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Sample records for nonlinear mixed effect

  1. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models for Repairable Systems Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; KUO Way; Suk Joo BAE

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-effects models, also called random-effects models, are a regression type of analysis which enables the analyst to not only describe the trend over time within each subject, but also to describe the variation among different subjects. Nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a powerful and flexible tool for handling the unbalanced count data. In this paper, nonlinear mixed-effects models are used to analyze the failure data from a repairable system with multiple copies. By using this type of models, statistical inferences about the population and all copies can be made when accounting for copy-to-copy variance. Results of fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models to nine failure-data sets show that the nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a useful tool for analyzing the failure data from multi-copy repairable systems.

  2. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  3. Stochastic nonlinear mixed effects: a metformin case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzuka, Brett; Chittenden, Jason; Monteleone, Jonathan; Tran, Hien

    2016-02-01

    In nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling, the intra-individual variability is a collection of errors due to assay sensitivity, dosing, sampling, as well as model misspecification. Utilizing stochastic differential equations (SDE) within the NLME framework allows the decoupling of the measurement errors from the model misspecification. This leads the SDE approach to be a novel tool for model refinement. Using Metformin clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data, the process of model development through the use of SDEs in population PK modeling was done to study the dynamics of absorption rate. A base model was constructed and then refined by using the system noise terms of the SDEs to track model parameters and model misspecification. This provides the unique advantage of making no underlying assumptions about the structural model for the absorption process while quantifying insufficiencies in the current model. This article focuses on implementing the extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter in an NLME framework for parameter estimation and model development, comparing the methodologies, and illustrating their challenges and utility. The Kalman filter algorithms were successfully implemented in NLME models using MATLAB with run time differences between the ODE and SDE methods comparable to the differences found by Kakhi for their stochastic deconvolution.

  4. Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Chen, Yaohui; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects.......Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects....

  5. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or chan...

  6. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    ... a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix...

  7. A multilevel nonlinear mixed-effects approach to model growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Sørensen, H

    2009-01-01

    Growth functions have been used to predict market weight of pigs and maximize return over feed costs. This study was undertaken to compare 4 growth functions and methods of analyzing data, particularly one that considers nonlinear repeated measures. Data were collected from an experiment with 40...... pigs maintained from birth to maturity and their BW measured weekly or every 2 wk up to 1,007 d. Gompertz, logistic, Bridges, and Lopez functions were fitted to the data and compared using information criteria. For each function, a multilevel nonlinear mixed effects model was employed because....... Furthermore, studies should consider adding continuous autoregressive process when analyzing nonlinear mixed models with repeated measures....

  8. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-05-20

    Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or changing between periods. We use the expected standard errors of treatment effect to compute the power for the Wald test of comparison or equivalence and the number of subjects needed for a given power. We perform various simulations mimicking crossover two-period trials to show the relevance of these developments. We then apply these developments to design a crossover pharmacokinetic study of amoxicillin in piglets and implement them in the new version 3.2 of the r function PFIM.

  9. Multivariate t nonlinear mixed-effects models for multi-outcome longitudinal data with missing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Lun; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-07-30

    The multivariate nonlinear mixed-effects model (MNLMM) has emerged as an effective tool for modeling multi-outcome longitudinal data following nonlinear growth patterns. In the framework of MNLMM, the random effects and within-subject errors are assumed to be normally distributed for mathematical tractability and computational simplicity. However, a serious departure from normality may cause lack of robustness and subsequently make invalid inference. This paper presents a robust extension of the MNLMM by considering a joint multivariate t distribution for the random effects and within-subject errors, called the multivariate t nonlinear mixed-effects model. Moreover, a damped exponential correlation structure is employed to capture the extra serial correlation among irregularly observed multiple repeated measures. An efficient expectation conditional maximization algorithm coupled with the first-order Taylor approximation is developed for maximizing the complete pseudo-data likelihood function. The techniques for the estimation of random effects, imputation of missing responses and identification of potential outliers are also investigated. The methodology is motivated by a real data example on 161 pregnant women coming from a study in a private fertilization obstetrics clinic in Santiago, Chile and used to analyze these data.

  10. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for degradation data obtained from in-service inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.-X. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pandey, M.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca

    2009-02-15

    Monitoring of degradation and predicting its progression using periodic inspection data are important to ensure safety and reliability of engineering systems. Traditional regression models are inadequate in modeling the periodic inspection data, as it ignores units specific random effects and potential correlation among repeated measurements. This paper presents an advanced nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model, generally adopted in bio-statistical literature, for modeling and predicting degradation in nuclear piping system. The proposed model offers considerable improvement by reducing the variance associated with degradation of a specific unit, which leads to more realistic estimates of risk.

  11. Estimating nonlinear mixing effects for arid vegetation scenes with MISR channels and observation directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, P.V.; Gerstl, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Asner, G.P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-12-01

    A Monte-Carlo ray-trace model has been applied to simulated sparse vegetation desert canopies in an effort to quantify the spectral mixing (both linear and nonlinear) occurring as a result of radiative interactions between vegetation and soil. This work is of interest as NASA is preparing to launch new instruments such as MISR and MODIS. MISR will observe each ground pixel from nine different directions in three visible channels and one near-infrared channel. It is desired to study angular variations in spectral mixing by quantifying the amount of nonlinear spectral mixing occurring in the MISR observing directions.

  12. A multivariate nonlinear mixed effects method for analyzing energy partitioning in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Chwalibog, André

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous equations have become increasingly popular for describing the effects of nutrition on the utilization of ME for protein (PD) and lipid deposition (LD) in animals. The study developed a multivariate nonlinear mixed effects (MNLME) framework and compared it with an alternative method...... for estimating parameters in simultaneous equations that described energy metabolism in growing pigs, and then proposed new PD and LD equations. The general statistical framework was implemented in the NLMIXED procedure in SAS. Alternative PD and LD equations were also developed, which assumed...... that the instantaneous response curve of an animal to varying energy supply followed the law of diminishing returns behavior. The Michaelis-Menten function was adopted to represent a biological relationship in which the affinity constant (k) represented the sensitivity of PD to ME above maintenance. The approach...

  13. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    As the importance of pharmacometric analysis increases, more and more complex mathematical models are introduced and computational error resulting from computational instability starts to become a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix. Roughly speaking, the method reparameterises the model with a linear combination of the original model parameters so that the Hessian matrix of the likelihood of the reparameterised model becomes close to an identity matrix. This approach will reduce the influence of computational error, for example rounding error, to the final computational result. We present numerical experiments demonstrating that the stabilisation of the computation using the proposed method can recover failed variance-covariance matrix computations, and reveal non-identifiability of the model parameters.

  14. Non-Linear Mixed Logit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa

    2012-01-01

    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discountin...

  15. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for simultaneous smoothing and registration of functional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We consider misaligned functional data, where data registration is necessary for proper statistical analysis. This paper proposes to treat misalignment as a nonlinear random effect, which makes simultaneous likelihood inference for horizontal and vertical effects possible. By simultaneously fitting...

  16. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach in investigating phenobarbital pharmacokinetic interactions in epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučićević, Katarina; Jovanović, Marija; Golubović, Bojana; Kovačević, Sandra Vezmar; Miljković, Branislava; Martinović, Žarko; Prostran, Milica

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to establish population pharmacokinetic model for phenobarbital (PB), examining and quantifying the magnitude of PB interactions with other antiepileptic drugs concomitantly used and to demonstrate its use for individualization of PB dosing regimen in adult epileptic patients. In total 205 PB concentrations were obtained during routine clinical monitoring of 136 adult epilepsy patients. PB steady state concentrations were measured by homogeneous enzyme immunoassay. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM) was applied for data analyses and evaluation of the final model. According to the final population model, significant determinant of apparent PB clearance (CL/F) was daily dose of concomitantly given valproic acid (VPA). Typical value of PB CL/F for final model was estimated at 0.314 l/h. Based on the final model, co-therapy with usual VPA dose of 1000 mg/day, resulted in PB CL/F average decrease of about 25 %, while 2000 mg/day leads to an average 50 % decrease in PB CL/F. Developed population PB model may be used in estimating individual CL/F for adult epileptic patients and could be applied for individualizing dosing regimen taking into account dose-dependent effect of concomitantly given VPA.

  17. Extension of the SAEM algorithm for nonlinear mixed models with 2 levels of random effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhard, Xavière; Samson, Adeline

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on parameter estimation of multilevel nonlinear mixed-effects models (MNLMEMs). These models are used to analyze data presenting multiple hierarchical levels of grouping (cluster data, clinical trials with several observation periods, ...). The variability of the individual parameters of the regression function is thus decomposed as a between-subject variability and higher levels of variability (e.g. within-subject variability). We propose maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of those MNLMEMs with 2 levels of random effects, using an extension of the stochastic approximation version of expectation-maximization (SAEM)-Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithm. The extended SAEM algorithm is split into an explicit direct expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and a stochastic EM part. Compared to the original algorithm, additional sufficient statistics have to be approximated by relying on the conditional distribution of the second level of random effects. This estimation method is evaluated on pharmacokinetic crossover simulated trials, mimicking theophylline concentration data. Results obtained on those data sets with either the SAEM algorithm or the first-order conditional estimates (FOCE) algorithm (implemented in the nlme function of R software) are compared: biases and root mean square errors of almost all the SAEM estimates are smaller than the FOCE ones. Finally, we apply the extended SAEM algorithm to analyze the pharmacokinetic interaction of tenofovir on atazanavir, a novel protease inhibitor, from the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida 107-Puzzle 2 study. A significant decrease of the area under the curve of atazanavir is found in patients receiving both treatments.

  18. Benefits of Non-Linear Mixed Effect Modeling and Optimal Design : Pre-Clinical and Clinical Study Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest II, Charles Steven

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing promise of pharmaceutical research, inferior experimentation or interpretation of data can inhibit breakthrough molecules from finding their way out of research institutions and reaching patients. This thesis provides evidence that better characterization of pre-clinical and clinical data can be accomplished using non-linear mixed effect modeling (NLMEM) and more effective experiments can be conducted using optimal design (OD).  To demonstrate applicability of NLMEM and OD...

  19. A multivariate nonlinear mixed effects model for longitudinal image analysis: Application to amyloid imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgel, Murat; Prince, Jerry L; Wong, Dean F; Resnick, Susan M; Jedynak, Bruno M

    2016-07-01

    It is important to characterize the temporal trajectories of disease-related biomarkers in order to monitor progression and identify potential points of intervention. These are especially important for neurodegenerative diseases, as therapeutic intervention is most likely to be effective in the preclinical disease stages prior to significant neuronal damage. Neuroimaging allows for the measurement of structural, functional, and metabolic integrity of the brain at the level of voxels, whose volumes are on the order of mm(3). These voxelwise measurements provide a rich collection of disease indicators. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies enable the analysis of changes in these voxelwise measures. However, commonly used longitudinal analysis approaches, such as linear mixed effects models, do not account for the fact that individuals enter a study at various disease stages and progress at different rates, and generally consider each voxelwise measure independently. We propose a multivariate nonlinear mixed effects model for estimating the trajectories of voxelwise neuroimaging biomarkers from longitudinal data that accounts for such differences across individuals. The method involves the prediction of a progression score for each visit based on a collective analysis of voxelwise biomarker data within an expectation-maximization framework that efficiently handles large amounts of measurements and variable number of visits per individual, and accounts for spatial correlations among voxels. This score allows individuals with similar progressions to be aligned and analyzed together, which enables the construction of a trajectory of brain changes as a function of an underlying progression or disease stage. We apply our method to studying cortical β-amyloid deposition, a hallmark of preclinical Alzheimer's disease, as measured using positron emission tomography. Results on 104 individuals with a total of 300 visits suggest that precuneus is the earliest cortical region to

  20. Effects of noninstantaneous nonlinear processes on photon-pair generation by spontaneous four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    We present a general model, based on a Hamiltonian approach, for the joint quantum state of photon pairs generated through pulsed spontaneous four-wave mixing, including nonlinear phase modulation and a finite material response time. For the case of a silica fiber, it is found that the pair......-dependent change in quantum-mechanical purity may be observed in silica. This shows that Raman scattering not only introduces noise, but can also drastically change the spectral correlations in photon pairs when pumped with short pulses....

  1. A general method to determine sampling windows for nonlinear mixed effects models with an application to population pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; McGree, James; Duffull, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Optimal design methods have been proposed to determine the best sampling times when sparse blood sampling is required in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. However, the optimal blood sampling time points may not be feasible in clinical practice. Sampling windows, a time interval for blood sample collection, have been proposed to provide flexibility in blood sampling times while preserving efficient parameter estimation. Because of the complexity of the population pharmacokinetic models, which are generally nonlinear mixed effects models, there is no analytical solution available to determine sampling windows. We propose a method for determination of sampling windows based on MCMC sampling techniques. The proposed method attains a stationary distribution rapidly and provides time-sensitive windows around the optimal design points. The proposed method is applicable to determine sampling windows for any nonlinear mixed effects model although our work focuses on an application to population pharmacokinetic models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on low-conversion four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    We consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) on frequency converseon by Bragg scattering. Previously we found that arbitrary mode reshaping without temporal entanglement (separability) was possible. When NPM is included, the modes are chirped and the separability is no longer compl...

  3. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we solved the coupled-mode equations for Bragg scattering (BS) in the low- and high-conversion regimes, but without the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM). We now present solutions and Green functions in the low-conversion regime that include NPM. We find that NPM does not change...... are still possible, even when the effects of NPM are included. Finally, the effects of using different input signals are considered, and we conclude that using the natural input modes of the system drastically increases the efficiency. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers...

  4. SNP_NLMM: A SAS Macro to Implement a Flexible Random Effects Density for Generalized Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, David M; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios A

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models (GMMMs and NLMMs) are commonly used to represent non-Gaussian or nonlinear longitudinal or clustered data. A common assumption is that the random effects are Gaussian. However, this assumption may be unrealistic in some applications, and misspecification of the random effects density may lead to maximum likelihood parameter estimators that are inconsistent, biased, and inefficient. Because testing if the random effects are Gaussian is difficult, previous research has recommended using a flexible random effects density. However, computational limitations have precluded widespread use of flexible random effects densities for GLMMs and NLMMs. We develop a SAS macro, SNP_NLMM, that overcomes the computational challenges to fit GLMMs and NLMMs where the random effects are assumed to follow a smooth density that can be represented by the seminonparametric formulation proposed by Gallant and Nychka (1987). The macro is flexible enough to allow for any density of the response conditional on the random effects and any nonlinear mean trajectory. We demonstrate the SNP_NLMM macro on a GLMM of the disease progression of toenail infection and on a NLMM of intravenous drug concentration over time.

  5. Height-diameter Models of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Based on Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tree height and diameter at breast height are two important forest factors. The best model from 23 height-diameter equations was selected as the basic model to fit the height-diameter relationships of Chinese fir with one level (sites or plots effects and nested two levels (nested effects of sites and plots Nonlinear Mixed Effects (NLME models. The best model was chosen by smaller Bias, RMSE and larger Radj2. Then the best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were determined by AIC, BIC and -2LL. The results showed that the basic model with three random effects parameters &Phi &Phi &Phi1 &Phi2 and &Phi3 was considered the best mixed model. The nested two levels NLME model considering heteroscedasticity structure (power function possessed with higher predictable accuracy and significantly improved model performance (LRT = 469.43, p<0.0001. The NLME model would be allowed for estimating accuracy the height-diameter relationships of Chinese fir and provided better height predictions than the models using only fixed-effects parameters.

  6. Nonlinear mixed-effects modelling of in vitro drug susceptibility and molecular correlates of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Simpson

    Full Text Available The analysis of in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility testing is vulnerable to the effects of different statistical approaches and selection biases. These confounding factors were assessed with respect to pfmdr1 gene mutation and amplification in 490 clinical isolates. Two statistical approaches for estimating the drug concentration associated with 50% effect (EC50 were compared: the commonly used standard two-stage (STS method, and nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The in vitro concentration-effect relationships for, chloroquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine and artesunate, were derived from clinical isolates obtained from patients on the western border of Thailand. All isolates were genotyped for polymorphisms in the pfmdr1 gene. The EC50 estimates were similar for the two statistical approaches but 15-28% of isolates in the STS method had a high coefficient of variation (>15% for individual estimates of EC50 and these isolates had EC50 values that were 32 to 66% higher than isolates derived with more precision. In total 41% (202/490 of isolates had amplification of pfmdr1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in 50 (10%. Pfmdr1 amplification was associated with an increase in EC50 for mefloquine (139% relative increase in EC50 for 2 copies, 188% for 3+ copies, lumefantrine (82% and 75% for 2 and 3+ copies respectively and artesunate (63% and 127% for 2 and 3+ copies respectively. In contrast pfmdr1 mutation at codons 86 or 1042 were associated with an increase in chloroquine EC50 (44-48%. Sample size calculations showed that to demonstrate an EC50 shift of 50% or more with 80% power if the prevalence was 10% would require 430 isolates and 245 isolates if the prevalence was 20%. In conclusion, although nonlinear mixed-effects modelling did not demonstrate any major advantage for determining estimates of anti-malarial drug susceptibility, the method includes all isolates, thereby, potentially improving confirmation of candidate

  7. Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME diameter growth models for individual China-Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata trees in Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available An individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for Cunninghamia lanceolata in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 72 plantation-grown China-fir trees in 24 single-species plots. Ordinary non-linear least squares regression was used to choose the best base model from among 5 theoretical growth equations; selection criteria were the smallest absolute mean residual and root mean square error and the largest adjusted coefficient of determination. To account for autocorrelation in the repeated-measures data, we developed one-level and nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME models, constructed on the selected base model; the NLME models incorporated random effects of the tree and plot. The best random-effects combinations for the NLME models were identified by Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and -2 logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced with two residual variance functions, a power function and an exponential function. The autocorrelation was addressed with three residual autocorrelation structures: a first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1] and a compound symmetry structure (CS. The one-level (tree NLME model performed best. Independent validation data were used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating the NLME models.

  8. Comparative population pharmacokinetics of fentanyl using non-linear mixed effect modeling: burns vs. non-burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Kotaro; Han, Tae-Hyung

    2009-09-01

    Fentanyl is a commonly used analgesic and sedative for the burned in the operating theater as well as the burn care units. The aim of this study was to characterize fentanyl population pharmacokinetics in burns and to identify clinically significant covariates. Twenty adults, aged 37+/-3 years, with 49+/-4% (mean+/-S.E.) total body surface area burn, were enrolled at 17+/-3 days after the injury. Twenty non-burn adults served as controls. After an intravenous bolus of 200 mcg fentanyl, the plasma concentrations were sequentially determined up to 4.5 h. Concentration-time profiles were subjected to non-linear mixed effect modeling. Cardiac indices were estimated with esophageal Doppler monitor. Burned patients have higher cardiac index than the non-burned. Three-compartment model was the best fit. The volumes of distribution were considerably expanded in all three compartments (27.9 L vs. 63.4 L, 64.7 L vs. 92.9 L, 153 L vs. 301 L, respectively) compared to the non-burned. BURN was the single most important covariate significantly improving the model. The primary effect of burn trauma on fentanyl pharmacokinetics is substantially expanded volumes of distribution, i.e., dilutional. Difference in simulation, however, was insufficient to explain the augmented resistance to fentanyl, implying the importance of titrating analgesics to the clinical effect.

  9. Performance comparison of various maximum likelihood nonlinear mixed-effects estimation methods for dose-response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, Elodie L; Maloney, Alan; Mentré, France; Karlsson, Mats O; Bertrand, Julie

    2012-09-01

    Estimation methods for nonlinear mixed-effects modelling have considerably improved over the last decades. Nowadays, several algorithms implemented in different software are used. The present study aimed at comparing their performance for dose-response models. Eight scenarios were considered using a sigmoid E(max) model, with varying sigmoidicity and residual error models. One hundred simulated datasets for each scenario were generated. One hundred individuals with observations at four doses constituted the rich design and at two doses, the sparse design. Nine parametric approaches for maximum likelihood estimation were studied: first-order conditional estimation (FOCE) in NONMEM and R, LAPLACE in NONMEM and SAS, adaptive Gaussian quadrature (AGQ) in SAS, and stochastic approximation expectation maximization (SAEM) in NONMEM and MONOLIX (both SAEM approaches with default and modified settings). All approaches started first from initial estimates set to the true values and second, using altered values. Results were examined through relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) of the estimates. With true initial conditions, full completion rate was obtained with all approaches except FOCE in R. Runtimes were shortest with FOCE and LAPLACE and longest with AGQ. Under the rich design, all approaches performed well except FOCE in R. When starting from altered initial conditions, AGQ, and then FOCE in NONMEM, LAPLACE in SAS, and SAEM in NONMEM and MONOLIX with tuned settings, consistently displayed lower RRMSE than the other approaches. For standard dose-response models analyzed through mixed-effects models, differences were identified in the performance of estimation methods available in current software, giving material to modellers to identify suitable approaches based on an accuracy-versus-runtime trade-off.

  10. Nonlinear mixed effects modeling of gametocyte carriage in patients with uncomplicated malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Francesca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gametocytes are the sexual form of the malaria parasite and the main agents of transmission. While there are several factors that influence host infectivity, the density of gametocytes appears to be the best single measure that is related to the human host's infectivity to mosquitoes. Despite the obviously important role that gametocytes play in the transmission of malaria and spread of anti-malarial resistance, it is common to estimate gametocyte carriage indirectly based on asexual parasite measurements. The objective of this research was to directly model observed gametocyte densities over time, during the primary infection. Methods Of 447 patients enrolled in sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine therapeutic efficacy studies in South Africa and Mozambique, a subset of 103 patients who had no gametocytes pre-treatment and who had at least three non-zero gametocyte densities over the 42-day follow up period were included in this analysis. Results A variety of different functions were examined. A modified version of the critical exponential function was selected for the final model given its robustness across different datasets and its flexibility in assuming a variety of different shapes. Age, site, initial asexual parasite density (logged to the base 10, and an empirical patient category were the co-variates that were found to improve the model. Conclusions A population nonlinear modeling approach seems promising and produced a flexible function whose estimates were stable across various different datasets. Surprisingly, dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutation prevalence did not enter the model. This is probably related to a lack of power (quintuple mutations n = 12, and informative censoring; treatment failures were withdrawn from the study and given rescue treatment, usually prior to completion of follow up.

  11. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species.

  12. Phase mixing and nonlinearity in geodesic acoustic modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B. [University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Phase mixing and nonlinear resonance detuning of geodesic acoustic modes in a tokamak plasma are examined. Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are tokamak normal modes with oscillations in poloidal flow constrained to lie within flux surfaces. The mode frequency is sonic, dependent on the local flux surface temperature. Consequently, mode oscillations between flux surfaces get rapidly out of phase, resulting in enhanced damping from the phase mixing. Damping rates are shown to scale as the negative 1/3 power of the large viscous Reynolds number. The effect of convective nonlinearities on the normal modes is also studied. The system of nonlinear GAM equations is shown to resemble the Duffing oscillator, which predicts resonance detuning of the oscillator. Resonant amplification is shown to be suppressed nonlinearly. All analyses are verified by numerical simulation. The findings are applied to a recently proposed GAM excitation experiment on the DIII-D tokamak.

  13. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators.

  14. A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach for Modeling the Cell-To-Cell Variability of Mig1 Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Almquist

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient

  15. A Nonlinear Mixed Effects Approach for Modeling the Cell-To-Cell Variability of Mig1 Dynamics in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist, Joachim; Bendrioua, Loubna; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS) approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient response of Mig1 tend

  16. Microbubble cloud characterization by nonlinear frequency mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaro, M; Payan, C; Moysan, J; Baqué, F

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the fourth generation forum, France decided to develop sodium fast nuclear reactors. French Safety Authority requests the associated monitoring of argon gas into sodium. This implies to estimate the void fraction, and a histogram indicating the bubble population. In this context, the present letter studies the possibility of achieving an accurate determination of the histogram with acoustic methods. A nonlinear, two-frequency mixing technique has been implemented, and a specific optical device has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. The acoustically reconstructed histograms are in excellent agreement with those obtained using optical methods.

  17. Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Boyuan

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic metasurfaces provide an effective way to increase the efficiency of several nonlinear processes while maintaining nanoscale dimensions. In this work, nonlinear metasurfaces based on film-coupled silver nanostripes loaded with Kerr nonlinear material are proposed to achieve efficient four-wave mixing (FWM). Highly localized plasmon resonances are formed in the nanogap between the metallic film and nanostripes. The local electric field is dramatically enhanced in this subwavelength nanoregion. These properties combined with the relaxed phase matching condition due to the ultrathin area lead to a giant FWM efficiency, which is enhanced by nineteen orders of magnitude compared to a bare silver screen. In addition, efficient visible and low-THz sources can be constructed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurfaces. The FWM generated coherent wave has a directional radiation pattern and its output power is relatively insensitive to the incident angles of the excitation sources. This radiated power can be...

  18. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of GnRH Antagonist Degarelix: A Comparison of the Non-linear Mixed-Effects Programs NONMEM and NLME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the two non-linear mixed-effects programs NONMEM and NLME were compared for their use in population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. We have described the first-order conditional estimation (FOCE) method as implemented in NONMEM and the alternating algorithm in NLME...... proposed by Lindstrom and Bates. The two programs were tested using clinical PK/PD data of a new gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist degarelix currently being developed for prostate cancer treatment. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous administered degarelix was analysed using a three...

  19. Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Cuneo, Matthew; Rowe, Joan D.; Li, Mengjie; Tell, Lisa A; Allison, Shayna; Carlson, Jan; Riviere, Jim E.; Gehring, Ronette

    2016-01-01

    Background Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood and milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulath...

  20. Enhanced four-wave mixing with nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Boyuan; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-06-27

    Plasmonic metasurfaces provide an effective way to increase the efficiency of several nonlinear processes while maintaining nanoscale dimensions. In this work, nonlinear metasurfaces based on film-coupled silver nanostripes loaded with Kerr nonlinear material are proposed to achieve efficient four-wave mixing (FWM). Highly localized plasmon resonances are formed in the nanogap between the metallic film and nanostripes. The local electric field is dramatically enhanced in this subwavelength nanoregion. These properties combined with the relaxed phase matching condition due to the ultrathin area lead to a giant FWM efficiency, which is enhanced by nineteen orders of magnitude compared to a bare silver screen. In addition, efficient visible and low-THz sources can be constructed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurfaces. The FWM generated coherent wave has a directional radiation pattern and its output power is relatively insensitive to the incident angles of the excitation sources. This radiated power can be further enhanced by increasing the excitation power. The dielectric nonlinear material placed in the nanogap is mainly responsible for the ultrastrong FWM response. Compact and efficient wave mixers and optical sources spanning different frequency ranges are envisioned to be designed based on the proposed nonlinear metasurface designs.

  1. Nonlinearity detection in hyperspectral images using a polynomial post-nonlinear mixing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Yoann; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    2013-04-01

    This paper studies a nonlinear mixing model for hyperspectral image unmixing and nonlinearity detection. The proposed model assumes that the pixel reflectances are nonlinear functions of pure spectral components contaminated by an additive white Gaussian noise. These nonlinear functions are approximated by polynomials leading to a polynomial post-nonlinear mixing model. We have shown in a previous paper that the parameters involved in the resulting model can be estimated using least squares methods. A generalized likelihood ratio test based on the estimator of the nonlinearity parameter is proposed to decide whether a pixel of the image results from the commonly used linear mixing model or from a more general nonlinear mixing model. To compute the test statistic associated with the nonlinearity detection, we propose to approximate the variance of the estimated nonlinearity parameter by its constrained Cramér-Rao bound. The performance of the detection strategy is evaluated via simulations conducted on synthetic and real data. More precisely, synthetic data have been generated according to the standard linear mixing model and three nonlinear models from the literature. The real data investigated in this study are extracted from the Cuprite image, which shows that some minerals seem to be nonlinearly mixed in this image. Finally, it is interesting to note that the estimated abundance maps obtained with the post-nonlinear mixing model are in good agreement with results obtained in previous studies.

  2. Blind channel identication of nonlinear folding mixing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yong; Xu Shangzhi; Ye Zhongfu

    2006-01-01

    Signals from multi-sensor systems are often mixtures of (statistically) independent sources by unknown mixing method. Blind source separation(BSS) and independent component analysis(ICA) are the methods to identify/recover the channels and the sources. BSS/ICA of nonlinear mixing models are difficult problems. For instance, the post-nonlinear model has been studied by several authors. It is noticed that in most cases, the proposed models are always with an invertible mixing. According to this fact there is an interesting question: how about the situation of the non-invertible non-linear mixing in BSS or ICA? A new simple non-linear mixing model is proposed with a kind of non-invertible mixing, the folding mixing, and method to identify its channel, blindly.

  3. Nonlinear Mixing in Optical Multicarrier Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mahmood Abdul

    Although optical fiber has a vast spectral bandwidth, efficient use of this bandwidth is still important in order to meet the ever increased capacity demand of optical networks. In addition to wavelength division multiplexing, it is possible to partition multiple low-rate subcarriers into each high speed wavelength channel. Multicarrier systems not only ensure efficient use of optical and electrical components, but also tolerate transmission impairments. The purpose of this research is to understand the impact of mixing among subcarriers in Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) and high speed optical transmission systems, and experimentally demonstrate techniques to minimize this impact. We also analyze impact of clipping and quantization on multicarrier signals and compare bandwidth efficiency of two popular multiplexing techniques, namely, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Nyquist modulation. For an OFDM-RoF system, we present a novel technique that minimizes the RF domain signal-signal beat interference (SSBI), relaxes the phase noise limit on the RF carrier, realizes the full potential of optical heterodyne-based RF carrier generation, and increases the performance-to-cost ratio of RoF systems. We demonstrate a RoF network that shares the same RF carrier for both downlink and uplink, avoiding the need of an additional RF oscillator in the customer unit. For multi-carrier optical transmission, we first experimentally compare performance degradations of coherent optical OFDM and single-carrier Nyquist pulse modulated systems in a nonlinear environment. We then experimentally evaluate SSBI compensation techniques in the presence of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) induced nonlinearities for a multicarrier optical system with direct detection. We show that SSBI contamination can be significantly reduced from the data signal when the carrier-to-signal power ratio is sufficiently low.

  4. A NONLINEAR LAVRENTIEV-BITSADZE MIXED TYPE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shuxing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the Tricomi problem for a nonlinear mixed type equation is studied.The coefficients of the mixed type equation are discontinuous on the line,where the equation changes its type.The existence of solution to this problem is proved.The method developed in this paper can be applied to study more difficult problems for nonlinear mixed type equations arising in gas dynamics.

  5. Exposing the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of asphalt-aggregate mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Eyal; Uzan, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    In this study asphalt-aggregate mixes are treated as both viscoelastic and viscoplastic. Following a damage mechanics approach, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive formulation is generated from a linear formulation by replacing `applied stresses' with `effective viscoelastic stresses'. A non-dimensional scalar entity called `relative viscoelastic stiffness' is introduced; it is defined as the ratio of applied to effective viscoelastic stress and encapsulates different types of nonlinearities. The paper proposes a computational scheme for exposing these nonlinearities by uncovering, through direct analysis of any test data, changes experienced by the `relative viscoelastic stiffness'. In general terms, the method is based on simultaneous application of creep and relaxation formulations while preserving the interrelationship between the corresponding time functions. The proposed scheme is demonstrated by analyzing a uniaxial tension test and a uniaxial compression test (separately). Results are presented and discussed, unveiling and contrasting the character of viscoelastic nonlinearities in both cases. A conceptual viewpoint is offered to explain the observations, illustrating the requirements from any candidate constitutive theory.

  6. Mixed Effects Models for Complex Data

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lang

    2009-01-01

    Presenting effective approaches to address missing data, measurement errors, censoring, and outliers in longitudinal data, this book covers linear, nonlinear, generalized linear, nonparametric, and semiparametric mixed effects models. It links each mixed effects model with the corresponding class of regression model for cross-sectional data and discusses computational strategies for likelihood estimations of mixed effects models. The author briefly describes generalized estimating equations methods and Bayesian mixed effects models and explains how to implement standard models using R and S-Pl

  7. Marangoni mixed convection flow with Joule heating and nonlinear radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marangoni mixed convective flow of Casson fluid in a thermally stratified medium is addressed. Flow analysis has been carried out in presence of inclined magnetic field. Heat transfer analysis is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation, Joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first converted into ordinary differential systems and then developed the convergent series solutions. Flow pattern with the influence of pertinent parameters namely the magnetic parameter, Casson fluid parameter, temperature ratio parameter, stratification parameter, Prandtl number, Eckert number and radiation parameter is investigated. Expression of local Nusselt number is computed and analyzed. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases by increasing magnetic parameter, temperature ratio parameter, angle of inclination and stratification parameter. Moreover the effect of buoyancy parameter on the velocity distribution is opposite in both the opposing and assisting flow phenomena. Thermal field and associated layer thickness are enhanced for larger radiation parameter.

  8. Nonlinear wave mixing and susceptibility properties of negative refractive index materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Aref; Tataronis, John A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of second-order and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities and wave-mixing properties of negative refractive index materials. We show that the nonlinear susceptibilities for noncentrosymmetric and centrosymmetric media may be positive or negative and away from resonance depending on the frequency of interest relative to the resonant frequencies of the material. Manipulation of the signs of the nonlinear susceptibilities is important in the field of optics, particularly for solitons and compensation of nonlinear effects. We also show that three- and four-wave mixing can be naturally phase matched in the material.

  9. Investigations of a compartmental model for leucine kinetics using non-linear mixed effects models with ordinary and stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Martin; Sunnåker, Mikael; Adiels, Martin; Jirstrand, Mats; Wennberg, Bernt

    2012-12-01

    Non-linear mixed effects (NLME) models represent a powerful tool to simultaneously analyse data from several individuals. In this study, a compartmental model of leucine kinetics is examined and extended with a stochastic differential equation to model non-steady-state concentrations of free leucine in the plasma. Data obtained from tracer/tracee experiments for a group of healthy control individuals and a group of individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 are analysed. We find that the interindividual variation of the model parameters is much smaller for the NLME models, compared to traditional estimates obtained from each individual separately. Using the mixed effects approach, the population parameters are estimated well also when only half of the data are used for each individual. For a typical individual, the amount of free leucine is predicted to vary with a standard deviation of 8.9% around a mean value during the experiment. Moreover, leucine degradation and protein uptake of leucine is smaller, proteolysis larger and the amount of free leucine in the body is much larger for the diabetic individuals than the control individuals. In conclusion, NLME models offers improved estimates for model parameters in complex models based on tracer/tracee data and may be a suitable tool to reduce data sampling in clinical studies.

  10. Linkage effects to nonlinear optical properties of porphyrin-appended mixed (porphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) yttrium(III) double-decker complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Xianyao; Yan, Xingzhong; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2011-10-01

    Third-order nonlinear optical properties of three isomeric tetrapyrrole triads, i.e. mixed (porphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) yttrium double-decker complexes appended with one metal free porphyrin chromophore at the para, meta, and orthoposition, respectively, of one meso-phenyl group of the porphyrin ligand in the double-decker unit through ester linkage, 3-5, were comparatively investigated along with the model compounds metal free meso-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) porphyrin H2TBPP (1) and mixed [meso-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrinato] [1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(butyloxyl)phthalocyaninato] yttrium double-decker complex YIIIH(TBPP) [Pc(α-OC4H9)8] (2) by using Z-scan technique with the fundamental (800 nm) laser emission from a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system. Strong reverse saturable absorption (RSA) properties of complexes 2-5 were observed. Interestingly, under highly intense irradiation, an RSA-SA-RSA-SA-RSA switch behavior was evolved in the tight focal intensity regime on the Z-scan profiles of complexes 3-5. Under the laser irradiation with focal intensity of 7.48-8.39 GW.cm-2, the triads 3 and 4 with the metal free porphyrin chromophore appended at the para or meta positions of the meso-phenyl group of the porphyrin ligand in the double-decker unit retained a characteristic response of RSA. In contrast, the triad 5 with the metal free porphyrin chromophore appended at the ortho position has already shown a trend of SA peaks at the same intensity range, revealing the effect of the position of porphyrin-substituent on the nonlinear optical properties of the triads.

  11. Fuzzy Mixed-Sensitivity Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Azimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate on robust mixed-sensitivity H∞ control for speed and torque control of inductional motor (IM. In order to simplify the design procedure the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S fuzzy approach is introduced to solve the nonlinear model Problem. Loop-shaping methodology and Mixed-sensitivity problem are developed to formulate frequency-domain specifications. Then a regional pole-placement output feedback H∞ controller is employed by using linear matrix inequalities(LMIs teqnique for each linear subsystem of IM T-S fuzzy model. Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC is used to design the controller for the overall system . Simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller even in the presence of motor parameter variations and unknown load disturbance.

  12. Nonlinear mixing of laser generated narrowband Rayleigh surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Chaitanya; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2017-02-01

    This research presents the nonlinear mixing technique of two co-directionally travelling Rayleigh surface waves generated and detected using laser ultrasonics. The optical generation of Rayleigh waves on the specimen is obtained by shadow mask method. In conventional nonlinear measurements, the inherently small higher harmonics are greatly influenced by the nonlinearities caused by coupling variabilities and surface roughness between the transducer and specimen interface. The proposed technique is completely contactless and it should be possible to eliminate this problem. Moreover, the nonlinear mixing phenomenon yields not only the second harmonics, but also the sum and difference frequency components, which can be used to measure the acoustic nonlinearity of the specimen. In this paper, we will be addressing the experimental configurations for this technique. The proposed technique is validated experimentally on Aluminum 7075 alloy specimen.

  13. Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Wan, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng

    2013-11-19

    Time-reversal symmetry is important to optics. Optical processes can run in a forward or backward direction through time when such symmetry is preserved. In linear optics, a time-reversed process of laser emission can enable total absorption of coherent light fields inside an optical cavity of loss by time-reversing the original gain medium. Nonlinearity, however, can often destroy such symmetry in nonlinear optics, making it difficult to study time-reversal symmetry with nonlinear optical wave mixings. Here we demonstrate time-reversed wave mixings for optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) by exploring this well-known but underappreciated symmetry in nonlinear optics. This allows us to observe the annihilation of coherent beams. Our study offers new avenues for flexible control in nonlinear optics and has potential applications in efficient wavelength conversion, all-optical computing.

  14. Quantifying the Variability of Internode Allometry within and between Trees for Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. Using a Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Diao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models of internodes are an important component of Functional-Structural Plant Models (FSPMs, which represent the shape of internodes in tree architecture and help our understanding of resource allocation in organisms. Constant allometry is always assumed in these models. In this paper, multilevel nonlinear mixed-effect models were used to characterize the variability of internode allometry, describing the relationship between the last internode length and biomass of Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. trees within the GreenLab framework. We demonstrated that there is significant variability in allometric relationships at the tree and different-order branch levels, and the variability decreases among levels from trees to first-order branches and, subsequently, to second-order branches. The variability was partially explained by the random effects of site characteristics, stand age, density, and topological position of the internode. Tree- and branch-level-specific allometric models are recommended because they produce unbiased and accurate internode length estimates. The model and method developed in this study are useful for understanding and describing the structure and functioning of trees.

  15. Nonlinear diffusion model for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, G; De Lillo, F; Musacchio, S

    2010-01-22

    The complex evolution of turbulent mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor convection is studied in terms of eddy diffusivity models for the mean temperature profile. It is found that a nonlinear model, derived within the general framework of Prandtl mixing theory, reproduces accurately the evolution of turbulent profiles obtained from numerical simulations. Our model allows us to give very precise predictions for the turbulent heat flux and for the Nusselt number in the ultimate state regime of thermal convection.

  16. Nonlinear diffusion model for Rayleigh-Taylor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Boffetta, G; Musacchio, S

    2010-01-01

    The complex evolution of turbulent mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor convection is studied in terms of eddy diffusiviy models for the mean temperature profile. It is found that a non-linear model, derived within the general framework of Prandtl mixing theory, reproduces accurately the evolution of turbulent profiles obtained from numerical simulations. Our model allows to give very precise predictions for the turbulent heat flux and for the Nusselt number in the ultimate state regime of thermal convection.

  17. Characterization of intestinal absorption of C-glycoside flavonoid vicenin-2 from Lychnophora ericoides leafs in rats by nonlinear mixed effects modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Buqui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-d-glucopyranoside is present in hydroalcoholic extracts of the Brazilian species Lychnophora ericoides Mart., Asteraceae, leaves, and the biological effects of this compound have been demonstrated including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects in rat models. Given the potential of this compound as a pharmacological agent, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the extent of intestinal absorption of vicenin-2, and to determine the intestinal permeation profile using an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion technique. A validated HPLC–UV method was applied to measure the amount of unabsorbed vicenin-2 in the gut after an oral administration of 180 mg kg-1 in five rats. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to determine the absorption pharmacokinetic parameters assuming a first order absorption and active secretion processes for this compound, wherein the active secretion was characterized by a zero-order process. The population pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were 0.274 min-1 for the first-order absorption rate constant, 16.3% min-1 for the zero-order rate constant; the final percentage of the original dose that was absorbed in vivo was 40.2 ± 2.5%. These parameters indicated that vicenin-2 was rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. In contrast to literature information indicating no absorption of vicenin-2 in Caco-2 cells, our results suggested that vicenin-2 can be absorbed in the small intestine of rats. The finding supports further investigation of vicenin-2 as a viable oral phytopharmaceutical agent for digestive diseases.

  18. Nonlocal Cauchy problem for nonlinear mixed integrodifferential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Tidke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the existence and uniqueness of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integrodifferential equation with nonlocal condition. The results obtained by using Schauder fixed point theorem and the theory of semigroups.

