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Sample records for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations

  1. Magnetic flux pumping in 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, I.; Jardin, S. C.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Hoelzl, M.; Strumberger, E.; Ferraro, N.

    2017-10-01

    A self-regulating magnetic flux pumping mechanism in tokamaks that maintains the core safety factor at q ≈1 , thus preventing sawteeth, is analyzed in nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the M3D-C1 code. In these simulations, the most important mechanism responsible for the flux pumping is that a saturated (m =1 ,n =1 ) quasi-interchange instability generates an effective negative loop voltage in the plasma center via a dynamo effect. It is shown that sawtoothing is prevented in the simulations if β is sufficiently high to provide the necessary drive for the (m =1 ,n =1 ) instability that generates the dynamo loop voltage. The necessary amount of dynamo loop voltage is determined by the tendency of the current density profile to centrally peak which, in our simulations, is controlled by the peakedness of the applied heat source profile.

  2. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics simulation using high-order finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Schnack, D.D.; Tarditi, A.; Chu, M.S.; Gianakon, T.A.; Kruger, S.E.; Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Sovinec, C.R.; Glasser, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    A conforming representation composed of 2D finite elements and finite Fourier series is applied to 3D nonlinear non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics using a semi-implicit time-advance. The self-adjoint semi-implicit operator and variational approach to spatial discretization are synergistic and enable simulation in the extremely stiff conditions found in high temperature plasmas without sacrificing the geometric flexibility needed for modeling laboratory experiments. Growth rates for resistive tearing modes with experimentally relevant Lundquist number are computed accurately with time-steps that are large with respect to the global Alfven time and moderate spatial resolution when the finite elements have basis functions of polynomial degree (p) two or larger. An error diffusion method controls the generation of magnetic divergence error. Convergence studies show that this approach is effective for continuous basis functions with p (ge) 2, where the number of test functions for the divergence control terms is less than the number of degrees of freedom in the expansion for vector fields. Anisotropic thermal conduction at realistic ratios of parallel to perpendicular conductivity (x(parallel)/x(perpendicular)) is computed accurately with p (ge) 3 without mesh alignment. A simulation of tearing-mode evolution for a shaped toroidal tokamak equilibrium demonstrates the effectiveness of the algorithm in nonlinear conditions, and its results are used to verify the accuracy of the numerical anisotropic thermal conduction in 3D magnetic topologies.

  3. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranov, V.

    1998-08-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics by Dieter Biskamp is a thorough introduction to the physics of the most impressive non-linear phenomena that occur in conducting magnetoplasmas. The basic systems, in which non-trivial dynamic processes are observed, accompanied by changes of geometry of the magnetic field and the effects of energy transformation (magnetic energy into kinetic energy or the opposite effect in magnetic dynamos), are the plasma magnetic confinement systems for nuclear fusion and space plasmas, mainly the solar plasma. A significant number of the examples of the dynamic processes considered are taken from laboratory plasmas, for which an experimental check of the theory is possible. Therefore, though the book is intended for researchers and students interested in both laboratory, including nuclear fusion, and astrophysical plasmas, it is most probably closer to the first category of reader. In the Introduction the author notes that unlike the hydrodynamics of non-conducting fluids, where the phenomena caused by rapid fluid motions are the most interesting, for plasmas in a strong magnetic field the quasi-static configurations inside which the local dynamic processes occur are often the most important. Therefore, the reader will also find in this book rather traditional material on the theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in magnetic fields. In addition, it is notable that, as opposed to a linear theory, the non-linear theory, as a rule, cannot give quite definite explanations or predictions of phenomena, and consequently there are in the book many results obtained by consideration of numerical models with the use of supercomputers. The treatment of non-linear dynamics is preceded by Chapters 2 to 4, in which the basics of MHD theory are presented with an emphasis on the role of integral invariants of the magnetic helicity type, a derivation of the reduced MHD equations is given, together with examples of the exact solutions of the equilibrium

  5. Final report. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant's lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the

  6. Simulation of Alfvén eigenmode bursts using a hybrid code for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics and energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Y.; Berk, H. L.; Breizman, B. N.

    2012-03-01

    A hybrid simulation code for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and energetic-particle dynamics has been extended to simulate recurrent bursts of Alfvén eigenmodes by implementing the energetic-particle source, collisions and losses. The Alfvén eigenmode bursts with synchronization of multiple modes and beam ion losses at each burst are successfully simulated with nonlinear MHD effects for the physics condition similar to a reduced simulation for a TFTR experiment (Wong et al 1991 Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 1874, Todo et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 2888). It is demonstrated with a comparison between nonlinear MHD and linear MHD simulation results that the nonlinear MHD effects significantly reduce both the saturation amplitude of the Alfvén eigenmodes and the beam ion losses. Two types of time evolution are found depending on the MHD dissipation coefficients, namely viscosity, resistivity and diffusivity. The Alfvén eigenmode bursts take place for higher dissipation coefficients with roughly 10% drop in stored beam energy and the maximum amplitude of the dominant magnetic fluctuation harmonic δBm/n/B ~ 5 × 10-3 at the mode peak location inside the plasma. Quadratic dependence of beam ion loss rate on magnetic fluctuation amplitude is found for the bursting evolution in the nonlinear MHD simulation. For lower dissipation coefficients, the amplitude of the Alfvén eigenmodes is at steady levels δBm/n/B ~ 2 × 10-3 and the beam ion losses take place continuously. The beam ion pressure profiles are similar among the different dissipation coefficients, and the stored beam energy is higher for higher dissipation coefficients.

  7. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Chen

    2009-12-07

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  8. Pseudo-transient Continuation Based Variable Relaxation Solve in Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and robust Variable Relaxation Solver, based on pseudo-transient continuation, is developed to solve nonlinear anisotropic thermal conduction arising from fusion plasma simulations. By adding first and/or second order artificial time derivatives to the system, this type of method advances the resulting time-dependent nonlinear PDEs to steady state, which is the solution to be sought. In this process, only the stiffness matrix itself is involved so that the numerical complexity and errors can be greatly reduced. In fact, this work is an extension of integrating efficient linear elliptic solvers for fusion simulation on Cray XIE. Two schemes are derived in this work, first and second order Variable Relaxations. Four factors are observed to be critical for efficiency and preservation of solution's symmetric structure arising from periodic boundary condition: refining meshes in different coordinate directions, initializing nonlinear process, varying time steps in both temporal and spatial directions, and accurately generating nonlinear stiffness matrix. First finer mesh scale should be taken in strong transport direction; Next the system is carefully initialized by the solution with linear conductivity; Third, time step and relaxation factor are vertex-based varied and optimized at each time step; Finally, the nonlinear stiffness matrix is updated by just scaling corresponding linear one with the vector generated from nonlinear thermal conductivity.

  9. Impact of helical boundary conditions on nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veranda, M; Bonfiglio, D; Cappello, S; Chacón, L; Escande, D F

    2013-01-01

    Helical self-organized reversed-field pinch (RFP) regimes emerge both numerically—in 3D visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations—and experimentally, as in the RFX-mod device at high current (I P above 1 MA). These states, called quasi-single helicity (QSH) states, are characterized by the action of a MHD mode that impresses a quasi-helical symmetry to the system, thus allowing a high degree of magnetic chaos healing. This is in contrast with the multiple helicity (MH) states, where magnetic fluctuations create a chaotic magnetic field degrading the confinement properties of the RFP. This paper reports an extensive numerical study performed in the frame of 3D visco-resistive MHD which considers the effect of helical magnetic boundary conditions, i.e. of a finite value of the radial magnetic field at the edge (magnetic perturbation, MP). We show that the system can be driven to a selected QSH state starting from both spontaneous QSH and MH regimes. In particular, a high enough MP can force a QSH helical self-organization with a helicity different from the spontaneous one. Moreover, MH states can be turned into QSH states with a selected helicity. A threshold in the amplitude of MP is observed above which is able to influence the system. Analysis of the magnetic topology of these simulations indicates that the dominant helical mode is able to temporarily sustain conserved magnetic structures in the core of the plasma. The region occupied by conserved magnetic surfaces increases reducing secondary modes' amplitude to experimental-like values. (paper)

  10. Self-consistent simulations of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics and profile evolution in stellarator configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlutt, M. G.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Held, E. D. [Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Self-consistent extended MHD framework is used to investigate nonlinear macroscopic dynamics of stellarator configurations. In these calculations, initial conditions are given by analytical 3-D vacuum solutions. Finite beta discharges in a straight stellarator are simulated. Vacuum magnetic fields are applied to produce stellarator-like rotational transform profiles with iota(0) ≤ 0.5 and iota(0) ≥ 0.5. The vacuum magnetic fields are either helically symmetric or spoiled by the presence of magnetic harmonics of incommensurate helicity. As heat is added to the system, pressure-driven instabilities are excited when a critical β is exceeded. These instabilities may grow to large amplitude and effectively terminate the discharge, or they may saturate nonlinearly as the configuration evolves. In all of these studies, anisotropic heat conduction is allowed with κ{sub ∥}/κ{sub ⊥}=10{sup 4}−10{sup 7}.

  11. 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations of macroscopic internal instabilities in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The Hybrid tokamak scenario provides favorable confinement and stability properties and is a candidate for an ITER Advanced tokamak scenario. It is characterized by low magnetic shear and a value of the safety factor (q) close to unity in the plasma core resulting in the absence of sawteeth. As transport calculations for some Hybrid discharges predict that the applied heat and current sources drive the value of q on axis below unity, there seems to be an unexplained mechanism which leads to a redistribution of the toroidal current density such that q∼1 is maintained in the center of the discharge. This mechanism is referred to as magnetic flux pumping. Besides the advantageous effect of preventing sawtoothing which also prevents the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes by sawteeth, magnetic flux pumping as well facilitates the drive of plasma current through external current sources. As the current density is automatically redistributed, current sources can be applied in the plasma center, where they are most efficient. The aim of this work is to contribute to the understanding of magnetic flux pumping in Hybrid discharges. A flux pumping mechanism is found in 3D non-linear MHD simulations leading to stationary states with a helically perturbed core and a at central safety factor profile with values close to unity. It is proposed earlier that the main effect responsible for this flux pumping mechanism is that the magnetic field and velocity perturbations resulting from a saturated quasi-interchange instability combine to generate an effective negative loop voltage via a dynamo effect. In this thesis, a large set of long-term 3D nonlinear single-fluid MHD simulations in toroidal geometry are presented which have been performed by means of the high-order finite element code M3D-C. The simulations result in asymptotic states that either exhibit sawtooth-like reconnection cycles, or correspond to sawtooth-free stationary states where the central safety factor is

  12. 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations of macroscopic internal instabilities in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Isabel

    2017-08-08

    The Hybrid tokamak scenario provides favorable confinement and stability properties and is a candidate for an ITER Advanced tokamak scenario. It is characterized by low magnetic shear and a value of the safety factor (q) close to unity in the plasma core resulting in the absence of sawteeth. As transport calculations for some Hybrid discharges predict that the applied heat and current sources drive the value of q on axis below unity, there seems to be an unexplained mechanism which leads to a redistribution of the toroidal current density such that q∼1 is maintained in the center of the discharge. This mechanism is referred to as magnetic flux pumping. Besides the advantageous effect of preventing sawtoothing which also prevents the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes by sawteeth, magnetic flux pumping as well facilitates the drive of plasma current through external current sources. As the current density is automatically redistributed, current sources can be applied in the plasma center, where they are most efficient. The aim of this work is to contribute to the understanding of magnetic flux pumping in Hybrid discharges. A flux pumping mechanism is found in 3D non-linear MHD simulations leading to stationary states with a helically perturbed core and a at central safety factor profile with values close to unity. It is proposed earlier that the main effect responsible for this flux pumping mechanism is that the magnetic field and velocity perturbations resulting from a saturated quasi-interchange instability combine to generate an effective negative loop voltage via a dynamo effect. In this thesis, a large set of long-term 3D nonlinear single-fluid MHD simulations in toroidal geometry are presented which have been performed by means of the high-order finite element code M3D-C. The simulations result in asymptotic states that either exhibit sawtooth-like reconnection cycles, or correspond to sawtooth-free stationary states where the central safety factor is

  13. Linear and nonlinear stability in resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1994-01-01

    A sufficient stability condition with respect to purely growing modes is derived for resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Its open-quotes nearnessclose quotes to necessity is analysed. It is found that for physically reasonable approximations the condition is in some sense necessary and sufficient for stability against all modes. This, together with hermiticity makes its analytical and numerical evaluation worthwhile for the optimization of magnetic configurations. Physically motivated test functions are introduced. This leads to simplified versions of the stability functional, which makes its evaluation and minimization more tractable. In the case of special force-free fields the simplified functional reduces to a good approximation of the exact stability functional derived by other means. It turns out that in this case the condition is also sufficient for nonlinear stability. Nonlinear stability in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics is discussed especially in connection with open-quotes unconditionalclose quotes stability and with severe limitations on the Reynolds number. Two examples in magnetohydrodynamics show that the limitations on the Reynolds numbers can be removed but unconditional stability is preserved. Practical stability needs to be treated for limited levels of perturbations or for conditional stability. This implies some knowledge of the basin of attraction of the unperturbed solution, which is a very difficult problem. Finally, a special inertia-caused Hopf bifurcation is identified and the nature of the resulting attractors is discussed. 23 refs

