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Sample records for nonlinear meissner effect

  1. Imaging the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect in unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravel, Alexander P. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine); Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Kurter, Cihan; Abrahams, John [CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Jung, Philipp; Lukashenko, Alexander; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Remillard, Stephen [Physics Department, Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Anlage, Steven M. [CNAM, Physics Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Physikalisches Institut and DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We present measurements on the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect (aNLME). Using a laser scanning microscope we have directly imaged this effect in a self-resonant spiral patterned from a thin film of the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ}. The spiral is excited at one of its resonant frequencies while a focused laser spot is scanned across its surface. The local illumination by the laser gives rise to a detectable change in the resonant properties. At low temperatures, the aNLME causes a direction dependent contribution to the critical current density. This makes it possible to image the directions of nodes and anti-nodes of the superconducting order parameter and the contribution of Andreev bound states associated with them. These two contributions to the photoresponse can be distinguished by their temperature dependence, which is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  2. Observation of the nonlinear meissner effect in YBCO thin films: evidence for a D-wave order parameter in the bulk of the cuprate superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, D E; Park, S-H; Koren, G

    2004-11-05

    We present experimental evidence for the observation of the nonlinear Meissner effect in high-quality epitaxial yttrium barium copper oxide thin films by measuring their intermodulation distortion at microwave frequencies versus temperature. Most of the films measured show a characteristic increase in nonlinearity at low temperatures as predicted by the nonlinear Meissner effect. We could measure the nonlinear Meissner effect because intermodulation distortion measurements are an extremely sensitive method that can detect changes in the penetration depth of the order of 1 part in 10(5).

  3. Imaging the anisotropic nonlinear meissner effect in nodal YBa2 Cu3 O7-δ thin-film superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravel, Alexander P; Ghamsari, B G; Kurter, C; Jung, P; Remillard, S; Abrahams, J; Lukashenko, A V; Ustinov, Alexey V; Anlage, Steven M

    2013-02-22

    We have directly imaged the anisotropic nonlinear Meissner effect in an unconventional superconductor through the nonlinear electrodynamic response of both (bulk) gap nodes and (surface) Andreev bound states. A superconducting thin film is patterned into a compact self-resonant spiral structure, excited near resonance in the radio-frequency range, and scanned with a focused laser beam perturbation. At low temperatures, direction-dependent nonlinearities in the reactive and resistive properties of the resonator create photoresponse that maps out the directions of nodes, or of bound states associated with these nodes, on the Fermi surface of the superconductor. The method is demonstrated on the nodal superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ and the results are consistent with theoretical predictions for the bulk and surface contributions.

  4. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Daniel

    2009-04-30

    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the superconducting surface, reduces the magnetic-field gradients and dramatically lowers the trap depth. A novel numerical method for calculating magnetic fields in atom chips with superconducting microstructures has been developed. This numerical method overcomes the geometrical limitations of other calculation techniques and can solve superconducting microstructures of arbitrary geometry. The numerical method has been used to calculate the parameters of magnetic microtraps in computer-simulated chips containing thin-film wires. Simulations were carried out for both the superconducting and the normal-conducting state, and the differences between the two cases were analyzed. Computer simulations have been contrasted with experimental measurements. The experimental apparatus generates a magnetic microtrap for ultracold Rubidium atoms near a superconducting Niobium wire of circular cross section. The design and construction of the apparatus has met the challenge of integrating the techniques for producing atomic quantum gases with the techniques for cooling solid bodies to cryogenic temperatures. By monitoring the position of the atom cloud, one can observe how the Meissner effect influences the magnetic microtrap. (orig.)

  5. Anisotropic Paramagnetic Meissner Effect by Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espedal, Camilla; Yokoyama, Takehito; Linder, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    Conventional s -wave superconductors repel an external magnetic field. However, a recent experiment [A. Di Bernardo et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 041021 (2015)] has tailored the electromagnetic response of superconducting correlations via adjacent magnetic materials. We consider another route of altering the Meissner effect where spin-orbit interactions induce an anisotropic Meissner response that changes sign depending on the field orientation. The tunable electromagnetic response opens new paths in the utilization of hybrid systems comprising magnets and superconductors.

  6. Observation of the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect and the absence of the Meissner state in UCoGe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, C; Hykel, D J; Hasselbach, K; Aoki, D

    2012-12-07

    We present low field magnetization and susceptibility measurements made on a single crystal of the ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe. The interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity comes into view in the study of hysteresis along the c axis (easy magnetization axis). The Meissner state (perfect diamagnetism) could not be observed in very low magnetic fields for all three crystallographic directions, implying that the sample is always in the mixed state. Notwithstanding, the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect (reversible flux expulsion) occurs and is found to be anisotropic. For the c axis in low fields, it is proportional to the bulk magnetization M (and thus to the population of domains) and not to the applied magnetic field H. On a microscopic level, our interpretation of these results implies that flux is expelled independently from each domain proportional to its volume.

  7. Meissner effect and a stringlike interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-01-01

    We find that a recently proposed interaction involving the vorticity current of electrons, which radiatively induces a photon mass in 3+1 dimensions in the low-energy effective theory, corresponds to confining strings (linear potential) between electrons.

  8. The use of the special theory of relativity for the Meissner Effect in superconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic waves are considered in this article as the mediators of interaction in the Meissner Effect or the diamagnetic property of the superconductors. During the cooling of a superconductor electromagnetic waves may be released when the electrons occupy lower states of the energy. These

  9. Extremal Black Holes in Strong Magnetic Fields: Near-Horizon Geometries and Meissner Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hejda, Filip

    2016-01-01

    For extremal black holes, one can construct simpler, limiting spacetimes that describe the geometry near degenerate horizons. Since these spacetimes are known to have enhanced symmetry, the limiting objects coincide for different solutions. We show that this occurs for strongly magnetised Kerr-Newman solution, and how this is related to physical Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields from extremal black holes.

  10. Chiral Mott insulators, Meissner effect, and Laughlin states in quantum ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Alexandru; Le Hur, Karyn

    2015-02-01

    We introduce generic bosonic models exemplifying that chiral Meissner currents can persist in insulating phases of matter. We first consider interacting bosons on a two-leg ladder. The total density sector can be gapped in a bosonic Mott insulator at odd-integer filling, while the relative density sector remains superfluid due to interchain hopping. Coupling the relative density to gauge fields yields a pseudospin Meissner effect. We show that the same phase arises if the bosons are replaced by spinful fermions confined in Cooper pairs, and find a dual fermionic Mott insulator with spinon currents. We prove that, by tuning the mean density, the Mott insulator with Meissner currents turns into a low-dimensional bosonic ν =1/2 Laughlin state for strong enough repulsive interactions across the ladder rungs. We finally discuss extensions to multileg ladders and bilayers in which spinon superfluids with Meissner currents become possible. We propose two experimental realizations, one with ultracold atoms in the setup of Atala et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 588 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2998] and another with Josephson junction arrays. We also address a Bose-Fermi mixture subject to a magnetic field in connection with the pseudogap phase of high-Tc cuprates.

  11. Meissner-like effect for synthetic gauge field in multimode cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantine, Kyle E; Keeling, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Previous realizations of synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms do not allow the spatial profile of the field to evolve freely. We propose a scheme which overcomes this restriction by using the light in a multimode cavity, in conjunction with Raman coupling, to realize an artificial magnetic field which acts on a Bose-Einstein condensate of neutral atoms. We describe the evolution of such a system, and present the results of numerical simulations which show dynamical coupling between the effective field and the matter on which it acts. Crucially, the freedom of the spatial profile of the field is sufficient to realize a close analogue of the Meissner effect, where the magnetic field is expelled from the superfluid. This back-action of the atoms on the synthetic field distinguishes the Meissner-like effect described here from the Hess-Fairbank suppression of rotation in a neutral superfluid observed elsewhere.

  12. Meissner-like effect on normal-superfluid interface of imbalanced Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, N.; Mehrafarin, M.

    2013-06-01

    We examine the N-SF interface of a polarized Fermi gas with two spin species a and b, in the presence of a weak external magnetic field. In our analysis we shall, therefore, consider the possibility of the Meissner effect too. We use perturbation theory to solve the Bogoliubov equations and obtain the wave functions. We consider the various scattering regions of the BCS regime and analytically obtain the transmission coefficients and the heat conductivity across the interface. We describe how the heat conductivity is affected by the Meissner effect and the species imbalance. It suffices to remark that the leading order term in transmission coefficients are independent of energy E. Also the additional heat conductivity is found to be proportional to λ 2 ( λ is penetration depth). The corresponding graphs is also plotted and discussed.

  13. On the explanation of the paramagnetic Meissner effect in superconductor/ferromagnet heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, B.; Khaydukov, Yu.; Efremov, D.; Vasenko, A. S.; Mustafa, L.; Kim, J.-H.; Keller, T.; Zhernenkov, K.; Devishvili, A.; Steitz, R.; Keimer, B.; Bottyán, L.

    2016-10-01

    An increase of the magnetic moment in superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) bilayers V(40 nm)/F (\\text{F}=\\text{Fe}(1,~3 \\text{nm}) , Co(3 nm), Ni(3 nm)) was observed using SQUID magnetometry upon cooling below the superconducting transition temperature T C in magnetic fields of 10 Oe to 50 Oe applied parallel to the sample surface. A similar increase, often called the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), was observed before in various superconductors and superconductor/ferromagnet systems. To explain the PME effect in the presented S/F bilayers a model based on a row of vortices located at the S/F interface is proposed. According to the model the magnetic moment induced below T C consists of the paramagnetic contribution of the vortex cores and the diamagnetic contribution of the vortex-free region of the S layer. Since the thickness of the S layer is found to be 3-4 times less than the magnetic-field penetration depth, this latter diamagnetic contribution is negligible. The model correctly accounts for the sign, the approximate magnitude and the field dependence of the paramagnetic and the Meissner contributions of the induced magnetic moment upon passing the superconducting transition of a ferromagnet/superconductor bilayer.

  14. Force-Free Magnetic Fields on AN Extreme Reissner-Nordström Spacetime and the Meissner Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Yousuke; Ken-Ichi, Nakao; Hideki, Ishihara; Masashi, Kimura; Chul-Moon, Yoo

    It is known that the Meissner effect of black holes is seen in the vacuum solutions of blackhole magnetosphere: no non-monopole component of magnetic flux penetrates the event horizon if the black hole is extreme. In this article, in order to see the effects of charge currents, we study the force-free magnetic field on the extreme Reissner-Nordström background. In this case, we should solve one elliptic differential equation called the Grad-Shafranov equation which has singular points called light surfaces. In order to see the Meissner effect, we consider the region near the event horizon and try to solve the equation by Taylor expansion about the event horizon. Moreover, we assume that the small rotational velocity of the magnetic field, and then, we construct a perturbative method to solve the Grad-Shafranov equation considering the efftect of the inner light surface and study the behavior of the magnetic field near the event horizon.

  15. An introduction to superconductivity. The Meissner effect and the derivation of phenomenological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeney, Lucas

    2016-09-23

    The purpose of this work was to give the reader insight into the topic of conventional superconductors. It started out with defining the superconductive state itself as a state of ideal conductivity and ideal diamagnetism. An important phenomenon to keep in mind in this regard is the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect. It then went on to attempt to understand those properties on a macroscopic level. This was achieved in the framework of the two major macroscopic theories, the London theory and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. While the London theory focused on the electrodynamic qualities of the superconductive state, the Ginzburg-Landau theory dealt with events close to the superconducting phase transition in a thermodynamic scope. The highlight of this section was the investigation of the Abrikosov lattice, the geometric disposition of the flux tubes in the intermediate Shubnikov phase. We closed with the BCS theory as the premier microscopic theory of superconductivity. Main subjects of this section were the concept of Cooper pairs and the calculation of various energy gap equations. We also looked at real properties of superconductors such as the specific heat to test our rather abstract calculations and came to outstanding agreements. The principles presented in this document should serve as a foundation to work on more advanced problems in superconductivity. Especially the large field of unconventional superconductivity is of huge interest in current research, as most of the high T{sub c} superconductors fall in that category. As unconventional superconductors can not be explained with BCS theory, the search for a uniform theory to describe them is still on-going. Unconventional superconductors include but are not limited to cuprates (T{sub c}

  16. Separability of test fields equations on the C-metric background II. Rotating case and the Meissner effect

    CERN Document Server

    Kofroň, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the separation of the Teukolsky master equation for the test field of arbitrary spin on the background of the rotating C-metric. We also summarize and simplify some known results about Debye potentials of these fields on type D background. The equation for the Debye potential is also separated. Solving for the Debye potential of the electromagnetic field we show that on the extremely rotating C-metric no magnetic field can penetrate through the outer black hole horizon --- we thus recover the Meissner effect for the C-metric.

  17. On the reversibility of the Meissner effect and the angular momentum puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu

    2016-10-15

    suppress Foucault currents, charge has to flow in direction perpendicular to the phase boundary. • The charge carriers have to be holes. • This solves also the angular momentum puzzle associated with the Meissner effect.

  18. Flip effect in the orientation of a magnet levitating over a superconducting torus in the Meissner state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Jimenez, Efren, E-mail: ediez@ing.uc3m.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain); Perez-Diaz, Jose-Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15, E28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A torus superconductor shape has been analyzed. {yields} There is a flip effect on the stablest angular position of a magnet over the superconductor. {yields} The basis for a binary contactless proximity sensor has been presented. - Abstract: The torque between a permanent magnet and a toroidal superconductor in the Meissner state is calculated using a model previously proposed based on London's and Maxwell's equations. A flip effect on the stable orientation of the magnet as a function of position is demonstrated. At large distances the magnet tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the torus, but when you approach it, at a certain point there is a flip and it tends to be parallel to that axis while being closer than a certain limit. This effect can be easily used as a binary detector for proximity.

  19. High-field paramagnetic Meissner effect and flux creep in low-T c Ti-V alloy superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental study on the high-field paramagnetic Meissner effect (HFPME) performed by measuring both the temperature and time dependence of magnetization in the two compositions of superconducting Ti-V alloys where certain secondary phases are non-superconducting, and thereby act as efficient pinning centres for the flux lines. While spatially non-uniform flux density driven by flux line pinning at these secondary phases is the necessary condition for the observation of the HFPME, our study indicates that the flux creep effect plays a supplementary role to reinforce the HFPME. It is found that in the temperature and magnetic field regime of the HFPME, the field-cooled magnetization of these samples relaxes monotonically towards a more positive value with elapsed time. We comment on how this paramagnetic relaxation behaviour of the field-cooled magnetization is correlated with the unusual thermo-magnetic responses related to the HFPME.

  20. Perturbative Analysis of a Stationary Magnetosphere in an Extreme Black Hole Spacetime : On the Meissner-like Effect of an Extreme Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, Yohsuke; Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the Meissner-like effect is seen in a magnetosphere without an electric current in black hole spacetime: no non-monopole component of magnetic flux penetrates the event horizon if the black hole is extreme. In this paper, in order to see how an electric current affects the Meissner-like effect, we study a force-free electromagnetic system in a static and spherically symmetric extreme black hole spacetime. By assuming that the rotational angular velocity of the magnetic field is very small, we construct a perturbative solution for the Grad-Shafranov equation, which is the basic equation to determine a stationary, axisymmetric electromagnetic field with a force-free electric current. Our perturbation analysis reveals that, if an electric current exists, higher multipole components may be superposed upon the monopole component on the event horizon, even if the black hole is extreme.

  1. Response to tilted magnetic fields in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8) with columnar defects: evidence for transverse Meissner effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta Phuoc, V; Olive, E; De Sousa, R; Ruyter, A; Ammor, L; Soret, J C

    2002-05-06

    The transverse Meissner effect (TME) in the highly layered superconductor Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+y) with columnar defects is investigated by transport measurements. We present evidence for the persistence of the Bose glass phase for H(perpendicular)H(+)(perpendicular c), moving kink chains consistent with a commensurate-incommensurate transition scenario are observed. These results show the existence of the TME for H(perpendicular)

  2. Measurement of repulsive force of high Tc materials due to Meissner effect and its two dimensional distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, H.; Itoh, M.; Hida, A.; Endo, H.; Oya, T.

    1991-03-01

    As a basic study for magnetic bearings using high-Tc superconductors, evaluations of the materials were conducted. These evaluations included measurements of the repulsive force and lateral restoring force of various kinds of YBCO pellets. Pure air, which was supplied in the process of fabrication, and the presence of Ag in YBCO showed evidence of the effects of increasing the repulsive force. The lateral restoring force which was observed in the lateral displacement of a levitated permanent magnet over YBCO pellets was also affected by pure air and the presence of Ag. A new measuring instrument for magnetic fields was developed by using a highly sensitive force sensor. Because this instrument has the capability of measuring the repulsive force due to the Meissner effect, it was used for evaluating the two-dimensional distribution of superconducting properties. Results show that the pellets had nonuniform superconducting properties. The two-dimensional distribution of residual flux density on the pellets which had been cooled in a magnetic field (field cooling) was also observed by means of the instrument. The mechanism for generating lateral force is discussed in relation to the distribution.

  3. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F. T.; Vieira, V. N.; Garcia, E. L.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E.; Gouvêa, C. P.; Schaf, J.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Roa, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  4. PARAMAGNETIC MEISSNER EFFECTS IN MELT-TEXTURED Y0.99Nd0.01Ba2Cu3O7-y SUPERCONDUCTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. T. Xing; Y.Z. Wang; G.W. Qiao

    2002-01-01

    The paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) was observed on the field-cooled M-T curvesof melt-textured Y0.99Nd0.01Ba2Cu3O7-y in applied magnetic fields from 1kOe toJ0kOe. In the magnetic field below 1kOe, the sample undergoes the typical transi-tion from the normal state to the superconducting state when it was cooled down. Theapplied magnetic fields in which the PME occurs, are very high compared with thefields reported in literatures. We propose that the occurrence of the PME may be dueto a phase transition of flux vortices in the superconductors.

  5. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  6. High-field paramagnetic Meissner effect up to 14 T in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7–δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F.T., E-mail: fabio.dias@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vieira, V.N. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314, Dresden (Germany); Gouvêa, C.P.; Campos, A.P.C.; Archanjo, B.S. [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro), Material Metrology Division, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schaf, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roa, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sahoo, B.K. [Goverment College (Autonomous), Angul, 759143 Odisha (India)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A persistent paramagnetic Meissner effect up to 14 T. • The PME with a slight tendency to saturate in high magnetic fields. • Strong time effects causing a paramagnetic relaxation dependent on the cooling rate. - Abstract: We have performed magnetization experiments in a melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) sample with Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) inclusions, under magnetic fields up to 14 T applied parallel or perpendicular to the ab plane. Magnetic anisotropy and paramagnetic moments were observed in both FC (field-cooling) and FCW (field-cooled warming) procedures and these features correspond to the so-called High-Field Paramagnetic Meissner Effect (HFPME). The HFPME effect increases monotonically as the magnetic field rises and a strong paramagnetic relaxation, toward increasing paramagnetic moment was additionally observed as a function of time. Microscopy analysis revealed a complex and correlated microstructure of the Y211 particles. These correlated defects are well known to cause strong flux pinning. Our results suggest a scenario of strong flux compression within weak or non-superconducting regions of the samples, developed as a consequence of the Meissner effect and assisted by strong flux pinning by the Y211 particles. This scenario is observed up to 14 T and clearly persists beyond.

  7. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F.T., E-mail: fabio.dias@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vieira, V.N.; Garcia, E.L. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314, Dresden (Germany); Gouvêa, C.P. [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro), Material Metrology Division, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schaf, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roa, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed up to 5T in FCC and FCW measurements. • Time effects evidenced by irreversibilities between FCC and FCW measurements. • Strong time effects causing an anomalous paramagnetic relaxation. • Paramagnetic relaxation governed by different flux dynamics in different intervals. • An interpretative analysis to identify the flux dynamics in the relaxation process. - Abstract: We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  8. Anisotropy of the upper critical fields and the paramagnetic Meissner effect in La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felner, I.; Tsindlekht, M. I.; Drachuck, G.; Keren, A.

    2013-02-01

    Optimally doped La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 single crystals have been investigated by dc and ac magnetic measurements. These crystals have rectangular needle-like shapes with the long needle axis parallel to the crystallographic c axis (c-crystal) or parallel to the basal planes (a-crystal). In both crystals, the temperature dependence of the upper critical fields (HC2) and the surface critical field (HC3) were measured. The H-T phase diagram is presented. Close to TC = 35 K, for the c-crystal, {\\boldsymbol{\\gamma}}^{c}={H}_{{C3}}^{c}/{H}_{{C2}}^{c}=1.8 0(2), whereas for the a-crystal the {\\boldsymbol{\\gamma}}^{a}={H}_{{C3}}^{a}/{H}_{{C2}}^{a}=4.0(2) obtained is much higher than 1.69, predicted by the ideal mathematical model. At low applied dc fields, positive field-cooled branches known as the ‘paramagnetic Meissner effect’ (PME) are observed; their magnitude is inversely proportional to H. The anisotropic PME is observed in both a- and c-crystals, only when the applied field is along the basal planes. It is speculated that the high γa and the PME are connected to each other.

  9. Meissner masses in the gCFL phase of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalbuoni, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, I-50125 Florence (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50125 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.casalbuoni@fi.infn.it; Gatto, R. [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Mannarelli, M. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Nardulli, G. [Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Ruggieri, M. [Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2005-01-13

    We calculate the Meissner masses of gluons in neutral three-flavor color superconducting matter for finite strange quark mass. In the CFL phase the Meissner masses are slowly varying function of the strange quark mass. For large strange quark mass, in the so-called gCFL phase, the Meissner masses of gluons with colors a=1,2 become imaginary, indicating an instability.

  10. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  11. Nonlinear Peltier effect in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Shakouri, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Nonlinear Peltier coefficient of a doped InGaAs semiconductor is calculated numerically using the Monte Carlo technique. The Peltier coefficient is also obtained analytically for single parabolic band semiconductors assuming a shifted Fermi-Dirac electronic distribution under an applied bias. Analytical results are in agreement with numerical simulations. Key material parameters affecting the nonlinear behavior are doping concentration, effective mass, and electron-phonon coupling. Current density thresholds at which nonlinear behavior is observable are extracted from numerical data. It is shown that the nonlinear Peltier effect can be used to enhance cooling of thin film microrefrigerator devices especially at low temperatures.

  12. Nonlinear effects in Thomson backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Tomassini, P.; Serafini, L.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the nonlinear classical effects of the X/γ radiation produced by Thomson/Compton sources. We confirm the development of spectral fringes of the radiation on axis, which comports broadening, shift, and deformation of the spectrum. For the nominal parameters of the SPARC-LAB Thomson scattering and of the European Proposal for the gamma source ELI-NP, however, the radiation, when collected in the suitable acceptance angle, does not reveal many differences from that predicted by the linear model and the nonlinear redshift is subdominant with respect to the quantum recoil. An experiment aimed to the study of the nonlinearities is proposed on the SPARC-LAB source.

  13. Non-linear magnetization effects within the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfatto, Lara; Castellani, Claudio; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    Recent experiments in cuprate superconductors have attracted the attention on the role of vortex fluctuations. Measurements of the field-induced magnetization showed that the correlation length diverge exponentially, as predicted within the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) theory. However, it is somehow puzzling thepersistence of strong non-linear magnetization effects at low field. Here we address this issue by means of a new theoretical approach to the KT transition at finite magnetic field, based on the sine-Gordon model. This approach is particularly useful in two respects. First, it leads to a straightforward definition of the field-induced magnetization as a function of the external magnetic field H instead of the magnetic induction B, which is crucial to get a consistent description of the Meissner phase. Second, it allows us to identify the cross-over field Hcr from linear to non-linear magnetization both below and above the transition. Above TKT Hcr turns out to scale as the inverse correlation length, so that it decreases as the transition is approached. As a consequence, the fact that only the non-linear regime is accessible experimentally should be interpreted as a typical signature of the fast divergence of the correlation length within the KT theory. L.Benfatto, C.Castellani and T.Giamarchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207002 (2007)

  14. Nonlinear effects in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Abraham, Susan; Kagan, Henri B

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds for various applications. An efficient approach to achieve this goal is asymmetric catalysis. The chiral catalyst is usually prepared from a chiral auxiliary, which itself is derived from a natural product or by resolution of a racemic precursor. The use of non-enantiopure chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis seems unattractive to preparative chemists, since the anticipated enantiomeric excess (ee) of the reaction product should be proportional to the ee value of the chiral auxiliary (linearity). In fact, some deviation from linearity may arise. Such nonlinear effects can be rich in mechanistic information and can be synthetically useful (asymmetric amplification). This Review documents the advances made during the last decade in the use of nonlinear effects in the area of organometallic and organic catalysis.

  15. Understanding nonlinear effects and losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.

    1995-10-01

    With the planned construction of a large hadron collider (LHC) and a major upgrade of LEP (LEP-II) at CERN, a {Phi}-factory at Frascatti, and B-factories at SLAC (PEP-II) and KEK (KEK-B), we are now entering new energy and intensity regimes in both electron and proton circular colliders. Understanding and accurately estimating dynamic apertures and particle loss rates under both injection and colliding beam conditions is of primary importance. This paper summarizes discussions on Understanding Nonlinear Effects and Losses that took place in Working Group Three at the September 1994 Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics in Particle Accelerators at Arcidosso, Italy. Questions addressed were: {open_quotes}What do simulations indicate as the underlying causes of particle loss?{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Do experiments agree with simulations-and if not, why not?{close_quotes} Special attention was given to a discrepancy between dynamic aperture measurements and theoretical predictions at HERA.

  16. Nonlinear Effects in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Maartens, R

    2000-01-01

    Major advances in the observation and theory of cosmic microwave background anisotropies have opened up a new era in cosmology. This has encouraged the hope that the fundamental parameters of cosmology will be determined to high accuracy in the near future. However, this optimism should not obscure the ongoing need for theoretical developments that go beyond the highly successful but simplified standard model. Such developments include improvements in observational modelling (e.g. foregrounds, non-Gaussian features), extensions and alternatives to the simplest inflationary paradigm (e.g. non-adiabatic effects, defects), and investigation of nonlinear effects. In addition to well known nonlinear effects such as the Rees-Sciama and Ostriker-Vishniac effects, further nonlinear effects have recently been identified. These include a Rees-Sciama-type tensor effect, time-delay effects of scalar and tensor lensing, nonlinear Thomson scattering effects and a nonlinear shear effect. Some of the nonlinear effects and th...

  17. The Effective AC Response of Nonlinear Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI En-Bo; GU Guo-Qing

    2001-01-01

    A perturbative approach is used to study the AC response of nonlinear composite media, which obey a current-field relation of the form J = σ E + χ|E|2 E with components having nonlinear response at finite frequencies. For a sinusoidal applied field, we extend the local potential in terms of sinusoidal components at fundamental frequency and high-order harmonic frequencies to treat the nonlinear composites. For nonlinear composite media vith a low concentrations of spherical inclusions, we give the formulae of the nonlinear effective AC susceptibility χ*3ω at the third harmonic frequency.

  18. Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goulart, E [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salim, J M [Instituto de Cosmologia Relatividade Astrofisica (ICRA-Brasil/CBPF), Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bergliaffa, S E Perez [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, Maracana, CEP 20559-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-06-07

    It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology.

  19. Effective ac response in weakly nonlinear composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Enbo [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang Zidong [College of Power Engineering, University of Shanghai Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gu Guoqing [Information College of Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2004-01-07

    The perturbation method is developed to deal with the problem of determining the effective nonlinear conductivity of Kerr-like nonlinear media under an external ac electric field. As an example, we have considered the cylindrical inclusion embedded in a host under the sinusoidal external field E{sub 1} sin (<{omega}t) + E{sub 3} sin (3<{omega}t) with frequencies{omega} and 3{omega}. The potentials of composites at higher harmonics are derived in both local inclusion particle and host regions. The effective responses of bulk nonlinear composites at basic frequency and harmonics are given for cylindrical composites in the dilute limit. Moreover, the relationships between the nonlinear effective responses at the basic frequency and the third harmonics are derived.

  20. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argyropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  1. Recent Issues on Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi; Inoue; Osamu; Aso; Shu; Namiki

    2003-01-01

    This talk will discuss the types of optical signal degradation due to fiber nonlinearity and review recently invented fibers for suppressing the effects. It also introduces efficiency of highly nonlinear fibers and their applications to nonlinear signal processing.

  2. Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling

    of the converted idler depends on the other pump. This allows for temporal-mode-multiplexing. When the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) are included, the phases of the natural input and output modes are changed, reducing the separability. These effects are to some degree mediated by pre......This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear...... to obtain a 100 % conversion efficiency is to use multiple stages of frequency conversion, but this setup suffers from the combined effects of NPM. This problem is circumvented by using asymmetrically pumped BS, where one pump is continuous wave. For this setup, NPM is found to only lead to linear phase...

  3. Comparative analysis of Meissner's corpuscles in the fingertips of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verendeev, Andrey; Thomas, Christian; McFarlin, Shannon C; Hopkins, William D; Phillips, Kimberley A; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-07-01

    Meissner's corpuscles (MCs) are tactile mechanoreceptors found in the glabrous skin of primates, including fingertips. These receptors are characterized by sensitivity to light touch, and therefore might be associated with the evolution of manipulative abilities of the hands in primates. We examined MCs in different primate species, including common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, n = 5), baboon (Papio anubis, n = 2), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta, n = 3), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, n = 3), bonobo (Pan paniscus, n = 1) and human (Homo sapiens, n = 8). Fingertips of the first, second and fourth digits were collected from both hands of specimens, dissected and histologically stained using hematoxylin and eosin. The density (MCs per 1 mm(2) ) and the size (cross-sectional diameter of MCs) were quantified. Overall, there were no differences in the densities of MCs or their size among the digits or between the hands for any species examined. However, MCs varied across species. We found a trend for higher densities of MCs in macaques and humans compared with chimpanzees and bonobos; moreover, apes had larger MCs than monkeys. We further examined whether the density or size of MCs varied as a function of body mass, measures of dexterity and dietary frugivory. Among these variables, only body size accounted for a significant amount of variation in the size of MCs.

  4. Nonlinear Dispersion Effect on Wave Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijie; Dong-Young LEE

    2000-01-01

    A new nonlinear dispersion relation is given in this paper, which can overcome the limitation of the intermediate minimum value in the dispersion relation proposed by Kirby and Dalrymple (1986), and which has a better approximation to Hedges' empirical relation than the modilied relations by Hedges (1987). Kirby and Dahymple (1987) for shallow waters. The new dispersion relation is simple in form. thus it can be used easily in practice. Meanwhile. a general explicil approximalion to the new dispersion rela tion and olher nonlinear dispersion relations is given. By use of the explicit approximation to the new dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking inlo account weakly nonlinear effect, a mathematical model is obtained, and it is applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model developed vith the new dispersion relation predicts wave translornation over complicated topography quite well.

  5. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  6. Nonlinear peltier effect in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1998-11-01

    A theoretical analysis of the Peltier effect in two-dimensional quantum point contacts, in field-free conditions and under the influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated.

  7. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by the strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by the nonlinear suscepti...

  8. New nonlinear polarization effects for frequency selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagodova, Tamara Y.; Karagodov, Alexander I.

    1998-05-01

    The method of computer simulations on nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects developed for real multi-level atoms in the two laser fields of arbitrary intensity and external magnetic field is applied for the polarization effects of different types calculations and investigations of the dependence of the characteristics of these effects on magnetic field strength, intensities, polarization and detunings of laser fields for alkaline atoms. The essence of the method consists in simulations and analysis of the plots of dependence of quasi energies on parameters, which are obtained with the help of sorting subprogram, and selection of suitable algorithms for calculations of characteristics of nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects. One photon and two photon resonant effects are investigated for wide range of magnetic field strength from Zeeman to Paschen Back effects. Some new features in the spectra of rotation of plane of polarization and circular dichroism of different types are predicted. The results show the agreement with known experiments. Such calculations of nonlinear resonant magnetooptical effects in the intense laser fields resonant to adjacent transitions and magnetic field show the opportunity of investigation the modifications of electronic structure due to intense radiation fields and strong external magnetic field in atomic gases and also may be used for the treatment of new methods of phase-polarization selection of modes of tunable lasers.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies on the Leaf Extracts of Actinodaphne lanata Meissner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Vimal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Actinodaphne lanata Meissner (Lauraceae from leaf extract. Solvent petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, Methanol and aqueous extracts were tested against the test organisms viz., Bacterial stains (Streptococcus pygenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal stains (Aspergillus niger, A.flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans.Methanol extract of A.lanata had maximum zone inhibition against Streptococcus pygenes, Where as ethyl acetate extract of A.lanata showed maximum zone inhibition against Klebsiella pneumonia. Aqueous extract of the plant at different concentration showed less inhibition on the tested organisms. Phytochemical analysis recorded positive results for alkaloids, phenols, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. Among the various extracts methanol extract of the investigated plant leaves of Actinodaphne lanata was found to more effective against all the pathogens. The results of these studies revealed most valuable information and also support the continued sustainable use of this plant in traditional systems of medicine.

  10. Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Logan G.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Wise, Frank W.

    2015-05-01

    Multimode fibres are of interest for next-generation telecommunications systems and the construction of high-energy fibre lasers. However, relatively little work has explored nonlinear pulse propagation in multimode fibres. Here, we consider highly nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in the anomalous-dispersion regime of a graded-index multimode fibre. Low modal dispersion and strong nonlinear coupling between the fibre's many spatial modes result in interesting behaviour. We observe spatiotemporal effects reminiscent of nonlinear optics in bulk media—self-focusing and multiple filamentation—at a fraction of the usual power. By adjusting the spatial initial conditions, we generate on-demand, megawatt, ultrashort pulses tunable between 1,550 and 2,200 nm dispersive waves over one octave; intense combs of visible light; and a multi-octave-spanning supercontinuum. Our results indicate that multimode fibres present unique opportunities for observing new spatiotemporal dynamics and phenomena. They also enable the realization of a new type of tunable, broadband fibre source that could be useful for many applications.

  11. Dynamical effects of overparametrization in nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Billings, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concemed with dynamical reconstruction for nonlinear systems. The effects of the driving function and of the complexity of a given representation on the bifurcation patter are investigated. It is shown that the use of different driving functions to excite the system may yield models with different bifurcation patterns. The complexity of the reconstructions considered is quantified by the embedding dimension and the number of estimated parameters. In this respect it appears that models which reproduce the original bifurcation behaviour are of limited complexity and that excessively complex models tend to induce ghost bifurcations and spurious dynamical regimes. Moreover, some results suggest that the effects of overparametrization on the global dynamical behaviour of a nonlinear model may be more deleterious than the presence of moderate noise levels. In order to precisely quantify the complexity of the reconstructions, global polynomials are used although the results are believed to apply to a much wider class of representations including neural networks.

  12. The Nonlinear Talbot Effect of Rogue Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Song, Jianping; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers are rogue wave solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLSE). Talbot effect (TE) is an image recurrence phenomenon in the diffraction of light waves. We report the nonlinear TE of rogue waves in a cubic medium. It is different from the linear TE, in that the wave propagates in a NL medium and is an eigenmode of NLSE. Periodic rogue waves impinging on a NL medium exhibit recurrent behavior, but only at the TE length and at the half-TE length with a \\pi-phase shift; the fractional TE is absent. The NL TE is the result of the NL interference of the lobes of rogue wave breathers. This interaction is related to the transverse period and intensity of breathers, in that the bigger the period and the higher the intensity, the shorter the TE length.

  13. The Geometric Nonlinear Generalized Brazier Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    denoted the generalized Brazier effect. The original work of Brazier dealt with very large deformations that changed the cross section significantly and hereby also the bending moment of inertia and the bending moment capacity. In this paper the aim is to describe the Brazier effect for smaller...... that the generalized Brazier effect is a local effect not influencing the overall mechanical behavior of the structure significantly. The offset is a nonlinear geometric beam-type Finite Element calculation, which takes into account the large displacements and rotations. The beam-type model defines the stresses which...... deformation not taking into account the change in moment of inertia. However, the generalized Brazier effect gives additional stresses directed perpendicular to the beam axis. In composite structures these extra stresses may influence the fatigue life significantly. The paper demonstrates a linearized method...

  14. Enhanced Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity through cascaded Pockels effects

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guang-Zhen; Jiang, Hao-Wei; Chen, Xian-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated a large enhancement of Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity through cascaded Pockels effects in a domain inversion ferroelectric crystal. We designed a structure that can implement the cascaded Pockels effects and second-harmonic generation simultaneously. The energy coupling between the fundamental lights of different polarizations led to a large nonlinear phase shift, and thus an effective electro-optic nonlinear refractive index. The effective nonlinearity can be either positive or negative, causing the second-harmonic spectra to move towards the coupling center, which in turn, offered us a way to measure the effective electro-optic nonlinear refractive index. The corresponding enhanced Kerr electro-optic nonlinearity is more than three orders of magnitude higher than the intrinsic value. These results open a door to manipulate the nonlinear phase by applying external electric field instead of light intensity in noncentrosymmetric crystals.

  15. Analysis on the effect of nonlinear polarization evolution in nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Qu; Xiaoming Liu; Pu Zhang; Xubiao Jiang; Hongming Zhang; Minyu Yao

    2005-01-01

    By considering the cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two orthogonal poparization components,the nonlinear birefringence and nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) in highly-nonlinear fiber (HNLF),as well as the unequal evolutions of the state of polarization (SOP) between the clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) waves in a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) are analyzed. It is pointed out that the traditional cosine expression is no longer valid for the power transmission of NALM due to uncompleted interference under the high power condition. The analytical expression considering NPE effect is derived, and the experimental result is presented.

  16. Ecology: Nonlinearity and the Moran effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasius, Bernd; Stone, Lewi

    2000-08-01

    The study of synchronization phenomena in ecology is important because it helps to explain interactions between population dynamics and extrinsic environmental variation. Grenfell et al. have examined synchronized fluctuations in the sizes of two populations of feral sheep which, although situated on close but isolated islands, were nevertheless strongly correlated (observed value of the population correlation, rp, 0.685). Using a nonlinear threshold model, they argue that this level of population correlation could only be explained if environmental stochasticity was correlated between the islands, with the environmental correlation, re, higher than 0.9 ``on average'' (Fig. 1a). This unusually high environmental correlation is far greater than would be predicted by the Moran effect, which states that the population correlation will equal the environmental correlation in a linear system. Grenfell et al. imply that a simple nonlinearity in population growth can mask or even destroy the Moran effect. Here we show that these surprising results are an artefact of the techniques used to measure noise correlations and synchronization.

  17. Modal Identification Using OMA Techniques: Nonlinearity Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an assessment of the state of the art of operational modal analysis (OMA methodologies in estimating modal parameters from output responses of nonlinear structures. By means of the Volterra series, the nonlinear structure excited by random excitation is modeled as best linear approximation plus a term representing nonlinear distortions. As the nonlinear distortions are of stochastic nature and thus indistinguishable from the measurement noise, a protocol based on the use of the random phase multisine is proposed to reveal the accuracy and robustness of the linear OMA technique in the presence of the system nonlinearity. Several frequency- and time-domain based OMA techniques are examined for the modal identification of simulated and real nonlinear mechanical systems. Theoretical analyses are also provided to understand how the system nonlinearity degrades the performance of the OMA algorithms.

  18. Nonvolatile Memory Based on Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Chai, Yisheng; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Tian, Ying; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics have a great potential in creating next-generation memory devices. We use an alternative concept of nonvolatile memory based, on a type of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects showing a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop. The principle is to utilize the states of the magnetoelectric coefficient, instead of magnetization, electric polarization, or resistance, to store binary information. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure clearly demonstrate that the sign of the magnetoelectric coefficient can be repeatedly switched between positive and negative by applying electric fields, confirming the feasibility of this principle. This kind of nonvolatile memory has outstanding practical virtues such as simple structure, easy operation in writing and reading, low power, fast speed, and diverse materials available.

  19. Mechanics of a magnet and a Meissner superconducting ring at arbitrary position and orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Diaz, J.L., E-mail: jlperez@ing.uc3m.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15. E28911 Leganes (Spain); Garcia-Prada, J.C.; Diaz-Garcia, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Butarque, 15. E28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2009-04-01

    The force and torque exerted by a magnetic dipole on a superconducting ring (or hollow cylinder) in the Meissner state at arbitrary position and orientation are calculated using a Maxwell-London model previously proposed by the authors. The center of the ring is an unstable equilibrium point for the magnet. At this point the ring tends to align the magnet but tends to expel it for any small axial deviation from the center. There is also a non-monotonic and oscillatory dependence of the forces and torques on the position caused by the finiteness of the ring and a torque arises when the magnet is displaced both radially and axially from the center of the cylinder which corresponds to the experimental data. Therefore, the use of a magnet in a Meissner superconducting ring as a self aligning bearing requires a centered position and that the axial unstability to be compensated by additional mechanical means.

  20. On the Shape of Meissner Solutions to a Limiting Form of Ginzburg-Landau Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingfei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study a semilinear system involving the curl operator, which is a limiting form of the Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductors in R^3 for a large value of the Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We consider the locations of the maximum points of the magnitude of solutions, which are associated with the nucleation of instability of the Meissner state for superconductors when the applied magnetic field is increased in the transition between the Meissner state and the vortex state. For small penetration depth, we prove that the location is not only determined by the tangential component of the applied magnetic field, but also by the normal curvatures of the boundary in some directions. This improves the result obtained by Bates and Pan in Commun. Math. Phys. 276, 571-610 (2007). We also show that the solutions decay exponentially in the normal direction away from the boundary if the penetration depth is small.

  1. Human Digital Meissner Corpuscles Display Immunoreactivity for the Multifunctional Ion Channels Trpc6 and Trpv4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-González, Paula; Cabo, Roberto; San José, Isabel; Gago, Angel; Suazo, Iván C; García-Suárez, Olivia; Cobo, Juan; Vega, José A

    2017-06-01

    Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here, we investigated the occurrence, distribution, and possible colocalization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents). TRPC6 immunoreactivity was restricted to the axon of Meissner corpuscles, whereas TRPV4 was detected in the axon but also in the lamellar cells. Moreover, axonal colocalization of TRPV4 and TRPC6 was found in the digital Meissner corpuscles. Present results demonstrate for the first time the occurrence and colocalization of two ion channels candidates to mechanosensors in human cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The functional significance of these ion channels in that place remains to be clarified, but should be related to different properties of mechanosensitivity. Anat Rec, 300:1022-1031, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  3. Analytical evaluation of nonlinear distortion effects on multicarrier signals

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to support reliable high quality of service as well as spectral and power efficiency, multicarrier modulation systems have found increasing use in modern communications services. However, one of the main drawbacks of these systems is their vulnerability to nonlinear distortion effects. Analytical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects on Multicarrier Signals details a unified approach to well-known analytical results on memoryless nonlinearities that takes advantage of the Gaussian behavior of multicarrier signals.Sharing new insights into the behavior of nonlinearly d

  4. A Novel Effective Approach for Solving Fractional Nonlinear PDEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminikhah, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Nasrin; Rezazadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    The present work introduces an effective modification of homotopy perturbation method for the solution of nonlinear time-fractional biological population model and a system of three nonlinear time-fractional partial differential equations. In this approach, the solution is considered a series expansion that converges to the nonlinear problem. The new approximate analytical procedure depends only on two iteratives. The analytical approximations to the solution are reliable and confirm the ability of the new homotopy perturbation method as an easy device for computing the solution of nonlinear equations.

  5. Effects of Particle Shape and Microstructure on Effective Nonlinear Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ji-Ping; LI Zhen-Ya

    2001-01-01

    We consider a binary granular composite medium, in which two materials have high-order nonlinearities.The effect of particle shape on effective nonlinear response (ENR) is investigated by assuming all the particles to be shaped as uniaxial ellipsoid. We discuss two types of arrangements of particles: 1) parallel axes (Case I); 2) random axes (Case II). During the process of numerical calculation, one component material is assumed to be linear, and two kinds of conductors are assumed to be at high conducting contrast. We find that: 1) the shape effect on ENR is possibly strong; 2) the enhanced ENR can even be obtained by choosing particles of appropriate ellipsoidal shapes; 3) the ENR enhancement predicted by Case I is much stronger than that by Case II.``

  6. Electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves: The critical wave intensity for nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com; Vasiliev, A. A. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V. [LPC2E/CNRS—University of Orleans, Orleans (France); Agapitov, O. V. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we consider high-energy electron scattering and nonlinear trapping by oblique whistler waves via the Landau resonance. We use recent spacecraft observations in the radiation belts to construct the whistler wave model. The main purpose of the paper is to provide an estimate of the critical wave amplitude for which the nonlinear wave-particle resonant interaction becomes more important than particle scattering. To this aim, we derive an analytical expression describing the particle scattering by large amplitude whistler waves and compare the corresponding effect with the nonlinear particle acceleration due to trapping. The latter is much more rare but the corresponding change of energy is substantially larger than energy jumps due to scattering. We show that for reasonable wave amplitudes ∼10–100 mV/m of strong whistlers, the nonlinear effects are more important than the linear and nonlinear scattering for electrons with energies ∼10–50 keV. We test the dependencies of the critical wave amplitude on system parameters (background plasma density, wave frequency, etc.). We discuss the role of obtained results for the theoretical description of the nonlinear wave amplification in radiation belts.

