrystalline Materials for Power Scaling Studies (United States)


    investigate cooling of the waveguides, and 2) control beam profile and improve oscillation efficiency. Optical qualities of ceramic composite samples were...of the waveguides, and 2) control beam profile and improve oscillation efficiency. Optical qualities of ceramic composite samples were inspected by...layer, YAG-Nd:YAG-YAG) and simple (mono-layer, Nd:YAG) ceramic waveguide structures to make large, high- quality samples for optimization and

  15. The Interaction of Optical Guided Modes with Waveguide Diffraction Gratings. (United States)

    Weller-Brophy, Laura Ann

    In this thesis the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the coupling of guided modes by waveguide gratings are presented. This work is motivated by the potential application of waveguide gratings to integrated optical devices. The coupling of guided modes obliquely incident to both periodic and aperiodic gratings is a mechanism basic to the operation of integrated optical components such as filters, reflectors, beamsplitters, and modulators. It is shown in the Introduction to this thesis, that this mechanism is not modeled consistently by the analyses presented in the literature. For the case of TM-TM coupling, virtually each analytical treatment predicts a different value for the grating reflectivity. In addition, it is found that the typical Coupled-Mode formalisms used to derive the grating reflectivity do not offer an intuitive picture of the operation of waveguide gratings. These two particular problem areas serve as the focal points of this thesis. The latter of these is addressed through the development of a thin film model of the operation of waveguide gratings. This model presents an intuitively appealing picture of the interaction of waveguide gratings and guided modes. It also yields grating reflectivities which are in excellent agreement with those obtained through the numerical solution of the Coupled-Mode equations for both periodic and aperiodic gratings. The bulk of this research project is directed towards resolving the conflicting theoretical grating analyses presented in the literature. A new derivation of the coupling of guided modes obliquely incident to periodic gratings is presented in Chapter II of this thesis. This derivation is based on the Local Normal Mode expansion used by Marcuse for the case of normal incidence. It produces coupling coefficients which are nearly identical to those derived using the rigorous Boundary Perturbation technique. The coupling coefficients predicted by this Local Normal Mode formalism

  16. Multiple Wavelength-Channels in SPP Waveguides for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-You; HUANG Peng; GUO Xiao-Wei; WANG Jing-Quan; FANG Lang; DU Jing-Lei; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei


    @@ Surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)can be excited,meanwhile some peculiar optical phenomena will appear when light irradiates metal structures under some conditions.Based on photonic band gap theory,in this Letter we present a kind of SPP waveguide with multiple wavelength-channels.By using the Bragg effect and introducing some geometric defect layers into a quasi-periodic metal heterowaveguide,the multiple SPP forbidden bands(SPFBs)in a given waveband can be generated,and the multiple SPP pass bands(SPPBs)with narrow bandwidth in each SPFB can be realized.

  17. Photonic Crystal Fibres: A New Calss of Optical Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevstev, D.; Barkou, Stig Eigil


    . With an emphasis on the applicational aspects of the fibers, we study their single-mode operation, bending losses, and dispersion properties. While exhibiting certain unique properties, the high-index core photonic crystal fibres share many common features with conventional optical fibers, attributed...... and a central low-index ´structural defect along which the light is guided. The novel fiber has several unique features due to its different waveguidance mechanism, including remarkable dispersion properties and the potential to localize part of the guided mode in air regions. The results presented...

  18. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy. (United States)

    Fu, L; Gu, M


    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  19. Magneto optical rotation in a GaAs Quantum Well Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Mortezapour, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mohammad


    The interaction of two orthogonally polarized beams and a four-level GaAs quantum well (QW) waveguide is investigated. It is shown that, by applying a static magnetic field normal to the propagation direction of the driving beams, the birefringence can be induced in the QW waveguide. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the dephasing rate between two ground states of the QW waveguide makes it a dichromatic medium and can also diminish the induced birefringence. Our results show how a large and complete magneto-optical rotation in the QW waveguide can be obtained via adjusting the intensity of the magnetic field and also the length of the QW waveguide.

  20. Theoretical investigations on optical properties of magneto-optical thin film on ion-exchanged glass waveguide (United States)

    Hocini, Abdesselam; Bouras, Mounir; Amata, Hadi


    In this work, we report on the theoretical study of magneto-optical waveguides on an ion-exchanged glass waveguide, this latter is made by sol-gel process and doped with magnetic nanoparticles with two kinds of matrix (SiO2/TiO2 and SiO2/ZrO2). The mode propagation and the lateral light confinement for both polarizations TE and TM are simulated using software based on a film mode matching method. We propose from those results magneto-optical waveguides on ion-exchanged glass waveguide geometries for optical integrated applications.

  1. Generation of spatially pure photon pairs in a multimode nonlinear waveguide using intermodal dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Karpinski, Michal; Banaszek, Konrad


    We present experimental realization of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4) nonlinear waveguide. We demonstrate that by careful exploitation of intermodal dispersion in the waveguide it is feasible to produce photon pairs in well defined transverse modes without any additional spatial filtering at the output. Spatial characteristics is verified by measurements of the M2 beam quality factors. We also prepared a postselected polarization-entangled two-photon state shown to violate Bell's inequality. Similar techniques based on intermodal dispersion can be used to generate spatial entanglement and hyperentanglement.

  2. Mode conversion in nonlinear waveguides stimulated by the longitudinal bi-harmonic refractive index modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V


    We study specific features of resonant mode conversion in nonlinear waveguides stimulated by the bi-harmonic longitudinal modulation of its parameters, which includes changes of the waveguide depth as well as its bending (in the one-dimensional case) or spiraling (in the two-dimensional case). We demonstrate the possibility of simultaneous excitation of higher-order modes of different parities and topologies with controllable energy weights. The output mode composition is highly sensitive to the variation in the input power and detuning from the resonant modulation frequency.

  3. Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics. (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean P; Brongersma, Mark L; Cai, Wenshan


    Metamaterials have not only enabled unprecedented flexibility in producing unconventional optical properties that are not found in nature, they have also provided exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with high-order properties correlated to linear behaviour. Two particularly compelling directions are active metamaterials, whose optical properties can be purposely tailored by external stimuli in a reversible manner, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light waves. Here, by exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically controlled nonlinear optical processes from a metamaterial. Both second harmonic generation and optical rectification, enhanced by the resonance behaviour in the metamaterial absorber, are modulated externally with applied voltage signals. Our results reveal an opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electro-optic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities.

  4. Gratings, photosensitivity, and poling in silica optical waveguides with 157-nm fluorine laser radiation (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Kevin)


    The energetic 7.9-eV photons of the F2 laser directly access bandgap states in germanosilicate glasses to drive one-photon processes for inducing strong refractive index changes in silica optical waveguides. In this thesis, the author carried out the first comprehensive F2-laser photosensitivity studies with an aim to assess prospects for shaping useful photonic structures directly inside the germanosilicate waveguides. Both planar waveguides and standard telecommunication fibers were examined. Large effective index change (>10-3) was induced in both fibers and planar waveguides without any enhancement technique. With the use of hydrogen loading enhancement, asymmetric refractive index profiles were noted by atomic force microscopy and microreflection microscopy, having a peak index change of larger than 0.01 in the fiber core. The 157-nm laser radiation is effective in rapidly forming long-period gratings in standard fibers. Grating formation is over 250 times faster than that with the 248-nm KrF laser constituting the fastest photosensitivity response ever reported. For planar lightwave circuits (PLCs), the 157-nm laser exposure generate narrow profiles of large index changes (Deltan ˜ 10 -2) that is useful in trimming phase errors and controlling birefringence in frequency domain modulators (FDMs) and interleavers. The large vacuum-ultraviolet-induced birefringence was used to completely compensate the intrinsic birefringence of Deltan ˜ 10-4 in typical PLCs. With hydrogen soaking, modest 157-nm pre-irradiation (accumulated fluence >3 J/cm2) was found to 'lock-in' a permanent photosensitivity enhancement in the germanosilica, permitting the formation of strong (40 dB) and stable fiber Bragg gratings with 248-nm-KrF laser light. The F2-laser photosensitivity locking was 300-time more effective than with KrF-laser pretreatment. The practical trimming applications in PLCs were demonstrated in PLC interleavers and FDMs. The 157-nm laser pre-radiation was found to

  5. Giant Transverse Optical Forces in Nanoscale Slot Waveguides of Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yingran; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong


    Here we demonstrate that giant transverse optical forces can be generated in nanoscale slot waveguides of hyperbolic metamaterials, with more than two orders of magnitude stronger compared to the force created in conventional silicon slot waveguides, due to the nanoscale optical field enhancement and the extreme optical energy compression within the air slot region. Both numerical simulation and analytical treatment are carried out to study the dependence of the optical forces on the waveguide geometries and the metamaterial permittivity tensors, including the attractive optical forces for the symmetric modes and the repulsive optical forces for the anti-symmetric modes. The significantly enhanced transverse optical forces result from the strong optical mode coupling strength between two metamaterial waveguides, which can be explained with an explicit relation derived from the coupled mode theory. Moreover, the calculation on realistic metal-dielectric multilayer structures indicates that the predicted giant ...

  6. Potassium double tungstate waveguides with high ytterbium concentration for optical amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Yean-Sheng


    In this thesis, the research work concerning high ytterbium concentration potassium double tungstate waveguides catered for optical amplification purpose is presented. The scope of the research work includes the investigation of spectroscopic and optical gain properties in epitaxy layers with

  7. Optimization of Waveguide Structure for Tunable Optical Switch in Si/SiGe System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seongjae Boo; Won-Taek Han


    A new electro-optical device using Si/SiGe-system with two parallel ridge waveguides is proposed for optical switching and the optimization of the structure for a single mode operation is investigated.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yan Wang; Gong-xiong Liao; Yuan Song; Shu-de Xiao; Xi-gao Jian


    A series of fluorinated copolyimides containing phthalazinone moieties were prepared from 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA), 3,3'4,4'-benzophenone-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxyl)phenyl]-2,3-phthalazin-1-one (DHPZ-2NH2) for making polymeric optical waveguides. The resulting copolymers containing 0-50 mol% BPDA/DHPZ-2NH2 show good solubility and are soluble in some organic polar aprotic solvents. The copolyimides also present excellent thermal stability. These polymers possess high glass transition temperature higher than 603 K and high decomposition temperature above 742 K determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively, under a nitrogen atmosphere. Their refractive indices could be controlled by varying the ratio of 6FDA and BPDA in the copolymer from 0.5 to 1.0, and the in-plane refractive indices (nTE) range from 1.6366 to 1.6668 and the out-of-plane refractive indices (nTM) from 1.6024 to 1.6280 at 632.8 nm.The polymers birefringence (0.0342-0.0388) is almost independent of the 6FDA content of copolymer, which indicated that the phthalazinone-containing copolyimides could be suitable to fabricate optical waveguides possessing a low polarization dependent loss (PDL).

  9. Plasma synthesis of rare earth doped integrated optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoux, S.; Anders, S.; Yu, K.M.; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ivanov, I.C. [Charles Evans & Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)


    We describe a novel means for the production of optically active planar waveguides. The makes use of a low energy plasma deposition. Cathodic-arc-produced metal plasmas the metallic components of the films and gases are added to form compound films. Here we discuss the synthesis of Al{sub 2{minus}x}ER{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films. The erbium concentration (x) can vary from 0 to 100% and the thickness of the film can be from Angstroms to microns. In such material, at high active center concentration (x=l% to 20%), erbium ions give rise to room temperature 1.53{mu}m emission which has minimum loss in silica-based optical fibers. With this technique, multilayer integrated planar waveguide structures can be grown, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2{minus}x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si, for example.

  10. Numerical analysis of nonlinear multimode interference waveguide as a refractive index sensor (United States)

    Yeoh, Stephenie; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh; Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir


    A numerical analysis of a refractive index sensor based on multimode interference (MMI) waveguide has been performed in this paper. The nonlinear refractive index of graphene in the proposed sensor was investigated by applying external electric field on the graphene cladding layer. The designed waveguide was constructed using silicon oxide (SiO2) as substrate and silicon as a core while graphene is coated on top of the waveguide slab. The response of the sensor in the output power was examined and validated by changing liquid samples with different refractive index. The guided modes of the 1550 nm input plane source at the absence of external electric field were used as the initial reference point. It is found that there was a threshold magnitude of the field which makes graphene sensitive to the relative change in the refractive index of the solution. The output results showed a promising indication that this design is appropriate for environmental monitoring.