  14. Large eddy simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grete, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to play an important role in many processes - especially in astrophysics, where detailed three-dimensional observations are scarce. Simulations can partially fill this gap and help to understand these processes. However, direct simulations with realistic parameters are often not feasible. Consequently, large eddy simulations (LES) have emerged as a viable alternative. In LES the overall complexity is reduced by simulating only large and intermediate scales directly. The smallest scales, usually referred to as subgrid-scales (SGS), are introduced to the simulation by means of an SGS model. Thus, the overall quality of an LES with respect to properly accounting for small-scale physics crucially depends on the quality of the SGS model. While there has been a lot of successful research on SGS models in the hydrodynamic regime for decades, SGS modeling in MHD is a rather recent topic, in particular, in the compressible regime. In this thesis, we derive and validate a new nonlinear MHD SGS model that explicitly takes compressibility effects into account. A filter is used to separate the large and intermediate scales, and it is thought to mimic finite resolution effects. In the derivation, we use a deconvolution approach on the filter kernel. With this approach, we are able to derive nonlinear closures for all SGS terms in MHD: the turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, and the turbulent electromotive force (EMF). We validate the new closures both a priori and a posteriori. In the a priori tests, we use high-resolution reference data of stationary, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence to compare exact SGS quantities against predictions by the closures. The comparison includes, for example, correlations of turbulent fluxes, the average dissipative behavior, and alignment of SGS vectors such as the EMF. In order to quantify the performance of the new nonlinear closure, this comparison is conducted from the

  15. Large eddy simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grete, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    Supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to play an important role in many processes - especially in astrophysics, where detailed three-dimensional observations are scarce. Simulations can partially fill this gap and help to understand these processes. However, direct simulations with realistic parameters are often not feasible. Consequently, large eddy simulations (LES) have emerged as a viable alternative. In LES the overall complexity is reduced by simulating only large and intermediate scales directly. The smallest scales, usually referred to as subgrid-scales (SGS), are introduced to the simulation by means of an SGS model. Thus, the overall quality of an LES with respect to properly accounting for small-scale physics crucially depends on the quality of the SGS model. While there has been a lot of successful research on SGS models in the hydrodynamic regime for decades, SGS modeling in MHD is a rather recent topic, in particular, in the compressible regime. In this thesis, we derive and validate a new nonlinear MHD SGS model that explicitly takes compressibility effects into account. A filter is used to separate the large and intermediate scales, and it is thought to mimic finite resolution effects. In the derivation, we use a deconvolution approach on the filter kernel. With this approach, we are able to derive nonlinear closures for all SGS terms in MHD: the turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, and the turbulent electromotive force (EMF). We validate the new closures both a priori and a posteriori. In the a priori tests, we use high-resolution reference data of stationary, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence to compare exact SGS quantities against predictions by the closures. The comparison includes, for example, correlations of turbulent fluxes, the average dissipative behavior, and alignment of SGS vectors such as the EMF. In order to quantify the performance of the new nonlinear closure, this comparison is conducted from the

  16. Large eddy simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grete, Philipp

    2016-09-09

    Supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to play an important role in many processes - especially in astrophysics, where detailed three-dimensional observations are scarce. Simulations can partially fill this gap and help to understand these processes. However, direct simulations with realistic parameters are often not feasible. Consequently, large eddy simulations (LES) have emerged as a viable alternative. In LES the overall complexity is reduced by simulating only large and intermediate scales directly. The smallest scales, usually referred to as subgrid-scales (SGS), are introduced to the simulation by means of an SGS model. Thus, the overall quality of an LES with respect to properly accounting for small-scale physics crucially depends on the quality of the SGS model. While there has been a lot of successful research on SGS models in the hydrodynamic regime for decades, SGS modeling in MHD is a rather recent topic, in particular, in the compressible regime. In this thesis, we derive and validate a new nonlinear MHD SGS model that explicitly takes compressibility effects into account. A filter is used to separate the large and intermediate scales, and it is thought to mimic finite resolution effects. In the derivation, we use a deconvolution approach on the filter kernel. With this approach, we are able to derive nonlinear closures for all SGS terms in MHD: the turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, and the turbulent electromotive force (EMF). We validate the new closures both a priori and a posteriori. In the a priori tests, we use high-resolution reference data of stationary, homogeneous, isotropic MHD turbulence to compare exact SGS quantities against predictions by the closures. The comparison includes, for example, correlations of turbulent fluxes, the average dissipative behavior, and alignment of SGS vectors such as the EMF. In order to quantify the performance of the new nonlinear closure, this comparison is conducted from the

  17. Landau fluid model for weakly nonlinear dispersive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    2005-01-01

    In may astrophysical plasmas such as the solar wind, the terrestrial magnetosphere, or in the interstellar medium at small enough scales, collisions are negligible. When interested in the large-scale dynamics, a hydrodynamic approach is advantageous not only because its numerical simulations is easier than of the full Vlasov-Maxwell equations, but also because it provides a deep understanding of cross-scale nonlinear couplings. It is thus of great interest to construct fluid models that extended the classical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to collisionless situations. Two ingredients need to be included in such a model to capture the main kinetic effects: finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and Landau damping, the only fluid-particle resonance that can affect large scales and can be modeled in a relatively simple way. The Modelization of Landau damping in a fluid formalism is hardly possible in the framework of a systematic asymptotic expansion and was addressed mainly by means of parameter fitting in a linearized setting. We introduced a similar Landau fluid model but, that has the advantage of taking dispersive effects into account. This model properly describes dispersive MHD waves in quasi-parallel propagation. Since, by construction, the system correctly reproduces their linear dynamics, appropriate tests should address the nonlinear regime. In a first case, we show analytically that the weakly nonlinear modulational dynamics of quasi-parallel propagating Alfven waves is well captured. As a second test we consider the parametric decay instability of parallel Alfven waves and show that numerical simulations of the dispersive Landau fluid model lead to results that closely match the outcome of hybrid simulations. (Author)

  18. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.

    Black holes embody one of the few, simple, solutions to the Einstein field equations that describe our modern understanding of gravitation. In isolation they are small, dark, and elusive. However, when a gas cloud or star wanders too close, they light up our universe in a way no other cosmic object can. The processes of magnetohydrodynamics which describe the accretion inflow and outflows of plasma around black holes are highly coupled and nonlinear and so require numerical experiments for elucidation. These processes are at the heart of astrophysics since black holes, once they somehow reach super-massive status, influence the evolution of the largest structures in the universe. It has been my goal, with the body of work comprising this thesis, to explore the ways in which the influence of black holes on their surroundings differs from the predictions of standard accretion models. I have especially focused on how magnetization of the greater black hole environment can impact accretion systems.

  20. Computer simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1994-11-01

    We performed a computer simulation of a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. Extensive parameter runs are carried out changing the electrical resistivity. It is found that the total magnetic energy can grow more than ten times larger than the total kinetic energy of the convection motion when the resistivity is sufficiently small. When the resistivity is relatively large and the magnetic energy is comparable or smaller than the kinetic energy, the convection motion maintains its well-organized structure. However, when the resistivity is small and the magnetic energy becomes larger than the kinetic energy, the well-organized convection motion is highly disturbed. The generated magnetic field is organized as a set of flux tubes which can be divided into two categories. The magnetic field component parallel to the rotation axis tends to be confined inside the anticyclonic columnar convection cells. On the other hand, the component perpendicular to the rotation axis is confined outside the convection cells. (author)

  1. Compression of magnetohydrodynamic simulation data using singular value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo Negrete, D. del; Hirshman, S.P.; Spong, D.A.; D'Azevedo, E.F.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical calculations of magnetic and flow fields in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations can result in extensive data sets. Particle-based calculations in these MHD fields, needed to provide closure relations for the MHD equations, will require communication of this data to multiple processors and rapid interpolation at numerous particle orbit positions. To facilitate this analysis it is advantageous to compress the data using singular value decomposition (SVD, or principal orthogonal decomposition, POD) methods. As an example of the compression technique, SVD is applied to magnetic field data arising from a dynamic nonlinear MHD code. The performance of the SVD compression algorithm is analyzed by calculating Poincare plots for electron orbits in a three-dimensional magnetic field and comparing the results with uncompressed data

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar prominence formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, J.

    1987-01-01

    Formation of Kippenhahn-Schluter type solar prominences by chromospheric mass injection is studied via numerical simulation. The numerical model is based on a two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. In addition, an analysis of gravitational thermal MHD instabilities related to condensation is performed by using the small-perturbation method. The conclusions are: (1) Both quiescent and active-region prominences can be formed by chromospheric mass injection, provided certain optimum conditions are satisfied. (2) Quiescent prominences cannot be formed without condensation, though enough mass is supplied from chromosphere. The mass of a quiescent prominence is composed of both the mass injected from the chromosphere and the mass condensed from the corona. On the other hand, condensation is not important to active region prominence formation. (3) In addition to channeling and supporting effects, the magnetic field plays another important role, i.e. containing the prominence material. (4) In the model cases, prominences are supported by the Lorentz force, the gas-pressure gradient and the mass-injection momentum. (5) Due to gravity, more MHD condensation instability modes appear in addition to the basic condensation mode

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations for Studying Solar Flare Trigger Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhamad, J.; Kusano, K.; Inoue, S.; Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)

    2017-06-20

    In order to understand the flare trigger mechanism, we conduct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations using a coronal magnetic field model derived from data observed by the Hinode satellite. Several types of magnetic bipoles are imposed into the photospheric boundary of the Nonlinear Force-free Field model of Active Region (AR) NOAA 10930 on 2006 December 13, to investigate what kind of magnetic disturbance may trigger the flare. As a result, we confirm that certain small bipole fields, which emerge into the highly sheared global magnetic field of an AR, can effectively trigger a flare. These bipole fields can be classified into two groups based on their orientation relative to the polarity inversion line: the so-called opposite polarity, and reversed shear structures, as suggested by Kusano et al. We also investigate the structure of the footpoints of reconnected field lines. By comparing the distribution of reconstructed field lines and observed flare ribbons, the trigger structure of the flare can be inferred. Our simulation suggests that the data-constrained simulation, taking into account both the large-scale magnetic structure and small-scale magnetic disturbance (such as emerging fluxes), is a good way to discover a flare-producing AR, which can be applied to space weather prediction.

  4. Tokamak m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic calculations in toroidal geometry using a full set of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The linear stability and nonlinear evolution of the resistive m = 1 mode in tokamaks is studied using a full set of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in toroidal geometry. The modification of the linear and nonlinear properties of the mode by a combination of strong toroidal effects and low resistivity is the focus of this work. Linearly there is a transition from resistive kink to resistive tearing behavior as the aspect ratio and resistivity are reduced, and there is a corresponding modification of the nonlinear behavior, including a slowing of the island growth and development of a Rutherford regime, as the tearing regime is approached. In order to study the sensitivity of the stability and evolution to assumptions concerning the equation of state, two sets of full nonlinear resistive MHD equations (a pressure convection set and an incompressible set) are used. Both sets give more stable nonlinear behavior as the aspect ratio is reduced. The pressure convection set shows a transition from a Kadomtsev reconnection at large aspect ratio to a saturation at small aspect ratio. The incompressible set yields Kadomtsev reconnection for all aspect ratios, but with a significant lengthening of the reconnection time and development of a Rutherford regime at an aspect ratio approaching the transition from a resistive kink mode to a tearing mode. The pressure convection set gives an incomplete reconnection similar to that sometimes seen experimentally. The pressure convection set is, however, strictly justified only at high beta

  5. Analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations and study of the nonlinear solution bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morros Tosas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear problems related to the plasma magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are studied. A bifurcation theory is applied and a general magnetohydrodynamic equation is proposed. Scalar functions, a steady magnetic field and a new equation for the velocity field are taken into account. A method allowing the obtention of suitable reduced equations for the instabilities study is described. Toroidal and cylindrical configuration plasmas are studied. In the cylindrical configuration case, analytical calculations are performed and two steady bifurcated solutions are found. In the toroidal configuration case, a suitable reduced equation system is obtained; a qualitative approach of a steady solution bifurcation on a toroidal Kink type geometry is carried out [fr

  6. Modelling interplanetary CMEs using magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs are discussed from the viewpoint of numerical modelling. Hydrodynamic models are shown to give a good zero-order picture of the plasma properties of ICMEs, but they cannot model the important magnetic field effects. Results from MHD simulations are shown for a number of cases of interest. It is demonstrated that the strong interaction of the ICME with the solar wind leads to the ICME and solar wind velocities being close to each other at 1 AU, despite their having very different speeds near the Sun. It is also pointed out that this interaction leads to a distortion of the ICME geometry, making cylindrical symmetry a dubious assumption for the CME field at 1 AU. In the presence of a significant solar wind magnetic field, the magnetic fields of the ICME and solar wind can reconnect with each other, leading to an ICME that has solar wind-like field lines. This effect is especially important when an ICME with the right sense of rotation propagates down the heliospheric current sheet. It is also noted that a lack of knowledge of the coronal magnetic field makes such simulations of little use in space weather forecasts that require knowledge of the ICME magnetic field strength.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (flares and mass ejections Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of kink instability and plasma flow during sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Kink instability and the subsequent plasma flow during the sustainment of a coaxial gun spheromak are investigated by three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Analysis of the parallel current density λ profile in the central open column revealed that the n = 1 mode structure plays an important role in the relaxation and current drive. The toroidal flow (v t ≈ 37 km/s) is driven by magnetic reconnection occurring as a result of the helical kink distortion of the central open column during repetitive plasmoid ejection and merging. (author)