  19. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  20. A mixed finite element method for nonlinear diffusion equations

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We propose a mixed finite element method for a class of nonlinear diffusion equations, which is based on their interpretation as gradient flows in optimal transportation metrics. We introduce an appropriate linearization of the optimal transport problem, which leads to a mixed symmetric formulation. This formulation preserves the maximum principle in case of the semi-discrete scheme as well as the fully discrete scheme for a certain class of problems. In addition solutions of the mixed formulation maintain exponential convergence in the relative entropy towards the steady state in case of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation with uniformly convex potential. We demonstrate the behavior of the proposed scheme with 2D simulations of the porous medium equations and blow-up questions in the Patlak-Keller-Segel model. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  1. Broad optical bandwidth based on nonlinear effect of intensity and phase modulators through intense four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltaif, Tawfig

    2017-05-01

    This work investigates the advantages of nonlinear optics of a cascaded intensity modulator (IM) and phase modulator (PM) to generate an initial optical frequency comb. The results show that when the direct current bias to amplitude ratio, α=0.1, and the IM and PM have the same modulation index and are equal 10, seed comb is achieved; it is generated by the modulation of two continuous wave lasers. Hence, based on these parameters, an intense four-wave mixing is created through 9 m of photonic crystal fiber. Moreover, a broadband spectrum was achieved, spaced by a 30-GHz microwave frequency.

  2. Multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave-mixing effect in single mode fiber and high nonlinear fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pinghe; Weng, Danmei; Li, Kun; Liu, Yong; Yu, Xuecai; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2013-05-20

    A multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on four-wave-mixing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The 5 km single mode fiber in the cavity enhances the four-wave-mixing to suppress the homogenous broadening of the erbium-doped fiber and get the stable multi-wavelength comb. The lasing stability is investigated. When the pump power is 300 mW, the fiber laser has 5-lasing lines and the maximum fluctuation of the output power is about 3.18 dB. At the same time, a laser with 110 m high nonlinear fiber (HNFL) is demonstrated. When the pump power is 300 mW, it has 7-lasing lines (above -30 dBm) and the maximum fluctuation is 0.18dB.

  3. Metabolic Profiling of Human Long-Term Liver Models and Hepatic Clearance Predictions from In Vitro Data Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, Nicole A; Meille, Christophe; Fowler, Stephen; Klammers, Florian; Ekiciler, Aynur; Molitor, Birgit; Simon, Sandrine; Walter, Isabelle; McGinnis, Claudia; Walther, Johanna; Leonard, Brian; Triyatni, Miriam; Javanbakht, Hassan; Funk, Christoph; Schuler, Franz; Lavé, Thierry; Parrott, Neil J

    2017-03-01

    Early prediction of human clearance is often challenging, in particular for the growing number of low-clearance compounds. Long-term in vitro models have been developed which enable sophisticated hepatic drug disposition studies and improved clearance predictions. Here, the cell line HepG2, iPSC-derived hepatocytes (iCell®), the hepatic stem cell line HepaRG™, and human hepatocyte co-cultures (HμREL™ and HepatoPac®) were compared to primary hepatocyte suspension cultures with respect to their key metabolic activities. Similar metabolic activities were found for the long-term models HepaRG™, HμREL™, and HepatoPac® and the short-term suspension cultures when averaged across all 11 enzyme markers, although differences were seen in the activities of CYP2D6 and non-CYP enzymes. For iCell® and HepG2, the metabolic activity was more than tenfold lower. The micropatterned HepatoPac® model was further evaluated with respect to clearance prediction. To assess the in vitro parameters, pharmacokinetic modeling was applied. The determination of intrinsic clearance by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in a long-term model significantly increased the confidence in the parameter estimation and extended the sensitive range towards 3% of liver blood flow, i.e., >10-fold lower as compared to suspension cultures. For in vitro to in vivo extrapolation, the well-stirred model was used. The micropatterned model gave rise to clearance prediction in man within a twofold error for the majority of low-clearance compounds. Further research is needed to understand whether transporter activity and drug metabolism by non-CYP enzymes, such as UGTs, SULTs, AO, and FMO, is comparable to the in vivo situation in these long-term culture models.

  4. Fisher information matrix for nonlinear mixed effects multiple response models: evaluation of the appropriateness of the first order linearization using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Caroline; Retout, Sylvie; Mentré, France

    2009-06-30

    We focus on the Fisher information matrix used for design evaluation and optimization in nonlinear mixed effects multiple response models. We evaluate the appropriateness of its expression computed by linearization as proposed for a single response model. Using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) example, we first compare the computation of the Fisher information matrix with approximation to one derived from the observed matrix on a large simulation using the stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm (SAEM). The expression of the Fisher information matrix for multiple responses is also evaluated by comparison with the empirical information obtained through a replicated simulation study using the first-order linearization estimation methods implemented in the NONMEM software (first-order (FO), first-order conditional estimate (FOCE)) and the SAEM algorithm in the MONOLIX software. The predicted errors given by the approximated information matrix are close to those given by the information matrix obtained without linearization using SAEM and to the empirical ones obtained with FOCE and SAEM. The simulation study also illustrates the accuracy of both FOCE and SAEM estimation algorithms when jointly modelling multiple responses and the major limitations of the FO method. This study highlights the appropriateness of the approximated Fisher information matrix for multiple responses, which is implemented in PFIM 3.0, an extension of the R function PFIM dedicated to design evaluation and optimization. It also emphasizes the use of this computing tool for designing population multiple response studies, as for instance in PKPD studies or in PK studies including the modelling of the PK of a drug and its active metabolite.

  5. Numerical treatments for solving nonlinear mixed integral equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a mixed type of nonlinear integral equation (MNLIE of the second kind in the space C[0,T]×L2(Ω,T<1. The Volterra integral terms (VITs are considered in time with continuous kernels, while the Fredholm integral term (FIT is considered in position with singular general kernel. Using the quadratic method and separation of variables method, we obtain a nonlinear system of Fredholm integral equations (NLSFIEs with singular kernel. A Toeplitz matrix method, in each case, is then used to obtain a nonlinear algebraic system. Numerical results are calculated when the kernels take a logarithmic form or Carleman function. Moreover, the error estimates, in each case, are then computed.

  6. [Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng-Ri; Jia, Wei-Wei; Dong, Li-Hu

    2013-07-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth, respectively, the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated, and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software. The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood, and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models. When considering plot effect, and taking alpha1 and alpha3 and beta1 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. When considering tree effect, and taking alpha2 and alpha3 and beta2 and beta3 as the random parameters, respectively, the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance. The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth, but also show the differences among the individual trees. No matter considering plot effect or tree effect, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model. Moreover, the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.

  7. Relaxation and decomposition methods for mixed integer nonlinear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Ivo; Bank, RE

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive description of efficient methods for solving nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear programs, including several numerical and theoretical results, which are presented here for the first time. It contains many illustrations and an up-to-date bibliography. Because on the emphasis on practical methods, as well as the introduction into the basic theory, the book is accessible to a wide audience. It can be used both as a research and as a graduate text.

  8. On a mixed problem for a coupled nonlinear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes R. Clark

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the mixed problem associated with the nonlinear system $$ u_{tt}-M(int_Omega |abla u|^2dxDelta u+|u|^ ho u+heta =f $$ $$ heta _t -Delta heta +u_{t}=g $$ where $M$ is a positive real function, and $f$ and $g$ are known real functions.

  9. On Nonlinear Approximations to Cosmic Problems with Mixed Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mancinelli, Paul J.; Yahil, Amos; Ganon, Galit; Dekel, Avishai

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear approximations to problems with mixed boundary conditions are useful for predicting large-scale streaming velocities from the density field, or vice-versa. We evaluate the schemes of Bernardeau \\cite{bernardeau92}, Gramann \\cite{gramann93}, and Nusser \\etal \\cite{nusser91}, using smoothed density and velocity fields obtained from $N$-body simulations of a CDM universe. The approximation of Nusser \\etal is overall the most accurate and robust. For Gaussian smoothing of 1000\\kms\\ the ...

  10. Analysis of third harmonic generation and four wave mixing in gold nanostructures by nonlinear finite difference time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanpour, Pezhman; Shahmansouri, Afsaneh; Rashidian, Bizhan

    2010-11-01

    Third order nonlinear effects and its enhancement in gold nanostructures has been numerically studied. Analysis method is based on computationally solving nonlinear Maxwell's equations, considering dispersion behavior of permittivity described by Drude model and third order nonlinear susceptibility. Simulation is done by method of nonlinear finite difference time domain method, in which nonlinear equations of electric field are solved by Newton-Raphshon method. As the main outcomes of third order nonlinear susceptibility, four wave mixing and third harmonic generation terms are produced around gold nanostructures. Results of analysis on different geometries and structures show that third order nonlinearity products are more enhanced in places where electric field enhancement is occurred due to surface plasmons. Results indicates that enhancement of nonlinearities is strongly occurred in structures whose interface is dielectric. According to analysis results, nonlinear effects are highly concentrated in the vicinity of nanostructures. Hence this approach can be used in applications where localized ultraviolet light is required.

  11. Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Cuneo, Matthew; Rowe, Joan D; Li, Mengjie; Tell, Lisa A; Allison, Shayna; Carlson, Jan; Riviere, Jim E; Gehring, Ronette

    2016-11-18

    Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood and milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin (i.e., the marker residue CP-60,300), respectively, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based on these new data and related literature data, a NLME-PK compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to model plasma concentrations and cumulative excreted amount in milk. Monte Carlo simulations with 100 replicates were performed to predict the time when the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of milk concentrations was below the tolerance. All animals were healthy throughout the study with normal appetite and milk production levels, and with mild-moderate injection-site reactions that diminished by the end of the study. The measured data showed that milk concentrations of the marker residue of tulathromycin were below the limit of detection (LOD = 1.8 ng/ml) 39 days after the second injection. A 2-compartment model with milk as an excretory compartment best described tulathromycin plasma and CP-60,300 milk pharmacokinetic data. The model-predicted data correlated with the measured data very well. The NLME-PK model estimated that tulathromycin plasma concentrations were below LOD (1.2 ng/ml) 43 days after a single injection, and 62 days after the second injection with a 95% confidence. These estimated times are much longer than the current meat withdrawal time recommendation of 18 days for tulathromycin in non-lactating cattle. The results suggest that twice subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin are a clinically

  12. Nonlinear Mixing of Collective Modes in Harmonically Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Watabe, Shohei; Nikuni, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    We study nonlinear mixing effects among quadrupole modes and scissors modes in a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Using a perturbative technique in conjunction with a variational approach with a Gaussian trial wave function for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we find that mode mixing selectively occurs. Our perturbative approach is useful in gaining qualitative understanding of the recent experiment [Yamazaki et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 84, 44001 (2015)], exhibiting a beating phe...

  13. Estimation of growth parameters using a nonlinear mixed Gompertz model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Zuidhof, M J

    2004-06-01

    In order to maximize the utility of simulation models for decision making, accurate estimation of growth parameters and associated variances is crucial. A mixed Gompertz growth model was used to account for between-bird variation and heterogeneous variance. The mixed model had several advantages over the fixed effects model. The mixed model partitioned BW variation into between- and within-bird variation, and the covariance structure assumed with the random effect accounted for part of the BW correlation across ages in the same individual. The amount of residual variance decreased by over 55% with the mixed model. The mixed model reduced estimation biases that resulted from selective sampling. For analysis of longitudinal growth data, the mixed effects growth model is recommended.

  14. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.

  15. Nonlinear Pulse-reshaping of Sub-picosecond Pulses by Non-degenerate Four-wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper; Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Rottwitt, Karsten

    Four-wave mixing does according to various models allow for arbitrary pulse-reshaping of the generated idler. Using subpicosecond pulses, we investigate numerically whether nonlinear effects and dispersion broadening begin to prevent this ability.......Four-wave mixing does according to various models allow for arbitrary pulse-reshaping of the generated idler. Using subpicosecond pulses, we investigate numerically whether nonlinear effects and dispersion broadening begin to prevent this ability....

  16. Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling

    of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre......This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear...... to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase...

  17. A comparison of nonlinear mixing models for vegetated areas using simulated and real hyperspectral data

    CERN Document Server

    Dobigeon, Nicolas; Somers, Ben; Altmann, Yoann; Coppin, Pol

    2013-01-01

    Spectral unmixing is a crucial processing step when analyzing hyperspectral data. In such analysis, most of the work in the literature relies on the widely acknowledged linear mixing model to describe the observed pixels. Unfortunately, this model has been shown to be of limited interest for specific scenes, in particular when acquired over vegetated areas. Consequently, in the past few years, several nonlinear mixing models have been introduced to take nonlinear effects into account. These models have been proposed empirically, however without any thorough validation. In this paper, the authors take advantage of two sets of real and physical-based simulated data to validate the accuracy of various nonlinear models in vegetated areas. These physics-based and analysis models, and their corresponding unmixing algorithms, are evaluated with respect to their ability of fitting the measured spectra and of providing an accurate estimation of the abundance coefficients, considered as the spatial distribution of the ...

  18. A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave e...

  19. A generalized nonlinear model-based mixed multinomial logit approach for crash data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqiang; Zhu, Wenbo; Ke, Ruimin; Ash, John; Wang, Yinhai; Xu, Jiuping; Xu, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    The mixed multinomial logit (MNL) approach, which can account for unobserved heterogeneity, is a promising unordered model that has been employed in analyzing the effect of factors contributing to crash severity. However, its basic assumption of using a linear function to explore the relationship between the probability of crash severity and its contributing factors can be violated in reality. This paper develops a generalized nonlinear model-based mixed MNL approach which is capable of capturing non-monotonic relationships by developing nonlinear predictors for the contributing factors in the context of unobserved heterogeneity. The crash data on seven Interstate freeways in Washington between January 2011 and December 2014 are collected to develop the nonlinear predictors in the model. Thirteen contributing factors in terms of traffic characteristics, roadway geometric characteristics, and weather conditions are identified to have significant mixed (fixed or random) effects on the crash density in three crash severity levels: fatal, injury, and property damage only. The proposed model is compared with the standard mixed MNL model. The comparison results suggest a slight superiority of the new approach in terms of model fit measured by the Akaike Information Criterion (12.06 percent decrease) and Bayesian Information Criterion (9.11 percent decrease). The predicted crash densities for all three levels of crash severities of the new approach are also closer (on average) to the observations than the ones predicted by the standard mixed MNL model. Finally, the significance and impacts of the contributing factors are analyzed.

  20. Polarization dependence of nonlinear wave mixing of spinor polaritons in semiconductor microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Przemyslaw; Baudin, Emmanuel; Chan, Chris K P; Leung, P T; Luk, Samuel M H; Galopin, Elisabeth; Lemaitre, Aristide; Bloch, Jacqueline; Tignon, Jerome; Roussignol, Philippe; Kwong, N H; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The pseudo-spin dynamics of propagating exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities are known to be strongly influenced by TE-TM splitting. As a vivid consequence, in the Rayleigh scattering regime, the TE-TM splitting gives rise to the optical spin Hall effect (OSHE). Much less is known about its role in the nonlinear optical regime in which four-wave mixing for example allows the formation of spatial patterns in the polariton density, such that hexagons and two-spot patterns are observable in the far field. Here we present a detailed analysis of spin-dependent four-wave mixing processes, by combining the (linear) physics of TE-TM splitting with spin-dependent nonlinear processes, i.e., exciton-exciton interaction and fermionic phase-space filling. Our combined theoretical and experimental study elucidates the complex physics of the four-wave mixing processes that govern polarization and orientation of off-axis modes.

  1. Phase mixing versus nonlinear advection in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schekochihin, A. A.; Parker, J. T.; Highcock, E. G.; Dellar, P. J.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    > A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g. drift-wave turbulence driven by ion temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. It is found that it is possible to construct a consistent theory in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution function, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wavenumber space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also in contrast with the linear problem, in which it occurs at the finite rate equal to the Landau damping rate). The ability of the free energy to stay in the low velocity moments of the distribution function is facilitated by the `anti-phase-mixing' effect, whose presence in the nonlinear system is due to the stochastic version of the plasma echo (the advecting velocity couples the phase-mixing and anti-phase-mixing perturbations). The partitioning of the wavenumber space between the (energetically dominant) region where this is the case and the region where linear phase mixing wins its competition with nonlinear advection is governed by the `critical balance' between linear and nonlinear time scales (which for high Hermite moments splits into two thresholds, one demarcating the wavenumber region where phase mixing predominates, the other where plasma echo does).

  2. Nonlinear effects in Thomson backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Tomassini, P.; Serafini, L.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the nonlinear classical effects of the X/γ radiation produced by Thomson/Compton sources. We confirm the development of spectral fringes of the radiation on axis, which comports broadening, shift, and deformation of the spectrum. For the nominal parameters of the SPARC-LAB Thomson scattering and of the European Proposal for the gamma source ELI-NP, however, the radiation, when collected in the suitable acceptance angle, does not reveal many differences from that predicted by the linear model and the nonlinear redshift is subdominant with respect to the quantum recoil. An experiment aimed to the study of the nonlinearities is proposed on the SPARC-LAB source.

  3. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; van Gestel, Arnoldus

    2016-01-01

    regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. METHODS: In the present study, we...... describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics from 61...... patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV). The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. RESULTS: A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics. Significant...

  4. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; van Gestel, Arnoldus;

    2016-01-01

    regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. METHODS: In the present study, we...... describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics from 61...... patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV). The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. RESULTS: A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics. Significant...

  5. Nonlinear signal mixing in a three-terminal molecular wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Christopher; Speyer, Joe; Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Neuhauser, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The authors study the electronic response of two simple molecular devices to a bichromatic field, where the device acts as a mixer. Two closely related model systems are considered: one is a benzene molecule and the other is a single grapheme sheet, and in both cases the systems are connected to three polyacetylene chains. The electronic response to the dichromatic alternating electric fields is studied by following the electron density fluctuation along the chain lengths. In both cases the electron transfer follows the field frequency at low electric fields. At higher amplitude, a significant amount of nonlinear mixing resulting in new combinations of the input frequencies is found in the spectrum. The influence of gating on the output frequencies is also shown.

  6. Ultrasensitive standoff chemical sensing based on nonlinear multi-photon laser wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregerson, Marc; Hetu, Marcel; Iwabuchi, Manna; Jimenez, Jorge; Warren, Ashley; Tong, William G.

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear multi-photon laser wave mixing is presented as an ultrasensitive optical detection method for chem/bio agents in thin films and gas- and liquid-phase samples. Laser wave mixing is an unusually sensitive optical absorption-based detection method that offers significant inherent advantages including excellent sensitivity, small sample requirements, short optical path lengths, high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution and standoff remote detection capability. Wave mixing can detect trace amounts of chemicals even when using micrometer-thin samples, and hence, it can be conveniently interfaced to fibers, microarrays, microfluidic systems, lab-on-a-chip, capillary electrophoresis and other capillary- or fiber-based chemical separation systems. The wave-mixing signal is generated instantaneously as the two input laser beams intersect inside the analyte of interest. Laser excitation wavelengths can be tuned to detect multiple chemicals in their native form since wave mixing can detect both fluorescing and non-fluorescing samples at parts-pertrillion or better detection sensitivity levels. The wave-mixing signal is a laser-like coherent beam, and hence, it allows reliable and effective remote sensing of chemicals. Sensitive wave-mixing detectors offer many potential applications including sensitive detection of biomarkers, early detection of diseases, sensitive monitoring of environmental samples, and reliable detection of hazardous chem/bio agents with a standoff detection capability.

  7. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhera, Sanyogita [Citibank, New York City, NY (United States); Shanbhag, Uday V. [Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 117 Transportation Building, 104 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McInerney, Michael K. [Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Given urban data derived from a geographical information system (GIS), we consider the problem of constructing an estimate of the electrical distribution system of an urban area. We employ the image data to obtain an approximate electrical load distribution over a network of a prespecificed discretization. Together with partial information about existing substations, we determine the optimal placement of electrical substations to sustain such a load that minimizes the cost of capital and losses. This requires solving large-scale quadratic programs with discrete variables for which we present a novel penalization-smoothing scheme. The choice of locations allows one to determine the optimal flows in this network, as required by physical requirements which provide us with an approximation of the distribution network. Furthermore, the scheme allows for approximating systems in the presence of no-go areas, such as lakes and fields. We examine the performance of our algorithm on the solution of a set of location problems and observe that the scheme is capable of solving large-scale instances, well beyond the realm of existing mixed-integer nonlinear programming solvers. We conclude with a case study in which a stage-wise extension of this scheme is developed to reflect the temporal evolution of load. (author)

  8. On Nonlinear Approximations to Cosmic Problems with Mixed Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mancinelli, P J; Ganon, G; Dekel, A; Mancinelli, Paul J.; Yahil, Amos; Ganon, Galit; Dekel, Avishai

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear approximations to problems with mixed boundary conditions are useful for predicting large-scale streaming velocities from the density field, or vice-versa. We evaluate the schemes of Bernardeau \\cite{bernardeau92}, Gramann \\cite{gramann93}, and Nusser \\etal \\cite{nusser91}, using smoothed density and velocity fields obtained from $N$-body simulations of a CDM universe. The approximation of Nusser \\etal is overall the most accurate and robust. For Gaussian smoothing of 1000\\kms\\ the mean error in the approximated relative density perturbation, $\\delta$, is smaller than 0.06, and the dispersion is 0.1. The \\rms\\ error in the estimated velocity is smaller than 60\\kms, and the dispersion is 40\\kms. For smoothing of 500\\kms\\ these numbers increase by about a factor $\\sim 2$ for $\\delta < 4-5$, but deteriorate at higher densities. The other approximations are comparable to those of Nusser \\etal for smoothing of 1000\\kms, but are much less successful for the smaller smoothing of 500\\kms.

  9. Efficient Realization of the Mixed Finite Element Discretization for nonlinear Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Knabner, Peter; Summ, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We consider implementational aspects of the mixed finite element method for a special class of nonlinear problems. We establish the equivalence of the hybridized formulation of the mixed finite element method to a nonconforming finite element method with augmented Crouzeix-Raviart ansatz space. We discuss the reduction of unknowns by static condensation and propose Newton's method for the solution of local and global systems. Finally, we show, how such a nonlinear problem arises from the mixe...

  10. Nonlinear simulation of arch dam cracking with mixed finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Hao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new, simple and efficient method for nonlinear simulation of arch dam cracking from the construction period to the operation period, which takes into account the arch dam construction process and temperature loads. In the calculation mesh, the contact surface of pair nodes is located at places on the arch dam where cracking is possible. A new effective iterative method, the mixed finite element method for friction-contact problems, is improved and used for nonlinear simulation of the cracking process. The forces acting on the structure are divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of the structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in the possible contact region of the local coordinate system is chosen as the iterative variable, so that the nonlinear iterative process is only limited within the possible contact surface and is much more economical. This method was used to simulate the cracking process of the Shuanghe Arch Dam in Southwest China. In order to prove the validity and accuracy of this method and to study the effect of thermal stress on arch dam cracking, three schemes were designed for calculation. Numerical results agree with actual measured data, proving that it is feasible to use this method to simulate the entire process of nonlinear arch dam cracking.

  11. Nonlinear effects in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Abraham, Susan; Kagan, Henri B

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds for various applications. An efficient approach to achieve this goal is asymmetric catalysis. The chiral catalyst is usually prepared from a chiral auxiliary, which itself is derived from a natural product or by resolution of a racemic precursor. The use of non-enantiopure chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis seems unattractive to preparative chemists, since the anticipated enantiomeric excess (ee) of the reaction product should be proportional to the ee value of the chiral auxiliary (linearity). In fact, some deviation from linearity may arise. Such nonlinear effects can be rich in mechanistic information and can be synthetically useful (asymmetric amplification). This Review documents the advances made during the last decade in the use of nonlinear effects in the area of organometallic and organic catalysis.

  12. LEAST-SQUARES MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan-ping Yang

    2002-01-01

    Two least-squares mixed finite element schemes are formulated to solve the initialboundary value problem of a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation and the convergence of these schemes are analyzed.

  13. Existence of Solutions of Abstract Nonlinear Mixed Functional Integrodifferential equation with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakne Machindra B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the existence of mild and strong solutions of abstract nonlinear mixed functional integrodifferential equation with nonlocal condition by using Sadovskii’s fixed point theorem and theory of fractional power of operators.

  14. The Full—Discrete Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanpingCHEN; YunqingHUANG

    1998-01-01

    This article treats mixed finite element methods for second order nonlinear hyperbolic equations.A fully discrete scheme is presented and improved L2-error estimates are established.The convergence of both the function value andthe flux is demonstrated.

  15. Understanding nonlinear effects and losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.

    1995-10-01

    With the planned construction of a large hadron collider (LHC) and a major upgrade of LEP (LEP-II) at CERN, a {Phi}-factory at Frascatti, and B-factories at SLAC (PEP-II) and KEK (KEK-B), we are now entering new energy and intensity regimes in both electron and proton circular colliders. Understanding and accurately estimating dynamic apertures and particle loss rates under both injection and colliding beam conditions is of primary importance. This paper summarizes discussions on Understanding Nonlinear Effects and Losses that took place in Working Group Three at the September 1994 Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics in Particle Accelerators at Arcidosso, Italy. Questions addressed were: {open_quotes}What do simulations indicate as the underlying causes of particle loss?{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Do experiments agree with simulations-and if not, why not?{close_quotes} Special attention was given to a discrepancy between dynamic aperture measurements and theoretical predictions at HERA.

  16. Nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor based on four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Frosz, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a nonlinear fiber-optic strain sensor, which uses the shifts of four-wave mixing Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks caused by the strain-induced changes in the structure and refractive index of a microstructured optical fiber. The sensor thus uses the inherent nonlinearity of the fiber...

  17. Metal-free flat lens using negative refraction by nonlinear four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianjun; Zheng, Yuanlin; Feng, Yaming; Chen, Xianfeng; Wan, Wenjie

    2014-11-21

    A perfect lens with unlimited resolution has always posed a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physicists. Recent developments in optical metamaterials promise an attractive approach towards perfect lenses using negative refraction to overcome the diffraction limit, improving resolution. However, those artificially engineered metamaterials are usually accompanied by high losses from metals and are extremely difficult to fabricate. An alternative proposal using negative refraction by four-wave mixing has attracted much interest recently, though most existing experiments still require metals and none of them have been implemented for an optical lens. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a metal-free flat lens for the first time using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing with a thin glass slide. We realize an optical lensing effect utilizing a nonlinear refraction law, which may have potential applications in microscopy.

  18. A Composite Algorithm for Mixed Integer Constrained Nonlinear Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    algorithm (FLEX) developed by Paviani and Himmelblau [53] is a direct search algorithm for constrained, nonlinear problems. It uses a variation on the...given in an appendix to Himmelblau [32]. Two changes were made to the program as listed in the rcference. Between card number 1340 and 1350 the...1972, pp. 293-308 (32] Himmelblau , D. M., Applied Nonlinear Programming, McGraw-Hill, 1972 (33] Himmelblau , D. M., "A Uniform Evaluation of Unconstrained

  19. Mixed Nonlinear Complementarity Problems via Nonlinear Optimization: Numerical Results on Multi-Rigid-Body Contact Problems with Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Roberto; Friedlander, Ana; Mello, Margarida P.; Santos, Sandra A.

    2005-06-01

    In this work we show that the mixed nonlinear complementarity problem may be formulated as an equivalent nonlinear bound-constrained optimization problem that preserves the smoothness of the original data. One may thus take advantage of existing codes for bound-constrained optimization. This approach is implemented and tested by means of an extensive set of numerical experiments, showing promising results. The mixed nonlinear complementarity problems considered in the tests arise from the discretization of a motion planning problem concerning a set of rigid 3D bodies in contact in the presence of friction. We solve the complementarity problem associated with a single time frame, thus calculating the contact forces and accelerations of the bodies involved.

  20. Nonlinear Effects in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Maartens, R

    2000-01-01

    Major advances in the observation and theory of cosmic microwave background anisotropies have opened up a new era in cosmology. This has encouraged the hope that the fundamental parameters of cosmology will be determined to high accuracy in the near future. However, this optimism should not obscure the ongoing need for theoretical developments that go beyond the highly successful but simplified standard model. Such developments include improvements in observational modelling (e.g. foregrounds, non-Gaussian features), extensions and alternatives to the simplest inflationary paradigm (e.g. non-adiabatic effects, defects), and investigation of nonlinear effects. In addition to well known nonlinear effects such as the Rees-Sciama and Ostriker-Vishniac effects, further nonlinear effects have recently been identified. These include a Rees-Sciama-type tensor effect, time-delay effects of scalar and tensor lensing, nonlinear Thomson scattering effects and a nonlinear shear effect. Some of the nonlinear effects and th...

  1. Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...

  2. Compressibility effects on turbulent mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickacheril John, John; Donzis, Diego

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the effect of compressibility on passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence with a focus on the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for such effects using a large Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database. The database includes simulations with Taylor Reynolds number (Rλ) up to 100, turbulent Mach number (Mt) between 0.1 and 0.6 and Schmidt number (Sc) from 0.5 to 1.0. We present several measures of mixing efficiency on different canonical flows to robustly identify compressibility effects. We found that, like shear layers, mixing is reduced as Mach number increases. However, data also reveal a non-monotonic trend with Mt. To assess directly the effect of dilatational motions we also present results with both dilatational and soleniodal forcing. Analysis suggests that a small fraction of dilatational forcing decreases mixing time at higher Mt. Scalar spectra collapse when normalized by Batchelor variables which suggests that a compressive mechanism similar to Batchelor mixing in incompressible flows might be responsible for better mixing at high Mt and with dilatational forcing compared to pure solenoidal mixing. We also present results on scalar budgets, in particular on production and dissipation. Support from NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Material nonlinear analysis via mixed-iterative finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors are tested using 4-node quadrilateral finite elements. The membrane result is excellent, which indicates the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate. On the other hand, further research to improve bending performance of the method seems to be warranted.

  4. The Effective AC Response of Nonlinear Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI En-Bo; GU Guo-Qing

    2001-01-01

    A perturbative approach is used to study the AC response of nonlinear composite media, which obey a current-field relation of the form J = σ E + χ|E|2 E with components having nonlinear response at finite frequencies. For a sinusoidal applied field, we extend the local potential in terms of sinusoidal components at fundamental frequency and high-order harmonic frequencies to treat the nonlinear composites. For nonlinear composite media vith a low concentrations of spherical inclusions, we give the formulae of the nonlinear effective AC susceptibility χ*3ω at the third harmonic frequency.

  5. Modeling the oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise testing of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases using nonlinear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Baty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The six-minute walk test (6MWT is commonly used to quantify exercise capacity in patients with several cardio-pulmonary diseases. Oxygen uptake ( V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics during 6MWT typically follow 3 distinct phases (rest, exercise, recovery that can be modeled by nonlinear regression. Simultaneous modeling of multiple kinetics requires nonlinear mixed models methodology. To the best of our knowledge, no such curve-fitting approach has been used to analyze multiple V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics in both research and clinical practice so far. Methods In the present study, we describe functionality of the R package medrc that extends the framework of the commonly used packages drc and nlme and allows fitting nonlinear mixed effects models for automated nonlinear regression modeling. The methodology was applied to a data set including 6MWT V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics from 61 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (disease severity stage II to IV. The mixed effects approach was compared to a traditional curve-by-curve approach. Results A six-parameter nonlinear regression model was jointly fitted to the set of V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 kinetics. Significant differences between disease stages were found regarding steady state V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 during exercise, V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 level after recovery and V ̇ $\\dot {\\mathrm {V}}$ O2 inflection point in the recovery phase. Estimates obtained by the mixed effects approach showed standard errors that were consistently lower as compared to the curve-by-curve approach. Conclusions Hereby we demonstrate the novelty and usefulness of this methodology in the context of physiological exercise testing.

  6. Pseudo-Hermitian Transition in Degenerate Nonlinear Four-Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Li

    2016-01-01

    We show that degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear optics can be described by an effective Hamiltonian that is pseudo-Hermitian, which enables a transition between a pseudo-Hermitian phase with real eigenvalues and a broken pseudo-Hermitian phase with complex conjugate eigenvalues. While bearing certain similarity to that in Parity-Time symmetric systems, this transition is in stark contrast because of the absence of gain and loss in the effective Hamiltonian. The latter is real after factoring out the system decay, and the onset of non-Hermiticity in degenerate FWM is due to the total phase change of the signal wave and the idler wave. This property underlines the intrinsic coherence in FWM, which opens the door to probe quantum implications of exceptional points.

  7. Kriging with mixed effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Pollice

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effectiveness of the use of mixed effects models for estimation and prediction purposes in spatial statistics for continuous data is reviewed in the classical and Bayesian frameworks. A case study on agricultural data is also provided.

  8. The 3rd-order nonlinearity of bacteriorhodopsin by four-wave mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 3rd-order nonlinear optical susceptibility X(3) and the response time of the light-transducing biomolecule bacteriorhodopsin were measured with the four-wave mixing technique and a picosecond frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser(532nm).The X(3) and the response time measured are 10-9 esu and 20 ps,respectively.The possible mechanism for generating the 3rd-order nonlinear optical susceptibility X(3) and response time were discussed.

  9. Four-wave mixing and nonlinear losses in thick silicon waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Blair; Zhang, Yanbing; Pagani, Mattia; Eggleton, Benjamin; Marpaung, David

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally investigate four-wave mixing and nonlinear losses in low-loss 3 μm thick silicon strip waveguides. Adiabatic bends allow for single-mode operation in an ultra-compact 35 cm long spiral. The waveguides exhibited reduced nonlinear losses due to the large mode area of 2.75  μm2. The nonlinear coefficient γ was measured as 5.5  m-1  W-1. These features, along with the low propagation loss of 0.17 dB/cm, enable large idler power generation at 1550 nm.

  10. Nanoscale displacement sensing based on nonlinear frequency mixing in quantum cascade lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzapesa, F P; De Risi, G; Brambilla, M; Dabbicco, M; Spagnolo, V; Scamarcio, G

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a sensor scheme for nanoscale target displacement that relies on a single Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) subject to optical feedback. The system combines the inherent sensitivity of QCLs to optical re-injection and their ultra-stability in the strong feedback regime where nonlinear frequency mixing phenomena are enhanced. An experimental proof of principle in the micrometer wavelength scale is provided. We perform real-time measurements of displacement with {\\lambda}/100 resolution by inserting a fast-shifting reference etalon in the external cavity. The resulting signal dynamics at the QCL terminals shows a stroboscopic-like effect that relates the sensor resolution with the reference etalon speed. Intrinsic limits to the measurement algorithm and to the reference speed are discussed, disclosing that nanoscale ranges are attainable.

  11. Nonlinear Sagnac interferometer based on the four-wave mixing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jun; Liu, Jinming; Jing, Jietai

    2017-01-23

    A new nonlinear Sagnac interferometer (NSI) is proposed by replacing the beam-splitter in the traditional Sagnac interferometer (TSI) with a four-wave mixing process. Such a NSI has better angular velocity sensitivity than the one of the TSI. The standard quantum limit can be beaten and the Heisenberg Limit can even be reached for the ideal case by the NSI. We study the effect of the losses on the angular velocity sensitivity of the NSI and find that the optimal angular velocity, where the best angular velocity sensitivity can be obtained, of the NSI may be dependent on the losses inside the interferometer. Such a NSI has its advantages compared with the TSI and may find its potential applications in quantum metrology.

  12. Non-linear mixed models in the analysis of mediated longitudinal data with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Emily A; Cheng, Debbie M

    2012-01-24

    Structural equation models (SEMs) provide a general framework for analyzing mediated longitudinal data. However when interest is in the total effect (i.e. direct plus indirect) of a predictor on the binary outcome, alternative statistical techniques such as non-linear mixed models (NLMM) may be preferable, particularly if specific causal pathways are not hypothesized or specialized SEM software is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the NLMM in a setting where the SEM is presumed optimal. We performed a simulation study to assess the performance of NLMMs relative to SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability, and power in the analysis of mediated binary longitudinal outcomes. Both logistic and probit models were evaluated. Models were also applied to data from a longitudinal study assessing the impact of alcohol consumption on HIV disease progression. For the logistic model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of a repeated predictor on the repeated binary outcome and were similar to the SEM across a variety of scenarios evaluating sample size, effect size, and distributions of direct vs. indirect effects. For the probit model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of the repeated predictor, however, the probit SEM overestimated effects. Both logistic and probit NLMMs performed well relative to corresponding SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability and power. In addition, in the probit setting, the NLMM may produce better estimates of the total effect than the probit SEM, which appeared to overestimate effects.

  13. Numerical research orthotropic geometrically nonlinear shell stability using the mixed finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupishin, L.; Nikitin, K.; Kolesnikov, A.

    2017-05-01

    A methodology for shell stability research and determining buckling load, based on the mixed finite element method are proposed. Axisymmetric geometrically nonlinear shallow shells made of orthotropic material are considered. The results of numerical research of stability by changing the shape of shells, ratio of elastic modulus of the material and parameters of the support contour are presented.

  14. Variable Separation for (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations with Mixed Partial Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng-Zhou; ZHANG Shun-Li

    2008-01-01

    We present basic theory of variable separation for (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations with mixed partial derivatives. As an application, we classify equations uxt = A(u, ux)uxxx + B(u, ux) that admits derivative-dependent functional separable solutions (DDFSSs) and illustrate how to construct those DDFSSs with some examples.

  15. Multiple four-wave mixing and Kerr combs in a bichromatically pumped nonlinear fiber ring cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceoldo, D; Bendahmane, A; Fatome, J; Millot, G; Hansson, T; Modotto, D; Wabnitz, S; Kibler, B

    2016-12-01

    We report numerical and experimental studies of multiple four-wave mixing processes emerging from dual-frequency pumping of a passive nonlinear fiber ring cavity. We observe the formation of a periodic train of nearly background-free soliton pulses associated with Kerr frequency combs. The generation of resonant dispersive waves is also reported.

  16. Fast numerical methods for mixed-integer nonlinear model-predictive control

    CERN Document Server

    Kirches, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Christian Kirches develops a fast numerical algorithm of wide applicability that efficiently solves mixed-integer nonlinear optimal control problems. He uses convexification and relaxation techniques to obtain computationally tractable reformulations for which feasibility and optimality certificates can be given even after discretization and rounding.

  17. PERIODIC BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR NONLINEAR INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF MIXED TYPE ON TIME SCALES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yepeng Xing; Qiong Wang; Valery G. Romanovski

    2009-01-01

    We prove several new comparison results and develop the monotone iterative tech-nique to show the existence of extremal solutions to a kind of periodic boundary value problem (PBVP) for nonlinear integro-differential equation of mixed type on time scales.

  18. The Superconvergence of Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanpingCHEN; YunqingHUANG

    1998-01-01

    Imprioved L2-error estimates are computed for mixed finte element methods for second order nonlinear hyperbolic equations.Superconvergence results,L∞ in time and discrete L2 in space,are derived for both the solution and gradients on the rectangular domain.Results are given for the continuous-time case.

  19. Existence of solutions for nonlinear mixed type integrodifferential equation of second order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribhau Laxman Tidke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the existence of solutions for nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integrodifferential equation of second order with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces. Our analysis is based on Leray-Schauder alternative, rely on a priori bounds of solutions and the inequality established by B. G. Pachpatte.

  20. Nonlinear mixing of Nd:YAG lasers; harmonic and sum frequency generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear optical materials give rise to a number of phenomena under high intensity of the incident electric field, with nonlinear mixing being a prominent example. This article discusses such nonlinear mixing processes of Nd:YAG lasers in BBO outside the more common harmonics of the 1.064 μm transition (0.532 μm, 0.366 μm and 0.266 μm). In particular, harmonics of the less common 0.946 μm transition (0.473 μm and 0.315 μm) as well as sum frequency of the 1.052 and 1.319 μm transitions (0.585 μm) and its second harmonic (0.293 μm) is discussed.

  1. Two-grid method for characteristisc mixed finite-element solutions of nonlinear convection-diffusion equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xinqiang; MA Yichen; GONG Chunqiong

    2004-01-01

    A two-grid method for solving nonlinear convection-dominated diffusion equations is presented. The method use discretizations based on a characteristic mixed finite-element method and give the linearization for nonlinear systems by two steps. The error analysis shows that the two-grid scheme combined with the characteristic mixed finite-element method can decrease numerical oscillation caused by dominated convections and solve nonlinear advection-dominated diffusion problems efficiently.

  2. Mixed and Penalty Finite Element Models for the Nonlinear Behavior of Biphasic Soft Tissues in Finite Deformation: Part II - Nonlinear Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, EDGARD S.; Spilker, ROBERT L.

    1998-01-01

    This two-part paper addresses finite element-based computational models for the three-dimensional (3-D) nonlinear analysis of soft hydrated tissues, such as articular cartilage in diarthrodial joints, under physiologically relevant loading conditions. A biphasic continuum description is used to represent the soft tissue as a two-phase mixture of incompressible inviscid fluid and a hyperelastic, transversely isotropic solid. Alternate mixed-penalty and velocity-pressure finite element formulations are used to solve the nonlinear biphasic governing equations, including the effects of strain-dependent permeability and a hyperelastic solid phase under finite deformation. The resulting first-order, nonlinear system of equations is discretized in time using an implicit finite difference scheme, and solved using the Newton-Raphson method. Details of the formulations were presented in Part I [1]. In Part II, the two formulations are used to develop two-dimensional (2-D) quadrilateral and triangular elements and three-dimensional (3-D) hexahedral and tetrahedral elements. Numerical examples, including those representative of soft tissue material testing and simple human joints, are used to validate the formulations and to illustrate their applications. A focus of this work is the comparison of the alternate formulations for nonlinear problems. While it is demonstrated that both formulations produce a range of converging elements, the velocity-pressure formulation is found to be more efficient computationally.

  3. Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goulart, E [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salim, J M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bergliaffa, S E Perez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana, CEP 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-06-07

    It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology.

  4. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynhetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    conditions. Leaf gas exchanges were measured at 11 light intensities from 0 to 1,400 µmol/m2s, at 800 ppm CO2, 25°C, and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. In order to describe the data corresponding to diff erent measurement dates, the non-linear mixed-eff ects regression analysis was used. Th e model successfully...... described the photosynthetic responses. Th e analysis indicated signifi cant diff erences in light saturated photosynthetic rates and in light compensation points. Th e cultivar with the lower light compensation points (Escimo) maintained a higher carbon gain despite its lower (but not-signifi cant) quantum...... effi ciency. Th e results suggested acclimation response, as carbon assimilation rates and stomatal conductance at each measurement date were higher for Escimo than Mercedes. Diff erences in photosynthesis rates were attributed to the adaptive capacity of the cultivars to light conditions at a specifi...

  5. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynthetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, C.