  7. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-05-01

    There are a variety of nonlinear optical effects including higher harmonic generations, photovoltaic effects, and nonlinear Kerr rotations. They are realized by strong light irradiation to materials that results in nonlinear polarizations in the electric field. These are of great importance in studying the physics of excited states of the system as well as for applications to optical devices and solar cells. Nonlinear properties of materials are usually described by nonlinear susceptibilities, which have complex expressions including many matrix elements and energy denominators. On the other hand, a nonequilibrium steady state under an electric field periodic in time has a concise description in terms of the Floquet bands of electrons dressed by photons. We show theoretically, using the Floquet formalism, that various nonlinear optical effects, such as the shift current in noncentrosymmetric materials, photovoltaic Hall response, and photo-induced change of order parameters under the continuous irradiation of monochromatic light, can be described in a unified fashion by topological quantities involving the Berry connection and Berry curvature. We found that vector fields defined with the Berry connections in the space of momentum and/or parameters govern the nonlinear responses. This topological view offers a route to designing nonlinear optical materials.

  8. Higher-order nonlinear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Fedorov, Arkady

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) as well as for a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, the only devices in which the quantum limit for added noise has so far been approached at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) nonlinearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in a Kerr-type nonlinearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction nonlinearity in the linear response regime. We then analyze gain saturation effect for stronger signals within a semiclassical approach. Our results reveal nonlinear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.

  9. Conservation Laws in Higher-Order Nonlinear Optical Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J; Shin, H J; Kim, Jongbae

    1999-01-01

    Conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are studied in the presence of higher-order nonlinear optical effects including the third-order dispersion and the self-steepening. In a context of group theory, we derive a general expression for infinitely many conserved currents and charges of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The first few currents and charges are also presented explicitly. Due to the higher-order effects, conservation laws of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are violated in general. The differences between the types of the conserved currents for the Hirota and the Sasa-Satsuma equations imply that the higher-order terms determine the inherent types of conserved quantities for each integrable cases of the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  10. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models for Repairable Systems Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; KUO Way; Suk Joo BAE

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-effects models, also called random-effects models, are a regression type of analysis which enables the analyst to not only describe the trend over time within each subject, but also to describe the variation among different subjects. Nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a powerful and flexible tool for handling the unbalanced count data. In this paper, nonlinear mixed-effects models are used to analyze the failure data from a repairable system with multiple copies. By using this type of models, statistical inferences about the population and all copies can be made when accounting for copy-to-copy variance. Results of fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models to nine failure-data sets show that the nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a useful tool for analyzing the failure data from multi-copy repairable systems.

  11. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2......+1)-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation is derived and integrated on an Amdahl VP1100 vector processor. Above threshold the resulting probability density agrees with the rate-equation predictions. The case of high-speed modulation is also considered. The nonlinear gain is found to stabilize the laser....

  12. Merkel cells and Meissner's corpuscles in human digital skin display Piezo2 immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mesa, Y; García-Piqueras, J; García, B; Feito, J; Cabo, R; Cobo, J; Vega, J A; García-Suárez, O

    2017-09-14

    The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals is the first step in mechanotransduction in the peripheral sensory nervous system and relies on the presence of mechanically gated ion channels within specialized sensory organs called mechanoreceptors. Piezo2 is a vertebrate stretch-gated ion channel necessary for mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Functionally, it is related to light touch, which has been detected in murine cutaneous Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner-like corpuscles and lanceolate nerve endings. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of Piezo2 in human cutaneous mechanoreceptors has never been investigated. Here, we used simple and double immunohistochemistry to investigate the occurrence of Piezo2 in human digital glabrous skin. Piezo2 immunoreactivity was detected in approximately 80% of morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized (cytokeratin 20(+) , chromogranin A(+) and synaptophisin(+) ) Merkel cells. Most of them were in close contact with Piezo2(-) nerve fibre profiles. Moreover, the axon, but not the lamellar cells, of Meissner's corpuscles was also Piezo2(+) , but other mechanoreceptors, i.e. Pacinian or Ruffini's corpuscles, were devoid of immunoreactivity. Piezo2 was also observed in non-nervous tissue, especially the basal keratinocytes, endothelial cells and sweat glands. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of Piezo2 in cutaneous sensory nerve formations that functionally work as slowly adapting (Merkel cells) and rapidly adapting (Meissner's corpuscles) low-threshold mechanoreceptors and are related to fine and discriminative touch but not to vibration or hard touch. These data offer additional insight into the molecular basis of mechanosensing in humans. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  13. Measurement of Localized Nonlinear Microwave Response of Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Chiang; Palmer, Benjamin; Maiorov, B.

    2005-03-01

    We measure the local harmonic generation from superconducting thin films at microwave frequencies to investigate the intrinsic nonlinear Meissner effect near T/c in zero magnetic field. Both second and third harmonic generation are measured to identify time-reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) and time-reversal symmetric (TRS) nonlinearities. The microscope can measure the local nonlinear response of a bicrystal grain boundary [Sheng-Chiang Lee and Steven M. Anlage, Physica C 408-410, 324 (2004); cond-mat/0408170]. We also performed a systematic doping-dependent study of the nonlinear response and find that the TRS characteristic nonlinearity current density scale follows the doping dependence of the de-pairing critical current density [cond-mat/0405595]. We extract a spontaneous TRSB characteristic current density scale that onsets at T/c, grows with decreasing temperature, and systematically decreases in magnitude (at fixed T/T/c) with under-doping. The origin of this current scale could be Josephson circulating currents or the spontaneous magnetization associated with a TRSB order parameter.

  14. Intra-Channel Nonlinear Effect on Optical PPM Pulse Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Linghao; Jarmo; Takala

    2003-01-01

    PPM encoded Gaussian pulse sequence shows more immunity than non-PPM schemes on optical fiber intra-channel nonlinearity and demonstrated by a numerical study of IXPM and IFWM effects deploying on 100Gb/s single channelsystem.

  15. Effects of Nonlinearities on Induced Voltages across Lumped Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Mazloom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies on induced currents and voltages along overhead conductors due to lightning flashes. In most of these studies lumped loads and components are connected only as line terminations [1]-[4]. In studies where series and shunt connected components are connected along the lines the effects of nonlinear components and effects are disregarded [5]-[8]. This is not always correct as nonlinear effects will introduce high frequencies in the system and affect the current and voltage wave distribution. In this paper the effects of series and shunt components and nonlinear phenomenon on a system representative of the Swedish electrified railway system will be investigated. It is seen how introduction of different linear and nonlinear components affect the propagating voltage wave forms.

  16. Effective nonlinear AC response to composite with spherical particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Gang; Liang Fang-Chu; Wei En-Bo

    2005-01-01

    An effective nonlinear alternative-current (AC) response to granular nonlinear-composite with spherical inclusions embedded in a host medium under the action of an external AC field is investigated by using a perturbation approach.The local potentials of composite at higher harmonics are derived both in a region of local inclusion particles and in a local host region under the action of a sinusoidal field E1 sinωt + E3sin3ωt. An effective nonlinear-response to composite and the relationship between the effective nonlinear-responses at the fundamental frequency and the third harmonics are also studied for the spherical inclusions in a dilute limit.

  17. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  18. Computation of the effective nonlinear mechanical response of lattice materials considering geometrical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNady, Khaled; Goda, Ibrahim; Ganghoffer, Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is presently developed in the framework of geometrical nonlinearities to derive the large strains effective elastic response of network materials viewed as repetitive beam networks. This works extends the small strains homogenization method developed with special emphasis on textile structures in Goda et al. (J Mech Phys Solids 61(12):2537-2565, 2013). A systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of these structures in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the chosen equivalent continuum. Internal scale effects of the initially discrete structure are captured by the consideration of a micropolar effective continuum model. Applications to the large strain response of 3D hexagonal lattices and dry textiles exemplify the powerfulness of the proposed method. The effective mechanical responses obtained for different loadings are validated by FE simulations performed over a representative unit cell.

  19. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  20. Nonlinear Peltier effect and thermoconductance in nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachek, E.N.; Scherbakov, A.G.; Landman, U. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 (United States)

    1999-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of thermal transport in nanowires, in field-free conditions and under influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager{close_quote}s relation between the Peltier and thermopower coefficients. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated. The thermoconductance has a steplike quantized structure similar to the electroconductance and it exhibits deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. The strong dependence of the thermoconductance on the applied magnetic field leads to the possibility of magnetic blockade of thermal transport in wires with a small number of conducting channels. Possible control of thermal transport in nanowires through external parameters, that is applied through finite voltages and magnetic fields, is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Nonlinear Peltier effect and thermoconductance in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi

    1999-10-01

    A theoretical analysis of thermal transport in nanowires, in field-free conditions and under influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation between the Peltier and thermopower coefficients. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated. The thermoconductance has a steplike quantized structure similar to the electroconductance and it exhibits deviations from the Wiedemann-Franz law. The strong dependence of the thermoconductance on the applied magnetic field leads to the possibility of magnetic blockade of thermal transport in wires with a small number of conducting channels. Possible control of thermal transport in nanowires through external parameters, that is applied through finite voltages and magnetic fields, is discussed.

  2. Third Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Craig Steven

    Third order nonlinear optical effects in conjugated materials were studied using two different spectroscopic methods, third harmonic generation and two photon absorption. The third harmonic generation spectra of cis-polyacetylene, trans-polyacetylene, oriented trans-polyacetylene, three isomers of polyaniline, cis and trans-polyacetylene in polyvinyl butyral, polyheptdadiester, polyheptadiketone, and MEH-PPV/polyethylene blends were measured. The nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with structural order, and is enhanced by the presence of a degenerate ground state. The magnitude of the susceptibility reaches as high as 10^{-7} esu, which is sufficient for the creation of all-optical nonlinear devices. The two photon absorption spectrum of oriented transpolyacetylene was measured using nonlinear photothermal deflection. The spectrum reveals directly the Ag state at 1.1 eV in trans-polyacetylene, and reveals another Ag state at higher energy. The magnitude of the two photon absorption is large enough to rule out using trans-polyacetylene in serial all-optical nonlinear devices; all-optical devices made from conjugated polymers must be parallel, not serial. A new figure of merit for nonlinear devices was proposed.

  3. Research of secondary effects in nonlinear radio-location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zinchenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The basic setting of nonlinear radio-locator (NR in the field of technical guarding is the searching, identification and localization of radio-electronic mortgage devices − semiconductor nonlinear scatterers (NS. Statement of the problem. The NR efficiency increasing is possible by minimization of such factors influence as: presence of obstacle structures "metal-oxide-metal" (МОМ-structures in the investigated medium and presence of parasitic directional pattern lobe of emitting antenna. The analysis of nonlinear scatterers secondary unmasking features is considered. All possible regularities of the course of the phenomena and processes in the investigated medium, that are the consequence of nonlinear areas of NS semiconductor structures characteristics change (distortion under sounding radiation, are considered. Principal part. Researches showed that theoretically discovered effective radius change effect of nonlinear products dispersion of nonlinear scatterer response signal at the varying of nonlinear radio-locator sounding signal (SS power-level  allows to investigate the phenomenon of semiconductor structures characteristics of NS distortion at the action of relatively powerful ultrahigh frequency field. The effective radius change of nonlinear products dispersion of NS response signal at varying of exposing signal power-level is experimentally confirmed, which proves the possibility and expediency of the secondary unmasked features practice use for the search, identification and localization of NS in the technical guarding field: −     the area of looping appearance effect on functional dependence of response signal multiple harmonic level  from the sounding signal power-level [3]; −     effect of processes inertiality of semiconductor structures volt-ampere characteristics distortion [4]; −     phenomena of cross-correlation dependence of response signal chaotic state degree from the sounding signal

  4. Controlling ultrafast currents by the non-linear photogalvanic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femto-second optical laser pulses. Ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast DC currents that can be viewed as a non-linear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity I_c ~ 3.8*10^13 W/cm2. We trace this switching to the transition from non-linear polarization currents to the tunneling excitation regime. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. We find the ultrafast current control by the non-linear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to laser-pulse shape and carrier-envelope phase.

  5. Coriolis effects on nonlinear oscillations of rotating cylinders and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effects which moderately large deflections have on the frequency spectrum of rotating rings and cylinders are considered. To develop the requisite solution, a variationally constrained version of the Lindstedt-Poincare procedure is employed. Based on the solution developed, in addition to considering the effects of displacement induced nonlinearity, the role of Coriolis forces is also given special consideration.

  6. Zeno effect and switching of solitons in nonlinear couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaev, F Kh; Konotop, V V; Ögren, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    The Zeno effect is investigated for soliton type pulses in a nonlinear directional coupler with dissipation. The effect consists in increase of the coupler transparency with increase of the dissipative losses in one of the arms. It is shown that localized dissipation can lead to switching...

  7. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  8. Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium Jonson-Mahan theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Freericks, J. K.; Zlatic, V.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier effect to the nonlinear/nonequilibrium regime corresponding to large amplitude (spatially uniform but time-dependent) electric fields. We find a relationship between the expectation values for the charge current and for the part of the heat current that reduces to the Jonson-Mahan theorem in the linear-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related to Joule heating (we are unabl...

  9. Effect of scalar nonlinearity on zonal flow generation by Rossby waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Erokhin, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Tsypin, V. S.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of scalar nonlinearity on the generation of zonal flow by Rossby waves in shallow rotating fluid are considered. Zonal flows are generated via the action of Reynolds stress due to vector nonlinearity together with the effects of scalar nonlinearity. It is shown that the scalar nonlinearity r

  10. Nonlinear dispersion effects in elastic plates: numerical modelling and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, Piotr; Radecki, Rafal; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear features of elastic wave propagation have attracted significant attention recently. The particular interest herein relates to complex wave-structure interactions, which provide potential new opportunities for feature discovery and identification in a variety of applications. Due to significant complexity associated with wave propagation in nonlinear media, numerical modeling and simulations are employed to facilitate design and development of new measurement, monitoring and characterization systems. However, since very high spatio- temporal accuracy of numerical models is required, it is critical to evaluate their spectral properties and tune discretization parameters for compromise between accuracy and calculation time. Moreover, nonlinearities in structures give rise to various effects that are not present in linear systems, e.g. wave-wave interactions, higher harmonics generation, synchronism and | recently reported | shifts to dispersion characteristics. This paper discusses local computational model based on a new HYBRID approach for wave propagation in nonlinear media. The proposed approach combines advantages of the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) and Cellular Automata for Elastodynamics (CAFE). The methods are investigated in the context of their accuracy for predicting nonlinear wavefields, in particular shifts to dispersion characteristics for finite amplitude waves and secondary wavefields. The results are validated against Finite Element (FE) calculations for guided waves in copper plate. Critical modes i.e., modes determining accuracy of a model at given excitation frequency - are identified and guidelines for numerical model parameters are proposed.

  11. Nonlinear Effects in the Amplitude of Cosmological Density Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Fry, J N; Jaffe, Andrew H

    2009-01-01

    The amplitude of cosmological density fluctuations, $\\sigma_8$, has been studied and estimated by analysing many cosmological observations. The values of the estimates vary considerably between the various probes. However, different estimators probe the value of $\\sigma_8$ in different cosmological scales and do not take into account the nonlinear evolution of the parameter at late times. We show that estimates of the amplitude of cosmological density fluctuations derived from cosmic flows are systematically higher than those inferred at early epochs because of nonlinear evolution at later times. Here we derive corrections to the value of $\\sigma_8$ and compare amplitudes after accounting for this effect.

  12. Study On Nonlinear effect In 2D Plastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjie, D.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Unlike the perfect elastic, homogeneous and isotropic model, the properties of real earth media are heterogeneous, plastic and anisotropic to a certain extend. To accurately simulate the strong ground motion in a basin, nonlinear or plastic effect should be considered in simulation. In this study, we use DRP/opt MacCormack non-staggered finite difference method to simulate 2D seismic wave propagation in anisotropic and plastic media. Compared with the traditional staggered grid FDM, this scheme is more accurate and more efficient. We focus on the nonlinear character of the sedimentary basin model. The preliminary ground motion results indicate that the energy of seismic wave has obvious nonlinear dissipation and irreversible deformations which is danger to buildings in the sedimentary basin.

  13. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M GH SARYAZDI

    2017-03-01

    Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of dynamic systems. In this paper, the stable and unstable regions of Mathieu equation are determined for three cases of linear and nonlinear equations using the homotopy perturbation method. The effect of nonlinearity is examined in the unstable zone. The results show that the transition curves of linear Mathieu equation depend on the frequency of the excitation term. However, for nonlinear equations, the curves depend also on initial conditions. In addition, increasing the amplitude of response leads to an increase in the unstable zone.

  14. Effective Dielectric Response of Nonlinear Composites of Coated Metal Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Qing; WU Ya-Min

    2007-01-01

    The effective dielectric response of the composites in which nondilute coated metal particles are randomly embedded in a linear host is investigated. Two types of coated particles are considered, one is that the core is nonlinear, the other is that the shell is nonlinear. We derive general expressions for the effective linear dielectric function and the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and take one step forward to perform numerical calculations on the coated metal/dielectric composites. Numerical results show that the effective linear and nonlinear dielectric responses can be greatly enhanced near the surface plasmon resonant frequency. Moreover, the resonant peaks are found within a range from 0.46ωp to 0.57ωp for spherical particles and from 0.59ωp to 0.7ωp for cylindrical inclusions. In the frequency region, the resonant peak can achieve the maximum, according to an optimal structural parameter and volume fraction. The resonant frequency exhibits a redshift with the increasing structural parameter k or volume fraction f or dimensionality factor D.

  15. Conditional linear-optical measurement schemes generate effective photon nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Lapaire, G G; Dowling, J P; Sipe, J E; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general approach for the analysis of optical state evolution under conditional measurement schemes, and identify the necessary and sufficient conditions for such schemes to simulate unitary evolution on the freely propagating modes. If such unitary evolution holds, an effective photon nonlinearity can be identified. Our analysis extends to conditional measurement schemes more general than those based solely on linear optics.

  16. Spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in photonic bandgap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ishella S.; Bendickson, Jon M.; Tocci, Michael D.; Bloemer, Mark J.; Scalora, Michael; Bowden, Charles M.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    1998-03-01

    We summarize and review our theoretical and experimental work on spontaneous emission and nonlinear effects in one-dimensional, photonic bandgap (PBG) structures. We present a new result: a method for calculating the normal-mode solutions - and hence the spontaneous emission of embedded emitters - in an arbitrary, linear, lossless, one-dimensional, PBG structure.

  17. Measuring the Non-Linear Effects of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Matthes; Regis Barnichon

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify the non-linear effects of structural shocks by using Gaussian basis functions to parametrize impulse response functions. We apply our approach to monetary policy and find that the effect of a monetary intervention depends strongly on (i) the sign of the intervention, (ii) the size of the intervention, and (iii) the state of the business cycle at the time of the intervention. A contractionary policy has a strong adverse effect on output, much stronger t...

  18. Experimental observations of nonlinear effects of the Lamb waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Mingxi; D.C. Price; D.A.Scott

    2004-01-01

    The experimental observations of nonlinear effects of the primary Lamb waves have been reported. Firstly, the brief descriptions have been made for the nonlinear acoustic measurement system developed by Ritec. The detailed considerations for the acoustic experiment system established for observing of the nonlinear effects of the primary Lamb waves have been carried out. Especially, the analysis focuses on the time-domain responses of second harmonics of the primary Lame waves by employing a straightforward model. Based on the existence conditions of strong nonlinearity of the primary Lamb waves, the wedge transducers are designed to generate and detect the primary and secondary waves on the surface of an aluminum sheet. For the different distances between the transmitting and receiving wedge transducers,the amplitudes of the primary waves and the second harmonics on the sheet surface have been measured within a specified frequency range. In the immediate vicinity of the driving frequency,where the primary and the double frequency Lamb waves have the same phase velocities, the quantitative relations of second-harmonic amplitudes with the propagation distance have been analyzed. It is experimentally verified that the second harmonics of the primary Lamb waves do have a cumulative growth effect along with the propagation distance.

  19. Nonlinear dielectric effects in liquids: a guided tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Ranko

    2017-09-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements probe how the polarization of a material responds to the application of an external electric field, providing information on structure and dynamics of the sample. In the limit of small fields and thus linear response, such experiments reveal the properties of the material in the same thermodynamic state it would have in the absence of the external field. At sufficiently high fields, reversible changes in enthalpy and entropy of the system occur even at constant temperature, and these will in turn alter the polarization responses. The resulting nonlinear dielectric effects feature field induced suppressions (saturation) and enhancements (chemical effect) of the amplitudes, as well as time constant shifts towards faster (energy absorption) and slower (entropy reduction) dynamics. This review focuses on the effects of high electric fields that are reversible and observed at constant temperature for single component glass-forming liquids. The experimental challenges involved in nonlinear dielectric experiments, the approaches to separating and identifying the different sources of nonlinear behavior, and the current understanding of how high electric fields affect dielectric materials will be discussed. Covering studies from Debye’s initial approach to the present state-of-the-art, it will be emphasized what insight can be gained from the nonlinear responses that are not available from dielectric relaxation results obtained in the linear regime.

  20. Silica holey fibres: fabrication and nonlinear effects

    OpenAIRE

    Belardi, W.; Monro, T.M.; Lee, J.H.; Yusoff, Z.; Price, J.H.V.; Malinowski, A.; Piper, A; Richardson, D J

    2002-01-01

    Holey fibres (HFs) [1] have emerged as a novel class of optical fibres which can provide completely new optical properties, such as endlessly single mode operation and novel dispersion properties as anomalous dispersion below 1.3µm, broadband flat dispersion and highly normal dispersion at 1.55µm. Moreover by changing the HF parameters (i.e. hole and core size), it is possible to fabricate HFs with an effective area so high as 800µm2 or so low as approximately 1µm2 [2]. A holey fibre perform ...

  1. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  2. Effects of noise on the phase dynamics of nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffertshofer, A.

    1998-07-01

    Various properties of human rhythmic movements have been successfully modeled using nonlinear oscillators. However, despite some extensions towards stochastical differential equations, these models do not comprise different statistical features that can be explained by nondynamical statistics. For instance, one observes certain lag one serial correlation functions for consecutive periods during periodic motion. This work aims at an extension of dynamical descriptions in terms of stochastically forced nonlinear oscillators such as ξ¨+ω20ξ=n(ξ,ξ˙)+q(ξ,ξ˙)Ψ(t), where the nonlinear function n(ξ,ξ˙) generates a limit cycle and Ψ(t) denotes colored noise that is multiplied via q(ξ,ξ˙). Nonlinear self-excited systems have been frequently investigated, particularly emphasizing stability properties and amplitude evolution. Thus, one can focus on the effects of noise on the frequency or phase dynamics that can be analyzed by use of time-dependent Fokker-Planck equations. It can be shown that noise multiplied via polynoms of arbitrary finite order cannot generate the desired period correlation but predominantly results in phase diffusion. The system is extended in terms of forced oscillators in order to find a minimal model producing the required error correction.

  3. Nonlinear Resonance Islands and Modulational Effects in a Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd Jeffrey [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We examine both one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. We also examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, we examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three paramders: the strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. These. models are compared to particle tracking with excellent agreement. The tune modulation model is also successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are also examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. We present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking; therefore in this circumstance such a model is inadequate. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and we make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment.

  4. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC Ⅱ. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations.

  5. Cosmology in nonlinear multidimensional gravity and the Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolokhov, S. V.; Bronnikov, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the possible cosmological models in Kaluza-Klein-type multidimensional gravity with a curvature-nonlinear Lagrangian and a spherical extra space, taking into account the Casimir energy. First, we find a minimum of the effective potential of extra dimensions, leading to a physically reasonable value of the effective cosmological constant in our 4D space-time. In this model, the huge Casimir energy density is compensated by a fine-tuned contribution of the curvature-nonlinear terms in the original action. Second, we present a viable model with slowly evolving extra dimensions and power-law inflation in our space-time. In both models, the results formulated in Einstein and Jordan frames are compared.

  6. New approximation for the effective energy of nonlinear conducting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiansky, Leonid; Torquato, Salvatore

    1998-07-01

    Approximations for the effective energy and, thus, effective conductivity of nonlinear, isotropic conducting dispersions are developed. This is accomplished by using the Ponte Castaneda variational principles [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 340, 1321 (1992)] and the Torquato approximation [J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3790 (1985)] of the effective conductivity of corresponding linear composites. The results are obtained for dispersions with superconducting or insulating inclusions, and, more generally, for phases with a power-law energy. It is shown that the new approximations lie within the best available rigorous upper and lower bounds on the effective energy.

  7. Nonlinear effect induced in thermally poled glass waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-tao

    2006-01-01

    Thermally poled germanium-doped channel waveguides are presented. Multilayer waveguides containing a silicon oxynitride layer were used as charge trapper in this investigation on the effect of the internal field inside the waveguide. Compared to waveguides without the trapping layer, experimental results showed that the induced linear electro-optic (EO) coefficient increases about 20% after poling, suggesting strongly that the internal field is relatively enhanced, and showed it is a promising means for improving nonlinearity by poling in waveguides.

  8. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS ON EXPONENTIAL NONLINEAR MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗序平; 赵俊; 王海斌; 韦博成

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a unified diagnostic method for exponential nonlinear models with random effects based upon the joint likelihood given by Robinson in 1991.The authors show that the case deletion model is equivalent to mean shift outlier model.From this point of view,several diagnostic measures,such as Cook distance,score statistics are derived.The local influence measure of Cook is also presented.Numerical example illustrates that our method is available.

  9. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS IN NONLINEAR MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiBocheng; ZhongXuping

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper,a unified diagnostic method for the nonlinear models with random ef-fects based upon the joint likelihood given by Robinson in 1991 is presented. It is shown that thecase deletion model is equivalent to the mean shift outlier model. From this point of view ,sever-al diagnostic measures, such as Cook distance, score statistics are derived. The local influencemeasure of Cook is also presented. A numerical example illustrates that the method is avail-able

  10. In-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy of Meissner's corpuscles in diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creigh, Peter D; McDermott, Michael P; Sowden, Janet E; Ferguson, Michele; Herrmann, David N

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of Meissner's corpuscles (MC) in diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). Forty-three adults with diabetes and 21 control subjects underwent RCM of MC density at the fingertip of digit V, thenar eminence (TE), and arch of the foot, ankle skin biopsy for epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD), electrophysiological studies, monofilament threshold testing, and timed vibration at the toe. Subjects with diabetes were subdivided into groups with and without clinical DSP using the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) case definition and neuropathy outcomes were compared across groups. Both diabetic groups (with and without AAN clinical DSP criteria) had objective evidence of peripheral sensory involvement using conventional sensory measures, although those with clinical DSP criteria had greater abnormalities. MC densities were lower in the entire diabetic group at the TE and digit V relative to controls. MC densities at all imaging sites were associated with corresponding conventional sensory measures. MC densities were reduced in subjects without AAN clinical DSP criteria at the TE and digit V compared to controls whereas conventional upper limb sensory measures did not differ between these groups. In-vivo RCM of MC density at digit V is a non-invasive, painless, objective marker in diabetes that offers a window into early large fiber sensory nerve terminal loss. Further studies are needed to determine whether RCM of MCs can identify quantitative changes in DSP associated with disease progression or treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Controlling ultrafast currents by the nonlinear photogalvanic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Georg; Sato, Shunsuke A.; Floss, Isabella; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femtosecond optical laser pulses. Ab initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast direct currents that can be viewed as a nonlinear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity of about {I}{{c}}˜ 3× {10}13 W cm-2. We trace this switching to the transition from nonlinear polarisation currents to the tunnelling excitation regime. The latter is found to be sensitive to the relative orientation between laser polarisation and chemical bonds. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. While two temporally separated laser pulses lead to currents along one direction their temporal overlap can reverse the current. We find the ultrafast current control by the nonlinear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to the laser-pulse shape and the carrier-envelope phase.

  12. Non-linear effects for cylindrical gravitational two-soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Using a cylindrical soliton solution to the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equation, we study non-linear effects of gravitational waves such as Faraday rotation and time shift phenomenon. In the previous work, we analyzed the single-soliton solution constructed by the Pomeransky's improved inverse scattering method. In this work, we construct a new two-soliton solution with complex conjugate poles, by which we can avoid light-cone singularities unavoidable in a single soliton case. In particular, we compute amplitudes of such non-linear gravitational waves and time-dependence of the polarizations. Furthermore, we consider the time shift phenomenon for soliton waves, which means that a wave packet can propagate at slower velocity than light.

  13. Nonlinear thermokinetic phenomena due to the Seebeck effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2014-07-22

    We propose a novel mechanism to produce nonlinear thermokinetic vortex flows around a circular cylinder with ideally high thermal conductivity in an electrolyte. That is, the nonlinear thermokinetic slip velocity, which is proportional to the square of the temperature gradient [∇(T)0(2)], is derived based on the electrolyte Seebeck effect, heat conduction equation, and Helmholtz–Smoluchowski formula. Different from conventional linear thermokinetic theory, our theory predicts that the inversion of the temperature gradient does not change the direction of the thermokinetic flows and thus a Janus particle using this phenomenon can move to the both hotter and colder regions in a temperature gradient field by changing the direction of its dielectric end. Our findings bridge the gap between the electro- and thermo-kinetic phenomena and provide an integrated physical viewpoint for the interface science.

  14. Anharmonic effects in simple physical models: introducing undergraduates to nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Given the pervasive character of nonlinearity throughout the physical universe, a case is made for introducing undergraduate students to its consequences and signatures earlier rather than later. The dynamics of two well-known systems—a spring and a pendulum—are reviewed when the standard textbook linearising assumptions are relaxed. Some qualitative effects of nonlinearity can be anticipated from symmetry (e.g., inspection of potential energy functions), and further physical insight gained by applying a simple successive-approximation method that might be taught in parallel with courses on classical mechanics, ordinary differential equations, and computational physics. We conclude with a survey of how these ideas have been deployed on programmes at a UK university.

  15. Doppler effect of nonlinear waves and superspirals in oscillatory media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, Lutz; Torcini, Alessandro; Bär, Markus

    2003-09-01

    Nonlinear waves emitted from a moving source are studied. A meandering spiral in a reaction-diffusion medium provides an example in which waves originate from a source exhibiting a back-and-forth movement in a radial direction. The periodic motion of the source induces a Doppler effect that causes a modulation in wavelength and amplitude of the waves ("superspiral"). Using direct simulations as well as numerical nonlinear analysis within the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, we show that waves subject to a convective Eckhaus instability can exhibit monotonic growth or decay as well as saturation of these modulations depending on the perturbation frequency. Our findings elucidate recent experimental observations concerning superspirals and their decay to spatiotemporal chaos.

  16. Negative and nonlinear magnetoresistance effect in silicon strip

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fangcong; Guo, Hui; Fan, Xiaolong; Li, Zhankui

    2016-01-01

    Both negative magnetoresistance and nonlinear magnetoresisitance were observed in silicon strip nuclear radiation detector in room temperature if we applied high magnetic field intensity in different direction. This result is different with former report. We believe this is the result of coaction of high electric field (Gunn effect) and high magnetic field, or because of the variation of number of carriers and the carriers mobility. The weak localization and Landau energy levels also affect the magnetoresistance. Different crystal orientations have different energy band structures. Complex band structures lead complex carriers mobility plus Landau energy levels. So the magnetoresisitance effect is anisotropy.

  17. Power-transfer effects in monomode optical nonlinear waveguiding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Z; Jerominek, H; Patela, S; Tremblay, R; Delisle, C

    1987-09-01

    We describe power-transfer effects, over a certain threshold, among constituents of planar waveguiding structures consisting of an optical linear layer deposited onto a nonlinear substrate (CdS(x)Se(1-x)-doped glass). Proper selection of the thickness of the linear waveguiding film and the refractive index of the linear cladding allows one to obtain optical transistor action and to construct all-optical AND, OR, NOT, and XOR logic gates. The effects appear for the TE(0) guided mode.

  18. Modeling and study of nonlinear effects in electrodynamic shakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Abhishek; Tiwari, Nachiketa

    2017-02-01

    An electrodynamic shaker is inherently a nonlinear electro-mechanical system. In this work, we have developed a lumped parameter model for the entire electromechanical system, developed an approach to non-destructively determine these parameters, and predict the nonlinear response of the shaker. This predicted response has been validated using experimental data. Through such an approach, we have been able to accurately predict the resulting distortions in the response of the shaker and other nonlinear effects like DC offset in the displacement response. Our approach offers a key advantage vis-à-vis other approaches which rely on techniques involving Volterra Series expansions or techniques based on blackbox models like neural networks, which is that in our approach, apart from predicting the response of the shaker, the model parameters obtained have a physical significance and changes in the parameters can be directly mapped to modification in key design parameters of the shaker. The proposed approach is also advantageous in one more way: it requires measurement of only four parameters, voltage, current, displacement and acceleration for estimating shaker model parameters non-destructively. The proposed model can be used for the design of linearization controllers, prototype testing and simulation of new shaker designs as well as for performance prediction of shakers under testing conditions.

  19. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ-1.5 or κ-2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.

  20. Wave-packet dynamics in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices: local vs. nonlocal nonlinear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Phi [Central University of Construction, Tuy Hoa (Viet Nam); Kim, Ki Hong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    We study numerically the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger lattices with both local and nonlocal nonlinearities. Using the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation generalized by including a nonlocal nonlinear term, we calculate four different physical quantities as a function of time, which are the return probability to the initial excitation site, the participation number, the root-mean-square displacement from the excitation site and the spatial probability distribution. We investigate the influence of the nonlocal nonlinearity on the delocalization to self-trapping transition induced by the local nonlinearity. In the non-self-trapping region, we find that the nonlocal nonlinearity compresses the soliton width and slows down the spreading of the wave packet. In the vicinity of the delocalization to self-trapping transition point and inside the self-trapping region, we find that a new kind of self-trapping phenomenon, which we call partial self-trapping, takes place when the nonlocal nonlinearity is sufficiently strong.

  1. Current-induced nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in strontium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavislyak, I. V.; Popov, M. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the observation of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects at room temperature due to a dc current in the ferrimagnetic M -type strontium hexaferrite platelets. Utilizing microwave measurement techniques and data on the shift in magnetic mode frequencies, it was found that a dc current along the hexagonal c axis resulted in a significant decrease in the saturation magnetization and an increase in the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy field. These changes in the magnetic order parameters were directly proportional to the square of applied electric field and were found to be much higher than variations due to Joule heating. A phenomenological theory that takes into account the current-induced magnetobielectric (MBE) effects is proposed. Expressions for coupling coefficients for MBE effects have been obtained and have been calculated from the variations in magnetic order parameters. The electric field E (or current) tuning of the magnetic modes in Sr M reported here is orders of magnitude stronger than strain mediated E tuning of magnetic resonance in hexaferrite-ferroelectric composites. The nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite, therefore, open up an avenue for the realization of E -tunable broadband microwave and millimeter wave ferrite signal processing devices such as resonators and filters.

  2. Nonlinear Magnetoimpedance Effect in FeCoNi Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. V. Kurlyandskaya; H. Yakabchuk; E. Kisker; N. G. Bebenin; H. García-Miquel; M. Vázquez; V. O. Vas′kovskiy

    2001-01-01

    The very high (up to 820% of the magnetoimpedance ratio) and sensitive nonlinear giant magnetoimpedance effect has been studied in the FeCo1Ni magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu(3%)Be nonmagnetic wirefor frequencies from 1-10MHz. Special annealing was carried out in order to induce the magnetic anisotropy. The high harmonic generation was observed and the harmonics show larger variations with the external magnetic field than the fundamental frequency. The super high sensitivity of the harmonics is promising as regards the increase of the sensitivity of magnetoimpedance sensors.

  3. Effects of Analog-to-Digital Converter Nonlinearities on Radar Range-Doppler Maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dubbert, Dale F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tise, Bertice L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Radar operation, particularly Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar modes, are very sensitive to anomalous effects of system nonlinearities. These throw off harmonic spurs that are sometimes detected as false alarms. One significant source of nonlinear behavior is the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). One measure of its undesired nonlinearity is its Integral Nonlinearity (INL) specification. We examine in this report the relationship of INL to GMTI performance.

  4. Nonlinear cosmological consistency relations and effective matter stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Hollenstein, Lukas; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kunz, Martin, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@unige.ch, E-mail: rajeev.jain@unige.ch, E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, Quai E. Ansermet 24, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2012-05-01

    We propose a fully nonlinear framework to construct consistency relations for testing generic cosmological scenarios using the evolution of large scale structure. It is based on the covariant approach in combination with a frame that is purely given by the metric, the normal frame. As an example, we apply this framework to the ΛCDM model, by extending the usual first order conditions on the metric potentials to second order, where the two potentials start to differ from each other. We argue that working in the normal frame is not only a practical choice but also helps with the physical interpretation of nonlinear dynamics. In this frame, effective pressures and anisotropic stresses appear at second order in perturbation theory, even for ''pressureless'' dust. We quantify their effect and compare them, for illustration, to the pressure of a generic clustering dark energy fluid and the anisotropic stress in the DGP model. Besides, we also discuss the effect of a mismatch of the potentials on the determination of galaxy bias.

  5. Finite-size-induced stability of a permanent magnet levitating over a superconductor in the Meissner state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Garcia-Prada, Juan Carlos

    2007-10-01

    The force between a magnetic dipole and a finite superconductor in the Meissner state (H

  6. Levitation force between a small magnet and a superconducting sample of finite size in the Meissner state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Jorge; Sosa, Victor

    1999-10-01

    The repulsion force between a cylindrical superconductor in the Meissner state and a small permanent magnet was calculated under the assumption that the superconductor was formed by a continuous array of dipoles distributed in the finite volume of the sample. After summing up the dipole-dipole interactions with the magnet, we obtained analytical expressions for the levitation force as a function of the superconductor-magnet distance, radius and thickness of the sample. We analyzed two configurations, with the magnet in a horizontal or vertical orientation.

  7. Finite temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Soltani, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a Lagrangian, electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained and their relation to coupling functions are determined. Finally, the Casimir energy and force in the presence of a nonlinear medium at finite temperature is calculated.

  8. Thermopiezoelectric and Nonlinear Electromechanical Effects in Quantum Dots and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil; Bahrami-Samani, M.; Melnik, R. V. N.; Toropova, M.; Zu, Jean

    2010-01-01

    We report thermopiezoelectric (TPE) and nonlinear electromechanical (NEM) effects in quantum dots (QD) and nanowires (NW) analyzed with a model based on coupled thermal, electric and mechanical balance equations. Several representative examples of low dimensional semiconductor structures (LDSNs) are studied. We focus mainly on GaN/AlN QDs and CdTe/ZnTe NWs which we analyze for different geometries. GaN/AlN nano systems are observed to be more sensitive to thermopiezoelectric effects than those of CdTe/ZnTe. Furthermore, noticeable qualitative and quantitative variations in electromechanical fields are observed as a consequence of taking into account NEM effects, in particular in GaN/AlN QDs.

  9. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  10. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  11. Research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of nonlinear optical materials based on the effect of second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Xuan; Wei, Yong; Huang, Cheng-Hui; Zhuang, Feng-Jiang; Zhang, Ge; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper the authors report a research on testing the nonlinear optical performance of optical materials in visible and infrared band. Based on the second order nonlinear optic principle and the photoelectric signal detection technology, the authors have proposed a new testing scheme in which a infrared OPO laser and a method for separating the beams arising from frequency matching and the light produced by other optical effects were used. The OPO laser is adopted as light source to avoid the error of measurement caused by absorption because the double frequency signal of the material is in the transmittance band Our research work includes testing system composition, operational principle and experimental method. The experimental results of KTP, KDP, AGS tested by this method were presented. In the experiment several new infrared non-linear materials were found. This method possesses the merits of good stability and reliability, high sensitivity, simple operation and good reproducibility, which can effectively make qualitative and semi-quantitative test for optical material's nonlinear optical properties from visible to infrared. This work provides an important test -method for the research on second order nonlinear optical materials in visible, infrared and ultraviolet bands.

  12. New Relativistic Effects in the Dynamics of Nonlinear Hydrodynamical Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, L

    2002-01-01

    In Newtonian and relativistic hydrodynamics the Riemann problem consists of calculating the evolution of a fluid which is initially characterized by two states having different values of uniform rest-mass density, pressure and velocity. When the fluid is allowed to relax, one of three possible wave-patterns is produced, corresponding to the propagation in opposite directions of two nonlinear hydrodynamical waves. New effects emerge in a special relativistic Riemann problem when velocities tangential to the initial discontinuity surface are present. We show that a smooth transition from one wave-pattern to another can be produced by varying the initial tangential velocities while otherwise maintaining the initial states unmodified. These special relativistic effects are produced by the coupling through the relativistic Lorentz factors and do not have a Newtonian counterpart.

  13. Estimation of Nonlinear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Individual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a generalized method of moments (GMM based estimation for dynamic panel data models with individual specific fixed effects and threshold effects simultaneously. We extend Hansen’s (Hansen, 1999 original setup to models including endogenous regressors, specifically, lagged dependent variables. To address the problem of endogeneity of these nonlinear dynamic panel data models, we prove that the orthogonality conditions proposed by Arellano and Bond (1991 are valid. The threshold and slope parameters are estimated by GMM, and asymptotic distribution of the slope parameters is derived. Finite sample performance of the estimation is investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. It shows that the threshold and slope parameter can be estimated accurately and also the finite sample distribution of slope parameters is well approximated by the asymptotic distribution.

  14. The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI XinYuan; LIU SiMin; GUO Ru; LU Yi; GAO YuanMei; LIU ZhaoHong; HUANG ChunFu; ZHANG XiaoHua; ZHU Nan; XU JingJun

    2009-01-01

    An overview of our research group's experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlateddegree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one-or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time,the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.

  15. The linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An overview of our research group’s experimental and theoretical developments is provided on the linear and nonlinear optical effects of white light since 2003. Their work includes the experimental researches on the white light one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons and the waveguides and directional couplers induced by them, the circular and elliptic white-light dark spatial solitons and the white-light photorefractive phase masks, two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices and the applications of the white-light dark spatial solitons in the digital image transmission field, the interaction between the two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons to enhance or to improve the correlated degree of the white light through the interaction between the white-light beam and coherent dark spatial solitons, the interaction between the one- or two-dimensional white-light dark spatial solitons and the two-dimensional white-light photonic lattices, respectively. We also numerically simulate the interaction between two or more partially incoherent bright spatial solitons and the white bright spatial soliton pairs in the saturated logarithmic nonlinear medium. We have observed experimentally for the first time, the modulation instability of the coherent light and white light, respectively, in self-defocusing medium and so on.

  16. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  17. Impact of nonlinear effective interactions on GFT quantum gravity condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Pithis, Andreas G A; Tomov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical analysis of effectively interacting Group Field Theory (GFT) models in the context of the GFT quantum gravity condensate analogue of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for real Bose-Einstein condensates including combinatorially local interaction terms. Thus we go beyond the usually considered construction for free models. More precisely, considering such interactions in a weak regime, we find solutions for which the expectation value of the number operator N is finite, as in the free case. When tuning the interaction to the strongly nonlinear regime, however, we obtain solutions for which N grows and eventually blows up, which is reminiscent of what one observes for real Bose-Einstein condensates, where a strong interaction regime can only be realized at high density. This behaviour suggests the breakdown of the Bogoliubov ansatz for quantum gravity condensates and the need for non-Fock representations to describe the system when the condensate constituents are strongly correlated. Furthe...

  18. The chaotic effects in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Shen, Zhenqi; Ruan, Jianhong

    2016-10-01

    The corrections of gluon fusion to the DGLAP and BFKL equations are discussed in a united partonic framework. The resulting nonlinear evolution equations are the well-known GLR-MQ-ZRS equation and a new evolution equation. Using the available saturation models as input, we find that the new evolution equation has the chaos solution with positive Lyapunov exponents in the perturbative range. We predict a new kind of shadowing caused by chaos, which blocks the QCD evolution in a critical small x range. The blocking effect in the evolution equation may explain the Abelian gluon assumption and even influence our expectations to the projected Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) and the upgrade (CppC) in a circular e+e- collider (SppC).