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot jupiter upper atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, George B.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Arras, Phil, E-mail: gbt8f@virginia.edu, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu, E-mail: arras@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Lyα transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure—polar dead zone (DZ), mid-latitude wind zone (WZ), and equatorial DZ—found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial DZ, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude WZ is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatorial DZ. Transmission spectra computed from the simulations are compared to Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Advanced Camera for Surveys data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, and the range of model parameters consistent with the data is found. The central result of this paper is that the transit depth increases strongly with magnetic field strength when the hydrogen ionization layer is magnetically dominated, for dipole magnetic field B {sub 0} ≳ 10 G. Hence transit depth is sensitive to magnetic field strength, in addition to standard quantities such as the ratio of thermal to gravitational binding energies. Another effect of the magnetic field is that the planet loses angular momentum orders of magnitude faster than in the non-magnetic case, because the magnetic field greatly increases the lever arm for wind braking of the planet's rotation. Spin-down timescales for magnetized models of HD 209458b that agree with the observed transit depth

  9. Implementation of the full viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamic equations in a nonlinear finite element code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkort, J.W. [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Blank, H.J. de [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Huysmans, G.T.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pratt, J. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koren, B., E-mail: b.koren@tue.nl [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulations form an indispensable tool to understand the behavior of a hot plasma that is created inside a tokamak for providing nuclear fusion energy. Various aspects of tokamak plasmas have been successfully studied through the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The need for more complete modeling through the full MHD equations is addressed here. Our computational method is presented along with measures against possible problems regarding pollution, stability, and regularity. The problem of ensuring continuity of solutions in the center of a polar grid is addressed in the context of a finite element discretization of the full MHD equations. A rigorous and generally applicable solution is proposed here. Useful analytical test cases are devised to verify the correct implementation of the momentum and induction equation, the hyperdiffusive terms, and the accuracy with which highly anisotropic diffusion can be simulated. A striking observation is that highly anisotropic diffusion can be treated with the same order of accuracy as isotropic diffusion, even on non-aligned grids, as long as these grids are generated with sufficient care. This property is shown to be associated with our use of a magnetic vector potential to describe the magnetic field. Several well-known instabilities are simulated to demonstrate the capabilities of the new method. The linear growth rate of an internal kink mode and a tearing mode are benchmarked against the results of a linear MHD code. The evolution of a tearing mode and the resulting magnetic islands are simulated well into the nonlinear regime. The results are compared with predictions from the reduced MHD model. Finally, a simulation of a ballooning mode illustrates the possibility to use our method as an ideal MHD method without the need to add any physical dissipation.

  10. Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic processes in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, A.F.; Kostomarov, D.P.; Popov, A.M.

    The nonlinear motion of plasma in a Tokamak is studied by means of numerically solving two-dimensional [2D] and three-dimensional [3D] systems of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The 2D model is a simplified system of Kadomtsev equations which describes helical movements in incompressible plasma with finite conductivity and a large longitudinal magnetic field. For the helical mode m = 1, the dynamics of internal stripping are studied, and for mode m = 2 the formation and evolution of magnetic islands are studied. The 3D model is a more complete system of MHD equations with allowance for compressibility. The motion of the individual modes in cylindrical and toroidal plasma is studied. Preliminary results have been obtained on the mutual effects of helical modes

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.

  12. Disk Emission from Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Spinning Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a new series of global, three-dimensional, relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of thin accretion disks around spinning black holes. The disks have aspect ratios of H/R approx. 0.05 and spin parameters of a/M = 0, 0.5, 0.9, and 0.99. Using the ray-tracing code Pandurata, we generate broadband thermal spectra and polarization signatures from the MHD simulations. We find that the simulated spectra can be well fit with a simple, universal emissivity profile that better reproduces the behavior of the emission from the inner disk, compared to traditional analyses carried out using a Novikov-Thorne thin disk model. Finally, we show how spectropolarization observations can be used to convincingly break the spin-inclination degeneracy well known to the continuum-fitting method of measuring black hole spin.

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of Gamble I POS with Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Frese, M.H.; Peterkin, R.E.; Payne, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two dimensional single fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the effects of the Hall electric field on magnetic field transport in plasma opening switches of the type used on Gamble I. The Hall terms were included in the magnetic field transport equation in the two dimensional simulation code MACH2 through the use of a generalized Ohm's law. Calculations show the Hall terms augment the field transport previously observed to occur through ion fluid motion and diffusion. For modest values of microturbulent collision frequency, board current channels were observed . Results also show the magnetic field transport to be affected by the cathode boundary conditions with the Hall terms included. In all cases center of mass motion was slight

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of density-limit disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleva, R.G.; Drake, J.F.; Denton, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which demonstrate that density limit disruptions can be triggered by edge radiation which destabilizes a q = 1 kink followed by a q = 2 tearing mode. A bubble of cold plasma is injected from the edge into the center by the q = 1 kink. The q = 2 mode then broadens the current profile and throws the hot plasma to the wall. The MHD simulations presented are the first to successfully reproduce several key features of density limit disruptions including (1) the rapid drop in the central temperature, (2) the rapid expansion of the current profile, (3) the m = 1 cold bubble which is seen to be injected from the edge into the center during density limit disruptions on JET, and (4) disruptions in sawtoothing discharges. (author)

  15. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics. Progress report, December 15, 1977--December 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahala, G.

    1978-01-01

    Incompressible MHD turbulence is considered for both 2D and 3D plasmas in cylindrical geometry. It is found that for virtually all initial conditions (including quiescent ones) the plasma is nonlinearly unstable in that mean square turbulent velocity fields develop. However, there is a unique stable state of extremal magnetic helicity/energy ratio for which no turbulent fields develop [in 2D with B/sub z/ = const., it is the state of extremal mean square vector potential/energy]. It is force free and is just the Taylor state. A conjecture can be put forward (based on a dual cascade argument for resistive MHD) to explain Taylor's hypothesis. In spherical geometry, the stable axisymmetric state is the spheromak

  16. Large-Eddy-Simulation of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woelck Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetohydrodynamic turbulent channel flow under the influence of a wallnormal magnetic field is investigated using the Large-Eddy-Simulation technique and k-equation subgrid-scale-model. Therefore, the new solver MHDpisoFoam is implemented in the OpenFOAM CFD-Code. The temporal decay of an initial turbulent field for different magnetic parameters is investigated. The rms values of the averaged velocity fluctuations show a similar, trend for each coordinate direction. 80% of the fluctuations are damped out in the range between 0 < Ha < < 75 at Re = 6675. The trend can be approximated via an exponential of the form exp(−a·Ha, where a is a scaling parameter. At higher Hartmann numbers the fluctuations decrease in an almost linear way. Therefore, the results of this study show that it may be possible to construct a general law for the turbulence damping due to action of magnetic fields.

  17. SPECTRA OF STRONG MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is present in a variety of solar and astrophysical environments. Solar wind fluctuations with frequencies lower than 0.1 Hz are believed to be mostly governed by Alfvénic turbulence with particle transport depending on the power spectrum and the anisotropy of such turbulence. Recently, conflicting spectral slopes for the inertial range of MHD turbulence have been reported by different groups. Spectral shapes from earlier simulations showed that MHD turbulence is less scale-local compared with hydrodynamic turbulence. This is why higher-resolution simulations, and careful and rigorous numerical analysis is especially needed for the MHD case. In this Letter, we present two groups of simulations with resolution up to 4096 3 , which are numerically well-resolved and have been analyzed with an exact and well-tested method of scaling study. Our results from both simulation groups indicate that the asymptotic power spectral slope for all energy-related quantities, such as total energy and residual energy, is around –1.7, close to Kolmogorov's –5/3. This suggests that residual energy is a constant fraction of the total energy and that in the asymptotic regime of Alfvénic turbulence magnetic and kinetic spectra have the same scaling. The –1.5 slope for energy and the –2 slope for residual energy, which have been suggested earlier, are incompatible with our numerics

  18. Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. II. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Jennifer; Rogachevskii, Igor; Brandenburg, Axel; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2018-05-01

    Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), we study laminar and turbulent dynamos in chiral magnetohydrodynamics with an extended set of equations that accounts for an additional contribution to the electric current due to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This quantum phenomenon originates from an asymmetry between left- and right-handed relativistic fermions in the presence of a magnetic field and gives rise to a chiral dynamo. We show that the magnetic field evolution proceeds in three stages: (1) a small-scale chiral dynamo instability, (2) production of chiral magnetically driven turbulence and excitation of a large-scale dynamo instability due to a new chiral effect (α μ effect), and (3) saturation of magnetic helicity and magnetic field growth controlled by a conservation law for the total chirality. The α μ effect becomes dominant at large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers and is not related to kinetic helicity. The growth rate of the large-scale magnetic field and its characteristic scale measured in the numerical simulations agree well with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The previously discussed two-stage chiral magnetic scenario did not include stage (2), during which the characteristic scale of magnetic field variations can increase by many orders of magnitude. Based on the findings from numerical simulations, the relevance of the CME and the chiral effects revealed in the relativistic plasma of the early universe and of proto-neutron stars are discussed.

  19. Hall magnetohydrodynamics simulations of end-shorting induced rotation in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, A. I. D.; Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    End-shorting of the open field lines that surround a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is believed to contribute to its observed rotation. In this study, nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations were performed that detail the end-shorting process and the resulting spin-up of the FRC. The tangential component of the electric field E T is set to zero at the axial boundaries in an extended MHD model that includes the Hall and ∇P e terms. This shorting of the electric field leads to the generation of toroidal fields on the open field lines, which apply a torque leading to a rotation of the ions on the open field lines. The FRC then gains angular momentum through a viscous transfer from the open field line region. In addition, it is shown that spin-up is still induced when insulating boundaries are assumed

  20. 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of SATURN imploding Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.; Eddleman, J.L.; Springer, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    Z-pinch implosions driven by the SATURN device at Sandia National Laboratory are modeled with a 2D radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, showing strong growth of magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instability. Modeling of the linear and nonlinear development of MRT modes predicts growth of bubble-spike structures that increase the time span of stagnation and the resulting x-ray pulse width. Radiation is important in the pinch dynamics keeping the sheath relatively cool during the run-in and releasing most of the stagnation energy. The calculations give x-ray pulse widths and magnitudes in reasonable agreement with experiments, but predict a radiating region that is too dense and radially localized at stagnation. We also consider peaked initial density profiles with constant imploding sheath velocity that should reduce MRT instability and improve performance. 2D krypton simulations show an output x-ray power > 80 TW for the peaked profile

  1. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ROSSBY WAVES AND THE CYCLIC NATURE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphaldini, Breno; Raupp, Carlos F. M., E-mail: brenorfs@gmail.com, E-mail: carlos.raupp@iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Departamento de Geofísica, Rua do Matão, 1226-Cidade Universitária São Paulo-SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    The solar dynamo is known to be associated with several periodicities, with the nearly 11/22 yr cycle being the most pronounced one. Even though these quasiperiodic variations of solar activity have been attributed to the underlying dynamo action in the Sun's interior, a fundamental theoretical description of these cycles is still elusive. Here, we present a new possible direction in understanding the Sun's cycles based on resonant nonlinear interactions among magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rossby waves. The WKB theory for dispersive waves is applied to magnetohydrodynamic shallow-water equations describing the dynamics of the solar tachocline, and the reduced dynamics of a resonant triad composed of MHD Rossby waves embedded in constant toroidal magnetic field is analyzed. In the conservative case, the wave amplitudes evolve periodically in time, with periods on the order of the dominant solar activity timescale (∼11 yr). In addition, the presence of linear forcings representative of either convection or instabilities of meridionally varying background states appears to be crucial in balancing dissipation and thus sustaining the periodic oscillations of wave amplitudes associated with resonant triad interactions. Examination of the linear theory of MHD Rossby waves embedded in a latitudinally varying mean flow demonstrates that MHD Rossby waves propagate toward the equator in a waveguide from –35° to 35° in latitude, showing a remarkable resemblance to the structure of the butterfly diagram of the solar activity. Therefore, we argue that resonant nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic Rossby wave interactions might significantly contribute to the observed cycles of magnetic solar activity.