    2011-01-01

    conditions. Leaf gas exchanges were measured at 11 light intensities from 0 to 1,400 μmol/m2s, at 800 ppm CO2, 25°C, and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. In order to describe the data corresponding to diff erent measurement dates, the non-linear mixed-eff ects regression analysis was used. Th e model successfully...... described the photosynthetic responses. Th e analysis indicated signifi cant diff erences in light saturated photosynthetic rates and in light compensation points. Th e cultivar with the lower light compensation points (Escimo) maintained a higher carbon gain despite its lower (but not-signifi cant) quantum...... effi ciency. Th e results suggested acclimation response, as carbon assimilation rates and stomatal conductance at each measurement date were higher for Escimo than Mercedes. Diff erences in photosynthesis rates were attributed to the adaptive capacity of the cultivars to light conditions at a specifi...

  6. Dynamics of the higher-order rogue waves for a generalized mixed nonlinear Schrödinger model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Dong-Yang; Qi, Feng-Hua; Shi, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Yin-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized mixed nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GMNLSE) which arises in several physical areas including the quantum field theory, weakly nonlinear dispersive water waves, and nonlinear optics. The linear stability analysis is performed and the instability zones as well as the modulational instability gain are obtained and discussed. Higher-order rogue waves (RWs) in terms of the determinants for the GMNLSE model are constructed by the N-fold Darboux transformation. Several patterns of the RWs are illustrated, such as the fundamental pattern, triangular pattern, circular pattern, pentagon pattern, circular-triangular pattern, and circular-fundamental pattern. Effects of the nonlinear parameters on the RWs are discussed. It is found that the nonlinear terms affect the widths and velocities of the RWs, although the amplitudes of these waves remain unchanged. The semirational RW solution, which is a combination of rational and exponential functions, is derived to describe the interaction between the RW and multi-breather.

  7. Comparison of linear, mixed integer and non-linear programming methods in energy system dispatch modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    differences and differences between the solution found by each optimisation method. One of the investigated approaches utilises LP (linear programming) for optimisation, one uses LP with binary operation constraints, while the third approach uses NLP (non-linear programming). The LP model is used...... of selected units by 23%, while for a non-linear approach the increase can be higher than 39%. The results indicate a higher coherence between the two latter approaches, and that the MLP (mixed integer programming) optimisation is most appropriate from a viewpoint of accuracy and runtime. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd...

  8. Effective ac response in weakly nonlinear composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Enbo [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang Zidong [College of Power Engineering, University of Shanghai Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gu Guoqing [Information College of Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2004-01-07

    The perturbation method is developed to deal with the problem of determining the effective nonlinear conductivity of Kerr-like nonlinear media under an external ac electric field. As an example, we have considered the cylindrical inclusion embedded in a host under the sinusoidal external field E{sub 1} sin (<{omega}t) + E{sub 3} sin (3<{omega}t) with frequencies{omega} and 3{omega}. The potentials of composites at higher harmonics are derived in both local inclusion particle and host regions. The effective responses of bulk nonlinear composites at basic frequency and harmonics are given for cylindrical composites in the dilute limit. Moreover, the relationships between the nonlinear effective responses at the basic frequency and the third harmonics are derived.

  9. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argyropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  10. Final Report---Next-Generation Solvers for Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programs: Structure, Search, and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderoth, Jeff T. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Luedtke, James R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-05-30

    The mathematical modeling of systems often requires the use of both nonlinear and discrete components. Problems involving both discrete and nonlinear components are known as mixed-integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) and are among the most challenging computational optimization problems. This research project added to the understanding of this area by making a number of fundamental advances. First, the work demonstrated many novel, strong, tractable relaxations designed to deal with non-convexities arising in mathematical formulation. Second, the research implemented the ideas in software that is available to the public. Finally, the work demonstrated the importance of these ideas on practical applications and disseminated the work through scholarly journals, survey publications, and conference presentations.

  11. A Two-grid Method with Expanded Mixed Element for Nonlinear Reaction-diffusion Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liu; Hong-xing Rui; Hui Guo

    2011-01-01

    Expanded mixed finite element approximation of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations is discussed. The equations considered here are used to model the hydrologic and bio-geochemical phenomena. To linearize the mixed-method equations, we use a two-grid method involving a small nonlinear system on a coarse gird of size H and a linear system on a fine grid of size h. Error estimates are derived which demonstrate that the error is O(△t + hk+1 + H2k+2-d/2) (k ≥ 1), where k is the degree of the approximating space for the primary variable and d is the spatial dimension. The above estimates are useful for determining an appropriate H for the coarse grid problems.

  12. Systems of general nonlinear set-valued mixed variational inequalities problems in Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the existing theorems and methods for finding solutions of systems of general nonlinear set-valued mixed variational inequalities problems in Hilbert spaces are studied. To overcome the difficulties, due to the presence of a proper convex lower semi-continuous function, φ and a mapping g, which appeared in the considered problem, we have used some applications of the resolvent operator technique. We would like to point out that although many authors have proved results for finding solutions of the systems of nonlinear set-valued (mixed variational inequalities problems, it is clear that it cannot be directly applied to the problems that we have considered in this paper because of φ and g. 2000 AMS Subject Classification: 47H05; 47H09; 47J25; 65J15.

  13. Non-linear mixed models in the analysis of mediated longitudinal data with binary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blood Emily A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation models (SEMs provide a general framework for analyzing mediated longitudinal data. However when interest is in the total effect (i.e. direct plus indirect of a predictor on the binary outcome, alternative statistical techniques such as non-linear mixed models (NLMM may be preferable, particularly if specific causal pathways are not hypothesized or specialized SEM software is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the NLMM in a setting where the SEM is presumed optimal. Methods We performed a simulation study to assess the performance of NLMMs relative to SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability, and power in the analysis of mediated binary longitudinal outcomes. Both logistic and probit models were evaluated. Models were also applied to data from a longitudinal study assessing the impact of alcohol consumption on HIV disease progression. Results For the logistic model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of a repeated predictor on the repeated binary outcome and were similar to the SEM across a variety of scenarios evaluating sample size, effect size, and distributions of direct vs. indirect effects. For the probit model, the NLMM adequately estimated the total effect of the repeated predictor, however, the probit SEM overestimated effects. Conclusions Both logistic and probit NLMMs performed well relative to corresponding SEMs with respect to bias, coverage probability and power. In addition, in the probit setting, the NLMM may produce better estimates of the total effect than the probit SEM, which appeared to overestimate effects.

  14. Inverse four-wave-mixing and self-parametric amplification effect in optical fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K; Bednyakova, Anastasia E; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Papernyi, Serguei B; Clements, Wallace R L

    2015-09-01

    An important group of nonlinear processes in optical fibre involves the mixing of four waves due to the intensity dependence of the refractive index. It is customary to distinguish between nonlinear effects that require external/pumping waves (cross-phase modulation and parametric processes such as four-wave mixing) and self-action of the propagating optical field (self-phase modulation and modulation instability). Here, we present a new nonlinear self-action effect, self-parametric amplification (SPA), which manifests itself as optical spectrum narrowing in normal dispersion fibre, leading to very stable propagation with a distinctive spectral distribution. The narrowing results from an inverse four-wave mixing, resembling an effective parametric amplification of the central part of the spectrum by energy transfer from the spectral tails. SPA and the observed stable nonlinear spectral propagation with random temporal waveform can find applications in optical communications and high power fibre lasers with nonlinear intra-cavity dynamics.

  15. Circuits and systems based on delta modulation linear, nonlinear and mixed mode processing

    CERN Document Server

    Zrilic, Djuro G

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended for students and professionals who are interested in the field of digital signal processing of delta-sigma modulated sequences. The overall focus is on the development of algorithms and circuits for linear, non-linear, and mixed mode processing of delta-sigma modulated pulse streams. The material presented here is directly relevant to applications in digital communication, DSP, instrumentation, and control.

  16. On the System of Nonlinear Mixed Implicit Equilibrium Problems in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeol Je Cho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the Wiener-Hopf equations and the Yosida approximation notions to prove the existence theorem of a system of nonlinear mixed implicit equilibrium problems (SMIE in Hilbert spaces. The algorithm for finding a solution of the problem (SMIE is suggested; the convergence criteria and stability of the iterative algorithm are discussed. The results presented in this paper are more general and are viewed as an extension, refinement, and improvement of the previously known results in the literature.

  17. Error estimations of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear problems of shallow shell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchevsky, M.

    2016-11-01

    The variational formulations of problems of equilibrium of a shallow shell in the framework of the geometrically and physically nonlinear theory by boundary conditions of different main types, including non-classical, are considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for their solvability are derived. Mixed finite element methods for the approximate solutions to these problems based on the use of second derivatives of the bending as auxiliary variables are proposed. Estimations of accuracy of approximate solutions are established.

  18. Detailed characterization of CW- and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Grüner-Nielsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative comparison of continuouswave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW and pulsed FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CWand pulsed-pump parametric gain...... bandwidth. However, an inverse scaling of the TOD with the dispersion fluctuations, leads to different CW-optimized fibers, which depend only on the even dispersion-orders....

  19. On a Mixed Nonlinear One Point Boundary Value Problem for an Integrodifferential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mesloub

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of a mixed problem for a nonlinear parabolic integro-differential equation which mainly arise from a one dimensional quasistatic contact problem. We prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions in a weighted Sobolev space. Proofs are based on some a priori estimates and on the Schauder fixed point theorem. we also give a result which helps to establish the regularity of a solution.

  20. On a Mixed Nonlinear One Point Boundary Value Problem for an Integrodifferential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesloub Said

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of a mixed problem for a nonlinear parabolic integro-differential equation which mainly arise from a one dimensional quasistatic contact problem. We prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions in a weighted Sobolev space. Proofs are based on some a priori estimates and on the Schauder fixed point theorem. we also give a result which helps to establish the regularity of a solution.

  1. Recent Issues on Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi; Inoue; Osamu; Aso; Shu; Namiki

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss the types of optical signal degradation due to fiber nonlinearity and review recently invented fibers for suppressing the effects. It also introduces efficiency of highly nonlinear fibers and their applications to nonlinear signal processing.

  2. Ability of non-linear mixed models to predict growth in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Galeano-Vasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Von Bertalanffy, Richards, Gompertz, Brody, and Logistics non-linear mixed regression models were compared for their ability to estimate the growth curve in commercial laying hens. Data were obtained from 100 Lohmann LSL layers. The animals were identified and then weighed weekly from day 20 after hatch until they were 553 days of age. All the nonlinear models used were transformed into mixed models by the inclusion of random parameters. Accuracy of the models was determined by the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria (AIC and BIC, respectively, and the correlation values. According to AIC, BIC, and correlation values, the best fit for modeling the growth curve of the birds was obtained with Gompertz, followed by Richards, and then by Von Bertalanffy models. The Brody and Logistic models did not fit the data. The Gompertz nonlinear mixed model showed the best goodness of fit for the data set, and is considered the model of choice to describe and predict the growth curve of Lohmann LSL commercial layers at the production system of University of Antioquia.

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetic analysis based on nonlinear mixed effect model%基于非线性混合效应模型的比较药动学分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李禄金; 李宪星; 许羚; 吕映华; 陈君超; 郑青山

    2011-01-01

    比较药动学研究贯穿药物研发的整个阶段,通过求算个体药动学参数,推测各处理因素间AUC、Cmax比值的90%置信区间,然后与事先设定的等效区间进行比较,最终判断各处理因素间是否等效,为用药剂量的合理调整提供依据.然而,很多比较药动学研究为稀疏采样设计,传统的统计矩法很难对个体药动学参数进行估计,此时需要借助群体药动学的计算方法,利用非线性混合效应模型进行计算.本研究在密集采样设计比较药动学研究实例基础之上,模拟稀疏采样过程,对稀疏数据采用非线性混合效应模型分析,原密集数据采用统计矩法分析,通过Bootstrap法1000次重复抽样,最终比较两种方法所得参数的90%置信区间.结果表明非线性混合效应模型对稀疏数据处理结果可靠,与统计矩法计算结果一致,为此类比较药动学研究提供了参考.%Comparative pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis is often carried out throughout the entire period of drug development the common approach for the assessment of pharmacokinetics between different treatments requires that the individual PK parameters, which employs estimation of 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of average parameters, such as AUC and Cmax, these 90% confidence intervals then need to be compared with the pre-specified equivalent interval, and last we determine whether the two treatments are equivalent. Unfortunately in many clinical circumstances. some or even all of the individuals can only be sparsely sampled, making the individual evaluation difficult by the conventional non-compartmental analysis. In such cases, nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM) could be applied to analyze the sparse data. In this article, we simulated a sparsety sampling design trial based on the dense sampling data from a truly comparative PK study. The sparse data were analyzed with NONMEM method, and the original dense data were analyzed with non

  4. Interference and non-linear properties of four-wave mixing resonances in thermal vapor: analytical results and experimental verification

    CERN Document Server

    Parniak, Michał

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model to calculate non-linear polarization in a non-degenerrate four-wave mixing in diamond configuration which includes the effects of hyperfine structure and Doppler broadening. We verify it against the experiment with $5^{2}S_{1/2}$, $5^{2}P_{3/2}$, $5^{2}D_{3/2}$ and $5^{2}P_{1/2}$ levels of rubidium 85. Uncomplicated algebra enables us to express the non-linear susceptibility of a thermal ensemble in low intensity regime in terms of Voight-like profiles and conforms precisely with the experiment. The agreement is also satisfactory at high intensity and the analytical model correctly predicts the position and shape of resonances. Our intelligible results elucidate the physics of coherent interaction of light with atoms involving higher excited levels in vapors at room temperature, which is used in an increasing range of applications.

  5. Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, S.; Sorokin, V. S.; Thomsen, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing-Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system, and approximate analytical steady-state solutions and corresponding stabilities are obtained by the method of varying amplitudes. Some general effects of pure quadratic, and mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on parametric amplification are shown. In particular, the effects of mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities may generate additional amplitude-frequency solutions. In this case an increased response and a more phase sensitive amplitude (phase between excitation frequencies) is obtained, as compared to the case with either pure quadratic or cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, jumps and bi-stability in the amplitude-phase characteristics are predicted, supporting previously reported experimental observations.

  6. A Second-Order Conditionally Linear Mixed Effects Model with Observed and Latent Variable Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Kohli, Nidhi; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    A conditionally linear mixed effects model is an appropriate framework for investigating nonlinear change in a continuous latent variable that is repeatedly measured over time. The efficacy of the model is that it allows parameters that enter the specified nonlinear time-response function to be stochastic, whereas those parameters that enter in a…

  7. A Fast GPU-accelerated Mixed-precision Strategy for Fully NonlinearWater Wave Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Madsen, Morten G.

    2011-01-01

    We present performance results of a mixed-precision strategy developed to improve a recently developed massively parallel GPU-accelerated tool for fast and scalable simulation of unsteady fully nonlinear free surface water waves over uneven depths (Engsig-Karup et.al. 2011). The underlying wave...... model is based on a potential flow formulation, which requires efficient solution of a Laplace problem at large-scales. We report recent results on a new mixed-precision strategy for efficient iterative high-order accurate and scalable solution of the Laplace problem using a multigrid......-preconditioned defect correction method. The improved strategy improves the performance by exploiting architectural features of modern GPUs for mixed precision computations and is tested in a recently developed generic library for fast prototyping of PDE solvers. The new wave tool is applicable to solve and analyze...

  8. Enhanced continuous-wave four-wave mixing efficiency in nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiratikul, Paveen; Wathen, Jeremiah J; Porkolab, Gyorgy A; Wang, Bohan; He, Lei; Murphy, Thomas E; Richardson, Christopher J K

    2014-11-03

    Enhancements of the continuous-wave four-wave mixing conversion efficiency and bandwidth are accomplished through the application of plasma-assisted photoresist reflow to reduce the sidewall roughness of sub-square-micron-modal area waveguides. Nonlinear AlGaAs optical waveguides with a propagation loss of 0.56 dB/cm demonstrate continuous-wave four-wave mixing conversion efficiency of -7.8 dB. Narrow waveguides that are fabricated with engineered processing produce waveguides with uncoated sidewalls and anti-reflection coatings that show group velocity dispersion of +0.22 ps²/m. Waveguides that are 5-mm long demonstrate broadband four-wave mixing conversion efficiencies with a half-width 3-dB bandwidth of 63.8-nm.

  9. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, A; Thygesen, P; Agersø, H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a mechanistic mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) (PKPD) model for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in hypophysectomized rats and to predict the human PKPD relationship. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A non-linear mixed-effects model...

  10. Characterization of nonlinear ultrasonic effects using the dynamic wavelet fingerprint technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongtao; Jiao, Jingpin; Meng, Xiangji; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    An improved dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) technique was developed to characterize nonlinear ultrasonic effects. The white area in the fingerprint was used as the nonlinear feature to quantify the degree of damage. The performance of different wavelet functions, the effect of scale factor and white subslice ratio on the nonlinear feature extraction were investigated, and the optimal wavelet function, scale factor and white subslice ratio for maximum damage sensitivity were determined. The proposed DWFP method was applied to the analysis of experimental signals obtained from nonlinear ultrasonic harmonic and wave-mixing experiments. It was demonstrated that the proposed DWFP method can be used to effectively extract nonlinear features from the experimental signals. Moreover, the proposed nonlinear fingerprint coefficient was sensitive to micro cracks and correlated well with the degree of damage.

  11. Development of coherent tunable source in 2–16 m region using nonlinear frequency mixing processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Udit Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    A very convenient way to obtain widely tunable source of coherent radiation in the infrared region is through nonlinear frequency mixing processes like second harmonic generation (SHG), difference-frequency mixing (DFM) or optical parametric oscillation (OPO). Using commonly available Nd:YAG laser and its harmonic pumped dye laser radiation as parent beams, we have been able to generate coherent tunable infrared radiation (IR) in 2–16 m region using different nonlinear crystals by DFM and OPO. We have also generated such IR source in the 4–5 m region through SHG of CO2 laser in different infrared crystals. In the process we have characterized a large number of nonlinear crystals like different borate group of crystals, KTP, KTA, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, GaSe, AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2, AgGa1−InSe2, HgGa2S4 etc. To improve the conversion efficiencies of such frequency conversion processes, we have developed some novel schemes, like multipass configuration (MC) and positive optical feedback (POF). The significance of the obtained results lies in the fact that to get the same conversion in SHG or DFM, one now requires fundamental input radiation with much lower intensity.

  12. Non-linear thermal engineering, chaotic advection and mixing; Thermique non-lineaire, melange et advection chaotique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was jointly organized by the `university group of thermal engineering (GUT)` and the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 7 papers entitled: `energy spectra of a passive scalar undergoing advection by a chaotic flow`; `analysis of chaotic behaviours: from topological characterization to modeling`; `temperature homogeneity by Lagrangian chaos in a direct current flow heat exchanger: numerical approach`; ` thermal instabilities in a mixed convection phenomenon: nonlinear dynamics`; `experimental characterization study of the 3-D Lagrangian chaos by thermal analogy`; `influence of coherent structures on the mixing of a passive scalar`; `evaluation of the performance index of a chaotic advection effect heat exchanger for a wide range of Reynolds numbers`. (J.S.)

  13. Tunable, Room Temperature CMOS-Compatible THz Emitters Based on Nonlinear Mixing in Microdisk Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Ahmadivand, Arash; Al-Amin, Chowdhury; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Shur, Michael; Pala, Nezih

    2016-03-01

    We propose and investigate in detail a novel tunable, compact, room temperature terahertz (THz) emitter using individual microdisk resonators for both optical and THz waves with the capability of radiating THz field in 0.5-10 THz range with tuning frequency resolution of 0.05 THz. Enhanced THz generation is achieved by employing a nonlinear optical disk resonator with a high value of second-order nonlinearity ( χ (2)) in order to facilitate the difference-frequency generation (DFG) via nonlinear mixing with the choice of two appropriate input infrared optical waves. Efficient coupling of infrared waves from bus to the nonlinear disk is ensured by satisfying critical coupling condition. Phase matching condition for efficient DFG process is also met by employing modal phase matching technique. Our simulations show that THz output power can be reached up to milliwatt (mW) level with high optical to THz conversion efficiency. The proposed source is Silicon on Insulator (SoI) technology compatible enabling the monolithic integration with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) electronics including plasmonic THz detectors.

  14. A Nonlinear Model of Mix Coil Spring – Rubber for Vertical Suspension of Railway Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a nonlinear model to represent the mechanical behaviour of a mix coil spring - rubber used in the secondary suspension of passenger rail vehicles. The principle of the model relies on overlapping of the forces corresponding to three components - the elastic component, the viscous component and the dry friction component. The model has two sources on non-linearity, in the elastic force and the friction force, respectively. The main attributes of the model are made visible by its response to an imposed displacement-type harmonic excitation. The results thus obtained from the applications of numerical simulation show a series of basic properties of the model, namely the dependence on amplitude and the excitation frequency of the model response, as well as of its stiffness and damping.

  15. An efficient hybrid / mixed element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of plate and shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear hybrid/mixed curved quadrilateral shell element (HMSHEL4N) with four nodes is developed based on the modified Hellinger/Reissner variational principles. The performance of element is investigated and tested using some benchmark problems. A number of numerical examples of plate and shell nonlinear deflection problems are included. The results are compared with theoretical solutions and other numerical results. It is shown that HMSHEL4N does not possess spurious zero energy modes and any locking phenomenon, and is convergent and insensitive to the distorted mesh. A good agreement of the results with theoretical solutions, and better performance compared with displacement finite element method, are observed. It is seen that an efficient shell element based on stress and displacement field assumptions in solution and time is obtained.

  16. Nonlinear Dispersion Effect on Wave Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijie; Dong-Young LEE

    2000-01-01

    A new nonlinear dispersion relation is given in this paper, which can overcome the limitation of the intermediate minimum value in the dispersion relation proposed by Kirby and Dalrymple (1986), and which has a better approximation to Hedges' empirical relation than the modilied relations by Hedges (1987). Kirby and Dahymple (1987) for shallow waters. The new dispersion relation is simple in form. thus it can be used easily in practice. Meanwhile. a general explicil approximalion to the new dispersion rela tion and olher nonlinear dispersion relations is given. By use of the explicit approximation to the new dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking inlo account weakly nonlinear effect, a mathematical model is obtained, and it is applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model developed vith the new dispersion relation predicts wave translornation over complicated topography quite well.

  17. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  18. Nonlinear peltier effect in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1998-11-01

    A theoretical analysis of the Peltier effect in two-dimensional quantum point contacts, in field-free conditions and under the influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated.

  19. Genome association study through nonlinear mixed models revealed new candidate genes for pig growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genome association analyses have been successful in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs for pig body weights measured at a single age. However, when considering the whole weight trajectories over time in the context of genome association analyses, it is important to look at the markers that affect growth curve parameters. The easiest way to consider them is via the two-step method, in which the growth curve parameters and marker effects are estimated separately, thereby resulting in a reduction of the statistical power and the precision of estimates. One efficient solution is to adopt nonlinear mixed models (NMM, which enables a joint modeling of the individual growth curves and marker effects. Our aim was to propose a genome association analysis for growth curves in pigs based on NMM as well as to compare it with the traditional two-step method. In addition, we also aimed to identify the nearest candidate genes related to significant SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The NMM presented a higher number of significant SNPs for adult weight (A and maturity rate (K, and provided a direct way to test SNP significance simultaneously for both the A and K parameters. Furthermore, all significant SNPs from the two-step method were also reported in the NMM analysis. The ontology of the three candidate genes (SH3BGRL2, MAPK14, and MYL9 derived from significant SNPs (simultaneously affecting A and K allows us to make inferences with regards to their contribution to the pig growth process in the population studied.

  20. Photoinduced processes and resonant third-order nonlinearity in poly (3-dodecylthiophene) studied by femtosecond time resolved degenerate four wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yang; Prasad, Paras N.

    1990-08-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of resonant third-order optical nonlinearity of chemically prepared poly(3-dodecylthiophene) by the degenerate four wave mixing technique using 60 fs pulses at 620 nm. The measured effective value of χ(3) is 5.5×10-11 esu, sixfold smaller than that obtained with 400 fs pulses, emphasizing the pulse width dependence of effective χ(3) when the relaxation time of the photogenerated excitation responsible for the optical nonlinearity is comparable to the pulse width. Within the resolution of the optical pulse, the rise time of the nonlinear response is instantaneous and the dominant decay occurs within 200 fs, revealing that the short time, nonlinear response is derived from the initially photogenerated excitons. A detailed analysis of the total decay behavior is consistent with the polaron dynamics of the conformational deformation model proposed by Su, Schrieffer, and Heeger for a conjugated linear polymer with bond alternation.

  1. Nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with a structured multi-component glass core for four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombelaine, Vincent; Labruyère, Alexis; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Reichel, Volker; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Jamier, Raphaël; Bartelt, Hartmut

    2009-08-31

    We report about a new type of nonlinear photonic crystal fibers allowing broadband four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. The microstructured optical fiber has a structured core consisting of a rod of highly nonlinear glass material inserted in a silica tube. This particular structure enables four wave mixing processes with very large frequency detuning (>135 THz), which permitted the generation of a wide supercontinuum spectrum extending over 1650 nm after 2.15 m of propagation length. The comparison with results obtained from germanium-doped holey fibers confirms the important role of the rod material properties regarding nonlinear process and dispersion.

  2. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by the strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by the nonlinear suscepti...

  3. Mixed dimensional infinite soliton trains for nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, LiRen; Tsai, Tai-Peng

    2015-01-01

    In this note we construct mixed dimensional infinite soliton trains, which are solutions of nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations whose asymptotic profiles at time infinity consist of infinitely many solitons of multiple dimensions. For example infinite line-point soliton trains in 2D space, and infinite plane-line-point soliton trains in 3D space. This note extends the works of Le Coz, Li and Tsai [5, 6], where single dimensional trains are considered. In our approach, spatial $L^\\infty$ bounds ...

  4. Numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations of mixed type. [finite difference approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of some recently developed numerical methods for the solution of nonlinear equations of mixed type. The methods considered use finite difference approximations to the differential equation. Central difference formulas are employed in the subsonic zone and upwind difference formulas are used in the supersonic zone. The relaxation method for the small disturbance equation is discussed and a description is given of difference schemes for the potential flow equation in quasi-linear form. Attention is also given to difference schemes for the potential flow equation in conservation form, the analysis of relaxation schemes by the time dependent analogy, the accelerated iterative method, and three-dimensional calculations.

  5. OBLIQUE DERIVATIVE PROBLEMS FOR SECOND ORDER NONLINEAR MIXED EQUATIONS WITH DEGENERATE LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Guochun

    2008-01-01

    The present article deals with oblique derivative problems for some nonlin-ear mixed equations with parabolic degeneracy, which include the Tricomi problem as a special case. First, the formulation of the problems for the equations is given; next, the representation and estimates of solutions for the above problems are obtained; finally, the existence of solutions for the problems is proved by the successive iteration and the com-pactness principle of solutions of the problems. In this article, the author uses the complex method, namely, the complex functions in the elliptic domain and the hyperbolic complex functions in hyperbolic domain are used.

  6. A mixed Newton-Tikhonov method for nonlinear ill-posed problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-gang KANG; Guo-qiang HE

    2009-01-01

    Newton type methods are one kind of the efficient methods to solve nonlinear ill-posed problems,which have attracted extensive attention.However,computational cost of Newton type methods is high because practical problems are complicated.We propose a mixed Newton-Tikhonov method,i.e.,one step Newton-Tikhonov method with several other steps of simplified Newton-Tikhonov method.Convergence and stability of this method are proved under some conditions.Numerical experiments show that the proposed method has obvious advantages over the classical Newton method in terms of computational costs.

  7. BIBO Stabilization of Discrete-Time Stochastic Control Systems with Mixed Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of bounded-input bounded-output (BIBO stabilization in mean square for a class of discrete-time stochastic control systems with mixed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations is investigated. Some novel delay-dependent stability conditions for the previously mentioned system are established by constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii function. These conditions are expressed in the forms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, whose feasibility can be easily checked by using MATLAB LMI Toolbox. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the validity of the obtained results.

  8. IMPROVED ERROR ESTIMATES FOR MIXED FINITE ELEMENT FOR NONLINEAR HYPERBOLIC EQUATIONS: THE CONTINUOUS-TIME CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ping Chen; Yun-qing Huang

    2001-01-01

    Improved L2-error estimates are computed for mixed finite element methods for second order nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Results are given for the continuous-time case. The convergence of the values for both the scalar function and the flux is demonstrated. The technique used here covers the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas spaces, as well as the higherorder spaces. A second paper will present the analysis of a fully discrete scheme (Numer.Math. J. Chinese Univ. vol.9, no.2, 2000, 181-192).

  9. An Optimal Error Estimates of H1-Galerkin Expanded Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Viscoelasticity-Type Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Che

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for nonlinear viscoelasticity equations based on H1-Galerkin method and expanded mixed element method. The existence and uniqueness of solutions to the numerical scheme are proved. A priori error estimation is derived for the unknown function, the gradient function, and the flux.

  10. Design and optimization of highly nonlinear low-dispersion crystal fiber with high birefringence for four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ni; Ren, Li-Yong; Gong, Yong-Kang; Li, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Lei-Ran; Sun, Chuan-Dong

    2010-06-01

    We have proposed a novel type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity for four-wave mixing. This type of fiber is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with a squeezed hexagonal lattice elliptical airhole along the fiber length. Its dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient are investigated simultaneously by using the full vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed highly nonlinear low-dispersion fiber has a total dispersion as low as +/-2.5 ps nm(-1) km(-1) over an ultrabroad wavelength range from 1.43 to 1.8 microm, and the corresponding nonlinearity coefficient and birefringence are about 150 W(-1) km(-1) and 2.5x10(-3) at 1.55 microm, respectively. The proposed PCF with low ultraflattened dispersion, high nonlinearity, and high birefringence can have important application in four-wave mixing.

  11. Metal-Free Flat Lens Using Negative Refraction by Nonlinear Four-wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jianjun; Feng, Yaming; Chen, Xianfeng; Wan, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    A perfect lens with unlimited resolution has always posed a challenge to both theoretical and experimental physicists. Recent developments in optical meta-materials promise an attractive approach towards perfect lenses using negative refraction to overcome the diffraction limit, improving resolution. However, those artificially engineered meta-materials usually company by high losses from metals and are extremely difficult to fabricate. An alternative proposal on using negative refraction by four-wave mixing has attracted much interests recently, though most of existing experiments still require metals and none of them has been implemented for an optical lens. Here we experimentally demonstrate a metal-free flat lens for the first time using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing with a simple thin glass slide. We realize optical lensing utilizing a nonlinear refraction law, which may have potential applications in infrared microscopy and super-resolution imaging.

  12. New nonlinear polarization effects for frequency selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodova, Tamara Y.; Karagodov, Alexander I.

    1998-05-01

    The method of computer simulations on nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects developed for real multi-level atoms in the two laser fields of arbitrary intensity and external magnetic field is applied for the polarization effects of different types calculations and investigations of the dependence of the characteristics of these effects on magnetic field strength, intensities, polarization and detunings of laser fields for alkaline atoms. The essence of the method consists in simulations and analysis of the plots of dependence of quasi energies on parameters, which are obtained with the help of sorting subprogram, and selection of suitable algorithms for calculations of characteristics of nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects. One photon and two photon resonant effects are investigated for wide range of magnetic field strength from Zeeman to Paschen Back effects. Some new features in the spectra of rotation of plane of polarization and circular dichroism of different types are predicted. The results show the agreement with known experiments. Such calculations of nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects in the intense laser fields resonant to adjacent transitions and magnetic field show the opportunity of investigation the modifications of electronic structure due to intense radiation fields and strong external magnetic field in atomic gases and also may be used for the treatment of new methods of phase-polarization selection of modes of tunable lasers.

  13. Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Logan G.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Wise, Frank W.

    2015-05-01

    Multimode fibres are of interest for next-generation telecommunications systems and the construction of high-energy fibre lasers. However, relatively little work has explored nonlinear pulse propagation in multimode fibres. Here, we consider highly nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in the anomalous-dispersion regime of a graded-index multimode fibre. Low modal dispersion and strong nonlinear coupling between the fibre's many spatial modes result in interesting behaviour. We observe spatiotemporal effects reminiscent of nonlinear optics in bulk media—self-focusing and multiple filamentation—at a fraction of the usual power. By adjusting the spatial initial conditions, we generate on-demand, megawatt, ultrashort pulses tunable between 1,550 and 2,200 nm dispersive waves over one octave; intense combs of visible light; and a multi-octave-spanning supercontinuum. Our results indicate that multimode fibres present unique opportunities for observing new spatiotemporal dynamics and phenomena. They also enable the realization of a new type of tunable, broadband fibre source that could be useful for many applications.

  14. On the solution of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models for computer aided molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Guennadi M; Achenie, Luke E K; Sinha, Manish

    2002-11-01

    This paper addresses the efficient solution of computer aided molecular design (CAMD) problems, which have been posed as mixed-integer nonlinear programming models. The models of interest are those in which the number of linear constraints far exceeds the number of nonlinear constraints, and with most variables participating in the nonconvex terms. As a result global optimization methods are needed. A branch-and-bound algorithm (BB) is proposed that is specifically tailored to solving such problems. In a conventional BB algorithm, branching is performed on all the search variables that appear in the nonlinear terms. This translates to a large number of node traversals. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a new strategy for branching on a set of linear branchingfunctions, which depend linearly on the search variables. This leads to a significant reduction in the dimensionality of the search space. The construction of linear underestimators for a class of functions is also presented. The CAMD problem that is considered is the design of optimal solvents to be used as cleaning agents in lithographic printing.

  15. Modal theory of slow light enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Sun, Junqiang; Li, Linsen

    2012-08-27

    In this paper, we derive the couple-mode equations for third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides by employing the modal theory. These nonlinear interactions include self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and degenerate four-wave mixing. The equations similar to that in nonlinear fiber optics could be expanded and applied for third-order nonlinear processes in other periodic waveguides. Based on the equations, we systematically analyze the group-velocity dispersion, optical propagation loss, effective interaction area, slow light enhanced factor and phase mismatch for a slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Considering the two-photon and free-carrier absorptions, the wavelength conversion efficiencies in two low-dispersion regions are numerically simulated by utilizing finite difference method. Finally, we investigate the influence of slow light enhanced multiple four-wave-mixing process on the conversion efficiency.

  16. Dynamical effects of overparametrization in nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Billings, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concemed with dynamical reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The effects of the driving function and of the complexity of a given representation on the bifurcation patter are investigated. It is shown that the use of different driving functions to excite the system may yield models with different bifurcation patterns. The complexity of the reconstructions considered is quantified by the embedding dimension and the number of estimated parameters. In this respect it appears that models which reproduce the original bifurcation behaviour are of limited complexity and that excessively complex models tend to induce ghost bifurcations and spurious dynamical regimes. Moreover, some results suggest that the effects of overparametrization on the global dynamical behaviour of a nonlinear model may be more deleterious than the presence of moderate noise levels. In order to precisely quantify the complexity of the reconstructions, global polynomials are used although the results are believed to apply to a much wider class of representations including neural networks.

  17. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.

  18. The Nonlinear Talbot Effect of Rogue Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Song, Jianping; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers are rogue wave solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLSE). Talbot effect (TE) is an image recurrence phenomenon in the diffraction of light waves. We report the nonlinear TE of rogue waves in a cubic medium. It is different from the linear TE, in that the wave propagates in a NL medium and is an eigenmode of NLSE. Periodic rogue waves impinging on a NL medium exhibit recurrent behavior, but only at the TE length and at the half-TE length with a \\pi-phase shift; the fractional TE is absent. The NL TE is the result of the NL interference of the lobes of rogue wave breathers. This interaction is related to the transverse period and intensity of breathers, in that the bigger the period and the higher the intensity, the shorter the TE length.

  19. Mixed and Penalty Finite Element Models for the Nonlinear Behavior of Biphasic Soft Tissues in Finite Deformation: Part I - Alternate Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, EDGARD S.; Spilker, ROBERT L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses finite element-based computational models for the three-dimensional, (3-D) nonlinear analysis of soft hydrated tissues, such as the articular cartilage in diarthrodial joints, under physiologically relevant loading conditions. A biphasic continuum description is used to represent the soft tissue as a two-phase mixture of incompressible, inviscid fluid and a hyperelastic solid. Alternate mixed-penalty and velocity-pressure finite element formulations are used to solve the nonlinear biphasic governing equations, including the effects of a strain-dependent permeability and a hyperelastic solid phase under finite deformation. The resulting first-order nonlinear system of equations is discretized in time using an implicit finite difference scheme, and solved using the Newton-Raphson method. Using a discrete divergence operator, an equivalence is shown between the mixed-penalty method and a penalty method previously derived by Suh et al. [1]. In Part II [2], the mixed-penalty and velocity-pressure formulations are used to develop two-dimensional (2-D) quadrilateral and triangular elements and 3-D hexahedral and tetrahedral elements. Numerical examples, including those representative of soft tissue material testing and simple human joints, are used to validate the formulations and to illustrate their applications. A focus of this work is the comparison of alternate formulations for nonlinear problems. While it is demonstrated that both formulations produce a range of converging elements, the velocity-pressure formulation is found to be more efficient computationally.

  20. Radiation-reaction-force-induced nonlinear mixing of Raman sidebands of an ultraintense laser pulse in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2013-09-06

    Stimulated Raman scattering of an ultraintense laser pulse in plasmas is studied by perturbatively including the leading order term of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation reaction force in the equation of motion for plasma electrons. In this approximation, the radiation reaction force causes a phase shift in nonlinear current densities that drive the two Raman sidebands (anti-Stokes and Stokes waves), manifesting itself into the nonlinear mixing of two sidebands. This mixing results in a strong enhancement in the growth of the forward Raman scattering instability.

  1. A Nonlinear Galerkin/Petrov-Least Squares Mixed Element Method for the Stationary Navier-Stokes Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振东; 朱江; 王会军

    2002-01-01

    A nonlinear Galerkin/ Petrov- least squares mixed element (NGPLSME) method for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations is presented and analyzed. The scheme is that Petrov-least squares forms of residuals are added to the nonlinear Galerkin mixed element method so that it is stable for any combination of discrete velocity and pressure spaces without requiring the Babuska-Brezzi stability condition. The existence, uniqueness and convergence ( at optimal rate ) of the NGPLSME solution is proved in the case of sufficient viscosity ( or small data).

  2. Broadband wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Demokan, M S

    2005-09-15

    We demonstrate a 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a 20 m highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. The tunable wavelength conversion bandwidth (3 dB) is about 100 nm. The conversion efficiency is -16 dB when the pump power is 22.5 dBm. Phase modulation was not used to suppress the stimulated Brillouin scattering; thus the linewidth of the converted wavelength remained very narrow. The eye diagrams show that there is no additional noise during wavelength conversion. The measured power penalty at a 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is about 0.7 dB.

  3. Detailed characterization of CW- and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillieholm, M; Galili, M; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Oxenløwe, L K

    2016-11-01

    We present a quantitative comparison of continuous-wave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW- and pulsed-pump FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CW- and pulsed-pump parametric gain is characterized experimentally for several HNLFs with various dispersion properties, including zero-dispersion wavelength fluctuations, and the results are interpreted in conjunction with detailed numerical simulations. It is found that a low third-order dispersion (TOD) is essential for the pulsed-pump FWM bandwidth. However, an inverse scaling of the TOD with the dispersion fluctuations leads to different CW-optimized fibers, which depend only on the even dispersion orders.

  4. Phase quadrature discrimination based on three-pump four-wave mixing in nonlinear optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Maxime; Gay, Mathilde; Peucheret, Christophe; Michel, Joindot; Chartier, Thierry

    2016-11-14

    We theoretically and experimentally study the principle of phase-sensitive frequency conversion in a highly-nonlinear fiber using three pump waves. This mechanism, originally demonstrated with four continuous-wave pumps and a signal wave, is based on four-wave mixing and enables to convert the two quadrature components of the signal to different frequencies. In this work, we derive a set of two simple equations to describe this mechanism and find analytic solutions. We show that only three pumps are required, instead of four as originally proposed. We give simple relations to determine the initial conditions for the power levels and the phases of the pumps. To validate this approach, we perform an experimental demonstration of the three-pump scheme and find excellent agreement with the theory.

  5. Measurement of the Beam Longitudinal Profile in a Storage Ring by Non-Linear Laser Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid-state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of un trapped particles, and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets ("ghost bunches").

  6. A refined mixed shear flexible finite element for the nonlinear analysis of laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, N. S.; Reddy, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development of a mixed shear flexible finite element with relaxed continuity for the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of laminated anisotropic plates. The formulation of the element is based on a refined higher-order theory. This theory satisfies the zero transverse shear stress boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate. Shear correction coefficients are not needed. The developed element consists of 11 degrees-of-freedom per node, taking into account three displacements, two rotations, and six moment resultants. An evaluation of the element is conducted with respect to the accuracy obtained in the bending of laminated anistropic rectangular plates with different lamination schemes, loadings, and boundary conditions.

  7. Exponential L2-L∞ Filtering for a Class of Stochastic System with Mixed Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay-dependent exponential L2-L∞ performance analysis and filter design are investigated for stochastic systems with mixed delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on the delay partitioning and integral partitioning technique, an improved delay-dependent sufficient condition for the existence of the L2-L∞ filter is established, by choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and constructing a new integral inequality. The full-order filter design approaches are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. By solving the LMIs and using matrix decomposition, the desired filter gains can be obtained, which ensure that the filter error system is exponentially stable with a prescribed L2-L∞ performance γ. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and significant improvement of the proposed method.

  8. A Neural Network Based Hybrid Mixture Model to Extract Information from Non-linear Mixed Pixels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Signals acquired by sensors in the real world are non-linear combinations, requiring non-linear mixture models to describe the resultant mixture spectra for the endmember’s (pure pixel’s distribution. This communication discusses inferring class fraction through a novel hybrid mixture model (HMM. HMM is a three-step process, where the endmembers are first derived from the images themselves using the N-FINDR algorithm. These endmembers are used by the linear mixture model (LMM in the second step that provides an abundance estimation in a linear fashion. Finally, the abundance values along with the training samples representing the actual ground proportions are fed into neural network based multi-layer perceptron (MLP architecture as input to train the neurons. The neural output further refines the abundance estimates to account for the non-linear nature of the mixing classes of interest. HMM is first implemented and validated on simulated hyper spectral data of 200 bands and subsequently on real time MODIS data with a spatial resolution of 250 m. The results on computer simulated data show that the method gives acceptable results for unmixing pixels with an overall RMSE of 0.0089 ± 0.0022 with LMM and 0.0030 ± 0.0001 with the HMM when compared to actual class proportions. The unmixed MODIS images showed overall RMSE with HMM as 0.0191 ± 0.022 as compared to the LMM output considered alone that had an overall RMSE of 0.2005 ± 0.41, indicating that individual class abundances obtained from HMM are very close to the real observations.