  19. Effective action and vacuum expectations in nonlinear $\\sigma$ model

    CERN Document Server

    Fayzullaev, B A

    2015-01-01

    The equations for effective action for nonlinear $\\sigma$ model are derived using DeWitt method in two forms - for generator of vertex parts $\\Gamma$ and for generator of weakly connected parts $W$. Loop-expansion solutions to these equations are found. It is shown that vacuum expectation values for various quantities including divergence of a N\\"{o}ther current, trace of the energy-momentum tensor and so on, can be calculated by this method. Also it is shown that vacuum expectation to the sigma-field is determined by an explicit combination of tree Green function and classical solution. It is shown that the limit when coupling constant tends to zero is singular one.

  20. Crystal growth in fluid flow: Nonlinear response effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. L.; Herlach, D. M.; Voigtmann, Th.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate crystal-growth kinetics in the presence of strong shear flow in the liquid, using molecular-dynamics simulations of a binary-alloy model. Close to the equilibrium melting point, shear flow always suppresses the growth of the crystal-liquid interface. For lower temperatures, we find that the growth velocity of the crystal depends nonmonotonically on the shear rate. Slow enough flow enhances the crystal growth, due to an increased particle mobility in the liquid. Stronger flow causes a growth regime that is nearly temperature-independent, in striking contrast to what one expects from the thermodynamic and equilibrium kinetic properties of the system, which both depend strongly on temperature. We rationalize these effects of flow on crystal growth as resulting from the nonlinear response of the fluid to strong shearing forces.

  1. Dispersion and nonlinear effects in OFDM-RoF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasson, Bader H.; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.

    2010-08-01

    The radio-over-fiber (RoF) network has been a proven technology to be the best candidate for the wireless-access technology, and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique has been established as the core technology in the physical layer of next generation wireless communication system, as a result OFDM-RoF has drawn attentions worldwide and raised many new research topics recently. At the present time, the trend of information industry is towards mobile, wireless, digital and broadband. The next generation network (NGN) has motivated researchers to study higher-speed wider-band multimedia communication to transmit (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) at a higher speed. The NGN would offer services that would necessitate broadband networks with bandwidth higher than 2Mbit/s per radio channel. Many new services emerged, such as Internet Protocol TV (IPTV), High Definition TV (HDTV), mobile multimedia and video stream media. Both speed and capacity have been the key objectives in transmission. In the meantime, the demand for transmission bandwidth increased at a very quick pace. The coming of 4G and 5G era will provide faster data transmission and higher bit rate and bandwidth. Taking advantages of both optical communication and wireless communication, OFDM Radio over Fiber (OFDM-RoF) system is characterized by its high speed, large capacity and high spectral efficiency. However, up to the present there are some problems to be solved, such as dispersion and nonlinearity effects. In this paper we will study the dispersion and nonlinearity effects and their elimination in OFDM-radio-over-fiber system.

  2. Characterization of nonlinear ultrasonic effects using the dynamic wavelet fingerprint technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongtao; Jiao, Jingpin; Meng, Xiangji; He, Cunfu; Wu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    An improved dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) technique was developed to characterize nonlinear ultrasonic effects. The white area in the fingerprint was used as the nonlinear feature to quantify the degree of damage. The performance of different wavelet functions, the effect of scale factor and white subslice ratio on the nonlinear feature extraction were investigated, and the optimal wavelet function, scale factor and white subslice ratio for maximum damage sensitivity were determined. The proposed DWFP method was applied to the analysis of experimental signals obtained from nonlinear ultrasonic harmonic and wave-mixing experiments. It was demonstrated that the proposed DWFP method can be used to effectively extract nonlinear features from the experimental signals. Moreover, the proposed nonlinear fingerprint coefficient was sensitive to micro cracks and correlated well with the degree of damage.

  3. Temperature effects in a nonlinear model of monolayer Scheibe aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Christiansen, Peter Leth; If, F.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamical model of molecular monolayers arranged in Scheibe aggregates is derived from a proper Hamiltonian. Thermal fluctuations of the phonons are included. The resulting equation for the excitons is the two dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with noise. Two limits...

  4. Nonlinear vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  5. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  6. Reduction of nonlinear patterning effects in SOA-based All-optical Switches using Optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Skaguchi, J.

    2005-01-01

    We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches.......We explain theoretically, and demonstrate and quantify experimentally, how appropriate filtering can reduce the dominant nonlinear patterning effect, which limits the performance of differential-mode SOA-based switches....

  7. Explanation of the inverse Doppler effect observed in nonlinear transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W

    2005-05-27

    The theory of the inverse Doppler effect recently observed in magnetic nonlinear transmission lines is developed. We explain the crucial role of the backward spatial harmonic in the occurrence of an inverse Doppler effect and draw analogies of the magnetic nonlinear transmission line to the backward wave oscillator.

  8. Localized Effects in the Nonlinear Behavior of Sandwich Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostig, Y.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2005-01-01

    nonlinear analysis approach incorporates the effects of the vertical flexibility of the core, and it is based on the approach of the High-order Sandwich Panel Theory (HSAPT). The results demonstrate that the effects of localized loads, when taken into the geometrically nonlinear domain, change the response...

  9. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR EFFECTIVE NONLINEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical methods have been reported to deal with nonlinear problems of composite materials but the accuracy is not so good. In the meantime, a lot of nonlinear problems are difficult to be managed by the theoretical methods. The present study aims to use the developed method, the random microstructure finite element method, to deal with these nonlinear problems. In this paper, the random microstructure finite element method is used to deal with all three kinds of nonlinear property problems of composite materials. The analyzed results suggest that the influences of the nonlinear phenomena on the effective properties of composite materials are significant and the random microstructure finite element method is an efficient tool to investigate the nonlinear problems.

  10. An effective analytic approach for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junchi; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liang, Songxin

    2016-08-01

    Nonlinear fractional differential equations are widely used for modelling problems in applied mathematics. A new analytic approach with two parameters c1 and c2 is first proposed for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. These parameters are used to improve the accuracy of the resulting series approximations. It turns out that much more accurate series approximations are obtained by choosing proper values of c1 and c2. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the new method, two typical fractional partial differential equations, the nonlinear gas dynamics equation and the nonlinear KdV-Burgers equation, are solved.

  11. Effect of the counter cation on the third order nonlinearity in anionic Au dithiolene complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, K.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Derkowska, B.; Ranganathan, A.; Batail, P.; Gindre, D.; Sahraoui, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present the third order nonlinear optical investigation of two gold complexes, which differ by the nature of the counter cations. The impact of the different design in the architecture through a set of hydrogen bonds in the case of Au-Mel of the systems on the nonlinearity has been studied by means of the Z-scan setup under 532 nm, 30 ps laser excitation, allowing for the determination of the nonlinear absorption and refraction of the samples. Significant modification of the nonlinear optical response between the two metal complexes has been found suggesting a clear effect of the counter cation.

  12. Limiting effects of geometrical and optical nonlinearities on the squeezing in optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djorwé, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon); Nana Engo, S.G., E-mail: nanaengo@gmail.com [Laboratory of Photonics, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Talla Mbé, J.H.; Woafo, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon)

    2013-08-01

    In recent experiments, the re-thermalization time of the mechanical resonator is stated as the limiting factor for quantum applications of optomechanical systems. To explain the origin of this limitation, an analytical nonlinear investigation supported by the recent successful experimental laser cooling parameters is carried out in this work. To this end, the effects of geometrical and the optical nonlinearities on the squeezing are studied and are in a good agreement with the experimental results. It appears that highly squeezed state are generated where these nonlinearities are minimized and that high nonlinearities are limiting factors to reach the quantum ground state.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of wind waves: multifractal phase/time effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Mellen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bispectral coherence method, phase/time analysis of analytic signals is another promising avenue for the investigation of phase effects in wind waves. Frequency spectra of phase fluctuations obtained from both sea and laboratory experiments follow an F-β power law over several decades, suggesting that a fractal description is appropriate. However, many similar natural phenomena have been shown to be multifractal. Universal multifractals are quantified by two additional parameters: the Lévy index 0 α 2 for the type of multifractal and the co-dimension 0 C1 1 for intermittence. The three parameters are a full statistical measure the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis of laboratory flume data is reported here and the results indicate that the phase fluctuations are 'hard multifractal' (α > 1. The actual estimate is close to the limiting value α = 2,  which is consistent with Kolmogorov's lognormal model for turbulent fluctuations. Implications for radar and sonar backscattering from the sea surface are briefly considered.

  14. Nonlinear turbulence models for predicting strong curvature effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-lei; MA Hui-yang; HUANG Yu-ning

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the characteristics of turbulent flows with strong streamline curvature, such as flows in turbomachines, curved channel flows, flows around airfoils and buildings, is of great importance in engineering applicatious and poses a very practical challenge for turbulence modeling. In this paper, we analyze qualitatively the curvature effects on the structure of turbulence and conduct numerical simulations of a turbulent U- duct flow with a number of turbulence models in order to assess their overall performance. The models evaluated in this work are some typical linear eddy viscosity turbulence models, nonlinear eddy viscosity turbulence models (NLEVM) (quadratic and cubic), a quadratic explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) and a Reynolds stress model (RSM) developed based on the second-moment closure. Our numerical results show that a cubic NLEVM that performs considerably well in other benchmark turbulent flows, such as the Craft, Launder and Suga model and the Huang and Ma model, is able to capture the major features of the highly curved turbulent U-duct flow, including the damping of turbulence near the convex wall, the enhancement of turbulence near the concave wall, and the subsequent turbulent flow separation. The predictions of the cubic models are quite close to that of the RSM, in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, which suggests that these inodels may be employed to simulate the turbulent curved flows in engineering applications.

  15. Stochastic nonlinear mixed effects: a metformin case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzuka, Brett; Chittenden, Jason; Monteleone, Jonathan; Tran, Hien

    2016-02-01

    In nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling, the intra-individual variability is a collection of errors due to assay sensitivity, dosing, sampling, as well as model misspecification. Utilizing stochastic differential equations (SDE) within the NLME framework allows the decoupling of the measurement errors from the model misspecification. This leads the SDE approach to be a novel tool for model refinement. Using Metformin clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data, the process of model development through the use of SDEs in population PK modeling was done to study the dynamics of absorption rate. A base model was constructed and then refined by using the system noise terms of the SDEs to track model parameters and model misspecification. This provides the unique advantage of making no underlying assumptions about the structural model for the absorption process while quantifying insufficiencies in the current model. This article focuses on implementing the extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter in an NLME framework for parameter estimation and model development, comparing the methodologies, and illustrating their challenges and utility. The Kalman filter algorithms were successfully implemented in NLME models using MATLAB with run time differences between the ODE and SDE methods comparable to the differences found by Kakhi for their stochastic deconvolution.

  16. Nonlinear effects in a conceptual multilayer cloud model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wacker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As conceptual model for a cloud a system is considered which is open for condensate mass transport and subject to internal processes such as cloud microphysical transformation and vertical condensate transport. The effects of microphysical processes are represented in parameterized form and the system is divided into two layers to account for the vertical structure. The evolution is mathematically described in terms of four coupled nonlinear ODEs; the prognostic variables are the mass concentrations of cloud water as well as precipitation condensate in each of the layers. In the absence of vertical velocity the evolution in the lower layer is triggered by the evolution in the upper layer. In the presence of an upwind, the dynamics in both layers is mutually coupled. Depending on the chosen parameter values up to four steady states are found. When varying the parameter upwind velocity, three regimes are distinguished: For week upwind the long-term evolution is steered by the external sources; for stronger upwind the cloud condensate is blown out of the cloud in the final state and does not contribute to formation of precipitation; for intermediate upwind multiple steady state solution branches arise which characterize the transition between those two regimes.

  17. Weak nonlinear surface-charging effects in electrolytic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2003-11-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full nonlinear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the renormalization of the theory and apply it to a triple-layer model for a thin film with Stern layer of thickness h. For this model we give expressions for the surface charge sigma(L) and the disjoining pressure P(d)(L) and show their dependence on the parameters. The influence of image charges naturally arises in the formalism, and we show that predictions depend strongly on h because of their effects. In particular, we show that the surface charge vanishes as the film thickness L-->0. The fluctuation terms in this class of theories contribute a Casimir-like attraction across the film. Although this attraction is well known to be negligible compared with the mean-field component for model electrolytic films with no surface-charge regulation, in the model studied here these fluctuations also affect the surface-charge regulation leading to a fluctuation component in the disjoining pressure which has the same behavior as the mean-field component even for large film thickness.

  18. Effects of introducing nonlinear components for a random excited hybrid energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoya; Gao, Shiqiao; Liu, Haipeng; Guan, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    This work is mainly devoted to discussing the effects of introducing nonlinear components for a hybrid energy harvester under random excitation. For two different types of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters subjected to random excitation, the analytical solutions of the mean output power, voltage and current are derived from Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. Monte Carlo simulation exhibits qualitative agreement with FP theory, showing that load values and excitation’s spectral density have an effect on the total mean output power, piezoelectric (PE) power and electromagnetic power. Nonlinear components affect output characteristics only when the PE capacitance of the hybrid energy harvester is non-negligible. Besides, it is also demonstrated that for this type of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters under random excitation, introducing nonlinear components can improve output performances effectively.

  19. Effective Response of Nonlinear Composite under External AC and DC Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ye; LIANG Fang-Chu; SHEN Hong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method is used to study effective response of nonlinear Kerr composites, which are subject to the constitutive relation of electric displacement and electric field, Dα = εαE + xα|E|2E. Under the external AC and DC electric field Eapp = Eα(1 + sinwt), the effective nonlinear responses and local potentials are induced by the cubic nonlinearity of Kerr materials at all harmonics. As an example in three dimensions, we have investigated this kind of nonlinear composites with spherical inclusions embedded in a host. At all harmonic frequencies, the potentials in inclusion and host regions are derived. Furthermore, the formulae of the effective linear and nonlinear responses are given in the dilute limit.

  20. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for simultaneous smoothing and registration of functional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We consider misaligned functional data, where data registration is necessary for proper statistical analysis. This paper proposes to treat misalignment as a nonlinear random effect, which makes simultaneous likelihood inference for horizontal and vertical effects possible. By simultaneously fitting...

  1. Estimation of the Nonlinear Random Coefficient Model when Some Random Effects Are Separable

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Stephen H. C.; Cudeck, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for marginal maximum likelihood estimation of the nonlinear random coefficient model when the response function has some linear parameters. This is done by writing the marginal distribution of the repeated measures as a conditional distribution of the response given the nonlinear random effects. The resulting distribution…

  2. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length...

  3. Effective nonlinearities and multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation in modulated quasi-phase-matching gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Graversen, T. W.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

    2000-01-01

    Quasi-phase-matching gratings induces Kerr effects in quadratic nonlinear materials. We show analytically and confirm numerically how modulating the grating changes the effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and allows for multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation....

  4. On the reversibility of the Meissner effect and the angular momentum puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    It is generally believed that the laws of thermodynamics govern superconductivity as an equilibrium state of matter, and hence that the normal-superconductor transition in a magnetic field is reversible under ideal conditions. Because eddy currents are generated during the transition as the magnetic flux changes, the transition has to proceed infinitely slowly to generate no entropy. Experiments showed that to a high degree of accuracy no entropy was generated in these transitions. However, in this paper we point out that for the length of times over which these experiments extended, a much higher degree of irreversibility due to decay of eddy currents should have been detected than was actually observed. We also point out that within the conventional theory of superconductivity no explanation exists for why no Joule heat is generated in the superconductor to normal transition when the supercurrent stops. In addition we point out that within the conventional theory of superconductivity no mechanism exists for the transfer of momentum between the supercurrent and the body as a whole, which is necessary to ensure that the transition in the presence of a magnetic field respects momentum conservation. We propose a solution to all these questions based on the alternative theory of hole superconductivity. The theory proposes that in the normal-superconductor transition there is a flow and backflow of charge in direction perpendicular to the phase boundary when the phase boundary moves. We show that this flow and backflow explains the absence of Joule heat generated by Faraday eddy currents, the absence of Joule heat generated in the process of the supercurrent stopping, and the reversible transfer of momentum between the supercurrent and the body, provided the current carriers in the normal state are holes.

  5. Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Chen, Yaohui; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects.......Influence of thermal effects induced by nonlinear absorption on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides is investigated. A conversion bandwidth reduction up to 63% is observed in simulation due to the thermal effects....

  6. Estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de cães inoculados com o Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteia R.O. Caliari

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de quatro cães chagásicos sacrificados na fase aguda da infecção. As ganglionites e periganglionites do plexo de Auerbach variaram de discretas a moderadas, induzindo lesões neuronais significativas, principalmente em dois animais. Os gânglios do plexo de Meissner foram observados em pequeno número, impossibilitando qualquer análise. Miosite discreta ou moderada foi observada principalmente no terço inferior do esôfago, raramente associada a ninhos de amastigotas. A contagem de gânglios e neurônios não demonstrou desnervação. Apesar de em nenhum dos cães ter sido induzida a formação de megaesôfago, relatamos lesões do plexo de Auerbach e de miocélulas do esôfago de animais na fase aguda da infecção chagásica. Este parece ser o primeiro estudo quantitativo e qualitativo sistemático dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago na tripanosomíase cruzi experimental.A quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on the Auerbach and Meissner plexuses of the esophagus of four chagasic dogs sacrificed during the acute pbase of infection. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis of the Auerbach plexus ranged from mild to moderate and induced significant neuronal lesions, especially in two animals. The ganglions of the Meissner plexus were obsenvd in small number which did not permit any analysís. Mild or moderate myositis iras obsewed mainly in the lower third of the esophagus and was rarely associated with amastigote nests. Ganglion and neuron connts did not demonstrate denervation. Although the formation of megaesophagus was not induced in any dog, lesions of the Auerbach plexus and myocells of the esophagus were observed during the acute phase of chagasic infection. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic quantitative and qualitative study of the Auerbach and Meissner plexuses of the esophagus in experimental

  7. Nonlinear effects in acoustic metamaterial based on a cylindrical pipe with ordered Helmholtz resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the nonlinear effects of acoustic wave propagation and dispersion in a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged Helmholtz resonators. By using the classical perturbation method in nonlinear acoustics and considering a nonlinear response up to the third-order at the fundamental frequency, the expressions of the nonlinear impedance ZNHR of the Helmholtz resonator and effective nonlinear bulk modulus Bneff of the composite structure are derived. In order to confirm the nonlinear properties of the acoustic metamaterial, the transmission spectra have been studied by means of the acoustic transmission line method. Moreover, we calculate the effective acoustic impedance and dispersion relation of the system using the acoustic impedance theory and Bloch theory, respectively. It is found that with the increment of the incident acoustic pressure level, owing to the nonlinearity of the Helmholtz resonators, the resonant frequency ω0 shifts toward the lower frequency side and the forbidden bandgap of the transmission spectrum is shown to be broadened. The perturbation method employed in this paper extends the general analytical framework for a nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.

  8. Extended Elliptic Mild Slope Equation Incorporating the Nonlinear Shoaling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qian-lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation during wave propagation is significantly important for the calculations of hydraulic and coastal engineering, as well as the sediment transport. The exact wave height deformation calculation on the coasts is essential to near-shore hydrodynamics research and the structure design of coastal engineering. According to the wave shoaling results gained from the elliptical cosine wave theory, the nonlinear wave dispersion relation is adopted to develop the expression of the corresponding nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient. Based on the extended elliptic mild slope equation, an efficient wave numerical model is presented in this paper for predicting wave deformation across the complex topography and the surf zone, incorporating the nonlinear wave dispersion relation, the nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient and other energy dissipation factors. Especially, the phenomenon of wave recovery and second breaking could be shown by the present model. The classical Berkhoff single elliptic topography wave tests, the sinusoidal varying topography experiment, and complex composite slopes wave flume experiments are applied to verify the accuracy of the calculation of wave heights. Compared with experimental data, good agreements are found upon single elliptical topography and one-dimensional beach profiles, including uniform slope and step-type profiles. The results indicate that the newly-developed nonlinear wave shoaling coefficient improves the calculated accuracy of wave transformation in the surf zone efficiently, and the wave breaking is the key factor affecting the wave characteristics and need to be considered in the nearshore wave simulations.

  9. Reduced Noise Effect in Nonlinear Model Estimation Using Multiscale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Nounou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear process models are widely used in various applications. In the absence of fundamental models, it is usually relied on empirical models, which are estimated from measurements of the process variables. Unfortunately, measured data are usually corrupted with measurement noise that degrades the accuracy of the estimated models. Multiscale wavelet-based representation of data has been shown to be a powerful data analysis and feature extraction tool. In this paper, these characteristics of multiscale representation are utilized to improve the estimation accuracy of the linear-in-the-parameters nonlinear model by developing a multiscale nonlinear (MSNL modeling algorithm. The main idea in this MSNL modeling algorithm is to decompose the data at multiple scales, construct multiple nonlinear models at multiple scales, and then select among all scales the model which best describes the process. The main advantage of the developed algorithm is that it integrates modeling and feature extraction to improve the robustness of the estimated model to the presence of measurement noise in the data. This advantage of MSNL modeling is demonstrated using a nonlinear reactor model.

  10. Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeyer, S.; Sorokin, V. S.; Thomsen, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing-Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system, and approximate analytical steady-state solutions and corresponding stabilities are obtained by the method of varying amplitudes. Some general effects of pure quadratic, and mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on parametric amplification are shown. In particular, the effects of mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities may generate additional amplitude-frequency solutions. In this case an increased response and a more phase sensitive amplitude (phase between excitation frequencies) is obtained, as compared to the case with either pure quadratic or cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, jumps and bi-stability in the amplitude-phase characteristics are predicted, supporting previously reported experimental observations.

  11. Discriminating thermal effect in nonlinear-ellipse-rotation-modified Z-scan measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bo; Shi, Shuo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2011-06-01

    We report that a modified Z-scan method by nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) can be used to discriminate true nonlinear refraction from thermal effect in the transient regime and steady state. The combination of Z-scan and NER allows us to measure the third-order nonlinear susceptibility component without the influence of thermal-optical nonlinearity. The experimental results of pure CS(2) and CS(2) solutions of nigrosine verify that the transient thermal effect can be successfully eliminated from the NER-modified Z-scan measurements. This method is also extended to the case in which thermal-optical nonlinearities depend on a high repetition rate of femtosecond laser pulses for the N,N-dimethylmethanamide solutions of graphene oxide. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Soliton Properties of Light Pulses on the Surface of Ionic Crystals Generated by Strong Nonlinear Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jia-Sheng; MA Ben-Kun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically discuss the soliton properties of light pulse transportation on the surface of an ionic crystal having strong nonlinear interactions between ions of unit cells. We analyze in detail the dark solitons when the nonlinear coefficient g is positive and negative, respectively. It is found that whether the nonlinear coefficient g is positive or negative, the dark solitons can be formed over the whole dispersion relation area of surface polaritons considering nonlinear effects. Attention should be paid to the fact that around ωTO, the light pulse can form advanced dark solitons, and there is a switching area from advanced dark soliton to retarded dark soliton near ωTO. We also discuss the effects of higher nonlinear dispersion on the solitons.

  13. Nonlinear optical and magneto-optical effects in non-spherical magnetic granular composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Xu(须萍); Zhenya Li(李振亚)

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization-induced nonlinear optical and nonlinear magneto-optical properties in a magnetic metal-insulator composite are studied based on a tensor effective medium approximation with shape factor and Taylcr-expansion method. There is a weakly nonlinear relation between electric displacement D and elcctric field E in the composite. The results of our studies on the effective dielectric tensor and the nonlinear susceptibility tensor in a magnetic nanocomposite are surveyed. It is shown that such a metal-insulator composite exhibits the enhancements of optical and magneto-optical nonlinearity. The frequencies at which the enhancements occur, and the amplitude of the enhancement factors depend on the concentration and shape of the magnetic grains.

  14. Nonlinear effects of the finite amplitude ultrasound wave in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear effects will occur during the transmission of the finite amplitude wave in biological tissues.The theoretical prediction and experimental demonstration of the nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude wave at the range of biomedical ultrasound frequency and intensity are studied.Results show that the efficiency factor and effective propagation distance will decrease while the attenuation coefficient increases due to the existence of nonlinear effects.The experimental results coincided quite well with the theory.This shows that the effective propagation distance and efficiency factor can be used to describe quantitatively the influence of nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude sound wave in biological tissues.

  15. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  16. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or chan...

  17. Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koissin, Vitaly; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is accou

  18. Nonlinear effective-medium theory of disordered spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-02-01

    Disordered soft materials, such as fibrous networks in biological contexts, exhibit a nonlinear elastic response. We study such nonlinear behavior with a minimal model for networks on lattice geometries with simple Hookian elements with disordered spring constant. By developing a mean-field approach to calculate the differential elastic bulk modulus for the macroscopic network response of such networks under large isotropic deformations, we provide insight into the origins of the strain stiffening and softening behavior of these systems. We find that the nonlinear mechanics depends only weakly on the lattice geometry and is governed by the average network connectivity. In particular, the nonlinear response is controlled by the isostatic connectivity, which depends strongly on the applied strain. Our predictions for the strain dependence of the isostatic point as well as the strain-dependent differential bulk modulus agree well with numerical results in both two and three dimensions. In addition, by using a mapping between the disordered network and a regular network with random forces, we calculate the nonaffine fluctuations of the deformation field and compare them to the numerical results. Finally, we discuss the limitations and implications of the developed theory.

  19. Effect of Physical Nonlinearity on Local Buckling in Sandwich Beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koysin, V.; Shipsha, Andrey; Skvortsov, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with experimental, theoretical, and FE characterization of the local buckling in foam-core sandwich beams. In the theoretical approach, this phenomena is considered in a periodic formulation (unbounded wrinkle wave); a nonlinear stress—strain response of the face material is accou

  20. Effective Third-Order Nonlinearities in Metallic Refractory Titanium Nitride Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsey, Nathaniel; Courtwright, Devon; DeVault, Clayton; Bonner, Carl E; Gavrilenko, Vladimir I; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Hagan, David J; Van Stryland, Eric W; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Nanophotonic devices offer an unprecedented ability to concentrate light into small volumes which can greatly increase nonlinear effects. However, traditional plasmonic materials suffer from low damage thresholds and are not compatible with standard semiconductor technology. Here we study the nonlinear optical properties in the novel refractory plasmonic material titanium nitride using the Z scan method at 1550 nm and 780 nm. We compare the extracted nonlinear parameters for TiN with previous works on noble metals and note a similarly large nonlinear optical response. However, TiN films have been shown to exhibit a damage threshold up to an order of magnitude higher than gold films of a similar thickness, while also being robust, cost-efficient, bio- and CMOS compatible. Together, these properties make TiN a promising material for metal-based nonlinear optics.

  1. Theoretical investigation on Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gun LiNa; TANG ZhiLie; XING Da

    2008-01-01

    The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than twophoton confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.

  2. Theoretical investigation on Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy in nonlinear confocal microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The imaging theory of Raman induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (RIKES) in nonlinear confocal microscopy is presented in this paper. Three-dimensional point spread function (3D-PSF) of RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy in isotropic media is derived with Fourier imaging theory and RIKES theory. The impact of nonlinear property of RIKES on the spatial resolution and imaging properties of confocal microscopy have been analyzed in detail. It is proved that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy can simultaneously provide more information than two-photon confocal microscopy concerning molecular vibration mode, vibration orientation and optically induced molecular reorientation, etc. It is shown that RIKES nonlinear confocal microscopy significantly enhances the spatial resolution and imaging quality of confocal microscopy and achieves much higher resolution than that of two-photon confocal microscopy.

  3. Weakly nonlinear dispersion and stop-band effects for periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Continua and structures composed of periodically repeated elements (cells) are used in many fields of science and technology. Examples of continua are composite materials, consisting of alternating volumes of substances with different properties, mechanical filters and wave guides. Examples of en...... suggested. The work is carried out with financial support from the Danish Council for Independent Research and COFUND: DFF – 1337-00026...... of these methods for studying nonlinear problems isimpossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable only for linear systems. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applications may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response...

  4. Using nonlinearity and spatiotemporal property modulation to control effective structural properties: dynamic rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Blekhman, Iliya I.

    2007-01-01

    , and to call these dynamic materials or spatiotemporal composites. Also, according to theoretical predictions, structural nonlinearity enhances the possibilities of achieving specific effective properties. For example, with an elastic rod having cubical elastic nonlinearities, it seems possible to control......, and exemplified. Then simple approximate analytical expressions are derived for the effective wave speed and natural frequencies for one-dimensional wave propagation in a nonlinear elastic rod, where the spatiotemporal modulation is imposed as a high-frequency standing wave, supposed to be given. Finally the more...

  5. Nonlinear optical properties and optical power limiting effect of Giemsa dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, Imad Al-Deen Hussein A.; Abdulkareem, Saif Al-Deen

    2016-08-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Giemsa dye in chloroform solution for different concentrations and dye mixed with poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) as a dye-doped polymer film were investigated using continuous wave (CW) low power solid-state laser (SSL) operating at wavelength of 532 nm as an excitation source. Using the single beam z-scan technique, the nonlinear refractive index (n2), the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ(3)) of Giemsa dye were measured. The measurements reveal that both n2 and β are dependent on the dye concentration. The obtained results indicate that the Giemsa dye exhibits positive nonlinear saturable absorption (SA) and negative refraction nonlinearity, manifestation of self-defocusing effect. Optical power limiting characteristics of the Giemsa dye at different concentrations in solution and polymer film were studied. The observed large third-order optical nonlinearity of Giemsa dye confirms that Giemsa dye is a promising nonlinear material for the optical power limiting and photonic devices applications.

  6. Properties of Differential Scattering Section Based on Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Properties of damping electrons in collision with photons based on multi-photon nonlinear Compton effect are investigated. The expressions of the differential scattering section are derived. Several useful conclusions are drawn.

  7. Systematic treatment of non-linear effects in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss the non-linear effects in the baryon acoustic oscillations and present a systematic and controllable way to account for them within time-sliced perturbation theory.

  8. Diffraction corrections for second harmonic beam fields and effects on the nonlinearity parameter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo; Cho, Sung Jong; Nam, Ki Woong; Lee, Jang Hyun [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The nonlinearity parameter is frequently measured as a sensitive indicator in damaged material characterization or tissue harmonic imaging. Several previous studies have employed the plane wave solution, and ignored the effects of beam diffraction when measuring the non-linearity parameter β. This paper presents a multi-Gaussian beam approach to explicitly derive diffraction corrections for fundamental and second harmonics under quasilinear and paraxial approximation. Their effects on the nonlinearity parameter estimation demonstrate complicated dependence of β on the transmitter-receiver geometries, frequency, and propagation distance. The diffraction effects on the non-linearity parameter estimation are important even in the nearfield region. Experiments are performed to show that improved β values can be obtained by considering the diffraction effects.

  9. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    ... a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix...

  10. EFFECT OF DAMAGE ON NONLINEAR DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF VISCOELASTIC RECTANGULAR PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-fang; FU Yi-ming

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of viscoelastic rectangular plates including the damage effects under the action of a transverse periodic load were studied. Using the von Karman equations, Boltzmann superposition principle and continuum damage mechanics, the nonlinear dynamic equations in terms of the mid-plane displacements for the viscoelastic thin plates with damage effect were derived. By adopting the finite difference method and Newmark method, these equations were solved. The results were compared with the available data. In the numerical calculations, the effects of the external loading parameters and geometric dimensions of the plate on the nonlinear dynamic responses of the plate were discussed. Research results show that the nonlinear dynamic response of the structure will change remarkably when the damage effect is considered.

  11. Examining the Error of Mis-Specifying Nonlinear Confounding Effect with Application on Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some confounders are nonlinearly associated with dependent variables, but they are often adjusted using a linear term. The purpose of this study was to examine the error of mis-specifying the nonlinear confounding effect. Methods: We carried out a simulation study to investigate the effect of adjusting for a nonlinear confounder in the…

  12. Asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with the effects of nonlinear phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Reddy, Dileep V.

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM.......We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM....

  13. Nonlinear Effects in Quantum Dynamics of Atom Laser: Mean-Field Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Hui

    2002-01-01

    Quantum dynamics and statistics of an atom laser with nonlinear binary interactions are investigated inthe framework of mean-field approximation. The linearized effective Hamiltonian of the system is accurately solvable.It is shown that, although the input radio frequency field is in an ordinary Glauber coherent state, the output matterwave will periodically exhibit quadrature squeezing effects purely originated from the nonlinear atom-atom collisions.

  14. Estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de cães inoculados com o Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteia R.O. Caliari

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo e qualitativo dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago de quatro cães chagásicos sacrificados na fase aguda da infecção. As ganglionites e periganglionites do plexo de Auerbach variaram de discretas a moderadas, induzindo lesões neuronais significativas, principalmente em dois animais. Os gânglios do plexo de Meissner foram observados em pequeno número, impossibilitando qualquer análise. Miosite discreta ou moderada foi observada principalmente no terço inferior do esôfago, raramente associada a ninhos de amastigotas. A contagem de gânglios e neurônios não demonstrou desnervação. Apesar de em nenhum dos cães ter sido induzida a formação de megaesôfago, relatamos lesões do plexo de Auerbach e de miocélulas do esôfago de animais na fase aguda da infecção chagásica. Este parece ser o primeiro estudo quantitativo e qualitativo sistemático dos plexos de Auerbach e Meissner do esôfago na tripanosomíase cruzi experimental.

  15. Nonlinear effects in propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of a long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) in gold strip waveguides. The plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, tantalum pentoxide adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The optical characterization was performed using a high power picosecond laser at 1064 nm. The experiments reveal two nonlinear optical effects: nonlinear power transmission and spectral broadening of the LRSPP mode in the waveguides. Both nonlinear optical effects depend on the gold layer thickness. The theoretical model of these effects is based on the third-order susceptibility of the constituent materials. The linear and nonlinear parameters of the LRSPP mode are obtained, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is solved. The dispersion length is much larger than the waveguides length, and the chromatic dispersion does not affect the propagation of the plasmonic mode. We find that the third-order susceptibility of the gold layer has a dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the LRSPP mode. The real part of the effective third-order susceptibility leads to the observed spectral broadening through the self-phase modulation effect, and its imaginary part determines the nonlinear absorption parameter and leads to the observed nonlinear power transmission. The experimental values of the third-order susceptibility of the gold layers are obtained. They indicate an effective enhancement of the third-order susceptibility for the gold layers, comparing to the bulk gold values. This enhancement is explained in terms of the change of the electrons motion.

  16. Nonlinear effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-cloud instability

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, V

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from the batch to its bunch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  17. Collisional Effects on Nonlinear Ion Drag Force for Small Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H

    2013-01-01

    The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution appropriate for ion drift driven by a force field gives wake potential and force greatly different from a shifted Maxwellian distribution, regardless of collisionality. The low-collisionality forces are shown to be consistent with estimates based upon cross-sections for scattering in a Yukawa (shielded) grain field, but only if non-linear shielding length is used. Finite collisionality initially enhances the drag force, but only by up to a factor of 2. Larger collisionality eventually reduces the drag force. In the collisional regime, the drift distribution gives larger drag than the shift distribution even at velocities where their collisionless drags are equal. Comprehensive practical analytic formulas for force that fit the calculations are provided.

  18. Chromatic and Dispersive Effects in Nonlinear Integrable Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen D; Valishev, Alexander; Nagaitsev, Sergei N; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Proton accumulator rings and other circular hadron accelerators are susceptible to intensity-driven parametric instabilities because the zero-current charged particle dynamics are characterized by a single tune. Landau damping can suppress these instabilities, which requires energy spread in the beam or introducing nonlinear magnets such as octupoles. However, this approach reduces dynamic aperture. Nonlinear integrable optics can suppress parametric instabilities independent of energy spread in the distribution, while preserving the dynamic aperture. This novel approach promises to reduce particle losses and enable order-of-magnitude increases in beam intensity. In this paper we present results, obtained using the Lie operator formalism, on how chromaticity and dispersion affect particle orbits in integrable optics. We conclude that chromaticity in general breaks the integrability, unless the vertical and horizontal chromaticities are equal. Because of this, the chromaticity correcting magnets can be weaker ...

  19. Nonlinear Effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-Cloud Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from bunch to bunch along the batch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  20. Nonlinear effects of energetic particle driven instabilities in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruedgam, Michael

    2010-03-25

    In a tokamak plasma, a population of superthermal particles generated by heating methods can lead to a destabilization of various MHD modes. Due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions, a consequential fast particle redistribution reduces the plasma heating and can cause severe damages to the wall of the fusion device. In order to describe the wave-particle interaction, the drift-kinetic perturbative HAGIS code is applied which evolves the particle trajectories and the waves nonlinearly. For a simulation speed-up, the 6-d particle phase-space is reduced by the guiding centre approach to a 5-d description. The eigenfunction of the wave is assumed to be invariant, but its amplitude and phase is altered in time. A sophisticated {delta}/f-method is employed to model the change in the fast particle distribution so that numerical noise and the excessive number of simulated Monte-Carlo points are reduced significantly. The original code can only calculate the particle redistribution inside the plasma region. Therefore, a code extension has been developed during this thesis which enlarges the simulation region up to the vessel wall. By means of numerical simulations, this thesis addresses the problem of nonlinear waveparticle interactions in the presence of multiple MHD modes with significantly different eigenfrequencies and the corresponding fast particle transport inside the plasma. In this context, a new coupling mechanism between resonant particles and waves has been identified that leads to enhanced mode amplitudes and fast particle losses. The extension of the code provides for the first time the possibility of a quantitative and qualitative comparison between simulation results and recent measurements in the experiment. The findings of the comparison serve as a validation of both the theoretical model and the interpretation of the experimental results. Thus, a powerful interface tool has been developed for a deeper insight of nonlinear wave-particle interaction

  1. Nonlinear optical effects in pure and N-doped semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Donlagic, N S

    2000-01-01

    the optical response of a one-dimensional n-doped two-band semiconductor whose conduction band has been linearized with respect to the two Fermi points. Due to the linearization it is possible to calculate the linear and nonlinear response functions of the interacting electron system exactly. These response functions are then used in order to determine the linear absorption spectrum and the time-integrated signal of a degenerated four-wave-mixing experiment. It is shown that the well-known features of the linear response can directly be related to features of the nonlinear experiments. For example, the exponent which describes the algebraic decay of the time-integrated four-wave-mixing signal is functionally dependent on the exponent of the algebraic singularity in the linear absorption spectrum reflecting the common origin of the different phenomena. Over the last decades, the nonlinear optical properties of condensed matter systems have been an attractive and fruitful field of research. While the linear res...

  2. Nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: comparison of off-target soil background and on-target soil-mine nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.; Pauls, Kathleen E.; Genis, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    When airborne sound at two primary tones, f I, f II (closely spaced near a resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine, soil wave motion interacts with the landmine generating a scattered surface profile which can be measured over the "target." Profiles at the primaries f I, f II, and nonlinearly generated combination frequencies f I-(f II-f I) and f II+(f II-f I) , 2f I-(f II-f I), f I+f II and 2f II+(f II-f I) (among others) have been measured for a VS 2.2 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil and in a gravel road bed. [M.S. Korman and J.M. Sabatier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. It is observed that the "on target" to "off target" contrast ratio for the sum frequency component can be ~20 dB higher than for either primary. The vibration interaction between the top-plate interface of a buried plastic landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit many characteristics of the mesoscopic/nanoscale nonlinear effects that are observed in geomaterials like sandstone. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Tuning curve experiments are performed both on and off the mine in an effort to understand the nonlinearities in each case.

  3. Electrically actuated MEMS resonators: Effects of fringing field and nonlinear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the nonlinear electromechanical response of a MEMS resonator numerically. A nonlinear continuous multi-physics model of the MEMS resonator is developed taking into account the effects of fringing field, size, residual axial load, and viscoelasticity. Moreover, both longitudinal and transverse motions are accounted for in the system modelling and simulations. The equations of motion of the MEMS resonator are obtained employing Hamilton's principle together with the modified version of the couple stress based theory (to account for size effects) and the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear energy dissipation). The Meijs-Fokkema electrostatic load formula is used to reliably model the fringing field effects. The continuous multi-physics model, consisting of geometrical, electrical, and viscos nonlinearities is discretised via a weighted-residual method, yielding a set of nonlinearly coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant set of ODEs is solved numerically when the microresonator is actuated by a biased DC voltage and an AC voltage. The results of the numerical simulations are presented in the form of DC voltage-deflection, DC voltage-natural frequency, and AC frequency-displacement diagrams. The effects of fringing field, residual axial load, small-scale, and nonlinear energy dissipation are highlighted. It is shown that fringing field effects are significant on both static and dynamic electromechanical responses of the MEMS resonator.

  4. Nonlinear flap-lag-extensional vibrations of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.

  5. A multilevel nonlinear mixed-effects approach to model growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Sørensen, H

    2009-01-01

    Growth functions have been used to predict market weight of pigs and maximize return over feed costs. This study was undertaken to compare 4 growth functions and methods of analyzing data, particularly one that considers nonlinear repeated measures. Data were collected from an experiment with 40...... pigs maintained from birth to maturity and their BW measured weekly or every 2 wk up to 1,007 d. Gompertz, logistic, Bridges, and Lopez functions were fitted to the data and compared using information criteria. For each function, a multilevel nonlinear mixed effects model was employed because....... Furthermore, studies should consider adding continuous autoregressive process when analyzing nonlinear mixed models with repeated measures....

  6. Nonlinear Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation of a Flexible Beam Considering Shear Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yang; SHEN Ling-jie; HONG Jia-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear modeling of a flexible beam with large deformation was investigated. Absolute nodal cooridnate formulation is employed to describe the motion, and Lagrange equations of motion of a flexible beam are derived based on the geometric nonlinear theory. Different from the previous nonlinear formulation with EulerBernoulli assumption, the shear strain and transverse normal strain are taken into account. Computational example of a flexible pendulum with a tip mass is given to show the effects of the shear strain and transverse normal strain. The constant total energy verifies the correctness of the present formulation.

  7. Nonlinear heat transport in mesoscopic conductors: Rectification, Peltier effect, and Wiedemann-Franz law

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosa; Sánchez, David

    2013-07-01

    We investigate nonlinear heat properties in mesoscopic conductors using a scattering theory of transport. Our approach is based on a leading-order expansion in both the electrical and thermal driving forces. Beyond linear response, the transport coefficients are functions of the nonequilibrium screening potential that builds up in the system due to interactions. Within a mean-field approximation, we self-consistently calculate the heat rectification properties of a quantum dot attached to two terminals. We discuss nonlinear contributions to the Peltier effect and find departures from the Wiedemann-Franz law in the nonlinear regime of transport.

  8. Noise-induced transitions and resonant effects in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexei

    2003-02-01

    Our every-day experience is connected with different acoustical noise or music. Usually noise plays the role of nuisance in any communication and destroys any order in a system. Similar optical effects are known: strong snowing or raining decreases quality of a vision. In contrast to these situations noisy stimuli can also play a positive constructive role, e.g. a driver can be more concentrated in a presence of quiet music. Transmission processes in neural systems are of especial interest from this point of view: excitation or information will be transmitted only in the case if a signal overcomes a threshold. Dr. Alexei Zaikin from the Potsdam University studies noise-induced phenomena in nonlinear systems from a theoretical point of view. Especially he is interested in the processes, in which noise influences the behaviour of a system twice: if the intensity of noise is over a threshold, it induces some regular structure that will be synchronized with the behaviour of neighbour elements. To obtain such a system with a threshold one needs one more noise source. Dr. Zaikin has analyzed further examples of such doubly stochastic effects and developed a concept of these new phenomena. These theoretical findings are important, because such processes can play a crucial role in neurophysics, technical communication devices and living sciences. Unsere alltägliche Erfahrung ist mit verschiedenen akustischen Einfluessen wie Lärm, aber auch Musik verbunden. Jeder weiss, wie Lärm stören kann und Kommunikation behindert oder gar unterbindet. Ähnliche optische Effekte sind bekannt: starkes Schneetreiben oder Regengüsse verschlechtern die Sicht und lassen uns Umrisse nur noch schemenhaft erkennen. Jedoch koennen ähnliche Stimuli auch sehr positive Auswirkungen haben: Autofahrer fahren bei leiser Musik konzentrierter -- die Behauptung von Schulkindern, nur bei dröhnenden Bässen die Mathehausaufgaben richtig rechnen zu können, ist allerdings nicht wissenschaftlich

  9. Unexpected Nonlinear Effects in Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John

    2016-01-01

    When a normal metal transitions into the superconducting state the DC resistance drops from a finite value to zero over some finite transition width in temperature, current, and magnetic field. Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) operate within this transition region and uses resistive changes to measure deposited thermal energy. This resistive transition is not perfectly smooth and a wide range of TES designs and materials show sub-structure in the resistive transition (as seen in smooth nonmonotonic behavior, jump discontinuities, and hysteresis in the devices current-voltage relation and derivatives of the resistance with respect to temperature, bias current, and magnetic field). TES technology has advanced to the point where for many applications this structure is the limiting factor in performance and optimization consists of finding operating points away from these structures. For example, operating at or near this structure can lead to nonlinearity in the detectors response and gain scale, limit the spectral range of the detector by limiting the usable resistive range, and degrade energy resolution. The origin of much of this substructure is unknown. This presentation investigates a number of possible sources in turn. First we model the TES as a superconducting weak-link and solve for the characteristic differential equations current and voltage time dependence. We find:(1) measured DC biased current-voltage relationship is the time-average of a much higher frequency limit cycle solution.(2) We calculate the fundamental frequency and estimate the power radiated from the TES treating the bias leads as an antennae.(3) The solution for a set of circuit parameters becomes multivalued leading to current transitions between levels.(4)The circuit parameters can change the measure resistance and mask the true critical current. As a consequence the TES resistance surface is not just a function of temperature, current, and magnetic field but is also a

  10. Engineering chromatic dispersion and effective nonlinearity in a dual-slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yan, Jing; Han, Genquan

    2014-09-20

    In this paper, we propose a new dual slot based on rib-like structure, which exhibits a flat and near-zero dispersion over a 198 nm wide wavelength range. Chromatic dispersion of dual-slot silicon (Si) waveguide is mainly determined by waveguide dispersion due to the manipulating mode effective area rather than by the material dispersion. Moreover, the nonlinear coefficient and effective mode area of the waveguide are also explored in detail. A nonlinear coefficient of 1460/m/W at 1550 nm is achieved, which is 10 times larger than that of the Si rib waveguide. By changing different waveguide variables, both the dispersion and nonlinear coefficient can be tailored, thus enabling the potential for a highly nonlinear waveguide with uniform dispersion over a wide wavelength range, which could benefit the performance of broadband optical signal systems.