  2. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical predictions were compared with available data from JET on the threshold unstable MHD activity in toroidal confinement devices. In particular, questions arising as to Hartmans number and the selection of a kinematic viscosity are discussed

  3. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF HD 209458b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T. M.; Showman, A. P., E-mail: tami@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We present the first three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the atmosphere of HD 209458b which self-consistently include reduction of winds due to the Lorentz force and Ohmic heating. We find overall wind structures similar to that seen in previous models of hot Jupiter atmospheres, with strong equatorial jets and meridional flows poleward near the day side and equatorward near the night side. Inclusion of magnetic fields slows those winds and leads to Ohmic dissipation. We find wind slowing ranging from 10%-40% for reasonable field strengths. We find Ohmic dissipation rates ∼10{sup 17} W at 100 bar, orders of magnitude too small to explain the inflated radius of this planet. Faster wind speeds, not achievable in these anelastic calculations, may be able to increase this value somewhat, but likely will not be able to close the gap necessary to explain the inflated radius. We demonstrate that the discrepancy between the simulations presented here and previous models is due to inadequate treatment of magnetic field geometry and evolution. Induced poloidal fields become much larger than those imposed, highlighting the need for a self-consistent MHD treatment of these hot atmospheres.

  4. Multiwavelength Observations of Relativistic Jets from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Anantua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.

  5. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE OF HD 209458b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T. M.; Showman, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the atmosphere of HD 209458b which self-consistently include reduction of winds due to the Lorentz force and Ohmic heating. We find overall wind structures similar to that seen in previous models of hot Jupiter atmospheres, with strong equatorial jets and meridional flows poleward near the day side and equatorward near the night side. Inclusion of magnetic fields slows those winds and leads to Ohmic dissipation. We find wind slowing ranging from 10%-40% for reasonable field strengths. We find Ohmic dissipation rates ∼10 17  W at 100 bar, orders of magnitude too small to explain the inflated radius of this planet. Faster wind speeds, not achievable in these anelastic calculations, may be able to increase this value somewhat, but likely will not be able to close the gap necessary to explain the inflated radius. We demonstrate that the discrepancy between the simulations presented here and previous models is due to inadequate treatment of magnetic field geometry and evolution. Induced poloidal fields become much larger than those imposed, highlighting the need for a self-consistent MHD treatment of these hot atmospheres

  6. Flux canceling in three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Irina; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-05-01

    We aim to study the processes involved in the disappearance of magnetic flux between regions of opposite polarity on the solar surface using realistic three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. "Retraction" below the surface driven by magnetic forces is found to be a very effective mechanism of flux canceling of opposite polarities. The speed at which flux disappears increases strongly with initial mean flux density. In agreement with existing inferences from observations we suggest that this is a key process of flux disappearance within active complexes. Intrinsic kG strength concentrations connect the surface to deeper layers by magnetic forces, and therefore the influence of deeper layers on the flux canceling process is studied. We do this by comparing simulations extending to different depths. For average flux densities of 50 G, and on length scales on the order of 3 Mm in the horizontal and 10 Mm in depth, deeper layers appear to have only a mild influence on the effective rate of diffusion.

  7. Kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of fast ions and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.; Sato, T.

    2001-01-01

    Particle-magnetohydrodynamic and Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fast ions and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes) have been carried out. Alpha particle losses induced by TAE mode are investigated with particle-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Trapped particles near the passing-trapped boundary in the phase space are also lost appreciably in addition to the counter-passing particles. In Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation source and slowing-down of fast ions are considered. A coherent pulsating behavior of multiple TAE modes, which occurs in neutral beam injection experiments, is observed when the slowing-down time is much longer than the damping time of the TAE modes and the fast-ion pressure is sufficiently high. For a slowing-down time comparable to the damping time, the TAE modes reach steady saturation levels. (author)

  8. Kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of fast ions and toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.; Sato, T.

    1999-01-01

    Particle-magnetohydrodynamic and Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fast ions and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes) have been carried out. Alpha particle losses induced by TAE mode are investigated with particle-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Trapped particles near the passing-trapped boundary in the phase space are also lost appreciably in addition to the counter-passing particles. In Fokker-Planck-magnetohydrodynamic simulation source and slowing-down of fast ions are considered. A coherent pulsating behavior of multiple TAE modes, which occurs in neutral beam injection experiments, is observed when the slowing-down time is much longer than the damping time of the TAE modes and the fast-ion pressure is sufficiently high. For a slowing-down time comparable to the damping time, the TAE modes reach steady saturation levels. (author)

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A.; Alhuthali, M.S. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid in the presence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects is analyzed. Energy equation subject to nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic field is neglected for a small magnetic Reynolds number. Mathematical formulation is performed using boundary layer analysis. Newly proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed. The governing nonlinear mathematical problems are first converted into dimensionless expressions and then solved for the series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is found that the thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of radiative effect. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid is examined. • Nonlinear thermal radiation is analyzed. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are present. • Recently developed condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is implemented. • Construction of convergent solutions of nonlinear flow is possible.

  10. On magnetohydrodynamic flow of second grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Aziz, Arsalan [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Bashir [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    This research article addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of second grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Heat and mass transfer aspects are investigated through the thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Second grade fluid is assumed electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed subject to small magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer assumptions. Newly constructed condition having zero mass flux of nanoparticles at the boundary is incorporated. Transformations have been invoked for the reduction of partial differential systems into the set of nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The governing nonlinear systems have been solved for local behavior. Graphical results of different influential parameters are studied and discussed in detail. Computations for skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number have been carried out. It is observed that the effects of thermophoresis parameter on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are qualitatively similar. The temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are enhanced for the larger magnetic parameter. - Highlights: • Constitutive relation for second grade fluid is employed. • Flow is caused by a nonlinear stretching surface. • Magnetic field applied is in transverse direction. • Nanofluid model consists of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. • Magnetic Reynolds number is assumed small.

  11. On magnetohydrodynamic flow of second grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Ahmad, Bashir

    2016-01-01

    This research article addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of second grade nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. Heat and mass transfer aspects are investigated through the thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects. Second grade fluid is assumed electrically conducting through a non-uniform applied magnetic field. Mathematical formulation is developed subject to small magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer assumptions. Newly constructed condition having zero mass flux of nanoparticles at the boundary is incorporated. Transformations have been invoked for the reduction of partial differential systems into the set of nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The governing nonlinear systems have been solved for local behavior. Graphical results of different influential parameters are studied and discussed in detail. Computations for skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number have been carried out. It is observed that the effects of thermophoresis parameter on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are qualitatively similar. The temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are enhanced for the larger magnetic parameter. - Highlights: • Constitutive relation for second grade fluid is employed. • Flow is caused by a nonlinear stretching surface. • Magnetic field applied is in transverse direction. • Nanofluid model consists of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. • Magnetic Reynolds number is assumed small.

  12. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF CURRENT-DRIVEN INSTABILITY. I. INSTABILITY OF A STATIC COLUMN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Lyubarsky, Yuri; Hardee, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the nonlinear regime, the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depend moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the nonlinear regime at a later time than the case with constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the nonlinear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the nonlinear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the nonlinear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.

  13. Solar energetic particles: observational studies and magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, S.

    2010-10-01

    Solar activity manifests itself through highly dynamical events, such as flares and coronal mass ejections, which result in energy release by magnetic reconnection. This thesis focuses on two manifestations of this energy release: solar energetic particles and dynamics of magnetic reconnection. The first part of my work consists in the detailed temporal analysis of several electromagnetic signatures, produced by energetic particles in the solar atmosphere, with respect to the energetic particle flux at Earth. Using multi-instrument observations, I highlighted that particles can be accelerated by the flare to relativistic energies during a specific episode of acceleration in the impulsive phase. This showed that particles traveled a longer path length than the theoretical length generally assumed. Using in-situ measurements of magnetic field and plasma, I identified the interplanetary magnetic field for 10 particle events, and performing a velocity dispersion analysis I obtained the interplanetary length traveled by particles. I showed that the magnetic structure of the interplanetary medium play a crucial role in the association of the particle flux at Earth and the acceleration signatures of particles at the Sun. The second part of my work focuses on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection. Observationally, the best evidence for magnetic reconnection is the appearance of brightnesses at the solar surface. Performing the first data-driven 3 dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an observed event, I discovered that the evolution of brightnesses can be explained by the succession of two different reconnection regimes, induced by a new topological association where null-point separatrix lines are embedded in quasi-separatrix layers. This new topological association induces a change of field line connectivity, but also a continuous reconnection process, leading to an apparent slipping motion of reconnected field lines. From a MHD simulation I showed that

  14. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the two-stage fragmentation model for cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    We model molecular cloud fragmentation with thin-disk, non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations that include ambipolar diffusion and partial ionization that transitions from primarily ultraviolet-dominated to cosmic-ray-dominated regimes. These simulations are used to determine the conditions required for star clusters to form through a two-stage fragmentation scenario. Recent linear analyses have shown that the fragmentation length scales and timescales can undergo a dramatic drop across the column density boundary that separates the ultraviolet- and cosmic-ray-dominated ionization regimes. As found in earlier studies, the absence of an ionization drop and regular perturbations leads to a single-stage fragmentation on pc scales in transcritical clouds, so that the nonlinear evolution yields the same fragment sizes as predicted by linear theory. However, we find that a combination of initial transcritical mass-to-flux ratio, evolution through a column density regime in which the ionization drop takes place, and regular small perturbations to the mass-to-flux ratio is sufficient to cause a second stage of fragmentation during the nonlinear evolution. Cores of size ∼0.1 pc are formed within an initial fragment of ∼pc size. Regular perturbations to the mass-to-flux ratio also accelerate the onset of runaway collapse.

  15. On acceleration of plasmoids in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetotail reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Hautz, R.

    1991-01-01

    The formation and acceleration of plasmoids is investigated by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The initial equilibrium contains a plasma sheet with a northward magnetic field (B z ) component and a tailward pressure gradient. Reconnection is initiated by three different methods: Case A, a constant resistivity is applied everywhere and a tearing mode evolves, case B, a spatially localized resistivity is fixed in the near-Earth region, and case C, the resistivity is allowed to depend on the electrical current density. In case A, the authors obtain the same results as have been presented by Otto et al. (1990): the tearing instability releases the tension of the closed field lines so that the inherent pressure gradient of the two-dimensional system is not balanced anymore. The pressure gradient then sets the plasmoid into motion. Any sling-shot effect of open magnetic field lines is of minor importance. A completely different behavior has been found in cases B and C. In these cases the high-speed flow in the wedge-shaped region tailward of the near-Earth neutral line pushes against the detached plasmoid and drives it tailward. The ideal terms contributing to the acceleration are still only the pressure and the magnetic field term. However, in these cases the pressure is due to the dynamic pressure of the fast outflow from the reconnection region. The outflow in the wedge-shaped region on both sides of the neutral line is due to acceleration of plasma by tangential magnetic stresses at the slow mode shocks extending form the X line

  16. Analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations and study of the nonlinear solution bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morros Tosas, J.

    1989-05-01

    The nonlinear saturation of a plasma magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is studied, by means of a bifurcation theory. The work includes: an accurate mathematical method to study the MHD equations, in which the physical content is clear; and the study of the nonlinear solutions of the branch bifurcations, applied to different unstable plasma models. A scalar function representation is proposed for the MHD equations. This representation is characterized by a reference steady magnetic field and by a velocity field, which allow to write the equations for the scalar functions. An approximation method, leading to the obtention of the reduced equations applied in the instability study, is given. The cylindrical or toroidal plasmas are studied by using the nonlinear solutions bifurcation. Concerning the cylindrical plasma, the representation leads to a reduced system which enables the analytical calculations: two different steady bifurcation solutions are obtained. In the case of the toroidal plasma, an appropriate reduced equations system, is obtained. A qualitative approach of the Kink-type steady solution bifurcation, in a toroidal geometry, is performed [fr

  17. Nonlinear hybrid simulation of toroidicity-induced alfven eigenmode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Park, W.

    1994-11-01

    Gyrokinetic/Magnetohydrodynamics hybrid simulations have been carried out using MH3D-K code to study the nonlinear saturation of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode driven by energetic particles in a tokamak plasma. It is shown that the wave particle trapping is the nonlinear saturation mechanism for the parameters considered. The corresponding density profile flattening of hot particles is observed. The saturation amplitude is proportional to the square of linear growth rate. In addition to TAE modes, a new n = 1, m = 0 global Alfven eigenmode is shown to be excited by the energetic particles

  18. Reconnection-driven Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in a Simulated Coronal-hole Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Roberts, Merrill A. [Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T., E-mail: vadim.uritsky@nasa.gov [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray jets occur frequently in magnetically open coronal holes on the Sun, especially at high solar latitudes. Some of these jets are observed by white-light coronagraphs as they propagate through the outer corona toward the inner heliosphere, and it has been proposed that they give rise to microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. To predict and understand the signatures of coronal-hole jets, we have performed a detailed statistical analysis of such a jet simulated by an adaptively refined magnetohydrodynamics model. The results confirm the generation and persistence of three-dimensional, reconnection-driven magnetic turbulence in the simulation. We calculate the spatial correlations of magnetic fluctuations within the jet and find that they agree best with the Müller–Biskamp scaling model including intermittent current sheets of various sizes coupled via hydrodynamic turbulent cascade. The anisotropy of the magnetic fluctuations and the spatial orientation of the current sheets are consistent with an ensemble of nonlinear Alfvén waves. These properties also reflect the overall collimated jet structure imposed by the geometry of the reconnecting magnetic field. A comparison with Ulysses observations shows that turbulence in the jet wake is in quantitative agreement with that in the fast solar wind.