  9. Analysis of nonlinear frequency mixing in 1D waveguides with a breathing crack using the spectral finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, M.

    2015-11-01

    A breathing crack, due to its bilinear stiffness characteristics, modifies the frequency spectrum of a propagating dual-frequency elastic wave, and gives rise to sidebands around the probing frequency. This paper presents an analytical-numerical method to investigate such nonlinear frequency mixing resulting from the modulation effects induced by a breathing crack in 1D waveguides, such as axial rods and the Euler-Bernoulli beams. A transverse edge-crack is assumed to be present in both the waveguides, and the local flexibility caused by the crack is modeled using an equivalent spring approach. A simultaneous treatment of both the waveguides, in the framework of the Fourier transform based spectral finite element method, is presented for analyzing their response to a dual frequency excitation applied in the form of a tone-burst signal. The intermittent contact between the crack surfaces is accounted for by introducing bilinear contact forces acting at the nodes of the damage spectral element. Subsequently, an iterative approach is outlined for solving the resulting system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. Applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by considering several test cases. The existence of sidebands and the higher order harmonics is confirmed in the frequency domain response of both the waveguides under investigation. A qualitative comparison with the previous experimental observations accentuates the utility of the proposed solution method. Additionally, the influence of the two constituent frequencies in the dual frequency excitation is assessed by varying the relative strengths of their amplitudes. A brief parametric study is performed for bringing out the effects of the relative crack depth and crack location on the degree of modulation, which is quantified in terms of the modulation parameter. Results of the present investigation can find their potential use in providing an analytical-numerical support to the studies geared towards the

  10. The Geometric Nonlinear Generalized Brazier Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    denoted the generalized Brazier effect. The original work of Brazier dealt with very large deformations that changed the cross section significantly and hereby also the bending moment of inertia and the bending moment capacity. In this paper the aim is to describe the Brazier effect for smaller...... that the generalized Brazier effect is a local effect not influencing the overall mechanical behavior of the structure significantly. The offset is a nonlinear geometric beam-type Finite Element calculation, which takes into account the large displacements and rotations. The beam-type model defines the stresses which...... deformation not taking into account the change in moment of inertia. However, the generalized Brazier effect gives additional stresses directed perpendicular to the beam axis. In composite structures these extra stresses may influence the fatigue life significantly. The paper demonstrates a linearized method...

  11. Enhanced Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity through cascaded Pockels effects

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guang-Zhen; Jiang, Hao-Wei; Chen, Xian-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a large enhancement of Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity through cascaded Pockels effects in a domain inversion ferroelectric crystal. We designed a structure that can implement the cascaded Pockels effects and second-harmonic generation simultaneously. The energy coupling between the fundamental lights of different polarizations led to a large nonlinear phase shift, and thus an effective electro-optic nonlinear refractive index. The effective nonlinearity can be either positive or negative, causing the second-harmonic spectra to move towards the coupling center, which in turn, offered us a way to measure the effective electro-optic nonlinear refractive index. The corresponding enhanced Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity is more than three orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic value. These results open a door to manipulate the nonlinear phase by applying external electric field instead of light intensity in noncentrosymmetric crystals.

  12. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on Bragg scattering in the low-conversion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Cargill, D. S.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation on frequency conversion by four-wave mixing (Bragg scattering) in the low-conversion regime. We derive the Green functions for this process using the time-domain collision method, for partial collisions, in which the four fields...

  13. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  14. Analysis on the effect of nonlinear polarization evolution in nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qu; Xiaoming Liu; Pu Zhang; Xubiao Jiang; Hongming Zhang; Minyu Yao

    2005-01-01

    By considering the cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two orthogonal poparization components,the nonlinear birefringence and nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) in highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF),as well as the unequal evolutions of the state of polarization (SOP) between the clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) waves in a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) are analyzed. It is pointed out that the traditional cosine expression is no longer valid for the power transmission of NALM due to uncompleted interference under the high power condition. The analytical expression considering NPE effect is derived, and the experimental result is presented.

  15. Nonlinear waves in lattice materials: Adaptively augmented directivity and functionality enhancement by modal mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, R.; Gonella, S.

    2017-02-01

    The motive of this work is to understand the complex spatial characteristics of finite-amplitude elastic wave propagation in periodic structures and leverage the unique opportunities offered by nonlinearity to activate complementary functionalities and design adaptive spatial wave manipulators. The underlying assumption is that the magnitude of wave propagation is small with respect to the length scale of the structure under consideration, albeit large enough to elicit the effects of finite deformation. We demonstrate that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity and modal complexity involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary wave packets that feature multiple characteristics, one of which conforms to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. This provides an opportunity to engineer desired wave characteristics through a geometric and topological design of the unit cell, and results in the ability to activate complementary functionalities, typical of high frequency regimes, while operating at low frequencies of excitation - an effect seldom observed in linear periodic structures. The ability to design adaptive switches is demonstrated here using lattice configurations whose response is characterized by geometric and/or material nonlinearities.

  16. effects of mixed of mixed of mixed alkaline earth oxides in potash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide. The aim of this ... been studied. As for the method used, raw materials were collected, batch calculations were made, and the batches ... This research work therefore ...

  17. Ecology: Nonlinearity and the Moran effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasius, Bernd; Stone, Lewi

    2000-08-01

    The study of synchronization phenomena in ecology is important because it helps to explain interactions between population dynamics and extrinsic environmental variation. Grenfell et al. have examined synchronized fluctuations in the sizes of two populations of feral sheep which, although situated on close but isolated islands, were nevertheless strongly correlated (observed value of the population correlation, rp, 0.685). Using a nonlinear threshold model, they argue that this level of population correlation could only be explained if environmental stochasticity was correlated between the islands, with the environmental correlation, re, higher than 0.9 ``on average'' (Fig. 1a). This unusually high environmental correlation is far greater than would be predicted by the Moran effect, which states that the population correlation will equal the environmental correlation in a linear system. Grenfell et al. imply that a simple nonlinearity in population growth can mask or even destroy the Moran effect. Here we show that these surprising results are an artefact of the techniques used to measure noise correlations and synchronization.

  18. Detailed Characterization of Continuous-Wave and Pulsed-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    We explore the parametric gain differences for continuous-wave and pulse-pumped four-wave mixing, using various highly nonlinear fibers. Detailed simulations support our findings that the dispersion slope determines the experimentally observed differences, limiting the pulsed-pump performance....

  19. Mixed mono- and multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s with non-linear optically active side chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, M.N.; Hagting, J.G.; Oostergetel, G.T.; Schouten, A.J.; Devillers, M.A.C.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The properties and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett mono- and multilayers of several poly(isocyanide)s with non-linear optically active side-chains were studied. These polymers formed very rigid layers or layers which appeared to be unstable. To circumvent this problem they were mixed with other poly(

  20. Bragg-Scattering Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibers with Intracavity Frequency-Shifted Laser Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krupa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally study four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers using two independent and partially coherent laser pumps and a third coherent signal. We focus our attention on the Bragg-scattering frequency conversion. The two pumps were obtained by amplifying two Intracavity frequency-shifted feedback lasers working in a continuous wave regime.

  1. Strong coupling between coherent gratings due to nonlinear spatial frequency mixing in Bi12SiO20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Buchhave, P.; Petersen, Paul Michael

    1996-01-01

    investigate the numerical calculations experimentally in a three-wave mixing setup and obtain good agreement between the experimental data and our predictions. Experimentally, we observe relative changes in the diffraction efficiency up to 500% due to nonlinear interactions between gratings...

  2. Modal Identification Using OMA Techniques: Nonlinearity Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an assessment of the state of the art of operational modal analysis (OMA methodologies in estimating modal parameters from output responses of nonlinear structures. By means of the Volterra series, the nonlinear structure excited by random excitation is modeled as best linear approximation plus a term representing nonlinear distortions. As the nonlinear distortions are of stochastic nature and thus indistinguishable from the measurement noise, a protocol based on the use of the random phase multisine is proposed to reveal the accuracy and robustness of the linear OMA technique in the presence of the system nonlinearity. Several frequency- and time-domain based OMA techniques are examined for the modal identification of simulated and real nonlinear mechanical systems. Theoretical analyses are also provided to understand how the system nonlinearity degrades the performance of the OMA algorithms.

  3. Improvement of nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide in mixed with Ag2S@ZnS core-shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanzadeh, M.; Dehghanipour, M.; Karimipour, M.; Molaei, M.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear optical properties including size and sign of nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of Graphene Oxide (GO), Ag2S@ZnS quantum dots and GO-Ag2S@ZnS were investigated using a Z-scan technique by laser diode with 532 nm wavelength. Third-order susceptibility of the compounds was calculated and compared with the reported values. By comparing the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of GO and the mixture of GO-Ag2S@ZnS, it was observed that the NLO properties of GO were increased using simply mixing with Ag2S@ZnS quantum dots. It was also observed that with increase of sonication time, the NLO properties of the mixture increased accordingly.

  4. Explicit mixed strain-displacement finite element for dynamic geometrically non-linear solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, N. M.; Rossi, R.; Cervera, M.; Chiumenti, M.

    2015-03-01

    Low-order finite elements face inherent limitations related to their poor convergence properties. Such difficulties typically manifest as mesh-dependent or excessively stiff behaviour when dealing with complex problems. A recent proposal to address such limitations is the adoption of mixed displacement-strain technologies which were shown to satisfactorily address both problems. Unfortunately, although appealing, the use of such element technology puts a large burden on the linear algebra, as the solution of larger linear systems is needed. In this paper, the use of an explicit time integration scheme for the solution of the mixed strain-displacement problem is explored as an alternative. An algorithm is devised to allow the effective time integration of the mixed problem. The developed method retains second order accuracy in time and is competitive in terms of computational cost with the standard irreducible formulation.

  5. Nonvolatile Memory Based on Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Chai, Yisheng; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Tian, Ying; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics have a great potential in creating next-generation memory devices. We use an alternative concept of nonvolatile memory based, on a type of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects showing a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop. The principle is to utilize the states of the magnetoelectric coefficient, instead of magnetization, electric polarization, or resistance, to store binary information. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure clearly demonstrate that the sign of the magnetoelectric coefficient can be repeatedly switched between positive and negative by applying electric fields, confirming the feasibility of this principle. This kind of nonvolatile memory has outstanding practical virtues such as simple structure, easy operation in writing and reading, low power, fast speed, and diverse materials available.

  6. Efficient four-wave mixing in an ultra-highly nonlinear suspended-core chalcogenide As38Se62 fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Sy Dat; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Thual, Monique; Bramerie, Laurent; Costa e Silva, Marcia; Lenglé, Kevin; Gay, Mathilde; Chartier, Thierry; Brilland, Laurent; Méchin, David; Toupin, Perrine; Troles, Johann

    2011-12-12

    We report a chalcogenide suspended-core fiber with ultra-high nonlinearity and low attenuation loss. The glass composition is As(38)Se(62).With a core diameter as small as 1.13 µm, a record Kerr nonlinearity of 46,000 W(-1) km(-1) is demonstrated with attenuation loss of 0.9 dB/m. Four-wave mixing is experimented by using a 1m-long chalcogenide fiber for 10 GHz and 42.7 GHz signals. Four-wave mixing efficiencies of -5.6 dB at 10 GHz and -17.5 dB at 42.7 GHz are obtained. We also observed higher orders of four-wave mixing for both repetition rates. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  7. Nonlinear optical properties and optical power limiting effect of Giemsa dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, Imad Al-Deen Hussein A.; Abdulkareem, Saif Al-Deen

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Giemsa dye in chloroform solution for different concentrations and dye mixed with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as a dye-doped polymer film were investigated using continuous wave (CW) low power solid-state laser (SSL) operating at wavelength of 532 nm as an excitation source. Using the single beam z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index (n2), the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)) of Giemsa dye were measured. The measurements reveal that both n2 and β are dependent on the dye concentration. The obtained results indicate that the Giemsa dye exhibits positive nonlinear saturable absorption (SA) and negative refraction nonlinearity, manifestation of self-defocusing effect. Optical power limiting characteristics of the Giemsa dye at different concentrations in solution and polymer film were studied. The observed large third-order optical nonlinearity of Giemsa dye confirms that Giemsa dye is a promising nonlinear material for the optical power limiting and photonic devices applications.

  8. Robust Exponential Stability Criteria of LPD Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanit Mukdasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of robust exponential stability for linear parameter-dependent (LPD systems with discrete and distributed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Parameter dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, and linear matrix inequality are proposed to analyze the stability. On the basis of the estimation and by utilizing free-weighting matrices, new delay-dependent exponential stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  9. Incorporation of Fixed Installation Costs into Optimization of Groundwater Remediation with a New Efficient Surrogate Nonlinear Mixed Integer Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Christine; Wan, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Optimization of nonlinear water resources management issues which have a mixture of fixed (e.g. construction cost for a well) and variable (e.g. cost per gallon of water pumped) costs has been not well addressed because prior algorithms for the resulting nonlinear mixed integer problems have required many groundwater simulations (with different configurations of decision variable), especially when the solution space is multimodal. In particular heuristic methods like genetic algorithms have often been used in the water resources area, but they require so many groundwater simulations that only small systems have been solved. Hence there is a need to have a method that reduces the number of expensive groundwater simulations. A recently published algorithm for nonlinear mixed integer programming using surrogates was shown in this study to greatly reduce the computational effort for obtaining accurate answers to problems involving fixed costs for well construction as well as variable costs for pumping because of a substantial reduction in the number of groundwater simulations required to obtain an accurate answer. Results are presented for a US EPA hazardous waste site. The nonlinear mixed integer surrogate algorithm is general and can be used on other problems arising in hydrology with open source codes in Matlab and python ("pySOT" in Bitbucket).

  10. Phase mixing vs. nonlinear advection in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Schekochihin, A A; Highcock, E G; Dellar, P J; Dorland, W; Hammett, G W

    2015-01-01

    A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g., drift-wave turbulence driven by temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating ExB flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. A consistent theory is constructed in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wave-number space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also i...

  11. Time domain analysis of nonlinear frequency mixing in a slender beam for localizing a breathing crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, D. M.; Mitra, Mira

    2017-02-01

    The nonlinear interaction of a dual frequency flexural wave with a breathing crack generates a peculiar frequency mixing phenomena, which is manifested in form of the side bands or peaks at combinations frequencies in frequency spectrum of the response. Although these peaks have been proven useful in ascertaining the presence of crack, they barely carry any information about the crack location. In this regards, the present article analyzes the time domain representation of the response obtained by employing a wavelet spectral finite element method. The study reveals that the combination tones generated at the crack location travel with dissimilar speeds along the waveguide, owing to its dispersive nature. The separation between the lobes corresponding to these combination tones therefore, depends on the distance that they have travelled. This observation is then used to formulate a method to predict the crack location with respect to the sensor. A brief parametric study shows marginal errors in predicting the crack location, which ascertains the validity of the method. This article also studies the frequency spectrum of the response. The peaks at combination tones are quantified in terms of a modulate parameter which depends on the severity of the crack. The inferences drawn from the time and the frequency domain study can be instrumental in designing a robust strategy for detecting location and severity of the crack.

  12. Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits through mixed integer non-linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits.

  13. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  14. Theory of plasmonic effects in nonlinear optics: the case of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Habib; Polini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We develop a microscopic large-$N$ theory of electron-electron interaction corrections to multi-legged Feynman diagrams describing second- and third-order nonlinear response functions. Our theory, which reduces to the well-known random phase approximation in the linear-response limit, is completely general and is useful to understand all second- and third-order nonlinear effects, including harmonic generation, wave mixing, and photon drag. We apply our theoretical framework to the case of graphene, by carrying out microscopic calculations of the second- and third-order nonlinear response functions of an interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of massless Dirac fermions. We compare our results with recent measurements, where all-optical launching of graphene plasmons has been achieved by virtue of the finiteness of the quasi-homogeneous second-order nonlinear response of this inversion-symmetric 2D material.

  15. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  16. Analytical evaluation of nonlinear distortion effects on multicarrier signals

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to support reliable high quality of service as well as spectral and power efficiency, multicarrier modulation systems have found increasing use in modern communications services. However, one of the main drawbacks of these systems is their vulnerability to nonlinear distortion effects. Analytical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects on Multicarrier Signals details a unified approach to well-known analytical results on memoryless nonlinearities that takes advantage of the Gaussian behavior of multicarrier signals.Sharing new insights into the behavior of nonlinearly d

  17. Terahertz generation based on four-wave mixing difference frequency by resonance-enhanced third-order nonlinear of media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-hua; YAO Jian-quan; ZHOU Rui; WEN Wu-qi; XU De-gang; WANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Using nanosecond pulse near-infrared and mid-infrared laser pulses as the pump source,we obtain terahertz wave sources via four-wave difference frequency mixing.From the coupled wave theory,.we analyze the four-wave mixing process of GaSe crystal and alkali metal vapor in detail,get the analytical expression of terahertz wave output power,and discuss the conditions for achieving phase matching.By adjusting the pump frequency,the third-order nonlinear polarization of alkali metal vapor is resonance-enhanced.This program offers a new type of high-power terahertz radiation source.

  18. Optical nonlinear response function with linear and diagonal quadratic electron-vibration coupling in mixed quantum-classical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Mohamad

    2005-03-22

    While an optical linear response function of linearly and quadratically coupled mixed quantum-classical condensed-phase systems was derived by Toutounji [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 2228 (2004)], the corresponding analytical optical line shape is derived. The respective nonlinear correlation functions are also derived. Model calculations involving photon-echo, pump-probe, and hole-burning signals of model systems with both linear and quadratic coupling are provided. Hole-burning formula of Hayes-Small is compared to that of Mukamel in mixed quantum-classical systems.

  19. Comment on “Conservation Laws of Two (2 + 1-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations with Higher-Order Mixed Derivatives”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Zhang (2013, the author claims that he has proposed two rules to modify Ibragimov’s theorem on conservation laws to “ensure the theorem can be applied to nonlinear evolution equations with any mixed derivatives.” In this letter, we analysis the paper. Indeed, the so-called “modification rules” are needless and the theorem of Ibragimov can be applied to construct conservation laws directly for nonlinear equations with any mixed derivatives as long as the formal Lagrangian is rewritten in symmetric form. Moreover, the conservation laws obtained by the so-called “modification rules” in the paper under discussion are equivalent to the one obtained by Ibragimov’s theorem.

  20. Three-wave mixing of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves: extraordinary transients in the nonlinear reflectivity and parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabko, Vitaly V; Popov, Alexander K; Tkachenko, Viktor A; Myslivets, Sergey A

    2016-09-01

    Three-wave mixing of ordinary and backward electromagnetic waves in a pulsed regime is investigated in the metamaterials that enable the coexistence and phase-matching of such waves. It is shown that the opposite direction of phase velocity and energy flux in backward waves gives rise to extraordinary transient processes due to greatly enhanced optical parametric amplification and frequency up- and down-shifting nonlinear reflectivity. The differences are illustrated through comparison with the counterparts in ordinary, co-propagating settings.

  1. Extinction ratio improvement by pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K K; Shu, C; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2005-10-31

    We demonstrate extinction ratio improvement by using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. A 6-dB improvement in the extinction ratio of a degraded return-to-zero signal has been achieved. A power penalty improvement of 3 dB at 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is obtained in the 10 Gb/s bit-error-rate measurements.

  2. Mixed-Metal Carbonate Fluorides as Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T Thao; Young, Joshua; Rondinelli, James M; Halasyamani, P Shiv

    2017-01-25

    Noncentrosymmetric mixed-metal carbonate fluorides are promising materials for deep-ultraviolet (DUV) nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. We report on the synthesis, characterization, structure-property relationships, and electronic structure calculations on two new DUV NLO materials: KMgCO3F and Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5. Both materials are noncentrosymmetric (NCS). KMgCO3F crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar NCS space group P6̅2m, whereas Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5 is found in the polar space group Pmn21. The compounds have three-dimensional structures built up from corner-shared magnesium oxyfluoride and magnesium oxide octahedra. KMgCO3F (Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5) exhibits second-order harmonic generation (SHG) at both 1064 and 532 nm incident radiation with efficiencies of 120 (20) × α-SiO2 and 0.33 (0.10) × β-BaB2O4, respectively. In addition, short absorption edges of <200 and 208 nm for KMgCO3F and Cs9Mg6(CO3)8F5, respectively, are observed. We compute the electron localization function and density of states of these two compounds using first-principles density functional theory, and show that the different NLO responses arise from differences in the denticity and alignment of the anionic carbonate units. Finally, an examination of the known SHG active AMCO3F (A = alkali metal, M = alkaline earth metal, Zn, Cd, or Pb) materials indicates that, on average, smaller A cations and larger M cations result in increased SHG efficiencies.

  3. A quadratic approximation-based algorithm for the solution of multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems

    KAUST Repository

    Domínguez, Luis F.

    2012-06-25

    An algorithm for the solution of convex multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems arising in process engineering problems under uncertainty is introduced. The proposed algorithm iterates between a multiparametric nonlinear programming subproblem and a mixed-integer nonlinear programming subproblem to provide a series of parametric upper and lower bounds. The primal subproblem is formulated by fixing the integer variables and solved through a series of multiparametric quadratic programming (mp-QP) problems based on quadratic approximations of the objective function, while the deterministic master subproblem is formulated so as to provide feasible integer solutions for the next primal subproblem. To reduce the computational effort when infeasibilities are encountered at the vertices of the critical regions (CRs) generated by the primal subproblem, a simplicial approximation approach is used to obtain CRs that are feasible at each of their vertices. The algorithm terminates when there does not exist an integer solution that is better than the one previously used by the primal problem. Through a series of examples, the proposed algorithm is compared with a multiparametric mixed-integer outer approximation (mp-MIOA) algorithm to demonstrate its computational advantages. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  4. A Novel Effective Approach for Solving Fractional Nonlinear PDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminikhah, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Nasrin; Rezazadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    The present work introduces an effective modification of homotopy perturbation method for the solution of nonlinear time-fractional biological population model and a system of three nonlinear time-fractional partial differential equations. In this approach, the solution is considered a series expansion that converges to the nonlinear problem. The new approximate analytical procedure depends only on two iteratives. The analytical approximations to the solution are reliable and confirm the ability of the new homotopy perturbation method as an easy device for computing the solution of nonlinear equations.

  5. Effects of Particle Shape and Microstructure on Effective Nonlinear Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-Ping; LI Zhen-Ya

    2001-01-01

    We consider a binary granular composite medium, in which two materials have high-order nonlinearities.The effect of particle shape on effective nonlinear response (ENR) is investigated by assuming all the particles to be shaped as uniaxial ellipsoid. We discuss two types of arrangements of particles: 1) parallel axes (Case I); 2) random axes (Case II). During the process of numerical calculation, one component material is assumed to be linear, and two kinds of conductors are assumed to be at high conducting contrast. We find that: 1) the shape effect on ENR is possibly strong; 2) the enhanced ENR can even be obtained by choosing particles of appropriate ellipsoidal shapes; 3) the ENR enhancement predicted by Case I is much stronger than that by Case II.``

  6. Electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves: The critical wave intensity for nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com; Vasiliev, A. A. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V. [LPC2E/CNRS—University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Agapitov, O. V. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we consider high-energy electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves via the Landau resonance. We use recent spacecraft observations in the radiation belts to construct the whistler wave model. The main purpose of the paper is to provide an estimate of the critical wave amplitude for which the nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction becomes more important than particle scattering. To this aim, we derive an analytical expression describing the particle scattering by large amplitude whistler waves and compare the corresponding effect with the nonlinear particle acceleration due to trapping. The latter is much more rare but the corresponding change of energy is substantially larger than energy jumps due to scattering. We show that for reasonable wave amplitudes ∼10–100 mV/m of strong whistlers, the nonlinear effects are more important than the linear and nonlinear scattering for electrons with energies ∼10–50 keV. We test the dependencies of the critical wave amplitude on system parameters (background plasma density, wave frequency, etc.). We discuss the role of obtained results for the theoretical description of the nonlinear wave amplification in radiation belts.

  7. Nonlinear beam clean-up using resonantly enhanced sum-frequency mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Emir; Pedersen, Christian; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of improving the beam quality and obtaining high conversion efficiency in nonlinear sum-frequency generation. A 765 nm beam from an external cavity tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal situated in the high intracavity field of a 1342 nm Nd...

  8. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by nonlinear susceptibilities, which have complex expressions including many matrix elements and energy denominators. On the other hand, a nonequilibrium steady state under an electric field periodic in time has a concise description in terms of the Floquet bands of electrons dressed by photons. We show theoretically, using the Floquet formalism, that various nonlinear optical effects, such as the shift current in noncentrosymmetric materials, photovoltaic Hall response, and photo-induced change of order parameters under the continuous irradiation of monochromatic light, can be described in a unified fashion by topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. We found that vector fields defined with the Berry connections in the space of momentum and/or parameters govern the nonlinear responses. This topological view offers a route to designing nonlinear optical materials.

  9. New Delay-Dependent Robust Exponential Stability Criteria of LPD Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Pinjai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of robust exponential stability for linear parameter-dependent (LPD neutral systems with mixed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on a new parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, decomposition technique of coefficient matrix, free-weighting matrices, Cauchy’s inequality, modified version of Jensen’s inequality, model transformation, and linear matrix inequality technique, new delay-dependent robust exponential stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  10. Higher-order nonlinear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Fedorov, Arkady

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) as well as for a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, the only devices in which the quantum limit for added noise has so far been approached at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) nonlinearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in a Kerr-type nonlinearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction nonlinearity in the linear response regime. We then analyze gain saturation effect for stronger signals within a semiclassical approach. Our results reveal nonlinear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.

  11. Conservation Laws in Higher-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Shin, H J; Kim, Jongbae

    1999-01-01

    Conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are studied in the presence of higher-order nonlinear optical effects including the third-order dispersion and the self-steepening. In a context of group theory, we derive a general expression for infinitely many conserved currents and charges of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The first few currents and charges are also presented explicitly. Due to the higher-order effects, conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are violated in general. The differences between the types of the conserved currents for the Hirota and the Sasa-Satsuma equations imply that the higher-order terms determine the inherent types of conserved quantities for each integrable cases of the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  12. Nonlinear frequency conversion effect in a one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, the nonlinear frequency conversion effect based on four-wave mixing (FWM) principle in a onedimensional graphene-based photonics crystal (1D-GPC) has been investigated numerically. The 1D-GPC structure is composed of two periodically alternating material layers, which are graphene-silicon dioxide bilayer system and silicon membrane. Since, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of bilayer system is hundred time higher than pure silicon dioxide layer, so the enhancement of FWM response can be achieved inside the structure with optimizing photon energy being much higher than a chemical potential level (μ) of graphene sheet. In addition, the conversion efficiencies of 1DGPC structure are compared with chalcogenide based photonic structure for showing that 1D-GPC structure can enhance nonlinear effect by a factor of 100 above the chalcogenide based structure with the same structure length.

  13. Two-Level Dipolar System in a Heat Bath: High-Pump Power Effects in the Nonlinear Optical Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, J. L.; León-Torres, J. R.; Lascano, Luis; Alvarado, Ysaias J.; Costa-Vera, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Using the four-wave mixing spectroscopy, we analyze the nonlinear optical properties in a strongly driven two-level system, using a perturbative treatment where, the pump field is considered at all orders, second order in the probe, and first order for the signal field, when the stochastic effects of the solvent are considered. Significant variations in the nonlinear optical properties due mainly to changes in the probe intensity, chemical concentrations, and transversal relaxation times are observed.

  14. Comparison Between Linear and Nonlinear Models of Mixed Pixels in Remote Sensing Satellite Images Based on Cierniewski Surface BRDF Model by Means of Monte Carlo Ray Tracing Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study on linear and nonlinear mixed pixel models of which pixels in remote sensing satellite images is composed with plural ground cover materials mixed together, is conducted for remote sensing satellite image analysis. The mixed pixel models are based on Cierniewski of ground surface reflectance model. The comparative study is conducted by using of Monte Carlo Ray Tracing: MCRT simulations. Through simulation study, the difference between linear and nonlinear mixed pixel models is clarified. Also it is found that the simulation model is validated.

  15. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2......+1)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation is derived and integrated on an Amdahl VP1100 vector processor. Above threshold the resulting probability density agrees with the rate-equation predictions. The case of high-speed modulation is also considered. The nonlinear gain is found to stabilize the laser....

  16. Looking-Free Mixed hp Finite Element Methods for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-09

    hp mixed methods has been addressed by Stenberg and Suri[20]. They identify sufficient conditions for selecting mixed method spaces on parallelogram...spaces of piecewise polynomials. Math. Modeling Num. Anal., 19:111-143, 1985. [20] R. Stenberg and M. Suri. Mixed hp finite element methods for

  17. Differentiating Wheat Genotypes by Bayesian Hierarchical Nonlinear Mixed Modeling of Wheat Root Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Anton P; Chiu, Grace S; Zwart, Alexander B; Binns, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress. Wheat pre-breeders use soil coring and core-break counts to phenotype root architecture traits, with data collected on rooting density for hundreds of genotypes in small increments of depth. The measured densities are both large datasets and highly variable even within the same genotype, hence, any rigorous, comprehensive statistical analysis of such complex field data would be technically challenging. Traditionally, most attributes of the field data are therefore discarded in favor of simple numerical summary descriptors which retain much of the high variability exhibited by the raw data. This poses practical challenges: although plant scientists have established that root traits do drive resource capture in crops, traits that are more randomly (rather than genetically) determined are difficult to breed for. In this paper we develop a hierarchical nonlinear mixed modeling approach that utilizes the complete field data for wheat genotypes to fit, under the Bayesian paradigm, an "idealized" relative intensity function for the root distribution over depth. Our approach was used to determine heritability: how much of the variation between field samples was purely random vs. being mechanistically driven by the plant genetics? Based on the genotypic intensity functions, the overall heritability estimate was 0.62 (95% Bayesian confidence interval was 0.52 to 0.71). Despite root count profiles that were statistically very noisy, our approach led

  18. Differentiating Wheat Genotypes by Bayesian Hierarchical Nonlinear Mixed Modeling of Wheat Root Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Anton P.; Chiu, Grace S.; Zwart, Alexander B.; Binns, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly “above ground,” little progress has been made “below ground”; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress. Wheat pre-breeders use soil coring and core-break counts to phenotype root architecture traits, with data collected on rooting density for hundreds of genotypes in small increments of depth. The measured densities are both large datasets and highly variable even within the same genotype, hence, any rigorous, comprehensive statistical analysis of such complex field data would be technically challenging. Traditionally, most attributes of the field data are therefore discarded in favor of simple numerical summary descriptors which retain much of the high variability exhibited by the raw data. This poses practical challenges: although plant scientists have established that root traits do drive resource capture in crops, traits that are more randomly (rather than genetically) determined are difficult to breed for. In this paper we develop a hierarchical nonlinear mixed modeling approach that utilizes the complete field data for wheat genotypes to fit, under the Bayesian paradigm, an “idealized” relative intensity function for the root distribution over depth. Our approach was used to determine heritability: how much of the variation between field samples was purely random vs. being mechanistically driven by the plant genetics? Based on the genotypic intensity functions, the overall heritability estimate was 0.62 (95% Bayesian confidence interval was 0.52 to 0.71). Despite root count profiles that were statistically very noisy, our

  19. Study on optical nonlinearities of ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glass with time-resolved four-wave mixing technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jiang(江丽); Shi'an Zhang(张诗按); Yufei Wang(王宇飞); Zhenrong Sun(孙真荣); Zugeng Wang(王祖赓); Jian Lin(林健); Wenhai Huang(黄文旵); Zhizhan Xu(徐至展); Ruxin Li(李儒新)

    2004-01-01

    We investigated nonlinear optical properties of ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glass excited by a femtosecond laser with time-resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) technique. The unusual FWM signals were observed in samples with ZnO dopant. The mechanism for the optical nonlinearities was discussed.

  20. Intra-Channel Nonlinear Effect on Optical PPM Pulse Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Linghao; Jarmo; Takala

    2003-01-01

    PPM encoded Gaussian pulse sequence shows more immunity than non-PPM schemes on optical fiber intra-channel nonlinearity and demonstrated by a numerical study of IXPM and IFWM effects deploying on 100Gb/s single channelsystem.

  1. Effects of Nonlinearities on Induced Voltages across Lumped Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Mazloom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies on induced currents and voltages along overhead conductors due to lightning flashes. In most of these studies lumped loads and components are connected only as line terminations [1]-[4]. In studies where series and shunt connected components are connected along the lines the effects of nonlinear components and effects are disregarded [5]-[8]. This is not always correct as nonlinear effects will introduce high frequencies in the system and affect the current and voltage wave distribution. In this paper the effects of series and shunt components and nonlinear phenomenon on a system representative of the Swedish electrified railway system will be investigated. It is seen how introduction of different linear and nonlinear components affect the propagating voltage wave forms.

  2. Promoting inertial cavitation by nonlinear frequency mixing in a bifrequency focused ultrasound beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletes, Izella; Gilles, Bruno; Bera, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing cavitation activity with minimal acoustic intensities could be interesting in a variety of therapeutic applications where mechanical effects of cavitation are needed with minimal heating of surrounding tissues. The present work focuses on the relative efficiency of a signal combining two neighbouring frequencies and a one-frequency signal for initiating ultrasound inertial cavitation. Experiments were carried out in a water tank, using a 550kHz piezoelectric composite spherical transducer focused on targets with 46μm roughness. The acoustic signal scattered, either by the target or by the cavitation bubbles, is filtered using a spectral and cepstral-like method to obtain an inertial cavitation activity measurement. The ultrasound excitations consist of 1.8ms single bursts of single frequency f(0)=550kHz excitation, in the monofrequency case, and of dual frequency f(1)=535kHz and f(2)=565kHz excitation, in the bifrequency case. It is shown that depending on the value of the monofrequency cavitation threshold intensity the bifrequency excitation can increase or reduce the cavitation threshold. The analysis of the thresholds indicates that the mechanisms involved are nonlinear. The progress of the cavitation activity beyond the cavitation threshold is also studied. The slope of the cavitation activity considered as a function of the acoustic intensity is always steeper in the case of the bifrequency excitation. This means that the delimitation of the region where cavitation occurs should be cleaner than with a classical monofrequency excitation.

  3. Integral mean value method for solving a general nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential equation under the mixed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Molabahrami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the integral mean value method is employed to handle the general nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential equations under the mixed conditions. The application of the method is based on the integral mean value theorem for integrals. By using the integral mean value method, an integro-differential equation is transformed to an ordinary differential equation, then by solving it, the obtained solution is transformed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations to calculate the unknown values. The efficiency of the approach will be shown by applying the procedure on some examples. In this respect, a comparison with series pattern solutions, obtained by some analytic methods, is given. For the approximate solution given by integral mean value method, the bounds of the absolute errors are given. The Mathematica program of the integral mean value method based on the procedure in this paper is designed.

  4. Effective nonlinear AC response to composite with spherical particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Gang; Liang Fang-Chu; Wei En-Bo

    2005-01-01

    An effective nonlinear alternative-current (AC) response to granular nonlinear-composite with spherical inclusions embedded in a host medium under the action of an external AC field is investigated by using a perturbation approach.The local potentials of composite at higher harmonics are derived both in a region of local inclusion particles and in a local host region under the action of a sinusoidal field E1 sinωt + E3sin3ωt. An effective nonlinear-response to composite and the relationship between the effective nonlinear-responses at the fundamental frequency and the third harmonics are also studied for the spherical inclusions in a dilute limit.

  5. On the compressibility effects in mixing layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlifi Hechmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of compressible flows carried out in the past few years have shown that the pressure-strain is the main indicator of the structural compressibility effects. Undoubtedly, this terms plays a key role toward strongly changing magnitude of the turbulent Reynolds stress anisotropy. On the other hand, the incompressible models of the pressure-strain correlation have not correctly predicted compressible turbulence at high speed shear flow. Consequently, a correction of these models is needed for precise prediction of compressibility effects. In the present work, a compressibility correction of the widely used incompressible Launder Reece and Rodi model making their standard coefficients dependent on the turbulent and convective Mach numbers is proposed. The ability of the model to predict the developed mixing layers in different cases from experiments of Goebel and Dutton is examined. The predicted results with the proposed model are compared with DNS and experimental data and those obtained by the compressible model of Adumitroiae et al. and the original LRR model. The results show that the essential compressibility effects on mixing layers are well captured by the proposed model.

  6. UNIFORM BLOW-UP PROFILES FOR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH COUPLING NONLOCAL SOURCES OF ASYMMETRIC MIXED TYPE NONLINEARITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Linghua; Wang Jinhuan; Zheng Sining

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a nonlocal heat system subject to null Dirichlet boundary conditions,where the coupling nonlocal sources consist of mixed type asymmetric nonlinearities.We at first give the criterion for simultaneous blow-up of solutions,and then establish the uniform blow-up profiles of solutions near the blow-up time.It is observed that not only the simultaneous blow-up rates of the two components u and v are asymmetric,but also the blow-up rates of the same component u (or v) may be in different levels under different dominations.

  7. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  8. Characterization of mixing errors in a coupled physical biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic: implications for nonlinear estimation using Gaussian anamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Béal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In biogeochemical models coupled to ocean circulation models, vertical mixing is an important physical process which governs the nutrient supply and the plankton residence in the euphotic layer. However, vertical mixing is often poorly represented in numerical simulations because of approximate parameterizations of sub-grid scale turbulence, wind forcing errors and other mis-represented processes such as restratification by mesoscale eddies. Getting a sufficient knowledge of the nature and structure of these errors is necessary to implement appropriate data assimilation methods and to evaluate if they can be controlled by a given observation system.

    In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to study mixing errors induced by approximate wind forcings in a three-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic with a 1/4° horizontal resolution. An ensemble forecast involving 200 members is performed during the 1998 spring bloom, by prescribing perturbations of the wind forcing to generate mixing errors. The biogeochemical response is shown to be rather complex because of nonlinearities and threshold effects in the coupled model. The response of the surface phytoplankton depends on the region of interest and is particularly sensitive to the local stratification. In addition, the statistical relationships computed between the various physical and biogeochemical variables reflect the signature of the non-Gaussian behaviour of the system. It is shown that significant information on the ecosystem can be retrieved from observations of chlorophyll concentration or sea surface temperature if a simple nonlinear change of variables (anamorphosis is performed by mapping separately and locally the ensemble percentiles of the distributions of each state variable on the Gaussian percentiles. The results of idealized observational updates (performed with perfect observations and neglecting horizontal correlations

  9. THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS ON OPTICAL WDM NETWORKS WITH VARIOUS FIBER TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIN M. KARFAA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to evaluate the performance of an opticalwavelength division multiplexing (WDM network transmission system in the presenceof crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities. The most significant nonlinear effects inthe optical fiber which are Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM,and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS are investigated. Four types of optical fiber areincluded in the analysis; these are: single-mode fiber (SMF, dispersion compensationfiber (DCF, non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF, and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber(NZDSF. The results represent the standard deviation of nonlinearity induced crosstalknoise power due to FWM and SRS, XPM power penalty for SMF, DCF, NZDF, andNZDSF types of fiber, besides the Bit Error Rate (BER for the three nonlinear effectsusing standard fiber type (SMF. It is concluded that three significant fiber nonlinearitiesare making huge limitations against increasing the launched power which is desired,otherwise, lower values of launched power limit network expansion including length,distance, covered areas, and number of users accessing the WDM network, unlesssuitable precautions are taken to neutralize the nonlinear effects. Besides, various fibertypes are not behaving similarly towards network parameters.

  10. Three wave mixing test of hyperelasticity in highly nonlinear solids: sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, R M; Winkler, K W; Johnson, D L

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of three-wave mixing amplitudes on solids whose third order elastic constants have also been measured by means of the elasto-acoustic effect are reported. Because attenuation and diffraction are important aspects of the measurement technique results are analyzed using a frequency domain version of the KZK equation, modified to accommodate an arbitrary frequency dependence to the attenuation. It is found that the value of beta so deduced for poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) agrees quite well with that predicted from the stress-dependent sound speed measurements, establishing that PMMA may be considered a hyperelastic solid, in this context. The beta values of sedimentary rocks, though they are typically two orders of magnitude larger than, e.g., PMMA's, are still a factor of 3-10 less than those predicted from the elasto-acoustic effect. Moreover, these samples exhibit significant heterogeneity on a centimeter scale, which heterogeneity is not apparent from a measurement of the position dependent sound speed.

  11. A non-collinear mixing technique to measure the acoustic nonlinearity parameter of an adhesive bond from one side of the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Taeho; Achenbach, Jan D.; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we developed a non-collinear mixing technique to measure the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter (ANLP) of adhesive bonds. One of the most significant features of the new method is that it requires only one-side access to the adhesive bond being measured, which significantly increases its utility in field measurements. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly developed technique, an adhesively jointed aluminum sample was measured with different thermal aging times, using the non-collinear mixing technique with a longitudinal and a shear wave as incident waves to obtain the ANLP of the adhesive bond. The measured results clearly show that the ANLP varies with aging time. To verify that the signals received from the shear wave receiver are indeed the mixing wave, the finite element method was used to simulate the wave motion in the test sample. The simulation results clearly show that the signals recorded by the shear wave receiver are the desired mixing wave, whose amplitude is proportional to the ANLP of the adhesive bond.

  12. Computation of the effective nonlinear mechanical response of lattice materials considering geometrical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNady, Khaled; Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is presently developed in the framework of geometrical nonlinearities to derive the large strains effective elastic response of network materials viewed as repetitive beam networks. This works extends the small strains homogenization method developed with special emphasis on textile structures in Goda et al. (J Mech Phys Solids 61(12):2537-2565, 2013). A systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of these structures in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the chosen equivalent continuum. Internal scale effects of the initially discrete structure are captured by the consideration of a micropolar effective continuum model. Applications to the large strain response of 3D hexagonal lattices and dry textiles exemplify the powerfulness of the proposed method. The effective mechanical responses obtained for different loadings are validated by FE simulations performed over a representative unit cell.