  11. Modal theory of slow light enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Sun, Junqiang; Li, Linsen

    2012-08-27

    In this paper, we derive the couple-mode equations for third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides by employing the modal theory. These nonlinear interactions include self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and degenerate four-wave mixing. The equations similar to that in nonlinear fiber optics could be expanded and applied for third-order nonlinear processes in other periodic waveguides. Based on the equations, we systematically analyze the group-velocity dispersion, optical propagation loss, effective interaction area, slow light enhanced factor and phase mismatch for a slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Considering the two-photon and free-carrier absorptions, the wavelength conversion efficiencies in two low-dispersion regions are numerically simulated by utilizing finite difference method. Finally, we investigate the influence of slow light enhanced multiple four-wave-mixing process on the conversion efficiency.

  12. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from...... different perspectives. The analysis combines theoretical approach, simulations and measurements. The focus is on distortion artifacts in the causal part of the impulse response and their effects on room acoustical parameters. The results show that the sweep-sine method is vulnerable to a certain extent...... to nonlinearities from a theoretical standpoint, but the consequences of this vulnerability are reduced in the responses measured in practice. However, due to irretrievable contamination of the impulse responses, the nonlinearities (especially strong ones) should be avoided....

  13. Nonlinear Bubble Dynamics And The Effects On Propagation Through Near-Surface Bubble Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Timothy G.

    2004-11-01

    Nonlinear bubble dynamics are often viewed as the unfortunate consequence of having to use high acoustic pressure amplitudes when the void fraction in the near-surface oceanic bubble layer is great enough to cause severe attenuation (e.g. >50 dB/m). This is seen as unfortunate since existing models for acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids are based on linear bubble dynamics. However, the development of nonlinear models does more than just allow quantification of the errors associated with the use of linear models. It also offers the possibility of propagation modeling and acoustic inversions which appropriately incorporate the bubble nonlinearity. Furthermore, it allows exploration and quantification of possible nonlinear effects which may be exploited. As a result, high acoustic pressure amplitudes may be desirable even in low void fractions, because they offer opportunities to gain information about the bubble cloud from the nonlinearities, and options to exploit the nonlinearities to enhance communication and sonar in bubbly waters. This paper presents a method for calculating the nonlinear acoustic cross-sections, scatter, attenuations and sound speeds from bubble clouds which may be inhomogeneous. The method allows prediction of the time dependency of these quantities, both because the cloud may vary and because the incident acoustic pulse may have finite and arbitrary time history. The method can be readily adapted for bubbles in other environments (e.g. clouds of interacting bubbles, sediments, structures, in vivo, reverberant conditions etc.). The possible exploitation of bubble acoustics by marine mammals, and for sonar enhancement, is explored.

  14. Analysis of nonlinearities and effects in direct drive electro-hydraulic position servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-jie; JI Tian-jing; MAO Xin-tao; LIU Quan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    The direct drive electro-hydraulic servo system is a new approach hydraulic system. It is much smaller and easier controlled than traditional systems and is a perfect energy saver. This paper will briefly introduce the popular nonlinearities in the electro-hydraulic system and analyse the effect of nonlinearities in direct drive electro-hydraulic position servo system by means of simulation research. Some valuable conclusions are given.

  15. Strong electronic correlation effects in coherent multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimitriou, M E; Kavousanaki, E G; Dani, K M; Fromer, N A; Perakis, I E

    2011-05-12

    We discuss a many-body theory of the coherent ultrafast nonlinear optical response of systems with a strongly correlated electronic ground state that responds unadiabatically to photoexcitation. We introduce a truncation of quantum kinetic density matrix equations of motion that does not rely on an expansion in terms of the interactions and thus applies to strongly correlated systems. For this we expand in terms of the optical field, separate out contributions to the time-evolved many-body state due to correlated and uncorrelated multiple optical transitions, and use "Hubbard operator" density matrices to describe the exact dynamics of the individual contributions within a subspace of strongly coupled states, including "pure dephasing". Our purpose is to develop a quantum mechanical tool capable of exploring how, by coherently photoexciting selected modes, one can trigger nonlinear dynamics of strongly coupled degrees of freedom. Such dynamics could lead to photoinduced phase transitions. We apply our theory to the nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field. We coherently photoexcite the two lowest Landau level (LL) excitations using three time-delayed optical pulses. We identify some striking temporal and spectral features due to dynamical coupling of the two LLs facilitated by inter-Landau-level magnetoplasmon and magnetoroton excitations and compare to three-pulse four-wave-mixing (FWM) experiments. We show that these features depend sensitively on the dynamics of four-particle correlations between an electron-hole pair and a magnetoplasmon/magnetoroton, reminiscent of exciton-exciton correlations in undoped semiconductors. Our results shed light into unexplored coherent dynamics and relaxation of the quantum Hall system (QHS) and can provide new insight into non-equilibrium co-operative phenomena in strongly correlated systems.

  16. Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiloglu, M.A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Effect of Tissue Inhomogeneity on Nonlinear Propagation of Focused Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-Bo; FAN Ting-Bo; GUO Xia-Sheng; ZHANG Dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ We study the influence of tissue inhomogeneity on the focused ultrasound based on the phase screen model and the acoustic nonlinear equation.The inhomogeneous tissue is considered as a combination of a homogeneous medium and a phase aberration screen.Six polyethylene(PE)plates with various correlation lengths and standard deviations are made to mimic the inhomogeneity induced by the human body abdominal.Results indicate that the correlation length affects the side lobe structure of the beam pattern; while the standard deviation is associated with the focusing capability.This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the development of a precise treatment plan for high intensity focused ultrasound.

  18. Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çipilolu, M. A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M.

    2004-09-01

    The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters.

  19. Weak non-linear surface charging effects in electrolytic films

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, D. S.; Horgan, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full non-linear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the reno...

  20. Effect of geometric anisotropy on optical nonlinearity enhancement for periodic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baifeng; Zhang, Chengxiang; Tian, Decheng

    2003-01-01

    The effect of geometric anisotropy on the optical nonlinearity enhancement for the composites with metal or semiconductor spheriodal-shaped particles periodically in an insulating host is investigated. The frequency dependences of effective nonlinear susceptibility are calculated with the Stroud-Hui relation and a series expression of space-dependent electric field in periodic composites. The results show that for both metal-insulator (MI) and semiconductor-insulator (SI) composites, nonlinearity enhancement increases almost to its maximum when the percolation networks of the inclusion phase form. The nonlinearity enhancement increases to its maximum when the composites are transformed into the Boyd-Sipe layered composites. The behavior of the nonlinearity enhancement near the percolation threshold is also investigated. A local minimum appears in the nonlinear optical responses at the percolation threshold for the MI composites. For the SI composites the local minimum appears when the ratio of the bound-electron number density to the effective mass of the electron is large.

  1. Research on Nonlinear Absorption Effect in KDP and 70%-DKDP Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanliang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical absorption effect in KDP and 70%-DKDP crystals, which were grown by the conventional temperature cooling method, was systematically studied using picosecond pulse laser excitation. Using open aperture Z-scan measurements, the dependence of nonlinear absorption effect on sample orientations (I, II, and z as well as laser intensity was systematically measured at λ = 1064 and 532 nm. According to the experimental results, the nonlinear absorption effect at λ = 532 nm was confirmed, while at λ = 1064 nm no nonlinear absorption was observed for KDP and 70%-DKDP crystals. In addition, the optical absorption along I- and II-type affected by laser intensity was larger than that along the z-direction. The important nonlinear absorption coefficients β and χ I ( 3 (esu measured along different orientations were exhibited in detail at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The results indicate that nonlinear absorption coefficients increase first and then decrease with the increment of laser intensity for KDP and 70%-DKDP crystals.

  2. Primarily nonlinear effects observed in a driven asymmetrical vibrating wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, H. Kent; Morrison, Andrew C.; Boucher, Matthew A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here is to further experimentally explore the wide variety of behaviors exhibited by driven vibrating wires, primarily in the nonlinear regime. When the wire is driven near a resonant frequency, it is found that most such behaviors are significantly affected by the splitting of the resonant frequency and by the existence of a ``characteristic'' axis associated with each split frequency. It is shown that frequency splitting decreases with increasing wire tension and can be altered by twisting. Two methods are described for determining the orientation of characteristic axes. Evidence is provided, with a possible explanation, that each axis has the same orientation everywhere along the wire. Frequency response data exhibiting nonlinear generation of transverse motion perpendicular to the driving direction, hysteresis, linear generation of perpendicular motion (sometimes tubular), and generation of motion at harmonics of the driving frequency are exhibited and discussed. Also reported under seemingly unchanging conditions are abrupt large changes in the harmonic content of the motion that sometimes involve large subharmonics and harmonics thereof. Slow transitions from one stable state of vibration to another and quasiperiodic motions are also exhibited. Possible musical significance is discussed. .

  3. Nonlinear diffraction effects around a surface-piercing structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalli, F.; Mascio, A. Di; Landrini, M. [Istituto Nazionale per Studi ed Esperienze di Architettura Navale, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    In the present paper the interaction of a wave system with a submerged or surface piercing body is studied. The wave diffraction caused by a cylinder in finite depth water and by a shoal is been computed and the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental data. The problem is analyzed numerically in the frame of irrotational incompressible flow hypothesis. Both the linearized and the fully nonlinear mathematical models are studied. The numerical solution is gained by means of a mixed panel-desingularized formulation. An explicit time-marching algorithm updates the wave elevation and the potential at the free surface. In all cases, the numerical simulation mirrors the experimental data. In the case of the diffraction around a cylinder, the simulation confirms and extends the theoretical results of the second order analysis (Kriebel 1990, 1992): the linear model yields a very good estimation of the force amplitude acting on the body, while the wave profiles are poorly predicted when compared with the fully nonlinear simulation and the experimental data.

  4. Nonlinear Radiation Effects on Hydromagnetic Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shrinking Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anjali devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nonlinear radiation on hydromagnetic boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a shrinking surface is investigated in the present work. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The resultant equations which are highly nonlinear are solved numerically using Nachtsheim Swigert shooting iteration scheme together with Fourth Order Runge Kutta method. Numerical solutions for velocity, skin friction coefficient and temperature are obtained for various values of physical parameters involved in the study namely Suction parameter, Magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, Radiation parameter and Temperature ratio parameter. Numerical values for dimensionless rate of heat transfer are also obtained for various physical parameters and are shown through tables. The analytical solution of the energy equation when the radiation term is taken in linear form is obtained using Confluent hypergeometric function.

  5. NONLINEAR VIBRATION FOR MODERATE THICKNESS RECTANGULAR CRACKED PLATES INCLUDING COUPLED EFFECT OF ELASTIC FOUNDATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yong-gang; FU Yi-ming; ZHA Xu-dong

    2005-01-01

    Based on Reissner plate theory and Hamilton variational principle, the nonlinear equations of motion were derived for the moderate thickness rectangular plates with transverse surface penetrating crack on the two-parameter foundation. Under the condition of free boundary, a set of trial functions satisfying all boundary conditions and crack's continuous conditions were proposed. By employing the Galerkin method and the harmonic balance method, the nonlinear vibration equations were solved and the nonlinear vibration behaviors of the plate were analyzed. In numerical computation, the effects of the different location and depth of crack, the different structural parameters of plates and the different physical parameters of foundation on the nonlinear amplitude frequency response curves of the plate were discussed.

  6. Radiation effect on viscous flow of a nanofluid and heat transfer over a nonlinearly stretching sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hady, Fekry M; Ibrahim, Fouad S; Abdel-Gaied, Sahar M; Eid, Mohamed R

    2012-04-22

    In this work, we study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous nanofluid over a nonlinearly stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation, included in the energy equation, and variable wall temperature. A similarity transformation was used to transform the governing partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An efficient numerical shooting technique with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme was used to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem. The variations of dimensionless surface temperature, as well as flow and heat-transfer characteristics with the governing dimensionless parameters of the problem, which include the nanoparticle volume fraction ϕ, the nonlinearly stretching sheet parameter n, the thermal radiation parameter NR, and the viscous dissipation parameter Ec, were graphed and tabulated. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier nonlinearly stretching sheet problem of Cortell for local Nusselt number without taking the effect of nanoparticles.

  7. Nonlinear continuous-wave optical propagation in nematic liquid crystals: Interplay between reorientational and thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Laudyn, Urszula A.; Piccardi, Armando; Kwasny, Michał; Klus, Bartlomiej; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2017-07-01

    We investigate nonlinear optical propagation of continuous-wave (CW) beams in bulk nematic liquid crystals. We thoroughly analyze the competing roles of reorientational and thermal nonlinearity with reference to self-focusing/defocusing and, eventually, the formation of nonlinear diffraction-free wavepackets, the so-called spatial optical solitons. To this extent we refer to dye-doped nematic liquid crystals in planar cells excited by a single CW beam in the highly nonlocal limit. To adjust the relative weight between the two nonlinear responses, we employ two distinct wavelengths, inside and outside the absorption band of the dye, respectively. Different concentrations of the dye are considered in order to enhance the thermal effect. The theoretical analysis is complemented by numerical simulations in the highly nonlocal approximation based on a semi-analytic approach. Theoretical results are finally compared to experimental results in the Nematic Liquid Crystals (NLC) 4-trans-4'-n-hexylcyclohexylisothiocyanatobenzene (6CHBT) doped with Sudan Blue dye.

  8. Theory of plasmonic effects in nonlinear optics: the case of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Habib; Polini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We develop a microscopic large-$N$ theory of electron-electron interaction corrections to multi-legged Feynman diagrams describing second- and third-order nonlinear response functions. Our theory, which reduces to the well-known random phase approximation in the linear-response limit, is completely general and is useful to understand all second- and third-order nonlinear effects, including harmonic generation, wave mixing, and photon drag. We apply our theoretical framework to the case of graphene, by carrying out microscopic calculations of the second- and third-order nonlinear response functions of an interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of massless Dirac fermions. We compare our results with recent measurements, where all-optical launching of graphene plasmons has been achieved by virtue of the finiteness of the quasi-homogeneous second-order nonlinear response of this inversion-symmetric 2D material.

  9. Light-induced nonlinear effects on dispersion relation of ultracold Bose gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正峰; 杜春光; 李师群

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of A-configuration ultracold dense Bose gas interacting with two laser pulses, which usually result in electromagnetically induced transparency. With the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics and taking into account the atomic dipole-dipole interaction and local field effect, we have derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations of the system. The dispersion relation of an ultracold Bose gas has been obtained and the light-induced nonlinear effects have been analysed. The light-induced nonlinear effects are different from the effects induced by two-body collision of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms which have a frequency shift of transparent window.

  10. Light—induced nonlinear effects of dispersion relation of ultracold Bose gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuZheng-Feng; DuChunGuang; LiShi-Qun

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of A-configuration ultracold dense Bose gas interacting with two laser pulses, which usually result in electromagnetically induced transparency. With the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics and taking into account the atomic dipole-dipole interaction and local field effect, we have derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations of the system. The dispersion relation of an ultracold Bose gas has been obtained and the light-induced nonlinear effects have been analysed. The light-induced nonlinear effects are different from the effects induced by two-body collision of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms which have a frequency shift of transparent window.

  11. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  12. The influence of nonlinear effects on the spectral efficiency of multiinput antenna systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishniakova J. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis technique and design algorithm are proposed for multiinput antenna systems, based on the mathematical model developed. The technique and algorithm described allow the analysis of a wide class of multiinput systems, in particular, MIMO systems, reconfigurable multiantenna systems, multiinput systems with nonlinear components and devices. The paper presents numerical analysis results of the intermodulation interference effect on the spectral efficiency of a multiinput system with nonlinear elements in receiving antennas, obtained using the methods, algorithms and software products developed. It is shown that in the nonlinear system intermodulation interferences appear, and the spectral efficiency of the data transmission system decays near the operating frequency due to the appearance of additional combinational components in the frequency response of the system. This effect depends on the degree of nonlinearity, radiated power, the level of interfering signals. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the presence of nonlinear elements and devices must be taken into account in the design and analysis processes of multiinput multiantenna systems, considering the specific types of those nonlinearities.

  13. Effect of four-dimensional variational data assimilation in case of nonlinear instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of four-dimensional variational data assimilation on the reduction of the forecast errors is investigated for both stable and unstable flows. Numerical results show that the effect is generally positive. Particularly,its effect is much more significant in the presence of nonlinear instability

  14. Effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-02-01

    The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature, nonlinear material and nonlinear inertia owing to longitudinal motions of the beam are taken into account, and (ii) mid-plane stretching nonlinearity. A novel approach is employed, the method of varying amplitudes. As a result, the isolated as well as combined effects of the considered sources of nonlinearities are revealed. It is shown that nonlinear inertia has the most substantial impact on the dispersion relation of a non-uniform beam by removing all frequency band-gaps. Explanations of the revealed effects are suggested, and validated by experiments and numerical simulation.

  15. Nonlinear effects of dark energy clustering beyond the acoustic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Stefano [Department of Physics/CERCA/ISO, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States); Nacir, Diana López [The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: stefano.anselmi@case.edu, E-mail: dlopez_n@ictp.it, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We extend the resummation method of Anselmi and Pietroni (2012) to compute the total density power spectrum in models of quintessence characterized by a vanishing speed of sound. For standard ΛCDM cosmologies, this resummation scheme allows predictions with an accuracy at the few percent level beyond the range of scales where acoustic oscillations are present, therefore comparable to other, common numerical tools. In addition, our theoretical approach indicates an approximate but valuable and simple relation between the power spectra for standard quintessence models and models where scalar field perturbations appear at all scales. This, in turn, provides an educated guess for the prediction of nonlinear growth in models with generic speed of sound, particularly valuable since no numerical results are yet available.

  16. The effect of nonlinearity in relativistic nucleon–nucleon potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Sahu; S K Singh; M Bhuyan; S K Patra

    2014-04-01

    A simple form for nucleon–nucleon (NN) potential is introduced as an alternative to the popular M3Y form using the relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) with the non-linear terms in -meson for the first time. In contrast to theM3Y form, the new interaction becomes exactly zero at a finite distance and the expressions are analogous with the M3Y terms. Further, its applicability is examined by the study of proton and cluster radioactivity by folding it with the RMFT-densities of the cluster and daughter nuclei to obtain the optical potential in the region of proton-rich nuclides just above the double magic core 100Sn. The results obtained were found comparable with the widely used M3Y interactions.

  17. A NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ASTHMA: EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARESHA RAM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore a nonlinear mathematical model to study the spread of asthma due to inhaled pollutants from industry as well as tobacco smoke from smokers in a variable size population. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. It is shown that with an increase in the level of air pollutants concentration, the asthmatic (diseased population increases. It is also shown that along with pollutants present in the environment, smoking (active or passive also helps in the spread of asthma. Moreover, with the increase in the rate of interaction between susceptibles and smokers, the persistence of the spread of asthma is higher. A numerical study of the model is also performed to see the role of certain key parameters on the spread of asthma and to support the analytical results.

  18. Nonlinear Zel'dovich effect: Parametric amplification from medium rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Faccio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of light with rotating media has attracted recent interest for both fundamental and applied studies including rotational Doppler shift measurements. It is also possible to obtain amplification through the scattering of light with orbital angular momentum from a rotating and absorbing cylinder, as proposed by Zel'dovich more than 40 years ago. This amplification mechanism has never been observed experimentally yet has connections to other fields such as Penrose superradiance in rotating black holes. Here we propose a nonlinear optics system whereby incident light carrying orbital angular momentum drives parametric interaction in a rotating medium. The crystal rotation is shown to take the phase-mismatched parametric interaction with negligible energy exchange at zero rotation to amplification for sufficiently large rotation rates. The amplification is shown to result from breaking of anti-PT symmetry induced by the medium rotation.

  19. Connected cruise control: modelling, delay effects, and nonlinear behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Connected vehicle systems (CVS) are considered in this paper where vehicles exchange information using wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. The concept of connected cruise control (CCC) is established that allows control design at the level of individual vehicles while exploiting V2V connectivity. Due to its high level of modularity the proposed design can be applied to large heterogeneous traffic systems. The dynamics of a simple CVS is analysed in detail while taking into account nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics as well as in the controller. Time delays that arise due to intermittencies and packet drops in the communication channels are also incorporated. The results are summarised using stability charts which allow one to select control gains to maintain stability and ensure disturbance attenuation when the delay is below a critical value.

  20. Nonlinear Zel'dovich Effect: Parametric Amplification from Medium Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, Daniele; Wright, Ewan M.

    2017-03-01

    The interaction of light with rotating media has attracted recent interest for both fundamental and applied studies including rotational Doppler shift measurements. It is also possible to obtain amplification through the scattering of light with orbital angular momentum from a rotating and absorbing cylinder, as proposed by Zel'dovich more than forty years ago. This amplification mechanism has never been observed experimentally yet has connections to other fields such as Penrose superradiance in rotating black holes. Here we propose a nonlinear optics system whereby incident light carrying orbital angular momentum drives parametric interaction in a rotating medium. The crystal rotation is shown to take the phase-mismatched parametric interaction with negligible energy exchange at zero rotation to amplification for sufficiently large rotation rates. The amplification is shown to result from breaking of anti-P T symmetry induced by the medium rotation.

  1. Effect of Residual Stress on Divergence Instability of Rectangular Microplate Subjected to Nonlinear Electrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Rezazadeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of residual stress on divergence instability of a rectangular microplate subjected to a nonlinear electrostatic pressure for different geometrical properties has been presented. After deriving the governing equation and using of Step-by-Step Linearization Method (SSLM, the governing nonlinear equation has been linearized. By applying the finite difference method (FDM to a rectangular mesh, the linearized equation has been discretized. The results show, residual stresses have considerable effects on Pull-in phenomena. Tensile residual stresses increase pull-in voltage and compressive decrease it. The effect of different geometrical properties on divergence instability has also been studied.

  2. The Simulation Analysis of Nonlinear for a Power Amplifier with Memory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv. Jinqiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear distortion problem of current power amplifiers (PAs with memory effects, we use goal programming to present a memoryless predistorter matrix model based on limiting baseband predistortion technique, and the normalized mean squared error (NMSE is limited in a satisfactory range while the output power is maximum. Then we propose a nonlinear power amplifier with memory effects based on back propagation neural network (BPNN with three tapped delay nodes and six single hidden layer nodes, which is single input - dual output. Simulation results show that the method proposed in this paper makes the experimental precision higher. Further, the linearization effect of power amplifiers becomes better.

  3. Second order optical nonlinearity of graphene due to electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J. L.; Vermeulen, N.; Sipe, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllability of these effects by tuning the chemical potential, taking advantage of the dominant role played by interband optical transitions in the response. PMID:28262762

  4. Effect of reduction time on third order optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Vinitha, G.; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the influence of reduction time on structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films synthesized by spin coating method. We observed that the structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties can be tuned with reduction time in GO is due to the increased structural ordering because of the restoration of sp2 carbon atoms with the time of reduction. The nonlinear absorption studies by open aperture Z-scan technique exhibited a saturable absorption. The nonlinear refraction studies showed the self de focusing nature of rGO by closed aperture Z scan technique. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity varies with the time for reduction of GO which is attributed to the depletion of valence band and the conduction band filling effect. Our results emphasize duration for reduction of GO dependent optical nonlinearity of rGO thin films to a great extent and explore its applications Q switched mode locking laser systems for generating ultra short laser pulses and in optical sensors. The rGO coated films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction method (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements.

  5. 3-O-α-L-RAMNOPIRANOSILFLAVONOIDES Y OTROS DERIVADOS FENÓLICOS DE HOJAS DE Calliandra calothyrsus. MEISSNER (MIMOSACEAE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Moreno Murillo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} El estudio químico del extracto polar de hojas de Calliandra calothyrsus. Meissner (Mimosaceae (accesión CIAT 22316 condujo a la identificación de dos flavonoides glicosilados: 3-O-α-L-ramnopiranosil-7-metoxi-5,3',4'-trihidroxiflavona y 3-O-α-L-ramnopiranosil-5,7,3',4'-tetrahidroxiflavona; sus estructuras fueron elucidadas por métodos espectroscópicos IR y RMN (1D y 2D. Adicionalmente, por espectrometría de masas por las técnicas DART y ESI  de alta resolución, se identificaron derivados fenólicos mayoritarios tales como ácido gálico y su dímero (PM 339,032, dihidroxicumarina, trihidroxicumarina, quercetina, dihidroquercetina, 3-O-α-L-ramnopiranosil-7-metoxi-5,3',4'-trihidroxiflavona,3-O-α-L-ramnopiranosil-5,7,3',4'-tetrahidroxiflavona y un dímero de flavonoide como principales constituyentes químicos.

  6. Electrets in soft materials: nonlinearity, size effects, and giant electromechanical coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    Development of soft electromechanical materials is critical for several tantalizing applications such as soft robots and stretchable electronics, among others. Soft nonpiezoelectric materials can be coaxed to behave like piezoelectrics by merely embedding charges and dipoles in their interior and assuring some elastic heterogeneity. Such so-called electret materials have been experimentally shown to exhibit very large electromechanical coupling. In this work, we derive rigorous nonlinear expressions that relate effective electromechanical coupling to the creation of electret materials. In contrast to the existing models, we are able to both qualitatively and quantitatively capture the known experimental results on the nonlinear response of electret materials. Furthermore, we show that the presence of another form of electromechanical coupling, flexoelectricity, leads to size effects that dramatically alter the electromechanical response at submicron feature sizes. One of our key conclusions is that nonlinear deformation (prevalent in soft materials) significantly enhances the flexoelectric response and hence the aforementioned size effects.

  7. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Obinna

    2017-06-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

  8. Experimental investigation of nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoparticles: Effects of size quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Rodrigo; Ohnuma, Masato; Oyoshi, Keiji; Takeda, Yoshihiko

    2014-09-01

    The effects of size quantization on the nonlinear optical response of Ag nanoparticles are experimentally studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and femtosecond spectroscopic pump-and-probe techniques. In the vicinity of a localized surface-plasmon resonance (2.0-3.5 eV), we have investigated the optical nonlinearity of Ag particles embedded in silica glass for particle diameters ranging from 3.0 to 16 nm. The intrinsic third-order optical susceptibility χm(3) of Ag particles exhibited significant spectral and size dependences. These results are explained as quantum and dielectric confinements and are compared to the results of theoretical quantum finite-size effects calculation for metallic particles. In light of these results, we discuss the contribution of interband transitions to the size dependence of χm(3). Quantum size effects lead to an increase in nonlinearity in small Ag particles.

  9. Correction of non-linearity effects in detectors for electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mannella, N; Kay, A W; Nambu, A; Gresch, T; Yang, S H; Mun, B S; Bussat, J M; Rosenhahn, A; Fadley, C S

    2004-01-01

    Using photoemission intensities and a detection system employed by many groups in the electron spectroscopy community as an example, we have quantitatively characterized and corrected detector non-linearity effects over the full dynamic range of the system. Non-linearity effects are found to be important whenever measuring relative peak intensities accurately is important, even in the low-countrate regime. This includes, for example, performing quantitative analyses for surface contaminants or sample bulk stoichiometries, where the peak intensities involved can differ by one or two orders of magnitude, and thus could occupy a significant portion of the detector dynamic range. Two successful procedures for correcting non-linearity effects are presented. The first one yields directly the detector efficiency by measuring a flat-background reference intensity as a function of incident x-ray flux, while the second one determines the detector response from a least-squares analysis of broad-scan survey spectra at di...

  10. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise.

  11. Non-linear effects in transition edge sensors for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: sbandler@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Murphy, K.D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    In a microcalorimeter that uses a transition-edge sensor to detect energy depositions, the small signal energy resolution improves with decreasing heat capacity. This improvement remains true up to the point where non-linear and saturation effects become significant. This happens when the energy deposition causes a significant change in the sensor resistance. Not only does the signal size become a non-linear function of the energy deposited, but also the noise becomes non-stationary over the duration of the pulse. Algorithms have been developed that can calculate the optimal performance given this non-linear behavior that typically requires significant processing and calibration work-both of which are impractical for space missions. We have investigated the relative importance of the various non-linear effects, with the hope that a computationally simple transformation can overcome the largest of the non-linear and non-stationary effects, producing a highly linear 'gain' for pulse-height versus energy, and close to the best energy resolution at all energies when using a Wiener filter.

  12. Nonlinear effects in propagation of radiation of X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, V. L.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear effects accompanying the propagation of high-intensity beams of X-ray free-electron lasers are considered. It is shown that the X-ray wave field in the crystal significantly changes due to the formation of "hollow" atomic shells as a result of the photoelectric effect.

  13. Computing effective properties of nonlinear structures exposed to strong high-frequency loading at multiple frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2006-01-01

    Effects of strong high-frequency excitation at multiple frequencies (multi-HFE) are analyzed for a class of generally nonlinear systems. The effects are illustrated for a simple pendulum system with a vibrating support, and for a parametrically excited flexible beam. For the latter, theoretical...

  14. Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M

    2001-03-15

    A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.

  15. The effective wavenumber of a pre-stressed nonlinear microvoided composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, W J; Abrahams, I D, E-mail: William.Parnell@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    By using nonlinear elasticity and a modified version of classical multiple scattering theory we derive an explicit form for the effective wavenumber for horizontally polarized shear (SH) elastic waves propagating through a pre-stressed inhomogeneous material consisting of well-separated cylindrical voids embedded in a neo-Hookean rubber host phase. The resulting effective (incremental) antiplane shear modulus is thus also derived.

  16. Temperature dependent nonlinear Hall effect in macroscopic Si-MOS antidot array

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Shupltetsov, A. V.; Nunuparov, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    By measuring magnetoresistance and Hall effect in classically moderate perpendicular magnetic field in Si-MOSFET-type macroscopic antidot array we found a novel effect: nonlinear with field, temperature- and density-dependent Hall resistivity. We discuss qualitative explanation of the phenomenon and suggest that it might originate from strong temperature dependence of the resistivity and mobility in the shells of the antidots.

  17. Nonlinear topographic effects in two-layer flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter George Baines

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nature of non-linear flow of a two-layer fluid with a rigid lid over a long obstacle, such that the flow may be assumed to be hydrostatic. Such flows can generate hydraulic jumps upstream, and the model uses a new model of internal hydraulic jumps, which results in corrections to flows that have been computed using earlier models of jumps that are now known to be incorrect. The model covers the whole range of ratios of the densities of the two fluids, and is not restricted to the Boussinesq limit. The results are presented in terms of flow types in various regions of a Froude number-obstacle height (F0 – Hm diagram, in which the Froude number F0 is based on the initial flow conditions. When compared with single-layer flow, and some previous results with two layers, some surprising and novel patterns emerge on these diagrams. Specifically, in parts of the diagram where the flow may be supercritical (F0 > 1, there are regions where hysteresis may occur, implying that the flow may have two and sometimes three multiple flow states for the same conditions (i.e. values of F0 and Hm.

  18. Isotopic effects on non-linearity, molecular radius and intermolecular free length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjan Dey; Arvind K Singh; N K Soni; B S Bisht; J D Pandey

    2006-08-01

    Computation of non-linearity parameter (/), molecular radius (rm) and intermolecular free length (f) for H2O, C6H6, C6H12, CH3OH, C2H5OH and their deuterium-substituted compounds have been carried out at four different temperatures, viz., 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K. The aim of the investigation is an attempt to study the isotopic effects on the non-linearity parameter and the physicochemical properties of the liquids, which in turn has been used to study their effect on the intermolecular interactions produced thereof.

  19. Nonlinear Random Effects Mixture Models: Maximum Likelihood Estimation via the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Schumitzky, Alan; D'Argenio, David Z

    2007-08-15

    Nonlinear random effects models with finite mixture structures are used to identify polymorphism in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic phenotypes. An EM algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation approach is developed and uses sampling-based methods to implement the expectation step, that results in an analytically tractable maximization step. A benefit of the approach is that no model linearization is performed and the estimation precision can be arbitrarily controlled by the sampling process. A detailed simulation study illustrates the feasibility of the estimation approach and evaluates its performance. Applications of the proposed nonlinear random effects mixture model approach to other population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic problems will be of interest for future investigation.

  20. The effects of oppositely sloping boundaries with Ekman dissipation in a nonlinear baroclinic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, H.-Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present analytical and numerical examination of the effect of the slope Delta with dissipation delta on baroclinic flows in linear and nonlinear systems uses a modified Eady channel model with oppositely sloping top and bottom Ekman layers, and truncates the spectral wave solution up to six components. Comparisons are made wherever possible with results from beta-plane dissipative systems. In the linear system, the combined effect of Delta and delta strongly stabilizes long waves. In a nonlinear system without wave-wave interaction, Delta stabilizes the flow even for small delta and reduces the domain of vacillation while enlarging the domain of single-wave steady state.

  1. Study of dispersive and nonlinear effects of coastal wave dynamics with a fully nonlinear potential flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michel; Yates, Marissa L.; Raoult, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Efficient and accurate numerical models simulating wave propagation are required for a variety of engineering projects including the evaluation of coastal risks, the design of protective coastal structures, and the estimation of the potential for marine renewable energy devices. Nonlinear and dispersive effects are particularly significant in the coastal zone where waves interact with the bottom, the shoreline, and coastal structures. The main challenge in developing a numerical models is finding a compromise between computational efficiency and the required accuracy of the simulated wave field. Here, a potential approach is selected and the (fully nonlinear) water wave problem is formulated using the Euler-Zakharov equations (Zakharov, 1968) describing the temporal evolution of the free surface elevation and velocity potential. The proposed model (Yates and Benoit, 2015) uses a spectral approach in the vertical (i.e. the vertical variation of the potential is approximated by a linear combination of the first NT+1 Chebyshev polynomials, following the work of Tian and Sato (2008)). The Zakharov equations are integrated in time using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. At each sub-timestep, the Laplace Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is solved to estimate the free surface vertical velocity using the spectral approach, with typical values of NT between 5 to 8 for practical applications. The 1DH version of the code is validated with comparisons to the experimental data set of Becq-Girard et al. (1999), which studied the propagation of irregular waves over a beach profile with a submerged bar. The nonlinear and dispersive capacities of the model are verified with the correct representation of wave-wave interactions, in particular the transfer of energy between different harmonic components during wave propagation (analysis of the transformation of the variance spectrum along the channel). Evolution of wave skewness, asymmetry and kurtosis along the

  2. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of optically generated magnetostatic volume mode spin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, L. J. A.; Buijnsters, F. J.; Fasolino, A.; Rasing, T.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experimental work has demonstrated optical control of spin wave emission by tuning the shape of the optical pulse [Satoh et al., Nat. Photon. 6, 662 (2012), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.218]. We reproduce these results and extend the scope of the control by investigating nonlinear effects for large amplitude excitations. We observe an accumulation of spin wave power at the center of the initial excitation combined with short-wavelength spin waves. These kinds of nonlinear effects have not been observed in earlier work on nonlinearities of spin waves. Our observations pave the way for the manipulation of magnetic structures at a smaller scale than the beam focus, for instance in devices with all-optical control of magnetism.

  3. Nonlinear frequency conversion effect in a one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicharn, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, the nonlinear frequency conversion effect based on four-wave mixing (FWM) principle in a onedimensional graphene-based photonics crystal (1D-GPC) has been investigated numerically. The 1D-GPC structure is composed of two periodically alternating material layers, which are graphene-silicon dioxide bilayer system and silicon membrane. Since, the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of bilayer system is hundred time higher than pure silicon dioxide layer, so the enhancement of FWM response can be achieved inside the structure with optimizing photon energy being much higher than a chemical potential level (μ) of graphene sheet. In addition, the conversion efficiencies of 1DGPC structure are compared with chalcogenide based photonic structure for showing that 1D-GPC structure can enhance nonlinear effect by a factor of 100 above the chalcogenide based structure with the same structure length.

  4. Beyond the effective mass approximation: predictive theory of the nonlinear optical response of conduction electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shukai; Talbayev, Diyar

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of the nonlinear optical response of conduction electrons to intense terahertz (THz) electric field. Our observations (saturable absorption and an amplitude-dependent group refractive index) can be understood on the qualitative level as the breakdown of the effective mass approximation. However, a predictive theoretical description of the nonlinearity has been missing. We propose a model based on the semiclassical electron dynamics, a realistic band structure, and the free electron Drude parameters to accurately calculate the experimental observables in InSb. Our results open a path to predictive modeling of the conduction-electron optical nonlinearity in semiconductors, metamaterials, as well as high-field effects in THz plasmonics.

  5. Effects of ADC Nonlinearity on the Spurious Dynamic Range Performance of Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog-to-information converter (AIC plays an important role in the compressed sensing system; it has the potential to significantly extend the capabilities of conventional analog-to-digital converter. This paper evaluates the impact of AIC nonlinearity on the dynamic performance in practical compressed sensing system, which included the nonlinearity introduced by quantization as well as the circuit non-ideality. It presents intuitive yet quantitative insights into the harmonics of quantization output of AIC, and the effect of other AIC nonlinearity on the spurious dynamic range (SFDR performance is also analyzed. The analysis and simulation results demonstrated that, compared with conventional ADC-based system, the measurement process decorrelates the input signal and the quantization error and alleviate the effect of other decorrelates of AIC, which results in a dramatic increase in spurious free dynamic range (SFDR.

  6. Effective supercontinuum generation by using highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber incorporated with Si nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongmook; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Youngwoong; Watekar, Pramod R; Jeong, Hyejeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Boo, Seongjae; Kim, Dug Young; Han, Won-Taek

    2012-01-01

    The dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) incorporated with Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) having highly nonlinear optical property was fabricated to investigate the effective supercontinuum generation characteristics by using the MCVD process and the drawing process. Optical nonlinearity was enhanced by incorporating Si nanocrystals in the core of the fiber and the refractive index profile of a dispersion-shifted fiber was employed to match its zero-dispersion wavelength to that of the commercially available pumping source for generating effective supercontinuum. The non-resonant nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the Si-NCs doped DSF measured by the cw-SPM method was measured to be 7.03 x 10(-20) [m2/W] and the coefficient of non-resonant nonlinearity, gamma, was 7.14 [W(-1) km(-1)]. To examine supercontinuum generation of the Si-NCs doped DSF, the femtosecond fiber laser with the pulse width of 150 fs (at 1560 nm) was launched into the fiber core. The output spectrum of the Si-NCs doped DSF was found to broaden from 1300 nm to wavelength well beyond 1700 nm, which can be attributed to the enhanced optical nonlinearity by Si-NCs embedded in the fiber core. The short wavelength of the supercontinuum spectrum in the Si-NCs doped DSF showed shift from 1352 nm to 1220 nm for the fiber length of 2.5 m and 200 m, respectively.

  7. THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS ON OPTICAL WDM NETWORKS WITH VARIOUS FIBER TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIN M. KARFAA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to evaluate the performance of an opticalwavelength division multiplexing (WDM network transmission system in the presenceof crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities. The most significant nonlinear effects inthe optical fiber which are Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM,and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS are investigated. Four types of optical fiber areincluded in the analysis; these are: single-mode fiber (SMF, dispersion compensationfiber (DCF, non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF, and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber(NZDSF. The results represent the standard deviation of nonlinearity induced crosstalknoise power due to FWM and SRS, XPM power penalty for SMF, DCF, NZDF, andNZDSF types of fiber, besides the Bit Error Rate (BER for the three nonlinear effectsusing standard fiber type (SMF. It is concluded that three significant fiber nonlinearitiesare making huge limitations against increasing the launched power which is desired,otherwise, lower values of launched power limit network expansion including length,distance, covered areas, and number of users accessing the WDM network, unlesssuitable precautions are taken to neutralize the nonlinear effects. Besides, various fibertypes are not behaving similarly towards network parameters.

  8. Silica-glass contribution to the effective nonlinearity of hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher J; Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Gaeta, Alexander L; Venkataraman, Natesan; Gallagher, Michael T; Koch, Karl W

    2007-03-19

    We measure the effective nonlinearity of various hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Our findings indicate that differences of tens of nanometers in the fiber structure result in significant changes to the power propagating in the silica glass and thus in the effective nonlinearity of the fiber. These results show that it is possible to engineer the nonlinear response of these fibers via small changes to the glass structure.

  9. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, A A; Wynveen, A

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA's? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the "random field." In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is discussed in

  10. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Wynveen, A.

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA’s? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the “random field.” In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is

  11. Collisional effects in weakly collisional plasmas: nonlinear electrostatic waves and recurrence phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Pezzi, O.; Valentini, F.

    2015-12-01

    The longstanding problem of collisions in plasmas is a very fascinating and huge topic in plasma physics. The 'natural' operator that describes the Coulombian interactions between charged particles is the Landau (LAN) integral operator. The LAN operator is a nonlinear, integro-differential and Fokker-Planck type operator which satisfies the H theorem for the entropy growth. Due to its nonlinear nature and multi-dimensionality, any approach to the solution of the Landau integral is almost prohibitive. Therefore collisions are usually modeled by simplified collisional operators. Here collisional effects are modeled by i) the one-dimensional Lenard-Bernstein (LB) operator and ii) the three-dimensional Dougherty (DG) operator. In the first case i), by focusing on a 1D-1V phase space, we study recurrence effects in a weakly collisional plasma, being collisions modeled by the LB operator. By decomposing the linear Vlasov-Poisson system in the Fourier-Hermite space, the recurrence problem is investigated in the linear regime of the damping of a Langmuir wave and of the onset of the bump-on-tail instability. The analysis is then confirmed and extended to the nonlinear regime through a Eulerian collisional Vlasov-Poisson code. Despite being routinely used, an artificial collisionality is not in general a viable way of preventing recurrence in numerical simulations. Moreover, recursive phenomena affect both the linear exponential growth and the nonlinear saturation of a linear instability by producing a fake growth in the electric field, thus showing that, although the filamentation is usually associated with low amplitude fluctuations contexts, it can occur also in nonlinear phenomena. On the other hand ii), the effects of electron-electron collisions on the propagation of nonlinear electrostatic waves are shown by means of Eulerian simulations in a 1D-3V (one dimension in physical space, three dimensions in velocity space) phase space. The nonlinear regime of the symmetric

  12. Effects of nonlinear strength parameters on stability of 3D soil slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉峰; 吴迪; 张飞; 秦红玉; 朱德胜

    2016-01-01

    Actual slope stability problems have three-dimensional (3D) characteristics and the soils of slopes have curved failure envelopes. This incorporates a power-law nonlinear failure criterion into the kinematic approach of limit analysis to conduct the evaluation of the stability of 3D slopes. A tangential technique is adopted to simplify the nonlinear failure criterion in the form of equivalent Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters. A class of 3D admissible rotational failure mechanisms is selected for soil slopes including three types of failure mechanisms: face failure, base failure, and toe failure. The upper-bound solutions and corresponding critical slip surfaces can be obtained by an efficient optimization method. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameters have significant influences on the assessment of slope stability, especially on the type of failure mechanism. The effects of nonlinear parameters appear to be pronounced for gentle slopes constrained to a narrow width. Compared with the solutions derived from plane-strain analysis, the 3D solutions are more sensitive to the values of nonlinear parameters.