  11. Efficient and spurious-free integral-equation-based optical waveguide mode solver. (United States)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda


    Modal analysis of waveguides and resonators by integra-lequation formulations can be hindered by the existence of spurious solutions. In this paper, spurious solutions are shown to be eliminated by introduction of a Rayleigh-quotient based matrix singularity measure. Once the spurious solutions are eliminated, the true modes may be determined efficiently and reliably, even in the presence of degeneracy, by an adaptive search algorithm. Analysis examples that demonstrate the efficacy of the method include an elliptical dielectric waveguide, two unequal touching dielectric cylinders, a plasmonic waveguide, and a realistic micro-structured optical fiber. A freely downloadable version of an optical waveguide mode solver based on this article is available.

  12. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators


    Petraru, A.; Schubert, J; Schmid, M.; Buchal, Ch.


    High-quality BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films on MgO substrates have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Both, c-axis and a-axis BaTiO3 orientations were studied. Mach-Zehnder optical waveguide modulators with a fork angle of 1.7degrees have been fabricated by ion-beam etching. The waveguides are of the ridge type, the BaTiO3 thickness is 1 mum, the ridge step 50 nm, and the width 2 mum. Light was coupled into the waveguides from optical fibers. The BaTiO3 waveguide propagation losses are 2-3 d...

  13. Optical branching effect in Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides: near-field pattern studies. (United States)

    Jerominek, H; Delisle, C; Tremblay, R


    The paper presents a detailed study of a single optical beam splitting into several beams (the branching effect) in photorefractive sensitive Ti:LiNbO3 optical slab waveguides. The near-field patterns of the multibeam structures are presented for different values of optical power coupled into TE guided modes of different orders. The process of partial recovery of the optically damaged waveguide (the partial shrinking of the multibeam bundle created) is also described.

  14. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED. (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M


    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  15. Integrated optical waveguide sensor for lighting impulse electric field measurement (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahong; Chen, Fushen; Sun, Bao; Chen, Kaixin


    A Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) based integrated optical E-field sensor with an optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a tapered antenna has been designed and fabricated for the measurement of the pulsed electric field. The minimum detectable E-field of the sensor was 10 kV/m. The sensor showed a good linear characteristic while the input E-fields varied from 10 kV/m to 370 kV/m. Furthermore, the maximum detectable E-field of the sensor, which could be calculated from the sensor input/output characteristic, was approximately equal to 1000 kV/m. All these results suggest that such sensor can be used for the measurement of the lighting impulse electric field.

  16. Comprehensive analytical model to characterize randomness in optical waveguides. (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Gallion, Philippe


    In this paper, the coupled mode theory (CMT) is used to derive the corresponding stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the modal amplitude evolution inside optical waveguides with random refractive index variations. Based on the SDEs, the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived to analyze the statistics of the modal amplitudes, such as the optical power and power variations as well as the power correlation coefficients between the different modal powers. These ODEs can be solved analytically and therefore, it greatly simplifies the analysis. It is demonstrated that the ODEs for the power evolution of the modes are in excellent agreement with the Marcuse' coupled power model. The higher order statistics, such as the power variations and power correlation coefficients, which are not exactly analyzed in the Marcuse' model, are discussed afterwards. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity of the analytical model.

  17. Bio-functional subwavelength optical waveguides for biodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirbuly, D J; Fischer, N; Huang, S; Artyukhin, A


    We report a versatile biofunctional subwavelength photonic device platform for real-time detection of biological molecules. Our devices contain lipid bilayer membranes fused onto metal oxide nanowire waveguides stretched across polymeric flow channels. The lipid bilayers incorporating target receptors are submersed in the propagating evanescent field of the optical cavity. We show that the lipid bilayers in our devices are continuous, have very high mobile fraction, and are resistant to fouling. We also demonstrate that our platform allows rapid membrane exchange. Finally we use this device for detection of specific DNA sequences in solution by anchoring complementary DNA target strands in the lipid bilayer. This evanescent wave sensing architecture holds great potential for portable, all-optical detection systems.

  18. Development of the readout system for waveguide multilayer optical card

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Min-fen; LIANG Zhong-cheng; WANG Ren-zhou; DONG Xiang-mei; ZHANG Pei-ming; CHEN Jia-bi


    Waveguide multilayer optical card(WMOC)is a novel storage device of three-dimensional optical information.An ad-vancod readout system fitting for the WMOC is introduced in this paper.The hardware mainly consists of the light source for reading,WMOC,motorized stages addressing unit,microscope imaging unit,CCD detecting unit and PC controlling & processing unit.The movement of the precision motorized stage is controlled by the computer through Visual Basic(VB) language in software.A control panel is also designed to get the layer address and the page address through which the position of the motorized stages call be changed.The WMOC readout system is easy to manage and the readout result is directly displayed on computer monitor.

  19. Design of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (United States)


    This project deals with a new approach to designing organic nonlinear optical materials for second harmonic generation based on the use of hydrogen...patterns for even simple organic molecules. For organic nonlinear optical materials this dilemma means that even the most promising organic molecule may

  20. Calculation of BER in multi-channel silicon optical interconnects: comparative analysis of strip and photonic crystal waveguides (United States)

    You, Jie; Lavdas, Spyros; Panoiu, Nicolae C.


    We present an effective approach to evaluate the performance of multi-channel silicon (Si) photonic systems. The system is composed of strip Si photonic waveguides (Si-PhWs) with uniform cross-section or photonic-crystal (PhC) Si waveguides (Si-PhCWs), combined with a set of direct-detection receivers. Moreover, the optical field in each channel is the superposition of a continuous-wave nonreturn-to-zero ON-OFF keying modulated signal and a white Gaussian noise. In order to characterize the optical signal propagation in the waveguides, an accurate mathematical model describing all relevant linear and nonlinear optical effects and its linearized version is employed. In addition, two semi-analytical methods, time- and frequency-domain Karhunen-Loève series expansion, are used to assess the system bit-error-rate (BER). Our analysis reveals that Si-PhCWs provide similar performance as Si-PhWs, but for 100× shorter length. Importantly, much worse BER is achieved in Si-PhCWs when one operates in slow-light regime, due to the enhanced linear and nonlinear effects.

  1. A new polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microcantilever with integrated optical waveguide for biosensing application (United States)

    Sanati Nezhad, A.; Ghanbari, M.; Agudelo, C. G.; Packirisamy, M.; Bhat, R.


    This paper reports a novel biosensor monolithically integrate optical waveguide into PDMS microcantilever. The sensor consists of buried optical fibers, integrated optical waveguide and horizontal PDMS microcantilever suspended into microfluidic channel. The thin PDMS layer involves microcantilever, microfluidic cannels and optical channels fabricated using soft lithography technique. The thin layer is covered by semi-bonding of a glass slide and a PDMS layer to enable introducing the material of waveguide core into the waveguide channel embedded into PDMS microcantilever. The covering layers are then replaced by other PDMS layers which have hollow features to release the microcantilever for free deflection and to seal microfluidic network. The input and output multimode fibers are horizontally inserted into the optical channels. The light received at the input fiber is conducted through the optical waveguide microcantilever and is delivered to the output fiber. Numerical model is presented to simulate the optical performance of the optical waveguide PDMS microcantilever under fluid flow testing and to find the proper dimensions and waveguide material. The deflection of microcantilever under flow loading distorts the light and causes power loss at the output fiber. COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5 is used to perform fluid structure interaction analysis to assess the cantilever defection due to fluid flow and the optical simulation to estimate the power loss due to cantilever deflection. The proposed biosensor can be used to measure the force within the range of living cell growth force and to be integrated within bio-sensing microdevices to carefully measure the fluid flow rate.

  2. Length optimization of an S-shaped transition between offset optical waveguides. (United States)

    Marcuse, D


    We derive expressions for the radiation loss of an S-shaped waveguide transition used to connect two straight integrated optics waveguides that are offset with respect to each other. It is assumed that the diffused integrated optics waveguides are produced with the help of an electron beam machine that allows beam positioning in the y direction only in discrete steps. We thus must consider staircase approximations to the desired smooth S-shaped curves. A waveguide whose axis consists of a staircase suffers radiation losses due to the quasi-periodic deformation of its axis. A second loss contribution comes from the S-shape of the waveguide axis. The sum of these loss contributions assumes a minimum that defines the optimum length of the transition waveguide.

  3. Ultracompact 160 Gbaud all-optical demultiplexing exploiting slow light in an engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. (United States)

    Corcoran, Bill; Pelusi, Mark D; Monat, Christelle; Li, Juntao; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J


    We demonstrate all-optical demultiplexing of a high-bandwidth, time-division multiplexed 160 Gbit/s signal to 10 Gbit/s channels, exploiting slow light enhanced four-wave mixing in a dispersion engineered, 96 μm long planar photonic crystal waveguide. We report error-free (bit error rate<10⁻⁹) operation of all 16 demultiplexed channels, with a power penalty of 2.2-2.4 dB, highlighting the potential of these structures as a platform for ultracompact all-optical nonlinear processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Optical packet switching is considered as the future of data transfer technologyin combination with middle-aged electronics. The biggest challenge encountered in optical packet switching is the lack of optical buffers for storing the contending packets. Therefore, for the contention resolution of packets, a temporary storage in terms of fiber delay lines is used. This task is accomplished by an optical packet switch. In this paper, a design modification in the AWGR (Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router is presented for improving the switch performance. The power budget analysis of the switch is also presented to estimate the sufficient power level of the switch. The obtained results clearly reveal that the architecture presented in this paper can be operated in micro-watts in comparison to the earlier optical switch which operates in milli watts regime. Finally, simulation results are presented to obtain packet loss probability and average delay. Even at the higher load of 0.6, the switch presented in this paper provides a very low loss probability (10^6 and delay remain within 2 slots.

  5. Emergence of correlated optics in one-dimensional waveguides for classical and quantum atomic gases (United States)

    Ruostekoski, Janne; Javanainen, Juha


    We analyze the emergence of correlated optical phenomena in the transmission of light through a waveguide that confines classical or ultracold quantum degenerate atomic ensembles. The conditions of the correlated collective response are identified in terms of atom density, thermal broadening, and photon losses by using stochastic Monte Carlo simulations and transfer matrix methods of transport theory. We also calculate the "cooperative Lamb shift" for the waveguide transmission resonance, and discuss line shifts that are specific to effectively one-dimensional waveguide systems.

  6. Optical Measurement Techniques for Optical Fiber and Waveguide Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Y.; Kim; Y.; Park; N.H.; Seong; Y.C.Youk; J.Y.; Lee; S.; Moon; I.H.; Shin; H.S.; Ryu


    We describe three major optical characterization methods for fiber and fiber devices. A simple servo controlled scanning fiber-optic confocal microscope is proposed for determining the refractive index profile of an optical fiber. To measure the chromatic dispersion of a short length fiber a Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer with a novel interferometric distance meter is introduced. At the end, a tomographic method is demonstrated for determining the 2-D stress profile of a fiber.

  7. Engineering optical gradient force from coupled surface plasmon polariton modes in nanoscale plasmonic waveguides (United States)

    Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Guanghui


    We explore the dispersion properties and optical gradient forces from mutual coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at two interfaces of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic metamaterial cladding. With Maxwell’s equations and Maxwell stress tensor, we calculate and compare the dispersion relation and optical gradient force for symmetric and antisymmetric SPP modes in two kinds of nanoscale plasmonic waveguides. The numerical results show that the optical gradient force between two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides can be engineered flexibly by adjusting the waveguide structure parameters. Importantly, an alternative way to boost the optical gradient force is provided through engineering the hyperbolic metamaterial cladding of suitable orientation. These special optical properties will open the door for potential optomechanical applications, such as optical tweezers and actuators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474106) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016A030313439).