  13. Z' Mixing Effect in Stueckelberg Extended Effective Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    Z' gauge boson often appears in extended electroweak models.As a neutral gauge bosons,Z' mixes with electroweak bcsons Z-γ in mass and kinetic parts.A general effective Lagrangian with symmetry SU(2)L (×) U(1)Y (×) U(1)' is constructed to describe Z' physics,which includes three-body mass and kinetic mixings.Z' contributions to mass eigenvalues of electroweak gauge bosons and couplings to fermions have also been discussed.

  14. Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effect in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells Based on Photonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana; Iljin, Andrey; Lytvynenko, Oleg; Tarakhan, Ludmila; Karachevtseva, Lulmila

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear-optical response of photorefractive hybrid liquid crystal (LC) cells has been studied by means of dynamic holographic technique in two-wave mixing arrangement. The LC cells include nonuniform silicon substrates comprising a micrometer-range photonic crystal. A thin LC layer is set between silicon substrate and a flat glass substrate covered by a transparent (ITO) electrode. A dynamic diffraction grating was induced in the LC volume by the two-wave mixing of laser beams with simultaneous application of DC electric field to the cell. Theoretical model of Raman-Nath self-diffraction was developed. This model allows for calculation of nonlinear optical characteristics in thin samples on the base of two-wave mixing experimental data, and with taking into account light losses on absorption and/or scattering. The hybrid LC cells demonstrate strong nonlinear optical effect, prospective for many applications in electro-optical microsystems, such as SLMs, as well as in multi-channel systems.

  15. Nonlinear optical effects in pure and N-doped semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Donlagic, N S

    2000-01-01

    the optical response of a one-dimensional n-doped two-band semiconductor whose conduction band has been linearized with respect to the two Fermi points. Due to the linearization it is possible to calculate the linear and nonlinear response functions of the interacting electron system exactly. These response functions are then used in order to determine the linear absorption spectrum and the time-integrated signal of a degenerated four-wave-mixing experiment. It is shown that the well-known features of the linear response can directly be related to features of the nonlinear experiments. For example, the exponent which describes the algebraic decay of the time-integrated four-wave-mixing signal is functionally dependent on the exponent of the algebraic singularity in the linear absorption spectrum reflecting the common origin of the different phenomena. Over the last decades, the nonlinear optical properties of condensed matter systems have been an attractive and fruitful field of research. While the linear res...

  16. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-05-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s-1and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s-1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10-9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. The work was supported in part by the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams.

  17. Modeling Operation Problem of Micro-grids Considering Economical, Technical and Environmental issues as Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Salahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of fossil resources, increasing the production of greenhouse gas emissions and demand growth lead to greater use of distributed energy resources in power system especially in distribution networks. Integrating these resources in order to supply local loads creates a new concept called micro-grid. Optimal operation of micro-grid in the specific time period is one of the most important problems of them. In this paper, the operation problem of micro-grids is modeled considering the economical, technical and environmental issues, as well as uncertainties related to loads, wind speed and solar radiation. The resulting model is a Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, Bisheh village in Iran is considered as a case study. The results showed that considering load curtailment costs, the power losses of the main grid, the penalties of pollutant gasses emissions and the elimination of energy subsides will tremendous impacts on the operation of microgrids. Article History: Received March 12, 2016; Received in revised form June 20, 2016; Accepted July 2nd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Salahi, S., and Bahramara, S. (2016 Modeling Operation Problem of Micro-grids Considering Economical, Technical and Environmental issues as Mixed-Integer Non-Linear Programming. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 139-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.139-149 

  18. A mixed finite element formulation for a non-linear, transversely isotropic material model for the cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, Tom; Osnes, Harald; Sundnes, Joakim

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we present a mixed finite element method for modeling the passive properties of the myocardium. The passive properties are described by a non-linear, transversely isotropic, hyperelastic material model, and the myocardium is assumed to be almost incompressible. Single-field, pure displacement-based formulations are known to cause numerical difficulties when applied to incompressible or slightly compressible material cases. This paper presents an alternative approach in the form of a mixed formulation, where a separately interpolated pressure field is introduced as a primary unknown in addition to the displacement field. Moreover, a constraint term is included in the formulation to enforce (almost) incompressibility. Numerical results presented in the paper demonstrate the difficulties related to employing a pure displacement-based method, applying a set of physically relevant material parameter values for the cardiac tissue. The same problems are not experienced for the proposed mixed method. We show that the mixed formulation provides reasonable numerical results for compressible as well as nearly incompressible cases, also in situations of large fiber stretches. There is good agreement between the numerical results and the underlying analytical models.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic evolution and control in CCFN with mixed attachment mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianrong; Wang, Jianping; Han, Dun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, wireless communication plays an important role in our lives. Cooperative communication, is used by a mobile station with single antenna to share with each other forming a virtual MIMO antenna system, will become a development with a diversity gain for wireless communication in tendency future. In this paper, a fitness model of evolution network based on complex networks with mixed attachment mechanisms is devised in order to study an actual network-CCFN (cooperative communication fitness network). Firstly, the evolution of CCFN is given by four cases with different probabilities, and the rate equations of nodes degree are presented to analyze the evolution of CCFN. Secondly, the degree distribution is analyzed by calculating the rate equation and numerical simulation with the examples of four fitness distributions such as power law, uniform fitness distribution, exponential fitness distribution and Rayleigh fitness distribution. Finally, the robustness of CCFN is studied by numerical simulation with four fitness distributions under random attack and intentional attack to analyze the effects of degree distribution, average path length and average degree. The results of this paper offers insights for building CCFN systems in order to program communication resources.

  20. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  1. Time-ordering effects in the generation of entangled photons using nonlinear optical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J E

    2015-03-06

    We study the effects of time ordering in photon generation processes such as spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and four wave mixing (SFWM). The results presented here are used to construct an intuitive picture that allows us to predict when time-ordering effects significantly modify the joint spectral amplitude (JSA) of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM. These effects become important only when the photons being generated lie with the pump beam that travels through the nonlinear material for a significant amount of time. Thus sources of spectrally separable photons are ideal candidates for the observation of modifications of the JSA due to time ordering.

  2. Mixed Convection Flow of Couple Stress Fluid in a Vertical Channel with Radiation and Soret Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaladhar Kolla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation and thermal diffusion effects on mixed convection flow of couple stress fluid through a channel are investigated. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The resulting equations are then solved using the Spectral Quasi-linearization Method (QLM. The results, which are discussed with the aid of the dimensionless parameters entering the problem, are seen to depend sensitively on the parameters.

  3. Compressible turbulent mixing: Effects of Schmidt number

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Qionglin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Schmidt number on passive scalar transport in forced compressible turbulence. In the inertial-convective range the scalar spectrum followed the k^{-5/3} power law. For Sc >> 1, there appeared a k^{-1} power law in the viscous-convective range, while for Sc > 1, the scalar field rolled up and got mixed sufficiently. However, for Sc > 1 and Sc > 1 and Sc << 1 flows decayed faster than the theoretical prediction of k^{-2/3} for incompressible flows. Finally, the comparison with incompressible results showed that the scalar in compressible turbulence with Sc=1 lacked a conspicuous bump structure in its spectrum, but was more intermittent in the dissipative range.

  4. Nonlinear Peltier effect and thermoconductance in nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachek, E.N.; Scherbakov, A.G.; Landman, U. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of thermal transport in nanowires, in field-free conditions and under influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager{close_quote}s relation between the Peltier and thermopower coefficients. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated. The thermoconductance has a steplike quantized structure similar to the electroconductance and it exhibits deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. The strong dependence of the thermoconductance on the applied magnetic field leads to the possibility of magnetic blockade of thermal transport in wires with a small number of conducting channels. Possible control of thermal transport in nanowires through external parameters, that is applied through finite voltages and magnetic fields, is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Nonlinear Peltier effect and thermoconductance in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1999-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of thermal transport in nanowires, in field-free conditions and under influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation between the Peltier and thermopower coefficients. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated. The thermoconductance has a steplike quantized structure similar to the electroconductance and it exhibits deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. The strong dependence of the thermoconductance on the applied magnetic field leads to the possibility of magnetic blockade of thermal transport in wires with a small number of conducting channels. Possible control of thermal transport in nanowires through external parameters, that is applied through finite voltages and magnetic fields, is discussed.

  6. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  7. Third Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Craig Steven

    Third order nonlinear optical effects in conjugated materials were studied using two different spectroscopic methods, third harmonic generation and two photon absorption. The third harmonic generation spectra of cis-polyacetylene, trans-polyacetylene, oriented trans-polyacetylene, three isomers of polyaniline, cis and trans-polyacetylene in polyvinyl butyral, polyheptdadiester, polyheptadiketone, and MEH-PPV/polyethylene blends were measured. The nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with structural order, and is enhanced by the presence of a degenerate ground state. The magnitude of the susceptibility reaches as high as 10^{-7} esu, which is sufficient for the creation of all-optical nonlinear devices. The two photon absorption spectrum of oriented transpolyacetylene was measured using nonlinear photothermal deflection. The spectrum reveals directly the Ag state at 1.1 eV in trans-polyacetylene, and reveals another Ag state at higher energy. The magnitude of the two photon absorption is large enough to rule out using trans-polyacetylene in serial all-optical nonlinear devices; all-optical devices made from conjugated polymers must be parallel, not serial. A new figure of merit for nonlinear devices was proposed.

  8. Research of secondary effects in nonlinear radio-location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zinchenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The basic setting of nonlinear radio-locator (NR in the field of technical guarding is the searching, identification and localization of radio-electronic mortgage devices − semiconductor nonlinear scatterers (NS. Statement of the problem. The NR efficiency increasing is possible by minimization of such factors influence as: presence of obstacle structures "metal-oxide-metal" (МОМ-structures in the investigated medium and presence of parasitic directional pattern lobe of emitting antenna. The analysis of nonlinear scatterers secondary unmasking features is considered. All possible regularities of the course of the phenomena and processes in the investigated medium, that are the consequence of nonlinear areas of NS semiconductor structures characteristics change (distortion under sounding radiation, are considered. Principal part. Researches showed that theoretically discovered effective radius change effect of nonlinear products dispersion of nonlinear scatterer response signal at the varying of nonlinear radio-locator sounding signal (SS power-level  allows to investigate the phenomenon of semiconductor structures characteristics of NS distortion at the action of relatively powerful ultrahigh frequency field. The effective radius change of nonlinear products dispersion of NS response signal at varying of exposing signal power-level is experimentally confirmed, which proves the possibility and expediency of the secondary unmasked features practice use for the search, identification and localization of NS in the technical guarding field: −     the area of looping appearance effect on functional dependence of response signal multiple harmonic level  from the sounding signal power-level [3]; −     effect of processes inertiality of semiconductor structures volt-ampere characteristics distortion [4]; −     phenomena of cross-correlation dependence of response signal chaotic state degree from the sounding signal

  9. Controlling ultrafast currents by the non-linear photogalvanic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femto-second optical laser pulses. Ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast DC currents that can be viewed as a non-linear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity I_c ~ 3.8*10^13 W/cm2. We trace this switching to the transition from non-linear polarization currents to the tunneling excitation regime. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. We find the ultrafast current control by the non-linear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to laser-pulse shape and carrier-envelope phase.

  10. Coriolis effects on nonlinear oscillations of rotating cylinders and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects which moderately large deflections have on the frequency spectrum of rotating rings and cylinders are considered. To develop the requisite solution, a variationally constrained version of the Lindstedt-Poincare procedure is employed. Based on the solution developed, in addition to considering the effects of displacement induced nonlinearity, the role of Coriolis forces is also given special consideration.

  11. Zeno effect and switching of solitons in nonlinear couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaev, F Kh; Konotop, V V; Ögren, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    The Zeno effect is investigated for soliton type pulses in a nonlinear directional coupler with dissipation. The effect consists in increase of the coupler transparency with increase of the dissipative losses in one of the arms. It is shown that localized dissipation can lead to switching...

  12. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  13. Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium Jonson-Mahan theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Freericks, J. K.; Zlatic, V.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier effect to the nonlinear/nonequilibrium regime corresponding to large amplitude (spatially uniform but time-dependent) electric fields. We find a relationship between the expectation values for the charge current and for the part of the heat current that reduces to the Jonson-Mahan theorem in the linear-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related to Joule heating (we are unabl...

  14. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...

  15. Dispersion-Flattened Composite Highly Nonlinear Fibre Optimised for Broadband Pulsed Four-Wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...

  16. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1996-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of ultrafast transient four-wave mixing of GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum wells for coherent excitation of exciton and continuum states. The signal appears at the exciton resonance and is shown to consist of two contributions: an intense spectrally...

  17. Non-collinear wave mixing for non-linear ultrasonic detection of physical ageing in PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demcenko, A.; Akkerman, Remko; Nagy, P.B.; Loendersloot, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This work considers the characterization of linear PVC acoustic properties using a linear ultrasonic measurement technique and the non-collinear ultrasonic wave mixing technique for measurement of the physical ageing state in PVC. The immersion pulse-echo measurements were used to evaluate phase

  18. On Multi-Laplace Transform for Solving Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations with Mixed Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach is proposed to deal with a class of nonlinear partial equations including integer and noninteger order derivative. This class of equations cannot be handled with any other commonly used analytical technique. The proposed method is based on the multi-Laplace transform. We solved as an example some complicated equations. Three illustrative examples are presented to confirm the applicability of the proposed method. We have presented in detail the stability, the convergence and the uniqueness analysis of some examples.

  19. Effect of scalar nonlinearity on zonal flow generation by Rossby waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Erokhin, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Tsypin, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of scalar nonlinearity on the generation of zonal flow by Rossby waves in shallow rotating fluid are considered. Zonal flows are generated via the action of Reynolds stress due to vector nonlinearity together with the effects of scalar nonlinearity. It is shown that the scalar nonlinearity r

  20. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...... spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural and topological features of these glasses, and hence into the mixed alkaline earth effect. We demonstrate that the mixed alkaline earth effect manifests itself as a maximum in the amount of bonded tetrahedral units and as a minimum in liquid fragility index...

  1. Optimal clinical trial design based on a dichotomous Markov-chain mixed-effect sleep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Ernest, C; Nyberg, Joakim; Karlsson, Mats O; Hooker, Andrew C

    2014-12-01

    D-optimal designs for discrete-type responses have been derived using generalized linear mixed models, simulation based methods and analytical approximations for computing the fisher information matrix (FIM) of non-linear mixed effect models with homogeneous probabilities over time. In this work, D-optimal designs using an analytical approximation of the FIM for a dichotomous, non-homogeneous, Markov-chain phase advanced sleep non-linear mixed effect model was investigated. The non-linear mixed effect model consisted of transition probabilities of dichotomous sleep data estimated as logistic functions using piecewise linear functions. Theoretical linear and nonlinear dose effects were added to the transition probabilities to modify the probability of being in either sleep stage. D-optimal designs were computed by determining an analytical approximation the FIM for each Markov component (one where the previous state was awake and another where the previous state was asleep). Each Markov component FIM was weighted either equally or by the average probability of response being awake or asleep over the night and summed to derive the total FIM (FIM(total)). The reference designs were placebo, 0.1, 1-, 6-, 10- and 20-mg dosing for a 2- to 6-way crossover study in six dosing groups. Optimized design variables were dose and number of subjects in each dose group. The designs were validated using stochastic simulation/re-estimation (SSE). Contrary to expectations, the predicted parameter uncertainty obtained via FIM(total) was larger than the uncertainty in parameter estimates computed by SSE. Nevertheless, the D-optimal designs decreased the uncertainty of parameter estimates relative to the reference designs. Additionally, the improvement for the D-optimal designs were more pronounced using SSE than predicted via FIM(total). Through the use of an approximate analytic solution and weighting schemes, the FIM(total) for a non-homogeneous, dichotomous Markov-chain phase

  2. Influence of polarization state, baud rate and PMD on non-linear impairments in WDM systems with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz; Forzati, Marco; Mårtensson, Jonas; Rafique, Danish

    2012-03-26

    In this paper we numerically investigate nonlinear impairments in a WDM system with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels. First we analyze the dependence of XPM and XPolM on SOP and baud rate in absence of PMD. In this case we find that the nonlinear impairments are highly dependent on relative SOP between the PM (D)QPSK and neighbouring OOK channels. The dependence on relative SOP is more pronounced in differential detection than in coherent detection. However, with increasing values of PMD this dependence decreases, and non-linear tolerance improves.

  3. A solution procedure for mixed-integer nonlinear programming formulation of supply chain planning with quantity discounts under demand uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi

    2014-11-01

    Quantity discount policy is decision-making for trade-off prices between suppliers and manufacturers while production is changeable due to demand fluctuations in a real market. In this paper, quantity discount models which consider selection of contract suppliers, production quantity and inventory simultaneously are addressed. The supply chain planning problem with quantity discounts under demand uncertainty is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) with integral terms. We apply an outer-approximation method to solve MINLP problems. In order to improve the efficiency of the proposed method, the problem is reformulated as a stochastic model replacing the integral terms by using a normalisation technique. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Non-linear mixing in coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities due to cross-coupling opto-mechanical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.ramos@csic.es; Frank, Ian W.; Deotare, Parag B.; Bulu, Irfan; Lončar, Marko [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We investigate the coupling between mechanical and optical modes supported by coupled, freestanding, photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We show that localized cavity modes for a given gap between the nanobeams provide weak optomechanical coupling with out-of-plane mechanical modes. However, we show that the coupling can be significantly increased, more than an order of magnitude for the symmetric mechanical mode, due to optical resonances that arise from the interaction of the localized cavity modes with standing waves formed by the reflection from thesubstrate. Finally, amplification of motion for the symmetric mode has been observed and attributed to the strong optomechanical interaction of our hybrid system. The amplitude of these self-sustained oscillations is large enough to put the system into a non-linear oscillation regime where a mixing between the mechanical modes is experimentally observed and theoretically explained.

  5. New Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Uncertain Neutral Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Karimi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis for a class of neutral systems with mixed time-varying neutral, discrete and distributed delays and nonlinear parameter perturbations is addressed. By introducing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and combining the descriptor model transformation, the Leibniz-Newton formula, some free-weighting matrices, and a suitable change of variables, new sufficient conditions are established for the stability of the considered system, which are neutral-delay-dependent, discrete-delay-range-dependent, and distributed-delay-dependent. The conditions are presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs and can be efficiently solved using convex programming techniques. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Optical encryption of parallel quadrature phase shift keying signals based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Zhang, Min; Zhan, Yueying; Wang, Danshi; Huang, Shanguo

    2016-08-01

    A scheme for optical parallel encryption/decryption of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signals is proposed, in which three QPSK signals at 10 Gb/s are encrypted and decrypted simultaneously in the optical domain through nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber. The results of theoretical analysis and simulations show that the scheme can perform high-speed wiretapping against the encryption of parallel signals and receiver sensitivities of encrypted signal and the decrypted signal are -25.9 and -23.8 dBm, respectively, at the forward error correction threshold. The results are useful for designing high-speed encryption/decryption of advanced modulated signals and thus enhancing the physical layer security of optical networks.

  7. Non-linear composition dependence of the conductivity parameters in alkali halides mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardas, Georgios E., E-mail: gzardas@phys.uoa.g [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 157 84 Zografos (Greece)

    2009-06-01

    Since mixed alkali halides were found to have applications in optical, optoelectronic and electronic devices, a strong interest has recently expressed for the study of their physical properties. Here, we discuss the experimental finding that a maximum conductivity enhancement with respect to pure constituents is obtained at a certain composition. We show that this composition can be predicted from the bulk properties of the end members.

  8. Using the seventh-order numerical method to solve first-order nonlinear coupled-wave equations for degenerate two-wave and four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja, Y. H.

    1984-12-01

    Using a new seventh-order numerical method [the O(h 7) method] for solving two-point boundary value problems, numerical solutions of the first-order nonlinear coupledwave equations for degenerate two-wave and four-wave mixing in a reflection geometry have been obtained. A computer program employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination technique has also been adopted to effectively solve the resultant large, sparse and unsymmetric matrix, obtained from the O(h 7) method and the Newton-Raphson iteration method. Numerical results from the computer calculations are presented graphically. A comparison between this O(h 7) method and the shooting method, mainly from the viewpoint of computational efficiency, is also made.

  9. Nonlinear dispersion effects in elastic plates: numerical modelling and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Piotr; Radecki, Rafal; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear features of elastic wave propagation have attracted significant attention recently. The particular interest herein relates to complex wave-structure interactions, which provide potential new opportunities for feature discovery and identification in a variety of applications. Due to significant complexity associated with wave propagation in nonlinear media, numerical modeling and simulations are employed to facilitate design and development of new measurement, monitoring and characterization systems. However, since very high spatio- temporal accuracy of numerical models is required, it is critical to evaluate their spectral properties and tune discretization parameters for compromise between accuracy and calculation time. Moreover, nonlinearities in structures give rise to various effects that are not present in linear systems, e.g. wave-wave interactions, higher harmonics generation, synchronism and | recently reported | shifts to dispersion characteristics. This paper discusses local computational model based on a new HYBRID approach for wave propagation in nonlinear media. The proposed approach combines advantages of the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) and Cellular Automata for Elastodynamics (CAFE). The methods are investigated in the context of their accuracy for predicting nonlinear wavefields, in particular shifts to dispersion characteristics for finite amplitude waves and secondary wavefields. The results are validated against Finite Element (FE) calculations for guided waves in copper plate. Critical modes i.e., modes determining accuracy of a model at given excitation frequency - are identified and guidelines for numerical model parameters are proposed.

  10. EFFECT OF CHANNEL BENDS ON TRANSVERSE MIXING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1986-09-01

    Sep 1, 1986 ... The first study of transverse mixing in bends of turbulent open channel flows ... Rozovskii's transverse velocity distribution for fully developed turbulent flow ... Yotsukura et al (3) employed a simulation procedure to predict the.

  11. Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variable viscosity effects on mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Keywords: Variable viscosity, Chemical Reaction, Viscous Dissipation, Finite difference method, Suction.

  12. Nonlinear Effects in the Amplitude of Cosmological Density Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Fry, J N; Jaffe, Andrew H

    2009-01-01

    The amplitude of cosmological density fluctuations, $\\sigma_8$, has been studied and estimated by analysing many cosmological observations. The values of the estimates vary considerably between the various probes. However, different estimators probe the value of $\\sigma_8$ in different cosmological scales and do not take into account the nonlinear evolution of the parameter at late times. We show that estimates of the amplitude of cosmological density fluctuations derived from cosmic flows are systematically higher than those inferred at early epochs because of nonlinear evolution at later times. Here we derive corrections to the value of $\\sigma_8$ and compare amplitudes after accounting for this effect.

  13. Study On Nonlinear effect In 2D Plastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie, D.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike the perfect elastic, homogeneous and isotropic model, the properties of real earth media are heterogeneous, plastic and anisotropic to a certain extend. To accurately simulate the strong ground motion in a basin, nonlinear or plastic effect should be considered in simulation. In this study, we use DRP/opt MacCormack non-staggered finite difference method to simulate 2D seismic wave propagation in anisotropic and plastic media. Compared with the traditional staggered grid FDM, this scheme is more accurate and more efficient. We focus on the nonlinear character of the sedimentary basin model. The preliminary ground motion results indicate that the energy of seismic wave has obvious nonlinear dissipation and irreversible deformations which is danger to buildings in the sedimentary basin.

  14. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M GH SARYAZDI

    2017-03-01

    Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of dynamic systems. In this paper, the stable and unstable regions of Mathieu equation are determined for three cases of linear and nonlinear equations using the homotopy perturbation method. The effect of nonlinearity is examined in the unstable zone. The results show that the transition curves of linear Mathieu equation depend on the frequency of the excitation term. However, for nonlinear equations, the curves depend also on initial conditions. In addition, increasing the amplitude of response leads to an increase in the unstable zone.

  15. Effective Dielectric Response of Nonlinear Composites of Coated Metal Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Qing; WU Ya-Min

    2007-01-01

    The effective dielectric response of the composites in which nondilute coated metal particles are randomly embedded in a linear host is investigated. Two types of coated particles are considered, one is that the core is nonlinear, the other is that the shell is nonlinear. We derive general expressions for the effective linear dielectric function and the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and take one step forward to perform numerical calculations on the coated metal/dielectric composites. Numerical results show that the effective linear and nonlinear dielectric responses can be greatly enhanced near the surface plasmon resonant frequency. Moreover, the resonant peaks are found within a range from 0.46ωp to 0.57ωp for spherical particles and from 0.59ωp to 0.7ωp for cylindrical inclusions. In the frequency region, the resonant peak can achieve the maximum, according to an optimal structural parameter and volume fraction. The resonant frequency exhibits a redshift with the increasing structural parameter k or volume fraction f or dimensionality factor D.

  16. Conditional linear-optical measurement schemes generate effective photon nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Lapaire, G G; Dowling, J P; Sipe, J E; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general approach for the analysis of optical state evolution under conditional measurement schemes, and identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for such schemes to simulate unitary evolution on the freely propagating modes. If such unitary evolution holds, an effective photon nonlinearity can be identified. Our analysis extends to conditional measurement schemes more general than those based solely on linear optics.

  17. Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic bandgap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ishella S.; Bendickson, Jon M.; Tocci, Michael D.; Bloemer, Mark J.; Scalora, Michael; Bowden, Charles M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1998-03-01

    We summarize and review our theoretical and experimental work on spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in one-dimensional, photonic bandgap (PBG) structures. We present a new result: a method for calculating the normal-mode solutions - and hence the spontaneous emission of embedded emitters - in an arbitrary, linear, lossless, one-dimensional, PBG structure.

  18. Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrin and chlorophyll dimers studied by degenerated four wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.X.Q.

    1992-12-31

    As one of the important elements in natural and artificial electron transfer and energy transfer processes, porphyrin and its derivatives have received much attention in photoelectronics and photoelectronic materials. As our first attempt to relate the {pi}-{pi} electronic couplings between porphyrin macrocycles to apparent third order nonlinear susceptibilities, we measured {chi}({sup 3}) for several porphyrin and chlorophyll a derivatives, including dimers with different configurations. Our preliminary results show that the dimers have enhanced {chi}({sup 3}) compared to those of the monomer. This enhancement is related to the relative orientations between the two macrocycles in the dimers. The parallel dimers with close face-to-face distances seem to have the highest enhancement in {chi}({sup 3}). Thus, we believe that {chi}({sup 3}) is strongly related to the {pi}-{pi} electronic coupling between the two conjugated ring systems.

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of porphyrin and chlorophyll dimers studied by degenerated four wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.X.Q.

    1992-01-01

    As one of the important elements in natural and artificial electron transfer and energy transfer processes, porphyrin and its derivatives have received much attention in photoelectronics and photoelectronic materials. As our first attempt to relate the [pi]-[pi] electronic couplings between porphyrin macrocycles to apparent third order nonlinear susceptibilities, we measured [chi]([sup 3]) for several porphyrin and chlorophyll a derivatives, including dimers with different configurations. Our preliminary results show that the dimers have enhanced [chi]([sup 3]) compared to those of the monomer. This enhancement is related to the relative orientations between the two macrocycles in the dimers. The parallel dimers with close face-to-face distances seem to have the highest enhancement in [chi]([sup 3]). Thus, we believe that [chi]([sup 3]) is strongly related to the [pi]-[pi] electronic coupling between the two conjugated ring systems.

  20. Theory of plasmonic effects in nonlinear optics: The case of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Habib; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Polini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We develop a microscopic large-N theory of electron-electron interaction corrections to multilegged Feynman diagrams describing second- and third-order non-linear-response functions. Our theory, which reduces to the well-known random-phase approximation in the linear-response limit, is completely general and is useful to understand all second- and third-order nonlinear effects, including harmonic generation, wave mixing, and photon drag. We apply our theoretical framework to the case of graphene, by carrying out microscopic calculations of the second- and third-order non-linear-response functions of an interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of massless Dirac fermions. We compare our results with recent measurements, where all-optical launching of graphene plasmons has been achieved by virtue of the finiteness of the quasihomogeneous second-order nonlinear response of this inversion-symmetric 2D material.

  1. Measuring the Non-Linear Effects of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Matthes; Regis Barnichon

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify the non-linear effects of structural shocks by using Gaussian basis functions to parametrize impulse response functions. We apply our approach to monetary policy and find that the effect of a monetary intervention depends strongly on (i) the sign of the intervention, (ii) the size of the intervention, and (iii) the state of the business cycle at the time of the intervention. A contractionary policy has a strong adverse effect on output, much stronger t...

  2. Dispersive and nonlinear effects in high-speed reconfigurable WDM optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan

    Chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinear effects are important issues on the physical layer of high-speed reconfigurable WDM optical fiber communication systems. For beyond 10 Gbit/s optical fiber transmission system, it is essential that chromatic dispersion and PMD be well managed by dispersion monitoring and compensation. One the other hand, dispersive and nonlinear effects in optical fiber systems can also be beneficial and has applications on pulse management, all-optical signal processing and network function, which will be essential for high bite-rate optical networks and replacing the expensive optical-electrical-optical (O/E/O) conversion. In this Ph.D. dissertation, we present a detailed research on dispersive and nonlinear effects in high-speed optical communication systems. We have demonstrated: (i) A novel technique for optically compensating the PMD-induced RF power fading that occurs in single-sideband (SSB) subcarrier-multiplexed systems. By aligning the polarization states of the optical carrier and the SSB, RF power fading due to all orders of PMD can be completely compensated. (ii) Chromatic-dispersion-insensitive PMD monitoring by using a narrowband FBG notch filter to recover the RF clock power for 10Gb/s NRZ data, and apply it as a control signal for PMD compensation. (iii) Chirp-free high-speed optical pulse generation with a repetition rate of 160 GHz (which is four times of the frequency of the electrical clock) using a phase modulator and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber. (iv) Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) with a fiber Bragg grating and a Faraday rotator mirror. (v) Width-tunable optical RZ pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly-nonlinear fiber. By electrically tuning the delay between two pump pulse trains, the pulse-width of a generated pulse train is continuously tuned. (vi) A high-speed all

  3. Experimental observations of nonlinear effects of the Lamb waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Mingxi; D.C. Price; D.A.Scott

    2004-01-01

    The experimental observations of nonlinear effects of the primary Lamb waves have been reported. Firstly, the brief descriptions have been made for the nonlinear acoustic measurement system developed by Ritec. The detailed considerations for the acoustic experiment system established for observing of the nonlinear effects of the primary Lamb waves have been carried out. Especially, the analysis focuses on the time-domain responses of second harmonics of the primary Lame waves by employing a straightforward model. Based on the existence conditions of strong nonlinearity of the primary Lamb waves, the wedge transducers are designed to generate and detect the primary and secondary waves on the surface of an aluminum sheet. For the different distances between the transmitting and receiving wedge transducers,the amplitudes of the primary waves and the second harmonics on the sheet surface have been measured within a specified frequency range. In the immediate vicinity of the driving frequency,where the primary and the double frequency Lamb waves have the same phase velocities, the quantitative relations of second-harmonic amplitudes with the propagation distance have been analyzed. It is experimentally verified that the second harmonics of the primary Lamb waves do have a cumulative growth effect along with the propagation distance.

  4. Nonlinear dielectric effects in liquids: a guided tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Ranko

    2017-09-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements probe how the polarization of a material responds to the application of an external electric field, providing information on structure and dynamics of the sample. In the limit of small fields and thus linear response, such experiments reveal the properties of the material in the same thermodynamic state it would have in the absence of the external field. At sufficiently high fields, reversible changes in enthalpy and entropy of the system occur even at constant temperature, and these will in turn alter the polarization responses. The resulting nonlinear dielectric effects feature field induced suppressions (saturation) and enhancements (chemical effect) of the amplitudes, as well as time constant shifts towards faster (energy absorption) and slower (entropy reduction) dynamics. This review focuses on the effects of high electric fields that are reversible and observed at constant temperature for single component glass-forming liquids. The experimental challenges involved in nonlinear dielectric experiments, the approaches to separating and identifying the different sources of nonlinear behavior, and the current understanding of how high electric fields affect dielectric materials will be discussed. Covering studies from Debye’s initial approach to the present state-of-the-art, it will be emphasized what insight can be gained from the nonlinear responses that are not available from dielectric relaxation results obtained in the linear regime.

  5. A generalization of the MDS method by mixed integer linear and nonlinear mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Niroomand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS method is used in statistics to detect hidden interrelations among multi-dimensional data and it has a wide range of applications. The method’s input is a matrix that describes the similarity/dissimilarity among objects of unknown dimension. The objects are generally reconstructed as points of a lower dimensional space to reveal the geometric configuration of the objects. The original MDS method uses Euclidean distance, for measuring both the distance of the reconstructed points and the bias of the reconstructed distances from the original similarity values. In this paper, these distances are distinguished, and distances other than Euclidean are also used, generalizing the MDS method. Two different distances may be used for the two different purposes. Therefore the instances of the generalized MDS model are denoted as  model, where the first distance is the type of distance of the reconstructed points and the second one measures the bias of the reconstructed distances and the similarity values. In the case of   and   distances mixed-integer programming models are provided. The computational experiences show that the generalized model can catch the key properties of the original configuration, if any exist. Keywords: Multivariate Analysis; Multi-Dimensional Scaling; Optimization; Mixed Integer Linear Programming; Statistics.

  6. A Mathematical Formulation for the Effects of Nonlinear Chemical Reactions upon Taylor Dispersive Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. S.; Aleem, T.

    2003-12-01

    In 1953, G.I.~Taylor published his landmark paper concerning the transport of a contaminant dissolved in a fluid flowing through a pipe of narrow diameter. He demonstrated that an interaction between the transverse variations in the fluid's velocity field and the transverse diffusion of the solute yielded an effective downstream mixing mechanism for the transverse average of the solute. This mechanism has since been dubbed ``Taylor Dispersion.'' Since his original publication, many related studies have surfaced. These include generalizations of channel geometry, generalizations of the velocity field (including turbulent field), applications to sedimentation problems, etc. However, much less attention has been given to the effects of nonlinear chemical reactions upon a system of solutes undergoing Taylor Dispersion. We present a rigorous mathematical model for the evolution of the transverse averages of reacting solutes that travel within a fluid flowing down a pipe of arbitrary cross-section. The technique for deriving this model is a generalization of a multiple scales perturbation approach described by P.C.~Fife for linear (reactionless) problems. The key outcome is that while one still finds an effective mechanism for downstream mixing, but also there is also a effective mechanism for nonlinear advection.

  7. Nonlinear Kirchhoff-Carrier wave equation in a unit membrane with mixed homogeneous boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the nonlinear wave equation problem $$displaylines{ u_{tt}-Big(|u|_0^2,|u_{r}|_0^2ig(u_{rr}+frac{1}{r}u_{r} =f(r,t,u,u_{r},quad 0less than r less than 1,; 0 less than t less than T, ig|lim_{ro 0^+}sqrt{r}u_{r}(r,tig| less than infty, u_{r}(1,t+hu(1,t=0, u(r,0=widetilde{u}_0(r, u_{t}(r,0=widetilde{u}_1(r. }$$ To this problem, we associate a linear recursive scheme for which the existence of a local and unique weak solution is proved, in weighted Sobolev using standard compactness arguments. In the latter part, we give sufficient conditions for quadratic convergence to the solution of the original problem, for an autonomous right-hand side independent on $u_{r}$ and a coefficient function $B$ of the form $B=B(|u|_0^2=b_0+|u|_0^2$ with $b_0$ greater than 0.

  8. Crystal growth and characterisation of mixed niobates for non-linear optical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Q

    1999-01-01

    Temperature tuned NCPM has been realised by using both wavelengths. The measured phase matching temperatures increase with increasing spontaneous polarisation. KLN also has large non-linear optical coefficient (d sub 3 sub 1 =2.14 d sub 3 sub 1 sup l sup i sup N sup b sup O sup 3), a reasonably high damage threshold (1.75 times that of LiNbO sub 3), wide temperature acceptance (approx 5 deg C) and angular acceptance (approx 8 deg). Potassium sodium niobate (K sub x Na sub 1 sub - sub x NbO sub 3 , KNN) crystals have been grown and they are confirmed to be ferroelectric. However, they are unstable and break up into small pieces after a short period of time. By employing ferroelectric phenomenological theory, it is revealed that the birefringence of a ferroelectric crystal consists of two parts: one relating to a ferroelectric free of any electrical displacement and the other depending on the spontaneous polarisation. The theoretical outcomes provide a brief explanation of the experimental results in modifying ...

  9. Effect of mix parameters on longevity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Clayton Matthew

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate sources, aggregate gradations on the stripping and rutting potential of bituminous based plant mixes specified by the Missouri Department of Transportation. The different aggregate combinations included two different aggregate sources (Potosi Dolomite and Jefferson City Dolomite) including two variations for the Jefferson City Dolomite mix to simulate a marginally in-specification mix and an out-of-specification but in-field tolerance mix. The "field" mix simulated the marginal mix where field tolerance of high dust and low binder content were maximized. All three mixes were evaluated for stripping susceptibility using the Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) test and the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD). The mix characteristics (unit weight, effective binder content, and air voids) were used for a Level 3 analysis in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) to determine long term pavement distress conditions such as fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI (smoothness). The Potosi mix exhibited the best resistance to rutting and stripping during both the TSR testing as well as the Hamburg testing. The Jefferson City In-Spec and Out-of-Spec mixes showed less resistance to rutting and stripping in order, respectively. This was expected for the Jefferson City mixes where the aggregate was of lower quality (higher Los Angeles Abrasion, Micro Deval loss, absorption, and deleterious materials). Also, in the case of the Jefferson City Out-of-Spec mix, the binder content was lower. Upon evaluating the mixes using the MEPDG software, it was shown that mix characteristics such as air voids, VMA, and VFA influenced the fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI predictions to a minor degree.

  10. All-optical wavelength multicasting with extinction ratio enhancement using pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Shu, Chester; Lin, Chinlon;

    2006-01-01

    All optical wavelength multicasting at 4 x 10 Gb/s with extinction ratio enhancement has been demonstrated based on pump-modulated four-wave mixing in a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. We show that the input signal wavelength can simultaneously convert to four different wavelengths, with a power...

  11. Experimental demonstration of tunable homodyne detection of WDM and dual-polarization PSK channels by automatically locking the channels to a local pump laser using nonlinear mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaiman, Ahmed; Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Cao, Yinwen; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Liao, Peicheng; Bao, Changjing; Shamee, Bishara; Ahmed, Nisar; Alishahi, Fatemeh; Fallahpour, Ahmad; Akasaka, Youichi; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Sekiya, Motoyoshi; Touch, Joseph D; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2016-06-15

    This Letter proposes a method for tunable automatically locked homodyne detection of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) dual-polarization (DP) phase-shift keyed (PSK) channels using nonlinear mixing. Two stages of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides and an LCoS filter enable automatic phase locking of the channels to a local laser.

  12. Nonlinear Optical Imaging of Individual Carbon Nanotubes with Four-Wave-Mixing Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmin; Sheps, Tatyana; Collins, Philip G.; Potma, Eric O.

    2014-01-01

    Dual color four-wave-mixing (FWM) microscopy is used to spatially resolve the third-order optical response from individual carbon nanotubes. Good signal-to-noise is obtained from single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) sitting on substrates, when the excitation beams are resonant with electronic transitions of the nanotube, by detecting the FWM response at the anti-Stokes frequency. Whereas the coherent anti-Stokes (CAS) signal is sensitive to both electronic and vibrational resonances of the material, it is shown that the signal from individual SWNTs is dominated by the electronic response. The CAS signal is strongly polarization dependent, with the highest signals found parallel with the enhanced electronic polarizibility along the long axis of the SWNT. PMID:19637886

  13. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  14. Improved digital backward propagation for the compensation of inter-channel nonlinear effects in polarization-multiplexed WDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Eduardo F; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Guifang

    2011-01-17

    An improved split-step method (SSM) for digital backward propagation (DBP) applicable to wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) transmission with polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) is presented. A coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations, derived from the Manakov equations, is used for DBP. The above system enables the implementation of DBP on a channel-by-channel basis, where only the effect of phase-mismatched four-wave mixing (FWM) is neglected. A novel formulation of the SSM for PDM-WDM systems is presented where new terms are included in the nonlinear step to account for inter-polarization mixing effects. In addition, the effect of inter-channel walk-off is included. This substantially reduces the computational load compared to the conventional SSM.

  15. Silica holey fibres: fabrication and nonlinear effects

    OpenAIRE

    Belardi, W.; Monro, T.M.; Lee, J.H.; Yusoff, Z.; Price, J.H.V.; Malinowski, A.; Piper, A; Richardson, D J

    2002-01-01

    Holey fibres (HFs) [1] have emerged as a novel class of optical fibres which can provide completely new optical properties, such as endlessly single mode operation and novel dispersion properties as anomalous dispersion below 1.3µm, broadband flat dispersion and highly normal dispersion at 1.55µm. Moreover by changing the HF parameters (i.e. hole and core size), it is possible to fabricate HFs with an effective area so high as 800µm2 or so low as approximately 1µm2 [2]. A holey fibre perform ...

  16. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  17. A comparison of nonlinear mixed models and response to selection of tick-infestation on lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Tick-borne fever (TBF) is stated as one of the main disease challenges in Norwegian sheep farming during the grazing season. TBF is caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. A sustainable strategy to control tick-infestation is to breed for genetically robust animals. In order to use selection to genetically improve traits we need reliable estimates of genetic parameters. The standard procedures for estimating variance components assume a Gaussian distribution of the data. However, tick-count data is a discrete variable and, thus, standard procedures using linear models may not be appropriate. Thus, the objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to compare four alternative non-linear models: Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial based on their goodness of fit for quantifying genetic variation, as well as heritability for tick-count and 2) to investigate potential response to selection against tick-count based on truncation selection given the estimated genetic parameters from the best fit model. Our results showed that zero-inflated Poisson was the most parsimonious model for the analysis of tick count data. The resulting estimates of variance components and high heritability (0.32) led us to conclude that genetic determinism is relevant on tick count. A reduction of the breeding values for tick-count by one sire-dam genetic standard deviation on the liability scale will reduce the number of tick counts below an average of 1. An appropriate breeding scheme could control tick-count and, as a consequence, probably reduce TBF in sheep. PMID:28257433

  18. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  19. Effects of noise on the phase dynamics of nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffertshofer, A.