  13. Nonlinear effects manifested in infrasonic signals in the region of a geometric shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichkov, S. N.; Golikova, E. V.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear effects manifested in infrasonic signals passing through different atmospheric heights and recorded in the region of a geometric shadow have been studied. The source of infrasound was a surface explosion equivalent to 20-70 t of TNT. The frequencies of the spectral maxima of infrasonic signals, which correspond to the reflections of acoustic pulses from atmospheric inhomogeneities at different heights within the stratosphere-mesosphere-lower thermosphere layer, were calculated using the nonlinear-theory method. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated data was obtained.

  14. Solution of Excited Non-Linear Oscillators under Damping Effects Using the Modified Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Abdelhafez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified differential transform method (MDTM, Laplace transform and Padé approximants are used to investigate a semi-analytic form of solutions of nonlinear oscillators in a large time domain. Forced Duffing and forced van der Pol oscillators under damping effect are studied to investigate semi-analytic forms of solutions. Moreover, solutions of the suggested nonlinear oscillators are obtained using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method. A comparison of the result by the numerical Runge-Kutta fourth-order accuracy method is compared with the result by the MDTM and plotted in a long time domain.

  15. Effect of loss on photon-pair generation in nonlinear waveguides arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Antonosyan, Diana A; Sukhorukov, Andrey A

    2014-01-01

    We describe theoretically the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays in the presence of linear loss. We derive a set of discrete Schrodinger-type equations for the biphoton wave function, and the wave function of one photon when the other photon in a pair is lost. We demonstrate effects arising from loss-affected interference between the generated photon pairs and show that nonlinear waveguide arrays can serve as a robust loss-tolerant integrated platform for the generation of entangled photon states with non-classical spatial correlations.

  16. Nonlinear Effect on Focusing Gain of a Focusing Transducer with a Wide Aperture Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-He; ZHANG Dong; GONG Xiu-Fen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Nonlinear effect on focusing gain of acoustic field radiated from a 1-MHz focusing transmitter with a wide aperture angle of 35° is theoretically and experimentally investigated. With the enhancement of nonlinearity, the focusing gains of both intensity and peak positive pressure show non-monotonic behaviour. There exist the same saturated levels at which the maximum outputs are reached and their spatial distributions are more localized. In contrast,the peak negative pressure always decreases monotonically and its spatial distribution is less localized.

  17. Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade including diamagnetic drift effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Krebs, Isabel; Franck, Emmanuel; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Orain, Francois; Morales, Jorge; Becoulet, Marina [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huysmans, Guido [ITER Organization, 13067 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-05-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for ITER due to high transient heat loads on divertor targets and wall structures. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed ELM simulations for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) including diamagnetic drift effects. The influence of diamagnetic terms onto the evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum for different AUG equilibria and the non-linear interaction of the toroidal harmonics are investigated. In particular, we confirm the diamagnetic stabilization of high mode numbers and present new features of a previously introduced quadratic mode coupling model for the early non-linear evolution of the mode structure. Preliminary comparisons of full ELM crashes with experimental observations are shown aiming at code validation and the understanding of different ELM types. Work is ongoing to include toroidal and neoclassical poloidal rotation in our simulations.

  18. Viscous Flow over Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Effects of Viscous Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Alinejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of incompressible viscous flow over a nonlinearly stretching sheet with the presence of viscous dissipation is investigated numerically. The similarity transformation reduces the time-independent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy into a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The obtained equations, including nonlinear equation for the velocity field and differential equation by variable coefficient for the temperature field , are solved numerically by using the fourth order of Runge-Kutta integration scheme accompanied by shooting technique with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The effect of various values of Prandtl number, Eckert number and nonlinear stretching parameter are studied. The results presented graphically show some behaviors such as decrease in dimensionless temperature due to increase in Pr number, and curve relocations are observed when heat dissipation is considered.

  19. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    CERN Document Server

    Umeh, Obinna

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We consider how non-linear effects associated with the HI bias and redshift space distortions contribute to the clustering of cosmic neutral Hydrogen on large scales. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result to show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortions leads to about 10\\% modulation of the HI power spectrum on large scales.

  20. Nonlinear effects of inertial Alfvén wave in low beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinawa, M. L., E-mail: motilal.rinawa@gmail.com; Gaur, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhiphysics@gmail.com; Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ac.in [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the nonlinear interaction and propagation of high frequency pump inertial Alfvén wave (IAW) with comparatively low frequency IAW with emphasis on nonlinear effects and applications within space plasma and astrophysics for low β-plasma (β≪m{sub e}/m{sub i}). We have developed a set of dimensionless equations in the presence of ponderomotive nonlinearity due to high frequency pump IAW in the dynamics of comparatively low frequency IAW. Stability analysis and numerical simulation have been carried out for the coupled system comprising of pump IAW and low frequency IAW to study the localization and turbulent spectra, applicable to auroral region. The result reveals that localized structures become more complex and intense in nature at the quasi steady state. From the obtained result, we found that the present model may be useful to study the turbulent fluctuations in accordance with the observations of FAST/THEMIS spacecraft.

  1. Advanced Nonlinear Latent Variable Modeling: Distribution Analytic LMS and QML Estimators of Interaction and Quadratic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelava, Augustin; Werner, Christina S.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Zapf, Dieter; Ma, Yue; Cham, Heining; Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Interaction and quadratic effects in latent variable models have to date only rarely been tested in practice. Traditional product indicator approaches need to create product indicators (e.g., x[superscript 2] [subscript 1], x[subscript 1]x[subscript 4]) to serve as indicators of each nonlinear latent construct. These approaches require the use of…

  2. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on Bragg scattering in the low-conversion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Cargill, D. S.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation on frequency conversion by four-wave mixing (Bragg scattering) in the low-conversion regime. We derive the Green functions for this process using the time-domain collision method, for partial collisions, in which the four fields...

  3. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  4. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on low-conversion four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    We consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) on frequency converseon by Bragg scattering. Previously we found that arbitrary mode reshaping without temporal entanglement (separability) was possible. When NPM is included, the modes are chirped and the separability is no longer compl...

  5. NONLINEAR OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF LANGMUIR-BLODGETT MONOLAYERS - LOCAL-FIELD EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CNOSSEN, G; DRABE, KE; WIERSMA, DA

    1992-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the macroscopic second-order optical nonlinearity chi(2) (2-omega,omega,omega) of Langmuir-Blodgett dye-doped monolayers are reported. The observed deviations from a linear behavior of chi-(2) with increasing surface density are shown to be due to local-field effects. In ord

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers : Local-field effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Gerard; Drabe, Karel E.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the macroscopic second-order optical nonlinearity chi(2) (2-omega,omega,omega) of Langmuir-Blodgett dye-doped monolayers are reported. The observed deviations from a linear behavior of chi-(2) with increasing surface density are shown to be due to local-field effects. In ord

  7. Effect of quantum correction on nonlinear thermal wave of electrons driven by laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafari, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-08-01

    In thermal interaction of laser pulse with a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane, the thermal waves of electrons are generated instantly. Since the thermal conductivity of electron is a nonlinear function of temperature, a nonlinear heat conduction equation is used to investigate the propagation of waves in solid DT. This paper presents a self-similar analytic solution for the nonlinear heat conduction equation in a planar geometry. The thickness of the target material is finite in numerical computation, and it is assumed that the laser energy is deposited at a finite initial thickness at the initial time which results in a finite temperature for electrons at initial time. Since the required temperature range for solid DT ignition is higher than the critical temperature which equals 35.9 eV, the effects of quantum correction in thermal conductivity should be considered. This letter investigates the effects of quantum correction on characteristic features of nonlinear thermal wave, including temperature, penetration depth, velocity, heat flux, and heating and cooling domains. Although this effect increases electron temperature and thermal flux, penetration depth and propagation velocity are smaller. This effect is also applied to re-evaluate the side-on laser ignition of uncompressed DT.

  8. THE EFFECT OF NUMERICAL INTEGRATION IN FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR NONLINEAR PARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N'guimbi; Germain

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. The effect of numerical integration in finite element methods applied to a class of nonlinear parabolic equations is considered and some sufficient conditions on the quadrature scheme to ensure that the order of convergence is unaltered in the presence of numerical integration are given. Optimal Lz and H1 estimates for the error and its time derivative are established.

  9. Nonlinear magneto-optical effects in cold atoms of 87Rb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ling-Xiang; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2004-01-01

    With laser-cooled cold 87Rb atoms as a magneto-optical medium, a weak right circularly polarized probe field and frequency modulation technique are used to detect the magnetic distribution of the quadrupole field. A two-peak dispersion-like signal other than that of the usual nonlinear magneto-optical effect mentioned in other papers is obtained.

  10. The spin Hall effect as a probe of nonlinear spin fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, D H; Niimi, Y; Gu, B; Ziman, T; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y

    2012-01-01

    The spin Hall effect and its inverse have key roles in spintronic devices as they allow conversion of charge currents to and from spin currents. The conversion efficiency strongly depends on material details, such as the electronic band structure and the nature of impurities. Here we show an anomaly in the inverse spin Hall effect in weak ferromagnetic NiPd alloys near their Curie temperatures with a shape independent of material details, such as Ni concentrations. By extending Kondo's model for the anomalous Hall effect, we explain the observed anomaly as originating from the second-order nonlinear spin fluctuation of Ni moments. This brings to light an essential symmetry difference between the spin Hall effect and the anomalous Hall effect, which reflects the first-order nonlinear fluctuations of local moments. Our finding opens up a new application of the spin Hall effect, by which a minuscule magnetic moment can be detected.

  11. Contributions to the nonlinear integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect: Birkinshaw-Gull effect and gravitational self-energy density

    CERN Document Server

    Merkel, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we recompute contributions to the spectrum of the nonlinear integrated Sachs-Wolfe (iSW)/Rees-Sciama effect in a dark energy cosmology. Focusing on the moderate nonlinear regime, all dynamical fields involved are derived from the density contrast in Eulerian perturbation theory. Shape and amplitude of the resulting angular power spectrum are similar to that derived in previous work. With our purely analytical approach we identify two distinct contributions to the signal of the nonlinear iSW-effect: the change of the gravitational self-energy density of the large scale structure with (conformal) time and gravitational lenses moving with the large scale matter stream. In the latter we recover the Birkinshaw-Gull effect. As the nonlinear iSW-effect itself is inherently hard to detect, observational discrimination between its individual contributions is almost excluded. Our analysis, however, yields valuable insights into the theory of the nonlinear iSW-effect as a post-Newtonian relativistic effec...

  12. The effect of crack orientation on the nonlinear interaction of a P wave with an S wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenCate, J. A.; Malcolm, A. E.; Feng, X.; Fehler, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Cracks, joints, fluids, and other pore-scale structures have long been hypothesized to be the cause of the large elastic nonlinearity observed in rocks. It is difficult to definitively say which pore-scale features are most important, however, because of the difficulty in isolating the source of the nonlinear interaction. In this work, we focus on the influence of cracks on the recorded nonlinear signal and in particular on how the orientation of microcracks changes the strength of the nonlinear interaction. We do this by studying the effect of orientation on the measurements in a rock with anisotropy correlated with the presence and alignment of microcracks. We measure the nonlinear response via the traveltime delay induced in a low-amplitude P wave probe by a high-amplitude S wave pump. We find evidence that crack orientation has a significant effect on the nonlinear signal.

  13. Using high-frequency vibrations and non-linear inclusions to create metamaterials with adjustable effective properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how high-frequency (HF) excitation combined with strongly non-linear elasticity may influence the effective properties for low-frequency wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated for linear spring-mass chains with embedded non-linear parts. The investigated mechanical syste...

  14. Morphological Study on the Meissner Corpuscles of the Human Hand%人手皮肤触觉小体分布的形态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲁建; 李心瑶; 柏树令

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究S-100蛋白和MBP蛋白在人手指皮肤触觉小体上的表达情况.方法 采用SP免疫组化方法检测S-100蛋白和MBP蛋白在人手指皮肤触觉小体上的表达.结果 真皮乳头嵴存在于表皮嵴下,与指纹并行排列.真皮乳头层内有触觉小体存在.皮神经和感觉小体分布在血管和汗腺附近.结论 本研究为解决手指损伤后的感觉障碍提供了形态学资料.%Objective To study the expressions of S-100 protein and MBP protein in Meissner corpuscles of the human fingers' skin. Methods The streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical method was used. Results Our results showed that dermal papilla ridges were below epidermal ridges. Both of them located in the skin side by side. Meissner corpuscles located in the papillary layer of dermis. Cutaneous nerves and sensory corpuscles were found nearby the blood vessels and the sweat glands. Conclusion The results of the present study may provide the morphological data in order to solve the problem of sensory disturbance after the injuries of fingers.

  15. Nonlinear Statistical Process Monitoring Based on Control Charts with Memory Effect and Kernel Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonlinear combination process monitoring method was proposed based on techniques with memory effect (multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA)) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA). The method was developed for dealing with nonlinear issues and detecting small or moderate drifts in one or more process variables with autocorrelation. MEWMA charts use additional information from the past history of the process for keeping the memory effect of the process behavior trend. KICA is a recently developed statistical technique for revealing hidden, nonlinear statistically independent factors that underlie sets of measurements and it is a two-phase algorithm: whitened kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus independent component analysis (ICA). The application to the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) simulated process indicates that the proposed combined method based on MEWMA and KICA can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship and detect small drifts in process variables. Its performance significantly outperforms monitoring method based on ICA, MEWMA-ICA and KICA, especially for long-term performance deterioration.

  16. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; de Vries, Wim

    2017-09-12

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China. Our results show a non-linear direct effect of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate, including a neutral to positive effect above pH 5.0 and a negative effect below that pH level. The acid rain sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis showed no significant difference between herbs and woody species below pH 5.0, but the impacts above that pH level were strongly different, resulting in a significant increase in leaf photosynthetic rate of woody species and an insignificant effect on herbs. Our analysis also indicates a positive effect of the molar ratio of nitric versus sulfuric acid in the acid solution on leaf photosynthetic rate. These findings imply that rainwater acidity and the composition of acids both affect the response of leaf photosynthesis and therefore result in a non-linear direct effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of alpha and Gaussian refractive index profiles on the design of highly nonlinear optical fibre for efficient nonlinear optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvendran, S.; Sivanantharaja, A.; Arivazhagan, S.; Kannan, M.

    2016-09-01

    We propose an index profiled, highly nonlinear ultraflattened dispersion fibre (HN-UFF) with appreciable values of fibre parameters such as dispersion, dispersion slope, effective area, nonlinearity, bending loss and splice loss. The designed fibre has normal zero flattened dispersion over S, C, L, U bands and extends up to 1.9857 μm. The maximum dispersion variation observed for this fibre is as low as 1.61 ps km-1 nm-1 over the 500-nm optical fibre transmission spectrum. This fibre also has two zero dispersion wavelengths at 1.487 and 1.9857 μm and the respective dispersion slopes are 0.02476 and 0.0068 ps nm-2 km-1. The fibre has a very low ITU-T cutoff wavelength of 1.2613 μm and a virtuous nonlinear coefficient of 9.43 W-1 km-1. The wide spectrum of zero flattened dispersion and a good nonlinear coefficient make the designed fibre very promising for different nonlinear optical signal processing applications.

  18. Dynamics of a qubit coupled to a dissipative nonlinear quantum oscillator: an effective bath approach

    CERN Document Server

    Vierheilig, Carmen; Grifoni, Milena

    2010-01-01

    We consider a qubit coupled to a nonlinear quantum oscillator, the latter coupled to an Ohmic bath, and investigate the qubit dynamics. This composed system can be mapped onto that of a qubit coupled to an effective bath. An approximate mapping procedure to determine the spectral density of the effective bath is given. Specifically, within a linear response approximation the effective spectral density is given by the knowledge of the linear susceptibility of the nonlinear quantum oscillator. To determine the actual form of the susceptibility, we consider its periodically driven counterpart, the problem of the quantum Duffing oscillator within linear response theory in the driving amplitude. Knowing the effective spectral density, the qubit dynamics is investigated. In particular, an analytic formula for the qubit's population difference is derived. Within the regime of validity of our theory, a very good agreement is found with predictions obtained from a Bloch-Redfield master equation approach applied to the...

  19. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-05-20

    Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or changing between periods. We use the expected standard errors of treatment effect to compute the power for the Wald test of comparison or equivalence and the number of subjects needed for a given power. We perform various simulations mimicking crossover two-period trials to show the relevance of these developments. We then apply these developments to design a crossover pharmacokinetic study of amoxicillin in piglets and implement them in the new version 3.2 of the r function PFIM.

  20. Photoconductivity, photoluminescence and optical Kerr nonlinear effects in zinc oxide films containing chromium nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Torres, C., E-mail: crstorres@yahoo.com.mx [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Z, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, DF 07738 (Mexico); Garcia-Cruz, M.L. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A. P. J-48, Puebla 72570, Mexico (Mexico); Castaneda, L., E-mail: luisca@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A. P. J-48, Puebla 72570, Mexico (Mexico); Rangel Rojo, R. [CICESE/Depto. de Optica, A. P. 360, Ensenada, BC 22860 (Mexico); Tamayo-Rivera, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 01000 (Mexico); Maldonado, A. [Depto. de Ing. Electrica, CINVESTAV IPN-SEES, A. P. 14740, Mexico DF 07000 (Mexico); Avendano-Alejo, M., E-mail: imax_aa@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-186, 04510, DF (Mexico); and others

    2012-04-15

    Chromium doped zinc oxide thin solid films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates. The photoconductivity of the material and its influence on the optical behavior was evaluated. A non-alkoxide sol-gel synthesis approach was used for the preparation of the samples. An enhancement of the photoluminescence response exhibited by the resulting photoconductive films with embedded chromium nanoclusters is presented. The modification in the photoconduction induced by a 445 nm wavelength was measured and then associated with the participation of the optical absorptive response. In order to investigate the third order optical nonlinearities of the samples, a standard time-resolved Optical Kerr Gate configuration with 80 fs pulses at 830 nm was used and a quasi-instantaneous pure electronic nonlinearity without the contribution of nonlinear optical absorption was observed. We estimate that from the inclusion of Cr nanoclusters into the sample results a strong optical Kerr effect originated by quantum confinement. The large photoluminescence response and the important refractive nonlinearity of the photoconductive samples seem to promise potential applications for the development of multifunctional all-optical nanodevices. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement in photoluminescence for chromium doped zinc oxide films is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong and ultrafast optical Kerr effect seems to result from quantum confinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoconductive properties for optical and optoelectronic functions were observed.

  1. The effect and design of time delay in feedback control for a nonlinear isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuting; Xu, Jian; Fu, Jiangsong

    2017-03-01

    The optimum value of time delay of active control used in a nonlinear isolation system for different types of external excitation is studied in this paper. Based on the mathematical model of the nonlinear isolator with time-delayed active control, the stability, response and displacement transmissibility of the system are analyzed to obtain the standards for appropriate values of time delay and control strengths. The effects of nonlinearity and time delay on the stability and vibration response are discussed in details. For impact excitation and random excitation, the optimal value of time delay is obtained based on the vibration dissipation time via eigenvalues analysis, while for harmonic excitation, the optimal values are determined based on multiple vibration properties including natural frequency, amplitude death region and effective isolation region by the Averaging Method. This paper establishes the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a nonlinear isolation system which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed active control for different types of excitation in engineering practices.

  2. Effects on the Floor Response Spectra by the Nonlinear Behavior of a Seismic Base Isolation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyungkui; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An evaluation of safety being carried out for various risk factors of prevents for nuclear power plant accident. In general, an evaluation of the structural integrity was performed about seismic risk. In recent years, an assessment of integrity of internal equipment being carried out for earthquake loads owing to the possibility of severe accidents caused by the destruction of internal equipment or a blackout. Floor response spectra of the structure should be sought for evaluating of the integrity of internal equipment. The floor response spectra depends on the characteristics of seismic base isolation system such as the natural frequency, damping ratio, and height of the floor of the structure. An evaluation of the structural integrity using the equivalent stiffness of the seismic base isolation system was satisfactory. In this study, the effect of the non-linearity of isolated system in the floor response spectrum of the structure is analyzed. In this study, the floor response spectrum of the seismic base isolation system by the non-linear effect of the rubber isolator was analyzed. As a result, the influence of the non-linear isolated system was increased in hi-frequency domain. In addition, each floor exhibited a more different of responses compared with the equivalent linear model of the isolated structure. The non-linearity of the isolation system of the structure was considered, because of a more reliable assessment of integrity of equipment at each floor of seismic base the isolation system.

  3. Nonlinear pedagogy: an effective approach to cater for individual differences in learning a sports skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Komar, John; Tan, Clara Wee Keat; Button, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Learning a sports skill is a complex process in which practitioners are challenged to cater for individual differences. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach for learning a sports skill. Twenty-four 10-year-old females participated in a 4-week intervention involving either a Nonlinear Pedagogy (i.e.,manipulation of task constraints including equipment and rules) or a Linear Pedagogy (i.e., prescriptive, repetitive drills) approach to learn a tennis forehand stroke. Performance accuracy scores, movement criterion scores and kinematic data were measured during pre-intervention, post-intervention and retention tests. While both groups showed improvements in performance accuracy scores over time, the Nonlinear Pedagogy group displayed a greater number of movement clusters at post-test indicating the presence of degeneracy (i.e., many ways to achieve the same outcome). The results suggest that degeneracy is effective for learning a sports skill facilitated by a Nonlinear Pedagogy approach. These findings challenge the common misconception that there must be only one ideal movement solution for a task and thus have implications for coaches and educators when designing instructions for skill acquisition.

  4. Gravitational-wave tail effects to quartic non-linear order

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Tanguy; Faye, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational-wave tails are due to the backscattering of linear waves onto the space-time curvature generated by the total mass of the matter source. The dominant tails correspond to quadratic non-linear interactions and arise at the one-and-a-half post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order in the gravitational waveform. Also known are the "tails-of-tails", which are cubically non-linear effects appearing at the 3PN order in the waveform. Here we derive still higher non-linear tail effects, namely those associated with quartic non-linear interactions or "tails-of-tails-of-tails", which are shown to arise at the 4.5PN order. As an application we obtain at that order the complete coefficient in the total gravitational-wave energy flux of compact binary systems moving on circular orbits. Our result perfectly agrees with black-hole perturbation calculations in the limit of extreme mass ratio of the two compact objects.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos of Microcantilever-Based TM-AFMs with Squeeze Film Damping Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Yu Chen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In Atomic force microscope (AFM examination of a vibrating microcantilever, the nonlinear tip-sample interaction would greatly influence the dynamics of the cantilever. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics and chaos of a tip-sample dynamic system being run in the tapping mode (TM were investigated by considering the effects of hydrodynamic loading and squeeze film damping. The microcantilever was modeled as a spring-mass-damping system and the interaction between the tip and the sample was described by the Lennard-Jones (LJ potential. The fundamental frequency and quality factor were calculated from the transient oscillations of the microcantilever vibrating in air. Numerical simulations were carried out to study the coupled nonlinear dynamic system using the bifurcation diagram, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponent, phase portraits and time histories. Results indicated the occurrence of periodic and chaotic motions and provided a comprehensive understanding of the hydrodynamic loading of microcantilevers. It was demonstrated that the coupled dynamic system will experience complex nonlinear oscillation as the system parameters change and the effect of squeeze film damping is not negligible on the micro-scale.

  6. Nonlinear Effects of Laser Surface Modification of Ore Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Leonenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous laser radiation on complex ore minerals objects containing gold, not extracted by monerd methods was investigated. It was established the formation of different structural surfaces of gold, revealed general patterns of sintering and concentration of sub-micron gold.

  7. A model selection method for nonlinear system identification based FMRI effective connectivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam; McGinnity, Thomas M; Benali, Habib

    2011-07-01

    In this paper a model selection algorithm for a nonlinear system identification method is proposed to study functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) effective connectivity. Unlike most other methods, this method does not need a pre-defined structure/model for effective connectivity analysis. Instead, it relies on selecting significant nonlinear or linear covariates for the differential equations to describe the mapping relationship between brain output (fMRI response) and input (experiment design). These covariates, as well as their coefficients, are estimated based on a least angle regression (LARS) method. In the implementation of the LARS method, Akaike's information criterion corrected (AICc) algorithm and the leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation method were employed and compared for model selection. Simulation comparison between the dynamic causal model (DCM), nonlinear identification method, and model selection method for modelling the single-input-single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems were conducted. Results show that the LARS model selection method is faster than DCM and achieves a compact and economic nonlinear model simultaneously. To verify the efficacy of the proposed approach, an analysis of the dorsal and ventral visual pathway networks was carried out based on three real datasets. The results show that LARS can be used for model selection in an fMRI effective connectivity study with phase-encoded, standard block, and random block designs. It is also shown that the LOO cross-validation method for nonlinear model selection has less residual sum squares than the AICc algorithm for the study.

  8. A Theoretical Method for Characterizing Nonlinear Effects in Paul Traps with Added Octopole Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; Zhan, Lingpeng; Chen, Yongtai; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu

    2015-08-01

    In comparison with numerical methods, theoretical characterizations of ion motion in the nonlinear Paul traps always suffer from low accuracy and little applicability. To overcome the difficulties, the theoretical harmonic balance (HB) method was developed, and was validated by the numerical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (4th RK) method. Using the HB method, analytical ion trajectory and ion motion frequency in the superimposed octopole field, ε, were obtained by solving the nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME). The obtained accuracy of the HB method was comparable with that of the 4th RK method at the Mathieu parameter, q = 0.6, and the applicable q values could be extended to the entire first stability region with satisfactory accuracy. Two sorts of nonlinear effects of ion motion were studied, including ion frequency shift, Δβ, and ion amplitude variation, Δ(C(2n)/C0) (n ≠ 0). New phenomena regarding Δβ were observed, although extensive studies have been performed based on the pseudo-potential well (PW) model. For instance, the |Δβ| at ε = 0.1 and ε = -0.1 were found to be different, but they were the same in the PW model. This is the first time the nonlinear effects regarding Δ(C(2n)/C0) (n ≠ 0) are studied, and the associated study has been a challenge for both theoretical and numerical methods. The nonlinear effects of Δ(C(2n)/C0) (n ≠ 0) and Δβ were found to share some similarities at q < 0.6: both of them were proportional to ε, and the square of the initial ion displacement, z(0)(2).

  9. A qualitative analytical investigation of geometrically nonlinear effects in wind turbine blade cross sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Bitsche, Robert

    2015-01-01

    section, that was inspired by a wind turbine blade, it is demonstrated that geometric nonlinear effects can induce an in-plane opening deformation in re-entrant corners that may decrease the fatigue life. The opening effect induces Mode-I stress intensity factors which exceed the threshold for fatigue...... for computationally efficient numerical analysis approaches of structures that comprise complex geometry and anisotropic material behaviour – such as wind turbine rotor blades....

  10. A nonlinear model for magnetocapacitance effect in PZT-ring/Terfenol-D-strip magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Wen, Jianbiao; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-06-01

    In previous works, most of them employ a linear constitutive model to describe magnetocapacitance (MC) effect in magnetoelectric (ME) composites, which lead to deficiency in their theoretical results. In view of this, based on a nonlinear magnetostrictive constitutive relation and a linear piezoelectric constitutive relation, we establish a nonlinear model for MC effect in PZT-ring/Terfenol-D-strip ME composites. The numerical results in this paper coincide better with experimental data than that of a linear model, thus, it's essential to utilize a nonlinear constitutive model for predicting MC effect in ME composites. Then the influences of external magnetic fields, pre-stresses, frequencies, and geometric sizes on the MC effect are discussed, respectively. The results show that the external magnetic field is responsible for the resonance frequency shift. And the resonance frequency is sensitive to the ratio of outer and inner radius of the PZT ring. Moreover, some other piezoelectric materials are employed in this model and the corresponding MC effects are calculated, and we find that different type of piezoelectric materials affect the MC effect obviously. The proposed model is more accurate for multifunction devices designing.

  11. Multivariate t nonlinear mixed-effects models for multi-outcome longitudinal data with missing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Lun; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-07-30

    The multivariate nonlinear mixed-effects model (MNLMM) has emerged as an effective tool for modeling multi-outcome longitudinal data following nonlinear growth patterns. In the framework of MNLMM, the random effects and within-subject errors are assumed to be normally distributed for mathematical tractability and computational simplicity. However, a serious departure from normality may cause lack of robustness and subsequently make invalid inference. This paper presents a robust extension of the MNLMM by considering a joint multivariate t distribution for the random effects and within-subject errors, called the multivariate t nonlinear mixed-effects model. Moreover, a damped exponential correlation structure is employed to capture the extra serial correlation among irregularly observed multiple repeated measures. An efficient expectation conditional maximization algorithm coupled with the first-order Taylor approximation is developed for maximizing the complete pseudo-data likelihood function. The techniques for the estimation of random effects, imputation of missing responses and identification of potential outliers are also investigated. The methodology is motivated by a real data example on 161 pregnant women coming from a study in a private fertilization obstetrics clinic in Santiago, Chile and used to analyze these data.

  12. Polarization effects in the non-linear Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, D Y; Serbo, V G

    2005-01-01

    We consider emission of a photon by an electron in the field of a strong laser wave. A probability of this process for circularly or linearly polarized laser photons and for arbitrary polarization of all other particles is calculated. We obtain the complete set of functions which describe such a probability in a compact invariant form. Besides, we discuss in some detail the polarization effects in the kinematics relevant to the problem of electron to photon conversion at photon-photon and electron-photon colliders.

  13. Diffraction Interference Induced Superfocusing in Nonlinear Talbot Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Jianming; Chen, Zhenhua; Wei, Dunzhao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, S. N.; Xiao, Min

    2014-08-01

    We report a simple, novel subdiffraction method, i.e. diffraction interference induced superfocusing in second-harmonic (SH) Talbot effect, to achieve focusing size of less than λSH/4 (or λpump/8) without involving evanescent waves or subwavelength apertures. By tailoring point spread functions with Fresnel diffraction interference, we observe periodic SH subdiffracted spots over a hundred of micrometers away from the sample. Our demonstration is the first experimental realization of the Toraldo di Francia's proposal pioneered 62 years ago for superresolution imaging.

  14. Nonlinear simulations of particle source effects on edge localized mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Z. H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The effects of particle source (PS) with different intensities and located positions on Edge Localized Mode (ELM) are systematically studied with BOUT++ code. The results show the ELM size strongly decreases with increasing the PS intensity once the PS is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal. The effects of PS on ELM depend on the located position of PS. When it is located at the top of the pedestal, peeling-ballooning (P-B) modes can extract more free energy from the pressure gradient and grow up to be a large filament at the initial crash phase and the broadening of mode spectrum can be suppressed by PS, which leads to more energy loss. When it is located in the middle or bottom of the pedestal, the extraction of free energy by P-B modes can be suppressed, and a small filament is generated. During the turbulence transport phase, the broader mode spectrum suppresses the turbulence transport when PS is located in the middle, while the zonal flow plays an important role in damping the turbulence transport when PS is located at the bottom.

  15. Effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli–Euler beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli– Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature...

  16. Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2016-03-01

    Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells are studied theoretically. Both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification depend dramatically on the direction and the strength of the electric field. Numerical results show that both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification are always weakened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is along the growth direction of the quantum wells, which is in contrast to the conventional case. However, the second-harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened, but the nonlinear optical rectification is strengthened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is against the growth direction of the quantum wells. Also it is the blue (or red) shift of the resonance that is induced by increasing of the electric field when the direction of the electric field is along (or against) the growth direction of the quantum wells. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.

  17. The Effects of Five-Order Nonlinear on the Dynamics of Dark Solitons in Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Tao He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the influence of five-order nonlinear on the dynamic of dark soliton. Starting from the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with the quadratic phase chirp term, by using a similarity transformation technique, we give the exact solution of dark soliton and calculate the precise expressions of dark soliton's width, amplitude, wave central position, and wave velocity which can describe the dynamic behavior of soliton's evolution. From two different kinds of quadratic phase chirps, we mainly analyze the effect on dark soliton’s dynamics which different fiver-order nonlinear term generates. The results show the following two points with quintic nonlinearities coefficient increasing: (1 if the coefficients of the quadratic phase chirp term relate to the propagation distance, the solitary wave displays a periodic change and the soliton’s width increases, while its amplitude and wave velocity reduce. (2 If the coefficients of the quadratic phase chirp term do not depend on propagation distance, the wave function only emerges in a fixed area. The soliton’s width increases, while its amplitude and the wave velocity reduce.

  18. Nonlinear model of a distribution transformer appropriate for evaluating the effects of unbalanced loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Matej; Štumberger, Gorazd; Štumberger, Bojan; Dolinar, Drago

    Power packages for calculation of power system transients are often used when studying and designing electromagnetic power systems. An accurate model of a distribution transformer is needed in order to obtain realistic values from these calculations. This transformer model must be derived in such a way that it is applicable when calculating those operating conditions appearing in practice. Operation conditions where transformers are loaded with nonlinear and unbalanced loads are especially challenging. The purpose of this work is to derive a three-phase transformer model that is appropriate for evaluating the effects of nonlinear and unbalanced loads. A lumped parameter model instead of a finite element (FE) model is considered in order to ensure that the model can be used in power packages for the calculation of power system transients. The transformer model is obtained by coupling electric and magnetic equivalent circuits. The magnetic equivalent circuit contains only three nonlinear reluctances, which represent nonlinear behaviour of the transformer. They are calculated by the inverse Jiles-Atherton (J-A) hysteresis model, while parameters of hysteresis are identified using differential evolution (DE). This considerably improves the accuracy of the derived transformer model. Although the obtained transformer model is simple, the simulation results show good agreement between measured and calculated results.

  19. Nonlinear delta f Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hong Qi

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, ...

  20. High-frequency effects in 1D spring-mass systems with strongly non-linear inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Snaeland, S.O.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2010-01-01

    -like systems with embedded non-linear parts, where the masses interact with a limited set of neighbour masses. The presented analytical and numerical results show that the effective properties for LF wave propagation can be altered by establishing HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain......This work generalises the possibilities to change the effective material or structural properties for low frequency (LF) wave propagation, by using high-frequency (HF) external excitation combined with strong non-linear and non-local material behaviour. The effects are demonstrated on 1D chain....... The changes affect the effective stiffness and damping of the system....

  1. Nonlinear Quantum Hall effects in Rarita-Schwinger gas

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xi; Wan, Xiangang; Yu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of higher spin relativistic fermionic materials becomes a new favorite in the study of condensed matter physics. Massive Rarita-Schwinger 3/2-spinor was known owning very exotic properties, such as the superluminal fermionic modes and even being unstable in an external magnetic field. Due to the superluminal modes and the non-trivial constraints on the Rarita-Schwinger gas, we exposit anomalous properties of the Hall effects in (2+1)-dimensions which subvert the well-known quantum Hall paradigms. First, the Hall conductance of a pure Rarita-Schwinger gas is step-like but not plateau-quantized, instead of the linear dependence on the filling factor for a pure spin-1/2 Dirac gas. In reality, the Hall conductance of the Dirac gas is of quantized integer plateaus with the unit $\\frac{e^2}h$ due to the localization away from the Landau level centers. If the general localization rule is applicable to the disordered Rarita-Schwinger gas, the Hall plateaus are also expected to appear but they are nonlinearl...

  2. Dispersive and nonlinear effects in high-speed reconfigurable WDM optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan

    Chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinear effects are important issues on the physical layer of high-speed reconfigurable WDM optical fiber communication systems. For beyond 10 Gbit/s optical fiber transmission system, it is essential that chromatic dispersion and PMD be well managed by dispersion monitoring and compensation. One the other hand, dispersive and nonlinear effects in optical fiber systems can also be beneficial and has applications on pulse management, all-optical signal processing and network function, which will be essential for high bite-rate optical networks and replacing the expensive optical-electrical-optical (O/E/O) conversion. In this Ph.D. dissertation, we present a detailed research on dispersive and nonlinear effects in high-speed optical communication systems. We have demonstrated: (i) A novel technique for optically compensating the PMD-induced RF power fading that occurs in single-sideband (SSB) subcarrier-multiplexed systems. By aligning the polarization states of the optical carrier and the SSB, RF power fading due to all orders of PMD can be completely compensated. (ii) Chromatic-dispersion-insensitive PMD monitoring by using a narrowband FBG notch filter to recover the RF clock power for 10Gb/s NRZ data, and apply it as a control signal for PMD compensation. (iii) Chirp-free high-speed optical pulse generation with a repetition rate of 160 GHz (which is four times of the frequency of the electrical clock) using a phase modulator and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber. (iv) Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) with a fiber Bragg grating and a Faraday rotator mirror. (v) Width-tunable optical RZ pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly-nonlinear fiber. By electrically tuning the delay between two pump pulse trains, the pulse-width of a generated pulse train is continuously tuned. (vi) A high-speed all

  3. Colloidal Plasmas : Effect of nonthermal ion distribution and dust temperature on nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarsem Singh Gill; Harvinder Kaur

    2000-11-01

    The effects of nonthermal ion distribution and finite dust temperature are incorporated in the investigation of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. Sagdeev pseudopotential method which takes into account the full nonlinearity of plasma equations, is used here to study solitary wave solutions. Possibility of co-existence of refractive and compressive solitons as a function of Mach number, dust temperature and concentration of nonthermal ions, is considered. For the fixed value of nonthermal ions, it is found that the effect of increase in dust temperature is to reduce the range of co-existence of compressive and refractive solitons. Particular concentration of nonthermal ions results in disappearance of refractive solitons while the decrease in dust temperature, at this concentration restores the lost refractive solitons.

  4. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-fard, T.; Vazifehshenas, T.

    2014-12-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field.

  5. The effect of process delay on dynamical behaviors in a self-feedback nonlinear oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Ma, Jun; Li, Chuan; He, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback loops play a crucial role in the stability of dynamical systems. The effect of process delay in feedback is studied numerically and theoretically in the delayed feedback nonlinear systems including the neural model, periodic system and chaotic oscillator. The process delay is of key importance in determining the evolution of systems, and the rich dynamical phenomena are observed. By introducing a process delay, we find that it can induce bursting electric activities in the neural model. We demonstrate that this novel regime of amplitude death also exists in the parameter space of feedback strength and process delay for the periodic system and chaotic oscillator. Our results extend the effect of process delay in the paper of Zou et al.(2013) where the process delay can eliminate the amplitude death of the coupled nonlinear systems.

  6. Investigation of nonlinear effects in the instabilities and noise radiation of supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, S. I.; McLaughlin, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions of fluctuating components which produce noise in supersonic jet flows were studied experimentally. Attention was given to spectral components interactions and the spectral effects of increasing Re. A jet exhausted in perfectly expanded conditions was monitored by microphones in the maximum noise emission direction. Trials were run at Mach 1.4 and 2.1 and the Re was varied from 5000-20,000 and 9000-25,000, respectively. Hot-wire data were gathered to examine the mode-mode interactions and a point glow discharge was used to excite the jets. The noise was found to exhibit discrete frequency components and a single tone instability at Re below 10,000. Mode interactions were found to weaken after the instabilities reached a crescendo and then decayed, leading to a nonlinear spectral broadening effect.

  7. Nonlinear acoustic properties of ex vivo bovine liver and the effects of temperature and denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E J; Coussios, C-C; Cleveland, R O

    2014-06-21

    Thermal ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has a great potential for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumours. Due to the high pressure amplitudes involved, nonlinear acoustic effects must be understood and the relevant medium property is the parameter of nonlinearity B/A. Here, B/A was measured in ex vivo bovine liver, over a heating/cooling cycle replicating temperatures reached during HIFU ablation, adapting a finite amplitude insertion technique, which also allowed for measurement of sound-speed and attenuation. The method measures the nonlinear progression of a plane wave through liver and B/A was chosen so that numerical simulations matched the measured waveforms. To create plane-wave conditions, sinusoidal bursts were transmitted by a 100 mm diameter 1.125 MHz unfocused transducer and measured using a 15 mm diameter 2.25 MHz broadband transducer in the near field. Attenuation and sound-speed were calculated using a reflected pulse from the smaller transducer using the larger transducer as the reflecting interface. Results showed that attenuation initially decreased with heating then increased after denaturation, the sound-speed initially increased with temperature and then decreased, and B/A showed an increase with temperature but no significant post-heating change. The B/A data disagree with other reports that show a significant change and we suggest that any nonlinear enhancement in the received ultrasound signal post-treatment is likely due to acoustic cavitation rather than changes in tissue nonlinearity.

  8. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities in Composite Media and Structures via Local Fields and Electromagnetic Coupling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review the linear and nonlinear optical properties of metal nanoparticles and dielectric microparticles, with an emphasis on local field effects, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs), as well as the conjunction of these two effects for enhanced Raman. In particular, enhanced optical properties that result from electromagnetic coupling effects will be discussed in the context of Mie scattering from concentric spheres and bispheres. Predictions of mode splitting and photonic bandgaps in micro-spheres will be presented and will be shown to be analogous to effects that occur in coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW). Slow and fast light in SCISSOR / CROW configurations will also be discussed.

  9. Effects of Nonlinear Absorption in BK7 and Color Glasses at 355 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J J; McCarville, T; Bruere, J; McElroy, J; Peterson, J

    2003-11-12

    We have demonstrated a simple experimental technique that can be used to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficients in glasses. We determine BK7, UG1, and UG11 glasses to have linear absorption coefficients of 0.0217 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, 1.7 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, and 0.82 {+-} 10% cm{sup -1}, respectively, two-photon absorption cross-sections of 0.025 {+-} 20% cm/GW, 0.035 {+-} 20% cm/GW, and 0.047 {+-} 20% cm/GW, respectively, excited-state absorption cross-sections of 8.0 x 10{sup -18} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, 2.8 x 10{sup -16} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, and 5 x 10{sup -17} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, respectively, and solarization coefficients of 8.5 x 10{sup -20} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, 2.5 x 10{sup -18} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, and 1.3 x 10{sup -19} {+-} 20% cm{sup 2}, respectively. For our application, nonlinear effects in 10-cm of BK7 are small ({le} 2%) for 355-nm fluences < 0.2 J/cm{sup 2} for flat-top pulses. However, nonlinear effects are noticeable for 355-nm fluences at 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}. In particular, we determine a 20% increase in the instantaneous absorption from linear, a solarization rate of 4% per 100 shots, and a 10% temporal droop introduced in the pulse, for 355-nm flat-top pulses at a fluence of 0.8 J/cm{sup 2}. For 0.5-cm of UG1 absorbing glass the non-linear absorption has a similar effect as that from 10-cm of BK7 on the pulse shape; however, the effects in UG11 are much smaller.

  10. The effects of nonlinear wave propagation on the stability of inertial cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the context of forecasting temperature and pressure fields in high-intensity focussed ultrasound, the accuracy of predictive models is critical for the safety and efficacy of treatment. In such fields inertial cavitation is often observed. Classically, estimations of cavitation thresholds have been based on the assumption that the incident wave at the surface of a bubble was the same as in the far-field, neglecting the effect of nonlinear wave propagation. By modelling the incident wave as...

  11. Polarization effects and nonlinear switching in fiber figure-eight lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, A J; Boyd, R W

    1994-09-15

    We have developed a novel experimental procedure that allows us to quantify how polarization effects determine the passive mode locking of an optical fiber figure-eight laser. Based on our measurements, we have performed numerical simulations demonstrating that the nonlinear switching within this laser operates in a manner contrary to that described by the conventional theory of passive mode locking with a fast saturable absorber.

  12. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  13. Non-linear effects on solute transfer between flowing water and a sediment bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Makoto; Stefan, Heinz G

    2011-11-15

    A previously developed model of periodic pore water flow in space and time, and associated solute transport in a stream bed of fine sand is extended to coarse sand and fine gravel. The pore water flow immediately below the sediment/water interface becomes intermittently a non-Darcy flow. The periodic pressure and velocity fluctuations considered are induced by near-bed coherent turbulent motions in the stream flow; they penetrate from the sediment/water interface into the sediment pore system and are described by a wave number (χ) and a period (T) that are given as functions of the shear velocity (U(∗)) between the flowing water and the sediment bed. The stream bed has a flat surface without bed forms. The flow field in the sediment pore system is described by the continuity equation and a resistance law that includes both viscous (Darcy) and non-linear (inertial) effects. Simulation results show that non-linear (inertial) effects near the sediment/water interface increase flow resistance and reduce mean flow velocities. Compared to pure Darcy flow, non-linear (inertial) effects reduce solute exchange rates between overlying water and the sediment bed but only by a moderate amount (less than 50%). Turbulent coherent flow structures in the stream flow enhance solute transfer in the pore system of a stream bed compared to pure molecular diffusion, but by much less than standing surface waves or bed forms.