  8. Tunable Optical Sources and Synthetic Nonlinear Media: Growth and Characterization of Nonlinear Optical Materials (United States)


    niobate and absolute measurements of nonlinear optical coefficients of six different commonly used nonlinear optical materials. The refractometry data for...applied radiation and is now an established technology for Nd:YAG lasers. Optical parametric oscillation and amplification provide a method of generating...continuously tunable output -3- The relative advantages of nonlinear optical frequency conversion compared to other methods for the generation of near

  9. Design, Fabrication and Properties of Rib Poly(methylmethacrylimide Optical Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nekvindova


    Full Text Available We report about design, fabrication and properties of the polymer optical waveguides deposited on silica-on-silicon substrate. The design of the waveguides is based on a concept that geometric dimensions of the single mode polymer waveguide are determined by geometrical parameters of the silica layer. The design of the waveguides was schemed for 650 nm, 850 nm, 1310 nm and 1550 nm wavelength. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation while the ridge waveguides design was proposed following the Fischbeck concept. Both designs were refined applying RSoft software using beam propagation method. Proposed shapes of the waveguides were etched by standard photolithography process into the silica layers and polymer waveguide layers were subsequently deposited into the treated substrate by spin coating. Poly(methylmethacrylimide was used as the waveguide core material and polymethylmethacrylate was used as a cover protection layer. Propagation optical loss measurements were done by using the cut-back method and the best samples had optical losses lower than 0.6 dB/cm at 650 nm, 1310 nm and 1550 nm.

  10. Review of Robust Data Exchange Using Optical Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang


    Full Text Available Data exchange, namely bidirectional information swapping, provides enhanced flexibility compared to the unidirectional information transfer. To fulfill the rapid development of high-speed large-capacity optical communications with emerging multiplexing/demultiplexing techniques and advanced modulation formats, a laudable goal would be to achieve data exchange in different degrees of freedom (wavelength, time, polarization, for different modulation formats (OOK, DPSK, DQPSK, pol-muxed, and at different granularities (entire data, groups of bits, tributary channels. Optical nonlinearities are potentially suitable candidates to enable data exchange in the wavelength, time, and polarization domains. In this paper, we will review our recent works towards robust data exchange by exploiting miscellaneous optical nonlinearities, including the use of cSFG/DFG in a PPLN waveguide for time- (groups of bits and channel-selective data exchange and tributary channel exchange between two WDM+OTDM signals, nondegenerate FWM in an HNLF for phase-transparent data exchange (DPSK, DQPSK, bidirectional degenerate FWM in an HNLF for multi-channel data exchange, and Kerr-induced nonlinear polarization rotation in an HNLF for tributary channel exchange of a pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal. The demonstrated data exchanges in different degrees of freedom, for different modulation formats, and at different granularities, open the door for alternative approaches to achieve superior network performance.

  11. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hajj-Hassan


    Full Text Available We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gelderived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2 responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100% of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multisensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  12. Single-mode glass waveguide technology for optical interchip communication on board level (United States)

    Brusberg, Lars; Neitz, Marcel; Schröder, Henning


    The large bandwidth demand in long-distance telecom networks lead to single-mode fiber interconnects as result of low dispersion, low loss and dense wavelength multiplexing possibilities. In contrast, multi-mode interconnects are suitable for much shorter lengths up to 300 meters and are promising for optical links between racks and on board level. Active optical cables based on multi-mode fiber links are at the market and research in multi-mode waveguide integration on board level is still going on. Compared to multi-mode, a single-mode waveguide has much more integration potential because of core diameters of around 20% of a multi-mode waveguide by a much larger bandwidth. But light coupling in single-mode waveguides is much more challenging because of lower coupling tolerances. Together with the silicon photonics technology, a single-mode waveguide technology on board-level will be the straight forward development goal for chip-to-chip optical interconnects integration. Such a hybrid packaging platform providing 3D optical single-mode links bridges the gap between novel photonic integrated circuits and the glass fiber based long-distance telecom networks. Following we introduce our 3D photonic packaging approach based on thin glass substrates with planar integrated optical single-mode waveguides for fiber-to-chip and chip-to-chip interconnects. This novel packaging approach merges micro-system packaging and glass integrated optics. It consists of a thin glass substrate with planar integrated singlemode waveguide circuits, optical mirrors and lenses providing an integration platform for photonic IC assembly and optical fiber interconnect. Thin glass is commercially available in panel and wafer formats and characterizes excellent optical and high-frequency properties. That makes it perfect for microsystem packaging. The paper presents recent results in single-mode waveguide technology on wafer level and waveguide characterization. Furthermore the integration in a

  13. Characterization of GaAlAs optical waveguide heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (United States)

    Radens, C. J.; Jackson, H. E.; Boyd, J. T.; Bhasin, K. B.; Pouch, J. J.


    Multiple-layer GaAlAs optical waveguide heterostructures have been grown by MBE. These samples were designed to operate at 840 nm with negligible coupling of guided light to the absorbing GaAs substrate. The Al concentration was 13 percent for the guiding layer and was 16 percent for the cladding layers. The process for growing waveguide layers was calibrated primarily by high-energy electron diffraction, with the optical quality confirmed by photoluminescence measurements. Channel waveguide structures having widths of 5 microns were etched in a low-pressure magnetically confined multipolar plasma reactor. The resulting waveguide structures were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, AES, and optical-waveguide loss measurements.

  14. Nonlinear optical compression of high-power 10-μm CO2 laser pulses in gases and semiconductors (United States)

    Pigeon, Jeremy; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chan


    We review a series of experiments on nonlinear optical compression of high-power, picosecond, 10-µm CO2 laser pulses. Presented schemes include self-phase modulation in a Xe-filled hollow glass waveguide, self-phase modulation in GaAs followed by compression, and multiple four-wave mixing compression of a laser beat-wave in GaAs. The novel nonlinear optics and technical challenges uncovered through these experiments are discussed.

  15. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl


    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d...

  16. Large-scale integrated optics using TriPleXTM waveguide technology: from UV to IR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Hoving, Willem; Dekker, R.; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Klein, E.J.; Stoffer, Remco; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Zhuang, L.; Meijerink, Arjan; Glebov, Alexei L.; Chen, Ray T.


    We present a new class of low-loss integrated optical waveguide structures as CMOS-compatible industrial standard for photonic integration on silicon or glass. A TriPleXTM waveguide is basically formed by a -preferably rectangular- silicon nitride (Si3N4) shell filled with and encapsulated by

  17. ZnO nanotube waveguide arrays on graphene films for local optical excitation on biological cells (United States)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Kwak, Hankyul; Song, Minho S.; Ha, Go Eun; Park, Jongwoo; Tchoe, Youngbin; Hyun, Jerome K.; Park, Hye Yoon; Cheong, Eunji; Yi, Gyu-Chul


    We report on scalable and position-controlled optical nanoprobe arrays using ZnO nanotube waveguides on graphene films for use in local optical excitation. For the waveguide fabrication, position-controlled and well-ordered ZnO nanotube arrays were grown on chemical vapor deposited graphene films with a submicron patterned mask layer and Au prepared between the interspace of nanotubes. Mammalian cells were cultured on the nanotube waveguide arrays and were locally excited by light illuminated through the nanotubes. Fluorescence and optogenetic signals could be excited through the optical nanoprobes. This method offers the ability to investigate cellular behavior with a high spatial resolution that surpasses the current limitation.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to control of THz radiation in parallel plate waveguides (PPWG) by forming components in the waveguide by use of optical radiation pulses. Patterns of excited regions induced in the PPWG by an optical excitation pulses changes the electromagnetic properties of the waveguide...... medium in the THz regime, thereby forming transient passive and active components for controlling THz radiation signals. The excitation can be generation of free charge carriers in a semiconductor material in the PPWG, to create metallic regions that form mirrors, lenses or photonic crystal structures......-on-a-chip applications. The optical and THz radiation can be ultrashort pulses with picosecond or femtosecond pulse durations. L...

  19. Burying of channel optical waveguides: relation between near-field measurement and Ag concentration profile (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Shao; Liu, Yen-Huang; Barkman, Ondrej; Prajzler, Vaclav; Stanek, Stanislav; Nekvindova, Pavla


    Two-step field-assisted ion-exchanged waveguides have been fabricated on a glass substrate. The concentration profiles of the exchanged ions were measured with electron microprobe. The waveguides were characterized under scanning electron microscope and optical microscope for the investigation of burying structures. Guiding mode patterns were characterized with near-field measurement, where symmetric profiles were observed for the burying-type waveguide. The refractive index profiles were also measured with a modified end-fire coupling method. The relation between ion concentration profiles and index profiles were compared for the waveguides with different fabrication process.

  20. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Peter; Hoppe, Karsten; Leistiko, Otto


    Sealing of the flow channel is an important aspect during integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides. The uneven topography of many waveguide-fabrication techniques will lead to leakage of the fluid channels. Planarization methods such as chemical mechanical polishing or the etch......-back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during...

  1. Optical planar waveguides in Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses produced by He+ ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chun-Xiao; Li Wei-Nan; Wei Wei; Peng Bo


    Optical planar waveguides in Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses are fabricated by implanting triple-energy helium ions.The guiding modes and the near-field intensity distribution are measured by using the prism-coupling method and the end-face coupling setup with a He-Ne laser at 633 nm The intensity calculation method (ICM) is used to reconstruct the refractive index profile of the waveguide.The absorption and the fluorescence investigations reveal that the glass bulk features are well preserved in the active volumes of the waveguides,suggesting the fabricated structures for possible applications as waveguide lasers.

  2. Optical Intensity Modulation in an LiNbO3 Slab-Coupled Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu


    Full Text Available Optical intensity modulation has been demonstrated through switching the optical beam between the main core waveguide and a closely attached leaky slab waveguide by applying a low-voltage electrical field. Theory for simulating such an LiNbO3 slab-coupled waveguide structure was suggested, and the result indicates the possibility of making the spatial guiding mode large, circular and symmetric, which further allows the potential to significantly reduce the coupling losses with adjacent lasers and optical networks. Optical intensity modulation using electro-optic effect was experimentally demonstrated in a 5 cm long waveguide fabricated by using a procedure of soft proton exchange and then an overgrowth of thin LN film on top of a c-cut LiNbO3 wafer.

  3. Propagation of Nonlinear Waves in Waveguides and Application to Nondestructive Stress Measurement (United States)

    Nucera, Claudio

    Propagation of nonlinear waves in waveguides is a field that has received an ever increasing interest in the last few decades. Nonlinear guided waves are excellent candidates for interrogating long waveguide like structures because they combine high sensitivity to structural conditions, typical of nonlinear parameters, with large inspection ranges, characteristic of wave propagation in bounded media. The primary topic of this dissertation is the analysis of ultrasonic waves, including ultrasonic guided waves, propagating in their nonlinear regime and their application to structural health monitoring problems, particularly the measurement of thermal stress in Continuous Welded Rail (CWR). Following an overview of basic physical principles generating nonlinearities in ultrasonic wave propagation, the case of higher-harmonic generation in multi-mode and dispersive guided waves is examined in more detail. A numerical framework is developed in order to predict favorable higher-order generation conditions (i.e. specific guided modes and frequencies) for waveguides of arbitrary cross-sections. This model is applied to various benchmark cases of complex structures. The nonlinear wave propagation model is then applied to the case of a constrained railroad track (CWR) subjected to thermal variations. This study is a direct response to the key need within the railroad transportation community to develop a technique able to measure thermal stresses in CWR, or determine the rail temperature corresponding to a null thermal stress (Neutral Temperature -- NT). The numerical simulation phase concludes with a numerical study performed using ABAQUS commercial finite element package. These analyses were crucial in predicting the evolution of the nonlinear parameter beta with thermal stress level acting in the rail. A novel physical model, based on interatomic potential, was developed to explain the origin of nonlinear wave propagation under constrained thermal expansion. In fact

  4. Engineering of orbital angular momentum supermodes in coupled optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Turpin, A; Polo, J; Mompart, J; Ahufinger, V


    In this work we demonstrate the existence of orbital angular momentum (OAM) bright and dark supermodes in a three-evanescent coupled cylindrical waveguides system. Bright and dark supermodes are characterized by its coupling and decoupling from one of the waveguides, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that complex couplings between modes of different waveguides appear naturally due to the characteristic spiral phase-front of OAM modes in two-dimensional configurations where the waveguides are arranged forming a triangle. Finally, by adding dissipation to the waveguide uncoupled to the dark supermode, we are able to filter it out, allowing for the design of OAM mode clonners and inverters.