  19. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of in situ shock formation in the coronal streamer belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaliznyak, Yu.; Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study of an idealized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration consisting of a planar wake flow embedded into a three-dimensional (3D) sheared magnetic field is presented. The simulations investigate the possibility for in situ development of large-scale compressive disturbances at cospatial current sheet-velocity shear regions in the heliosphere. Using a linear MHD solver, the systematical investigation of the destabilized wavenumbers, corresponding growth rates, and physical parameter ranges for dominant 3D sinuous-type instabilities in an equilibrium wake-current sheet system was done. Wakes bounded by sufficiently supersonic (Mach number M s >2.6) flow streams are found to support dominant fully 3D sinuous instabilities when the plasma beta is of order unity. Fully nonlinear, compressible 2.5D and 3D MHD simulations show the self-consistent formation of shock fronts of fast magnetosonic type. They carry density perturbations far away from the wake's center. Shock formation conditions are identified in sonic and Alfvenic Mach number parameter space. Depending on the wake velocity contrast and magnetic field magnitude, as well as on the initial perturbation, the emerging shock patterns can be plane-parallel as well as fully three-dimensionally structured. Similar large-scale transients could therefore originate at distances far above coronal helmet streamers or at the location of the ecliptic current sheet

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the ejection of a magnetic flux rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, P.; Mackay, D. H.; Poedts, S.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CME's) are one of the most violent phenomena found on the Sun. One model to explain their occurrence is the flux rope ejection model. In this model, magnetic flux ropes form slowly over time periods of days to weeks. They then lose equilibrium and are ejected from the solar corona over a few hours. The contrasting time scales of formation and ejection pose a serious problem for numerical simulations. Aims: We simulate the whole life span of a flux rope from slow formation to rapid ejection and investigate whether magnetic flux ropes formed from a continuous magnetic field distribution, during a quasi-static evolution, can erupt to produce a CME. Methods: To model the full life span of magnetic flux ropes we couple two models. The global non-linear force-free field (GNLFFF) evolution model is used to follow the quasi-static formation of a flux rope. The MHD code ARMVAC is used to simulate the production of a CME through the loss of equilibrium and ejection of this flux rope. Results: We show that the two distinct models may be successfully coupled and that the flux rope is ejected out of our simulation box, where the outer boundary is placed at 2.5 R⊙. The plasma expelled during the flux rope ejection travels outward at a speed of 100 km s-1, which is consistent with the observed speed of CMEs in the low corona. Conclusions: Our work shows that flux ropes formed in the GNLFFF can lead to the ejection of a mass loaded magnetic flux rope in full MHD simulations. Coupling the two distinct models opens up a new avenue of research to investigate phenomena where different phases of their evolution occur on drastically different time scales. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Linear and nonlinear studies of velocity shear driven three dimensional electron-magnetohydrodynamics instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Gurudatt; Das, Amita

    2012-01-01

    The study of electron velocity shear driven instability in electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) regime in three dimensions has been carried out. It is well known that the instability is non-local in the plane defined by the flow direction and that of the shear, which is the usual Kelvin-Helmholtz mode, often termed as the sausage mode in the context of EMHD. On the other hand, a local instability with perturbations in the plane defined by the shear and the magnetic field direction exists which is termed as kink mode. The interplay of these two modes for simple sheared flow case as well as that when an external magnetic field exists has been studied extensively in the present manuscript in both linear and nonlinear regimes. Finally, these instability processes have been investigated for the exact 2D dipole solutions of EMHD equations [M. B. Isichenko and A. N. Marnachev, Sov. Phys. JETP 66, 702 (1987)] for which the electron flow velocity is sheared. It has been shown that dipoles are very robust and stable against the sausage mode as the unstable wavelengths are typically longer than the dipole size. However, we observe that they do get destabilized by the local kink mode.

  2. Magneto-hydro-dynamic simulation of Edge-Localised-Modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to produce energy from fusion reactions in a tokamak, the plasma must reach temperatures higher than that of our sun. The operation regime called H-mode enables one to acquire a plasma confinement close to fusion conditions. Due to the formation of a transport barrier at the plasma edge, turbulent transport is reduced, and the total plasma pressure increases, resulting in a strong pressure gradient at the edge. If this pressure gradient, localised at the plasma-vacuum boundary, becomes too steep, a magneto-hydro-dynamic instability is triggered and part of the plasma pressure is lost. This instability, hence called Edge-Localised-Mode, provokes large heat fluxes on some of the plasma-facing components of the machine, which could set operational limits for a tokamak the size of ITER. In order to understand this instability, and to determine the non-linear mechanisms behind the ELMs, the JOREK code is used. The work presented in this thesis is based on MHD simulations of ballooning modes (responsible for ELMs) with the JOREK code. At first, simulations are done for standard plasmas, inspired of experimental machines. In particular, the plasma rotation at equilibrium, in the region of the edge pressure gradient, is studied in order to obtain an analysis of the effects that such a rotation can have on the linear stability of ELMs and on their non-linear evolution. Then, as a second step, simulations are applied to plasmas of the experimental tokamaks JET and MAST (England). This permits the direct comparison of simulation results with experimental observations, with the main goal of improving our global understanding of ELMs. Adding to this physics aspect, the confrontation of the JOREK code with diagnostics of JET and MAST brings to a validation of simulations, which should prove that the simulations which were obtained do correspond to ELM instabilities. This first step towards the validation of the code is crucial concerning the simulation of ELMs in ITER

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  4. Recent progress of nonlinear simulation on the toroidal Alfven eigenmode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Yasushi; Sato, Tetsuya

    1998-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear particle-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation codes are developed to study interactions between energetic ions and MHD modes. Energetic alpha particles with a slowing-down distribution are considered and the behavior of n=2 toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE modes) is investigated with the parameters pertinent to the present large tokamaks. The linear simulation reveals the resonance condition between alpha particles and TAE mode. In the nonlinear simulation two n=2 TAE modes are destabilized and alpha particle losses induced by these TAE modes take place. Counter-passing particles are lost when they cross the passing-trapped boundary as a result of the interaction with the TAE modes. They are the major part of lost particles, but trapped particles are also lost appreciably. (author)

  5. Two-way coupling of magnetohydrodynamic simulations with embedded particle-in-cell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, K. D.; Keppens, R.; Lapenta, G.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a method for coupling an embedded domain in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with a particle-in-cell (PIC) method. In this two-way coupling we follow the work of Daldorff et al. (2014) [19] in which the PIC domain receives its initial and boundary conditions from MHD variables (MHD to PIC coupling) while the MHD simulation is updated based on the PIC variables (PIC to MHD coupling). This method can be useful for simulating large plasma systems, where kinetic effects captured by particle-in-cell simulations are localized but affect global dynamics. We describe the numerical implementation of this coupling, its time-stepping algorithm, and its parallelization strategy, emphasizing the novel aspects of it. We test the stability and energy/momentum conservation of this method by simulating a steady-state plasma. We test the dynamics of this coupling by propagating plasma waves through the embedded PIC domain. Coupling with MHD shows satisfactory results for the fast magnetosonic wave, but significant distortion for the circularly polarized Alfvén wave. Coupling with Hall-MHD shows excellent coupling for the whistler wave. We also apply this methodology to simulate a Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) challenge type of reconnection with the diffusion region simulated by PIC coupled to larger scales with MHD and Hall-MHD. In both these cases we see the expected signatures of kinetic reconnection in the PIC domain, implying that this method can be used for reconnection studies.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of Carreau fluid over a convectively heated surface in the presence of non-linear radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Masood [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hashim, E-mail: hashim_alik@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hussain, M. [Department of Sciences and Humanities, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Azam, M. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid over a convectively heated surface. The analysis of heat transfer is further performed in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation. The appropriate transformations are employed to bring the governing equations into dimensionless form. The numerical solutions of the partially coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on the velocity, temperature, local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number is studied and discussed with the help of graphs and tables. Results proved that there is significant decrease in the velocity and the corresponding momentum boundary layer thickness with the growth in the magnetic parameter. However, a quite the opposite is true for the temperature and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. - Highlights: • We investigated the Magnetohydrodynamic flow of Carreau constitutive fluid model. • Impact of non-linear thermal radiation is further taken into account. • Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method is employed to obtain the numerical solutions. • Fluid velocity is higher in case of hydromagnetic flow in comparison with hydrodynamic flow. • The local Nusselt number is a decreasing function of the thermal radiation parameter.

  7. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  8. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a uniform hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into core fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). Unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection is similar to compact toroid injection but with much higher plasma density and total mass, and consequently lower required injection velocit...

  9. Nonlinear theory of magnetohydrodynamic flows of a compressible fluid in the shallow water approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimachkov, D. A., E-mail: klimchakovdmitry@gmail.com; Petrosyan, A. S., E-mail: apetrosy@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Shallow water magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory describing incompressible flows of plasma is generalized to the case of compressible flows. A system of MHD equations is obtained that describes the flow of a thin layer of compressible rotating plasma in a gravitational field in the shallow water approximation. The system of quasilinear hyperbolic equations obtained admits a complete simple wave analysis and a solution to the initial discontinuity decay problem in the simplest version of nonrotating flows. In the new equations, sound waves are filtered out, and the dependence of density on pressure on large scales is taken into account that describes static compressibility phenomena. In the equations obtained, the mass conservation law is formulated for a variable that nontrivially depends on the shape of the lower boundary, the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, and the scale of heights at which the variation of density becomes significant. A simple wave theory is developed for the system of equations obtained. All self-similar discontinuous solutions and all continuous centered self-similar solutions of the system are obtained. The initial discontinuity decay problem is solved explicitly for compressible MHD equations in the shallow water approximation. It is shown that there exist five different configurations that provide a solution to the initial discontinuity decay problem. For each configuration, conditions are found that are necessary and sufficient for its implementation. Differences between incompressible and compressible cases are analyzed. In spite of the formal similarity between the solutions in the classical case of MHD flows of an incompressible and compressible fluids, the nonlinear dynamics described by the solutions are essentially different due to the difference in the expressions for the squared propagation velocity of weak perturbations. In addition, the solutions obtained describe new physical phenomena related to the dependence of the

  10. Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.

  11. Exact Solutions to Several Nonlinear Cases of Generalized Grad-Shafranov Equation for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in Axisymmetric Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Abdullahi Rashid; Moawad, Salah M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the steady-state equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamic incompressible flows in axisymmetric domains are investigated. These flows are governed by a second-order elliptic partial differential equation as a type of generalized Grad-Shafranov equation. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the full governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is considered. Two different types of constraints on position variables are presented to construct exact solution classes for several nonlinear cases of the governing equations. Some of the obtained results are checked for their applications to magnetic confinement plasma. Besides, they cover many previous configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables.

  12. EXTENDED SCALING LAWS IN NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Joanne; Cattaneo, Fausto; Perez, Jean Carlos; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Magnetized turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical systems, where it notoriously spans a broad range of spatial scales. Phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence describe the self-similar dynamics of turbulent fluctuations in the inertial range of scales. Numerical simulations serve to guide and test these theories. However, the computational power that is currently available restricts the simulations to Reynolds numbers that are significantly smaller than those in astrophysical settings. In order to increase computational efficiency and, therefore, probe a larger range of scales, one often takes into account the fundamental anisotropy of field-guided MHD turbulence, with gradients being much slower in the field-parallel direction. The simulations are then optimized by employing the reduced MHD equations and relaxing the field-parallel numerical resolution. In this work we explore a different possibility. We propose that there exist certain quantities that are remarkably stable with respect to the Reynolds number. As an illustration, we study the alignment angle between the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in MHD turbulence, measured as the ratio of two specially constructed structure functions. We find that the scaling of this ratio can be extended surprisingly well into the regime of relatively low Reynolds number. However, the extended scaling easily becomes spoiled when the dissipation range in the simulations is underresolved. Thus, taking the numerical optimization methods too far can lead to spurious numerical effects and erroneous representation of the physics of MHD turbulence, which in turn can affect our ability to identify correctly the physical mechanisms that are operating in astrophysical systems.

  13. Effects of compressibility and heating in magnetohydrodynamics simulations of a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2009-01-01

    The reversed field pinch is studied using numerical simulations of the compressible magnetohydrodynamics equations. Contrary to what has been done in previous works, the hypotheses of constant density and vanishing pressure are not used. Two cases are investigated. In the first case the pressure is derived from an adiabatic condition and in the second case the pressure equation includes heating terms due to resistivity and viscosity. The evolution of the reversal parameter and the production of single helicity or multiple helicity states are different in the two cases. The simulations show that the results are affected by compressibility and are very sensitive to hypotheses on heat production.

  14. Demonstration for novel self-organization theory by three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hosaka, Yasuo; Liang, Jia-Ling.