    1998-07-01

    Various properties of human rhythmic movements have been successfully modeled using nonlinear oscillators. However, despite some extensions towards stochastical differential equations, these models do not comprise different statistical features that can be explained by nondynamical statistics. For instance, one observes certain lag one serial correlation functions for consecutive periods during periodic motion. This work aims at an extension of dynamical descriptions in terms of stochastically forced nonlinear oscillators such as ξ¨+ω20ξ=n(ξ,ξ˙)+q(ξ,ξ˙)Ψ(t), where the nonlinear function n(ξ,ξ˙) generates a limit cycle and Ψ(t) denotes colored noise that is multiplied via q(ξ,ξ˙). Nonlinear self-excited systems have been frequently investigated, particularly emphasizing stability properties and amplitude evolution. Thus, one can focus on the effects of noise on the frequency or phase dynamics that can be analyzed by use of time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. It can be shown that noise multiplied via polynoms of arbitrary finite order cannot generate the desired period correlation but predominantly results in phase diffusion. The system is extended in terms of forced oscillators in order to find a minimal model producing the required error correction.

  20. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  1. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.

  2. Strong electronic correlation effects in coherent multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, M E; Kavousanaki, E G; Dani, K M; Fromer, N A; Perakis, I E

    2011-05-12

    We discuss a many-body theory of the coherent ultrafast nonlinear optical response of systems with a strongly correlated electronic ground state that responds unadiabatically to photoexcitation. We introduce a truncation of quantum kinetic density matrix equations of motion that does not rely on an expansion in terms of the interactions and thus applies to strongly correlated systems. For this we expand in terms of the optical field, separate out contributions to the time-evolved many-body state due to correlated and uncorrelated multiple optical transitions, and use "Hubbard operator" density matrices to describe the exact dynamics of the individual contributions within a subspace of strongly coupled states, including "pure dephasing". Our purpose is to develop a quantum mechanical tool capable of exploring how, by coherently photoexciting selected modes, one can trigger nonlinear dynamics of strongly coupled degrees of freedom. Such dynamics could lead to photoinduced phase transitions. We apply our theory to the nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field. We coherently photoexcite the two lowest Landau level (LL) excitations using three time-delayed optical pulses. We identify some striking temporal and spectral features due to dynamical coupling of the two LLs facilitated by inter-Landau-level magnetoplasmon and magnetoroton excitations and compare to three-pulse four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiments. We show that these features depend sensitively on the dynamics of four-particle correlations between an electron-hole pair and a magnetoplasmon/magnetoroton, reminiscent of exciton-exciton correlations in undoped semiconductors. Our results shed light into unexplored coherent dynamics and relaxation of the quantum Hall system (QHS) and can provide new insight into non-equilibrium co-operative phenomena in strongly correlated systems.

  3. Nonlinear diffraction effects around a surface-piercing structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalli, F.; Mascio, A. Di; Landrini, M. [Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    In the present paper the interaction of a wave system with a submerged or surface piercing body is studied. The wave diffraction caused by a cylinder in finite depth water and by a shoal is been computed and the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental data. The problem is analyzed numerically in the frame of irrotational incompressible flow hypothesis. Both the linearized and the fully nonlinear mathematical models are studied. The numerical solution is gained by means of a mixed panel-desingularized formulation. An explicit time-marching algorithm updates the wave elevation and the potential at the free surface. In all cases, the numerical simulation mirrors the experimental data. In the case of the diffraction around a cylinder, the simulation confirms and extends the theoretical results of the second order analysis (Kriebel 1990, 1992): the linear model yields a very good estimation of the force amplitude acting on the body, while the wave profiles are poorly predicted when compared with the fully nonlinear simulation and the experimental data.

  4. Dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the CuAl(S{sub 1–x}Se{sub x})₂ mixed chaclcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A. H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.com [New Technologies - Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Brik, M. G. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14C, Tartu 50411 (Estonia); Auluck, S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research—National Physical Laboratory Dr. K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-09-14

    Based on the electronic band structure, we have calculated the dispersion of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities for the mixed CuAl(S{sub 1–x}Se{sub x})₂ chaclcopyrite compounds with x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Calculations are performed within the Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation. The investigated compounds possess a direct band gap of about 2.2 eV (CuAlS₂), 1.9 eV (CuAl(S₀.₇₅Se₀.₂₅)₂), 1.7 eV (CuAl(S₀.₅Se₀.₅)₂), 1.5 eV (CuAl(S₀.₂₅Se₀.₇₅)₂), and 1.4 eV (CuAlSe₂) which tuned to make them optically active for the optoelectronics and photovoltaic applications. These results confirm that substituting S by Se causes significant band gaps' reduction. The optical function's dispersion ε₂{sup xx}(ω) and ε₂{sup zz}(ω)/ε₂{sup xx}(ω), ε₂{sup yy}(ω), and ε₂{sup zz}(ω) was calculated and discussed in detail. To demonstrate the effect of substituting S by Se on the complex second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensors, we performed detailed calculations for the complex second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensors, which show that the neat parents compounds CuAlS₂ and CuAlSe₂ exhibit | χ₁₂₂²}(-2ω;ω;ω) | as the dominant component, while the mixed alloys exhibit | χ₁₁₁²(-2ω;ω;ω) | as the dominant component. The features of | χ₁₂₃²}(-2ω;ω;ω) | and | χ{sub 111}²}(-2ω;ω;ω) | spectra were analyzed on the basis of the absorptive part of the corresponding dielectric function ε₂(ω) as a function of both ω/2 and ω.

  5. Cosmology in nonlinear multidimensional gravity and the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolokhov, S. V.; Bronnikov, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the possible cosmological models in Kaluza-Klein-type multidimensional gravity with a curvature-nonlinear Lagrangian and a spherical extra space, taking into account the Casimir energy. First, we find a minimum of the effective potential of extra dimensions, leading to a physically reasonable value of the effective cosmological constant in our 4D space-time. In this model, the huge Casimir energy density is compensated by a fine-tuned contribution of the curvature-nonlinear terms in the original action. Second, we present a viable model with slowly evolving extra dimensions and power-law inflation in our space-time. In both models, the results formulated in Einstein and Jordan frames are compared.

  6. New approximation for the effective energy of nonlinear conducting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Torquato, Salvatore

    1998-07-01

    Approximations for the effective energy and, thus, effective conductivity of nonlinear, isotropic conducting dispersions are developed. This is accomplished by using the Ponte Castaneda variational principles [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 340, 1321 (1992)] and the Torquato approximation [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3790 (1985)] of the effective conductivity of corresponding linear composites. The results are obtained for dispersions with superconducting or insulating inclusions, and, more generally, for phases with a power-law energy. It is shown that the new approximations lie within the best available rigorous upper and lower bounds on the effective energy.

  7. Mixed-effects and fMRI studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friston, K.J; Stephan, K.E; Ellegaard Lund, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This note concerns mixed-effect (MFX) analyses in multisession functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. It clarifies the relationship between mixed-effect analyses and the two-stage 'summary statistics' procedure (Holmes, A.P., Friston, K.J., 1998. Generalisability, random effects...... and population inference. NeuroImage 7, S754) that has been adopted widely for analyses of fMRI data at the group level. We describe a simple procedure, based on restricted maximum likelihood (ReML) estimates of covariance components, that enables full mixed-effects analyses in the context of statistical...

  8. Impact of polarization mode dispersion and nonlinear effect on 40 Gbit/s dense wavelength division multiplexing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-ming; ZHANG Hui-jian; ZUO Meng; GU Wan-yi; XU Da-xiong

    2006-01-01

    Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is the ultimate selection as an optical communication system because of its high speeds and capacities.However,the fiber nonlinear effects and polarization mode dispersion severely limit the performance of the system when signal propagates at 40 Gbit/s in a single channel.The coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations of a single channel in DWDM,which are all considered factors of group velocity dispersion (GVD),self phase modulation (SPM),cross phase modulation (XPM),four wave mixing (FWM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD),are derived,while their number results are obtained with extended split-step Fourier method.Finally,to analyze the impacts of the fiber nonlinear effects and PMD on the optical communication system,the simulated results of an 8x40 Gbit/s DWDM system are discussed under different conditions respectively.

  9. Translational mixed-effects PKPD modelling of recombinant human growth hormone - from hypophysectomized rat to patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Anders; Thygesen, Peter; Agersø, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a mechanistic mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) (PKPD) model for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in hypophysectomized rats and to predict the human PKPD relationship. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A non-linear mixed-effects model...... was developed from experimental PKPD studies of rhGH and effects of long-term treatment as measured by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and bodyweight gain in rats. Modelled parameter values were scaled to human values using the allometric approach with fixed exponents for PKs and unscaled for PDs...... a clinically relevant biomarker, IGF-1, to a primary clinical end-point, growth/bodyweight gain. Scaling of the model parameters provided robust predictions of the human PKPD in growth hormone-deficient patients including variability....

  10. A multifluid mix model with material strength effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scannapieco, A. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-23

    We present a new multifluid mix model. Its features include material strength effects and pressure and temperature nonequilibrium between mixing materials. It is applicable to both interpenetration and demixing of immiscible fluids and diffusion of miscible fluids. The presented model exhibits the appropriate smooth transition in mathematical form as the mixture evolves from multiphase to molecular mixing, extending its applicability to the intermediate stages in which both types of mixing are present. Virtual mass force and momentum exchange have been generalized for heterogeneous multimaterial mixtures. The compression work has been extended so that the resulting species energy equations are consistent with the pressure force and material strength.

  11. Kinetic mixing effect in the 3 -3 -1 -1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, P. V.; Si, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the mixing effect of the neutral gauge bosons in the 3 -3 -1 -1 model comes from two sources. The first one is due to the 3 -3 -1 -1 gauge symmetry breaking as usual, whereas the second one results from the kinetic mixing between the gauge bosons of U (1 )X and U (1 )N groups, which are used to determine the electric charge and baryon minus lepton numbers, respectively. Such mixings modify the ρ -parameter and the known couplings of Z with fermions. The constraints that arise from flavor-changing neutral currents due to the gauge boson mixings and nonuniversal fermion generations are also given.

  12. Nonlinear effect induced in thermally poled glass waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-tao

    2006-01-01

    Thermally poled germanium-doped channel waveguides are presented. Multilayer waveguides containing a silicon oxynitride layer were used as charge trapper in this investigation on the effect of the internal field inside the waveguide. Compared to waveguides without the trapping layer, experimental results showed that the induced linear electro-optic (EO) coefficient increases about 20% after poling, suggesting strongly that the internal field is relatively enhanced, and showed it is a promising means for improving nonlinearity by poling in waveguides.

  13. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS ON EXPONENTIAL NONLINEAR MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗序平; 赵俊; 王海斌; 韦博成

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a unified diagnostic method for exponential nonlinear models with random effects based upon the joint likelihood given by Robinson in 1991.The authors show that the case deletion model is equivalent to mean shift outlier model.From this point of view,several diagnostic measures,such as Cook distance,score statistics are derived.The local influence measure of Cook is also presented.Numerical example illustrates that our method is available.

  14. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS IN NONLINEAR MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiBocheng; ZhongXuping

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper,a unified diagnostic method for the nonlinear models with random ef-fects based upon the joint likelihood given by Robinson in 1991 is presented. It is shown that thecase deletion model is equivalent to the mean shift outlier model. From this point of view ,sever-al diagnostic measures, such as Cook distance, score statistics are derived. The local influencemeasure of Cook is also presented. A numerical example illustrates that the method is avail-able

  15. Slow relaxation of the magnetization in non-linear optical active layered mixed metal oxalate chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Elena; Ugo, Renato; Santoro, Giuseppe; Tordin, Elisa; Sorace, Lorenzo; Caneschi, Andrea; Sironi, Angelo; Macchi, Piero; Casati, Nicola

    2010-12-06

    New Co(II) members of the family of multifunctional materials of general formula [DAMS](4)[M(2)Co(C(2)O(4))(6)]·2DAMBA·2H(2)O (M(III) = Rh, Fe, Cr; DAMBA = para-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and [DAMS(+)] = trans-4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium) have been isolated and characterized. Such new hybrid mixed metal oxalates are isostructural with the previously investigated containing Zn(II), Mn(II), and Ni(II). This allows to preserve the exceptional second harmonic generation (SHG) activity, due to both the large molecular quadratic hyperpolarizability of [DAMS(+)] and the efficiency of the crystalline network which organizes [DAMS(+)] into head-to-tail arranged J-type aggregates, and to further tune the magnetic properties. In particular, the magnetic data of the Rh(III) derivative demonstrate that high spin octacoordinated Co(II) centers behave very similarly to the hexacoordinated Co(II) ones, being dominated by a large orbital contribution. The Cr(III) derivative is characterized by ferromagnetic Cr(III)-Co(II) interactions. Most relevantly, the Fe(III) compound is characterized by a moderate antiferromagnetic interaction between Fe(III) and Co(II), resulting in a ferrimagnetic like structure. Its low temperature dynamic magnetic properties were found to follow a thermally activated behavior (τ(0) = 8.6 × 10(-11) s and ΔE = 21.4 K) and make this a candidate for the second oxalate-based single chain magnet (SCM) reported up to date, a property which in this case is coupled to the second order non linear optical (NLO) ones.

  16. Review of mixing length estimates and effects of toroidicity in a fluid model for turbulent transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, J., E-mail: elfjw@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology and EURATOM-VR Association (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    Basic aspects of turbulent transport in toroidal magnetized plasmas are discussed. In particular the fluid closure has strong effects on zonal flows which are needed to create an absorbing boundary for long wave lengths and also to obtain the Dimits nonlinear upshift. The fluid resonance in the energy equation is found to be instrumental for generating the L–H transition, the spin-up of poloidal rotation in internal transport barriers, as well as the nonlinear Dimits upshift. The difference between the linearly fastest growing mode number and the corresponding longer nonlinear correlation length is also addressed. It is found that the Kadomtsev mixing length result is consistent with the non-Markovian diagonal limit of the transport at the nonlinearly obtained correlation length.

  17. Effect of Stokes drift on upper ocean mixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; SONG Jinbao; SUN Qun

    2008-01-01

    Stokes drift is the main source of vertical vorticity in the ocean mixed layer.In the ways of Coriolis - Stokes forcing and Langmuir circulations,Stokes drift can substantially affect the whole mixed layer.A modified Mellor-Yamada 2.5 level turbulence closure model is used to parameterize its effect on upper ocean mixing conventionally.Results show that comparing surface heating with wave breaking,Stokes drift plays the most important role in the entire ocean mixed layer,especially in the subsurface layer.As expected,Stokes drift elevates both the dissipation rate and the turbulence energy in the upper ocean mixing.Also,influence of the surface heating,wave breaking and wind speed on Stokes drift is investigated respectively.Research shows that it is significant and important to assessing the Stokes drift into ocean mixed layer studying.The laboratory observations are supporting numerical experiments quantitatively.

  18. Experimental study of strong nonlinear-optics effects in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, S. D.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Cheung, M. M.; Shen, Y. R.

    1984-07-01

    Nonlinear optical effects that arise in nematic liquid crystals as a result of a change in the index of refraction induced by a laser field are considered. Since the resultant nonlinearity is extremely high, the approximation of perturbation theory cannot be used in calculations. However, the change in refractive index results mainly in phase advance as waves propagate through a thin film of liquid crystal, while the change of intensity is significant. Moreover, if there is no change in polarization of the pumping field, calculations are relatively simple. An investigation is made of the propagation of a cross sectionally bounded laser beam through a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal, giving rise to spatial phase modulation of emission. When the intensity of the laser beam exceeds a certain value, a system of aberation rings is observed in the output radiation. Effects of dynamic self-diffraction accompanying degenerate four-wave mixing when a change in refractive index is induced in a homeotropic liquid crystal film, and optical bistability in a nonlinear Fabry-Perot optical cavity, as well as generation of a self-oscillatory state in such a resonator are discussed.

  19. Effects of turbulent mixing on the nonequilibrium critical behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, N V; Iglovikov, V I; Kapustin, A S [Department of Theoretical Physics, St. Petersburg University, Uljanovskaja 1, St. Petersburg, Petrodvorez 198504 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nikolai.antonov@pobox.spbu.ru

    2009-04-03

    We study the effects of turbulent mixing on the critical behaviour of a nonequilibrium system near its second-order phase transition between the absorbing and fluctuating states. The model describes the spreading of an agent (e.g., infectious disease) in a reaction-diffusion system and belongs to the universality class of the directed bond percolation process, also known as the simple epidemic process, and is equivalent to the Reggeon field theory. The turbulent advecting velocity field is modelled by the Obukhov-Kraichnan's rapid-change ensemble: Gaussian statistics with the correlation function (vv) {approx} {delta}(t - t')k{sup -d-{xi}}, where k is the wave number, and 0 < {xi} < 2 is a free parameter. Using the field theoretic renormalization group we show that, depending on the relation between the exponent {xi} and the spatial dimension d, the system reveals different types of large-scale, long-time asymptotic behaviour, associated with four possible fixed points of the renormalization group equations. In addition to known regimes (ordinary diffusion, ordinary directed percolation process and passively advected scalar field), the existence of a new nonequilibrium universality class is established, and the corresponding critical dimensions are calculated to the first order of the double expansion in {xi} and {epsilon} = 4 - d (one-loop approximation). It turns out, however, that the most realistic values {xi} = 4/3 (Kolmogorov's fully developed turbulence) and d = 2 or 3 correspond to the case of a passive scalar field, when the nonlinearity of the Reggeon model is irrelevant, and the spreading of the agent is completely determined by the turbulent transfer.

  20. Controlling ultrafast currents by the nonlinear photogalvanic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Georg; Sato, Shunsuke A.; Floss, Isabella; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femtosecond optical laser pulses. Ab initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast direct currents that can be viewed as a nonlinear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity of about {I}{{c}}˜ 3× {10}13 W cm-2. We trace this switching to the transition from nonlinear polarisation currents to the tunnelling excitation regime. The latter is found to be sensitive to the relative orientation between laser polarisation and chemical bonds. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. While two temporally separated laser pulses lead to currents along one direction their temporal overlap can reverse the current. We find the ultrafast current control by the nonlinear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to the laser-pulse shape and the carrier-envelope phase.

  1. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  2. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL WASTE: EFFECT OF MODE OF MIXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of mixing (via biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) on biogas production. Three sets of experiments were performed using cow manure slurry feed with either 50, 100, or 150 g/L total solids (TS) concentrations (r...

  3. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  4. Line mixing effect in the ν2 band of CH3Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmida, F.; Galalou, S.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Rotger, M.; Aroui, H.

    2017-03-01

    Line intensities, self broadening coefficients, as well as line mixing parameters and self-shift coefficients have been measured in the ν2 parallel band of CH3Br at room temperature for 38 rovibrational doublets with rotational quantum numbers 4≤J≤47 and K=0, 1. Measurements were made in the P and R branches located in the spectral range from 1260 to 1332 cm-1 using high-resolution Fourier transform spectra. These spectroscopic parameters have been retrieved from twelve spectra recorded at different pressures of pure CH3Br from 0.2 to 6.8 Torr. The spectra have been analyzed using a multi-pressure non-linear least squares fitting of Rosenkranz profile taking into account line mixing effect. These spectra and results of pressure broadening coefficients and line intensities obtained with and without taking into account line mixing effect are compared, analyzed and discussed as function of the rotational quantum numbers and the branch. Analyzing of overlapped lines demonstrates an important mixing effect between the doublets components. On average the values of these spectroscopic parameters obtained when taking into account line mixing were found to be about 5% smaller than those obtained without taking into account this effect. On average, the accuracies of self-broadening coefficients and line intensities are estimated to be better than 3.8%. The mean accuracies of line-mixing and line-shift data are estimated to be about 20% and 17% respectively. The measured line mixing parameters are both positive and negative, while most of the lines have a negative shift coefficient.

  5. Non-linear effects for cylindrical gravitational two-soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Using a cylindrical soliton solution to the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equation, we study non-linear effects of gravitational waves such as Faraday rotation and time shift phenomenon. In the previous work, we analyzed the single-soliton solution constructed by the Pomeransky's improved inverse scattering method. In this work, we construct a new two-soliton solution with complex conjugate poles, by which we can avoid light-cone singularities unavoidable in a single soliton case. In particular, we compute amplitudes of such non-linear gravitational waves and time-dependence of the polarizations. Furthermore, we consider the time shift phenomenon for soliton waves, which means that a wave packet can propagate at slower velocity than light.

  6. Nonlinear thermokinetic phenomena due to the Seebeck effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2014-07-22

    We propose a novel mechanism to produce nonlinear thermokinetic vortex flows around a circular cylinder with ideally high thermal conductivity in an electrolyte. That is, the nonlinear thermokinetic slip velocity, which is proportional to the square of the temperature gradient [∇(T)0(2)], is derived based on the electrolyte Seebeck effect, heat conduction equation, and Helmholtz–Smoluchowski formula. Different from conventional linear thermokinetic theory, our theory predicts that the inversion of the temperature gradient does not change the direction of the thermokinetic flows and thus a Janus particle using this phenomenon can move to the both hotter and colder regions in a temperature gradient field by changing the direction of its dielectric end. Our findings bridge the gap between the electro- and thermo-kinetic phenomena and provide an integrated physical viewpoint for the interface science.

  7. Anharmonic effects in simple physical models: introducing undergraduates to nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Given the pervasive character of nonlinearity throughout the physical universe, a case is made for introducing undergraduate students to its consequences and signatures earlier rather than later. The dynamics of two well-known systems—a spring and a pendulum—are reviewed when the standard textbook linearising assumptions are relaxed. Some qualitative effects of nonlinearity can be anticipated from symmetry (e.g., inspection of potential energy functions), and further physical insight gained by applying a simple successive-approximation method that might be taught in parallel with courses on classical mechanics, ordinary differential equations, and computational physics. We conclude with a survey of how these ideas have been deployed on programmes at a UK university.

  8. Doppler effect of nonlinear waves and superspirals in oscillatory media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, Lutz; Torcini, Alessandro; Bär, Markus

    2003-09-01

    Nonlinear waves emitted from a moving source are studied. A meandering spiral in a reaction-diffusion medium provides an example in which waves originate from a source exhibiting a back-and-forth movement in a radial direction. The periodic motion of the source induces a Doppler effect that causes a modulation in wavelength and amplitude of the waves ("superspiral"). Using direct simulations as well as numerical nonlinear analysis within the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we show that waves subject to a convective Eckhaus instability can exhibit monotonic growth or decay as well as saturation of these modulations depending on the perturbation frequency. Our findings elucidate recent experimental observations concerning superspirals and their decay to spatiotemporal chaos.

  9. Nonlinear Optical Properties in Molecular Systems with Non-Zero Permanent Dipole Moments in Four-Wave Mixing Under Stochastic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, J. L.; Mastrodomenico, A.; Cardenas-Garcia, Jaime F.; Rodriguez, Luis G.; Vera, Cesar Costa

    2016-07-01

    The solvent effects over nonlinear optical properties of a two-level molecular system in presence of a classical electromagnetic field were modeled in this work. The collective effects proper of the thermal reservoir are modeled as a random Bohr frequency, whose manifestation is the broadening of the upper level according to a prescribed random function. A technique of work, based in the use of the cumulant expansions to obtain the average in the Fourier components associated with the coherence and populations, evaluated by the use of the Optical Stochastic Bloch Equations (OSBE), is employed. Analytical expressions for susceptibility, optical properties and non-degenerate Four-Wave Mixing (nd-FWM) signal intensity, were obtained. Numerical calculations were carried out to construct surfaces corresponding to these magnitudes as a function of the pump-probe frequency detuning, values of the permanent dipole moments (PDM), noise parameters and relationships between the longitudinal and transversal relaxation times. Our results show that it is necessary to neglect the Rotating-Wave approximation (RWA) in order to measure the effect of the permanent dipole moments and that the inclusion of these favors two-photon transitions over those with one-photon. In general, the effect of non-zero permanent dipole moments, are reflected in the appearance of new and more complex signals associated with new multiphoton processes.

  10. Thermodynamic design of a cascade refrigeration system of liquefied natural gas by applying mixed integer non-linear programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meysam Kamalinejad; Majid Amidpour; S.M. Mousavi Naeynian

    2015-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the most economical way of transporting natural gas (NG) over long distances. Liq-uefaction of NG using vapor compression refrigeration system requires high operating and capital cost. Due to lack of systematic design methods for multistage refrigeration cycles, conventional approaches to determine op-timal cycle are largely trial-and-error. In this paper a novel mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) model is introduced to select optimal synthesis of refrigeration systems to reduce both operating and capital costs of an LNG plant. Better conceptual understanding of design improvement is illustrated on composite curve (CC) and exergetic grand composite curve (EGCC) of pinch analysis diagrams. In this method a superstruc-ture representation of complex refrigeration system is developed to select and optimize key decision variables in refrigeration cycles (i.e. partition temperature, compression configuration, refrigeration features, refrigerant flow rate and economic trade-off). Based on this method a program (LNG-Pro) is developed which integrates VBA, Refprop and Excel MINLP Solver to automate the methodology. Design procedure is applied on a sample LNG plant to illustrate advantages of using this method which shows a 3.3% reduction in total shaft work consumption.

  11. Reverse saturable absorption studies in polymerized indole - Effect of polymerization in the phenomenal enhancement of third order optical nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.

  12. A method for achieving larger enhancement in Four-Wave Mixing via plasmonic path interference effects

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Tasgin, Mehmet Emre

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement and suppression of nonlinear processes in coupled systems of plasmonic converters and quantum emitters are well-studied theoretically, numerically and experimentally, in the past decade. Here, in difference, we explicitly demonstrate --with a single equation-- how the presence of a Fano resonance leads to cancellation of nonresonant terms in a four-wave mixing process. Cancellation in the denominator gives rise to enhancement in the nonlinearity. The explicit demonstration, we present here, guides us to the method for achieving more and more orders of magnitude enhancement factors via path interference effects. We also study the coupled system of a plasmonic converter with two quantum emitters. We show that the potential for the enhancement increases dramatically due to better cancellation of the terms in the denominator.

  13. Measurements of the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 at 10 μm using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, J J; Tochitsky, S Ya; Welch, E C; Joshi, C

    2016-09-01

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear index of refraction of air, N2, and O2 at a wavelength close to 10 μm by collinear four-wave mixing of a 200 MW CO2 laser beat-wave. The use of a 200 ps long beat-wave comprising radiation amplified on the 10P20 and 10R16 lines of the CO2 laser provides a sensitive method to measure the small nonlinearities characteristic of the gas phase in a spectral region where no such data exists.

  14. QPSK-to-2×BPSK wavelength and modulation format conversion through phase-sensitive four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Dalgaard, Kjeld; Lei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    A phase-sensitive four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme enabling the simultaneous conversion of the two orthogonal quadratures of an optical signal to different wavelengths is demonstrated for the first time under dynamic operation using a highly nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF) as the nonlinear medium....... The scheme is first optimized with respect to the power levels and phases of the four phase-coherent pumps. The successful modulation and wavelength conversion of the two complex quadratures of a quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal to two binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals is then demonstrated...

  15. Mixed-effects Gaussian process functional regression models with application to dose-response curve prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J Q; Wang, B; Will, E J; West, R M

    2012-11-20

    We propose a new semiparametric model for functional regression analysis, combining a parametric mixed-effects model with a nonparametric Gaussian process regression model, namely a mixed-effects Gaussian process functional regression model. The parametric component can provide explanatory information between the response and the covariates, whereas the nonparametric component can add nonlinearity. We can model the mean and covariance structures simultaneously, combining the information borrowed from other subjects with the information collected from each individual subject. We apply the model to dose-response curves that describe changes in the responses of subjects for differing levels of the dose of a drug or agent and have a wide application in many areas. We illustrate the method for the management of renal anaemia. An individual dose-response curve is improved when more information is included by this mechanism from the subject/patient over time, enabling a patient-specific treatment regime.

  16. Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mixed Traffic Flow on Control Delay at Signalized Intersections. ... Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice ... There are several methods available for operational analysis including mathematical models and traffic ...

  17. Negative and nonlinear magnetoresistance effect in silicon strip

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fangcong; Guo, Hui; Fan, Xiaolong; Li, Zhankui

    2016-01-01

    Both negative magnetoresistance and nonlinear magnetoresisitance were observed in silicon strip nuclear radiation detector in room temperature if we applied high magnetic field intensity in different direction. This result is different with former report. We believe this is the result of coaction of high electric field (Gunn effect) and high magnetic field, or because of the variation of number of carriers and the carriers mobility. The weak localization and Landau energy levels also affect the magnetoresistance. Different crystal orientations have different energy band structures. Complex band structures lead complex carriers mobility plus Landau energy levels. So the magnetoresisitance effect is anisotropy.

  18. Power-transfer effects in monomode optical nonlinear waveguiding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Z; Jerominek, H; Patela, S; Tremblay, R; Delisle, C

    1987-09-01

    We describe power-transfer effects, over a certain threshold, among constituents of planar waveguiding structures consisting of an optical linear layer deposited onto a nonlinear substrate (CdS(x)Se(1-x)-doped glass). Proper selection of the thickness of the linear waveguiding film and the refractive index of the linear cladding allows one to obtain optical transistor action and to construct all-optical AND, OR, NOT, and XOR logic gates. The effects appear for the TE(0) guided mode.

  19. Mixed effects in stochastic differential equation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; De Gaetano, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    maximum likelihood; pharmacokinetics; population estimates; random effects; repeated measurements; stochastic processes......maximum likelihood; pharmacokinetics; population estimates; random effects; repeated measurements; stochastic processes...

  20. Modeling and study of nonlinear effects in electrodynamic shakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Abhishek; Tiwari, Nachiketa

    2017-02-01

    An electrodynamic shaker is inherently a nonlinear electro-mechanical system. In this work, we have developed a lumped parameter model for the entire electromechanical system, developed an approach to non-destructively determine these parameters, and predict the nonlinear response of the shaker. This predicted response has been validated using experimental data. Through such an approach, we have been able to accurately predict the resulting distortions in the response of the shaker and other nonlinear effects like DC offset in the displacement response. Our approach offers a key advantage vis-à-vis other approaches which rely on techniques involving Volterra Series expansions or techniques based on blackbox models like neural networks, which is that in our approach, apart from predicting the response of the shaker, the model parameters obtained have a physical significance and changes in the parameters can be directly mapped to modification in key design parameters of the shaker. The proposed approach is also advantageous in one more way: it requires measurement of only four parameters, voltage, current, displacement and acceleration for estimating shaker model parameters non-destructively. The proposed model can be used for the design of linearization controllers, prototype testing and simulation of new shaker designs as well as for performance prediction of shakers under testing conditions.

  1. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ-1.5 or κ-2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.

  2. Wave-packet dynamics in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices: local vs. nonlocal nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Phi [Central University of Construction, Tuy Hoa (Viet Nam); Kim, Ki Hong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    We study numerically the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices with both local and nonlocal nonlinearities. Using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation generalized by including a nonlocal nonlinear term, we calculate four different physical quantities as a function of time, which are the return probability to the initial excitation site, the participation number, the root-mean-square displacement from the excitation site and the spatial probability distribution. We investigate the influence of the nonlocal nonlinearity on the delocalization to self-trapping transition induced by the local nonlinearity. In the non-self-trapping region, we find that the nonlocal nonlinearity compresses the soliton width and slows down the spreading of the wave packet. In the vicinity of the delocalization to self-trapping transition point and inside the self-trapping region, we find that a new kind of self-trapping phenomenon, which we call partial self-trapping, takes place when the nonlocal nonlinearity is sufficiently strong.

  3. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Andi Setiady; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-07-01

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To ease the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.

  4. A New General System of Generalized Nonlinear Mixed Composite-Type Equilibria and Fixed Point Problems with an Application to Minimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsakorn Sunthrayuth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new general system of generalized nonlinear mixed composite-type equilibria and propose a new iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a generalized equilibrium problem, the set of solutions of a general system of generalized nonlinear mixed composite-type equilibria, and the set of fixed points of a countable family of strict pseudocontraction mappings. Furthermore, we prove the strong convergence theorem of the purposed iterative scheme in a real Hilbert space. As applications, we apply our results to solve a certain minimization problem related to a strongly positive bounded linear operator. Finally, we also give a numerical example which supports our results. The results obtained in this paper extend the recent ones announced by many others.

  5. Current-induced nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in strontium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavislyak, I. V.; Popov, M. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the observation of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects at room temperature due to a dc current in the ferrimagnetic M -type strontium hexaferrite platelets. Utilizing microwave measurement techniques and data on the shift in magnetic mode frequencies, it was found that a dc current along the hexagonal c axis resulted in a significant decrease in the saturation magnetization and an increase in the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy field. These changes in the magnetic order parameters were directly proportional to the square of applied electric field and were found to be much higher than variations due to Joule heating. A phenomenological theory that takes into account the current-induced magnetobielectric (MBE) effects is proposed. Expressions for coupling coefficients for MBE effects have been obtained and have been calculated from the variations in magnetic order parameters. The electric field E (or current) tuning of the magnetic modes in Sr M reported here is orders of magnitude stronger than strain mediated E tuning of magnetic resonance in hexaferrite-ferroelectric composites. The nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite, therefore, open up an avenue for the realization of E -tunable broadband microwave and millimeter wave ferrite signal processing devices such as resonators and filters.

  6. Nonlinear Magnetoimpedance Effect in FeCoNi Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. V. Kurlyandskaya; H. Yakabchuk; E. Kisker; N. G. Bebenin; H. García-Miquel; M. Vázquez; V. O. Vas′kovskiy

    2001-01-01

    The very high (up to 820% of the magnetoimpedance ratio) and sensitive nonlinear giant magnetoimpedance effect has been studied in the FeCo1Ni magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu(3%)Be nonmagnetic wirefor frequencies from 1-10MHz. Special annealing was carried out in order to induce the magnetic anisotropy. The high harmonic generation was observed and the harmonics show larger variations with the external magnetic field than the fundamental frequency. The super high sensitivity of the harmonics is promising as regards the increase of the sensitivity of magnetoimpedance sensors.

  7. Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Spencer A.; Warrier, Sangeeta [Department of Physics, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite-order protocols justifies the application of topological chaos. More unexpectedly, we see that while the measures of effective mixing area increase with increasing Reynolds number for the finite-order protocols, they actually exhibit non-monotonic behavior for the pseudo-Anosov protocol.

  8. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors' behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually, the square lattice) and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously either by picking a random individual and either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in case of a finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing...

  9. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dubbert, Dale F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tise, Bertice L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

  10. Nonlinear cosmological consistency relations and effective matter stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kunz, Martin, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@unige.ch, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, Quai E. Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2012-05-01

    We propose a fully nonlinear framework to construct consistency relations for testing generic cosmological scenarios using the evolution of large scale structure. It is based on the covariant approach in combination with a frame that is purely given by the metric, the normal frame. As an example, we apply this framework to the ΛCDM model, by extending the usual first order conditions on the metric potentials to second order, where the two potentials start to differ from each other. We argue that working in the normal frame is not only a practical choice but also helps with the physical interpretation of nonlinear dynamics. In this frame, effective pressures and anisotropic stresses appear at second order in perturbation theory, even for ''pressureless'' dust. We quantify their effect and compare them, for illustration, to the pressure of a generic clustering dark energy fluid and the anisotropic stress in the DGP model. Besides, we also discuss the effect of a mismatch of the potentials on the determination of galaxy bias.

  11. Peltier effect in the mixed state of high- Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvenov, G. Yu.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Ustinov, A. V.; Huebener, R. P.

    1991-04-01

    The Peltier and Seebeck effects in the mixed state of high- Tc superconductors are proportional to the resistivity due to flux motion. Therefore, both effects also show the broadening of the transition regime characteristic for these superconductors. The origin of the Peltier effect is discussed in detail, and the validity of the Thomson relation is confirmed, as expected.

  12. Finite temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Soltani, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a Lagrangian, electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained and their relation to coupling functions are determined. Finally, the Casimir energy and force in the presence of a nonlinear medium at finite temperature is calculated.

  13. A comparison of nonlinear media for parametric all-optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Diaz, Jordi; Bohigas Nadal, Jaume; Vukovic, Dragana;

    2013-01-01

    We systematically compare nonlinear media for parametric signal processing by determining the minimum pump power that is required for a given conversion efficiency in a degenerate four-wave mixing process, including the effect of nonlinear loss....

  14. Thermopiezoelectric and Nonlinear Electromechanical Effects in Quantum Dots and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Bahrami-Samani, M.; Melnik, R. V. N.; Toropova, M.; Zu, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We report thermopiezoelectric (TPE) and nonlinear electromechanical (NEM) effects in quantum dots (QD) and nanowires (NW) analyzed with a model based on coupled thermal, electric and mechanical balance equations. Several representative examples of low dimensional semiconductor structures (LDSNs) are studied. We focus mainly on GaN/AlN QDs and CdTe/ZnTe NWs which we analyze for different geometries. GaN/AlN nano systems are observed to be more sensitive to thermopiezoelectric effects than those of CdTe/ZnTe. Furthermore, noticeable qualitative and quantitative variations in electromechanical fields are observed as a consequence of taking into account NEM effects, in particular in GaN/AlN QDs.

  15. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...

  16. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  17. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  18. Research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of nonlinear optical materials based on the effect of second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Xuan; Wei, Yong; Huang, Cheng-Hui; Zhuang, Feng-Jiang; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the authors report a research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of optical materials in visible and infrared band. Based on the second order nonlinear optic principle and the photoelectric signal detection technology, the authors have proposed a new testing scheme in which a infrared OPO laser and a method for separating the beams arising from frequency matching and the light produced by other optical effects were used. The OPO laser is adopted as light source to avoid the error of measurement caused by absorption because the double frequency signal of the material is in the transmittance band Our research work includes testing system composition, operational principle and experimental method. The experimental results of KTP, KDP, AGS tested by this method were presented. In the experiment several new infrared non-linear materials were found. This method possesses the merits of good stability and reliability, high sensitivity, simple operation and good reproducibility, which can effectively make qualitative and semi-quantitative test for optical material's nonlinear optical properties from visible to infrared. This work provides an important test -method for the research on second order nonlinear optical materials in visible, infrared and ultraviolet bands.

  19. Langmuir mixing effects on global climate: WAVEWATCH III in CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Webb, Adrean; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Craig, Anthony; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) have shown the effects of ocean surface gravity waves in enhancing the ocean boundary layer mixing through Langmuir turbulence. Neglecting this Langmuir mixing process may contribute to the common shallow bias in mixed layer depth in regions of the Southern Ocean and the Northern Atlantic in most state-of-the-art climate models. In this study, a third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, has been incorporated as a component of the Community Earth System Model, version 1.2 (CESM1.2). In particular, the wave model is now coupled with the ocean model through a modified version of the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) to approximate the influence of Langmuir mixing. Unlike past studies, the wind-wave misalignment and the effects of Stokes drift penetration depth are considered through empirical scalings based on the rate of mixing in LES. Wave-Ocean only experiments show substantial improvements in the shallow biases of mixed layer depth in the Southern Ocean. Ventilation is enhanced and low concentration biases of pCFC-11 are reduced in the Southern Hemisphere. A majority of the improvements persist in the presence of other climate feedbacks in the fully coupled experiments. In addition, warming of the subsurface water over the majority of global ocean is observed in the fully coupled experiments with waves, and the cold subsurface ocean temperature biases are reduced.

  20. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    the strongest effects was most often linked to conjugative transmission of natural plasmids carried by the E. coli isolates (70%). Thus, the capacity of an isolate to promote the biofilm through cocultivation was (i) transferable to the K-12 strain, (ii) was linked with the acquisition of conjugation genes...... promotion in this system is not dependent on the laboratory strain and that the described model system could provide relevant insights on mechanisms of biofilm development in natural E. coli populations....

  1. Effect of noise on Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with space-dependent acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Arun; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-11-01

    We analyze, for the first time by our knowledge, the effect of noise on Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing with space-dependent acceleration by applying the stochastic model. In these conditions, the RT mixing is a statistically unsteady process where the means values of the flow quantities vary in space and time, and there are also the space and time dependent fluctuations around these mean values. The stochastic model is derived from the momentum model and is represented by a set of nonlinear differential equations with multiplicative noise. The models equations are solved theoretically and numerically. Investigating a broad range of values of acceleration, self-similar asymptotic solutions are found in the mixing regime. There are two types of mixing sub-regimes (acceleration-driven and dissipation-driven respectively), each of which has its own types of solutions and characteristic values with the latter saturating to a value on the order of one. It is also observed that the representation of the dynamics in an implicit form is noisier as compared to the case of an explicit time-dependent form. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  2. Optimal geometry of nonlinear silicon slot waveguides accounting for the effect of waveguide losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jun Rong; Chen, Valerian H

    2015-12-28

    The optimal geometry of silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides is investigated in the context of the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM), a χ(3) nonlinear optical process. We study the effect of slot and waveguide widths, as well as waveguide asymmetry on the two-photon absorption (TPA) figure of merit and the roughness scattering loss. The optimal waveguide core width is shown to be 220nm (symmetric) with a slot width of 120nm, at a fixed waveguide height of 220nm. We also show that state-of-the-art slot waveguides can outperform rib waveguides, especially at high powers, due to the high TPA figure-of-merit.

  3. Imaging the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravel, Alexander P. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine); Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Kurter, Cihan; Abrahams, John [CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Jung, Philipp; Lukashenko, Alexander; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Remillard, Stephen [Physics Department, Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Anlage, Steven M. [CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We present measurements on the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect (aNLME). Using a laser scanning microscope we have directly imaged this effect in a self-resonant spiral patterned from a thin film of the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ}. The spiral is excited at one of its resonant frequencies while a focused laser spot is scanned across its surface. The local illumination by the laser gives rise to a detectable change in the resonant properties. At low temperatures, the aNLME causes a direction dependent contribution to the critical current density. This makes it possible to image the directions of nodes and anti-nodes of the superconducting order parameter and the contribution of Andreev bound states associated with them. These two contributions to the photoresponse can be distinguished by their temperature dependence, which is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  4. New Relativistic Effects in the Dynamics of Nonlinear Hydrodynamical Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, L

    2002-01-01

    In Newtonian and relativistic hydrodynamics the Riemann problem consists of calculating the evolution of a fluid which is initially characterized by two states having different values of uniform rest-mass density, pressure and velocity. When the fluid is allowed to relax, one of three possible wave-patterns is produced, corresponding to the propagation in opposite directions of two nonlinear hydrodynamical waves. New effects emerge in a special relativistic Riemann problem when velocities tangential to the initial discontinuity surface are present. We show that a smooth transition from one wave-pattern to another can be produced by varying the initial tangential velocities while otherwise maintaining the initial states unmodified. These special relativistic effects are produced by the coupling through the relativistic Lorentz factors and do not have a Newtonian counterpart.