  5. Optimizing SOI Slot Waveguide Fabrication Tolerances and Strip-Slot Coupling for Very Efficient Optical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio M. N. Passaro


    Full Text Available Slot waveguides are becoming more and more attractive optical components, especially for chemical and bio-chemical sensing. In this paper an accurate analysis of slot waveguide fabrication tolerances is carried out, in order to find optimum design criteria for either homogeneous or absorption sensing mechanisms, in cases of low and high aspect ratio slot waveguides. In particular, we have focused on Silicon On Insulator (SOI technology, representing the most popular technology for this kind of devices, simultaneously achieving high integration capabilities, small dimensions and low cost. An accurate analysis of single mode behavior for high aspect ratio slot waveguide has been also performed, in order to provide geometric limits for waveguide design purposes. Finally, the problem of coupling into a slot waveguide is addressed and a very compact and efficient slot coupler is proposed, whose geometry has been optimized to give a strip-slot-strip coupling efficiency close to 100%.

  6. Capacitively-Induced Free-Carrier Effects in Nanoscale Silicon Waveguides for Electro-Optic Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rajat; Lin, Hung-Hsi; Isichenko, Andrei; Vallini, Felipe; Fainman, Yeshaiahu


    We fabricate silicon waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers clad with either silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, or aluminum oxide, and by measuring the electro-optic behavior of ring resonators, we characterize the cladding-dependent and capacitively-induced free-carrier effects in each of these waveguides. By comparing our measured data with simulation results, we confirm that the observed voltage dependencies of the transmission spectra are due to changes in the concentrations of holes and electrons within the semiconductor waveguide, and we show for the first time how strongly these effects depend on the cladding material which comes into contact with the silicon waveguide. Additionally, the waveguide loss is found to have a particularly high sensitivity to the applied voltage, and may therefore find use in a wide range of applications which require low- or high-loss propagation. Collectively, these phenomena may be incorporated into more complex waveguide designs in the future to create high-effic...

  7. Absorption Coefficient of InGaAs V-shaped Quantum Wires Integrated in Optical Waveguides by MBE Growth (United States)


    Integrated in Optical Waveguides by MBE Growth DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Availability: Hard copy only. This...coefficient of InGaAs V-shaped quantum wires integrated in optical waveguides by MBE growth F Filipowitzt, C. Gourgont, D. Martint, Y Magnenatt, P. Giaccarit...observation The fabrication of waveguides that contains QWR consists of three process sequences: (i) MBE growth of the lower waveguide cladding and half of the

  8. Metamaterials with tailored nonlinear optical response. (United States)

    Husu, Hannu; Siikanen, Roope; Mäkitalo, Jouni; Lehtolahti, Joonas; Laukkanen, Janne; Kuittinen, Markku; Kauranen, Martti


    We demonstrate that the second-order nonlinear optical response of noncentrosymmetric metal nanoparticles (metamolecules) can be efficiently controlled by their mutual ordering in an array. Two samples with minor change in ordering have nonlinear responses differing by a factor of up to 50. The results arise from polarization-dependent plasmonic resonances modified by long-range coupling associated with metamolecular ordering. The approach opens new ways for tailoring the nonlinear responses of metamaterials and their tensorial properties.

  9. Ultralow-loss waveguide crossings for the integration of microfluidics and optical waveguide sensors (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yan, Hai; Wang, Zongxing; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Subbaraman, Harish; Tang, Naimei; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Alan X.; Chen, Ray T.


    Integrating photonic waveguide sensors with microfluidics is promising in achieving high-sensitivity and cost-effective biological and chemical sensing applications. One challenge in the integration is that an air gap would exist between the microfluidic channel and the photonic waveguide when the micro-channel and the waveguide intersect. The air gap creates a path for the fluid to leak out of the micro-channel. Potential solutions, such as oxide deposition followed by surface planarization, would introduce additional fabrication steps and thus are ineffective in cost. Here we propose a reliable and efficient approach for achieving closed microfluidic channels on a waveguide sensing chip. The core of the employed technique is to add waveguide crossings, i.e., perpendicularly intersecting waveguides, to block the etched trenches and prevent the fluid from leaking through the air gap. The waveguide crossings offer a smooth interface for microfluidic channel bonding while bring negligible additional propagation loss (0.024 dB/crossing based on simulation). They are also efficient in fabrication, which are patterned and fabricated in the same step with waveguides. We experimentally integrated microfluidic channels with photonic crystal (PC) microcavity sensor chips on silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated leak-free sensing measurement with waveguide crossings. The microfluidic channel was made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and pressure bonded to the silicon chip. The tested flow rates can be varied from 0.2 μL/min to 200 μL/min. Strong resonances from the PC cavity were observed from the transmission spectra. The spectra also show that the waveguide crossings did not induce any significant additional loss or alter the resonances.

  10. Surface transport and stable trapping of particles and cells by an optical waveguide loop. (United States)

    Hellesø, Olav Gaute; Løvhaugen, Pål; Subramanian, Ananth Z; Wilkinson, James S; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh


    Waveguide trapping has emerged as a useful technique for parallel and planar transport of particles and biological cells and can be integrated with lab-on-a-chip applications. However, particles trapped on waveguides are continuously propelled forward along the surface of the waveguide. This limits the practical usability of the waveguide trapping technique with other functions (e.g. analysis, imaging) that require particles to be stationary during diagnosis. In this paper, an optical waveguide loop with an intentional gap at the centre is proposed to hold propelled particles and cells. The waveguide acts as a conveyor belt to transport and deliver the particles/cells towards the gap. At the gap, the diverging light fields hold the particles at a fixed position. The proposed waveguide design is numerically studied and experimentally implemented. The optical forces on the particle at the gap are calculated using the finite element method. Experimentally, the method is used to transport and trap micro-particles and red blood cells at the gap with varying separations. The waveguides are only 180 nm thick and thus could be integrated with other functions on the chip, e.g. microfluidics or optical detection, to make an on-chip system for single cell analysis and to study the interaction between cells.

  11. Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Thomsen, Carsten L.


    In this Letter, we propose a generic nonlinear coupling coefficient, η2 NL ¼ ηjγ=β2jfiber2=jγ=β2jfiber1, which gives a quantitative measure for the efficiency of nonlinear matching of optical fibers by describing how a fundamental soliton couples from one fiber into another. Specifically, we use η...

  12. Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (United States)


    10 SOVRCE Of FUNO#NG NUM#E*S DM J .j PROGRAM PR0jECT TA5. ~ *0. I1I TITLE &Vila* So.Ivety ClaUMC400NJ Development of Organic NonLinear Optical Materials (U...0102-LF-014-6603 UNCLASSIFIED (U) AFOSR Contract: F4962040-C 0097 FINAL REPORT Development of Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials by J. Sounnk IL

  13. Systematic control of optical features in aluminosilicate glass waveguides using direct femtosecond laser writing (United States)

    Babu, B. Hari; Niu, Mengsi; Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yanbo; Feng, Lin; Qin, Wei; Hao, Xiao-Tao


    Low loss optical waveguides inside aluminosilicate glasses have been successfully fabricated using direct femtosecond laser writing. To establish the influence of pulse energy and host variations on the optical waveguides have been tentatively explored and systematically studied with the help of different spectroscopic techniques. Isochronal annealing treatment effectively reduces the insertion losses to 1.01 ± 0.28 dB at 632.8 nm. A red shift of the Raman band has been observed with increasing Al2O3 content due to the bond angle variations. The point defects such as non-bridging oxygen hole centers have been corroborated by the photoluminescence studies and significant red-shift has also been documented with increasing Al2O3 content. In addition, there is no NBOHC defects perceived after isochronal annealing treatment inside the glass waveguides. Our results envisage that the present glass waveguides should be promising and potential for applications in passive waveguides and integrated photonic devices.

  14. Efficient graphene based electro-optical modulator enabled by interfacing plasmonic slot and silicon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Xiaolong; Hu, Hao; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mortensen, N Asger; Xiao, Sanshui


    Graphene based electro-absorption modulators involving dielectric optical waveguides or resonators have been widely explored, suffering however from weak graphene-light interaction due to poor overlap of optical fields with graphene layers. Surface plasmon polaritons enable light concentration within subwavelength regions opening thereby new avenues for strengthening graphene-light interactions. Through careful optimization of plasmonic slot waveguides, we demonstrate efficient and compact graphene-plasmonic modulators that are interfaced with silicon waveguides and thus fully integrated in the silicon-on-insulator platform. By advantageously exploiting low-loss plasmonic slot-waveguide modes, which weakly leak into a substrate while feature strong fields within the two-layer-graphene covered slots in metal, we have successfully achieved a tunability of 0.13 dB/{\\mu}m for our fabricated graphene-plasmonic waveguide modulators with low insertion loss, which significantly exceeds the performance of previously r...

  15. Review of applications and surface smoothing mechanisms of optical waveguide devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan TANG


    Full Text Available Optical waveguide devices are widely used in many fields and have good development prospects. But surface roughness of waveguide device induces a passive effect on the light transmission loss and the Q value of ring cavity, which restricts the development and applications of optical waveguide devices. Currently, the common used surface and side wall smoothing methods for waveguide devices are the thermal oxidation method, laser beam method, and hydrogen annealing method, and the surface hydrogen annealing method has better smoothing effect. However, the mechanism of hydrogen annealing method is still not clear so far, thus the experimental parameters cannot be further optimized to obtain optimal experimental result. Based on the review of the contents mentioned above, the hydrogen annealing mechanism is primarily studied through the simulation analysis by Materials Studio, which provides theoretical foundation and guidance for smoothing of waveguide device by hydrogen annealing technology.

  16. Visualization of two-photon Rabi oscillations in evanescently coupled optical waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornigotti, M; Valle, G Della; Fernandez, T Toney; Laporta, P; Longhi, S [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coppa, A; Foglietti, V [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR, sezione di Roma, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy)], E-mail:


    An optical analogue of two-photon Rabi oscillations, occurring in a three-level atomic or molecular system coherently driven by two detuned laser fields, is theoretically proposed and experimentally demonstrated using three evanescently coupled optical waveguides realized on an active glass substrate. The optical analogue stems from the formal analogy between spatial propagation of light waves in the three-waveguide structure and the coherent temporal evolution of populations in a three-level atomic medium driven by two laser fields under two-photon resonance. In our optical experiment, two-photon Rabi oscillations are thus visualized as a slow spatial oscillatory exchange of light power between the two outer waveguides of the structure with a small excitation of the central waveguide.

  17. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides: Q-factor and disorder influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Campaioli, Enrico; Raza, Søren;


    Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) can significantly reduce light propagation pulse velocity due to pronounced dispersion properties. A number of interesting applications have been proposed to benefit from such slow-light propagation. Unfortunately, the inevitable presence of disorder, i...

  18. Parametric Optical Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides with Reverse-biased p-i-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, C.; Da Ros, Francesco; Vukovic, Dragana;


    The use of silicon-on-insulator waveguides with free carriers removal using a reverse-biased p-i-n junction for parametric optical signal processing is reviewed. High-efficiency wavelength conversion and phase-sensitive regeneration are reported.......The use of silicon-on-insulator waveguides with free carriers removal using a reverse-biased p-i-n junction for parametric optical signal processing is reviewed. High-efficiency wavelength conversion and phase-sensitive regeneration are reported....

  19. Magneto-optical switch with amorphous silicon waveguides on magneto-optical garnet (United States)

    Ishida, Eiichi; Miura, Kengo; Shoji, Yuya; Mizumoto, Tetsuya; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa


    We fabricated a magneto-optical (MO) switch with a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide on an MO garnet. The switch is composed of a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The switch state is controlled by an MO phase shift through a magnetic field generated by a current flowing in an electrode located on the MZI. The switching operation was successfully demonstrated with an extinction ratio of 11.7 dB at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  20. Subwavelength optics with hyperbolic metamaterials: Waveguides, scattering, and optical topological transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.