    1993-03-01

    It is demonstrated by three-dimensional simulations for resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with both 'spatially nonuniform resistivity η' and 'uniformη' that the attractor of the dissipative structure in the resistive MHD plasmas is given by ∇ x (ηj) = (α/2)B which is derived from a novel self-organization theory based on the minimum dissipation rate profile. It is shown by the simulations that the attractor is reduced to ∇ x B = λB in the special case with the 'uniformη' and no pressure gradient. (author)

  15. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A.; Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A.; Hoelzl, M.; Cahyna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2013), s. 102510-102510 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2341 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * edge localized mode * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/20/10/10.1063/1.4824820

  16. Three-fluid magnetohydrodynamical simulation of plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behler, K.; Bruhns, H.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional, three-fluid code based on the two-fluid Potter code [Methods in Computational Physics (Academic, New York, 1970), Vol. 9, p. 340] was developed for simulating the plasma focus discharge. With this code it is possible to treat the neutral gas in addition to the plasma components and to model the ionization and recombination phenomena. Thus the sheet dynamics in a plasma focus can be studied and effects investigated such as the occurrence of residual gas (or plasma) density behind the current sheet in the run-down phase. This is a prerequisite to the occurrence of leak currents, which are one of the causes limiting the performance of large plasma focus devices. It is shown that fast operating foci with small dimensions behave favorably compared with the ''classical'' Mather focus [Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Vol. 9B, p. 187] with long coaxial electrodes

  17. Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokade, Vipin; Bhandarkar, U.V.; Bodi, Kowsik

    2016-01-01

    A strong magnetic field is used to confine the plasma in a fusion reactor. This magnetic field also affects the flow of Lead-Lithium (breeder/coolant) in the breeding blanket. So it is important to study MHD flow of Lead-Lithium (Pb-Li). Open-source toolbox, OpenFOAM, is used to study single phase behaviour of Pb-Li. As the induced magnetic field is very small, Ni et al. electric potential algorithm is employed in OpenFOAM and validated with analytical results. This solver can also solve the temperature field with heat source term. Simulations are carried out in 2D straight channel for various values of Hartmann Number ranging from 100 to 5000 and velocity profile, temperature, current density and pressure drop are studied. (author)

  18. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  19. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics: the effects of nonlinear plasma fluctuations on the transport, confinement and heating of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    We have explored numerical solutions of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations and of the Strauss equations. In the former case, the emphasis has been on relaxation to force-free, field-reversed states in magnetofluids bounded by rigid conductors; in the latter case, the emphasis has been on disruptions. The competition between dynamic alignment of the velocity fields and magnetic fields and selective decay toward minimum energy states has been explored. Analytical expressions for density fluctuation spectra in MHD turbulence have been derived. Analytical expressions for turbulent MHD resistivities and viscosities have been derived

  20. Nonlinear simulation of edge-localized mode in spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, N.; Hayashi, T.; Nakajima, N.; Khan, R.

    2006-10-01

    A numerical modeling for the dynamics of an edge-localized mode (ELM) crash in the spherical tokamak is proposed with a consecutive scenario which is initiated by the spontaneous growth of the ballooning mode instability by means of a three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulation. The simulation result shows a two-step relaxation process which is induced by the intermediate-n ballooning instability followed by the m/n=1/1 internal kink mode, where m and n represent the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. By comparing with the experimental observations, we have found that the simulation result can reproduce several characteristic features of the so-called type-I ELM in an appropriate time scale: (1) relation to the ballooning instability, (2) intermediate-n precursors, (3) low-n structure on the crash, (4) formation and separation of the filament, and (5) considerable amount of loss of plasma. Furthermore, the model is verified by examining the effect of diamagnetic stabilization and comparing the nonlinear behavior with that of the peeling modes. The ion diamagnetic drift terms are found to stabilize some specific components linearly; nevertheless they are not so effective in the nonlinear dynamics such as the filament formation and the amount of loss. For the peeling mode case, no prominent filament structure is formed in contrast to the ballooning case. (author)

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.

  2. Numerical simulation of four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics in dynamically adaptive curvilinear coordinates via Newton-Krylov-Schwarz

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Xuefei

    2012-07-01

    Numerical simulations of the four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations with hyper-resistivity terms present a difficult challenge because of demanding spatial resolution requirements. A time-dependent sequence of . r-refinement adaptive grids obtained from solving a single Monge-Ampère (MA) equation addresses the high-resolution requirements near the . x-point for numerical simulation of the magnetic reconnection problem. The MHD equations are transformed from Cartesian coordinates to solution-defined curvilinear coordinates. After the application of an implicit scheme to the time-dependent problem, the parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) algorithm is used to solve the system at each time step. Convergence and accuracy studies show that the curvilinear solution requires less computational effort than a pure Cartesian treatment. This is due both to the more optimal placement of the grid points and to the improved convergence of the implicit solver, nonlinearly and linearly. The latter effect, which is significant (more than an order of magnitude in number of inner linear iterations for equivalent accuracy), does not yet seem to be widely appreciated. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Numerical simulation of four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics in dynamically adaptive curvilinear coordinates via Newton-Krylov-Schwarz

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Xuefei; Jardin, Stephen C.; Keyes, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the four-field extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations with hyper-resistivity terms present a difficult challenge because of demanding spatial resolution requirements. A time-dependent sequence of . r-refinement adaptive grids obtained from solving a single Monge-Ampère (MA) equation addresses the high-resolution requirements near the . x-point for numerical simulation of the magnetic reconnection problem. The MHD equations are transformed from Cartesian coordinates to solution-defined curvilinear coordinates. After the application of an implicit scheme to the time-dependent problem, the parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz (NKS) algorithm is used to solve the system at each time step. Convergence and accuracy studies show that the curvilinear solution requires less computational effort than a pure Cartesian treatment. This is due both to the more optimal placement of the grid points and to the improved convergence of the implicit solver, nonlinearly and linearly. The latter effect, which is significant (more than an order of magnitude in number of inner linear iterations for equivalent accuracy), does not yet seem to be widely appreciated. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is investigated including thermal conductivity. For numerical reasons, an isotropic thermal conductivity is used, even though in a RFP plasma the parallel conductivity is much larger than the perpendicular one so that magnetic field lines tend to become isothermal. The system shows alternating multiple helicity states and quasi-single helicity states. Single-helical-axis states are formed when the amplitude of the dominant mode is above a determined threshold, as observed in experiments. The relation between heat transport and magnetic field topology that is observed in RFP experiments cannot be found in the simulation, since thermal conductivity is independent of the magnetic field. This difficulty should be taken into account in the numerical investigation of the RFP dynamics. In this paper, the first description of the temperature evolution in a compressible MHD simulation of a RFP is given.

  5. Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic modeling of plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orain, F.; Bécoulet, M.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Nardon, E.; Passeron, C.; Latu, G.; Grandgirard, V.; Fil, A.; Ratnani, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pamela, S. [IIFS-PIIM. Aix Marseille Université - CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex20 (France); Chapman, I.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hoelzl, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Cahyna, P. [Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    The interaction of static Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) with the plasma flows is modeled in toroidal geometry, using the non-linear resistive MHD code JOREK, which includes the X-point and the scrape-off-layer. Two-fluid diamagnetic effects, the neoclassical poloidal friction and a source of toroidal rotation are introduced in the model to describe realistic plasma flows. RMP penetration is studied taking self-consistently into account the effects of these flows and the radial electric field evolution. JET-like, MAST, and ITER parameters are used in modeling. For JET-like parameters, three regimes of plasma response are found depending on the plasma resistivity and the diamagnetic rotation: at high resistivity and slow rotation, the islands generated by the RMPs at the edge resonant surfaces rotate in the ion diamagnetic direction and their size oscillates. At faster rotation, the generated islands are static and are more screened by the plasma. An intermediate regime with static islands which slightly oscillate is found at lower resistivity. In ITER simulations, the RMPs generate static islands, which forms an ergodic layer at the very edge (ψ≥0.96) characterized by lobe structures near the X-point and results in a small strike point splitting on the divertor targets. In MAST Double Null Divertor geometry, lobes are also found near the X-point and the 3D-deformation of the density and temperature profiles is observed.

  6. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, H [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fuller, G M [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Carlson, J [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: hduan@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu, E-mail: carlson@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}.

  7. Effects of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity in Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of a Reversed-Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2010-01-01

    A compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the reversed-field pinch is performed including anisotropic thermal conductivity. When the thermal conductivity is much larger in the direction parallel to the magnetic field than in the perpendicular direction, magnetic field lines become isothermal. As a consequence, as long as magnetic surfaces exist, a temperature distribution is observed displaying a hotter confined region, while an almost uniform temperature is produced when the magnetic field lines become chaotic. To include this effect in the numerical simulation, we use a multiple-time-scale analysis, which allows us to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity. The resulting temperature distribution is related to the existence of closed magnetic surfaces, as observed in experiments. The magnetic field is also affected by the presence of an anisotropic thermal conductivity.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.

    1994-04-01

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  9. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD stagnation point flow of nanofluid past a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wubshet Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional boundary layer flow of nanofluid fluid past a stretching sheet is examined. The paper reveals the effect of non-linear radiative heat transfer on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet with convective heating. Condition of zero normal flux of nanoparticles at the wall for the stretched flow is considered. The nanoparticle fractions on the boundary are considered to be passively controlled. The solution for the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration depends on parameters viz. Prandtl number Pr, velocity ratio parameter A, magnetic parameter M, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion Nb, and the thermophoresis parameter Nt. Moreover, the problem is governed by temperature ratio parameter (Nr=TfT∞ and radiation parameter Rd. Similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing non-linear boundary-value problems into coupled higher order non-linear ordinary differential equation. These equations were numerically solved using the function bvp4c from the matlab software for different values of governing parameters. Numerical results are obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration, as well as the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient Cf increases as the values of magnetic parameter M increase and decreases as the values of velocity ratio parameter A increase. The local Nusselt number −θ′(0 decreases as the values of thermophoresis parameter Nt and radiation parameter Nr increase and it increases as the values of both Biot number Bi and Prandtl number Pr increase. Furthermore, radiation has a positive effect on temperature and concentration profiles.

  10. Calculating electron cyclotron current drive stabilization of resistive tearing modes in a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Thomas G.; Schnack, Dalton D.; Kruger, Scott E.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, Carl R.

    2010-01-01

    A model which incorporates the effects of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) into the magnetohydrodynamic equations is implemented in the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] and used to investigate the effect of ECCD injection on the stability, growth, and dynamical behavior of magnetic islands associated with resistive tearing modes. In addition to qualitatively and quantitatively agreeing with numerical results obtained from the inclusion of localized ECCD deposition in static equilibrium solvers [A. Pletzer and F. W. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1589 (1999)], predictions from the model further elaborate the role which rational surface motion plays in these results. The complete suppression of the (2,1) resistive tearing mode by ECCD is demonstrated and the relevant stabilization mechanism is determined. Consequences of the shifting of the mode rational surface in response to the injected current are explored, and the characteristic short-time responses of resistive tearing modes to spatial ECCD alignments which are stabilizing are also noted. We discuss the relevance of this work to the development of more comprehensive predictive models for ECCD-based mitigation and control of neoclassical tearing modes.

  11. 3D Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Current-Driven Instability. 1; Instability of a Static Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the non-linear regime the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depends moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and the non-linear regime is reached at a later time than for constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the non-linear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.

  12. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  13. Three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic computations of the postimplosion dynamics of the Los Alamos scyllac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Brackbill, J.U.

    1976-01-01

    The Scyllac experiment is designed to produce high-beta plasmas in toroidal equilibrium by adding l = 0 and l = 1 perturbations to the basic theta pinch fields. The Scyllac experiment is being studied by means of the numerical solution of nonlinear, time-dependent equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Some calculations of the post-implosion phase are discussed

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of the m=1 kink-tearing instability in a modified magnetohydrodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1995-01-01

    A theory is given for the nonlinear dynamical evolution of the collisionless m=1 kink-tearing instability, including the effects of electron inertia and electron pressure gradient in a generalized Ohm's law. It is demonstrated that electron pressure gradients can cause near-explosive growth in the nonlinear regime of a thin m=1 island. This near-explosive phase is followed by a rapid decay phase as the island width becomes comparable to the radius of the sawtooth region. An island equation is derived for the entire nonlinear evolution of the instability, extending recent work on the subject [X. Wang and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1627 (1993)] to include the effects of both electron inertia and electron pressure gradient. Comparisons are made with experimental data from present-day tokamaks. It is suggested that the present model not only accounts for fast sawtooth crashes, but also provides possible explanations for the problems of sudden onset and incomplete reconnection that have been, heretofore, unexplained features of observations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Towards Observational Astronomy of Jets in Active Galaxies from General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantua, Richard; Roger Blandford, Jonathan McKinney and Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    2016-01-01

    We carry out the process of "observing" simulations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with relativistic jets (hereafter called jet/accretion disk/black hole (JAB) systems) from ray tracing between image plane and source to convolving the resulting images with a point spread function. Images are generated at arbitrary observer angle relative to the black hole spin axis by implementing spatial and temporal interpolation of conserved magnetohydrodynamic flow quantities from a time series of output datablocks from fully general relativistic 3D simulations. We also describe the evolution of simulations of JAB systems' dynamical and kinematic variables, e.g., velocity shear and momentum density, respectively, and the variation of these variables with respect to observer polar and azimuthal angles. We produce, at frequencies from radio to optical, fixed observer time intensity and polarization maps using various plasma physics motivated prescriptions for the emissivity function of physical quantities from the simulation output, and analyze the corresponding light curves. Our hypothesis is that this approach reproduces observed features of JAB systems such as superluminal bulk flow projections and quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves more closely than extant stylized analytical models, e.g., cannonball bulk flows. Moreover, our development of user-friendly, versatile C++ routines for processing images of state-of-the-art simulations of JAB systems may afford greater flexibility for observing a wide range of sources from high power BL-Lacs to low power quasars (possibly with the same simulation) without requiring years of observation using multiple telescopes. Advantages of observing simulations instead of observing astrophysical sources directly include: the absence of a diffraction limit, panoramic views of the same object and the ability to freely track features. Light travel time effects become significant for high Lorentz factor and small angles between