  14. Stationary variational estimates for the effective response and field fluctuations in nonlinear composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte Castañeda, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a variational method for estimating the effective constitutive response of composite materials with nonlinear constitutive behavior. The method is based on a stationary variational principle for the macroscopic potential in terms of the corresponding potential of a linear comparison composite (LCC) whose properties are the trial fields in the variational principle. When used in combination with estimates for the LCC that are exact to second order in the heterogeneity contrast, the resulting estimates for the nonlinear composite are also guaranteed to be exact to second-order in the contrast. In addition, the new method allows full optimization with respect to the properties of the LCC, leading to estimates that are fully stationary and exhibit no duality gaps. As a result, the effective response and field statistics of the nonlinear composite can be estimated directly from the appropriately optimized linear comparison composite. By way of illustration, the method is applied to a porous, isotropic, power-law material, and the results are found to compare favorably with earlier bounds and estimates. However, the basic ideas of the method are expected to work for broad classes of composites materials, whose effective response can be given appropriate variational representations, including more general elasto-plastic and soft hyperelastic composites and polycrystals.

  15. Vacuum nonlinear electrodynamic polarization effects in hard emission of pulsars and magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. I.; Sokolov, V. A.; Svertilov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    The nonlinear electrodynamics influence of pulsar magnetic field on the electromagnetic pulse polarization is discussed from the point of observation interpretation. The calculations of pulsar magnetic field impact on the electromagnetic pulse polarization are made in such a way to make it easier to interpret these effects in space experiments. The law of hard emission pulse propagation in the pulsar magnetic field according to the vacuum (nonlinear electrodynamics is obtained. It has been shown, that due to the birefringence in the vacuum the front part of any hard emission pulse coming from a pulsar should be linearly polarized and the rest of pulse can have arbitrary polarization. The observational possibilities of vacuum birefringence are discussed. In this paper we give the estimations of detector parameters such as effective area, exposure time and necessity of polarization measurements with high accuracy. The combination of large area and extremely long exposure time gives the good opportunity to search the fine polarization effects like vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics birefringence.

  16. Time-ordering effects in the generation of entangled photons using nonlinear optical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J E

    2015-03-06

    We study the effects of time ordering in photon generation processes such as spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and four wave mixing (SFWM). The results presented here are used to construct an intuitive picture that allows us to predict when time-ordering effects significantly modify the joint spectral amplitude (JSA) of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM. These effects become important only when the photons being generated lie with the pump beam that travels through the nonlinear material for a significant amount of time. Thus sources of spectrally separable photons are ideal candidates for the observation of modifications of the JSA due to time ordering.

  17. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we solved the coupled-mode equations for Bragg scattering (BS) in the low- and high-conversion regimes, but without the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM). We now present solutions and Green functions in the low-conversion regime that include NPM. We find that NPM does not change...... are still possible, even when the effects of NPM are included. Finally, the effects of using different input signals are considered, and we conclude that using the natural input modes of the system drastically increases the efficiency. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers...

  18. Nonlinear magnetoelectric effect and magnetostriction in piezoelectric CsCuCl{sub 3} in paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharkovskiy, A. I., E-mail: akharkovskiy@inbox.ru [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 53-421 Wrocław (Poland); L.F. Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics RAS, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shaldin, Yu. V. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 53-421 Wrocław (Poland); Institute for Crystallography RAS, Lenin' s Avenue 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nizhankovskii, V. I. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 53-421 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-01-07

    The direct nonlinear magnetoelectric (ME) effect and the magnetostriction of piezoelectric CsCuCl{sub 3} single crystals were comprehensively studied over a wide temperature range in stationary magnetic fields of up to 14 T. The direct nonlinear ME effect measurements were also performed in pulsed magnetic fields up to 31 T, at liquid helium temperature in the antiferromagnetic (AF) state for the crystallographic direction in which effect has the maximum value. The nonlinear ME effect was quadratic in the paramagnetic state for the whole range of magnetic fields. In the AF state the phase transition between different configurations of spins manifested itself as plateau-like peculiarity on the nonlinear ME effect. The nonlinear ME effect was saturated by the phase transition to the spin-saturated paramagnetic state. Two contributions to the nonlinear ME effects in CsCuCl{sub 3} were extracted from the experimental data: the intrinsic ME effect originated from the magnetoelectric interactions, and the extrinsic one, which resulted from a magnetostriction-induced piezoelectric effect.

  19. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  20. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  1. Measuring the nonlinear refractive index of graphene using the optical Kerr effect method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremetsika, Evdokia; Dlubak, Bruno; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Ciret, Charles; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Hofmann, Stephan; Seneor, Pierre; Dolfi, Daniel; Massar, Serge; Emplit, Philippe; Kockaert, Pascal

    2016-07-15

    By means of the ultrafast optical Kerr effect method coupled to optical heterodyne detection (OHD-OKE), we characterize the third-order nonlinear response of graphene and compare it to experimental values obtained by the Z-scan method on the same samples. From these measurements, we estimate a negative nonlinear refractive index for monolayer graphene, n2=-1.1×10-13  m2/W. This is in contradiction to previously reported values, which leads us to compare our experimental measurements obtained by the OHD-OKE and the Z-scan method with theoretical and experimental values found in the literature and to discuss the discrepancies, taking into account parameters such as doping.

  2. Non-equilibrium many-body effects in driven nonlinear resonator arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Grujic, T; Angelakis, D G; Jaksch, D

    2012-01-01

    We study the non-equilibrium behavior of optically driven dissipative coupled resonator arrays. Assuming each resonator is coupled with a two-level system via a Jaynes-Cummings interaction, we calculate the many-body steady state behavior of the system under coherent pumping and dissipation. We propose and analyze the many-body phases using experimentally accessible quantities such as the total excitation number, the emitted photon spectra and photon coherence functions for different parameter regimes. In parallel, we also compare and contrast the expected behavior of this system assuming the local nonlinearity in the cavities is generated by a generic Kerr effect rather than a Jaynes-Cummings interaction. We find that the behavior of the experimentally accessible observables produced by the two models differs for realistic regimes of interactions even when the corresponding nonlinearities are of similar strength. We analyze in detail the extra features available in the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard (JCH) model ori...

  3. EVALUATION OF NONLINEARITY EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE OF DVB-H TRANSMISSION LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. SARWAR MORSHED

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Handheld devices of all kind have gained remarkable popularity in recent years. Choosing receiving end components for these handheld devices are critical. For example, if poorly suited and inexpensive amplifiers are chosen, then they tend to deteriorate signals. On the other hand, cheaper components are feasible for consumer product. This paper evaluates nonlinearity effects on transmission link serving Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds (DVB-H based on the results of software simulator. The system is tested in various receiving scenarios with presence of noise and received signal power varying from sensitivity level up to saturated nonlinear region. Neighboring DVB-H channel and close-by GSM-uplink are considered as distortion sources. The simulation results also analyze the behavior of the system in the presence of interfering signals with variouspower levels.

  4. Theory of plasmonic effects in nonlinear optics: The case of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Habib; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Polini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We develop a microscopic large-N theory of electron-electron interaction corrections to multilegged Feynman diagrams describing second- and third-order non-linear-response functions. Our theory, which reduces to the well-known random-phase approximation in the linear-response limit, is completely general and is useful to understand all second- and third-order nonlinear effects, including harmonic generation, wave mixing, and photon drag. We apply our theoretical framework to the case of graphene, by carrying out microscopic calculations of the second- and third-order non-linear-response functions of an interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of massless Dirac fermions. We compare our results with recent measurements, where all-optical launching of graphene plasmons has been achieved by virtue of the finiteness of the quasihomogeneous second-order nonlinear response of this inversion-symmetric 2D material.

  5. Measuring the Nonlinear Refractive Index of Graphene using the Optical Kerr Effect Method

    CERN Document Server

    Dremetsika, Evdokia; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Ciret, Charles; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Hofmann, Stephan; Seneor, Pierre; Dolfi, Daniel; Massar, Serge; Emplit, Philippe; Kockaert, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    By means of the ultrafast optical Kerr effect method coupled to optical heterodyne detection (OHD-OKE), we characterize the third order nonlinear response of graphene at telecom wavelength, and compare it to experimental values obtained by the Z-scan method on the same samples. From these measurements, we estimate a negative nonlinear refractive index for monolayer graphene, $n_2 = - 1.1\\times 10^{-13} m^2/W$. This is in contradiction to previously reported values, which leads us to compare our experimental measurements obtained by the OHD-OKE and the Z-scan method with theoretical and experimental values found in the literature, and to discuss the discrepancies, taking into account parameters such as doping.

  6. Mitigation of nonlinear transmission effects for OFDM 16-QAM optical signal using adaptive modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidin, Anton S; Sidelnikov, Oleg S; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-12-26

    The impact of the fiber Kerr effect on error statistics in the nonlinear (high power) transmission of the OFDM 16-QAM signal over a 2000 km EDFA-based link is examined. We observed and quantified the difference in the error statistics for constellation points located at three power-defined rings. Theoretical analysis of a trade-off between redundancy and error rate reduction using probabilistic coding of three constellation power rings decreasing the symbol-error rate of OFDM 16-QAM signal is presented. Based on this analysis, we propose to mitigate the nonlinear impairments using the adaptive modulation technique applied to the OFDM 16-QAM signal. We demonstrate through numerical modelling the system performance improvement by the adaptive modulation for the large number of OFDM subcarriers (more than 100). We also show that a similar technique can be applied to single carrier transmission.

  7. The effect of large deformation and material nonlinearity on gel indentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Duan; Yonghao An; Jiaping Zhang; Hanqing Jiang

    2012-01-01

    A gel,an aggregate of polymers with solvents,has dual attributes of solid and liquid as solvent migrates in and out of the polymer network.Indentation has recently been used to characterize the mechanical properties of gels.This paper evaluates the effects of large deformation and material nonlinearity on gel indentation through theoretical modeling and finite element analysis.It is found that large deformation significantly affects the interpretation of the experimental observations and the classical relation between indentation force and depth has limitations for large deformation.The material nonlinearity does not play a very important role on indentation experiment so that the poroelasticity is a good approximation.Based on these observations,this paper proposes an alternative approach to measure the mechanical properties of gels,namely,uniaxial compression experiment.

  8. Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, R

    1999-01-01

    A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...

  9. Effect of joint damping and joint nonlinearity on the dynamics of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Mary; Dugundji, John

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of the effect of linear joint characteristics on the vibrations of a free-free, three-joint beam model show that increasing joint damping increases resonant frequencies and increases modal damping but only to the point where the joint gets 'locked up' by damping. This behavior is different from that predicted by modeling joint damping as proportional damping. Nonlinear analyses of the three-joint model with cubic springs at the joints show all the classical single DOF nonlinear response behavior at each resonance of the multiple DOF system: nondoubling of response for a doubling of forcing amplitude, multiple solutions, jump behavior, and resonant frequency shifts. These properties can be concisely quantified by characteristic backbone curves, which show the locus of resonant peaks for increasing forcing amplitude.

  10. Ought-approach versus ought-avoidance: nonlinear effects on arousal under achievement situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Sideridis, Georgios D

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the dimensions of oughts under a nonlinear perspective. Ought-approach and ought-avoidance have been proposed as two different dimensions of oughts, which have an opposite effect on subjects' arousal level under achievement situation. The change in arousal level measured by heart rates per minute (HRPM) was modeled as cusp catastrophe by implementing the two dimensions of oughts as the control parameters: the ought-approach as the asymmetry and the ought-avoidance as the bifurcation factor. The cusp model was proved by far superior from the three alternative linear models and provided the empirical evidence that the two dimensions of oughts are distinct and are associated with different processes. The ought-avoidance dimension being the bifurcation factor acts in a destructive manner by introducing nonlinearity and uncertainty in the self-regulation process (with regard to HRPM). The interpretation of the model is provided and implications are discussed.

  11. The Non-Linear Effect of Corporate Taxes on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huňady Ján

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of taxation and its potential impact on economic growth and presents some new empirical insights into this topic. The main aim of the paper is to verify an assumed nonlinear impact of corporate tax rates on economic growth. Based on the theory of public finance and taxation, we hypothesize that at relatively low tax rates it is possible that the impact of taxation on economic growth become slightly positive. On the other hand when the tax rates are higher a negative impact of taxation on economic growth could be expected. Despite the fact that the most of the existing studies find a negative linear relationship between these variables, we can also find strong support for a non-linear relationship from several theoretical models as well as some empirical studies. Based on panel data fixed-effects econometric models, we, as well, find empirical evidence for a non-linear relationship between nominal and effective corporate tax rates and economic growth. Our data consists of annual observations for the period 1999 to 2011 for EU Member States. Based on the results, we also estimated the optimal level of the corporate tax rate in terms of maximizing economic growth in the average of the EU countries.

  12. Competitive coexistence and competitive exclusion for a nonlinear community with delay effect and impulsive birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Zhang, Feng; Wei, Jianzhou

    2016-12-01

    By constructing a population model of multi-species competition, a community with nonlinear interaction relationship is investigated, in which the species' response delay and environmental fluctuation effects (i.e., seasonal fluctuation of resource supplies and species' reproductive activities) on population are considered. Firstly, the conditions about competitive coexistence (i.e., persistence of all species) and competitive exclusion (i.e., only partial of species, but not all, keep persistence) of the community are established, and the underlying ecological mechanism of these results are analyzed. Secondly, by some illustrative examples, the interactive effects of nonlinear competition, species' response delay and environmental fluctuation on the structure of community are explored. It is demonstrated that small response delay and slight deviation of nonlinear competition indexes from 1 have little impact on the coexistence of community, but acute changes have distinct negative influence on community coexistence. This reveals to us that parameter perturbations of natural communities should keep in an appropriate range, which is of great significance in conservation and restoration biology.

  13. Nonlinear effects on electrophoresis of a charged dielectric nanoparticle in a charged hydrogel medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; De, Simanta

    2016-09-01

    The impact of the solid polarization of a charged dielectric particle in gel electrophoresis is studied without imposing a weak-field or a thin Debye length assumption. The electric polarization of a dielectric particle due to an external electric field creates a non-uniform surface charge density, which in turn creates a non-uniform Debye layer at the solid-gel interface. The solid polarization of the particle, the polarization of the double layer, and the electro-osmosis of mobile ions within the hydrogel medium create a nonlinear effect on the electrophoresis. We have incorporated those nonlinear effects by considering the electrokinetics governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations. We have computed the governing nonlinear coupled set of equations numerically by adopting a finite volume based iterative algorithm. Our numerical method is tested for accuracy by comparing with several existing results on free-solution electrophoresis as well as results based on the Debye-Hückel approximation. Our computed result shows that the electrophoretic velocity decreases with the rise of the particle dielectric permittivity constant and attains a saturation limit at large values of permittivity. A significant impact of the solid polarization is found in gel electrophoresis compared to the free-solution electrophoresis.

  14. Analysis on nonlinear wind-induced dynamic response of membrane roofs with aerodynamic effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-xiang; SUN Bing-nan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of membrane structures and the air influence factors, this paper presen-ted a method to simulate the air aerodynamic force effects including the added air mass, the acoustic radiation damping and the pneumatic stiffness. The infinite air was modeled using the acoustic fluid element of commer-cial FE software and the finite element membrane roof models were coupled with fluid models. A comparison be-tween the results obtained by IrE computation and those obtained by the vibration experiment for a cable-mem-brane verified the validity of the method. Furthermore, applying the method to a flat membrane roof structure and using its wind tunnel test results, the analysis of nonlinear wind-induced dynamic responses for such geo-metrically nonlinear roofs, including the roof-air coupled model was performed. The result shows that the air has large influence on vibrating membrane roofs according to results of comparing the nodal time-history displace-ments, accelerations and stress of the two different cases. Meantime, numerical studies show that the method developed can successfully solve the nonlinear wind-induced dynamic response of the membrane roof with aero-dynamic effects.

  15. Experimental study of strong nonlinear-optics effects in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, S. D.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Cheung, M. M.; Shen, Y. R.

    1984-07-01

    Nonlinear optical effects that arise in nematic liquid crystals as a result of a change in the index of refraction induced by a laser field are considered. Since the resultant nonlinearity is extremely high, the approximation of perturbation theory cannot be used in calculations. However, the change in refractive index results mainly in phase advance as waves propagate through a thin film of liquid crystal, while the change of intensity is significant. Moreover, if there is no change in polarization of the pumping field, calculations are relatively simple. An investigation is made of the propagation of a cross sectionally bounded laser beam through a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal, giving rise to spatial phase modulation of emission. When the intensity of the laser beam exceeds a certain value, a system of aberation rings is observed in the output radiation. Effects of dynamic self-diffraction accompanying degenerate four-wave mixing when a change in refractive index is induced in a homeotropic liquid crystal film, and optical bistability in a nonlinear Fabry-Perot optical cavity, as well as generation of a self-oscillatory state in such a resonator are discussed.

  16. Characterizing the Effective Bandwidth of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam Mohan Ram, Meghashyam

    In the last few years, advances in micro-fabrication technologies have lead to the development of low-power electronic devices spanning critical fields related to sensing, data transmission, and medical implants. Unfortunately, effective utilization of these devices is currently hindered by their reliance on batteries. In many of these applications, batteries may not be a viable choice as they have a fixed storage capacity and need to be constantly replaced or recharged. In light of such challenges, several novel concepts for micro-power generation have been recently introduced to harness, otherwise, wasted ambient energy from the environment and maintain these low-power devices. Vibratory energy harvesting is one such concept which has received significant attention in recent years. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have been well studied in the literature and their performance metrics have been established, recent research has focused on deliberate introduction of stiffness nonlinearities into the design of these devices. It has been shown that, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth as compared to their linear counterparts, leading to the premise that they can used to improve performance, and decrease sensitivity to variations in the design and excitation parameters. This dissertation aims to investigate this premise by developing an analytical framework to study the influence of stiffness nonlinearities on the performance and effective bandwidth of nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters. To achieve this goal, the dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of bi-stable energy harvesters possessing a symmetric quartic potential energy function under harmonic excitations and carries out a detailed analysis to define their effective frequency bandwidth. The second part investigates the relative performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under optimal electric loading

  17. Effects of Slotted Structures on Nonlinear Characteristics of Natural Convection in a Cylinder with an Internal Concentric Slotted Annulus

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chunyun; Zhang, Yuwen; Li, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Natural convection in a cylinder with an internally slotted annulus was solved by SIMPLE algorithm, and the effects of different slotted structures on nonlinear characteristics of natural convection were investigated. The results show that the equivalent thermal conductivity Keq increases with Rayleigh number, and reaches the maximum in the vertical orientation. Nonlinear results were obtained by simulating the fluid flow at different conditions. With increasing Rayleigh number, heat transfer is intensified and the state of heat transfer changes from the steady to unsteady. We investigated different slotted structures effects on natural convection, and analyze the corresponding nonlinear characteristics.

  18. Nonlinear temperature sensitivity of enzyme kinetics explains canceling effect - a case study on loamy haplic Luvisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar S. eRazavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitivity of enzymes responsible for organic matter decomposition in soil is crucial for predicting the effects of global warming on the carbon cycle and sequestration. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature sensitivity of enzyme kinetic parameters Vmax and Km will lead to a canceling effect: strong reduction of temperature response of catalytic reactions. Short-term temperature response of Vmax and Km of three hydrolytic enzymes responsible for decomposition of cellulose (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and hemicelluloses (xylanase were analyzed in situ from 0 to 40 °C. The apparent activation energy varied between enzymes from 20.7 to 35.2 kJ mol-1 corresponding to the Q10 values of the enzyme activities of 1.4–1.9 (with Vmax-Q10 1.0–2.5 and Km-Q10 0.94–2.3. Temperature response of all tested enzymes fitted well to the Arrhenius equation. Despite that, the fitting of Arrhenius model revealed the non-linear increase of two cellulolytic enzymes activities with two distinct thresholds at 10–15 °C and 25–30 °C, which were less pronounced for xylanase. The nonlinearity between 10 and 15 °C was explained by 30–80% increase in Vmax. At 25–30 °C, however, the abrupt decrease of enzyme-substrate affinity was responsible for non-linear increase of enzyme activities. Our study is the first demonstrating nonlinear response of Vmax and Km to temperature causing canceling effect, which was most strongly pronounced at low substrate concentrations and at temperatures above 15 °C. Under cold climate, however, the regulation of hydrolytic activity by canceling in response to warming is negligible because canceling was never observed below 10 °C. The canceling, therefore, can be considered as natural mechanism reducing the effects of global warming on decomposition of soil organics at moderate temperatures. The non-linearity of enzyme responses to warming and the respective thresholds should therefore be

  19. Nonhydrostatic effects of nonlinear internal wave propagation in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Fringer, O. B.

    2007-05-01

    It is well known that internal tides are generated over steep topography at the Luzon Strait on the eastern boundary of the South China Sea. These internal tides propagate westward and steepen into trains of weakly nonlinear internal waves that propagate relatively free of dissipation until they interact with the continental shelf on the western side of the South China Sea, some 350 km from their generation point. The rate at which the internal tide transforms into trains of nonlinear waves depends on the Froude number at the generation site, which is defined as the ratio of the barotropic current speed to the local internal wave speed. Large Froude numbers lead to rapid evolution of wave trains while low Froude numbers generate internal tides that may not evolve into wave trains before reaching the continental shelf. Although the evolution into trains of weakly nonlinear waves results from the delicate interplay between nonlinear steepening and nonhydrostatic dispersion, the steepening process is represented quite well, at least from a qualitative standpoint, by hydrostatic models, which contain no explicit nonhydrostatic dispersion. Furthermore, hydrostatic models predict the propagation speed of the leading wave in wave trains extremely well, indicating that its propagation speed depends very weakly on nonlinear or dispersive effects. In order to examine how hydrostatic models introduce dispersion that leads to the formation of wave trains, we simulate the generation and evolution of nonlinear waves in the South China Sea with and without the hydrostatic approximation using the nonhydrostatic model SUNTANS, which can be run in either hydrostatic or nonhydrostatic mode. We show that the dispersion leading to the formation of wave trains in the hydrostatic model results from numerically-induced dispersion that is implicit in the numerical formulation of the advection terms. While the speed of the leading wave in the wave trains is correct, the amplitude and number

  20. Brillouin/Raman compensation of the Kerr-effect-induced bias in a nonlinear ring laser gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhang; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhihong; Liu, Ken; Ye, Weimin; Zeng, Chun; Ji, Jiarong

    2013-04-01

    In this Letter, the beat frequency at rest of a ring laser gyroscope with nonlinear effects is discussed in detail. Even without an additional intensity-stabilizing system, the random nullshift bias induced by the Kerr effect is compensated by the phase shift associated with the stimulated Brillouin/Raman scattering. And the nonlinear stimulated scattering also serves as the gain mechanism of the gyroscope. And thus the influence of the fluctuation of the injected pump intensity on the beat frequency is eliminated.

  1. Effects of Interaction Between Gravitation and Nonlinear Electrodynamics On Scalar Field Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the scalar field evolution in the dyadosphere spacetime by using the third-order WKB approximation.We find that the coupling term between the gravitation and the nonlinear electrodynamics makes the scalar field decay more quickly and it also makes the scalar field oscillate more slowly.On the other words, this coupling term takes effect on the scalar field evolution as a damping factor.At the same time these effects become more obvious for the scalar field with higher angle quantum number.

  2. ac electrokinetic micropumps: The effect of geometrical confinement, Faradaic current injection, and nonlinear surface capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik; Ajdari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ac electrokinetic micropumps permit integrable, local, and fast pumping (velocities similar to mm/s) with low driving voltage of a few volts only. However, they also displayed many quantitative and qualitative discrepancies with existing theories. We...... therefore extend the latter theories to account for three experimentally relevant effects: (i) vertical confinement of the pumping channel, (ii) Faradaic currents from electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, and (iii) nonlinear surface capacitance of the Debye layer. We report here that these effects...... indeed affect the pump performance in a way that we can rationalize by physical arguments....

  3. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...... the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments....

  4. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for degradation data obtained from in-service inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.-X. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Pandey, M.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca

    2009-02-15

    Monitoring of degradation and predicting its progression using periodic inspection data are important to ensure safety and reliability of engineering systems. Traditional regression models are inadequate in modeling the periodic inspection data, as it ignores units specific random effects and potential correlation among repeated measurements. This paper presents an advanced nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model, generally adopted in bio-statistical literature, for modeling and predicting degradation in nuclear piping system. The proposed model offers considerable improvement by reducing the variance associated with degradation of a specific unit, which leads to more realistic estimates of risk.

  5. Effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems: a general approach and examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blekhman, I. I.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics...... equations). The approach is named as the oscillatory strobodynamics, since motions are perceived as under a stroboscopic light. The vibro-transformed dynamics equations comprise terms that capture the averaged effect of oscillations. The method of direct separation of motions appears to be an efficient...

  6. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...... the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments....

  7. Effective number of samples and pseudo-random nonlinear distortions in digital OFDM coded signal

    CERN Document Server

    Rudziński, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns theoretical modeling of degradation of signal with OFDM coding caused by pseudo-random nonlinear distortions introduced by an analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog converter. A new quantity, effective number of samples, is defined and used for derivation of accurate expressions for autocorrelation function and the total power of the distortions. The derivation is based on probabilistic model of the signal and its transition probability. It is shown, that for digital (discrete and quantized) signals the effective number of samples replaces the total number of samples and is the proper quantity defining their properties.

  8. Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Effect in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells Based on Photonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana; Iljin, Andrey; Lytvynenko, Oleg; Tarakhan, Ludmila; Karachevtseva, Lulmila

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear-optical response of photorefractive hybrid liquid crystal (LC) cells has been studied by means of dynamic holographic technique in two-wave mixing arrangement. The LC cells include nonuniform silicon substrates comprising a micrometer-range photonic crystal. A thin LC layer is set between silicon substrate and a flat glass substrate covered by a transparent (ITO) electrode. A dynamic diffraction grating was induced in the LC volume by the two-wave mixing of laser beams with simultaneous application of DC electric field to the cell. Theoretical model of Raman-Nath self-diffraction was developed. This model allows for calculation of nonlinear optical characteristics in thin samples on the base of two-wave mixing experimental data, and with taking into account light losses on absorption and/or scattering. The hybrid LC cells demonstrate strong nonlinear optical effect, prospective for many applications in electro-optical microsystems, such as SLMs, as well as in multi-channel systems.

  9. Nonlinear effects in the bounded dust-vortex flow in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishram, Modhuchandra; Sharma, Devendra; Chattopdhyay, Prabal K.; Kaw, Predhiman K.

    2017-03-01

    The vortex structures in a cloud of electrically suspended dust in a streaming plasma constitutes a driven system with a rich nonlinear flow regime. Experimentally recovered toroidal formations of this system have motivated study of its volumetrically driven-dissipative vortex flow dynamics using two-dimensional hydrodynamics in the incompressible Navier-Stokes regime. Nonlinear equilibrium solutions are obtained for this system where a nonuniformly driven two-dimensional dust flow exhibits distinct regions of localized accelerations and strong friction caused by stationary fluids at the confining boundaries resisting the dust flow. In agreement with observations in experiments, it is demonstrated that the nonlinear effects appear in the limit of small viscosity, where the primary vortices form scaling with the most dominant spatial scales of the domain topology and develop separated virtual boundaries along their periphery. This separation is triggered beyond a critical dust viscosity that signifies a structural bifurcation. Emergence of uniform vorticity core and secondary vortices with a newer level of identical dynamics highlights the applicability of the studied dynamics to gigantic vortex flows, such as the Jovian great red spot, to microscopic biophysical intracellular activity.

  10. Fitness Effects of Network Non-Linearity Induced by Gene Expression Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christian; Cooper, Tim; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    In the non-equilibrium dynamics of growing microbial cells, metabolic enzymes can create non-linearities in metabolite concentration because of non-linear degradation (utilization): an enzyme can saturate in the process of metabolite utilization. Increasing metabolite production past the saturation point then results in an ultrasensitive metabolite response. If the production rate of a metabolite depends on a second enzyme or other protein-mediated process, uncorrelated gene expression noise can thus cause transient metabolite concentration bursts. Such bursts are physiologically unnecessary and may represent a source of selection against the ultrasensitive switch, especially if the fluctuating metabolic intermediate is toxic. Selection may therefore favor correlated gene expression fluctuations for enzymes in the same pathway, such as by same-operon membership in bacteria. Using a modified experimental lac operon system, we are undertaking a combined theoretical-experimental approach to demonstrate that (i) the lac operon has an implicit ultrasensitive switch that we predict is avoided by gene expression correlations induced by same-operon membership; (ii) bacterial growth rates are sensitive to crossing the ultrasensitive threshold. Our results suggest that correlations in intrinsic gene expression noise are exploited by evolution to ameliorate the detrimental effects of nonlinearities in metabolite concentrations.

  11. Grain size effects on stability of nonlinear vibration with nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minglu; Sun, Qingping

    2017-10-01

    Grain size effects on stability of thermomechanical responses for a nonlinear torsional vibration system with nanocrystalline superelastic NiTi bar are investigated in the frequency and amplitude domains. NiTi bars with average grain size from 10 nm to 100 nm are fabricated through cold-rolling and subsequent annealing. Thermomechanical responses of the NiTi bar as a softening nonlinear damping spring in the torsional vibration system are obtained by synchronised acquisition of rotational angle and temperature under external sinusoidal excitation. It is shown that nonlinearity and damping capacity of the NiTi bar decrease as average grain size of the material is reduced below 100 nm. Therefore jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses become less significant or even vanish and the vibration system becomes more stable. The work in this paper provides a solid experimental base for manipulating the undesired jump phenomena of thermomechanical responses and stabilising the mechanical vibration system through grain refinement of NiTi SMA.

  12. Impact of Scale Dependent Bias and Nonlinear Structure Growth on the ISW Effect: Angular Power Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert E; Seljak, Uros

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of nonlinear evolution of the gravitational potentials in the LCDM model on the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution to the CMB temperature power spectrum, and on the cross-power spectrum of the CMB and a set of biased tracers of the mass. We use an ensemble of N-body simulations to directly follow the potentials and compare results to perturbation theory (PT). The predictions from PT match the results to high precision for k100 the departures are more significant, however the CMB signal is more than a factor 10^3 larger at this scale. Nonlinear ISW effects therefore play no role in shaping the CMB power spectrum for l<1500. We analyze the CMB--density tracer cross-spectrum using simulations and renormalized bias PT, and find good agreement. The usual assumption is that nonlinear evolution enhances the growth of structure and counteracts linear ISW on small scales, leading to a change in sign of the CMB-LSS cross-spectrum at small scales. However, PT analysis suggests that th...

  13. Pitch glide effect induced by a nonlinear string-barrier interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartofelev, Dmitri; Stulov, Anatoli; Välimäki, Vesa

    2015-10-01

    Interactions of a vibrating string with its supports and other spatially distributed barriers play a significant role in the physics of many stringed musical instruments. It is well known that the tone of the string vibrations is determined by the string supports, and that the boundary conditions of the string termination may cause a short-lasting initial fundamental frequency shifting. Generally, this phenomenon is associated with the nonlinear modulation of the stiff string tension. The aim of this paper is to study the initial frequency glide phenomenon that is induced only by the string-barrier interaction, apart from other possible physical causes, and without the interfering effects of dissipation and dispersion. From a numerical simulation perspective, this highly nonlinear problem may present various difficulties, not the least of which is the risk of numerical instability. We propose a numerically stable and a purely kinematic model of the string-barrier interaction, which is based on the travelling wave solution of the ideal string vibration. The model is capable of reproducing the motion of the vibrating string exhibiting the initial fundamental frequency glide, which is caused solely by the complex nonlinear interaction of the string with its termination. The results presented in this paper can expand our knowledge and understanding of the timbre evolution and the physical principles of sound generation of numerous stringed instruments, such as lutes called the tambura, sitar and biwa.

  14. Soil non-linearity and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of offshore platform foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madshus, Christian

    1997-07-01

    in the laboratory tests. It was also found that models where the hysteretic non-linearity is approximated by any type of viscous or complex stiffness effect will severely overpredict the soil damping of the superimposed load component. The resonant response of dynamic systems with cyclically time-varying stiffness has been studied through numerical simulations and analytical derivations. The responses of these systems have been compared to numerically simulated responses of systems with real hysteretic non-linearity and comparable loading. It has been concluded that the time-varying systems reasonably well reproduce the resonant response of the non-linear systems for most situations. The time-varying system approach is proposed as a candidate method for linearization of dynamic platform foundation response analyses. The thesis recommends investigations for further validation of the findings made in the thesis before the approach may be utilized in platform design. Recommendations are also given on improved methods for platform foundation monitoring systems and for improving elasto-plastic constitutive soil models.

  15. The Effect of Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinearities on the Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Saravanos, Dimitris A.

    1997-01-01

    Previously developed analytical formulations for piezoelectric composite plates are extended to account for the nonlinear effects of temperature on material properties. The temperature dependence of the composite and piezoelectric properties are represented at the material level through the thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. In addition to capturing thermal effects from temperature dependent material properties, this formulation also accounts for thermal effects arising from: (1) coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the various composite and piezoelectric plies and (2) pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric material. The constitutive equations are incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory to provide a unified representation of the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal behavior of smart structures. Corresponding finite element equations are derived and implemented for a bilinear plate element with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of piezoelectric composite laminates. Numerical studies are conducted on a simply supported composite plate with attached piezoceramic patches under thermal gradients to investigate the nonlinear effects of material property temperature dependence on the displacements, sensory voltages, active voltages required to minimize thermal deflections, and the resultant stress states.

  16. DC magnetic field sensing based on the nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in magnetic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, Dmitrii; Chashin, Dmitrii; Ekonomov, Nikolai; Fetisov, Leonid; Fetisov, Yuri; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Recently, highly sensitive magnetic field sensors using the magnetoelectric effect in composite ferromagnetic-piezoelectric layered structures have been demonstrated. However, most of the proposed concepts are not useful for measuring dc magnetic fields, because the conductivity of piezoelectric layers results in a strong decline of the sensor’s sensitivity at low frequencies. In this paper, a novel functional principle of magnetoelectric sensors for dc magnetic field measurements is described. The sensor employs the nonlinear effect of voltage harmonic generation in a composite magnetoelectric structure under the simultaneous influence of a strong imposed ac magnetic field and a weak dc magnetic field to be measured. This physical effect arises due to the nonlinear dependence of the magnetostriction in the ferromagnetic layer on the magnetic field. A sensor prototype comprising of a piezoelectric fibre transducer sandwiched between two layers of the amorphous ferromagnetic Metglas® alloy was fabricated. The specifications regarding the magnetic field range, frequency characteristics, and noise level were studied experimentally. The prototype showed the responsivity of 2.5 V mT-1 and permitted the measurement of dc magnetic fields in the range of ~10 nT to about 0.4 mT. Although sensor operation is based on the nonlinear effect, the sensor response can be made linear with respect to the measured magnetic field in a broad dynamic range extending over 5 orders of magnitude. The underlying physics is explained through a simplified theory for the proposed sensor. The functionality, differences and advantages of the magnetoelectric sensor compare well with fluxgate magnetometers. The ways to enhance the sensor performance are considered.

  17. Spin–orbit interaction effect on nonlinear optical rectification of quantum wire in the presence of electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lahon, Siddhartha, E-mail: sid.lahon@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, Pradip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, DDU College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-04-01

    Here we have investigated the influence of external electric field and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification of a parabolic confinement wire in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum wire radius, electric field, magnetic field, Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate an increase of electric field gives the red-shift of the peak positions of nonlinear optical rectification. The role of confinement strength and spin–orbit interaction strength as control parameters on this nonlinear property have been demonstrated.

  18. Alleviating Border Effects in Wavelet Transforms for Nonlinear Time-varying Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Border effects are very common in many finite signals analysis and processing approaches using convolution operation. Alleviating the border effects that can occur in the processing of finite-length signals using wavelet transform is considered in this paper. Traditional methods for alleviating the border effects are suitable to compression or coding applications. We propose an algorithm based on Fourier series which is proved to be appropriate to the application of time-frequency analysis of nonlinear signals. Fourier series extension method preserves the time-varying characteristics of the signals. A modified signal duration expression for measuring the extent of border effects region is presented. The proposed algorithm is confirmed to be efficient to alleviate the border effects in comparison to the current methods through the numerical examples.

  19. Fundamental electric circuit elements based on the linear and nonlinear magnetoelectric effects (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Young; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Cao, Zexian; Lu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    From the viewpoint of electric circuit theory, the three fundamental two-terminal passive circuit elements, resistor R , capacitor C, and inductor L, are defined in terms of a relationship between two of the four basic circuit variables, charge q, current i, voltage v, and magnetic flux φ. From a symmetry concern, there should be a fourth fundamental element defined from the relationship between charge q and magnetic flux φ. Here we present both theoretical analysis and experimental evidences to demonstrate that a two-terminal passive device employing the magnetoelectric (ME) effects can exhibit a direct relationship between charge q and magnetic flux φ, and thus is able to act as the fourth fundamental circuit element. The ME effects refer to the induction of electric polarization by a magnetic field or magnetization by an electric field, and have attracted enormous interests due to their promise in many applications. However, no one has linked the ME effects with fundamental circuit theory. Both the linear and nonlinear-memory devices, termed transtor and memtranstor, respectively, have been experimentally realized using multiferroic materials showing strong ME effects. Based on our work, a full map of fundamental two-terminal circuit elements is constructed, which consists of four linear and four nonlinear-memory elements. This full map provides an invaluable guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future.

  20. Nonlinear magnetic resonance behavior and reversible adsorbed gas effects from trace ferromagnestism in Y-zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iton, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Unusual spin resonance observations made on a sample of rare earth ion-exchanged Y-zeolite have been attributed to the presence of a ferromagnetic impurity, and are qualitatively explained in terms of existing theories on nonlinear behavior in ferromagnetic resonance at high power. The effects included foldover and bistable response below 136 K, due to classical, anisotropy-based nonlinearity; above 136 K, apparent subsidiary absorption--the Suhl instability driven by coupling of low-frequency spin wave modes to the main resonance--predominated. Modification of the surface anisotropy is suggested to account for the complete suppression of the low-temperature effects when the zeolity sample was cooled in air, the high-temperature effects persisting after this cooling but with a loss of orientational anisotropy. Brief room temperature evacuation of the sample was sufficient to regenerate the original effects. Some details of the resonance behavior are very similar to recently published observations from magnetite impurities; those were there attributed to field-induced transitions. The limitations under which a field-dependent Verwey transition could be used to rationalize such observations have been schematically expounded, and the importance of the microwave field again appears to be the dominating factor.

  1. Finite Larmor radius effects in the nonlinear dynamics of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sarto, D [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy University, Campus Victor Grignard - BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Marchetto, C [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Pegoraro, F; Califano, F, E-mail: daniele.delsarto@ijl.nancy-universite.fr, E-mail: marchetto@ifp.cnr.it, E-mail: pegoraro@df.unipi.it, E-mail: califano@df.unipi.it [Physics Department and CNISM, Pisa University, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    We provide numerical evidence of the role of finite Larmor radius effects in the nonlinear dynamics of magnetic field line reconnection in high-temperature, strong guide field plasmas in a slab configuration, in the large {Delta}' regime. Both ion and electron temperature effects introduce internal energy variations related to mechanical compression terms in the energy balance, thus contributing to regularize the gradients of the ion density with respect to the cold regimes. For values of the Larmor radii that are not asymptotically small, the two temperature effects are no longer interchangeable, in contrast to what is expected from linear theory, and the differences are measurable in the numerical growth rates and in the nonlinear evolution of the density layers. We interpret such differences in terms of the change, due to ion temperature effects, of the Lagrangian advection of the 'plasma invariants' that are encountered in the cold-ion, warm-electron regime. The different roles of the ion and ion-sound Larmor radii in the reconnection dynamics near the X- and O-points are evidenced by means of a local quadratic expansion of the fields.

  2. A Mathematical Formulation for the Effects of Nonlinear Chemical Reactions upon Taylor Dispersive Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. S.; Aleem, T.

    2003-12-01

    In 1953, G.I.~Taylor published his landmark paper concerning the transport of a contaminant dissolved in a fluid flowing through a pipe of narrow diameter. He demonstrated that an interaction between the transverse variations in the fluid's velocity field and the transverse diffusion of the solute yielded an effective downstream mixing mechanism for the transverse average of the solute. This mechanism has since been dubbed ``Taylor Dispersion.'' Since his original publication, many related studies have surfaced. These include generalizations of channel geometry, generalizations of the velocity field (including turbulent field), applications to sedimentation problems, etc. However, much less attention has been given to the effects of nonlinear chemical reactions upon a system of solutes undergoing Taylor Dispersion. We present a rigorous mathematical model for the evolution of the transverse averages of reacting solutes that travel within a fluid flowing down a pipe of arbitrary cross-section. The technique for deriving this model is a generalization of a multiple scales perturbation approach described by P.C.~Fife for linear (reactionless) problems. The key outcome is that while one still finds an effective mechanism for downstream mixing, but also there is also a effective mechanism for nonlinear advection.

  3. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  4. Perturbation method for the second-order nonlinear effect of focused acoustic field around a scatterer in an ideal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Jayathilake, Pahala Gedara; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2014-02-01

    Two nonlinear models are proposed to investigate the focused acoustic waves that the nonlinear effects will be important inside the liquid around the scatterer. Firstly, the one dimensional solutions for the widely used Westervelt equation with different coordinates are obtained based on the perturbation method with the second order nonlinear terms. Then, by introducing the small parameter (Mach number), a dimensionless formulation and asymptotic perturbation expansion via the compressible potential flow theory is applied. This model permits the decoupling between the velocity potential and enthalpy to second order, with the first potential solutions satisfying the linear wave equation (Helmholtz equation), whereas the second order solutions are associated with the linear non-homogeneous equation. Based on the model, the local nonlinear effects of focused acoustic waves on certain volume are studied in which the findings may have important implications for bubble cavitation/initiation via focused ultrasound called HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound). The calculated results show that for the domain encompassing less than ten times the radius away from the center of the scatterer, the non-linear effect exerts a significant influence on the focused high intensity acoustic wave. Moreover, at the comparatively higher frequencies, for the model of spherical wave, a lower Mach number may result in stronger nonlinear effects.

  5. Polarization of a probe laser beam due to nonlinear QED effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Soroush; Kalantari, Seyed Zafarollah; Xue, She-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear QED interactions induce different polarization properties on a given probe beam. We consider the polarization effects caused by the photon-photon interaction in laser experiments, when a laser beam propagates through a constant magnetic field or collides with another laser beam. We solve the quantum Boltzmann equation within the framework of the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian for both time-dependent and constant background field to explore the time evolution of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and V describing polarization. Assuming an initially linearly polarized probe laser beam, we also calculate the induced ellipticity and rotation of the polarization plane.

  6. Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

    2013-01-04

    We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern.

  7. Effects of transverse profile of pump field on second harmonic generation in periodic nonlinear materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJin-Yue; ZhangHan-Zhuang; YangJian-Bing

    2003-01-01

    We report on a theoreticalanalysis of the effects of a converging pump field of Gaussian transverse profile on second harmonic generation in a periodic nonlinear material with quasi-phase-matching. The outputs of the centre intensity and the intensity flux for second harmonic generation are derived by simulation, based on the parameters of quasi-phase-mismatch, the waist and focus positions of the input pump beam. The results show that when the transverse profile of the pump field is taken into account, the quasi-phase-match value and focus position of input beam for maximal second harmonic generation flollow new criteria.

  8. Current distribution effects in patterned non-linear magnetoresistive tunnel junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Montaigne, F; Schuhl, A

    2000-01-01

    To be used in submicronic devices like magnetic memories, magnetic tunnel junctions require low resistances. Four-probe measurements of such resistances are often altered by non-uniformity of the current distribution in the junction. The measured resistance is decreased by localised preferential conduction and increased by voltage drop in the measure electrode. Competition between these two effects is investigated as a function of the geometry. The non-linear conduction of tunnel junctions amplifies dramatically these phenomena and can modify by more than 50% the measured resistance.

  9. Effects of Nonlinear Time-Delay on a Stochastic Asymmetric System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiu-Yun; ZHU Chun-Lian; JIA Ya; LI Jia-Rong

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the effects of nonlinear time-delay on the stochastic system. With the delay time increasing, it is found that the peak of probability distribution in low steady states is decreased, and the peak of probability distribution in high steady states is increased. The mean of state variable, the normalized variance, and the normalized autocorrelation function which quantifies the concentrated degree are slowly varied for small delay time. However, the mean of state variable is rapidly increased, and the normalized variance and the normalized autocorrelation function is rapidJy decreased for large delay time.

  10. Effects of transverse profile of pump field on second harmonic generation in periodic nonlinear materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉壮; 杨建冰; 高锦岳

    2003-01-01

    We report on a theoretical analysis of the effects of a converging pump field of Gaussian transverse profile on second harmonic generation in a periodic nonlinear material with quasi-phase-matching. The outputs of the centre intensity and the intensity flux for second harmonic generation are derived by simulation, based on the parameters of quasi-phase-mismatch, the waist and focus positions of the input pump beam. The results show that when the transverse profile of the pump field is taken into account, the quasi-phase-match value and focus position of input beam for maximal second harmonic generation follow new criteria.