    Hyperbolic metamaterials possess unique optical properties owing to their hyperbolic dispersion. As hyperbolic metamaterials can be constructed just from periodic multilayers of metals and dielectrics, they have attracted considerable attention in the nanophotonics community. Here, we review some...... of our recent works and demonstrate the benefits of using hyperbolic metamaterials in plasmonic waveguides and light scattering. We also discuss nonlocal topological transitions in the hyperbolic metamaterials that effectively induce a zero refractive index....

  1. Optical signal processing by silicon photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Jameel; Adeel, Freeha; Hussain, Ashiq


    The main objective of this book is to make respective graduate students understand the nonlinear effects inside SOI waveguide and possible applications of SOI waveguides in this emerging research area of optical fibre communication. This book focuses on achieving successful optical frequency shifting by Four Wave Mixing (FWM) in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide by exploiting a nonlinear phenomenon.

  2. Raman amplification of Stokes pulse in ultra-small silicon on-insulator optical waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The stimulated Raman amplification of picosecond Stokes pulse is numerically investigated in ultra-small silicon-oninsulator optical waveguide. Numerical results show that we obtain the gain of up to 30-dB for weak Stokes pulse in the copropagation configuration for 10 mm Jength waveguide using high intensity pump optical pulse. The peak gain, pulse width, rise time, and fall time of Stokes pulse will experience the variation course of decaying then increasing with increasing waveguide length. The time delay of output Stokes pulse is controlled by adjusting the initial time delay of both pump and Stokes pulses.

  3. Assembly of optical fibers for the connection of polymer-based waveguide (United States)

    Ansel, Yannick; Grau, Daniel; Holzki, Markus; Kraus, Silvio; Neumann, Frank; Reinhard, Carsten; Schmitz, Felix


    This paper describes the realization of polymer-based optical structures and the assembly and packaging strategy to connect optical fiber ribbons to the waveguides. For that a low cost fabrication process using the SU-8TM thick photo-resist is presented. This process consists in the deposition of two photo-structurized resist layers filled up with epoxy glue realising the core waveguide. For the assembly, a new modular vacuum gripper was realised and installed on an automatic pick and place assembly robot to mount precisely and efficiently the optical fibers in the optical structures. First results have shown acceptable optical propagation loss for the complete test structure.

  4. Completely integrable models of nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrey I Maimistov


    The models of the nonlinear optics in which solitons appeared are considered. These models are of paramount importance in studies of nonlinear wave phenomena. The classical examples of phenomena of this kind are the self-focusing, self-induced transparency and parametric interaction of three waves. At present there are a number of theories based on completely integrable systems of equations, which are, both, generations of the original known models and new ones. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Sine–Gordon equation, the reduced Maxwell–Bloch equation, Hirota equation, the principal chiral field equations, and the equations of massive Thirring model are some soliton equations, which are usually to be found in nonlinear optics theory.

  5. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L


    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  6. Investigation of Optical Fibers for Nonlinear Optics. (United States)


    Northwestern University, 1970. Experience Dr. Harrington has 13 years of research experi- ence in the area of optical properties of solids . Since joining...dynamics, and optical properties of solids . 34 34I ANTONIO C. PASTOR, Member of the Technical Staff, Optical Physics Department, Hughes Research

  7. Properties of nonreciprocal light propagation in a nonlinear optical isolator

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Dibyendu


    Light propagation in a nonlinear optical medium is nonreciprocal for spatially asymmetric linear permittivity. We here examine physical mechanism and properties of such nonreciprocity (NR). For this, we calculate transmission of light through a two-level atom asymmetrically coupled to light inside open waveguides. We determine the critical intensity of incident light for maximum NR and a dependence of the corresponding NR on asymmetry in the coupling. Surprisingly, we find that it is mainly coherent elastic scattering compared to incoherent scattering of incident light which causes maximum NR near the critical intensity. We also show a higher NR of an incident light in the presence of an additional weak light at the opposite port.

  8. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.


    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  9. Forbidden second order optical nonlinearity of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, J L; Sipe, J E


    We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllablity of these responses by tuning the chemical potential, where the interband optical transitions play a dominant role.

  10. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage. (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute


    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  11. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    . The combination of a small core size and zero-dispersion wavelength at the operating wavelength of widely available femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers led to an extensive research in supercontinuum generation and other nonlinear effects in PCFs. It is crucial for the efficiency of many nonlinear mechanisms...... that the pump laser wavelength is close to the zero-dispersion wavelength and that the core size is small. Recently, work in fabricating PCFs from materials other than silica has intensified. One of the advantages of using alternative materials can be a higher inherent material nonlinearity, which...... to accurately obtain a small core size while maintaining small structural variations during fibre drawing. This talk will give a presentation of how the mPOFs are fabricated and the route to obtaining nonlinear effects in them....

  12. Optimization of PECVD boron-phosphorus doped silicon oxynitride for low-loss optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein, Mohamed Gamar


    Development and improvement of optical materials is one of the challenges in integrated optics, since materials issues in the fabrication of waveguiding layer structures are of great importance for getting high-quality integrated optical components. As explained in Chapter 1, these materials must sa

  13. A new electro-optic waveguide architecture and the unprecedented devices it enables (United States)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Farca, George; Anderson, Michael H.


    A new electro-optic waveguide platform, which provides unprecedented electro-optical phase delays (> 1mm), with very low loss (integrated photonic architecture has applications in a wide array of commercial and defense markets including: remote sensing, micro-LADAR, OCT, laser illumination, phased array radar, optical communications, etc. Performance attributes of several example devices are presented.

  14. Mesoscale Engineering of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, C.N.; Feldman, L.C.; Gonella, F.; Haglund, R.F.; Luepke, G.; Magruder, R.H.; Mazzoldi, P.; Osborne, D.H.; Solis, J.; Zuhr, R.A.


    Complex nonlinear optical materials comprising elemental, compound or alloy quantum dots embedded in appropriate dielectric or semiconducting hosts may be suitable for deployment in photonic devices. Ion implantation, ion exchange followed by ion implantation, and pulsed laser deposition have ail been used to synthesize these materials. However, the correlation between the parameters of energetic-beam synthesis and the nonlinear optical properties is still very rudimentary when one starts to ask what is happening at nanoscale dimensions. Systems integration of complex nonlinear optical materials requires that the mesoscale materials science be well understood within the context of device structures. We discuss the effects of beam energy and energy density on quantum-dot size and spatial distribution, thermal conductivity, quantum-dot composition, crystallinity and defects - and, in turn, on the third-order optical susceptibility of the composite material. Examples from recent work in our laboratories are used to illustrate these effects.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics in atom optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wenyu; Dyrting, S.; Milburn, G.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Physics


    In this paper theoretical work on classical and quantum nonlinear dynamics of cold atoms is reported. The basic concepts in nonlinear dynamics are reviewed and then applied to the motion of atoms in time-dependent standing waves and to the atomic bouncer. The quantum dynamics for the cases of regular and chaotic classical dynamics is described. The effect of spontaneous emission and external noise is also discussed. 104 refs., 1 tab., 21 figs.

  16. Design of an ultra-thin near-eye display with geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. (United States)

    Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian; Xu, Chen; Song, Weitao; Jin, Guofan


    Small thickness and light weight are two important requirements for a see-through near-eye display which are achieved in this paper by using two advanced technologies: geometrical waveguide and freeform optics. A major problem associated with the geometrical waveguide is the stray light which can severely degrade the display quality. The causes and solutions to this problem are thoroughly studied. A mathematical model of the waveguide is established and a non-sequential ray tracing algorithm is developed, which enable us to carefully examine the stray light of the planar waveguide and explore a global searching method to find an optimum design with the least amount of stray light. A projection optics using freeform surfaces on a wedge shaped prism is also designed. The near-eye display integrating the projection optics and the waveguide has a field of view of 28°, an exit pupil diameter of 9.6mm and an exit pupil distance of 20mm. In our final design, the proportion of the stray light energy over the image output energy of the waveguide is reduced to 2%, the modulation transfer function values across the entire field of the eyepiece are above 0.5 at 30 line pairs/mm (lps/mm). A proof-of-concept prototype of the proposed geometrical waveguide near-eye display is developed and demonstrated.

  17. Polydimethylsiloxane-based optical waveguides for tetherless powering of floating microstimulators (United States)

    Ersen, Ali; Sahin, Mesut


    Neural electrodes and associated electronics are powered either through percutaneous wires or transcutaneous powering schemes with energy harvesting devices implanted underneath the skin. For electrodes implanted in the spinal cord and the brain stem that experience large displacements, wireless powering may be an option to eliminate device failure by the breakage of wires and the tethering of forces on the electrodes. We tested the feasibility of using optically clear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a waveguide to collect the light in a subcutaneous location and deliver to deeper regions inside the body, thereby replacing brittle metal wires tethered to the electrodes with PDMS-based optical waveguides that can transmit energy without being attached to the targeted electrode. We determined the attenuation of light along the PDMS waveguides as 0.36±0.03 dB/cm and the transcutaneous light collection efficiency of cylindrical waveguides as 44%±11% by transmitting a laser beam through the thenar skin of human hands. We then implanted the waveguides in rats for a month to demonstrate the feasibility of optical transmission. The collection efficiency and longitudinal attenuation values reported here can help others design their own waveguides and make estimations of the waveguide cross-sectional area required to deliver sufficient power to a certain depth in tissue.

  18. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rajta, I.; Nagy, G.U.L. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute AV CR, Řež near Prague 250 68 (Czech Republic); Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veres, M. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, G.C. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)


    Active and passive optical waveguides are fundamental elements in modern telecommunications systems. A great number of optical crystals and glasses were identified and are used as good optoelectronic materials. However, fabrication of waveguides in some of those materials remains still a challenging task due to their susceptibility to mechanical or chemical damages during processing. Researches were initiated on ion beam fabrication of optical waveguides in tellurite glasses. Channel waveguides were written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass through a special silicon mask using 1.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. This method was improved by increasing N{sup +} energy to 3.5 MeV to achieve confinement at the 1550 nm wavelength, too. An alternative method, direct writing of the channel waveguides in the tellurite glass using focussed beams of 6–11 MeV C{sup 3+} and C{sup 5+} and 5 MeV N{sup 3+}, has also been developed. Channel waveguides were fabricated in undoped eulytine-(Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and sillenite type (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) bismuth germanate crystals using both a special silicon mask and a thick SU8 photoresist mask and 3.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. The waveguides were studied by phase contrast and interference microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy. Guiding properties were checked by the end fire method.

  19. Nonlinear optics with stationary pulses of light


    Andre, A.; Bajcsy, M.; Zibrov, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.


    We show that the recently demonstrated technique for generating stationary pulses of light [Nature {\\bf 426}, 638 (2003)] can be extended to localize optical pulses in all three spatial dimensions in a resonant atomic medium. This method can be used to dramatically enhance the nonlinear interaction between weak optical pulses. In particular, we show that an efficient Kerr-like interaction between two pulses can be implemented as a sequence of several purely linear optical processes. The resul...

  20. Nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticle composites for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y. E-mail:; Kishimoto, N


    Optical absorption and nonlinear optical response were investigated for nanoparticle composites in amorphous SiO{sub 2} fabricated by negative Ta ion implantation at 60 keV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify Ta and the oxide formation in the matrix. Optical absorption clearly indicated a surface plasmon peak at 2.2 eV and the peak resulted from formation of nanoparticles embedded in the matrix. The measured absorption was compared with calculated ones, evaluated by Maxwell-Garnett theory. Nonlinear absorption was measured with a pump-probe method using a femtosecond laser system. The pumping laser transiently bleached the surface plasmon band and lead to the nonlinearity. The transient response recovered in several picoseconds and behaved in terms of electron dynamics in metallic nanoparticles. The Ta nanoparticle composite is one of the promising candidates for nonlinear optical materials with good thermal stability.

  1. Optical Characterization of Optofluidic Waveguides Using Scattered Light Imaging. (United States)

    Jenkins, Micah H; Phillips, Brian S; Zhao, Yue; Holmes, Matthew R; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R


    The use of scattered light images is shown to be an attractive method for the characterization of optofluidic waveguides. The method is shown to be capable of measuring waveguide propagation losses and transmissions between solid and liquid-core structures. Measurement uncertainties are considered and characterized and were typically less than 15%.