  5. Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Individual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a generalized method of moments (GMM based estimation for dynamic panel data models with individual specific fixed effects and threshold effects simultaneously. We extend Hansen’s (Hansen, 1999 original setup to models including endogenous regressors, specifically, lagged dependent variables. To address the problem of endogeneity of these nonlinear dynamic panel data models, we prove that the orthogonality conditions proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991 are valid. The threshold and slope parameters are estimated by GMM, and asymptotic distribution of the slope parameters is derived. Finite sample performance of the estimation is investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. It shows that the threshold and slope parameter can be estimated accurately and also the finite sample distribution of slope parameters is well approximated by the asymptotic distribution.

  6. The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI XinYuan; LIU SiMin; GUO Ru; LU Yi; GAO YuanMei; LIU ZhaoHong; HUANG ChunFu; ZHANG XiaoHua; ZHU Nan; XU JingJun

    2009-01-01

    An overview of our research group's experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlateddegree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one-or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time,the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.

  7. The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An overview of our research group’s experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlated degree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one- or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time, the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.

  8. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  9. Reynolds number effects on mixing due to topological chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Spencer A

    2016-01-01

    Topological chaos has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate fluid mixing. While this theory can guarantee a lower bound on the stretching rate of certain material lines, it does not indicate what fraction of the fluid actually participates in this minimally mandated mixing. Indeed, the area in which effective mixing takes place depends on physical parameters such as the Reynolds number. To help clarify this dependency, we numerically simulate the effects of a batch stirring device on a 2D incompressible Newtonian fluid in the laminar regime. In particular, we calculate the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field for three different stirring protocols, one topologically complex (pseudo-Anosov) and two simple (finite-order), over a range of viscosities. After extracting appropriate measures indicative of both the amount of mixing and the area of effective mixing from the FTLE field, we see a clearly defined Reynolds number range in which the relative efficacy of the pseudo-Anosov protocol over the finite...

  10. Design of photonic crystal fibers with highly nonlinear glasses for four-wave-mixing based telecom applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanka, Jiri

    2008-12-08

    A fully-vectorial mode solver based on the finite element method is employed in a combination with the downhill simplex method the dispersion optimization of photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses. The nonlinear fibers are designed for telecom applications such as parametric amplification, wavelength conversion, ultra-fast switching and regeneration of optical signals. The optimization is carried in terms of the zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion magnitude and nonlinear coefficient and confinement loss in the wavelength range around 1.55 microm. We restrict our work to the index-guiding fiber structures a small number of hexagonally arrayed air holes.

  11. Assessment of gross motor function development in children with cerebral palsy by nonlinear mixed effect model%非线性混合效应模型评估脑瘫患儿粗大运动功能发育进程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惟; 丁俊杰; 杨红; 廖元贵; 朱默; 侯方华; 王艺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of gross motor development of children with cerebral palsy ( CP ) in each level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS ) using nonlinear mixed effect model, as a basis for planning clinical management. Methods Patients with CP were enrolled from 7 rehabilitation centers in Shanghai form August 2000 to December 2007. Severity of CP was based solely on GMFCS level and motor function was assessed with Gross Motor Function Measure-66 ( GMFM-66 ). The stable limit model was used to make the gross motor development curve for children in each of the 5 GMFCS levels. The stable limit model has two parameters, corresponding to limit of motor function and the rate which can transforms to age-90. Age-90 means the age at which children are expected to achieve 90% of their predicted limit in GMFM-66. In addition, the results of our study were compared with those of Canada study. Results A total of 228 children ( 152 males, 76 females ) with CP were enrolled in the study. Types of CP in these children were spastic quadriplegia ( n = 63 ), spastic diplegia ( n = 87 ), spastic hemiplegia ( n = 48 ), athetotic ( n = 11 ), dystonia ( n = 4 ) and ataxic ( n = 11 ). Based on a total of 986 GMFM assessments ( 4. 32 assessments per child ), distinct motor development curves were constructed. The limit of GMFM-66 in GMFCS Ⅰ - Ⅴ level was 81.2, 62. 4, 52. 9, 40. 8 and 24. 4 scores, the corresponding age-90 was 3.8, 2. 7, 2. 1, 2. 0 and 1. 5 years respectively. GMFM-66 limit in GMFCS level I and II of our study was lower than that in Canada study, however GMFM-66 limit in GMFCS level Ⅲ — Ⅴ was closer to that in Canada study. Moreover, the corresponding age-90 in each 5 levels of GMFCS in our study was lower than that in Canada study. Conclusions The gross motor development more quickly reached its limit in GMFCS level Ⅰ and Ⅱ , however the limit of GMFM-66 was lower than that in Canada study. More attention should be paid

  12. Models and measures of mixing and effective diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhi; Doering, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    Mixing a passive scalar field by stirring can be measured in a variety of ways including tracer particle dispersion, via the flux-gradient relationship, or by suppression of scalar concentration variations in the presence of inhomogeneous sources and sinks. The mixing efficiency or efficacy of a particular flow is often expressed in terms of enhanced diffusivity and quantified as an effective diffusion coefficient. In this work we compare and contrast several notions of effective diffusivity. We thoroughly examine the fundamental case of a steady sinusoidal shear flow mixing a scalar sustained by a steady sinusoidal source-sink distribution to explore apparent quantitative inconsistencies among the measures. Ultimately the conflicts are attributed to the noncommutative asymptotic limits of large P$\\acute{\\text{e}}$clet number and large length-scale separation. We then propose another approach, a generalization of Batchelor's 1949 theory of diffusion in homogeneous turbulence, that helps unify the particle dis...

  13. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  14. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on GFT quantum gravity condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Pithis, Andreas G A; Tomov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting Group Field Theory (GFT) models in the context of the GFT quantum gravity condensate analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behaviour suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthe...

  15. The chaotic effects in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Shen, Zhenqi; Ruan, Jianhong

    2016-10-01

    The corrections of gluon fusion to the DGLAP and BFKL equations are discussed in a united partonic framework. The resulting nonlinear evolution equations are the well-known GLR-MQ-ZRS equation and a new evolution equation. Using the available saturation models as input, we find that the new evolution equation has the chaos solution with positive Lyapunov exponents in the perturbative range. We predict a new kind of shadowing caused by chaos, which blocks the QCD evolution in a critical small x range. The blocking effect in the evolution equation may explain the Abelian gluon assumption and even influence our expectations to the projected Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) and the upgrade (CppC) in a circular e+e- collider (SppC).

  16. Effective action and vacuum expectations in nonlinear $\\sigma$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Fayzullaev, B A

    2015-01-01

    The equations for effective action for nonlinear $\\sigma$ model are derived using DeWitt method in two forms - for generator of vertex parts $\\Gamma$ and for generator of weakly connected parts $W$. Loop-expansion solutions to these equations are found. It is shown that vacuum expectation values for various quantities including divergence of a N\\"{o}ther current, trace of the energy-momentum tensor and so on, can be calculated by this method. Also it is shown that vacuum expectation to the sigma-field is determined by an explicit combination of tree Green function and classical solution. It is shown that the limit when coupling constant tends to zero is singular one.

  17. Crystal growth in fluid flow: Nonlinear response effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. L.; Herlach, D. M.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate crystal-growth kinetics in the presence of strong shear flow in the liquid, using molecular-dynamics simulations of a binary-alloy model. Close to the equilibrium melting point, shear flow always suppresses the growth of the crystal-liquid interface. For lower temperatures, we find that the growth velocity of the crystal depends nonmonotonically on the shear rate. Slow enough flow enhances the crystal growth, due to an increased particle mobility in the liquid. Stronger flow causes a growth regime that is nearly temperature-independent, in striking contrast to what one expects from the thermodynamic and equilibrium kinetic properties of the system, which both depend strongly on temperature. We rationalize these effects of flow on crystal growth as resulting from the nonlinear response of the fluid to strong shearing forces.

  18. Simultaneous all-optical half-adder, half-subtracter, comparator, and decoder based on nonlinear effects harnessing in highly nonlinear fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karamdeep; Kaur, Gurmeet; Singh, Maninder Lal

    2016-07-01

    A multifunctional combinational logic module capable of performing several signal manipulation tasks all-optically, such as half-addition/subtraction, single-bit comparison, and 2-to-4 decoding simultaneously is proposed. Several logic functions (A+B¯, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B) between two input signals A and B are implemented by harnessing a number of nonlinear effects, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), cross-gain modulation (XGM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) inside only two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) arranged in a parallel structure. The NOR gate (A+B¯) is realized by the means of XPM effect in the first HNLF, whereas, A‾.B, A.B¯, and A.B logics have relied on utilization of XGM and FWM processes, respectively, in parametric medium made up of the second HNLF of parallel arrangement. The remaining A⊕B and A⊙B logics required for successful implementation of the proposed simultaneous scheme are attained by temporally combining previously achieved (A‾.B and A.B‾) and (A.B and A+B‾) logics. Quality-factor ≥7.4 and extinction ratio ≥12.30 dB have been achieved at repetition rates of 100 Gbps for all logic functions (A+B‾, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B), suggesting successful simultaneous implementation.

  19. Toward a Broadband Astro-comb: Effects of Nonlinear Spectral Broadening in Optical Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Guoqing; Phillips, David F; Walsworth, Ronald L; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new approach to generate a broadband astro-comb by spectral broadening of a narrowband astro-comb inside a highly nonlinear optical fiber. Numerical modeling shows that cascaded four-wave-mixing dramatically degrades the input comb's side-mode suppression and causes side-mode amplitude asymmetry. These two detrimental effects can systematically shift the center-of-gravity of astro-comb spectral lines as measured by an astrophysical spectrograph with resolution \\approx100,000; and thus lead to wavelength calibration inaccuracy and instability. Our simulations indicate that this performance penalty, as a result of nonlinear spectral broadening, can be compensated by using a filtering cavity configured for double-pass. As an explicit example, we present a design based on an Yb-fiber source comb (with 1 GHz repetition rate) that is filtered by double-passing through a low finesse cavity (finesse = 208), and subsequent spectrally broadened in a 2-cm, SF6-glass photonic crystal fiber. Spann...

  20. Dispersion and nonlinear effects in OFDM-RoF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasson, Bader H.; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.

    2010-08-01

    The radio-over-fiber (RoF) network has been a proven technology to be the best candidate for the wireless-access technology, and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique has been established as the core technology in the physical layer of next generation wireless communication system, as a result OFDM-RoF has drawn attentions worldwide and raised many new research topics recently. At the present time, the trend of information industry is towards mobile, wireless, digital and broadband. The next generation network (NGN) has motivated researchers to study higher-speed wider-band multimedia communication to transmit (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) at a higher speed. The NGN would offer services that would necessitate broadband networks with bandwidth higher than 2Mbit/s per radio channel. Many new services emerged, such as Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), High Definition TV (HDTV), mobile multimedia and video stream media. Both speed and capacity have been the key objectives in transmission. In the meantime, the demand for transmission bandwidth increased at a very quick pace. The coming of 4G and 5G era will provide faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth. Taking advantages of both optical communication and wireless communication, OFDM Radio over Fiber (OFDM-RoF) system is characterized by its high speed, large capacity and high spectral efficiency. However, up to the present there are some problems to be solved, such as dispersion and nonlinearity effects. In this paper we will study the dispersion and nonlinearity effects and their elimination in OFDM-radio-over-fiber system.

  1. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  2. Effects of Sfermion Mixing induced by RGE in the CMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Mario E; Rehman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Even within the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) it is possible to induce sfermion flavor mixing through the Renormalization Group Equations (RGE) when the full structure of the Yukawa couplings is considered. We analyse the impact of including those effects on the accurate computation of $B$-physics observables, electroweak precision observables (EWPO) and the Higgs boson mass predictions.

  3. Effect of Landau level mixing on braiding statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven H

    2008-03-21

    We examine the effect of Landau level mixing on the braiding statistics of quasiparticles of Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. While path dependent geometric phases can perturb the Abelian part of the statistics, we find that the non-Abelian properties remain unchanged to an accuracy that is exponentially small in the distance between quasiparticles.

  4. Local mixing effects of screw elements during extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einde, van den R.M.; Kroon, P.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    An in-line method was applied to determine local residence time distribution (RTD) at two places in a completely filled corotating twin screw extruder. Axial mixing effects of different types of elements were evaluated. Paddles +90 degrees induced flow patterns that appear to be circular, both

  5. Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, van den Ardo; Fox, Jean-Paul; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response t

  6. Effective action approach to dynamical generation of fermion mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Blasone, Massimo; Smaldone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a mechanism for the dynamical generation of flavor mixing, in the framework of the Nambu--Jona Lasinio model. Our approach is illustrated both with the conventional operatorial formalism and with functional integral and ensuing one-loop effective action. The results obtained are briefly discussed.

  7. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  8. Wavelength conversion of a 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    by the gain bandwidth of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, are obtained in only 50-m dispersion-flattened HNL-PCF with nonlinear coefficient equal to 11 W-1·km-1. This experiment demonstrates the potential of four-wave mixing in HNL-PCF as a modulation format and bit rate transparent wavelength conversion......Wavelength conversion of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying signal is demonstrated in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF) for the first time. A conversion efficiency of -20 dB for a pump power of 23 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 31 nm, essentially limited...

  9. Solving geometrically nonlinear tasks of the statics of hinged-rod systems basing on finite element method in the form of classical mixed method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat’ev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used numerical method used in linear calculation of building structures is finite element method in traditional form of displacements. Different software is developed on its basis. Though it is only possible to check the certainty of these numerical solutions, especially of non-linear tasks of engineering structures’ deformation by the coincidence of the results obtained by two different methods. The authors solved geometrically nonlinear task of the static deformation of a flat hinged-rod system consisting of five linear elastic rods undergoing great tension-compression strains. The solution was obtained basing on the finite element method in the form of classical mixed method developed by the authors. The set of all equilibrium states of the system, both stable and unstable, and all the limit points were found. The certainty of the solution was approved by the coincidence of the results obtained by other authors basing on traditional finite element method in displacements.

  10. Interaction-induced effects in the nonlinear coherent response of quantum-well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Schätz, A.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner;

    1999-01-01

    Interaction-induced processes are studied using the third-order nonlinear polarization created in polarization-dependent four-wave-mixing experiments (FWM) on a ZnSe single quantum well. We discuss their influence by a comparison of the experimental FWM with calculations based on extended optical...

  11. Effects of active-sterile neutrino mixing during primordial nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Saez, Maria Manuela

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we discuss the effects of the inclusion of sterile-active neutrino oscillations during the production of primordial light-nuclei. We assume that the sterile neutrino mass-eigenstate might oscillate with the two lightest active neutrino mass- eigenstates, with mixing angles ${\\phi}_1$ and ${\\phi}_2$. We also allow a constant renormalization (represented by a parameter (${\\zeta}$)) of the sterile neutrino occupation factor. Taking ${\\zeta}$ and the mixing angles as free parameters, we have computed distribution functions of active and sterile neutrinos and primordial abundances. Using observable data we set constrains in the free parameters of the model. It is found that the data on primordial abundances are consistent with small mixing angles and with a value of ${\\zeta}$ smaller than 0.65 at 3${\\sigma}$ level.

  12. Spin Effects in Two Quark System and Mixed States

    CERN Document Server

    Haysak, I I; Morokhovych, V; Chalupka, S; Salak, M; Fekete, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the numeric solution of a system of coupled channels for vector mesons ($S$- and $D$-waves mixing) and for tensor mesons ($P$- and $F$-waves mixing) mass spectrum and wave functions of a family of vector mesons $q\\bar{q}$ in triplet states are obtained. The calculations are performed using a well known Cornell potential with a mixed Lorentz-structure of the confinement term. The spin-dependent part of the potential is taken from the Breit-Fermi approach. The effect of singular terms of potential is considered in the framework of the perturbation theory and by a configuration interaction approach (CIA), modified for a system of coupled equations. It is shown that even a small contribution of the $D$-wave to be very important at the calculation of certain characteristics of the meson states.

  13. IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF PLAYGROUND SURFACE BY WASTE CRUSHED SHELL MIXING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Oda, Kenichi; Higuchi, Emiko; Takano, Morihiro; Tasaki, Hiroshi

    If sandy soil with appropriate gradation is compacted, hard and dense ground will be generated. Even if the soil material is hard enough against shock load, the permeability of the soil decreases significantly. This paper examines the improvement effect of playground surface by waste crushed shell mixing technique. The following conclusions are obtained from the present study: 1. The maximum dry density of the sandy soil increases gradually by mixing the crushed shell. However, if the crushed shell is put into the soil too much, the density decreases conversely. 2. Although the density of the soil sample becomes high by mixing the crushed shell, the coefficient of permeability increases. 3. The soil particles once attached to the shell is not washed away easily. 4. The crushed shell doesn't change the quality of groundwater so much. 5. This repair method is applicable to improvement of playground surface.

  14. Mitigation of nonlinear effects through frequency shift free mid-span spectral inversion using counter-propagating dual pumped FWM in fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchal, Abhishek; Kumar, Pradeep; Landais, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    We propose and numerically verify a scheme of frequency-shift free mid-span spectral inversion (MSSI) for nonlinearity mitigation in an optical transmission system. Spectral inversion is accomplished by optical phase conjugation, realized by counter-propagating dual pumped four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber. We examine the performance of MSSI due to critical parameters such as nonlinear fiber length, pump and signal power. We demonstrate the near complete nonlinearity mitigation of 40 Gbps DQPSK modulated data transmitted over 1000 km standard single mode fiber using our method of MSSI. We perform simulation of bit-error rate as a function of optical signal to noise ratio to corroborate the effect of frequency-shift free MSSI.

  15. Temperature effects in a nonlinear model of monolayer Scheibe aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Christiansen, Peter Leth; If, F.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamical model of molecular monolayers arranged in Scheibe aggregates is derived from a proper Hamiltonian. Thermal fluctuations of the phonons are included. The resulting equation for the excitons is the two dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with noise. Two limits...

  16. Solute mixing regulates heterogeneity of mineral precipitation in porous media: Effect of Solute Mixing on Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cil, Mehmet B.; Xie, Minwei; Packman, Aaron I.; Buscarnera, Giuseppe (NWU); (HKUST-- China)

    2017-07-04

    Synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to track the spatiotemporal evolution of mineral precipitation and the consequent alteration of the pore structure. Column experiments were conducted by injecting CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions into granular porous media either as a premixed supersaturated solution (external mixing) or as separate solutions that mixed within the specimen (internal mixing). The two mixing modes produced distinct mineral growth patterns. While internal mixing promoted transverse heterogeneity with precipitation at the mixing zone, external mixing favored relatively homogeneous precipitation along the flow direction. The impact of precipitation on pore water flow and permeability was assessed via 3-D flow simulations, which indicated anisotropic permeability evolution for both mixing modes. Under both mixing modes, precipitation decreased the median pore size and increased the skewness of the pore size distribution. Such similar pore-scale evolution patterns suggest that the clogging of individual pores depends primarily on local supersaturation state and pore geometry.

  17. Effect of axial mixing on RDC and PSE columns performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bastani, D

    2001-01-01

    Using the experimental data obtained from two RDC columns at two different sizes (7.62 and 21.9 cm) and one PSE column with 21.5 cm size, the effect of axial mixing on the performance of these columns was studied. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical (neglecting the axial mixing) number of transfer units indicates that, this effect in PSE columns is more than RDC columns (400% and 200% respectively). These results show that this effect can increase the height of the PSE column up to 4 times for a specific efficiency. Also the results show that this effect is more in law interfacial tension systems, which shows no need of application of agitation facilities when these systems are used.

  18. Nonlinear vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  19. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  20. Discrete nonlinear Schrödinger approximation of a mixed Klein Gordon/Fermi Pasta Ulam chain: Modulational instability and a statistical condition for creation of thermodynamic breathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Magnus

    2006-04-01

    We analyze certain aspects of the classical dynamics of a one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger model with inter-site as well as on-site nonlinearities. The equation is derived from a mixed Klein-Gordon/Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain of anharmonic oscillators coupled with anharmonic inter-site potentials, and approximates the slow dynamics of the fundamental harmonic of discrete small-amplitude modulational waves. We give explicit analytical conditions for modulational instability of travelling plane waves, and find in particular that sufficiently strong inter-site nonlinearities may change the nature of the instabilities from long-wavelength to short-wavelength perturbations. Further, we describe thermodynamic properties of the model using the grand-canonical ensemble to account for two conserved quantities: norm and Hamiltonian. The available phase space is divided into two separated parts with qualitatively different properties in thermal equilibrium: one part corresponding to a normal thermalized state with exponentially small probabilities for large-amplitude excitations, and another part typically associated with the formation of high-amplitude localized excitations, interacting with an infinite-temperature phonon bath. A modulationally unstable travelling wave may exhibit a transition from one region to the other as its amplitude is varied, and thus modulational instability is not a sufficient criterion for the creation of persistent localized modes in thermal equilibrium. For pure on-site nonlinearities the created localized excitations are typically pinned to particular lattice sites, while for significant inter-site nonlinearities they become mobile, in agreement with well-known properties of localized excitations in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-type chains.

  1. Mixed-mode fatigue fracture of adhesive joints in harsh environments and nonlinear viscoelastic modeling of the adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanidis, Alexis Gerasimos

    A four point bend, mixed-mode, reinforced, cracked lap shear specimen experimentally simulated adhesive joints between load bearing composite parts in automotive components. The experiments accounted for fatigue, solvent and temperature effects on a swirled glass fiber composite adherend/urethane adhesive system. Crack length measurements based on compliance facilitated determination of da/dN curves. A digital image processing technique was also utilized to monitor crack growth from in situ images of the side of the specimen. Linear elastic fracture mechanics and finite elements were used to determine energy release rate and mode-mix as a function of crack length for this specimen. Experiments were conducted in air and in a salt water bath at 10, 26 and 90°C. Joints tested in the solvent were fully saturated. In air, both increasing and decreasing temperature relative to 26°C accelerated crack growth rates. In salt water, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature. Threshold energy release rate is shown to be the most appropriate design criteria for joints of this system. In addition, path of the crack is discussed and fracture surfaces are examined on three length scales. Three linear viscoelastic properties were measured for the neat urethane adhesive. Dynamic tensile compliance (D*) was found using a novel extensometer and results were considerably more accurate and precise than standard DMTA testing. Dynamic shear compliance (J*) was determined using an Arcan specimen. Dynamic Poisson's ratio (nu*) was extracted from strain gage data analyzed to include gage reinforcement. Experiments spanned three frequency decades and isothermal data was shifted by time-temperature superposition to create master curves spanning thirty decades. Master curves were fit to time domain Prony series. Shear compliance inferred from D* and nu* compared well with measured J*, forming a basis for finding the complete time dependent material property matrix for this

  2. Reduction of nonlinear patterning effects in SOA-based All-optical Switches using Optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Skaguchi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches.......We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches....

  3. Explanation of the inverse Doppler effect observed in nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W

    2005-05-27

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator.

  4. Localized Effects in the Nonlinear Behavior of Sandwich Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostig, Y.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2005-01-01

    nonlinear analysis approach incorporates the effects of the vertical flexibility of the core, and it is based on the approach of the High-order Sandwich Panel Theory (HSAPT). The results demonstrate that the effects of localized loads, when taken into the geometrically nonlinear domain, change the response...

  5. Banach空间中的广义非线性混合型拟变分包含%Generalized Nonlinear Mixed Quasi-Variational Inclusion in Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈自飞; 杨敏波; 程小力

    2005-01-01

    We consider a new class of generalized mixed quasi variational inclusion problems in Banach spaces. Using the concept of resolvent operator, we suggest an algorithm for solving the generalized nonlinear mixed quasi variational inclusion problems in Banach spaces. Our results improve, generalize and unify some recent results in the literature greatly.%在Banach空间中讨论一类新的广义非线性混合型拟变分包含问题.用预解算子的概念,建立了一种解此类问题的算法.所得结果改进、推广和统一了文献中的一些结果.

  6. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF MIXED XEROGRAPHIC TONER AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Wang,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Agglomeration phenomena of two mixed xerographic toners were investigated using 1-octadecanol as the agglomeration agent and a cationic surfactant as the co-agglomeration agent. One toner carrying no surface charge agglomerated well under most conditions, while the other toner carrying a negative surface charge performed worse. It was found that when mixing these two toners together during pulping and when using 1-octadecanol as the agglomeration agent alone, there was an additive effect on agglomeration. On the other hand, addition of a small amount of cationic surfactant dramatically enhanced the mixed toner agglomeration efficiency and generated an obvious synergistic effect. The particle number after agglomeration was significantly reduced, and the particle size was greatly increased compared to the single toner agglomeration. The optimal amount of the cationic surfactant was close to the optimal cationic surfactant demand of the negatively charged toner. Based on these findings it can be recommended that the cationic surfactant should be added during agglomeration of the mixed office waste paper, and its optimal dosage needs to be chosen to reach the best performance.

  7. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  8. Effect of mixing technique on surface characteristics of impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe, X; Johnson, G H; Berg, J C; Aw, T C

    1998-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between the disinfection process, wettability, and mass change of impression materials. Hand-mixed high viscosity impression materials usually result in a material with numerous voids, which contribute to surface roughness and affect the surface characteristics of the material. This study evaluated the effect of mixing technique on advancing contact angle, receding contact angle, imbibition, and mass loss of various high and low viscosity polyether and polyvinyl siloxane materials. The null hypothesis tested was no differences exist between the different mixing systems. The Wilhelmy technique was used for deriving wetting properties of the materials used (Impregum F and Penta, Permadyne Syringe, Garant and Penta, Dimension Penta and Garant L, Aquasil). Conditions included no disinfection (0 hours) and 1, 5, and 18 hours of immersion disinfection in a full-strength solution of 2% acid glutaraldehyde disinfectant (Banicide). Weight changes before and after disinfection were measured to detect weight loss or mass increase over time. Weight loss in air was also measured to detect mass loss. Data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance at alpha = 0.05. All materials displayed some degree of imbibition of the disinfectant and experienced mass loss with polymerization, except the light viscosity polyvinyl that gained 0.18% at 5 hours. No significant differences were found in wettability among the polyether materials after 1 hour of disinfection. Less imbibition was observed for high viscosity mechanically mixed materials compared with the hand-mixed materials for both polyether and polyvinyl siloxane at 1-hour disinfection time. Polyether materials were more wettable than polyvinyl. Imbibition of high viscosity polyether and polyvinyl materials after 1 and 18 hours of disinfection were affected by the mixing system used.

  9. Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Braeckman

    Full Text Available Biological particle mixing (bioturbation and solute transfer (bio-irrigation contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator and Abra alba (bioturbator compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The (13C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1 microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2 microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3 control microcosms and (4 microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (Δδ(13C of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom (13C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m(-2, which included TO(13C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food

  10. An update on modeling dose-response relationships: Accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variance in linear and nonlinear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M A D; Bello, N M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    Advanced methods for dose-response assessments are used to estimate the minimum concentrations of a nutrient that maximizes a given outcome of interest, thereby determining nutritional requirements for optimal performance. Contrary to standard modeling assumptions, experimental data often present a design structure that includes correlations between observations (i.e., blocking, nesting, etc.) as well as heterogeneity of error variances; either can mislead inference if disregarded. Our objective is to demonstrate practical implementation of linear and nonlinear mixed models for dose-response relationships accounting for correlated data structure and heterogeneous error variances. To illustrate, we modeled data from a randomized complete block design study to evaluate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio dose-response on G:F of nursery pigs. A base linear mixed model was fitted to explore the functional form of G:F relative to Trp:Lys ratios and assess model assumptions. Next, we fitted 3 competing dose-response mixed models to G:F, namely a quadratic polynomial (QP) model, a broken-line linear (BLL) ascending model, and a broken-line quadratic (BLQ) ascending model, all of which included heteroskedastic specifications, as dictated by the base model. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (version 9.4) was used to fit the base and QP models and the NLMIXED procedure was used to fit the BLL and BLQ models. We further illustrated the use of a grid search of initial parameter values to facilitate convergence and parameter estimation in nonlinear mixed models. Fit between competing dose-response models was compared using a maximum likelihood-based Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The QP, BLL, and BLQ models fitted on G:F of nursery pigs yielded BIC values of 353.7, 343.4, and 345.2, respectively, thus indicating a better fit of the BLL model. The BLL breakpoint estimate of the SID Trp:Lys ratio was 16.5% (95% confidence interval [16.1, 17.0]). Problems with

  11. Hamiltonian Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: Effect of Landau Level Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Ganpathy; Shankar, R.

    2002-01-01

    We derive an effective hamiltonian in the Lowest Landau Level (LLL) that incorporates the effects of Landau-level mixing to all higher Landau levels to leading order in the ratio of interaction energy to the cyclotron energy. We then transcribe the hamiltonian to the composite fermion basis using our hamiltonian approach and compute the effect of LL mixing on transport gaps.

  12. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR EFFECTIVE NONLINEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical methods have been reported to deal with nonlinear problems of composite materials but the accuracy is not so good. In the meantime, a lot of nonlinear problems are difficult to be managed by the theoretical methods. The present study aims to use the developed method, the random microstructure finite element method, to deal with these nonlinear problems. In this paper, the random microstructure finite element method is used to deal with all three kinds of nonlinear property problems of composite materials. The analyzed results suggest that the influences of the nonlinear phenomena on the effective properties of composite materials are significant and the random microstructure finite element method is an efficient tool to investigate the nonlinear problems.

  13. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on alkali borate glasses: evidence of mixed alkali effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, G; Kistaiah, P

    2009-03-19

    A lithium-potassium-borate glass system containing manganese and iron cations has been thoroughly investigated in order to obtain information about the mixed alkali effect and the structural role of both the manganese and iron in such glass hosts. Mixed alkali borate glasses of the (30 - x)Li(2)O - xK(2)O - 10CdO/ZnO - 59B(2)O(3) (x = 0, 10, 15, 20, and 30) doped with 1MnO(2)/1Fe(2)O(3) system were prepared by a melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was confirmed from their X-ray diffraction. The spectroscopic properties of glass samples were studied using infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The density of all the prepared glasses was measured using Archimedes principle. Molar volumes were estimated from the density data. IR spectra of these glasses revealed a dramatic variation of three- and four-coordinated boron structures as a function of mixed alkali concentration. The vibrations due to Li-O, K-O, and MnO(4)/FeO(4) arrangements are consistent in all the compositions and show a nonlinear variation in the intensity with alkali content. Raman spectra of different alkali combinations with CdO and ZnO present drastic changes in the intensity of various Raman bands. The observation of disappearance and reappearance of IR and Raman bands as a function of various alkali concentrations is an important result pertaining to the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses. Acting as complementary spectroscopic techniques, both types of measurements, IR and Raman, revealed that the network structure of the studied glasses is mainly based on BO(3) and BO(4) units placed in different structural groups, the BO(3) units being dominant. The measured IR and Raman spectra of different glasses are used to clarify the optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and composition.

  14. An effective analytic approach for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junchi; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liang, Songxin

    2016-08-01

    Nonlinear fractional differential equations are widely used for modelling problems in applied mathematics. A new analytic approach with two parameters c1 and c2 is first proposed for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. These parameters are used to improve the accuracy of the resulting series approximations. It turns out that much more accurate series approximations are obtained by choosing proper values of c1 and c2. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the new method, two typical fractional partial differential equations, the nonlinear gas dynamics equation and the nonlinear KdV-Burgers equation, are solved.

  15. Effect of the counter cation on the third order nonlinearity in anionic Au dithiolene complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, K.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Derkowska, B.; Ranganathan, A.; Batail, P.; Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present the third order nonlinear optical investigation of two gold complexes, which differ by the nature of the counter cations. The impact of the different design in the architecture through a set of hydrogen bonds in the case of Au-Mel of the systems on the nonlinearity has been studied by means of the Z-scan setup under 532 nm, 30 ps laser excitation, allowing for the determination of the nonlinear absorption and refraction of the samples. Significant modification of the nonlinear optical response between the two metal complexes has been found suggesting a clear effect of the counter cation.

  16. Limiting effects of geometrical and optical nonlinearities on the squeezing in optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djorwé, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon); Nana Engo, S.G., E-mail: nanaengo@gmail.com [Laboratory of Photonics, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Talla Mbé, J.H.; Woafo, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon)

    2013-08-01

    In recent experiments, the re-thermalization time of the mechanical resonator is stated as the limiting factor for quantum applications of optomechanical systems. To explain the origin of this limitation, an analytical nonlinear investigation supported by the recent successful experimental laser cooling parameters is carried out in this work. To this end, the effects of geometrical and the optical nonlinearities on the squeezing are studied and are in a good agreement with the experimental results. It appears that highly squeezed state are generated where these nonlinearities are minimized and that high nonlinearities are limiting factors to reach the quantum ground state.

  17. A framework for meta-analysis of veterinary drug pharmacokinetic data using mixed effect modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjie; Gehring, Ronette; Lin, Zhoumeng; Riviere, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Combining data from available studies is a useful approach to interpret the overwhelming amount of data generated in medical research from multiple studies. Paradoxically, in veterinary medicine, lack of data requires integrating available data to make meaningful population inferences. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling is a useful tool to apply meta-analysis to diverse pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of veterinary drugs. This review provides a summary of the characteristics of PK data of veterinary drugs and how integration of these data may differ from human PK studies. The limits of meta-analysis include the sophistication of data mining, and generation of misleading results caused by biased or poor quality data. The overriding strength of meta-analysis applied to this field is that robust statistical analysis of the diverse sparse data sets inherent to veterinary medicine applications can be accomplished, thereby allowing population inferences to be made.

  18. Implementation of a simple model for linear and nonlinear mixing at unstable fluid interfaces in hydrodynamics codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramshaw, J D

    2000-10-01

    A simple model was recently described for predicting the time evolution of the width of the mixing layer at an unstable fluid interface [J. D. Ramshaw, Phys. Rev. E 58, 5834 (1998); ibid. 61, 5339 (2000)]. The ordinary differential equations of this model have been heuristically generalized into partial differential equations suitable for implementation in multicomponent hydrodynamics codes. The central ingredient in this generalization is a nun-diffusional expression for the species mass fluxes. These fluxes describe the relative motion of the species, and thereby determine the local mixing rate and spatial distribution of mixed fluid as a function of time. The generalized model has been implemented in a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code. The model equations and implementation procedure are summarized, and comparisons with experimental mixing data are presented.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of wind waves: multifractal phase/time effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Mellen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bispectral coherence method, phase/time analysis of analytic signals is another promising avenue for the investigation of phase effects in wind waves. Frequency spectra of phase fluctuations obtained from both sea and laboratory experiments follow an F-β power law over several decades, suggesting that a fractal description is appropriate. However, many similar natural phenomena have been shown to be multifractal. Universal multifractals are quantified by two additional parameters: the Lévy index 0 α 2 for the type of multifractal and the co-dimension 0 C1 1 for intermittence. The three parameters are a full statistical measure the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis of laboratory flume data is reported here and the results indicate that the phase fluctuations are 'hard multifractal' (α > 1. The actual estimate is close to the limiting value α = 2,  which is consistent with Kolmogorov's lognormal model for turbulent fluctuations. Implications for radar and sonar backscattering from the sea surface are briefly considered.

  20. Nonlinear turbulence models for predicting strong curvature effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-lei; MA Hui-yang; HUANG Yu-ning

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the characteristics of turbulent flows with strong streamline curvature, such as flows in turbomachines, curved channel flows, flows around airfoils and buildings, is of great importance in engineering applicatious and poses a very practical challenge for turbulence modeling. In this paper, we analyze qualitatively the curvature effects on the structure of turbulence and conduct numerical simulations of a turbulent U- duct flow with a number of turbulence models in order to assess their overall performance. The models evaluated in this work are some typical linear eddy viscosity turbulence models, nonlinear eddy viscosity turbulence models (NLEVM) (quadratic and cubic), a quadratic explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) and a Reynolds stress model (RSM) developed based on the second-moment closure. Our numerical results show that a cubic NLEVM that performs considerably well in other benchmark turbulent flows, such as the Craft, Launder and Suga model and the Huang and Ma model, is able to capture the major features of the highly curved turbulent U-duct flow, including the damping of turbulence near the convex wall, the enhancement of turbulence near the concave wall, and the subsequent turbulent flow separation. The predictions of the cubic models are quite close to that of the RSM, in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that these inodels may be employed to simulate the turbulent curved flows in engineering applications.

  1. Nonlinear effects in a conceptual multilayer cloud model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wacker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As conceptual model for a cloud a system is considered which is open for condensate mass transport and subject to internal processes such as cloud microphysical transformation and vertical condensate transport. The effects of microphysical processes are represented in parameterized form and the system is divided into two layers to account for the vertical structure. The evolution is mathematically described in terms of four coupled nonlinear ODEs; the prognostic variables are the mass concentrations of cloud water as well as precipitation condensate in each of the layers. In the absence of vertical velocity the evolution in the lower layer is triggered by the evolution in the upper layer. In the presence of an upwind, the dynamics in both layers is mutually coupled. Depending on the chosen parameter values up to four steady states are found. When varying the parameter upwind velocity, three regimes are distinguished: For week upwind the long-term evolution is steered by the external sources; for stronger upwind the cloud condensate is blown out of the cloud in the final state and does not contribute to formation of precipitation; for intermediate upwind multiple steady state solution branches arise which characterize the transition between those two regimes.

  2. Weak nonlinear surface-charging effects in electrolytic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2003-11-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full nonlinear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the renormalization of the theory and apply it to a triple-layer model for a thin film with Stern layer of thickness h. For this model we give expressions for the surface charge sigma(L) and the disjoining pressure P(d)(L) and show their dependence on the parameters. The influence of image charges naturally arises in the formalism, and we show that predictions depend strongly on h because of their effects. In particular, we show that the surface charge vanishes as the film thickness L-->0. The fluctuation terms in this class of theories contribute a Casimir-like attraction across the film. Although this attraction is well known to be negligible compared with the mean-field component for model electrolytic films with no surface-charge regulation, in the model studied here these fluctuations also affect the surface-charge regulation leading to a fluctuation component in the disjoining pressure which has the same behavior as the mean-field component even for large film thickness.

  3. Optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glasses near and below the band edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1998-03-01

    We present a brief review of our recent experimental results on optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glasses. It is shown that even below the absorption edge the nonlinearities are determined by nonlinear absorption. The optical Kerr effect is found to have a susceptibility which is comparable to that for nonlinear refraction. We also find that in degenerate four-wave mixing the observed intensity dependence can be strongly influenced by nonlinear absorption.

  4. Effects of introducing nonlinear components for a random excited hybrid energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoya; Gao, Shiqiao; Liu, Haipeng; Guan, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    This work is mainly devoted to discussing the effects of introducing nonlinear components for a hybrid energy harvester under random excitation. For two different types of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters subjected to random excitation, the analytical solutions of the mean output power, voltage and current are derived from Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. Monte Carlo simulation exhibits qualitative agreement with FP theory, showing that load values and excitation’s spectral density have an effect on the total mean output power, piezoelectric (PE) power and electromagnetic power. Nonlinear components affect output characteristics only when the PE capacitance of the hybrid energy harvester is non-negligible. Besides, it is also demonstrated that for this type of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters under random excitation, introducing nonlinear components can improve output performances effectively.

  5. Effective Response of Nonlinear Composite under External AC and DC Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ye; LIANG Fang-Chu; SHEN Hong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method is used to study effective response of nonlinear Kerr composites, which are subject to the constitutive relation of electric displacement and electric field, Dα = εαE + xα|E|2E. Under the external AC and DC electric field Eapp = Eα(1 + sinwt), the effective nonlinear responses and local potentials are induced by the cubic nonlinearity of Kerr materials at all harmonics. As an example in three dimensions, we have investigated this kind of nonlinear composites with spherical inclusions embedded in a host. At all harmonic frequencies, the potentials in inclusion and host regions are derived. Furthermore, the formulae of the effective linear and nonlinear responses are given in the dilute limit.

  6. Estimation of the Nonlinear Random Coefficient Model when Some Random Effects Are Separable

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Stephen H. C.; Cudeck, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for marginal maximum likelihood estimation of the nonlinear random coefficient model when the response function has some linear parameters. This is done by writing the marginal distribution of the repeated measures as a conditional distribution of the response given the nonlinear random effects. The resulting distribution…

  7. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length...

  8. Effective nonlinearities and multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation in modulated quasi-phase-matching gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Graversen, T. W.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

    2000-01-01

    Quasi-phase-matching gratings induces Kerr effects in quadratic nonlinear materials. We show analytically and confirm numerically how modulating the grating changes the effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and allows for multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation....

  9. Improved fiber nonlinearity mitigation in dispersion managed optical OFDM links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasan, Ilavarasan; Saminathan, Brindha; Murugappan, Meenakshi

    2017-02-01

    Fiber nonlinearity is seen as a capacity limiting factor in OFDM based dispersion managed links since the Four Wave Mixing effects become enhanced due to the high PAPR. In this paper, the authors have compared the linear and nonlinear PAPR reduction techniques for fiber nonlinearity mitigation in OFDM based dispersion managed links. In the existing optical systems, linear transform techniques such as SLM and PTS have been implemented to reduce nonlinear effects. In the proposed study, superior performance of the L2-by-3 nonlinear transform technique is demonstrated for PAPR reduction to mitigate fiber nonlinearities. The performance evaluation is carried out by interfacing multiple simulators. The results of both linear and nonlinear transform techniques have been compared and the results show that nonlinear transform technique outperforms the linear transform in terms of nonlinearity mitigation and improved BER performance.

  10. Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities: A numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, Karim El; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1997-01-01

    of the exciton line in the FWM spectrum and in the decay of the time-resolved FWM signal in real time are governed by the intrinsic excitonic dephasing rate. It is shown that for pulse durations of similar to 100 fs (for GaAs quantum wells) this behavior can be explained as the influence of the Coulomb exchange...... interaction, while for even shorter pulses this behavior is dominantly caused by nonlinear polarization decay....