  11. Nonlinear effects in the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, A. V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-97, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Duraes, F. O. [Dep. de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, C.P. 01302-907, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the eikonalized minijet model, with the inclusion of the effects of the first nonlinear corrections to the DGLAP equations. The gluon saturation limits are determined in the DGLAP+GLRMQ approach for the free proton and the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section is described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. The results are compared with experimental cross sections including recent data obtained by cosmic ray experiments.

  12. Effects of nonlinear forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soma; Sreeram, P A; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the effects of nonlinear tip-sample forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy. The jumps and hysteresis observed in the vibration amplitude (A) versus tip-sample distance (h) curves have been traced to bistability in the resonance curve. A numerical analysis of the basic dynamic equation was used to explain the hysteresis in the experimental curve. It has been found that the location of the hysteresis in the A-h curve depends on the frequency of the forced oscillation relative to the natural frequency of the cantilever.

  13. FLOATING QUANTIZATION EFFECTS ON MULTIRATE SAMPLED-DATA NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hongwang; Wang Zhiming

    2007-01-01

    In this article, floating quantization effects on multirate sampled-data control systems are studied. It shows that the solutions of multirate digital feedback control systems with nonlinear plant and with floating quantization in the controller are uniformly ultimately bounded if the associated linear systems consisting of linearization of the plant and controller with no quantization are Schur stable. Moreover, it also shows that the difference between the response of multirate digital controllers without quantizers and the same plant with floating quantization in the controllers can be made as small as desired by selecting proper quantization level.

  14. Two-Level Dipolar System in a Heat Bath: High-Pump Power Effects in the Nonlinear Optical Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, J. L.; León-Torres, J. R.; Lascano, Luis; Alvarado, Ysaias J.; Costa-Vera, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Using the four-wave mixing spectroscopy, we analyze the nonlinear optical properties in a strongly driven two-level system, using a perturbative treatment where, the pump field is considered at all orders, second order in the probe, and first order for the signal field, when the stochastic effects of the solvent are considered. Significant variations in the nonlinear optical properties due mainly to changes in the probe intensity, chemical concentrations, and transversal relaxation times are observed.

  15. Nonlinear thermal convection in a layer of nanofluid under G-jitter and internal heating effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhadauria B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a mathematical model of controlling heat transfer in nanofluids. The time-periodic vertical vibrations of the system are considered to effect an external control of heat transport along with internal heating effects. A weakly non-linear stability analysis is based on the five-mode Lorenz model using which the Nusselt number is obtained as a function of the thermal Rayleigh number, nano-particle concentration based Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, Lewis number, modified diffusivity ratio, amplitude and frequency of modulation. It is shown that modulation can be effectively used to control convection and thereby heat transport. Further, it is found that the effect of internal Rayleigh number is to enhance the heat and nano-particles transport.

  16. TESTING FOR VARYING DISPERSION OF LONGITUDINAL BINOMIAL DATA IN NONLINEAR LOGISTIC MODELS WITH RANDOM EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金官; 韦博成

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, it is discussed that two tests for varying dispersion of binomial data in the framework of nonlinear logistic models with random effects, which are widely used in analyzing longitudinal binomial data. One is the individual test and power calculation for varying dispersion through testing the randomness of cluster effects, which is extensions of Dean(1992) and Commenges et al (1994). The second test is the composite test for varying dispersion through simultaneously testing the randomness of cluster effects and the equality of random-effect means. The score test statistics are constructed and expressed in simple, easy to use, matrix formulas. The authors illustrate their test methods using the insecticide data (Giltinan, Capizzi & Malani (1988)).

  17. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis.

  18. An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark en...

  19. Nonlinear effect in vibroseis data; Vibroseis kiroku ni oite mitomerareru hisenkei koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes nonlinear effect recognized in Vibroseis data. Harmonics is a wave of frequency in integer factors generated in association with basic sweep vibrated by Vibroseis. Harmonics is generated because vibration in the vicinity of seismic source contains nonlinear terms. Seismic exploration using the reflection method often discusses propagation of seismic waves hypothesized as a linear phenomenon. Vibroseis data analysis, however, requires evaluation of the effect of the harmonics on accuracy. Vibroseis investigation measures may be taken by eliminating n-order harmonics by using the phase control method, and generating seismic source sweep in which the phase is shifted by 180/(n-1) each time in order to leave the basic sweep. Methods to increase the sweep length include a method to expel strain to a location outside the range of the subject travel time. Up-sweep (a sweep changing from low frequencies to higher frequencies) is also a means capable of avoiding harmonics effects. Vibroseis investigations currently performed adopt this method frequently because of it having little technological and economic problems. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Changfeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During an earthquake, the nonlinearity of the bridge structure mainly occurs at the supports, bridge piers and restrainers. When entering nonlinear stage, members of the bridge structure affect the elasto-plastic seismic response of the whole structure to a certain extent; for multi-span continuous bridges, longitudinal restrainers can be installed on the movable piers to optimise the distribution of seismic force and enable the movable piers to bear a certain amount of seismic effect. In order to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restrainer and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge, analytical models of continuous girder bridge structure considering the nonlinearity of movable supports, restrainers and bridge piers were built and the nonlinear time history analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of nonlinearity of restraining devices and supports on the elasto-plastic seismic response of continuous girder bridge. Relevant structural measures and recommendation were made to reduce the seismic response of the fixed piers of the continuous girder bridge.

  1. Nonlinear effects on western boundary current structure and separation: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, S.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.; McClimans, T. A.; Ellingsen, I.

    2009-04-01

    The role played by nonlinear effects in shaping the structure of barotropic western boundary currents (WBCs) and in determining WBC separation from the coast has been investigated through laboratory simulations by means of the 5-m-diameter Coriolis rotating basin at SINTEF (Trondheim, Norway) in the framework of the HYDRALAB-III project. The laboratory setup consists of two parallel rectangular channels separated by an island and linked by two curved connections: in the first channel, a piston is forced at a constant speed U ranging from 0.05 to 3 cm/s over a distance of 2.5 m, producing a virtually unsheared current at the entrance of the second channel. In the latter, a linear reduction of the water depth provides the topographic beta-effect that produces the westward intensification. Nearly steady currents are obtained and measured photogrammetrically over a region of about 1 m2. The broad range of piston speeds permitted by the mechanical apparatus has allowed us to achieve an unprecedented coverage of the range of nonlinearity for WBCs in terms of experimental data, so that the cross-stream WBC profile could be analyzed from the nearly linear Munk-type case (e.g., for U=0.1 cm/s with T=30 s, where T is the rotation period of the basin) up to the more realistic highly nonlinear limit (particularly significant is the case U=1 cm/s and T=30 s, which is close to be dynamically similar to the Gulf Stream). Thanks to the large size of the rotating basin, cross-stream widths of the simulated WBC as large as 80 cm could be obtained. Moreover, in order to analyze the process of WBC separation, coastal variations have been introduced along the western boundary in the form of wedge-shaped continents with different coastline orientations, whose northern limit corresponds to an idealized Cape Hatteras. While weak WBCs follow the coast also past the cape, for sufficiently strong nonlinear effects the current detaches from the coast as a consequence of flow deceleration

  2. Nonlinear threshold effect in the Z-scan method of characterizing limiters for high-intensity laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, S. A.; Savelyev, M. S.; Podgaetsky, V. M.; Gerasimenko, A. Yu.; Selishchev, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    A threshold model is described which permits one to determine the properties of limiters for high-powered laser light. It takes into account the threshold characteristics of the nonlinear optical interaction between the laser beam and the limiter working material. The traditional non-threshold model is a particular case of the threshold model when the limiting threshold is zero. The nonlinear characteristics of carbon nanotubes in liquid and solid media are obtained from experimental Z-scan data. Specifically, the nonlinear threshold effect was observed for aqueous dispersions of nanotubes, but not for nanotubes in solid polymethylmethacrylate. The threshold model fits the experimental Z-scan data better than the non-threshold model. Output characteristics were obtained that integrally describe the nonlinear properties of the optical limiters.

  3. Nonlinear effect of elastic vortexlike motion on the dynamic stress state of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilko, Evgeny V.; Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Popov, Mikhail V.; Popov, Valentin L.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the dynamic stress-strain state of regions in a solid body that are involved in a collective elastic vortexlike motion. It is shown that the initiation of elastic vortexlike motion in the material is accompanied by the appearance of dilatancy and equivalent strain, the magnitudes of which are proportional to the square of the ratio of linear velocity on the periphery of the elastic vortex to the velocity of longitudinal elastic waves (P wave). Under conditions of dynamic loading the described dynamic effects are able to initiate inelastic deformation or destruction of the material at loading speeds of a few percent of the P -wave speed. The obtained analytical estimates suggest that dynamic nonlinear strains can make a significant contribution in a number of widely studied nonlinear dynamic phenomena in solids. Among them are the effect of acoustic (dynamic) dilatancy in solids and granular media, which leads to the generation of longitudinal elastic waves by transverse waves [V. Tournat et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 085502 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.085502] and the formation of an array of intense "hot spots" (reminiscent of shear-induced hydrodynamic instabilities in fluids) in adiabatic shear bands [P. R. Guduru et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 036128 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.036128].

  4. Effects of nonlinear sound propagation on the characteristic timbres of brass instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Arnold; Pyle, Robert W; Gilbert, Joël; Campbell, D Murray; Chick, John P; Logie, Shona

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a brass instrument to generate sounds with strong high-frequency components is dependent on the extent to which its bore profile supports nonlinear sound propagation. At high dynamic levels some instruments are readily sounded in a "cuivré" (brassy) manner: this phenomenon is due to the nonlinear propagation of sound in ducts of the proportions typical of labrosones (lip-reed aerophones). The effect is also evident at lower dynamic levels and contributes to the overall tonal character of the various kinds of brass instrument. This paper defines a brassiness potential parameter derived from the bore geometries of brass instruments. The correlation of the brassiness potential parameter with spectral enrichment as measured by the spectral centroid of the radiated sound is examined in playing tests using musicians, experiments using sine-wave excitation of instruments, and simulations using a computational tool. The complementary effects of absolute bore size on spectral enrichment are investigated using sine-wave excitation of cylindrical tubes and of instruments, establishing the existence of a trade-off between bore size and brassiness potential. The utility of the brassiness potential parameter in characterizing labrosones is established, and the graphical presentation of results in a 2D space defined by bore size and brassiness potential demonstrated.

  5. Electric Field-Induced Second Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Timurdogan, E; Watts, M R

    2016-01-01

    The demand for nonlinear effects within a silicon platform to support photonic circuits requiring phase-only modulation, frequency doubling, and/or difference frequency generation, is becoming increasingly clear. However, the symmetry of the silicon crystal inhibits second order optical nonlinear susceptibility, $\\chi^{(2)}$. Here, we show that the crystalline symmetry is broken when a DC field is present, inducing a $\\chi^{(2)}$ in a silicon waveguide that is proportional to the large $\\chi^{(3)}$ of silicon. First, Mach-Zehnder interferometers using the DC Kerr effect optical phase shifters in silicon ridge waveguides with p-i-n junctions are demonstrated with a $V_{\\pi}L$ of $2.4Vcm$ in telecom bands $({\\lambda}_{\\omega}=1.58{\\mu}m)$ without requiring to dope the silicon core. Second, the pump and second harmonic modes in silicon ridge waveguides are quasi-phase matched when the magnitude, spatial distribution of the DC field and $\\chi^{(2)}$ are controlled with p-i-n junctions. Using these waveguides, sec...

  6. The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment in Economic Growth from the Perspective of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. K. Volos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized economy one of the most crucial factors for the economic growth of a country, especially of a developing country, is the foreign direct investment, not only because of the transfer of capital but also of technology. In this work, the effect of foreign direct investments in a county’s economic growth by using tools of nonlinear dynamics is studied. As a model of the economic growth of a country, a well-known nonlinear discrete-time dynamical system, the Logistic map, is used. The system under study consists of two countries with a strong economic relationship. The source country of foreign direct investments is an industrialized, economically powerful and technologically advanced country that makes significant investments in the host country, which is a developing country and strong dependent from the source country. Simulation results of system’s behavior and especially the bifurcation diagrams reveal the strong connection between the countries of the proposed system and the effect of foreign direct investments in the economic growth of the host country.

  7. Competition-similarity relationships and the nonlinearity of competitive effects in consumer-resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Peter A; Rueffler, Claus; Dinnage, Russell

    2008-10-01

    Much previous ecological and evolutionary theory about exploitative competition for a continuous spectrum of resources has used the Lotka-Volterra model with competition coefficients given by a Gaussian function of niche separation. Using explicit consumer-resource models, we show that the Lotka-Volterra model and the assumption of a Gaussian competition-similarity relationship both fail to reflect the impact of strong resource depletion, which typically reduces the influence of the most heavily used resources on the competitive interaction. Taking proper account of resource depletion reveals that strong exploitative competition between efficient consumers is usually a highly nonlinear interaction, implying that a single measure is no longer sufficient to characterize the process. The nonlinearity usually entails weak coupling of competing species when their abundances are high and equal. Rare invaders are likely to have effects on abundant residents much larger than those of the resident on the invader. Asymmetrical utilization curves often produce asymmetrical competition coefficients. Competition coefficients are typically non-Gaussian and are often nonmonotonic functions of niche separation. Utilization curve shape and resource growth functions can have major effects on competition-similarity relationships. A variety of previous theoretical findings need to be reassessed in light of these results.

  8. Theoretical investigation on nonlinear optical effects in laser trapping of dielectric nanoparticles with ultrafast pulsed excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anita; De, Arijit K

    2016-09-19

    The use of low-power high-repetition-rate ultrafast pulsed excitation in stable optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles has been demonstrated in the recent past; the high peak power of each pulse leads to instantaneous trapping of a nanoparticle with fast inertial response and the high repetition-rate ensures repetitive trapping by successive pulses However, with such high peak power pulsed excitation under a tight focusing condition, nonlinear optical effects on trapping efficiency also become significant and cannot be ignored. Thus, in addition to the above mentioned repetitive instantaneous trapping, trapping efficiency under pulsed excitation is also influenced by the optical Kerr effect, which we theoretically investigate here. Using dipole approximation we show that with an increase in laser power the radial component of the trapping potential becomes progressively more stable but the axial component is dramatically modulated due to increased Kerr nonlinearity. We justify that the relevant parameter to quantify the trapping efficiency is not the absolute depth of the highly asymmetric axial trapping potential but the height of the potential barrier along the beam propagation direction. We also discuss the optimal excitation parameters leading to the most stable dipole trap. Our results show excellent agreement with previous experiments.

  9. Raman-free nonlinear optical effects in high pressure gas-filled hollow core PCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, M; Wong, G K L; Chang, W; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J

    2013-02-25

    The effective Kerr nonlinearity of hollow-core kagomé-style photonic crystal fiber (PCF) filled with argon gas increases to ~15% of that of bulk silica glass when the pressure is increased from 1 to 150 bar, while the zero dispersion wavelength shifts from 300 to 900 nm. The group velocity dispersion of the system is uniquely pressure-tunable over a wide range while avoiding Raman scattering-absent in noble gases-and having an extremely high optical damage threshold. As a result, detailed and well-controlled studies of nonlinear effects can be performed, in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes, using only a fixed-frequency pump laser. For example, the absence of Raman scattering permits clean observation, at high powers, of the interaction between a modulational instability side-band and a soliton-created dispersive wave. Excellent agreement is obtained between numerical simulations and experimental results. The system has great potential for the realization of reconfigurable supercontinuum sources, wavelength convertors and short-pulse laser systems.

  10. Hyperspectral Unmixing in Presence of Endmember Variability, Nonlinearity or Mismodelling Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Halimi, Abderrahim; Bioucas-Dias, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents three hyperspectral mixture models jointly with Bayesian algorithms for supervised hyperspectral unmixing. Based on the residual component analysis model, the proposed general formulation assumes the linear model to be corrupted by an additive term whose expression can be adapted to account for nonlinearities (NL), endmember variability (EV), or mismodelling effects (ME). The NL effect is introduced by considering a polynomial expression that is related to bilinear models. The proposed new formulation of EV accounts for shape and scale endmember changes while enforcing a smooth spectral/spatial variation. The ME formulation takes into account the effect of outliers and copes with some types of EV and NL. The known constraints on the parameter of each observation model are modeled via suitable priors. The posterior distribution associated with each Bayesian model is optimized using a coordinate descent algorithm which allows the computation of the maximum a posteriori estimator of the unkno...

  11. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.J. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei2001@gmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazari, M. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs.

  12. A nonlinear BOLD model accounting for refractory effect by applying the longitudinal relaxation in NMR to the linear BOLD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwan-Jin

    2009-09-01

    A mathematical model to regress the nonlinear blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal has been developed by incorporating the refractory effect into the linear BOLD model of the biphasic gamma variate function. The refractory effect was modeled as a relaxation of two separate BOLD capacities corresponding to the biphasic components of the BOLD signal in analogy with longitudinal relaxation of magnetization in NMR. When tested with the published fMRI data of finger tapping, the nonlinear BOLD model with the refractory effect reproduced the nonlinear BOLD effects such as reduced poststimulus undershoot and saddle pattern in a prolonged stimulation as well as the reduced BOLD signal for repetitive stimulation.

  13. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system with nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the Talbot effect resulting from the repeatedly self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field under the Fresnel near-field regime. By launching the probe beam into an optically induced atomic lattice (established by interfering two coupling fields) inside a thermal rubidium vapor cell, we can obtain an electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) on probe beam in a coherent three-level $\\Lambda$-type Doppler-free atomic configuration with the assistance of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, which can modify and greatly enhance the Kerr nonlinearity near atomic resonance. The EIG patterns out of the cell can repeat the image at the output plane of the cell at integer multiples of Talbot length, which agree well with the theoretical prediction [Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 081108 (2011)]. Such first demonstrated EIT Talbot effect in a coherent atomic system may pave a lensless and nondestructive way for imaging ultracold atoms or molecules.

  14. Autler-Townes triplet absorption spectroscopy, controllable electromagnetically induced transparency and nonlinear coherence Kerr effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Bakht Amin; Nazmidinov, Rashid G

    2014-01-01

    A Field Generated Coherence (FGC)' based 3-field cyclically-driven 4-level atomic system, which is an extended version of $\\Lambda$ type schemes, is investigated for Autler-Townes triplet absorption (ATT) spectroscopy. Two dark lines which appear in the ATT spectrum, are the essence of the generated multiple controllable EIT windows for a superluminal Gaussian light pulse. We also investigate enhancement in the group velocity for the Gaussian light pulse, using a nonlinear coherence Kerr effect. Consequently, the superluminal probing pulse leaves a steep anomalous region of the medium by $28 \\mu s$ sooner than the light pulse of the Kerr-free system. A co-linear propagation of the driving fields is suggested to minimize our explored Doppler broadening incoherence effect on the probe pulse. Indeed, the analytically observed undistorted retrieved light pulse, which is a necessary and useful requirement for realization of the results in laboratory, is also shown and analyzed explicitly.

  15. Nonlinear optical effects of ultrahigh-Q silicon photonic nanocavities immersed in superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Xiankai; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X

    2013-01-01

    Photonic nanocavities are a key component in many applications because of their capability of trapping and storing photons and enhancing interactions of light with various functional materials and structures. The maximal number of photons that can be stored in silicon photonic cavities is limited by the free-carrier and thermo-optic effects at room temperature. To reduce such effects, we performed the first experimental study of optical nonlinearities in ultrahigh-Q silicon disk nanocavities at cryogenic temperatures in a superfluid helium environment. At elevated input power, the cavity transmission spectra exhibit distinct blue-shifted bistability behavior when temperature crosses the liquid helium lambda point. At even lower temperatures, the spectra restore to symmetric Lorentzian shapes. Under this condition, we obtain a large stored intracavity photon number of about 40,000, which is limited ultimately by the local helium phase transition. These new discoveries are explained by theoretical calculations ...

  16. Simple autocorrelator for ultraviolet pulse-width measurements based on the nonlinear photoelectric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Y

    1994-09-20

    An optical pulse-width measurement in the ultraviolet spectral region has been performed in a simple manner by introducing into the second-order autocorrelator a nonlinear response of the optical detector based on the two-photon photoelectric effect. The pulse widths of the third, fourth, and fifth harmonics of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser were measured by the use of a photomultiplier with a cesium iodide photocathode with a minimum required pulse energy of 10 nJ and a power density of 10 kW/cm(2). The effect of transient interband optical excitation with different photon energies on the intensity correlation profile was also studied for the case of a copper iodide photocathode, and the result provides a background-free intensity correlation in a part of the ultraviolet spectral region.

  17. Effects of periodic modulation on the nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Li-Hua; Duan Wen-Shan

    2009-01-01

    We study the Landau-Zener tunneling of a nonlinear two-level system by applying a periodic modulation on its energy bias. We find that the two levels are splitting at the zero points of the zero order Bessel function for high-frequency modulation. Moreover, we obtain the effective coupling constant between two levels at the zero points of the zero order Bessel function by calculating the final tunneling probability at these points. It seems that the effective coupling constant can be regarded as the approximation of the higher order Bessel function at these points. For the low-frequency modulation, we find that the final tunneling probability is a function of the interaction strength. For the weak inter-level coupling case, we find that the final tunneling probability is more disordered as the interaction strength becomes larger.

  18. Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Xuechao; Sun, Zhipei; Cheng, Xueping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2014-07-14

    We study a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite as a saturable absorber (SA) for pulse generation in Yb-doped fiber lasers. The saturable absorption and optical limiting (OL) characteristics of the SWNT device are investigated. By combing these two nonlinear effects, we find out for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that mode-locking can be obtained in the dissipative soliton regime at low pumping followed by Q-switching at high pumping, which is quite different from conventional pulse dynamic evolutions. The Q-switched state operating at higher pump powers is due to the OL effect. The inverted operating fiber laser can be applied in various potential applications such as versatile material processing, optical communication and radar system etc.

  19. Selecting RF Amplifiers for Impedance Controlled LLRF Systems - Nonlinear Effects and System Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, John D.; Mastorides, Themis; Rivetta, Claudio Hector; Van Winkle, Daniel; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    Several high-current accelerators use feedback techniques in the accelerating RF systems to control the impedances seen by the circulating beam. These Direct and Comb Loop architectures put the high power klystron and LLRF signal processing components inside feedback loops, and the ultimate behavior of the systems depends on the individual sub-component properties. Imperfections and non-idealities in the signal processing leads to reduced effectiveness in the impedance control loops. In the PEP-II LLRF systems non-linear effects have been shown to reduce the achievable beam currents, increase low-mode longitudinal growth rates and reduce the margins and stability of the LLRF control loops. We present measurements of the driver amplifiers used in the PEP-II systems, and present measurement techniques needed to quantify the small-signal gain, linearity, transient response and image frequency generation of these amplifiers.

  20. Single-particle And Collective Effects Of Cubic Nonlinearity In The Beam Dynamics Of Proton Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tran Hy, J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes some new studies of the effects of cubic nonlinearities arising from image-charge forces and octupole magnets on the transverse beam dynamics of proton synchrotrons and storage rings, and also a study of the damping of coherent oscillations using a feed-back damper. In the latter case, various corrective algorithms were modeled using linear one-turn maps. Kicks of fixed amplitude but appropriate sign were shown to provide linear damping and no coherent tune shift, though the rate predicted analytically was somewhat higher than that observed in simulations. This algorithm gave much faster damping (for equal power) than conventional proportional kicks, which damp exponentially. Two single-particle effects of the image-change force were investigated: distortion of the momentum dispersion function and amplitude dependence of the betatron tunes (resulting in tune spread). The former is calculated using transfer maps and the method of undetermined coefficients, the latter by solving the cubic ...

  1. A multivariate nonlinear mixed effects method for analyzing energy partitioning in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Chwalibog, André

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous equations have become increasingly popular for describing the effects of nutrition on the utilization of ME for protein (PD) and lipid deposition (LD) in animals. The study developed a multivariate nonlinear mixed effects (MNLME) framework and compared it with an alternative method...... for estimating parameters in simultaneous equations that described energy metabolism in growing pigs, and then proposed new PD and LD equations. The general statistical framework was implemented in the NLMIXED procedure in SAS. Alternative PD and LD equations were also developed, which assumed...... that the instantaneous response curve of an animal to varying energy supply followed the law of diminishing returns behavior. The Michaelis-Menten function was adopted to represent a biological relationship in which the affinity constant (k) represented the sensitivity of PD to ME above maintenance. The approach...

  2. The Effect of Nonlinear Landau Damping on Ultrarelativistic Beam Plasma Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Philip; Lamberts, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Very-high energy gamma-rays from extragalactic sources pair-produce off of the extragalactic background light, yielding an electron-positron pair beam. This pair beam is unstable to various plasma instabilities, especially the "oblique" instability, which can be the dominant cooling mechanism for the beam. However, recently, it has been claimed that nonlinear Landau damping renders it physically irrelevant by reducing the effective damping rate to a low level. Here, we show with numerical calculations that the effective damping rate is $8\\times 10^{-4}$ of the growth rate of the linear instability, which is sufficient for the "oblique" instability to be the dominant cooling mechanism of these pair beams. In particular, we show that previous estimates of this rate ignored the exponential cutoff in the scattering amplitude at large wavenumber and assumed that the damping of scattered waves entirely depends on collisions, ignoring collisionless processes. We find that the total wave energy eventually grows to ap...

  3. Improved energy confinement with nonlinear isotope effects in magnetically confined plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, J; Jenko, F

    2016-01-01

    The efficient production of electricity from nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas relies on a good confinement of the thermal energy. For more than thirty years, the observation that such confinement depends on the mass of the plasma isotope and its interaction with apparently unrelated plasma conditions has remained largely unexplained and it has become one of the main unsolved issues. By means of numerical studies based on the gyrokinetic theory, we quantitatively show how the plasma microturbulence depends on the isotope mass through nonlinear multiscale microturbulence effects involving the interplay between zonal flows, electromagnetic effects and the torque applied. This finding has crucial consequences for the design of future reactors since, in spite of the fact that they will be composed by multiple ion species, their extrapolation from present day experiments heavily relies on the knowledge obtained from a long experimental tradition based in single isotope plasmas.

  4. Nonlinear Response of High Arch Dams to Nonuniform Seismic Excitation Considering Joint Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonuniform excitation due to spatially varying ground motions on nonlinear responses of concrete arch dams is investigated. A high arch dam was selected as numerical example, reservoir was modelled as incompressible material, foundation was assumed as mass-less medium, and all contraction and peripheral joints were modelled considering the ability of opening/closing. This study used Monte-Carlo simulation approach for generating spatially nonuniform ground motion. In this approach, random seismic characteristics due to incoherence and wave passage effects were investigated and finally their effects on structural response were compared with uniform excitation at design base level earthquake. Based on the results, nonuniform input leads to some differences than uniform input. Moreover using nonuniform excitation increase, stresses on dam body.

  5. Effective Lagrangian in nonlinear electrodynamics and its properties of causality and unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabad, Anatoly E.; Usov, Vladimir V.

    2011-05-01

    In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed the speed of light in the vacuum c=1, and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we establish the positive convexity of the effective Lagrangian on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants that are derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED at exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed, resulting in complex energy ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. Superluminal excitations (tachyons) appear, too, but for the magnetic field exceeding its instability threshold. Also other popular Lagrangians are tested to establish that the ones leading to spontaneous vacuum magnetization possess wrong convexity.

  6. Effective Lagrangian in nonlinear electrodynamics and its properties of causality and unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Shabad, Anatoly E

    2011-01-01

    In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed the speed of light in the vacuum and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we establish the positive convexity of the effective Lagrangian on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants that are derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED at exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed resulting in complex energy ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. Superluminal excitations (tachyons) appear, too, but for the magnetic field exceeding its instability threshold. Also other popular Lagrangians are tested to establish that the ones leading to spontaneous vacuum magnetiz...

  7. Strong Glacial Cooling In The Middle Tropical Troposphere Due To Non-linear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, S. J.; Lohmann, G.

    Numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model for glacial and interglacial climates have been performed. Our model experiments reveal that slightly cooler tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) relative to the ones previously recon- structed by the CLIMAP project (1981) are sufficient to exhibit a strong glacial cool- ing reconstructed by tropical snow lines. The increased cooling in our experiments can be attributed to two non-linear effects: Firstly, there is an increased environmental lapse rate in the free atmosphere. Slightly cooler glacial SSTs provide for less abso- lute moisture content and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation of moisture is accountable for an increased lapse rate. In our LGM simulation we find an additional two degrees cooling in the tropical middle troposphere. Secondly, the surface air temperature near tropical glaciers is further cooled by a longer duration of snow cover. Our model result provides a consistent view of the last glacial maximum climate with much colder tem- peratures than today in the tropical mountains in concordance with moderate lowering of tropical SSTs. We propose that these non-linearities in the climate system are also important when detecting global warming from tropical snow lines.

  8. A unified treatment of nonclassical nonlinear effects in the propagation of ultrasound in heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Delsanto, Pier; Hirsekorn, Sigrun

    2004-04-01

    Recent experiments on rocks and other materials, such as soil, cement, concrete and damaged elastic materials, have led to the discovery of nonlinear (NL) hysteretic effects in their elastic behaviour. These observations suggest the existence of a NL mesoscopic elasticity universality class, to which all the aforementioned materials belong. The purpose of the present contribution is to search for the basic mathematical roots for nonclassical nonlinearity, in order to explain its universality, classify it and correlate it with the underlying meso- or microscopic interaction mechanisms. In our discussions we explicitly consider two quite different kinds of specimens: a two-bonded-elements structure and a thin multigrained bar. It is remarkable that, although the former includes only one interface and the latter very many interstices, the same "interaction box" formalism can be applied to both. Another important result of the proposed formalism is that the spectral contents of an arbitrary system for any input amplitude may be predicted, under certain assumptions, from the result of a single experiment at a higher amplitude.

  9. Toward a Broadband Astro-comb: Effects of Nonlinear Spectral Broadening in Optical Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Guoqing; Phillips, David F; Walsworth, Ronald L; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new approach to generate a broadband astro-comb by spectral broadening of a narrowband astro-comb inside a highly nonlinear optical fiber. Numerical modeling shows that cascaded four-wave-mixing dramatically degrades the input comb's side-mode suppression and causes side-mode amplitude asymmetry. These two detrimental effects can systematically shift the center-of-gravity of astro-comb spectral lines as measured by an astrophysical spectrograph with resolution \\approx100,000; and thus lead to wavelength calibration inaccuracy and instability. Our simulations indicate that this performance penalty, as a result of nonlinear spectral broadening, can be compensated by using a filtering cavity configured for double-pass. As an explicit example, we present a design based on an Yb-fiber source comb (with 1 GHz repetition rate) that is filtered by double-passing through a low finesse cavity (finesse = 208), and subsequent spectrally broadened in a 2-cm, SF6-glass photonic crystal fiber. Spann...

  10. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  11. Effects of shear keys on nonlinear seismic responses of an arch-gravity dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper,the added tangential nonlinear springs are introduced to represent the effects of one-way and two-way shear keys. The added tangential stiffness coefficient is relative to the joint opening and the relative tangential movement and determined numerically by using a refined model of shear keys.The user subroutine of nonlinear spring elements has been implemented into ABAQUS program.The seismic responses of an arch-gravity dam are mainly examined.It is shown by the results that a significant increase of about 17%-30%in joint opening can be observed for the dam with one-way shear keys;the two-way shear keys are beneficial to restrain the sliding displacement along both the radial and vertical directions,whereas the one-way shear keys mainly restrain the displacement along the radial direction;for the dam with shear keys,the maximum arch stress is increased,the cantilever stress is reduced,and the location of the maximum cantilever stress is also moved from the dam heel to the midheight of the cantilever.

  12. Accelerating oscillatory fronts in a nonlinear sonic vacuum with strong nonlocal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelman, O V; Zolotarevskiy, V; Savin, A V; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F

    2016-03-01

    We describe and explore accelerating oscillatory fronts in sonic vacua with nonlocal interactions. As an example, a chain of particles oscillating in the plane and coupled by linear springs, with fixed ends, is considered. When one end of this system is harmonically excited in the transverse direction, one observes accelerated propagation of the excitation front, accompanied by an almost monochromatic oscillatory tail. Position of the front obeys the scaling law l(t) ∼ t(4/3). The frequency of the oscillatory tail remains constant, and the wavelength scales as λ ∼ t(1/3). These scaling laws result from the nonlocal effects; we derive them analytically (including the scaling coefficients) from a continuum approximation. Moreover, a certain threshold excitation amplitude is required in order to initiate the front propagation. The initiation threshold is evaluated on the basis of a simplified discrete model, further reduced to a completely integrable nonlinear system. Given their simplicity, nonlinear sonic vacua of the type considered herein should be common in periodic lattices.

  13. Spatiotemporal instability in nonlinear dispersive media in the presence of space-time focusing effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双春; 范滇元

    2002-01-01

    Spatiotemporal instability in nonlinear dispersive media is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear envelope equation. A general expression for instability gain which includes the effects of space-time focusing, arbitrarily higher-order dispersions and self-steepening is obtained. It is found that, for both normal and anomalous group-velocity dispersions, space-time focusing may lead to the appearance of new instability regions and influence the original instability gain spectra mainly by shrinking their regions. The region of the original instability gain spectrum shrinks much more in normal dispersion case than in anomalous one. In the former case, space-time focusing completely suppresses the growing of higher frequency components. In addition, we find that all the oddth-order dispersions contribute none to instability, while all the eventh-order dispersions influence instability region and do not influence the maximum instability gain, therein the fourth-order dispersion plays the same role as space-time focusing in spatiotemporal instability. The main role played by self-steepening in spatiotemporal instability is that it reduces the instability gain and exerts much more significant influence on the new instability regions resulting from space-time focusing.

  14. The effect of nonlinear thermo-fluid-dynamic terms on free-piston Stirling machine stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, G. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Navale; Monte, F. de [Univ. of L`Aquila (Italy). Dipt. de Energetica

    1996-12-31

    In this work a new linearization technique of the dynamic balance equations of a free-piston Stirling machine is developed. It takes into account the nonlinear thermo-fluid-dynamic terms inherent in the machine, although keeping the linearity of the differential dynamic equations. This allows the equations of motion to be solved still analytically and, therefore, useful algebraic relations (already established by the authors in past studies) linking together the various machine parameters to be used. The advantages related to the proposed linearization methodology are the following: (1) it gives a right interpretation of the machine working when the operational parameters vary, because the considered nonlinear terms have a stabilizing effect; (2) it can be used to predict the machine performance not only with more accuracy, but especially in a more exhaustive way, allowing to estimate also the piston stroke and, therefore, the delivered power; (3) it enables to design the machine in such a way to enhance its stability, thus eliminating the necessity of power control systems.

  15. Effect of illumination on linear and nonlinear optical parameters of Ga5Se95 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedan, I. T.; El-Nahass, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    Ga5Se95 films were prepared by using thermal evaporation technique. X-ray showed that the powder samples as well as thin-film samples are crystalline in nature. The optical constants (refractive index n and rad absorption index k) of Ga5Se95 films were calculated using Murmann's exact method. The photoinduced red shift of the optical gap (photodarkening) appeared in Ga5Se95 films after illumination. The indirect energy gap was decreased from 1.75 eV for the as-deposited films to 1.65 eV for illuminated thin films 1 h. The concentration of color centers was calculated by using Gaussian fitting for peaks of the absorption coefficient ( α) and was found to increase from 5.6 × 1024 to 6.2 × 1024 cm-3 with illumination time. The effect of illumination on the nonlinear optical susceptibility ( χ (3)) and nonlinear refractive index ( n 2) is estimated using empirical relations.

  16. Nonlinear effects of respiration on the crosstalk between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Rossato, Gianluca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto

    2016-05-13

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems are vital control mechanisms responsible for guaranteeing homeostasis and are affected by respiration. This work proposes the investigation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control systems and the nonlinear influences of respiration on both regulations through joint symbolic analysis (JSA), conditioned or unconditioned on respiration. Interactions between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems were evaluated as well by performing correlation analysis between JSA indexes describing the two control systems. Heart period, systolic and mean arterial pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and respiration were acquired on a beat-to-beat basis in 13 subjects experiencing recurrent syncope episodes (SYNC) and 13 healthy individuals (non-SYNC) in supine resting condition and during head-up tilt test at 60° (TILT). Results showed that JSA distinguished conditions and groups, whereas time domain parameters detected only the effect of TILT. Respiration affected cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems in a nonlinear way and was able to modulate the interactions between the two control systems with different outcome in non-SYNC and SYNC groups, thus suggesting that the analysis of the impact of respiration on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular regulatory systems might improve our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the development of postural-related syncope.

  17. Effect of nonlinearity in hybrid kinetic Monte Carlo-continuum models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Ariel; Lin, Guang; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been interest in developing efficient ways to model heterogeneous surface reactions with hybrid computational models that couple a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model for a surface to a finite-difference model for bulk diffusion in a continuous domain. We consider two representative problems that validate a hybrid method and show that this method captures the combined effects of nonlinearity and stochasticity. We first validate a simple deposition-dissolution model with a linear rate showing that the KMC-continuum hybrid agrees with both a fully deterministic model and its analytical solution. We then study a deposition-dissolution model including competitive adsorption, which leads to a nonlinear rate, and show that in this case the KMC-continuum hybrid and fully deterministic simulations do not agree. However, we are able to identify the difference as a natural result of the stochasticity coming from the KMC surface process. Because KMC captures inherent fluctuations, we consider it to be more realistic than a purely deterministic model. Therefore, we consider the KMC-continuum hybrid to be more representative of a real system.

  18. Reverse saturable absorption studies in polymerized indole - Effect of polymerization in the phenomenal enhancement of third order optical nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, K.; Joseph, Antony; Bhattathiripad, Jayakrishnan; Ramesan, M. T.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Siji Narendran, N. K.

    2016-04-01

    We report our results on the identification of large order enhancement in nonlinear optical coefficients of polymerized indole and its comparative study with reference to its monomer counterpart. Indole monomer shows virtually little third order effects whereas its polymerized version exhibits phenomenal increase in its third order nonlinear optical parameters such as nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. Open aperture Z-scan trace of polyindole done with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source (532 nm, 7 ns), shows β value as high as 89 cm/GW at a beam energy of 0.83 GW/cm2. Closed aperture Z-scan done at identical energies reveals nonlinear refractive index of the order of -3.55 × 10-17 m2/W. Band gap measurement of polyindole was done with UV-Vis absorption spectra and compared with that of Indole. FTIR spectra of the monomer and polymerized versions were recorded and relevant bond formations were confirmed from the characteristic peaks. Photo luminescent spectra were investigated to know the emission features of both molecules. Beam energy (I0) versus nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) plot indicates reverse saturable type of absorption behaviour in polyindole molecules. Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (DFWM) plot of polyindole reveals quite a cubic dependence between probe and phase conjugate signal and the resulting χ(3) is comparable with Z-scan results. Optical limiting efficiency of polyindole is comparable with certain derivatives of porphyrins, phthalocyanines and graphene oxides.

  19. Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From AVIRIS Data: The Importance of Non-Linear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Robert O.; Moreno, Jose F.

    1996-01-01

    AVIRIS data represent a new and important approach for the retrieval of atmospheric and surface parameters from optical remote sensing data. Not only as a test for future space systems, but also as an operational airborne remote sensing system, the development of algorithms to retrieve information from AVIRIS data is an important step to these new approaches and capabilities. Many things have been learned since AVIRIS became operational, and the successive technical improvements in the hardware and the more sophisticated calibration techniques employed have increased the quality of the data to the point of almost meeting optimum user requirements. However, the potential capabilities of imaging spectrometry over the standard multispectral techniques have still not been fully demonstrated. Reasons for this are the technical difficulties in handling the data, the critical aspect of calibration for advanced retrieval methods, and the lack of proper models with which to invert the measured AVIRIS radiances in all the spectral channels. To achieve the potential of imaging spectrometry, these issues must be addressed. In this paper, an algorithm to retrieve information about both atmospheric and surface parameters from AVIRIS data, by using model inversion techniques, is described. Emphasis is put on the derivation of the model itself as well as proper inversion techniques, robust to noise in the data and an inadequate ability of the model to describe natural variability in the data. The problem of non-linear effects is addressed, as it has been demonstrated to be a major source of error in the numerical values retrieved by more simple, linear-based approaches. Non-linear effects are especially critical for the retrieval of surface parameters where both scattering and absorption effects are coupled, as well as in the cases of significant multiple-scattering contributions. However, sophisticated modeling approaches can handle such non-linear effects, which are especially

  20. Solvent effect on the third order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting ability of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Aparna; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the solvent effect on the third order optical nonlinearity of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root and their third order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been studied using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The third order nonlinearity of these samples are dominated by nonlinear absorption, which leads to strong optical limiting and their strength is influenced by the solvent used, suggesting that betanin natural dyes are promising candidate for the development of photonic nonlinear optic devices.

  1. Simultaneous all-optical half-adder, half-subtracter, comparator, and decoder based on nonlinear effects harnessing in highly nonlinear fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karamdeep; Kaur, Gurmeet; Singh, Maninder Lal

    2016-07-01

    A multifunctional combinational logic module capable of performing several signal manipulation tasks all-optically, such as half-addition/subtraction, single-bit comparison, and 2-to-4 decoding simultaneously is proposed. Several logic functions (A+B¯, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B) between two input signals A and B are implemented by harnessing a number of nonlinear effects, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), cross-gain modulation (XGM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) inside only two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) arranged in a parallel structure. The NOR gate (A+B¯) is realized by the means of XPM effect in the first HNLF, whereas, A‾.B, A.B¯, and A.B logics have relied on utilization of XGM and FWM processes, respectively, in parametric medium made up of the second HNLF of parallel arrangement. The remaining A⊕B and A⊙B logics required for successful implementation of the proposed simultaneous scheme are attained by temporally combining previously achieved (A‾.B and A.B‾) and (A.B and A+B‾) logics. Quality-factor ≥7.4 and extinction ratio ≥12.30 dB have been achieved at repetition rates of 100 Gbps for all logic functions (A+B‾, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B), suggesting successful simultaneous implementation.

  2. Daily temperature and mortality: a study of distributed lag non-linear effect and effect modification in Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have documented health effects of ambient temperature, little evidence is available in subtropical or tropical regions, and effect modifiers remain uncertain. We examined the effects of daily mean temperature on mortality and effect modification in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. Methods A Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to assess the non-linear and lag patterns of the association between daily mean temperature and mortality from 2003 to 2007 in Guangzhou. The case-only approach was used to determine whether the effect of temperature was modified by individual characteristics, including sex, age, educational attainment and occupation class. Results Hot effect was immediate and limited to the first 5 days, with an overall increase of 15.46% (95% confidence interval: 10.05% to 20.87% in mortality risk comparing the 99th and the 90th percentile temperature. Cold effect persisted for approximately 12 days, with a 20.39% (11.78% to 29.01% increase in risk comparing the first and the 10th percentile temperature. The effects were especially remarkable for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of both hot and cold temperatures were greater among the elderly. Females suffered more from hot-associated mortality than males. We also found significant effect modification by educational attainment and occupation class. Conclusions There are significant mortality effects of hot and cold temperatures in Guangzhou. The elderly, females and subjects with low socioeconomic status have been identified as especially vulnerable to the effect of ambient temperatures.

  3. Daily temperature and mortality: a study of distributed lag non-linear effect and effect modification in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Ding, Yan; Zhou, Ying-Xue; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2012-09-14

    Although many studies have documented health effects of ambient temperature, little evidence is available in subtropical or tropical regions, and effect modifiers remain uncertain. We examined the effects of daily mean temperature on mortality and effect modification in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. A Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to assess the non-linear and lag patterns of the association between daily mean temperature and mortality from 2003 to 2007 in Guangzhou. The case-only approach was used to determine whether the effect of temperature was modified by individual characteristics, including sex, age, educational attainment and occupation class. Hot effect was immediate and limited to the first 5 days, with an overall increase of 15.46% (95% confidence interval: 10.05% to 20.87%) in mortality risk comparing the 99th and the 90th percentile temperature. Cold effect persisted for approximately 12 days, with a 20.39% (11.78% to 29.01%) increase in risk comparing the first and the 10th percentile temperature. The effects were especially remarkable for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of both hot and cold temperatures were greater among the elderly. Females suffered more from hot-associated mortality than males. We also found significant effect modification by educational attainment and occupation class. There are significant mortality effects of hot and cold temperatures in Guangzhou. The elderly, females and subjects with low socioeconomic status have been identified as especially vulnerable to the effect of ambient temperatures.