  2. Pump induced normal mode splittings in phase conjugation in a Kerr nonlinear waveguide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dutta Gupta


    Phase conjugation in a Kerr nonlinear waveguide is studied with counter-propagating normally incident pumps and a probe beam at an arbitrary angle of incidence. Detailed numerical results for the specular and phase conjugated reflectivities are obtained with full account of pump depletion. For sufficient strengths of the pump a normal mode splitting is demonstrated in both the specular and the phase conjugated reflectivities of the probe wave. The splitting is explained in terms of a simple model under undepleted pump approximation.

  3. Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides (United States)

    Maruo, Yasuko Yamada; Sasaki, Sigekuni; Tamamura, Toshiaki


    A new-channel-waveguide-fabrication process for use with polyimide is described. The new technique uses an electron-beam-induced effect to alter the refractive index of the polyimides directly. Channel waveguides with an 8- mu m-wide, 8- mu m-deep core have been fabricated on a polyimide film by the use of electron-beam irradiation. Only one kind of polyimide (6FDA/TFDB) was used in this waveguide. The difference in refractive index between the core and the cladding was approximately 0.30% for both TE-and TM-polarized incident light when the dose was 1500 mu C/cm2, which was sufficient to produce waveguides. The optical properties of the waveguide are also demonstrated.

  4. Highly compact optical waveguides with a novel pedestal geometry (United States)

    Chaudhari, Apurva D.; West, Lawrence C.; Roberts, Charles W.; Lu, Yicheng


    A structure with a large refractive index ratio between waveguide and cladding materials can be fabricated with low scattering losses by using Ge on GaAs waveguides at 10- micron wavelengths. We demonstrate two types of ultra-high confinement (UHC) dielectric waveguides using separate geometries: A ridge and a novel pedestal. Computer simulations using a time-domain finite element,,,method and microwave-scale experiments are performed on both waveguide types. We show a waveguide thickness of 0.18 of the free-space wavelength or greater guide well-confined single-mode light for both geometries. Numerical and experimental values of the effective index agree to better than 0.5%.

  5. Optical rogue waves and soliton turbulence in nonlinear fibre optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genty, G.; Dudley, J. M.; de Sterke, C. M.


    We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required.......We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required....

  6. Terahertz cross-phase modulation of an optical mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Novitsky, Andrey; Zalkovskij, Maksim


    We discuss an optical scheme which facilitates modulation of an optical waveguide mode by metallic-nanoslit-enhanced THz radiation. The waveguide mode acquires an additional phase shift due to THz nonlinearity with fields reachable in experiments.......We discuss an optical scheme which facilitates modulation of an optical waveguide mode by metallic-nanoslit-enhanced THz radiation. The waveguide mode acquires an additional phase shift due to THz nonlinearity with fields reachable in experiments....

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (United States)

    Ricard, Gianpiero Banfi Vittorio Degiorgio Daniel


    This review is devoted to the description of recent experimental results concerning the nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor-doped glasses SDGs with particular emphasis on the regime in which the energy of the incident photon is smaller than the energy gap. A considerable theoretical and experimental effort has been devoted in the last 10years to the fundamental aspects of quantumconfined structures, which have properties somewhat intermediate between the bulk crystals and atoms or molecules. From this point of view, SDGs represent an easily available test system, and optical techniques have been a major diagnostic tool. Luminescence and absorption spectroscopy were extensively used to characterize the electronic states. The experiments aimed at the measurement of the real and imaginary parts of the third-order optical susceptibility of SDGs below the bandgap are described in some detail, and the results obtained with different techniques are compared. Besides the intrinsic fast nonlinearity due to bound electrons, SDGs may present a larger but much slower nonlinearity due to the free carriers generated by two-photon absorption. This implies that experiments have to be properly designed for separation of the two effects. In this article we stress the importance of a detailed structural characterization of the samples. Knowledge of the volume fraction occupied by the nanocrystals is necessary in order to derive from the experimental data the intrinsic nonlinearity and to compare it with the bulk nonlinearity. We discuss recent experiments in which the dependence of the intrinsic nonlinearity on the crystal size is derived by performing, on the samples, measurements of the real part and imaginary part of the nonlinear optical susceptibility and measurements of crystal size and volume fraction. Structural characterization is of interest also for a better understanding of the physical processes underlying the growth of crystallites in SDGs. The average size of

  8. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya


    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension compatible with direct coupling to single-mode optical fibers.

  9. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects (United States)

    Smith, David D.


    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  10. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman


    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  11. Synthesis and experimental-computational characterization of nonlinear optical properties of triazacyclopentafluorene-coumarin derivatives (United States)

    García, Santiago; Vázquez, Juan L.; Rentería, Marvin; Aguilar-Garduño, Isis G.; Delgado, Francisco; Trejo-Durán, Mónica; García-Revilla, Marco A.; Alvarado-Méndez, Edgar; Vázquez, Miguel A.


    A series of novel 3-(2,2a,3-triazacyclopenta[jk]fluoren-1-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives 5a-c have been synthesized by [8 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between the corresponding 3-(imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines)-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one 4a-c with 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflates as benzyne precursor in 65-80% yields. The strategic incorporation of triazacyclopentafluorene group at the 3-position of the coumarin molecules resulted in dyes with excellent nonlinear optical properties. The nonlinear optical properties of third order (compounds 5a-c) were studied using Z-scan technique. The high nonlinear response is of 10-7 cm2/W order. The nonlinearity of the compounds is an indication of a promising material for applications at low power, such as optical switching, waveguides, nonlinear contrast phase, among others. Theoretical results of HOMO-LUMO gaps and oscillator strengths are used to rationalize the high efficiency of the novel compound in the nonlinear optical behavior. In particular, 5b displays the best nonlinear optical properties and at the same time the smaller HOMO-LUMO gap and the highest oscillator strength.

  12. Integrating cell on chip—Novel waveguide platform employing ultra-long optical paths (United States)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Sommer, Gerrit; Pitruzzello, Giampaolo; Krauss, Thomas F.; Petrov, Alexander Yu.; Eich, Manfred


    Optical waveguides are the most fundamental building blocks of integrated optical circuits. They are extremely well understood, yet there is still room for surprises. Here, we introduce a novel 2D waveguide platform which affords a strong interaction of the evanescent tail of a guided optical wave with an external medium while only employing a very small geometrical footprint. The key feature of the platform is its ability to integrate the ultra-long path lengths by combining low propagation losses in a silicon slab with multiple reflections of the guided wave from photonic crystal (PhC) mirrors. With a reflectivity of 99.1% of our tailored PhC-mirrors, we achieve interaction paths of 25 cm within an area of less than 10 mm2. This corresponds to 0.17 dB/cm effective propagation which is much lower than the state-of-the-art loss of approximately 1 dB/cm of single mode silicon channel waveguides. In contrast to conventional waveguides, our 2D-approach leads to a decay of the guided wave power only inversely proportional to the optical path length. This entirely different characteristic is the major advantage of the 2D integrating cell waveguide platform over the conventional channel waveguide concepts that obey the Beer-Lambert law.

  13. Self-Organization of Light in Optical Media with Competing Nonlinearities. (United States)

    Maucher, F; Pohl, T; Skupin, S; Krolikowski, W


    We study the propagation of light beams through optical media with competing nonlocal nonlinearities. We demonstrate that the nonlocality of competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities gives rise to self-organization and stationary states with stable hexagonal intensity patterns, akin to transverse crystals of light filaments. Signatures of this long-range ordering are shown to be observable in the propagation of light in optical waveguides and even in free space. We consider a specific form of the nonlinear response that arises in atomic vapor upon proper light coupling. Yet, the general phenomenon of self-organization is a generic consequence of competing nonlocal nonlinearities, and may, hence, also be observed in other settings.

  14. Optical Gratings Coated with Thin Si3N4 Layer for Efficient Immunosensing by Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Diéguez


    Full Text Available New silicon nitride coated optical gratings were tested by means of Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS. A thin layer of 10 nm of transparent silicon nitride was deposited on commercial optical gratings by means of sputtering. The quality of the layer was tested by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. As a proof of concept, the sensors were successfully tested with OWLS by monitoring the concentration dependence on the detection of an antibody-protein pair. The potential of the Si3N4 as functional layer in a real-time biosensor opens new ways for the integration of optical waveguides with microelectronics.

  15. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics (United States)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.


    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  16. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems (United States)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger


    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  17. Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO₂ multilayer slot waveguide modulators. (United States)

    Jouane, Y; Chang, Y-C; Zhang, D; Luo, J; Jen, A K-Y; Enami, Y


    We investigated the electrical properties and optical quality of two layers a titanium dioxide (TiO₂) selective layer and a sol-gel silica cladding layer for use as coating layers for nonlinear optic (NLO) polymers in electro-optic (EO) polymer/TiO₂ multilayer slot waveguide modulators. We used a simple ellipsometric reflective technique developed by Teng and Man to measure the electro-optic (EO) coefficients of poled thin films of an EO polymer in an EO multilayer device. The Pockels coefficient was enhanced up to 226 and 198 pm/V at wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55 μm, respectively, when optimally poled with TiO₂ and a sol-gel silica cladding.

  18. Relativistic nonlinearity and wave-guide propagation of rippled laser beam in plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Khanna; K Baheti


    In the present paper we have investigated the self-focusing behaviour of radially symmetrical rippled Gaussian laser beam propagating in a plasma. Considering the nonlinearity to arise from relativistic phenomena and following the approach of Akhmanov et al, which is based on the WKB and paraxial-ray approximation, the self-focusing behaviour has been investigated in some detail. The effect of the position and width of the ripple on the self-focusing of laser beam has been studied for arbitrary large magnitude of nonlinearity. Results indicate that the medium behaves as an oscillatory wave-guide. The self-focusing is found to depend on the position parameter of ripple as well as on the beam width. Values of critical power has been calculated for different values of the position parameter of ripple. Effects of axially and radially inhomogeneous plasma on self-focusing behaviour have been investigated and presented here.

  19. A Strip-Loading Optical Waveguide Using Well Poled Stability Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei-Nan; TIAN Mei-Qiang; SUN Xiao-Qiang; WANG Wei; DENG Ling; GAO Lei; ZHANG Da-Ming


    An optical waveguide for a polymer modulator based on organic/inorganic hybrid electro-optic (EO) materials is designed and fabricated by utilizing a strip-loading structure.This hybrid material has a controllable refractive index,high EO coefficient and good poled stability,which are suitable for the EO modulators and switches.The embedded waveguide made of the above EO material can reduce the coupling loss. The light is coupled into the gnided-core layer and then undergoes a transition from the buried waveguide into the EO material.Obvious modulation is observed by application of ac voltage to the EO material.The measured Vπ of co-planar waveguide (CPW) is 5 V for the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator in length of 3.5cm.

  20. Single-Mode Optical Waveguides on Native High-Refractive-Index Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Richard R


    High-refractive-index semiconductor optical waveguides form the basis for modern photonic integrated circuits (PICs) , but the conventional methods of achieving optical confinement require a thick lower-refractive-index support layer that impedes large-scale co-integration with electronics. To address this challenge, we present a general architecture for single-mode waveguides that confine light in a high-refractive-index material on a native substrate. Our waveguide consists of a high-aspect-ratio fin of the guiding material surrounded by lower-refractive-index dielectrics and is compatible with standard top-down fabrication techniques. The proposed waveguide geometry removes the need for a buried-oxide-layer in silicon photonics, as well as the InGaAsP layer in InP-based PICs and will allow for photonic integration on emerging material platforms such as diamond and SiC.

  1. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Verhagen, Ewold; L.,; Kuipers,; Polman, Albert


    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. By properly controlling coupling between adjacent waveguides, a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack exhibiting an isotropic index of -1 can be achieved at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The general concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  2. Three-Dimensional Negative Index of Refraction at Optical Frequencies by Coupling Plasmonic Waveguides (United States)

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L.; Polman, Albert


    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  3. Vertically-coupled Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator Optical Waveguide, and Methods (United States)

    Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatolly A. (Inventor); Matleki, Lute (Inventor)


    A vertically-coupled whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator optical waveguide, a method of reducing a group velocity of light, and a method of making a waveguide are provided. The vertically-coupled WGM waveguide comprises a cylindrical rod portion having a round cross-section and an outer surface. First and second ring-shaped resonators are formed on the outer surface of the cylindrical rod portion and are spaced from each other along a longitudinal direction of the cylindrical rod. The first and second ringshaped resonators are capable of being coupled to each other by way an evanescent field formed in an interior of the cylindrical rod portion.