  16. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, V.A.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive drive (HIT-SI) [P. E. Sieck, W. T. Hamp, V. A. Izzo, T. R. Jarboe, B. A. Nelson, R. G. O'Neill, A. J. Redd, and R. J. Smith, IEEE Conference Record-Abstracts. 31st IEEE International Conference On Plasma Science (IEEE Catalog No. 04CH37537), 2004, p. 160] is a spheromak driven by steady inductive helicity injection (SIHI) and consists of the toroidally symmetric spheromak confinement region and two nonsymmetric helicity injectors. The three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic code NIMROD [A. H. Glasser, C. R. Sovinec, R. A. Nebel, T. A. Gianakon, S. J. Plimpton, M. S. Chu, and D. D. Schnack, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41, A747 (1999)] is used to simulate HIT-SI operation, but the code's toroidally symmetric boundary requires a creative treatment of the injectors. Sustained HIT-SI operation is simulated with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. In driven simulations at low Lundquist number S no n=0 fields are generated as a result of relaxation of the predominantly n=1 injector fields until the injectors are quickly shut off. At S=500, an n=0 component arises due to relaxation during sustainment. As S is increased further, the ratio of n=0 (equilibrium) fields to n=1 (injector) fields increases. The effects of a thin insulating boundary layer on the plasma decay time are also discussed

  17. Linear simulations of the cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bakhsh, Abeer

    2016-03-09

    Numerical simulations and analysis indicate that the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability(RMI) is suppressed in ideal magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) in Cartesian slab geometry. Motivated by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion and suppression by means of a magnetic field, we investigate the RMI via linear MHD simulations in cylindrical geometry. The physical setup is that of a Chisnell-type converging shock interacting with a density interface with either axial or azimuthal (2D) perturbations. The linear stability is examined in the context of an initial value problem (with a time-varying base state) wherein the linearized ideal MHD equations are solved with an upwind numerical method. Linear simulations in the absence of a magnetic field indicate that RMI growth rate during the early time period is similar to that observed in Cartesian geometry. However, this RMI phase is short-lived and followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability phase with an accompanied exponential increase in the perturbation amplitude. We examine several strengths of the magnetic field (characterized by β=2p/B^2_r) and observe a significant suppression of the instability for β ≤ 4. The suppression of the instability is attributed to the transport of vorticity away from the interface by Alfvén fronts.

  18. Implementation of a 3-D nonlinear MHD [magnetohydrodynamics] calculation on the Intel hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Hicks, H.R.; Lawkins, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of numerical schemes and increasing computer capabilities in the last ten years have improved the efficiency of 3-D nonlinear resistive MHD calculations by about two to three orders of magnitude. However, we are still very limited in performing these types of calculations. Hypercubes have a large number of processors with only local memory and bidirectional links among neighbors. The Intel Hypercube at Oak Ridge has 64 processors with 0.5 megabytes of memory per processor. The multiplicity of processors opens new possibilities for the treatment of such computations. The constraint on time and resources favored the approach of using the existing RSF code which solves as an initial value problem the reduced set of MHD equations for a periodic cylindrical geometry. This code includes minimal physics and geometry, but contains the basic three dimensionality and nonlinear structure of the equations. The code solves the reduced set of MHD equations by Fourier expansion in two angular coordinates and finite differences in the radial one. Due to the continuing interest in these calculations and the likelihood that future supercomputers will take greater advantage of parallelism, the present study was initiated by the ORNL Exploratory Studies Committee and funded entirely by Laboratory Discretionary Funds. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain the suitability of MHD calculation for parallel computation, to design and implement a parallel algorithm to perform the computations, and to evaluate the hypercube, and in particular, ORNL's Intel iPSC, for use in MHD computations

  19. Nonlinear simulations with and computational issues for NIMROD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The NIMROD (Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion) code development project was commissioned by the US Department of Energy in February, 1996 to provide the fusion research community with a computational tool for studying low-frequency behavior in experiments. Specific problems of interest include the neoclassical evolution of magnetic islands and the nonlinear behavior of tearing modes in the presence of rotation and nonideal walls in tokamaks; they also include topics relevant to innovative confinement concepts such as magnetic turbulence. Besides having physics models appropriate for these phenomena, an additional requirement is the ability to perform the computations in realistic geometries. The NIMROD Team is using contemporary management and computational methods to develop a computational tool for investigating low-frequency behavior in plasma fusion experiments. The authors intend to make the code freely available, and are taking steps to make it as easy to learn and use as possible. An example application for NIMROD is the nonlinear toroidal RFP simulation--the first in a series to investigate how toroidal geometry affects MHD activity in RFPs. Finally, the most important issue facing the project is execution time, and they are exploring better matrix solvers and a better parallel decomposition to address this

  20. Nonlinear simulations with and computational issues for NIMROD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The NIMROD (Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion) code development project was commissioned by the US Department of Energy in February, 1996 to provide the fusion research community with a computational tool for studying low-frequency behavior in experiments. Specific problems of interest include the neoclassical evolution of magnetic islands and the nonlinear behavior of tearing modes in the presence of rotation and nonideal walls in tokamaks; they also include topics relevant to innovative confinement concepts such as magnetic turbulence. Besides having physics models appropriate for these phenomena, an additional requirement is the ability to perform the computations in realistic geometries. The NIMROD Team is using contemporary management and computational methods to develop a computational tool for investigating low-frequency behavior in plasma fusion experiments. The authors intend to make the code freely available, and are taking steps to make it as easy to learn and use as possible. An example application for NIMROD is the nonlinear toroidal RFP simulation--the first in a series to investigate how toroidal geometry affects MHD activity in RFPs. Finally, the most important issue facing the project is execution time, and they are exploring better matrix solvers and a better parallel decomposition to address this.

  1. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  2. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Li, Hui; Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow over a cylinder using axial- and transverse-oriented magnetic dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarendi, Andrew N; Chandy, Abhilash J

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (<1) calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Hypersonic Flow over a Cylinder Using Axial- and Transverse-Oriented Magnetic Dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Guarendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (≪1 calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field.

  5. PARSEC-SCALE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES FROM GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to ∼10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.

  6. PARSEC-SCALE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES FROM GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.c, E-mail: jmckinne@stanford.ed [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to {approx}10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.

  7. Plasma pressure tensor effects on reconnection: Hybrid and Hall-magnetohydrodynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lin; Winske, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Collisionless reconnection is studied using two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) and Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (Hall-MHD) simulations. Both use the full electron pressure tensor instead of a localized resistivity in Ohm's law to initiate reconnection; an initial perturbation or boundary driving to the equilibrium is used. The initial configurations include one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D current sheets both with and without a guide field. Electron dynamics from the two calculations are compared, and overall agreement is found between the calculations in both reconnection rate and global configuration [L. Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10761 (2001)]. It is shown that the electron drifts in the small-transverse-scale fields near the X point cause the electron motion to decouple from the ion motion, and that reconnection occurs due to electron viscous effects contained in the off-diagonal terms of the electron pressure tensor. Comparing the hybrid and Hall-MHD simulations shows that effects of the off-diagonal terms in the ion pressure tensor, i.e., the ion gyro-radius effects, are necessary in order to model correctly the ion out-of-plane motion. It is shown that these effects can be modeled efficiently in a particle Hall-MHD simulation in which particle ions are used in a predictor/corrector manner to implement ion gyro-radius corrections [L. Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2575 (2002)]. For modeling reconnection in large systems, a new integrated approach is examined in which Hall-MHD calculations using a full electron pressure tensor model is embedded inside a MHD simulation. The embedded simulation of current sheet thinning and reconnection dynamics in a realistic 2-D magnetotail equilibrium exhibits smooth transitions of plasma and field quantities between the two regions, with small-scale physics represented well in the compressed current sheet and in the near-X-point region

  8. Elements of magnetohydrodynamic stability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics are discussed along with the following topics: (1) static equilibrium, (2) strict linear theory, (3) stability of a system with one degree of freedom, (4) spectrum and variational principles in magnetohydrodynamics, (5) elementary proof of the modified energy principle, (6) sufficient stability criteria, (7) local stability, and (8) normal modes

  9. GLOBAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION FLOWS: A CONVERGENCE STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Hotaka; Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F.; Noble, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Global, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks are widely used to model accreting black holes. We have performed a convergence study of GRMHD models computed with HARM3D. The models span a factor of four in linear resolution, from 96 × 96 × 64 to 384 × 384 × 256. We consider three diagnostics of convergence: (1) dimensionless shell-averaged quantities such as plasma β; (2) the azimuthal correlation length of fluid variables; and (3) synthetic spectra of the source including synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering. Shell-averaged temperature is, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution; shell-averaged plasma β decreases steadily with resolution but shows signs of convergence. The azimuthal correlation lengths of density, internal energy, and temperature decrease steadily with resolution but show signs of convergence. In contrast, the azimuthal correlation length of magnetic field decreases nearly linearly with grid size. We argue by analogy with local models, however, that convergence should be achieved with another factor of two in resolution. Synthetic spectra are, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution. The convergence behavior is consistent with that of higher physical resolution local model ( s hearing box ) calculations and with the recent non-relativistic global convergence studies of Hawley et al.

  10. Magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of Heavy Ion Collisions with ECHO-QGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghirami, G.; Del Zanna, L.; Beraudo, A.; Haddadi Moghaddam, M.; Becattini, F.; Bleicher, M.

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that very strong magnetic fields may induce many interesting physical effects in the Quark Gluon Plasma, like the Chiral Magnetic Effect, the Chiral Separation Effect, a modification of the critical temperature or changes in the collective flow of the emitted particles. However, in the hydrodynamic numerical simulations of Heavy Ion Collisions the magnetic fields have been either neglected or considered as external fields which evolve independently from the dynamics of the fluid. To address this issue, we recently modified the ECHO-QGP code, including for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields in a consistent way, although in the limit of an infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma (ideal magnetohydrodynamics). In this proceedings paper we illustrate the underlying 3+1 formalisms of the current version of the code and we present the results of its basic preliminary application in a simple case. We conclude with a brief discussion of the possible further developments and future uses of the code, from RHIC to FAIR collision energies.

  11. A fully magnetohydrodynamic simulation of three-dimensional non-null reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontin, D.I.; Galsgaard, K.; Hornig, G.; Priest, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    A knowledge of the nature of fully three-dimensional magnetic reconnection is crucial in understanding a great many processes in plasmas. It has been previously shown that in the kinematic regime the evolution of magnetic flux in three-dimensional reconnection is very different from two dimensions. In this paper a numerical fully magnetohydrodynamic simulation is described, in which this evolution is investigated. The reconnection takes place in the absence of a magnetic null point, and the nonideal region is localized in the center of the domain. The effect of differently prescribed resistivities is considered. The magnetic field is stressed by shear boundary motions, and a current concentration grows within the volume. A stagnation-point flow develops, with strong outflow jets emanating from the reconnection region. The behavior of the magnetic flux matches closely that discovered in the kinematic regime. In particular, it is found that no unique field line velocity exists, and that as a result field lines change their connections continually and continuously throughout the nonideal region. In order to describe the motion of magnetic flux within the domain, it is therefore necessary to use two different field line velocities. The importance of a component of the electric field parallel to the magnetic field is also demonstrated

  12. Diagnostics of the solar corona from comparison between Faraday rotation measurements and magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Chat, G.; Cohen, O.; Kasper, J. C.; Spangler, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized natural radio sources passing behind the Sun experience Faraday rotation as a consequence of the electron density and magnetic field strength in coronal plasma. Since Faraday rotation is proportional to the product of the density and the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight of the observer, a model is required to interpret the observations and infer coronal structures. Faraday rotation observations have been compared with relatively ad hoc models of the corona. Here for the first time we compare these observations with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the solar corona driven by measurements of the photospheric magnetic field. We use observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array of 34 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona between 5 and 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during 1997 May, and 2005 March and April. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona. We find that (1) using a synoptic map of the solar magnetic field just one Carrington rotation off produces poorer agreements, meaning that the outer corona changes in the course of one month, even in solar minimum; (2) global MHD models of the solar corona driven by photospheric magnetic field measurements are generally able to reproduce Faraday rotation observations; and (3) some sources show significant disagreement between the model and the observations, which appears to be a function of the proximity of the line of sight to the large-scale heliospheric current sheet.

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF BUOYANT BUBBLES IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, S. M.; De Young, D. S.; Jones, T. W.