  4. Impact damage detection in smart composites using nonlinear acoustics—cointegration analysis for removal of undesired load effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Phong B.; Klepka, Andrzej; Pieczonka, Łukasz; Aymerich, Francesco; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a reliable methodology—based on nonlinear acoustics—for impact damage detection in composite materials. The nonlinear vibro-acoustic wave modulation technique is used to detect damage. The problem of operational variability of the method with respect to the selection of frequency and amplitude of low-frequency (LF) modal excitation is investigated. This problem is addressed using the concept of stationarity of time series of vibro-acoustic data. Cointegration analysis is employed to compensate for the effect of variable operational conditions associated with LF modal (or vibration) excitation in nonlinear vibro-acoustic wave modulations. Analysis of stationary statistical characteristics of vibro-acoustic responses—after cointegration analysis—are used for damage detection. The proposed method is validated using vibro-acoustic data from laminated composite plates and composite sandwich panels. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively compensate for the effect of LF modal excitation on nonlinear vibro-acoustic wave modulations and detect the damage more accurately and robustly than the existing nonlinear acoustics based on the analysis of modulation sidebands.

  5. Electric field effect on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in inverted core–shell nanodots with dielectric confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, M.; Radu, A., E-mail: radu@physics.pub.ro; Niculescu, E.C.

    2013-11-15

    Third-order nonlinear optical processes associated with the interlevel transitions in ZnS/CdSe core–shell quantum dots under electric fields are theoretically investigated. Taking into account the dielectric mismatch with the surrounding matrix, the electronic structure of the dots is obtained within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. It is shown that large applied electric fields break the symmetry of the confinement potential and lead to a significant blue-shift of the peak positions in the nonlinear optical spectrum. The size effect is also discussed and it is proved that large nonlinear susceptibility can be obtained by increasing the thickness of the nanocrystal shell. Our results suggest that external factors such as the applied electric field and orientation of the incident light polarization can be used – in addition to spatial confinement – to improve the performances of the optical devices. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear optical processes in ZnS/CdSe QDs under electric field were studied. • The effective mass and parabolic band approximations were used. • The dielectric mismatch of the QDs with the surrounding matrix was considered. • Increasing the thickness of the shell could lead to large nonlinear susceptibility. • Incident light polarization with respect to the electric field was discussed.

  6. THE EFFECT OF NONLINEAR LANDAU DAMPING ON ULTRARELATIVISTIC BEAM PLASMA INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Philip; Lamberts, Astrid [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald, E-mail: chang65@uwm.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-20

    Very high energy gamma-rays from extragalactic sources produce pairs from the extragalactic background light, yielding an electron-positron pair beam. This pair beam is unstable to various plasma instabilities, especially the ''oblique'' instability, which can be the dominant cooling mechanism for the beam. However, recently, it has been claimed that nonlinear Landau damping renders it physically irrelevant by reducing the effective damping rate to a low level. Here we show with numerical calculations that the effective damping rate is 8 × 10{sup –4} the growth rate of the linear instability, which is sufficient for the ''oblique'' instability to be the dominant cooling mechanism of these pair beams. In particular, we show that previous estimates of this rate ignored the exponential cutoff in the scattering amplitude at large wave numbers and assumed that the damping of scattered waves entirely depends on collisions, ignoring collisionless processes. We find that the total wave energy eventually grows to approximate equipartition with the beam by increasingly depositing energy into long-wavelength modes. As we have not included the effect of nonlinear wave-wave interactions on these long-wavelength modes, this scenario represents the ''worst case'' scenario for the oblique instability. As it continues to drain energy from the beam at a faster rate than other processes, we conclude that the ''oblique'' instability is sufficiently strong to make it the physically dominant cooling mechanism for high-energy pair beams in the intergalactic medium.

  7. Experimental constraints on non-linearities induced by two-photon effects in elastic and inelastic Rosenbluth separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladas Tvaskis; John Arrington; Michael Christy; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel; Yongguang Liang; Grahame Vittorini

    2006-01-26

    The effects of two-photon exchange corrections, suggested to explain the difference between measurements of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors using the polarization transfer and Rosenbluth techniques, have been studied in elastic and inelastic scattering data. Such corrections could introduce epsilon-dependent non-linearities in inelastic Rosenbluth separations, where epsilon is the virtual photon polarization parameter. It is concluded that such non-linear effects are consistent with zero for elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic scattering for all Q{sup 2} and W{sup 2} values measured.

  8. Dissipation Effects on MHD Nonlinear Flow and Heat Transfer Past a Porous Surface with Prescribed Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Anjali Devi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscous and Joule dissipation effects are considered on MHD nonlinear flow and heat transfer past a stretching porous surface embedded in a porous medium under a transverse magnetic field. Analytical solutions of highly nonlinear momentum equation and confluent hypergeometric similarity solution of heat transfer equations in the case when the plate stretches with velocity varying linearly with distance are obtained. The effect of various parameters like suction parameter, Prandtl number, Magnetic parameter, and Eckert number entering into the velocity field, temperature distribution and skin friction co-efficient at the wall are discussed with the aid of graphs.

  9. Effect of thickness on nonlinear absorption properties of graphite oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Cheruvalathu, Ajina; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.; Thomas, Sheenu; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report the thickness dependent structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of graphite oxide (GO) thin films synthesized by spin coating method. We observed that the structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties can be tuned by the film thickness in GO. The nonlinear absorption studies by open aperture z scan technique exhibited a saturable absorption. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity varies with film thickness which is attributed to increased localized defect states in the energy band gap. Our results emphasize relatively large thickness dependent optical nonlinearity of GO thin films and its potential for optical pulse generation, exploring the way to GO based nonlinear applications in Q switched mode locking laser systems. All the coated GO films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction method (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements.

  10. Linear and nonlinear effects of temperature and precipitation on ecosystem properties in tidal saline wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Grace, James B.; Howard, Rebecca J.; Stagg, Camille L.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Gabler, Christopher A.; Day, Richard H.; Rogers, Kerrylee

    2017-01-01

    Climate greatly influences the structure and functioning of tidal saline wetland ecosystems. However, there is a need to better quantify the effects of climatic drivers on ecosystem properties, particularly near climate-sensitive ecological transition zones. Here, we used climate- and literature-derived ecological data from tidal saline wetlands to test hypotheses regarding the influence of climatic drivers (i.e., temperature and precipitation regimes) on the following six ecosystem properties: canopy height, biomass, productivity, decomposition, soil carbon density, and soil carbon accumulation. Our analyses quantify and elucidate linear and nonlinear effects of climatic drivers. We quantified positive linear relationships between temperature and above-ground productivity and strong positive nonlinear (sigmoidal) relationships between (1) temperature and above-ground biomass and canopy height and (2) precipitation and canopy height. Near temperature-controlled mangrove range limits, small changes in temperature are expected to trigger comparatively large changes in biomass and canopy height, as mangrove forests grow, expand, and, in some cases, replace salt marshes. However, within these same transition zones, temperature-induced changes in productivity are expected to be comparatively small. Interestingly, despite the significant above-ground height, biomass, and productivity relationships across the tropical–temperate mangrove–marsh transition zone, the relationships between temperature and soil carbon density or soil carbon accumulation were not significant. Our literature review identifies several ecosystem properties and many regions of the world for which there are insufficient data to fully evaluate the influence of climatic drivers, and the identified data gaps can be used by scientists to guide future research. Our analyses indicate that near precipitation-controlled transition zones, small changes in precipitation are expected to trigger

  11. Effect of magnetic islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón Navarro, A.; Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; Jenko, F.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2017-03-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes have deleterious effects on plasma confinement and, if they grow large enough, they can lead to discharge termination. Therefore, they impose a major barrier in the development of operating scenarios of present-day tokamaks. Gyrokinetics offers a path toward studying multi-scale interactions with turbulence and the effect on plasma confinement. As a first step toward this goal, we have implemented static magnetic islands in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. We investigate the effect of the islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport and the scaling of these effects with respect to island size. We find a clear threshold island width, below which the islands have little or no effect while beyond this point the islands significantly perturb flows, increase turbulence and transport. Additionally, we study the effect of radially asymmetric islands on shear flows for the first time. We find that island induced shear flows can regulate turbulent fluctuation levels in the vicinity of the island separatrices. Throughout this work, we focus on experimentally relevant quantities, such as rms levels of density and electron temperature fluctuations, as well as amplitude and phasing of turbulence modulation. These simulations aim to provide guidelines for interpreting experimental results by comparing qualitative trends in the simulations with those obtained in tokamak experiments.

  12. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: rrestre@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.

  13. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption with nonlinear effects of high laser intensity and non-Maxwellian distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Su-Ming; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption and evolution of the electron distribution function (EDF) in a wide laser intensity range (10;{12}-10;{17} W/cm;{2}) have been studied systematically by a two velocity-dimension Fokker-Planck code. It is found that Langdon's IB operator overestimates the absorption rate at high laser intensity, consequently with an overdistorted non-Maxwellian EDF. According to the small anisotropy of EDF in the oscillation frame, we introduce an IB operator which is similar to Langdon's but without the low laser intensity limit. This operator is appropriate for self-consistently tackling the nonlinear effects of high laser intensity as well as non-Maxwellian EDF. Particularly, our operator is capable of treating IB absorption properly in the indirect and direct-drive inertial confinement fusion schemes with the National Ignition Facility and Laser MegaJoule laser parameters at focused laser intensity beyond 10;{15} W/cm;{2} .

  14. Higher order effects in non-linear evolution from a veto in rapidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamis, G.; Lublinsky, M.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2005-02-01

    Higher order corrections to the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation have been estimated by introducing a rapidity veto which forbids subsequent emissions to be very close in rapidity and is known to mimic higher order corrections to the linear BFKL equation. The rapidity veto constraint has been first introduced using analytical arguments obtaining a power growth with energy, Q(Y)˜e, of the saturation scale of λ˜0.45. Then a numerical analysis for the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation has been carried out for phenomenological rapidities: when a veto of about two units of rapidity is introduced for a fixed value of the coupling constant of α=0.2 the saturation scale λ decreases from ˜0.6 to ˜0.3, and when running coupling effects are taken into account it decreases from ˜0.4 to ˜0.3.

  15. Optimal geometry of nonlinear silicon slot waveguides accounting for the effect of waveguide losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jun Rong; Chen, Valerian H

    2015-12-28

    The optimal geometry of silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides is investigated in the context of the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM), a χ(3) nonlinear optical process. We study the effect of slot and waveguide widths, as well as waveguide asymmetry on the two-photon absorption (TPA) figure of merit and the roughness scattering loss. The optimal waveguide core width is shown to be 220nm (symmetric) with a slot width of 120nm, at a fixed waveguide height of 220nm. We also show that state-of-the-art slot waveguides can outperform rib waveguides, especially at high powers, due to the high TPA figure-of-merit.

  16. Effective integration of ultra-elliptic solutions of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, O. C.

    2016-05-01

    An effective integration method based on the classical solution of the Jacobi inversion problem, using Kleinian ultra-elliptic functions and Riemann theta functions, is presented for the quasi-periodic two-phase solutions of the focusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Each two-phase solution with real quasi-periods forms a two-real-dimensional torus, modulo a circle of complex-phase factors, expressed as a ratio of theta functions associated with the Riemann surface of the invariant spectral curve. The initial conditions of the Dirichlet eigenvalues satisfy reality conditions which are explicitly parametrized by two physically-meaningful real variables: the squared modulus and a scalar multiple of the wavenumber. Simple new formulas for the maximum modulus and the minimum modulus are obtained in terms of the imaginary parts of the branch points of the Riemann surface.

  17. Nonlinear effects in optical pumping of a cold and slow atomic beam

    KAUST Repository

    Porfido, N.

    2015-10-12

    By photoionizing hyperfine (HF) levels of the Cs state 62P3/2 in a slow and cold atom beam, we find how their population depends on the excitation laser power. The long time (around 180μs) spent by the slow atoms inside the resonant laser beam is large enough to enable exploration of a unique atom-light interaction regime heavily affected by time-dependent optical pumping. We demonstrate that, under such conditions, the onset of nonlinear effects in the population dynamics and optical pumping occurs at excitation laser intensities much smaller than the conventional respective saturation values. The evolution of population within the HF structure is calculated by numerical integration of the multilevel optical Bloch equations. The agreement between numerical results and experiment outcomes is excellent. All main features in the experimental findings are explained by the occurrence of “dark” and “bright” resonances leading to power-dependent branching coefficients.

  18. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants I: the effect of neutrals

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, Lara; Marcowith, Alexandre; Morlino, Giovanni; Ptuskin, Vladimir S

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic Cosmic Rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disk volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterised by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that stream...

  19. Non-linear plasma effects on laser-induced terahertz emission from the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Jin, Z.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.

    2012-02-01

    Power, spectral characteristics, and angle distribution of terahertz (THz) radiation from air irradiated by a single (ω) or coupled (ω, 2ω) femtosecond laser pulses are analyzed for higher intensities, for which non-linear plasma effects on the pulse propagation become essential, by means of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations exploiting the self-consistent plasma kinetics. THz radiation is shown to be a result of beat waves generated at ionization front with fundamental and second harmonic waves. At lower intensities, the THz power growth is far faster than the linear; at pulse intensities over I > 1015 W/cm2, the power increases slower than the linear. Along with the forward emission, strong power in around 30o angles occurs at high intensities. Ionization of air results in poor focusing of laser pulses and, therefore, lower efficiency of THz emission.

  20. NONLINEAR STABILITY OF BALANCED ROTOR DUE TO EFFECT OF BALL BEARING INTERNAL CLEARANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Chang-qing; XU Qing-yu; ZHANG Xiao-long

    2006-01-01

    Stability and dynamic characteristics of a ball bearing-rotor system are investigated under the effect of the clearance in the ball bearing. Different clearance values are assumed to calculate the nonlinear stability of periodic solution with the aid of the Floquet theory. Bifurcation and chaos behavior are analyzed with variation of the clearance and rotational speed. It is found that there are three routes to unstable periodic solution.The period-doubling bifurcation and the secondary Hopf bifurcation are two usual routes to instability. The third route is the boundary crisis, a chaotic attractor occurs suddenly as the speed passes through its critical value. At last, the instable ranges for different internal clearance values are described. It is useful to investigate the stability property of ball bearing rotor system.

  1. Effects of Electron-Phonon Interaction on Linear and Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Cylindrical Quantum Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU You-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The electron-phonon interaction influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption in cylindrical quantum wires (CQW) with an infinite confining potential are investigated. The optical absorption coefficients are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method, and the numerical results are presented for GaAs CQW. The results show that the electron-phonon interaction makes a distinct influence on optical absorption in CQW. The electron-phonon interaction on the wave functions of electron dominates the values of absorption coefficients and the correction of the electron-phonon effect on the energies of the electron makes the absorption peaks blue shift and become wider. Moreover, the electron-phonon interaction influence on optical absorption with an infinite confining potential is different from that with a finite confining potential.

  2. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    As the importance of pharmacometric analysis increases, more and more complex mathematical models are introduced and computational error resulting from computational instability starts to become a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix. Roughly speaking, the method reparameterises the model with a linear combination of the original model parameters so that the Hessian matrix of the likelihood of the reparameterised model becomes close to an identity matrix. This approach will reduce the influence of computational error, for example rounding error, to the final computational result. We present numerical experiments demonstrating that the stabilisation of the computation using the proposed method can recover failed variance-covariance matrix computations, and reveal non-identifiability of the model parameters.

  3. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are used to describe these properties. A method for characterization of the amplitude and frequency dependence of such a rheological model is presented within this paper. Within this method, the used rheological model can be reduced or expanded in order to illustrate various non-linear effects. An original result is given with the automated parameter identification. It is fully implemented in Matlab. Such identified rheological models are intended for subsequent implementation in a multi-body model. This allows a significant enhancement of the overall model quality.

  4. Photon antibunching and nonlinear effects for a quantum dot coupled to a semiconductor cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, F.; Whittaker, D. M.

    2010-09-01

    The models presented simulate pumping techniques that can be used on modern semiconductor devices which are capable of coupling a quantum dot and cavity mode in order to determine a more efficient method of producing a single-photon emitter while taking into consideration typical parameters which are achievable given today’s standards of coupling strength. Cavity quantum electrodynamics are incorporated in the calculations as we compare various pumping schemes for the system that either use on-resonant laser excitation or nonresonant excitation due to a wetting layer. In particular, we look to study how antibunching effects change for each method as the cavity finesse is increased toward the strong coupling regime. Experimentally these studies are equivalent to nonlinear pump-probe measurements, where a strong pump, either resonant or nonresonant, is used to excite the coupled system, and the resulting state is characterized using a weak, resonant probe beam.

  5. Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and the nonlinear fano effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Govorov, Alexander O; Bryant, Garnett W

    2006-10-06

    Modern nanotechnology opens the possibility of combining nanocrystals of various materials with very different characteristics in one superstructure. Here we study theoretically the optical properties of hybrid molecules composed of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles. Excitons and plasmons in such a hybrid molecule become strongly coupled and demonstrate novel properties. At low incident light intensity, the exciton peak in the absorption spectrum is broadened and shifted due to incoherent and coherent interactions between metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. At high light intensity, the absorption spectrum demonstrates a surprising, strongly asymmetric shape. This shape originates from the coherent internanoparticle Coulomb interaction and can be viewed as a nonlinear Fano effect which is quite different from the usual linear Fano resonance.

  6. Nonlinear effects related to circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Gaur, Nidhi; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    In situ measurements of solar wind have strongly implicated its turbulent behavior. The observed power spectra report a breakpoint around length scales of the order of ion scales. As one of the responsible mechanisms for the observed steepening in power spectrum, our approach includes a right circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave (DAW) with finite frequency correction which, when subjected to transverse collapse/filamentation instability, may possibly result in steepening of spectrum and progressive transfer of energy from larger scales to smaller scales. We have studied the nonlinear effects associated with coupling of DAW with kinetic Alfvén wave in solar wind at 1 A.U. The formation of localized structures provides a clue about the emergence of turbulence. Numerical simulation is performed to study localization and power spectral density of the field and density fluctuations. The results show steeper spectrum indicating transfer of large scale turbulent energy down to small scales.

  7. Relaxation of charge in monolayer graphene: Fast nonlinear diffusion versus Coulomb effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Pristine monolayer graphene exhibits very poor screening because the density of states vanishes at the Dirac point. As a result, charge relaxation is controlled by the effects of zero-point motion (rather than by the Coulomb interaction) over a wide range of parameters. Combined with the fact that graphene possesses finite intrinsic conductivity, this leads to a regime of relaxation described by a nonlinear diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that diverges at zero charge density. Some consequences of this fast diffusion are self-similar superdiffusive regimes of relaxation, the development of a charge depleted region at the interface between electron- and hole-rich regions, and finite extinction times for periodic charge profiles.

  8. Convexity of effective Lagrangian in nonlinear electrodynamics as derived from causality

    CERN Document Server

    Shabad, Anatoly E

    2009-01-01

    In nonlinear electrodynamics, by implementing the causality principle as the requirement that the group velocity of elementary excitations over a background field should not exceed unity, and the unitarity principle as the requirement that the residue of the propagator should be nonnegative, we find restrictions on the behavior of massive and massless dispersion curves and establish the convexity of the effective Lagrangian on the class of constant fields, also the positivity of all characteristic dielectric and magnetic permittivity constants. Violation of the general principles by the one-loop approximation in QED at exponentially large magnetic field is analyzed resulting in complex energy tachyons and super-luminal ghosts that signal the instability of the magnetized vacuum. General grounds for kinematical selection rules in the process of photon splitting/merging are discussed.

  9. Effect of electron beam on structural, linear and nonlinear properties of nanostructured Fluorine doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Albin; Pramodini, S.; Kityk, I. V.; Abd-Lefdil, M.; Douayar, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, F.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Manjunatha, K. B.; Poornesh, P.

    2017-10-01

    Electron beam induced effects on Fluorine doped ZnO thin films (FZO) grown by chemical spray pyrolysis deposition technique were studied. The samples were exposed to 8 MeV electron beam at different dose rate ranging from 1 kGy to 4 kGy. All films exhibit a polycrystalline nature which shows an increase in crystallanity with irradiation dosages. The electron beam irradiation effectively controls the films surface morphology and its linear optical characteristics. Z-Scan technique was employed to evaluate the sign and magnitude of nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient using a continuous wave laser at 632.8 nm as light source. Enhancement in the third order nonlinear optical properties was were noted due to electron beam irradiation. Tailoring the physical and NLO properties by electron beam, the FZO thin films becomes a promising candidate for various optoelectronic applications such as phase change memory devices, optical pulse compression, optical switching and laser pulse narrowing.

  10. Impact of polarization mode dispersion and nonlinear effect on 40 Gbit/s dense wavelength division multiplexing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xue-ming; ZHANG Hui-jian; ZUO Meng; GU Wan-yi; XU Da-xiong

    2006-01-01

    Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is the ultimate selection as an optical communication system because of its high speeds and capacities.However,the fiber nonlinear effects and polarization mode dispersion severely limit the performance of the system when signal propagates at 40 Gbit/s in a single channel.The coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations of a single channel in DWDM,which are all considered factors of group velocity dispersion (GVD),self phase modulation (SPM),cross phase modulation (XPM),four wave mixing (FWM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD),are derived,while their number results are obtained with extended split-step Fourier method.Finally,to analyze the impacts of the fiber nonlinear effects and PMD on the optical communication system,the simulated results of an 8x40 Gbit/s DWDM system are discussed under different conditions respectively.

  11. Effective nonlinear refractive index of nano-porous silicon and its dependence on porosity and light wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaru, Tatiana; Vlad, Valentin I.; Petris, Adrian; Miu, Mihaela

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we study the dependence of effective optical linear and nonlinear refractive indices of nano-porous silicon layers on crystalline silicon substrates on fill fraction, at different light wavelengths in visible and near-infrared. Simple approximative formulae, in the frame of Bruggeman's formalism, that describe the dependences of effective optical linear and nonlinear refractive indices of nano-porous silicon on fill fractions and on wavelength, in the range of 620 - 1000 nm, are derived. Experimental results with reflection intensity scan show a good agreement with the data provided by our formulae and the exact results of Boyd-Bruggeman's formalism for the third order nonlinearity, in the case nanoporous silicon with different porosity and at light wavelengths in the mentioned spectral range.

  12. Excitonic effects in the nonlinear optical response of a Si(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamova, Maria; Rebentrost, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    We discuss methods to calculate the linear and nonlinear optical spectra for cyclic cluster models of an ideal Si(111) surface. The cluster approach offers the possibility to implement the excitonic effects due to the Coulomb interaction between electron and hole in a relatively straight-forward way. In order to appproximate a situation resembling a surface we use clusters with several hundreds of Si atoms. The electronic structure is obtained from a tight-binding parametrization of the hamiltonian. A time-dependent density operator formalism is used to calculate the response functions S({tau}) and S({tau}{sub 1},{tau}{sub 2}) for the optical polarization, which also directly describe the response to ultrashort pulses. Their Fourier transforms are the frequency-dependent optical susceptibilities {chi}{sup (1)}(-{omega};{omega}) and {chi}{sup (2)} (-{omega}{sub 1}-{omega}{sub 2};{omega}{sub 1},{omega}{sub 2}) for second-harmonic ({omega}{sub 1} ={omega}{sub 2}) or sum-frequency generation from surfaces. The excitonic Coulomb interaction is treated in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation, leading to large sets of differential equations that are integrated explicitly. The results on the linear susceptibility are in accord with earlier findings on the excitonic origin of the relative intensities of the E{sub 1} and E{sub 2} peaks near 3.4 and 4.3 eV. We present new results on excitonic effects in the nonlinear spectra and investigate in particular the surface-related peaks near 2{Dirac_h}{omega}= 1.3-1.5 and 2.4 eV that govern the strong enhancement observed in SHG of clean silicon surfaces. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. A modal analysis method to describe weak nonlinear effects in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Y; O'Hara, J; Trugman, S A

    2012-01-01

    We apply a rigorous eigenmode analysis to study the electromagnetic properties of linear and weakly nonlinear metamaterials. The nonlinear response can be totally described by the linear eigenmodes when weak nonlinearities are attributed to metamaterials. We use this theory to interpret intrinsic second-harmonic spectroscopy on metallic metamaterials. Our study indicates that metamaterial eigenmodes play a critical role in optimizing a nonlinear metamaterial response to the extent that a poorly optimized modal pattern overwhelms the widely recognized benefits of plasmonic resonant field enhancements.

  14. Effects, determination, and correction of count rate nonlinearity in multi-channel analog electron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, T. J.; Plumb, N. C.; Waugh, J. A.; Dessau, D. S. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Detector counting rate nonlinearity, though a known problem, is commonly ignored in the analysis of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy where modern multichannel electron detection schemes using analog intensity scales are used. We focus on a nearly ubiquitous “inverse saturation” nonlinearity that makes the spectra falsely sharp and beautiful. These artificially enhanced spectra limit accurate quantitative analysis of the data, leading to mistaken spectral weights, Fermi energies, and peak widths. We present a method to rapidly detect and correct for this nonlinearity. This algorithm could be applicable for a wide range of nonlinear systems, beyond photoemission spectroscopy.

  15. Investigation of local and nonlocal nonlinear optical refraction effect in IZO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, Zin Maung; Zhang, Yun-Dong; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Li, Hui; Yuan, Ping

    2016-10-01

    We report the local and nonlocal nonlinear optical refraction properties of indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films using closed aperture Z-scan technique. The Z-scan results show the films have positive nonlinear optical refraction properties. The nonlocal parameter m of samples is increased with indium. In both of local and nonlocal studies, the nonlinear optical refractions of thin films were increased with In contents and laser energy. This relation reveals the role of In composition in IZO affects on the nonlinear optical responses of the films. These results make the IZO thin films as the promising application in optoelectronics devices.

  16. Determination of refraction nonlinear index, for effect thermal, of solutions with nanoparticles of gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Vargas, A.; Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Cornejo-Monroy, D.; Mata-Chávez, R. I.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Castaño-Meneses, V.

    2013-09-01

    Research of nonlinear optical properties of materials for manufacturing opto-electronic devices, had a great growth in the last years. The solutions with nanoparticle metals present nonlinear optical properties. In this work we present the results of characterizing, analyzing and determining the magnitude and sign of the nonlinear refractive index, using the z-scan technique in solutions with nanoparticles of gold, lipoic acid and sodium chloride. We used a continuous Argon laser at 514 nm with variable power, an 18 cms lens, and a chopper. We determined the nonlinear refractive index in the order of 10-9. These materials have potential applications mainly as optical limiters.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Coupled Gear-Rotor-Bearing System with the Effect of Internal and External Excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shihua; SONG Guiqiu; REN Zhaohui; WEN Bangchun

    2016-01-01

    Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of coupled gear-rotor-bearing system with the effect of internal and external excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shihua; Song, Guiqiu; Ren, Zhaohui; Wen, Bangchun

    2016-03-01

    Extensive studies on nonlinear dynamics of gear systems with internal excitation or external excitation respectively have been carried out. However, the nonlinear characteristics of gear systems under combined internal and external excitations are scarcely investigated. An eight-degree-of-freedom(8-DOF) nonlinear spur gear-rotor-bearing model, which contains backlash, transmission error, eccentricity, gravity and input/output torque, is established, and the coupled lateral-torsional vibration characteristics are studied. Based on the equations of motion, the coupled spur gear-rotor-bearing system(SGRBS) is investigated using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the effects of rotational speed, error fluctuation and load fluctuation on the dynamic responses are explored. The results show that a diverse range of nonlinear dynamic characteristics such as periodic motion, quasi-periodic motion, chaotic behaviors and impacts exhibited in the system are strongly attributed to the interaction between internal and external excitations. Significantly, the changing rotational speed could effectively control the vibration of the system. Vibration level increases with the increasing error fluctuation. Whereas the load fluctuation has an influence on the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and the increasing excitation force amplitude makes the vibration amplitude increase, the chaotic motion may be restricted. The proposed model and numerical results can be used for diagnosis of faults and vibration control of practical SGRBS.

  19. Day of the week effect on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange: A non-linear GARCH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batsirai Winmore Mazviona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the day of the week effect on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE by taking into account volatility of returns. The purpose of the study was to establish whether daily mean returns across a trading week differ from each other. We employ a non-linear approach in modelling the day of the week effects. In particular, we used the Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH and the Exponential GARCH (EGARCH models. We used industrial and mining daily closing indices data from 19 February 2009 to 31 December 2013. The data was retrieved from the ZSE website. EViews 7 software was utilised for data analysis. In order to test the null hypothesis of equality of daily mean returns, a Wald test was carried out. The Wald F-statistic rejected the null hypothesis of equality of mean returns for the industrial index. We found the traditional negative Monday and positive Friday effect for the industrial index in GARCH (1,1 and EGARCH (1,1 models. The GARCH (1,1 detected a negative Friday effect and the EGARCH (1,1 detected negative Wednesday effect for the mining index. We found evidence of model dependency for the mining index results.

  20. Thermal effects on nonlinear vibration of a carbon nanotube-based mass sensor using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Keun; Kim, Chang-Wan; Yang, Hyun-Ik

    2017-01-01

    In the present study we carried out a dynamic analysis of a CNT-based mass sensor by using a finite element method (FEM)-based nonlinear analysis model of the CNT resonator to elucidate the combined effects of thermal effects and nonlinear oscillation behavior upon the overall mass detection sensitivity. Mass sensors using carbon nanotube (CNT) resonators provide very high sensing performance. Because CNT-based resonators can have high aspect ratios, they can easily exhibit nonlinear oscillation behavior due to large displacements. Also, CNT-based devices may experience high temperatures during their manufacture and operation. These geometrical nonlinearities and temperature changes affect the sensing performance of CNT-based mass sensors. However, it is very hard to find previous literature addressing the detection sensitivity of CNT-based mass sensors including considerations of both these nonlinear behaviors and thermal effects. We modeled the nonlinear equation of motion by using the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relation, taking into account the additional axial force associated with the thermal effect. The FEM was employed to solve the nonlinear equation of motion because it can effortlessly handle the more complex geometries and boundary conditions. A doubly clamped CNT resonator actuated by distributed electrostatic force was the configuration subjected to the numerical experiments. Thermal effects upon the fundamental resonance behavior and the shift of resonance frequency due to attached mass, i.e., the mass detection sensitivity, were examined in environments of both high and low (or room) temperature. The fundamental resonance frequency increased with decreasing temperature in the high temperature environment, and increased with increasing temperature in the low temperature environment. The magnitude of the shift in resonance frequency caused by an attached mass represents the sensing performance of a mass sensor, i.e., its mass detection

  1. Effect Of Long-Period Earthquake Ground Motions On Nonlinear Vibration Of Shells With Variable Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikarimov, R.; Bykovtsev, A.; Khodzhaev, D.; Research Team Of Geotechnical; Structural Engineers

    2010-12-01

    Long-period earthquake ground motions (LPEGM) with multiple oscillations have become a crucial consideration in seismic hazard assessment because of the rapid increase of tall buildings and special structures (SP).Usually, SP refers to innovative long-span structural systems. More specifically, they include many types of structures, such as: geodesic showground; folded plates; and thin shells. As continuation of previous research (Bykovtsev, Abdikarimov, Khodzhaev 2003, 2010) analysis of nonlinear vibrations (NV) and dynamic stability of SP simulated as shells with variable rigidity in geometrically nonlinear statement will be presented for two cases. The first case will represent NV example of a viscoelastic orthotropic cylindrical shell with radius R, length L and variable thickness h=h(x,y). The second case will be NV example of a viscoelastic shell with double curvature, variable thickness, and bearing the concentrated masses. In both cases we count, that the SP will be operates under seismic load generated by LPEGM with multiple oscillations. For different seismic loads simulations, Bykovtsev’s Model and methodology was used for generating LPEGM time history. The methodology for synthesizing LPEGM from fault with multiple segmentations was developed by Bykovtev (1978-2010) and based on 3D-analytical solutions by Bykovtsev-Kramarovskii (1987&1989) constructed for faults with multiple segmentations. This model is based on a kinematics description of displacement function on the fault and included in consideration of all possible combinations of 3 components of vector displacement (two slip vectors and one tension component). The opportunities to take into consideration fault segmentations with both shear and tension vector components of displacement on the fault plane provide more accurate LPEGM evaluations. Radiation patterns and directivity effects were included in the model and more physically realistic results for simulated LPEGM were considered. The

  2. Axion-induced birefringence effects in laser driven nonlinear vacuum interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Chávez, Selym

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of a probe electromagnetic field through a counterpropagating strong plane wave is investigated. The effects of the electromagnetic field-(pseudo)scalar axion field interaction and of the self-interaction of the electromagnetic field mediated by virtual electron-positron pairs in the effective Lagrangian approach are included. First, we show that if the strong field is circularly polarized, contrary to the leading-order nonlinear QED effects, the axion-photon interaction induces a chiral-like birefringence and a dichroism in the vacuum. The latter effect is explained by evoking the conservation of the total angular momentum along the common propagation direction of probe and the strong wave, which allows for real axion production only for probe and strong fields with the same helicity. Moreover, in the case of ultra-short strong pulses, it is shown that the absorption coefficients of probe photons depend on the form of the pulse and, in particular, on the carrier-envelope phase of the strong b...

  3. Effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on vibration control of connected building structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi eKasagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection of two building structures with dampers is one of effective vibration control systems. In this vibration control system, both buildings have to possess different vibration properties in order to provide a higher vibration reduction performance. In addition to such condition of different vibration properties of both buildings, the connecting dampers also play an important role in the vibration control mechanism. In this paper, the effect of nonlinearity of connecting dampers on the vibration control of connected building structures is investigated in detail. A high-damping rubber damper and an oil damper with and without relief mechanism are treated. It is shown that, while the high-damping rubber damper is effective in a rather small deformation level, the linear oil damper is effective in a relatively large deformation level. It is further shown that, while the oil dampers reduce the response in the same phase as the case without dampers, the high-damping rubber dampers change the phase. The merit is that the high-damping rubber can reduce the damper deformation and keep the sufficient space between both buildings. This can mitigate the risk of building pounding.

  4. A strategy to eliminate all nonlinear effects in constant-voltage hot-wire anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Arganthaël; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Comte-Bellot, Geneviève

    2009-04-01

    A constant-voltage anemometer is subject to nonlinear effects when the operating hot wire is exposed to large velocity fluctuations in the incident flow. This results in the generation of undesirable higher harmonics, just as in the two classic systems, constant-current and constant-temperature anemometers, for which no attempts are normally made to correct the nonlinearities. The present investigation shows that these undesirable higher harmonics can be suppressed in the case of a constant-voltage anemometer. A new approach to process experimental data is proposed. It is based on three explicit equations established and solved with all terms included, i.e., without linearization. These are (1) the first-order differential equation that describes the electronic circuit of a constant-voltage anemometer-this equation permits to deduce the instantaneous resistance of the hot wire from the output voltage of the anemometer; (2) the first-order differential equation that expresses the thermal lag behavior of the hot wire when used in a constant-voltage mode-this equation permits to restore the instantaneous resistance that an ideal wire would have without thermal inertia in the same flow conditions; and (3) the algebraic relation that expresses the heat-transfer law of an ideal wire, according to King's law, a look-up table, or a polynomial fit-this relation permits to deduce the instantaneous flow velocity from the instantaneous resistance of the ideal wire. The proposed method is easily implemented on a personal computer and permits odd turbulence moments, such as skewness factors, to be obtained satisfactorily.

  5. A strategy to eliminate all nonlinear effects in constant-voltage hot-wire anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Arganthaël; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Comte-Bellot, Geneviève

    2009-04-01

    A constant-voltage anemometer is subject to nonlinear effects when the operating hot wire is exposed to large velocity fluctuations in the incident flow. This results in the generation of undesirable higher harmonics, just as in the two classic systems, constant-current and constant-temperature anemometers, for which no attempts are normally made to correct the nonlinearities. The present investigation shows that these undesirable higher harmonics can be suppressed in the case of a constant-voltage anemometer. A new approach to process experimental data is proposed. It is based on three explicit equations established and solved with all terms included, i.e., without linearization. These are (1) the first-order differential equation that describes the electronic circuit of a constant-voltage anemometer—this equation permits to deduce the instantaneous resistance of the hot wire from the output voltage of the anemometer; (2) the first-order differential equation that expresses the thermal lag behavior of the hot wire when used in a constant-voltage mode—this equation permits to restore the instantaneous resistance that an ideal wire would have without thermal inertia in the same flow conditions; and (3) the algebraic relation that expresses the heat-transfer law of an ideal wire, according to King's law, a look-up table, or a polynomial fit—this relation permits to deduce the instantaneous flow velocity from the instantaneous resistance of the ideal wire. The proposed method is easily implemented on a personal computer and permits odd turbulence moments, such as skewness factors, to be obtained satisfactorily.

  6. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Azo Dye Monolayers : The Effect of Tilt Angle on the Local Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Gerard; Drabe, Karel E.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Schoondorp, Monique A.; Schouten, Arend Jan; Hulshof, Johannes; Feringa, Ben L.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility chi(2)(2omega,omega,omega) of dye-doped Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers. Chi(2) is found to exhibit a nonlinear dependence on surface density, which is attributed to microscopic local-fields. In order to calculate the microscopic local-fiel

  7. Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to deter

  8. Finite-temperature Casimir effect in the presence of nonlinear dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheirandish, Fardin; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Soltani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a Lagrangian, the electromagnetic field in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium is quantized using path-integral techniques, and correlation functions of different fields are calculated. The susceptibilities of the nonlinear medium are obtained, and their relations to coupl...

  9. Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumeyer, Stefan; Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing–Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system, a...

  10. Influence of heart rate in nonlinear HRV indices as a sampling rate effect evaluated on supine and standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bolea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize and attenuate the influence of mean heart rate (HR on nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV indices (correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropy as a consequence of being the HR the intrinsic sampling rate of HRV signal. This influence can notably alter nonlinear HRV indices and lead to biased information regarding autonomic nervous system (ANS modulation.First, a simulation study was carried out to characterize the dependence of nonlinear HRV indices on HR assuming similar ANS modulation. Second, two HR-correction approaches were proposed: one based on regression formulas and another one based on interpolating RR time series. Finally, standard and HR-corrected HRV indices were studied in a body position change database.The simulation study showed the HR-dependence of non-linear indices as a sampling rate effect, as well as the ability of the proposed HR-corrections to attenuate mean HR influence. Analysis in a body position changes database shows that correlation dimension was reduced around 21% in median values in standing with respect to supine position (p < 0.05, concomitant with a 28% increase in mean HR (p < 0.05. After HR-correction, correlation dimension decreased around 18% in standing with respect to supine position, being the decrease still significant. Sample and approximate entropy showed similar trends.HR-corrected nonlinear HRV indices could represent an improvement in their applicability as markers of ANS modulation when mean HR changes.

  11. Effects of Radius and Orientation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Their Nonlinear Tensile Deformation Behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu; FANG Dai-Ning; SOH Ai-Kah; LIU Bin

    2007-01-01

    @@ By capturing the atomic information and reflecting the behaviour governed by a nonlinear potential function, an analytical molecular mechanics approach is applied to establish the constitutive relation for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The nonlinear tensile deformation curves of zigzag and armchair nanotubes with different radii are predicted, and the elastic properties of these SWCNTs are obtained. A conclusion is made that the nanotube radius has little effect on the mechanical behaviour of SWCNTs subject to simple tension, while the nanotube orientation has larger influence.

  12. Effects of Heat Transfer and Nonlinear Slip on the Steady Flow of Couette Fluid by Means of Chebyshev Spectral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellahi, Rahmat; Wang, Xinil; Hameed, Muhammad

    2014-02-01

    This article is concerned with the study of heat transfer and nonlinear slip effects on the Couette flow of a third-grade fluid. Numerical solutions are obtained by solving nonlinear differential equations using the higher-order Chebyshev spectral method. The results for no slip and no thermal slip become special cases of this study. Moreover, the results for Poiseuille flow can be obtained as a special case from the generalized Couette flow analysis by setting the plate velocity to zero. Graphical results for involved pertinent parameters are sketched and examined.

  13. Effects from fully nonlinear irregular wave forcing on the fatigue life of an offshore wind turbine and its monopile foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    The effect from fully nonlinear irregular wave forcing on the fatigue life of the foundation and tower of an offshore wind turbine is investigated through aeroelastic calculations. Five representative sea states with increasing significant wave height are considered in a water depth of 40 m....... The waves are both linear and fully nonlinear irregular 2D waves. The wind turbine is the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine. Fatigue analysis is performed in relation to analysis of the sectional forces in the tower and monopile. Impulsive excitation of the sectional force at the bottom of the tower is seen...

  14. Effect of silver nanoparticles on fluorescence and nonlinear properties of naturally occurring betacyanin dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-01-01

    We present the linear and nonlinear optical studies of a natural dye betacyanin extracted from red beet root in the presence of silver nano particles in colloidal solution. We synthesized silver nano particles and characterized by XRD and HRTEM. We show how appropriate concentration of silver nanoparticles can enable tuning of dye fluorescence efficiency. Nonlinear properties are studied using open aperture Z scan technique with Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). We show modification of nonlinear properties for the dye to the desired level can be achieved in the presence of silver nanoparticles. High nonlinearity we also demonstrated in PVA/Ag nano/Betacyanin composite films. Theoretical analysis is performed using model based on nonlinear absorption of materials and scattering of metal nanoparticles.

  15. Effects of barium on the nonlinear electrical characteristics and dielectric properties of SnO2-based varistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Ming; Wang Jin-Feng; Wang Chun-Lei; Chen Hong-Cun; Su Wen-Bin; Zang Guo-Zhong; Qi Peng; Zhao Ming-Lei; Ming Bao-Quan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of barium on electrical and dielectric properties of the SnO2·Co2Oa.Ta2O5 varistor system sintered at 1250℃ for 60min were investigated. It is found that barium significantly improves the nonlinear properties. The breakdown electrical field increases from 378.0 to 2834.5V/mm, relative dielectric constant (at 1kHz) falls from 1206 to 161 and the resistivity (at 1kHz) rises from 60.3 to 1146.5kΩ·cm with an increase of BaCO3 concentration from 0mol%to 1.00mol%. The sample with 1.00mol% barium has the best nonlinear electrical property and the highest nonlinear coefficient (α=29.2). A modified defect barrier model is introduced to illustrate the grain-boundary barrier formation of barium-doped SnO2-based varistors.

  16. Nonlinear effects of a modal domain optical fiber sensor in a vibration suppression control loop for a flexible structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, D. K.; Zvonar, G. A.; Baumann, W. T.; Delos, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a modal domain optical fiber sensor has been demonstrated as a sensor in a control system for vibration suppression of a flexible cantilevered beam. This sensor responds to strain through a mechanical attachment to the structure. Because this sensor is of the interferometric type, the output of the sensor has a sinusoidal nonlinearity. For small levels of strain, the sensor can be operated in its linear region. For large levels of strain, the detection electronics can be configured to count fringes. In both of these configurations, the sensor nonlinearity imposes some restrictions on the performance of the control system. In this paper we investigate the effects of these sensor nonlinearities on the control system, and identify the region of linear operation in terms of the optical fiber sensor parameters.

  17. Theoretical Analysis of Dependence of Nonlinear Effects in Mode-Locked Yb:YAG Lasers with a Highly Nonlinear Intra-Cavity Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yoshida

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in a mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with a highly nonlinear intra-cavity medium is analyzed using a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The output spectra are extended by the increased laser intensity, and spectral bandwidths wider than those of the gain medium are achieved. Moreover, pulse widths are shortened by increased laser intensity to considerably less than those of the gain medium. The simulation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results.

  18. Effect of Initial Chirping and Pulse Shape on 10 Gb/s Optical Pulse Transmission in Birefringent Nonlinear Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical method to solve the problem related with theinteractive effect of dispersion (both chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion) and nonlinearity on optical pulse transmission is present. Evolutions of pulses with various initial chirping and shape at bit-rate of 10 Gb/s are simulated and compared. Gaussian pulse with appropriate prechirping is propitious for high bit-rate transmission.

  19. Impact of non-linear smoking effects on the identification of gene-by-smoking interactions in COPD genetics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldi, P J; Demeo, D L; Hersh, C P;

    2010-01-01

    with COPD. Using data from the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Genetic Modifiers Study, the accuracy and power of two different approaches to model smoking were compared by performing a simulation study of a genetic variant with a range of gene-by-smoking interaction effects. Results Non-linear relationships between...

  20. Estimation of Contextual Effects through Nonlinear Multilevel Latent Variable Modeling with a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to improve estimation efficiency in obtaining maximum marginal likelihood estimates of contextual effects in the framework of nonlinear multilevel latent variable model by adopting the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro algorithm (MH-RM). Results indicate that the MH-RM algorithm can produce estimates and standard…