  4. Optical characterization of femtosecond laser induced active channel waveguides in lithium fluoride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiamenti, I.; Kalinowski, H. J., E-mail: [Federal University of Technology–Paraná, Photonics Laboratory, 80230-901 Curitiba (Brazil); Bonfigli, F.; Montereali, R. M. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Photonics Micro and Nanostructures Laboratory, V. E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Gomes, A. S. L. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Department of Physics, 50740-560 Recife (Brazil); Michelotti, F. [Universitá degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza,” Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Via A. Scarpa, 16, 00161, Rome (Italy)


    We successfully realized broad-band light-emitting color center waveguides buried in LiF crystals by using femtosecond laser pulses. The characterization of the waveguides was performed by optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectra, loss measurements and near-field profiling. The experimental results show that the direct-writing fabrication process induces low-index contrast active channel waveguides: their wavelength-dependent refractive index changes, estimated from 10{sup −3} to 10{sup −4} depending on the writing conditions, allow supporting few modes at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  5. Optical characterization of femtosecond laser induced active channel waveguides in lithium fluoride crystals (United States)

    Chiamenti, I.; Bonfigli, F.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Michelotti, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Kalinowski, H. J.


    We successfully realized broad-band light-emitting color center waveguides buried in LiF crystals by using femtosecond laser pulses. The characterization of the waveguides was performed by optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectra, loss measurements and near-field profiling. The experimental results show that the direct-writing fabrication process induces low-index contrast active channel waveguides: their wavelength-dependent refractive index changes, estimated from 10-3 to 10-4 depending on the writing conditions, allow supporting few modes at visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  6. High-Optical-Power InGaN Superluminescent Diodes with “j-shape” Waveguide (United States)

    Kafar, Anna; Stanczyk, Szymon; Targowski, Grzegorz; Oto, Takao; Makarowa, Irina; Wisniewski, Przemek; Suski, Tadek; Perlin, Piotr


    We demonstrate blue-violet InGaN superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with bent-waveguide (j-shape) geometry, emitting optical power exceeding 200 mW for SLD with 1-mm-long waveguide. The adopted j-shape geometry prevents devices from lasing, even at the highest applied currents (450 mA). However, high-resolution measurements reveal the appearance of spectral ripples at currents on the order of 250 mA. The maximum output power increases with the waveguide length.

  7. High-Index Contrast Silicon Rich Silicon Nitride Optical Waveguides and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh Taylor


    This research focused on the realization of high-density integrated optical devices made with high-index contrast waveguides. The material platform used for to develop these devices was modeled after standard silicon on silicon technology. The high-index waveguide core material was silicon rich...... silicon nitride. This provided a sharp contrast with silica and made low-loss waveguide bending radii less than 25mm possible. An immediate consequence of such small bending radii is the ability to make practical ring resonator based devices with a large free spectral range. Several ring resonator based...

  8. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides. (United States)

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L; Polman, Albert


    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  9. Optical Cladding Waveguides in Dielectric Crystals Produced by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Feng


    Full Text Available In this work, the recent progress of our research on optical cladding waveguides in dielectric crystals produced by femtosecond laser inscription has been overviewed. With different scales at cross sections, the cladding waveguides support guidance from single mode to highly multi-modes, and work for wavelength till mid-infrared regimes. Applications of the fabricated cladding structures as new integrated light sources are introduced.

  10. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang


    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  11. Multimode optical waveguide enabling microbends with low inter-mode crosstalk for mode-multiplexed optical interconnects. (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin


    A vertical multimode waveguide enabling micro-bends is proposed for mode-multiplexed optical interconnect links. The multimode waveguide is designed to be singlemode in the lateral direction and support higher-order modes in the vertical direction. The characteristic analysis for an SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based vertical multimode waveguide with a ~0.3μm × ~1.5μm cross section is given as an example. The theoretical pure bending loss is negligible for all the lowest eight modes when the bending radius is even less than 5μm. When light goes through the structure consisting of a straight section connected with a bent section, it is found that some inter-mode crosstalk is caused by the significant mode hybridization happening in the sharply bent multimode waveguide. For the designed SOI-based vertical multimode waveguide, the inter-mode crosstalk is lower than -20dB even when the bending radius is chosen as small as R = 10μm, which is one order smaller than that for the traditional lateral multimode waveguide (whose minimal bending radius is about 130μm). The inter-mode crosstalk can be even reduced to -30dB when choosing R = 30μm. Such a multimode optical waveguide microbend with low inter-mode crosstalk is promising for realizing compact mode-multiplexing links.

  12. Silicon Photonics Research in Hong Kong: Microresonator Devices and Optical Nonlinearities (United States)

    Poon, Andrew W.; Zhou, Linjie; Xu, Fang; Li, Chao; Chen, Hui; Liang, Tak-Keung; Liu, Yang; Tsang, Hon K.

    In this review paper we showcase recent activities on silicon photonics science and technology research in Hong Kong regarding two important topical areas-microresonator devices and optical nonlinearities. Our work on silicon microresonator filters, switches and modulators have shown promise for the nascent development of on-chip optoelectronic signal processing systems, while our studies on optical nonlinearities have contributed to basic understanding of silicon-based optically-pumped light sources and helium-implanted detectors. Here, we review our various passive and electro-optic active microresonator devices including (i) cascaded microring resonator cross-connect filters, (ii) NRZ-to-PRZ data format converters using a microring resonator notch filter, (iii) GHz-speed carrier-injection-based microring resonator modulators and 0.5-GHz-speed carrier-injection-based microdisk resonator modulators, and (iv) electrically reconfigurable microring resonator add-drop filters and electro-optic logic switches using interferometric resonance control. On the nonlinear waveguide front, we review the main nonlinear optical effects in silicon, and show that even at fairly modest average powers two-photon absorption and the accompanied free-carrier linear absorption could lead to optical limiting and a dramatic reduction in the effective lengths of nonlinear devices.

  13. Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yuri; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Onorato, Robert M.; Saykally, Richard J.; Liphardt, Jan; Yang, Peidong


    One crucial challenge for subwavelength optics has been thedevelopment of a tunable source of coherent laser radiation for use inthe physical, information, and biological sciences that is stable at roomtemperature and physiological conditions. Current advanced near-fieldimaging techniques using fiber-optic scattering probes1,2 have alreadyachieved spatial resolution down to the 20-nm range. Recently reportedfar-field approaches for optical microscopy, including stimulatedemission depletion (STED)3, structured illumination4, and photoactivatedlocalization microscopy (PALM)5, have also enabled impressive,theoretically-unlimited spatial resolution of fluorescent biomolecularcomplexes. Previous work with laser tweezers6-8 has suggested the promiseof using optical traps to create novel spatial probes and sensors.Inorganic nanowires have diameters substantially below the wavelength ofvisible light and have unique electronic and optical properties9,10 thatmake them prime candidates for subwavelength laser and imagingtechnology. Here we report the development of an electrode-free,continuously-tunable coherent visible light source compatible withphysiological environments, from individual potassium niobate (KNbO3)nanowires. These wires exhibit efficient second harmonic generation(SHG), and act as frequency converters, allowing the local synthesis of awide range of colors via sum and difference frequency generation (SFG,DFG). We use this tunable nanometric light source to implement a novelform of subwavelength microscopy, in which an infrared (IR) laser is usedto optically trap and scan a nanowire over a sample, suggesting a widerange of potential applications in physics, chemistry, materials science,and biology.

  14. All-optical thermal microscopy of laser-excited waveguides


    He, R.; De Aldana, J.R.V.; Pedrola, G.L.; Chen, F.; JAQUE, D.


    We report on a unique combination of high-resolution confocal microscopy and ratiometric luminescence thermometry to obtain thermal images of 800 nm pumped ultrafast laser-inscribed waveguides in a Nd:YAG crystal. Thermal images evidence a strong localization of thermal load in the waveguide active volume. Comparison between experimental data and numerical simulations reveals that ultrafast laser-inscribed damage tracks in Nd:YAG crystals behave both as low-index and low-thermal conductivity ...

  15. Calculation of optical-waveguide grating characteristics using Green's functions and Dyson's equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Mortensen, Asger


    We present a method for calculating the transmission spectra, dispersion, and time delay characteristics of optical-waveguide gratings based on Green's functions and Dyson's equation. Starting from the wave equation for transverse electric modes we show that the method can solve exactly both...... profile of the grating. Numerically, the method scales as O(N) where N is the number of points used to discretize the grating along the propagation axis. We consider optical fiber gratings although the method applies to all one-dimensional (1D) optical waveguide gratings including high-index contrast...

  16. Propagation of Ultra-fast Femtosecond Pulses in Silicon-on-insulator Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-wei; LUO Feng-guang; Cristiano de Mello Gallep


    A complete theoretical modeling, avoiding any priori-assumption, is deduced and demonstrated for ultra-fast femtosecond optical pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides which includes the group velocity dispersion, third-order dispersion, self-phase and cross-phase modulations, self-steepening and shock formation, Raman depletion, propagation loss, two-photon absorption, free-carrier absorption, and free-carrier dispersion. Finally, the temporal and spectral characteristics of 100 fs optical pulses at 1.55 μm are numerically observed in 5-mm-long waveguides while considering different initial chirps and incident peak intensity levels.

  17. On-chip optical isolation via unidirectional Bloch oscillations in a waveguide array. (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Levy, Miguel


    We propose to use the unidirectionality of the optical Bloch oscillation phenomenon achievable in a magneto-optic asymmetric waveguide array to achieve optical isolation. At the 1.55 μm telecommunication wavelength, our isolator design exhibits an isolation ratio of 36 dB between forward- and backward-propagating waves. The proposed design consists of a waveguide array made in a silicon-on-insulator substrate with a magnetic garnet cover layer. A key role is played by the transverse-magnetic mode nonreciprocal phase shift effect.

  18. Realization of optical multimode TSV waveguides for Si-Interposer in 3D-chip-stacks (United States)

    Killge, S.; Charania, S.; Richter, K.; Neumann, N.; Al-Husseini, Z.; Plettemeier, D.; Bartha, J. W.


    Optical connectivity has the potential to outperform copper-based TSVs in terms of bandwidth at the cost of more complexity due to the required electro-optical and opto-electrical conversion. The continuously increasing demand for higher bandwidth pushes the breakeven point for a profitable operation to shorter distances. To integrate an optical communication network in a 3D-chip-stack optical through-silicon vertical VIAs (TSV) are required. While the necessary effort for the electrical/optical and vice versa conversion makes it hard to envision an on-chip optical interconnect, a chip-to-chip optical link appears practicable. In general, the interposer offers the potential advantage to realize electro-optical transceivers on affordable expense by specific, but not necessarily CMOS technology. We investigated the realization and characterization of optical interconnects as a polymer based waveguide in high aspect ratio (HAR) TSVs proved on waferlevel. To guide the optical field inside a TSV as optical-waveguide or fiber, its core has to have a higher refractive index than the surrounding material. Comparing different material / technology options it turned out that thermal grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a perfect candidate for the cladding (nSiO2 = 1.4525 at 850 nm). In combination with SiO2 as the adjacent polymer layer, the negative resist SU-8 is very well suited as waveguide material (nSU-8 = 1.56) for the core. Here, we present the fabrication of an optical polymer based multimode waveguide in TSVs proved on waferlevel using SU-8 as core and SiO2 as cladding. The process resulted in a defect-free filling of waveguide TSVs with SU-8 core and SiO2 cladding up to aspect ratio (AR) 20:1 and losses less than 3 dB.

  19. Towards multimodal nonlinear optical tomography - experimental methodology (United States)

    Vogler, N.; Medyukhina, A.; Latka, I.; Kemper, S.; Böhm, M.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.