  11. The effects of marketing mix elements on Brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    With increasing competition and raising phenomena such as global markets, the domestic industries of each country in order to stay in this area should increase their competitive advantage. Brand value is One of the strategic tools that causes commitment and frequency of consumption, increasing economic value for shareholders and expand economic activity beyond the geographic boundaries. It is essential to investigate how the marketing mix elements effect brand value, because of brand importance. In this study, we tried to examine marketing mix effect on brand equity in company of a shirin asal. so we explore relationships between marketing mix of product, price, promotion and distribution as exogenous variables and on the brand equity of the brand awareness / associations, brand loyalty and perceived quality as the theory of endogenous variables. The statistical study were all consumers in the city of Tabriz statistical and 480 consumers were selected as sample. The information collected with Cluster sampling in stores offering products of this company from consumer and was examined using structural equation analysis. Structural equation analysis suggests two elements product and price impact Brand equity. Two-element distribution and promotional activities of the factors influencing awareness / associations.

  12. Non-Newtionian Effects on Chaotic Mixing Between Eccentric Cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effect of fluid elasticity and shear-thinning viscosity on the chaotic mixing between two alternately rotating cylinders has been studied. The h-p finite element method is used to obtain high accurate solutions of the steady flow. The unsteady, periodic flow is simulated using the piecewise-steady approximation. Characteristics of the chaotic mixing are analyzed by examining the asymptotic coverage of a passive tracer and the lineal stretching of the fluid elements in the annulus. For the viscoelastic fluids modeled by the upper-convected Maxwell constitutive equation (UCM), our computation predicts little effect of the fluid elasticity on the mixing patterns. On the other hand, the shear-thinning viscosity, modeled by the Carreau equation, has a large impact on the advection of a passive tracer and the distribution of lineal stretching. We find that the zones of the lowest stretching match remarkably well with the regular zones in the tracer-coverage plotting. Our study reveals the vital importance of reducing the discretization errors of the velocity field in the numerical simulation of chaotic flows.

  13. Determination of the effective electroweak mixing angle from Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A. L.; Andreev, V. P.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Atamanchuk, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P. V. K. S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J. A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Baschirotto, A.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Bechtluft, J.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bencze, Gy. L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J. J.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Bosetti, M.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Bouwens, B.; Brambilla, E.; Branson, J. G.; Brock, I. C.; Brooks, M.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Castello, R.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. Y.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Chung, S.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coan, T. E.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Contin, A.; Cui, X. T.; Cui, X. Y.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Dénes, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; Dhina, M.; DiBitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; Dimitrov, H. R.; Dionisi, C.; Djambazov, L.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Easo, S.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Extermann, P.; Fabbretti, R.; Fabre, M.; Falciano, S.; Fan, S. J.; Fackler, O.; Fay, J.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Fernandez, G.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, F.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.; Filthaut, F.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Foreman, T.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Friebel, W.; Fukushima, M.; Gailloud, M.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gallo, E.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gele, D.; Gentile, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Gonzalez, E.; Gougas, A.; Goujon, D.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M.; Gu, C.; Guanziroli, M.; Guo, J. K.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gustafson, H. R.; Gutay, L. J.; Hangarter, K.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hauschildt, D.; He, C. F.; He, J. T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebert, M.; Herten, G.; Hervé, A.; Hilgers, K.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hu, G.; Hu, G. Q.; Ille, B.; Ilyas, M. M.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jezequel, S.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapinos, P.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Khokhar, S.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirsch, S.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Klöckner, R.; König, A. C.; Koffeman, E.; Kornadt, O.; Koutsenko, V.; Koulbardis, A.; Kraemer, R. W.; Kraemer, T.; Krastev, V. R.; Krenz, W.; Krivshich, A.; Kuijten, H.; Kumar, K. S.; Kunin, A.; Landi, G.; Lanske, D.; Lanzano, S.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, D. M.; Leedom, I.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Lenti, M.; Leonardi, E.; Leytens, X.; Li, C.; Li, H. T.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J. Y.; Lin, W. T.; Lin, Z. Y.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, B.; Lista, L.; Liu, Y.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Lubbers, J. M.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Ludovici, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, J. M.; Ma, W. G.; MacDermott, M.; Malhotra, P. K.; Malik, R.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Maolinbay, M.; Marchesini, P.; Marion, F.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mcbride, P.; McHamon, T.; McNally, D.; Merk, M.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mi, Y.; Mills, G. B.; Mir, Y.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Möller, M.; Monteleoni, B.; Morand, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulai, N. E.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Nagy, E.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Neyer, C.; Niaz, M. A.; Nippe, A.; Nowak, H.; Organtini, G.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Perrier, J.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Plasil, F.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Qi, Z. D.; Qian, J. M.; Qureshi, K. N.; Raghavan, R.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Ricker, A.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Rizvi, H. A.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Röhner, M.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosmalen, R.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sachwitz, M.; Salicio, J.; Salicio, J. M.; Sanders, G. S.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. S.; Sartorelli, G.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Shotkin, S.; Schreiber, H. J.; Shukla, J.; Schulte, R.; Schulte, S.; Schultze, K.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Scott, I.; Sehgal, R.; Seiler, P. G.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Sheer, I.; Shen, D. Z.; Shevchenko, S.; Shi, X. R.; Shumilov, E.; Shoutko, V.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Spartiotis, C.; Spickermann, T.; Spillantini, P.; Starosta, R.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Sticozzi, F.; Stone, H.; Strauch, K.; Stringfellow, B. C.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Syed, A. A.; Tang, X. W.; Taylor, L.; Terzi, G.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Urbán, L.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vikas, P.; Vikas, U.; Vikas, U.; Vivargent, M.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vuilleumier, L.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, C. R.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z. M.; Warner, C.; Weber, A.; Weber, J.; Weill, R.; Wenaus, T. J.; Wenninger, J.; White, M.; Willmott, C.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wright, D.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Wysłouch, B.; Xie, Y. Y.; Xu, J. G.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, G.; Ye, C. H.; Ye, J. B.; Ye, Q.; Yeh, S. C.; Yin, Z. W.; You, J. M.; Yunus, N.; Yzerman, M.; Zaccardelli, C.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, G. J.; Zhou, J. F.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; van der Zwaan, B. C. C.; L3 Collaboration

    1993-07-01

    The effective electroweak mixing angle sin2overlineθw is measured from the production and decay of the Z boson in e +e - interactions. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18pb -1 with about 420 000 hadronic and 40 000 leptonic Z decays. The mixing angle sin2overlineθw is determined from several independent measurements: the leptonic and hadronic cross sections, the forward-backward asymmetries of charged leptons and b-quarks, and the τ-polarization. The results are found to be in good agreement with each other. The value of sin2overlineθw from a fit to the asymmetries in a model independent method is 0.2321±0.0021 and from a global fit to the data in the Standard Model framework is 0.2328±0.0013.

  14. Nonlinear effects in acoustic metamaterial based on a cylindrical pipe with ordered Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the nonlinear effects of acoustic wave propagation and dispersion in a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged Helmholtz resonators. By using the classical perturbation method in nonlinear acoustics and considering a nonlinear response up to the third-order at the fundamental frequency, the expressions of the nonlinear impedance ZNHR of the Helmholtz resonator and effective nonlinear bulk modulus Bneff of the composite structure are derived. In order to confirm the nonlinear properties of the acoustic metamaterial, the transmission spectra have been studied by means of the acoustic transmission line method. Moreover, we calculate the effective acoustic impedance and dispersion relation of the system using the acoustic impedance theory and Bloch theory, respectively. It is found that with the increment of the incident acoustic pressure level, owing to the nonlinearity of the Helmholtz resonators, the resonant frequency ω0 shifts toward the lower frequency side and the forbidden bandgap of the transmission spectrum is shown to be broadened. The perturbation method employed in this paper extends the general analytical framework for a nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.

  15. Extended Elliptic Mild Slope Equation Incorporating the Nonlinear Shoaling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian-lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation during wave propagation is significantly important for the calculations of hydraulic and coastal engineering, as well as the sediment transport. The exact wave height deformation calculation on the coasts is essential to near-shore hydrodynamics research and the structure design of coastal engineering. According to the wave shoaling results gained from the elliptical cosine wave theory, the nonlinear wave dispersion relation is adopted to develop the expression of the corresponding nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient. Based on the extended elliptic mild slope equation, an efficient wave numerical model is presented in this paper for predicting wave deformation across the complex topography and the surf zone, incorporating the nonlinear wave dispersion relation, the nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient and other energy dissipation factors. Especially, the phenomenon of wave recovery and second breaking could be shown by the present model. The classical Berkhoff single elliptic topography wave tests, the sinusoidal varying topography experiment, and complex composite slopes wave flume experiments are applied to verify the accuracy of the calculation of wave heights. Compared with experimental data, good agreements are found upon single elliptical topography and one-dimensional beach profiles, including uniform slope and step-type profiles. The results indicate that the newly-developed nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient improves the calculated accuracy of wave transformation in the surf zone efficiently, and the wave breaking is the key factor affecting the wave characteristics and need to be considered in the nearshore wave simulations.

  16. Reduced Noise Effect in Nonlinear Model Estimation Using Multiscale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Nounou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear process models are widely used in various applications. In the absence of fundamental models, it is usually relied on empirical models, which are estimated from measurements of the process variables. Unfortunately, measured data are usually corrupted with measurement noise that degrades the accuracy of the estimated models. Multiscale wavelet-based representation of data has been shown to be a powerful data analysis and feature extraction tool. In this paper, these characteristics of multiscale representation are utilized to improve the estimation accuracy of the linear-in-the-parameters nonlinear model by developing a multiscale nonlinear (MSNL modeling algorithm. The main idea in this MSNL modeling algorithm is to decompose the data at multiple scales, construct multiple nonlinear models at multiple scales, and then select among all scales the model which best describes the process. The main advantage of the developed algorithm is that it integrates modeling and feature extraction to improve the robustness of the estimated model to the presence of measurement noise in the data. This advantage of MSNL modeling is demonstrated using a nonlinear reactor model.

  17. Do Mixed States save Effective Field Theory from BICEP?

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Hael; Vardanyan, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The BICEP2 collaboration has for the first time observed the B-mode polarization associated with inflationary gravitational waves. Their result has some discomfiting implications for the validity of an effective theory approach to single-field inflation since it would require an inflaton field excursion larger than the Planck scale. We argue that if the quantum state of the gravitons is a mixed state based on the Bunch-Davies vacuum, then the tensor to scalar ratio r measured by BICEP is different than the quantity that enters the Lyth bound. When this is taken into account, the tension between effective field theory and the BICEP result is alleviated.

  18. Simulated mixed absorbers and effective atomic numbers for attenuation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Karunakaran Nair; N Ramachandran; K K Abdullah; K M Varier

    2006-09-01

    The total -ray interaction crosss-sections on mixed absorbers were determined at 662 keV with a view to study the effective atomic numbers for -ray absorption under narrow beam good geometry set-up. The measurements were taken for the combination of metallic absorbers like aluminium, copper, lead and mercury and also for the simulated absorbers by rotating the targets. ORTEC HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors were used for detection of -rays.The experimental results compare favourably with theoretical values derived from XCOM package and suggest the usefulness of the concept of effective atomic numbers and the utility of the rotating absorbers technique.

  19. Discriminating thermal effect in nonlinear-ellipse-rotation-modified Z-scan measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bo; Shi, Shuo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2011-06-01

    We report that a modified Z-scan method by nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) can be used to discriminate true nonlinear refraction from thermal effect in the transient regime and steady state. The combination of Z-scan and NER allows us to measure the third-order nonlinear susceptibility component without the influence of thermal-optical nonlinearity. The experimental results of pure CS(2) and CS(2) solutions of nigrosine verify that the transient thermal effect can be successfully eliminated from the NER-modified Z-scan measurements. This method is also extended to the case in which thermal-optical nonlinearities depend on a high repetition rate of femtosecond laser pulses for the N,N-dimethylmethanamide solutions of graphene oxide. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Soliton Properties of Light Pulses on the Surface of Ionic Crystals Generated by Strong Nonlinear Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jia-Sheng; MA Ben-Kun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically discuss the soliton properties of light pulse transportation on the surface of an ionic crystal having strong nonlinear interactions between ions of unit cells. We analyze in detail the dark solitons when the nonlinear coefficient g is positive and negative, respectively. It is found that whether the nonlinear coefficient g is positive or negative, the dark solitons can be formed over the whole dispersion relation area of surface polaritons considering nonlinear effects. Attention should be paid to the fact that around ωTO, the light pulse can form advanced dark solitons, and there is a switching area from advanced dark soliton to retarded dark soliton near ωTO. We also discuss the effects of higher nonlinear dispersion on the solitons.

  1. Nonlinear optical and magneto-optical effects in non-spherical magnetic granular composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Xu(须萍); Zhenya Li(李振亚)

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization-induced nonlinear optical and nonlinear magneto-optical properties in a magnetic metal-insulator composite are studied based on a tensor effective medium approximation with shape factor and Taylcr-expansion method. There is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and elcctric field E in the composite. The results of our studies on the effective dielectric tensor and the nonlinear susceptibility tensor in a magnetic nanocomposite are surveyed. It is shown that such a metal-insulator composite exhibits the enhancements of optical and magneto-optical nonlinearity. The frequencies at which the enhancements occur, and the amplitude of the enhancement factors depend on the concentration and shape of the magnetic grains.

  2. Photothermal, photoconductive and nonlinear optical effects induced by nanosecond pulse irradiation in multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Merino, J.A.; Martínez-González, C.L.; Miguel, C.R. Torres-San [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 México Distrito Federal (Mexico); Trejo-Valdez, M. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 México Distrito Federal (Mexico); Martínez-Gutiérrez, H. [Centro de Nanociencia y MicroNanotecnología del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 México Distrito Federal (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C., E-mail: crstorres@yahoo.com.mx [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica Unidad Zacatenco, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07738 México Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes were prepared by an aerosol pyrolysis method. • Thermal phenomena were induced by nanosecond irradiation. • Photoconductive and nonlinear optical properties were evaluated. • A monostable multivibrator function in carbon nanotubes was analyzed. - Abstract: The influence of the optical absorption exhibited by multi-wall carbon nanotubes on their photothermal, photoconductive and nonlinear optical properties was evaluated. The experiments were performed by using a Nd:YAG laser system at 532 nm wavelength and 1 ns pulse duration. The observations were carried out in thin film samples conformed by carbon nanotubes prepared by an aerosol pyrolysis method; Raman spectroscopy studies confirmed their multi-wall nature. Theoretical and numerical calculations based on the heat equation allow us to predict the temporal response of the induced effects associated to the optical energy transference. A two-wave mixing method was employed to explore the third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by the sample. A dominant thermal process was identified as the main physical mechanism responsible for the optical Kerr effect. Potential applications for developing a monostable multivibrator exhibiting different time-resolved characteristics were analyzed.

  3. Characterization of Chirped Pump Four-Wave Mixing in Nonlinear Fibers using only Continuous-Wave-Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Guan, Pengyu; Møller-kristensen, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber characterization method that reveals the four-wave mixing bandwidth for chirped pump operation, using two tunable continuous-wave-lasers. The method accurately predicts the bandwidth for optical time lenses with broadband multi-carrier input......We propose a novel fiber characterization method that reveals the four-wave mixing bandwidth for chirped pump operation, using two tunable continuous-wave-lasers. The method accurately predicts the bandwidth for optical time lenses with broadband multi-carrier input...

  4. Nonlinear effects of the finite amplitude ultrasound wave in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear effects will occur during the transmission of the finite amplitude wave in biological tissues.The theoretical prediction and experimental demonstration of the nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude wave at the range of biomedical ultrasound frequency and intensity are studied.Results show that the efficiency factor and effective propagation distance will decrease while the attenuation coefficient increases due to the existence of nonlinear effects.The experimental results coincided quite well with the theory.This shows that the effective propagation distance and efficiency factor can be used to describe quantitatively the influence of nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude sound wave in biological tissues.

  5. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  6. Management of dispersion, nonlinearity and polarization-dependent effects in high-speed reconfigurable WDM fiber optic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting

    As optical communications approach more data bandwidth, longer transmission distance, and more reconfigurability, dispersion, nonlinearity and polarization-dependent effects are becoming key issues for future all-optical fiber optic systems and networks. For ≥10 Gbit/s optical fiber transmission systems, it is critical that chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode-dispersion be well monitored and compensated using some type of dispersion monitoring and compensation. On the other hand, dispersive and nonlinear effects in optical fiber systems can also be beneficial and have applications on pulse management, all-optical signal processing and network function, which will be essential for high bite-rate optical networks and replacing the expensive optical-electrical-optical (O/E/O) conversion. In this Ph.D. dissertation, we present a detailed research on dispersion, nonlinearity, and polarization-dependent effects in high-speed optical communication systems. We have demonstrated: (i) A dynamic channel-spacing tunable multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser; (ii) Chromatic-dispersion-insensitive PMD monitoring by tracking the radio-frequency extracted from the vestigial-sideband; (iii) A method for simultaneous chromatic and polarization-mode dispersions monitoring by adding a frequency-shifted carrier; (iv) Polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification by depolarizing the pump; (v) All optical chromatic dispersion monitoring potential for ultra-high speed (>40 Gbit/s) optical systems using cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber; (vi) A novel fiber-based autocorrelator using polarimetric four-wave mixing effect and a tunable differential-group-delay element; (vii) A simple all-fiber-based autocorrelator by measuring the degree-of-polarization; and (viii) Reduction of pattern dependent data distortion in a stimulated Brillouin scattering based slow light element. These techniques will play key roles in future high-speed dynamic WDM optical

  7. 基于非线性混合模型的红松人工林枝条生长%Branch growth of Korean pine plantation based on nonlinear mixed model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春红; 李凤日; 贾炜玮; 董利虎

    2013-01-01

    Based on the branch analysis data from 36 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province,Northeast China,and by using Mitcherlich and Richards equations as the models of branch diameter and branch length growth,respectively,the effects of sampling plot and sample tree were investigated,and the nonlinear mixed models of branch diameter and branch length growth were established by the PROC NLMIXED procedure of SAS software.The evaluation statistics such as Akaike information criterion (AIC),Bayesian information criterion (BIC),-2Log likelihood,and likelihood ratio test (LRT) were used to compare the prediction precisions of the models.When considering plot effect,and taking α1 and α3 andβ1 andβ3 as the random parameters,respectively,the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance.When considering tree effect,and taking α2 and α3 andβ2 andβ3 as the random parameters,respectively,the models of branch diameter and branch length growth had the best performance.The nonlinear mixed model could not only reflect the mean variation of branch growth,but also show the differences among the individual trees.No matter considering plot effect or tree effect,the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better than that of the ordinary regression analysis model.Moreover,the fitting precision of the nonlinear mixed model was better when considering tree effect than considering plot effect.%基于黑龙江省孟家岗林场36株红松人工林的枝解析数据,以单分子式和理查德方程作为枝条基径(BD)和枝长(BL)生长模型,分别考虑样地效应和样木效应,利用SAS软件的PROC NLMIXED模块构建了枝条基径和枝长生长的非线性混合模型.采用Akaike信息准则(AIC)、贝叶斯信息准则(BIC)、对数似然值(-2Log likelihood)和似然比检验(LRT)等评价指标对所构建模型的精度进行比较.结果表明:当考虑样地效应时,α1、α3

  8. Effects of turbulent mixing on critical behaviour in the presence of compressibility: renormalization group analysis of two models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, N V; Kapustin, A S, E-mail: nikolai.antonov@pobox.spbu.r [Department of Theoretical Physics, St Petersburg State University, Uljanovskaja 1, St Petersburg, Petrodvorez 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-08

    Critical behaviour of two systems, subjected to the turbulent mixing, is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group. The first system, described by the equilibrium model A, corresponds to the relaxational dynamics of a non-conserved order parameter. The second one is the strongly non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion system known as Gribov process and equivalent to the Reggeon field theory. The turbulent mixing is modelled by the Kazantsev-Kraichnan 'rapid-change' ensemble: time-decorrelated Gaussian velocity field with the power-like spectrum {approx}k{sup -d-{xi}}. Effects of compressibility of the fluid are studied. It is shown that, depending on the relation between the exponent {xi} and the spatial dimension d, both the systems exhibit four different types of critical behaviour, associated with four possible fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Three fixed points correspond to known regimes: Gaussian fixed point, original model without mixing and passively advected scalar field. The most interesting fourth point corresponds to a new type of critical behaviour, in which both nonlinearity and turbulent mixing are relevant, and the critical exponents depend on d, {xi} and the degree of compressibility. The critical exponents and regions of stability for all the regimes are calculated in the leading order of the double expansion in two parameters {xi} and {epsilon} = 4 - d. For both models, compressibility enhances the role of the nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations: the region in the {epsilon}-{xi} plane, where the new nontrivial regime is stable, is getting much wider as the degree of compressibility increases. For the incompressible fluid, the most realistic values d = 3 and {xi} = 4/3 (Kolmogorov turbulence) lie in the region of stability of the passive scalar regime. If the compressibility becomes strong enough, the crossover in the critical behaviour occurs, and these values of d and {xi} fall into the region

  9. Effect of noise on Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Nora; Pandian, Arun; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-11-01

    We perform a detailed stochastic study of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing with time-dependent acceleration. A set of nonlinear stochastic differential equations with multiplicative noise is derived on the basis of momentum model and group theory analysis. A broad range of parameters is investigated, and self-similar asymptotic solutions are found. The existence is shown of two sub-regimes of RT mixing dynamics - the acceleration-driven and the dissipation-driven mixing. In each sub-regime, statistic properties of the solutions are investigated, and dynamic invariants are found. Transition between the sub-regimes is studied. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  10. Functional-mixed effects models for candidate genetic mapping in imaging genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ja-An; Zhu, Hongtu; Mihye, Ahn; Sun, Wei; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a functional-mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework for the joint analysis of high-dimensional imaging data in a large number of locations (called voxels) of a three-dimensional volume with a set of genetic markers and clinical covariates. Our FMEM is extremely useful for efficiently carrying out the candidate gene approaches in imaging genetic studies. FMEM consists of two novel components including a mixed effects model for modeling nonlinear genetic effects on imaging phenotypes by introducing the genetic random effects at each voxel and a jumping surface model for modeling the variance components of the genetic random effects and fixed effects as piecewise smooth functions of the voxels. Moreover, FMEM naturally accommodates the correlation structure of the genetic markers at each voxel, while the jumping surface model explicitly incorporates the intrinsically spatial smoothness of the imaging data. We propose a novel two-stage adaptive smoothing procedure to spatially estimate the piecewise smooth functions, particularly the irregular functional genetic variance components, while preserving their edges among different piecewise-smooth regions. We develop weighted likelihood ratio tests and derive their exact approximations to test the effect of the genetic markers across voxels. Simulation studies show that FMEM significantly outperforms voxel-wise approaches in terms of higher sensitivity and specificity to identify regions of interest for carrying out candidate genetic mapping in imaging genetic studies. Finally, FMEM is used to identify brain regions affected by three candidate genes including CR1, CD2AP, and PICALM, thereby hoping to shed light on the pathological interactions between these candidate genes and brain structure and function.

  11. Effect of aggregation, morphology and mixing state on optical properties of bare and internally mixed Black Carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnato, Barbara; China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a small, dark particle that warms Earth's climate. BC is a distinct type of carbonaceous aerosol particle, product of combustion of fossil and biomass fuels. Upon emission into the atmosphere, BC internally mixes with other aerosol compounds. According to recent studies, internal mixing of BC with other aerosol materials in the atmosphere alters its aggregate shape, absorption of solar radiation, and radiative forcing. These mixing state effects are not yet fully understood. Laboratory and field studies have identified a strong variability in the observed absorption efficiencies of internally mixed BC. Additionally, there is a discrepancy between modeled and measured values using traditional modeling approaches. This talk will investigate the central role of parameterization of light interaction by BC particles in the assessment of its radiative forcing and present a sensitivity study of the effect of aggregation, morphology and mixing state on optical properties of bare and internally mixed BC with mineral dust, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and others. Optical properties of the different mixtures, sampled both in field campaigns and laboratory environment, are computed using Discrete Dipole Approximation model in accordance with BC aggregation, morphology and mixing observed at microscopes. The results of this work are relevant for several applications in atmospheric science, including but not limited to radiative transfer calculations, regional and global climate modeling and, the interpretation of remote sensing measurements.

  12. Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koissin, Vitaly; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is accou

  13. Nonlinear effective-medium theory of disordered spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-02-01

    Disordered soft materials, such as fibrous networks in biological contexts, exhibit a nonlinear elastic response. We study such nonlinear behavior with a minimal model for networks on lattice geometries with simple Hookian elements with disordered spring constant. By developing a mean-field approach to calculate the differential elastic bulk modulus for the macroscopic network response of such networks under large isotropic deformations, we provide insight into the origins of the strain stiffening and softening behavior of these systems. We find that the nonlinear mechanics depends only weakly on the lattice geometry and is governed by the average network connectivity. In particular, the nonlinear response is controlled by the isostatic connectivity, which depends strongly on the applied strain. Our predictions for the strain dependence of the isostatic point as well as the strain-dependent differential bulk modulus agree well with numerical results in both two and three dimensions. In addition, by using a mapping between the disordered network and a regular network with random forces, we calculate the nonaffine fluctuations of the deformation field and compare them to the numerical results. Finally, we discuss the limitations and implications of the developed theory.

  14. Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is accou

  15. Effective Third-Order Nonlinearities in Metallic Refractory Titanium Nitride Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsey, Nathaniel; Courtwright, Devon; DeVault, Clayton; Bonner, Carl E; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Nanophotonic devices offer an unprecedented ability to concentrate light into small volumes which can greatly increase nonlinear effects. However, traditional plasmonic materials suffer from low damage thresholds and are not compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Here we study the nonlinear optical properties in the novel refractory plasmonic material titanium nitride using the Z scan method at 1550 nm and 780 nm. We compare the extracted nonlinear parameters for TiN with previous works on noble metals and note a similarly large nonlinear optical response. However, TiN films have been shown to exhibit a damage threshold up to an order of magnitude higher than gold films of a similar thickness, while also being robust, cost-efficient, bio- and CMOS compatible. Together, these properties make TiN a promising material for metal-based nonlinear optics.

  16. Theoretical investigation on Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gun LiNa; TANG ZhiLie; XING Da

    2008-01-01

    The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than twophoton confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.

  17. Theoretical investigation on Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than two-photon confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.

  18. Weakly nonlinear dispersion and stop-band effects for periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Continua and structures composed of periodically repeated elements (cells) are used in many fields of science and technology. Examples of continua are composite materials, consisting of alternating volumes of substances with different properties, mechanical filters and wave guides. Examples of en...... suggested. The work is carried out with financial support from the Danish Council for Independent Research and COFUND: DFF – 1337-00026...... of these methods for studying nonlinear problems isimpossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable only for linear systems. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applications may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response...

  19. Using nonlinearity and spatiotemporal property modulation to control effective structural properties: dynamic rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Blekhman, Iliya I.

    2007-01-01

    , and to call these dynamic materials or spatiotemporal composites. Also, according to theoretical predictions, structural nonlinearity enhances the possibilities of achieving specific effective properties. For example, with an elastic rod having cubical elastic nonlinearities, it seems possible to control......, and exemplified. Then simple approximate analytical expressions are derived for the effective wave speed and natural frequencies for one-dimensional wave propagation in a nonlinear elastic rod, where the spatiotemporal modulation is imposed as a high-frequency standing wave, supposed to be given. Finally the more...

  20. Perturbation Effects on a Supercritical C7H16/N2 Mixing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okongo'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2008-01-01

    A computational-simulation study has been presented of effects of perturbation wavelengths and initial Reynolds numbers on the transition to turbulence of a heptane/nitrogen mixing layer at supercritical pressure. The governing equations for the simulations were the same as those of related prior studies reported in NASA Tech Briefs. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations were performed with initially im posed span wise perturbations whereas three-dimensional (3D) simulations had both streamwise and spanwise initial perturbations. The 2D simulations were undertaken to ascertain whether perturbations having the shortest unstable wavelength obtained from a linear stability analysis for inviscid flow are unstable in viscous nonlinear flows. The goal of the 3D simulations was to ascertain whether perturbing the mixing layer at different wavelengths affects the transition to turbulence. It was found that transitions to turbulence can be obtained at different perturbation wavelengths, provided that they are longer than the shortest unstable wavelength as determined by 2D linear stability analysis for the inviscid case and that the initial Reynolds number is proportionally increased as the wavelength is decreased. The transitional states thus obtained display different dynamic and mixture characteristics, departing strongly from the behaviors of perfect gases and ideal mixtures.

  1. Mixed Effects Modeling Using Stochastic Differential Equations: Illustrated by Pharmacokinetic Data of Nicotinic Acid in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Jacob; Almquist, Joachim; Ahlström, Christine; Gabrielsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2015-05-01

    Inclusion of stochastic differential equations in mixed effects models provides means to quantify and distinguish three sources of variability in data. In addition to the two commonly encountered sources, measurement error and interindividual variability, we also consider uncertainty in the dynamical model itself. To this end, we extend the ordinary differential equation setting used in nonlinear mixed effects models to include stochastic differential equations. The approximate population likelihood is derived using the first-order conditional estimation with interaction method and extended Kalman filtering. To illustrate the application of the stochastic differential mixed effects model, two pharmacokinetic models are considered. First, we use a stochastic one-compartmental model with first-order input and nonlinear elimination to generate synthetic data in a simulated study. We show that by using the proposed method, the three sources of variability can be successfully separated. If the stochastic part is neglected, the parameter estimates become biased, and the measurement error variance is significantly overestimated. Second, we consider an extension to a stochastic pharmacokinetic model in a preclinical study of nicotinic acid kinetics in obese Zucker rats. The parameter estimates are compared between a deterministic and a stochastic NiAc disposition model, respectively. Discrepancies between model predictions and observations, previously described as measurement noise only, are now separated into a comparatively lower level of measurement noise and a significant uncertainty in model dynamics. These examples demonstrate that stochastic differential mixed effects models are useful tools for identifying incomplete or inaccurate model dynamics and for reducing potential bias in parameter estimates due to such model deficiencies.

  2. Properties of Differential Scattering Section Based on Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Properties of damping electrons in collision with photons based on multi-photon nonlinear Compton effect are investigated. The expressions of the differential scattering section are derived. Several useful conclusions are drawn.

  3. Systematic treatment of non-linear effects in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss the non-linear effects in the baryon acoustic oscillations and present a systematic and controllable way to account for them within time-sliced perturbation theory.

  4. Diffraction corrections for second harmonic beam fields and effects on the nonlinearity parameter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo; Cho, Sung Jong; Nam, Ki Woong; Lee, Jang Hyun [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The nonlinearity parameter is frequently measured as a sensitive indicator in damaged material characterization or tissue harmonic imaging. Several previous studies have employed the plane wave solution, and ignored the effects of beam diffraction when measuring the non-linearity parameter β. This paper presents a multi-Gaussian beam approach to explicitly derive diffraction corrections for fundamental and second harmonics under quasilinear and paraxial approximation. Their effects on the nonlinearity parameter estimation demonstrate complicated dependence of β on the transmitter-receiver geometries, frequency, and propagation distance. The diffraction effects on the non-linearity parameter estimation are important even in the nearfield region. Experiments are performed to show that improved β values can be obtained by considering the diffraction effects.

  5. EFFECT OF DAMAGE ON NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VISCOELASTIC RECTANGULAR PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-fang; FU Yi-ming

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of viscoelastic rectangular plates including the damage effects under the action of a transverse periodic load were studied. Using the von Karman equations, Boltzmann superposition principle and continuum damage mechanics, the nonlinear dynamic equations in terms of the mid-plane displacements for the viscoelastic thin plates with damage effect were derived. By adopting the finite difference method and Newmark method, these equations were solved. The results were compared with the available data. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the external loading parameters and geometric dimensions of the plate on the nonlinear dynamic responses of the plate were discussed. Research results show that the nonlinear dynamic response of the structure will change remarkably when the damage effect is considered.

  6. Examining the Error of Mis-Specifying Nonlinear Confounding Effect with Application on Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some confounders are nonlinearly associated with dependent variables, but they are often adjusted using a linear term. The purpose of this study was to examine the error of mis-specifying the nonlinear confounding effect. Methods: We carried out a simulation study to investigate the effect of adjusting for a nonlinear confounder in the…

  7. Optimal fleetwide emissions reductions for passenger ferries: an application of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model for the New York-New Jersey Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Wang, Chengfeng; Farrell, Alexander E; Woods, Pippa

    2005-04-01

    Emissions from passenger ferries operating in urban harbors may contribute significantly to emissions inventories and commuter exposure to air pollution. In particular, ferries are problematic because of high emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from primarily unregulated diesel engines. This paper explores technical solutions to reduce pollution from passenger ferries operating in the New York-New Jersey Harbor. The paper discusses and demonstrates a mixed-integer, non-linear programming model used to identify optimal control strategies for meeting NOx and PM reduction targets for 45 privately owned commuter ferries in the harbor. Results from the model can be used by policy-makers to craft programs aimed at achieving least-cost reduction targets.

  8. Comparison of two non-convex mixed-integer nonlinear programming algorithms applied to autoregressive moving average model structure and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uilhoorn, F. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this article, the stochastic modelling approach proposed by Box and Jenkins is treated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem solved with a mesh adaptive direct search and a real-coded genetic class of algorithms. The aim is to estimate the real-valued parameters and non-negative integer, correlated structure of stationary autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes. The maximum likelihood function of the stationary ARMA process is embedded in Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion, whereas the estimation procedure is based on Kalman filter recursions. The constraints imposed on the objective function enforce stability and invertibility. The best ARMA model is regarded as the global minimum of the non-convex MINLP problem. The robustness and computational performance of the MINLP solvers are compared with brute-force enumeration. Numerical experiments are done for existing time series and one new data set.

  9. The effect of nonlinear decompression history on H2O/CO2 vesiculation in rhyolitic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Magma ascent rate is one of the key parameters that control volcanic eruption style, tephra dispersion, and volcanic atmospheric impact. Many methods have been employed to investigate the magma ascent rate in volcanic eruptions, and most rely on equilibrium thermodynamics. Combining the mixed H2O-CO2 solubility model with the diffusivities of both H2O and CO2 for normal rhyolitic melt, we model the kinetics of H2O and CO2 in rhyolitic eruptions that involve nonlinear decompression rates. Our study focuses on the effects of the total magma ascent time, the nonlinearity of decompression paths, and the influence of different initial CO2/H2O content on the posteruptive H2O and CO2 concentration profiles around bubbles within the melt. Our results show that, under most circumstances, volatile diffusion profiles do not constrain a unique solution for the decompression rate of magmas during an eruption, but, instead, provide a family of decompression paths with a well-defined trade-off between ascent time and nonlinearity. An important consequence of our analysis is that the common assumption of a constant decompression rate (averaged value) tends to underestimate the actual magma ascent time.

  10. Conservation laws of high-order nonlinear PDEs and the variational conservation laws in the class with mixed derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, R; Kara, A H, E-mail: Abdul.Kara@wits.ac.z [School of Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2010-02-26

    The construction of conserved vectors using Noether's theorem via a knowledge of a Lagrangian (or via the recently developed concept of partial Lagrangians) is well known. The formulas to determine these for higher order flows are somewhat cumbersome but peculiar and become more so as the order increases. We carry out these for a class of high-order partial differential equations from mathematical physics and then consider some specific ones with mixed derivatives. In the latter set of examples, our main focus is that the resultant conserved flows display some previously unknown interesting 'divergence properties' owing to the presence of the mixed derivatives. Overall, we consider a large class of equations of interest and construct some new conservation laws.

  11. Asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with the effects of nonlinear phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Reddy, Dileep V.

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM.......We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM....

  12. Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Dynamics of Atom Laser: Mean-Field Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Hui

    2002-01-01

    Quantum dynamics and statistics of an atom laser with nonlinear binary interactions are investigated inthe framework of mean-field approximation. The linearized effective Hamiltonian of the system is accurately solvable.It is shown that, although the input radio frequency field is in an ordinary Glauber coherent state, the output matterwave will periodically exhibit quadrature squeezing effects purely originated from the nonlinear atom-atom collisions.

  13. Measurements of non-linear optical constants of chalcogenide glasses using Z-scan and the degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zakery

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses such as arseic sulfide(As2 S3 have attracted attention for applications such as all-optical switching in high speed communication. This is due to their high non-linear refractive-index. Z-scan and the Degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM techniques can be used to measure the non-linear refractive index n 2 and the two photon absorption coefficient β . A simaltanous closed-aperture and open-aperture Z-scan experimental set up was used to obtain the experimental results. The results were then fitted into a theoretical formula. Values of n2=3×10-17m2/W and β= 0.29 cm/GW have been obtained. DFWM measurements were made on arsenic sulfide films. A Box-cars forward geometry was used in these measurements. Experimental results based on non-phase matched signals were again fitted into a theoretical formula and a value of n2 =3.9×10-17 m2 /W was obtained .

  14. Deep-ultraviolet second-harmonic generation by combined degenerate four-wave mixing and surface nonlinearity polarization in photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Feng; Zhou, Guiyao; Zhang, Xianting; Mei, Chao; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2017-08-23

    Deep-ultraviolet (UV) second-harmonics (SHs) have important applications in basic physics and applied sciences. However, it still remains challenging to generate deep-UV SHs especially in optical fibers. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the deep-UV SH generations (SHGs) by combined degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and surface nonlinearity polarization in an in-house designed and fabricated air-silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF). When femtosecond pump pulses with average input power P av of 650 mW and center wavelength λ p of 810, 820, 830, and 840 nm are coupled into the normal dispersion region close to the zero-dispersion wavelength of the fundamental mode of the PCF, the anti-Stokes waves induced by degenerate FWM process are tunable from 669 to 612 nm. Then, they serve as the secondary pump, and deep-UV SHs are generated within the wavelength range of 334.5 to 306 nm as a result of surface nonlinearity polarization at the core-cladding interface of the PCF. The physical mechanism of the SHGs is confirmed by studying the dependences of the output power P SH of the SHs on the PCF length and time. Finally, we also establish a theoretical model to analyze the SHGs.

  15. Effects of Reynolds Number on Mixing and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, H. W.

    2001-12-01

    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method was used to estimate the effects of Reynolds number (Re), and sidewall boundaries, on dispersion of gases in fractured and porous media. The systems studied ranged from idealized channels with parallel grooves and honeycomb structures, to casts of natural fractures and aggregates of sedimented, quasi-spherical particles. For specific configurations of rough, intersecting fractures, Re variation from 0 to 100 causes only a factor ~2 variation in the mixing ratio C2/(C1+C2), where C1 and C2 are the concentrations of solute in the outlet legs of the fracture intersection. However, slight changes in the intersection alignment yield up to factor 5 range in the mixing ratio, for the geometries studied. For both individual fractures and fracture intersections, sidewall boundary effects tend to be overwhelmed by velocity variations within the fracture planes. LB simulations for porous aggregates give good agreement with experimental studies. However, in random aggregates at high Re, it becomes impractical to obtain dispersion coefficients by LB and the method of moments. Alternative LB methods are discussed.

  16. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power transmission. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.

  17. 4-wave mixing for phase-matching free nonlinear optics in quantum cascade structures : LDRD 08-0346 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, Dan G.; Yang, Zhenshan; Waldmueller, Ines

    2010-10-01

    Optical nonlinearities and quantum coherences have the potential to enable efficient, high-temperature generation of coherent THz radiation. This LDRD proposal involves the exploration of the underlying physics using intersubband transitions in a quantum cascade structure. Success in the device physics aspect will give Sandia the state-of-the-art technology for high-temperature THz quantum cascade lasers. These lasers are useful for imaging and spectroscopy in medicine and national defense. Success may have other far-reaching consequences. Results from the in-depth study of coherences, dephasing and dynamics will eventually impact the fields of quantum computing, optical communication and cryptology, especially if we are successful in demonstrating entangled photons or slow light. An even farther reaching development is if we can show that the QC nanostructure, with its discrete atom-like intersubband resonances, can replace the atom in quantum optics experiments. Having such an 'artificial atom' will greatly improve flexibility and preciseness in experiments, thereby enhancing the discovery of new physics. This is because we will no longer be constrained by what natural can provide. Rather, one will be able to tailor transition energies and optical matrix elements to enhance the physics of interest. This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring optical nonlinearities in intersubband devices. Experimental and theoretical investigations were made to develop a fundamental understanding of light-matter interaction in a semiconductor system and to explore how this understanding can be used to develop mid-IR to THz emitters and nonclassical light sources.

  18. Nonlinear effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-cloud instability

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, V

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from the batch to its bunch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  19. Collisional Effects on Nonlinear Ion Drag Force for Small Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H

    2013-01-01

    The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution appropriate for ion drift driven by a force field gives wake potential and force greatly different from a shifted Maxwellian distribution, regardless of collisionality. The low-collisionality forces are shown to be consistent with estimates based upon cross-sections for scattering in a Yukawa (shielded) grain field, but only if non-linear shielding length is used. Finite collisionality initially enhances the drag force, but only by up to a factor of 2. Larger collisionality eventually reduces the drag force. In the collisional regime, the drift distribution gives larger drag than the shift distribution even at velocities where their collisionless drags are equal. Comprehensive practical analytic formulas for force that fit the calculations are provided.

  20. Chromatic and Dispersive Effects in Nonlinear Integrable Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen D; Valishev, Alexander; Nagaitsev, Sergei N; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Proton accumulator rings and other circular hadron accelerators are susceptible to intensity-driven parametric instabilities because the zero-current charged particle dynamics are characterized by a single tune. Landau damping can suppress these instabilities, which requires energy spread in the beam or introducing nonlinear magnets such as octupoles. However, this approach reduces dynamic aperture. Nonlinear integrable optics can suppress parametric instabilities independent of energy spread in the distribution, while preserving the dynamic aperture. This novel approach promises to reduce particle losses and enable order-of-magnitude increases in beam intensity. In this paper we present results, obtained using the Lie operator formalism, on how chromaticity and dispersion affect particle orbits in integrable optics. We conclude that chromaticity in general breaks the integrability, unless the vertical and horizontal chromaticities are equal. Because of this, the chromaticity correcting magnets can be weaker ...