    All-optical microspectroscopic and tomographic tools reveal great potential for clinical dermatologic diagnostics, i.e., investigation of human skin and skin diseases. While optical-coherence tomography has been complemented by two-photon fluorescence tomography and second-harmonic generation tomography, a joint study of various nonlinear optical microspectroscopies, i.e., application of the recently developed multimodal imaging approach, to sizable human-tissue samples has not been evaluated up to now. Here, we present such multimodal approach combining different nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms for imaging, namely two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), second-harmonic generation (SHG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) into a joint microscopic experiment. We show the potential of imaging large skin areas and discuss the information obtained in a case study comparing normal skin and keloid tissue.

  20. Channel dropping via bound states in the continuum in a system of two nonlinear cavities between two linear waveguides. (United States)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny; Pichugin, Konstantin; Sadreev, Almas


    We show that two nonlinear resonant cavities aligned between two parallel waveguides can support self-induced bound states in the continuum (BSCs). These BSCs are symmetrical relative to an inversion of the waveguides and to inversion of the transport axis. Due to this BSCs can drop an incident wave from one waveguide to another with very high efficiency. We show also that the frequency of the efficient channel dropping can be tuned by injecting power. All these results are in good agreement with numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations in a two-dimensional photonic crystal of GaAs rods holding two parallel waveguides and two defects made of a Kerr medium.

  1. Capillary waveguide optrodes: an approach to optical sensing in medical diagnostics (United States)

    Lippitsch, Max E.; Draxler, Sonja; Kieslinger, Dietmar; Lehmann, Hartmut; Weigl, Bernhard H.


    Glass capillaries with a chemically sensitive coating on the inner surface are used as optical sensors for medical diagnostics. A capillary simultaneously serves as a sample compartment, a sensor element, and an inhomogeneous optical waveguide. Various detection schemes based on absorption, fluorescence intensity, or fluorescence lifetime are described. In absorption-based capillary waveguide optrodes the absorption in the sensor layer is analyte dependent; hence light transmission along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure formed by the capillary wall and the sensing layer is a function of the analyte concentration. Similarly, in fluorescence-based capillary optrodes the fluorescence intensity or the fluorescence lifetime of an indicator dye fixed in the sensing layer is analyte dependent; thus the specific property of fluorescent light excited in the sensing layer and thereafter guided along the inhomogeneous waveguiding structure is a function of the analyte concentration. Both schemes are experimentally demonstrated, one with carbon dioxide as the analyte and the other one with oxygen. The device combines optical sensors with the standard glass capillaries usually applied to gather blood drops from fingertips, to yield a versatile diagnostic instrument, integrating the sample compartment, the optical sensor, and the light-collecting optics into a single piece. This ensures enhanced sensor performance as well as improved handling compared with other sensors. waveguide, blood gases, medical diagnostics.

  2. Quantum nonlinear optics: nonlinear optics meets the quantum world (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Boyd, Robert W.


    This presentation first reviews the historical development of the field of nonlinear optics, starting from its inception in 1961. It then reviews some of its more recent developments, including especially how nonlinear optics has become a crucial tool for the developing field of quantum technologies. Fundamental quantum processes enabled by nonlinear optics, such as the creation of squeezed and entangled light states, are reviewed. We then illustrate these concepts by means of specific applications, such as the development of secure communication systems based on the quantum states of light.

  3. Femtosecond laser microfabrication of optical waveguides in commercial microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osellame, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Pollnau, Markus

    One of the main challenges of lab-on-a-chip technology is the on-chip integration of photonic functionalities by manufacturing optical waveguides for sensing biomolecules flowing in the microchannels. Such integrated approach has many advantages over traditional free-space optical sensing, such as

  4. Optical sensing in microchip capillary electrophoresis by femtosecond laser written waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Vázquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Cretich, M.; Dongre, C.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Vlekkert, van den H.; Ramponi, R.; Pollnau, M.; Chiari, M.; Cerullo, G.


    Capillary electrophoresis separation in an on-chip integrated microfluidic channel is typically monitored with bulky, bench-top optical excitation/detection instrumentation. Optical waveguides allow confinement and transport of light in the chip directing it to a small volume of the microfluidic cha

  5. Femtosecond laser microfabrication of optical waveguides in commercial microfluidic lab-on-a-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osellame, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, H.J.W.M.; Pollnau, M.


    One of the main challenges of lab-on-a-chip technology is the on-chip integration of photonic functionalities by manufacturing optical waveguides for sensing biomolecules flowing in the microchannels. Such integrated approach has many advantages over traditional free-space optical sensing, such as c

  6. Optical pulse shaper with integrated slab waveguide for arbitrary waveform generation using optical gradient force (United States)

    Liao, Sha-Sha; Min, Shu-Cun; Dong, Jian-Ji


    Integrated optical pulse shaper opens up possibilities for realizing the ultra high-speed and ultra wide-band linear signal processing with compact size and low power consumption. We propose a silicon monolithic integrated optical pulse shaper using optical gradient force, which is based on the eight-path finite impulse response. A cantilever structure is fabricated in one arm of the Mach—Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to act as an amplitude modulator. The phase shift feature of waveguide is analyzed with the optical pump power, and five typical waveforms are demonstrated with the manipulation of optical force. Unlike other pulse shaper schemes based on thermo—optic effect or electro—optic effect, our scheme is based on a new degree of freedom manipulation, i.e., optical force, so no microelectrodes are required on the silicon chip, which can reduce the complexity of fabrication. Besides, the chip structure is suitable for commercial silicon on an insulator (SOI) wafer, which has a top silicon layer of about 220 nm in thickness.

  7. Nanowires and nanoribbons as subwavelength optical waveguides and their use as components in photonic circuits and devices (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Law, Matt; Sirbuly, Donald J.; Johnson, Justin C.; Saykally, Richard; Fan, Rong; Tao, Andrea


    Nanoribbons and nanowires having diameters less than the wavelength of light are used in the formation and operation of optical circuits and devices. Such nanostructures function as subwavelength optical waveguides which form a fundamental building block for optical integration. The extraordinary length, flexibility and strength of these structures enable their manipulation on surfaces, including the precise positioning and optical linking of nanoribbon/wire waveguides and other nanoribbon/wire elements to form optical networks and devices. In addition, such structures provide for waveguiding in liquids, enabling them to further be used in other applications such as optical probes and sensors.

  8. Characterization of Si3N4/SiO2 optical channel waveguides by photon scanning tunneling microscopy (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chudgar, Mona H.; Jackson, Howard E.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; De Brabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.


    Photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) is used to characterize Si3N4/Si02 optical channel waveguides being used for integrated optical-micromechanical sensors. PSTM utilizes an optical fiber tapered to a fine point which is piezoelectrically positioned to measure the decay of the evanescent field intensity associated with the waveguide propagating mode. Evanescent field decays are recorded for both ridge channel waveguides and planar waveguide regions. Values for the local effective refractive index are calculated from the data for both polarizations and compared to model calculations.

  9. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams


    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya


    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~ 4 {\\mu}m.

  10. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya


    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm.

  11. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam


    Yang Liao; Jia Qi; Peng Wang; Wei Chu; Zhaohui Wang; Lingling Qiao; Ya Cheng


    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm.

  12. Recent Issues on Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi; Inoue; Osamu; Aso; Shu; Namiki


    This talk will discuss the types of optical signal degradation due to fiber nonlinearity and review recently invented fibers for suppressing the effects. It also introduces efficiency of highly nonlinear fibers and their applications to nonlinear signal processing.

  13. Nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    is potentially the case for microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs). Another advantage is that polymer materials have a higher biocompatibility than silica, meaning that it is easier to bond certain types of biosensor materials to a polymer surface than to silica. As with silica PCFs, it is difficult...

  14. ZnO - Wide Bandgap Semiconductor and Possibilities of Its Application in Optical Waveguide Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk Przemysław


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the application of zinc oxide - a wideband gap semiconductor in optical planar waveguide structures. ZnO is a promising semiconducting material thanks to its attractive optical properties. The investigations were focused on the determination of the technology of depositions and the annealing of ZnO layers concerning their optical properties. Special attention was paid to the determination of characteristics of the refractive index of ZnO layers and their coefficients of spectral transmission within the UV-VIS-NIR range. Besides that, also the mode characteristics and the attenuation coefficients of light in the obtained waveguide structures have been investigated. In the case of planar waveguides, in which the ZnO layers have not been annealed after their deposition, the values of the attenuation coefficient of light modes amount to a~ 30 dB/cm. The ZnO layers deposited on the heated substrate and annealed by rapid thermal annealing in an N2 and O2 atmosphere, are characterized by much lower values of the attenuation coefficients: a~ 3 dB/cm (TE0 and TM0 modes. The ZnO optical waveguides obtained according to our technology are characterized by the lowest values of the attenuation coefficients a encountered in world literature concerning the problem of optical waveguides based on ZnO. Studies have shown that ZnO layers elaborated by us can be used in integrated optic systems, waveguides, optical modulators and light sources.

  15. Manufacturability and optical functionality of multimode optical interconnections developed with fast processable and reliable polymer waveguide silicones (United States)

    Liu, Joe; Lee, Allen; Hu, Mike; Chan, Lisa; Huang, Sean; Swatowski, Brandon W.; Weidner, W. Ken; Han, Joseph


    We report on the manufacturing, reliability, and optical functionality of multimode optical waveguide devices developed with a fast processable optical grade silicone. The materials show proven optical losses of 2000 hours 85°C/85% relative humidity testing as well as >4 cycles of wave solder reflow. Fabrication speeds of rigid FR4 and flexible polyimide substrates with precise alignment features (cut by dicing saw or ablated by UV laser). Two out-of-plane coupling techniques were demonstrated in this paper, a MT connectorized sample with a 45° turning lens as well as 45° dielectric mirrors on waveguides by dicing saw. Multiple connections between fiber and polymer waveguides with MPO and two out-of-plane coupling techniques in a complete optical link are demonstrated @ 10 Gbps data rates with commercial transceiver modules. Also, complex waveguide geometries such as turnings and crossings are demonstrated by QSFP+ transceiver. The eye diagram analyses show comparable results in functionality between silicone waveguide and fiber formats.

  16. Localized Turing patterns in nonlinear optical cavities (United States)

    Kozyreff, G.


    The subcritical Turing instability is studied in two classes of models for laser-driven nonlinear optical cavities. In the first class of models, the nonlinearity is purely absorptive, with arbitrary intensity-dependent losses. In the second class, the refractive index is real and is an arbitrary function of the intracavity intensity. Through a weakly nonlinear analysis, a Ginzburg-Landau equation with quintic nonlinearity is derived. Thus, the Maxwell curve, which marks the existence of localized patterns in parameter space, is determined. In the particular case of the Lugiato-Lefever model, the analysis is continued to seventh order, yielding a refined formula for the Maxwell curve and the theoretical curve is compared with recent numerical simulation by Gomila et al. [D. Gomila, A. Scroggie, W. Firth, Bifurcation structure of dissipative solitons, Physica D 227 (2007) 70-77.

  17. Infiltrated microstructured fibers as tunable and nonlinear optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.;

    We study the light guiding properties of microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with nonlinear liquids and demonstrate their applicability for spatial beam control in novel type tunable and nonlinear optical devices....

  18. Laser and nonlinear optical materials: SPIE volume 681

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Shazer, L.G.


    This book contains papers arranged under the following session headings: Nonlinear optical crystals; Laser host crystals; Electro-optic and magneto-optic materials; and Characterization of optical materials.

  19. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing. (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng


    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  20. SiO2 Waveguide Resonator Used in an Integrated Optical Gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huai-Yong; ZHANG Chun-Xi; FENG Li-Shuang; ZHOU Zhen; HONG Ling-Fei


    An integrated optical waveguide resonator based on a SiO2 waveguide is proposed, fabricated and tested. The method of designing the resonator is also presented. The optimal spirting ratio of the coupler is gained by simulating the relationship between the splitting ratio of the key coupler in the resonator and the resonator's finesse w/th resonance depth. The calculated fundamental detection limit of this integrated optical wavegnide resonator is 1.6°/b. Finally, a micro-optical gyroscope system based on the integrated waveguide resonator is built, and the measured resonator's finesse F is close to 70 under fluctuating temperature. To the best of our knowledge, the present F is the best result to date. For the coupler splitting rate the experimental results have fixed errors with the simulation results caused by fabrication processes which can be easily eliminated, implying that the method of design is effective and applicable.