    2009-01-01

    We report results of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the dynamics of buoyant bubbles in magnetized galaxy cluster media. The simulations are three-dimensional extensions of two-dimensional calculations reported by Jones and De Young. Initially, spherical bubbles and briefly inflated spherical bubbles all with radii a few times smaller than the intracluster medium (ICM) scale height were followed as they rose through several ICM scale heights. Such bubbles quickly evolve into a toroidal form that, in the absence of magnetic influences, is stable against fragmentation in our simulations. This ring formation results from (commonly used) initial conditions that cause ICM material below the bubbles to drive upwards through the bubble, creating a vortex ring; that is, hydrostatic bubbles develop into 'smoke rings', if they are initially not very much smaller or very much larger than the ICM scale height. Even modest ICM magnetic fields with β = P gas /P mag ∼ 3 can influence the dynamics of the bubbles, provided the fields are not tangled on scales comparable to or smaller than the size of the bubbles. Quasi-uniform, horizontal fields with initial β ∼ 10 2 bifurcated our bubbles before they rose more than about a scale height of the ICM, and substantially weaker fields produced clear distortions. These behaviors resulted from stretching and amplification of ICM fields trapped in irregularities along the top surface of the young bubbles. On the other hand, tangled magnetic fields with similar, modest strengths are generally less easily amplified by the bubble motions and are thus less influential in bubble evolution. Inclusion of a comparably strong, tangled magnetic field inside the initial bubbles had little effect on our bubble evolution, since those fields were quickly diminished through expansion of the bubble and reconnection of the initial field.

  14. UTILIZATION OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENTS FOR GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hill, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements, line of sight (LOS) and/or vector magnetograms, have been used in a variety of solar physics studies. Currently, the global transverse velocity measurements near the photosphere from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are available. We have utilized these multiple observational data, for the first time, to present a data-driven global three-dimensional and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and to investigate the energy transport across the photosphere to the corona. The measurements of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity reflect the effects of convective zone dynamics and provide information from the sub-photosphere to the corona. In order to self-consistently include the observables on the lower boundary as the inputs to drive the model, a set of time-dependent boundary conditions is derived by using the method of characteristics. We selected GONG's global transverse velocity measurements of synoptic chart CR2009 near the photosphere and SOLIS full-resolution LOS magnetic field maps of synoptic chart CR2009 on the photosphere to simulate the equilibrium state and compute the energy transport across the photosphere. To show the advantage of using both observed magnetic field and transverse velocity data, we have studied two cases: (1) with the inputs of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity measurements, and (2) with the input of the LOS magnetic field and without the input of transverse velocity measurements. For these two cases, the simulation results presented here are a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field configuration, density distributions on the photosphere and at 1.5 solar radii, and the solar wind in the corona. The deduced physical characteristics are the total current helicity and the synthetic emission. By comparing all the physical parameters of case 1 and case 2 and their synthetic emission images with the EIT image, we find that using both the measured magnetic field and the

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehey, P.T.

    1994-02-01

    Solid-deuterium-initiated Z-pinch experiments are numerically simulated using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model, which includes many important experimental details, such as ''cold-start'' initial conditions, thermal conduction, radiative energy loss, actual discharge current vs. time, and grids of sufficient size and resolution to allow realistic development of the plasma. The alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique used meets the substantial demands presented by such a computational task. Simulations of fiber-initiated experiments show that when the fiber becomes fully ionized rapidly developing m=0 instabilities, which originated in the coronal plasma generated from the ablating fiber, drive intense non-uniform heating and rapid expansion of the plasma column. The possibility that inclusion of additional physical effects would improve stability is explored. Finite-Larmor-radius-ordered Hall and diamagnetic pressure terms in the magnetic field evolution equation, corresponding energy equation terms, and separate ion and electron energy equations are included; these do not change the basic results. Model diagnostics, such as shadowgrams and interferograms, generated from simulation results, are in good agreement with experiment. Two alternative experimental approaches are explored: high-current magnetic implosion of hollow cylindrical deuterium shells, and ''plasma-on-wire'' (POW) implosion of low-density plasma onto a central deuterium fiber. By minimizing instability problems, these techniques may allow attainment of higher temperatures and densities than possible with bare fiber-initiated Z-pinches. Conditions for significant D-D or D-T fusion neutron production may be realizable with these implosion-based approaches

  16. General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of binary neutron star mergers forming a long-lived neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo; Kastaun, Wolfgang; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Endrizzi, Andrea; Siegel, Daniel M.; Perna, Rosalba

    2017-03-01

    Merging binary neutron stars (BNSs) represent the ultimate targets for multimessenger astronomy, being among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), and, at the same time, likely accompanied by a variety of electromagnetic counterparts across the entire spectrum, possibly including short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) and kilonova/macronova transients. Numerical relativity simulations play a central role in the study of these events. In particular, given the importance of magnetic fields, various aspects of this investigation require general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). So far, most GRMHD simulations focused the attention on BNS mergers leading to the formation of a hypermassive neutron star (NS), which, in turn, collapses within few tens of ms into a black hole surrounded by an accretion disk. However, recent observations suggest that a significant fraction of these systems could form a long-lived NS remnant, which will either collapse on much longer time scales or remain indefinitely stable. Despite the profound implications for the evolution and the emission properties of the system, a detailed investigation of this alternative evolution channel is still missing. Here, we follow this direction and present a first detailed GRMHD study of BNS mergers forming a long-lived NS. We consider magnetized binaries with different mass ratios and equations of state and analyze the structure of the NS remnants, the rotation profiles, the accretion disks, the evolution and amplification of magnetic fields, and the ejection of matter. Moreover, we discuss the connection with the central engine of SGRBs and provide order-of-magnitude estimates for the kilonova/macronova signal. Finally, we study the GW emission, with particular attention to the post-merger phase.

  17. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the formation of hot accretion disk coronae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. Toronto, ON M5S3H4 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    A new mechanism to form a magnetic pressure supported, high temperature corona above the photosphere of an accretion disk is explored using three dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The thermal properties of the disk are calculated self-consistently by balancing radiative cooling through the surfaces of the disk with heating due to dissipation of turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). As has been noted in previous work, we find the dissipation rate per unit mass increases dramatically with height above the mid-plane, in stark contrast to the α-disk model which assumes this quantity is a constant. Thus, we find that in simulations with a low surface density (and therefore a shallow photosphere), the fraction of energy dissipated above the photosphere is significant (about 3.4% in our lowest surface density model), and this fraction increases as surface density decreases. When a significant fraction of the accretion energy is dissipated in the optically thin photosphere, the gas temperature increases substantially and a high temperature, magnetic pressure supported corona is formed. The volume-averaged temperature in the disk corona is more than 10 times larger than at the disk mid-plane. Moreover, gas temperature in the corona is strongly anti-correlated with gas density, which implies the corona formed by MRI turbulence is patchy. This mechanism to form an accretion disk corona may help explain the observed relation between the spectral index and luminosity from active galactic nucleus (AGNs), and the soft X-ray excess from some AGNs. It may also be relevant to spectral state changes in X-ray binaries.

  18. Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gharaibeh, Khaled M

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems

  19. Nonlinear Epigenetic Variance: Review and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Ploeger, Annemie; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Dolan, Conor V.; van Der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a review of empirical evidence that suggests that a substantial portion of phenotypic variance is due to nonlinear (epigenetic) processes during ontogenesis. The role of such processes as a source of phenotypic variance in human behaviour genetic studies is not fully appreciated. In addition to our review, we present simulation studies…

  20. Nonlinear friction model for servo press simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ninshu; Sugitomo, Nobuhiko; Kyuno, Takunori; Tamura, Shintaro; Naka, Tetsuo

    2013-12-01

    The friction coefficient was measured under an idealized condition for a pulse servo motion. The measured friction coefficient and its changing with both sliding distance and a pulse motion showed that the friction resistance can be reduced due to the re-lubrication during unloading process of the pulse servo motion. Based on the measured friction coefficient and its changes with sliding distance and re-lubrication of oil, a nonlinear friction model was developed. Using the newly developed the nonlinear friction model, a deep draw simulation was performed and the formability was evaluated. The results were compared with experimental ones and the effectiveness was verified.

  1. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.

    2012-04-26

    Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is

  2. Nonlinear mirror mode dynamics: Simulations and modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Califano, F.; Hellinger, Petr; Kuznetsov, E.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Trávníček, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, - (2008), A08219/1-A08219/20 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702; GA AV ČR IAA300420602 Grant - others:PECS(CZ) 98024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : mirror instability * nonlinear evolution * numerical simulations * magnetic holes * mirror structures * kinetic plasma instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2008

  3. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-14

    This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.

  4. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)

  5. Radio Evolution of Supernova Remnants Including Nonlinear Particle Acceleration: Insights from Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Marko Z.; Urošević, Dejan; Arbutina, Bojan; Orlando, Salvatore; Maxted, Nigel; Filipović, Miroslav D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a model for the radio evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) obtained by using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. We model the radio evolution of SNRs on a global level by performing simulations for a wide range of the relevant physical parameters, such as the ambient density, supernova (SN) explosion energy, acceleration efficiency, and magnetic field amplification (MFA) efficiency. We attribute the observed spread of radio surface brightnesses for corresponding SNR diameters to the spread of these parameters. In addition to our simulations of Type Ia SNRs, we also considered SNR radio evolution in denser, nonuniform circumstellar environments modified by the progenitor star wind. These simulations start with the mass of the ejecta substantially higher than in the case of a Type Ia SN and presumably lower shock speed. The magnetic field is understandably seen as very important for the radio evolution of SNRs. In terms of MFA, we include both resonant and nonresonant modes in our large-scale simulations by implementing models obtained from first-principles, particle-in-cell simulations and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamical simulations. We test the quality and reliability of our models on a sample consisting of Galactic and extragalactic SNRs. Our simulations give Σ ‑ D slopes between ‑4 and ‑6 for the full Sedov regime. Recent empirical slopes obtained for the Galactic samples are around ‑5, while those for the extragalactic samples are around ‑4.

  6. Nonlinear hybrid simulation of internal kink with beam ion effects in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Sheng, Zheng-Mao [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Tobias, Benjamin [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Zeeland, Michael Van [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, Feng [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In DIII-D sawteething plasmas, long-lived (1,1) kink modes are often observed between sawtooth crashes. The saturated kink modes have two distinct frequencies. The mode with higher frequency transits to a fishbone-like mode with sufficient on-axis neutral beam power. In this work, hybrid simulations with the global kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid code M3D-K have been carried out to investigate the linear stability and nonlinear dynamics of the n = 1 mode with effects of energetic beam ions for a typical DIII-D discharge where both saturated kink mode and fishbone were observed. Linear simulation results show that the n = 1 internal kink mode is unstable in MHD limit. However, with kinetic effects of beam ions, a fishbone-like mode is excited with mode frequency about a few kHz depending on beam pressure profile. The mode frequency is higher at higher beam power and/or narrower radial profile consistent with the experimental observation. Nonlinear simulations have been performed to investigate mode saturation as well as energetic particle transport. The nonlinear MHD simulations show that the unstable kink mode becomes a saturated kink mode after a sawtooth crash. With beam ion effects, the fishbone-like mode can also transit to a saturated kink mode with a small but finite mode frequency. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of saturated kink mode between sawtooth crashes.

  7. Numerical simulations of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a poloidal divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchimoto, E.

    1988-03-01

    A new 3-D resistive MHD initial value code RPD has been successfully developed from scratch to study the linear and nonlinear evolution of long wavelength resistive MHD instabilities in a square cross-section tokamak with or without a poloidal divertor. The code numerically advances the full set of compressible resistive MHD equations in a toroidal geometry, with an important option of permitting the divertor separatrix and the region outside it to be in the computational domain. A severe temporal step size restriction for numerical stability imposed by the fast compressional waves was removed by developing and implementing a new, efficient semi-implicit scheme extending one first proposed by Harned and Kerner. As a result, the code typically runs faster than that with a mostly explicit scheme by a factor of about the aspect ratio. The equilibrium input for RPD is generated by a new 2-D code EQPD that is based on the Chodura-Schluter method. The RPD code, as well as the new semi-implicit scheme, has passed very extensive numerical tests in both divertor and divertorless geometries. Linear and nonlinear simulations in a divertorless geometry have reproduced the standard, previously known results. In a geometry with a four-node divertor the m = 2,n = 1 (2/1) tearing mode tends to be linearly stabilized as the q = 2 surface approaches the divertor separatrix. However, the m = 1,n = 1 (1/1) resistive kink mode remains relatively unaffected by the nearness of the q = 1 surface to the divertor separatrix. When plasma current is added to the region outside the divertor separatrix, the 2/1 tearing mode is linearly stabilized not by this current, but by the profile modifications induced near the q = 2 surface and the divertor separatrix. A similar stabilization effect is seen for the 1/1 resistive kink mode, but to a lesser extent. 77 refs., 91 figs

  8. Adventures in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    This material was presented in a set of three lectures on October 29 and 30, 1987 at Nagoya University. It was attempted to give an elementary survey of magnetohydrodynamic theory as it applies to toroidal confinement, emphasizing the concept and avoiding the detailed derivation, in hopes that the ideas will be useful for students and researchers just entering the field. In some places, the actual development should be described, so it was decided that it would be worthwhile to give some exact results. Thus the notes are uneven. The author hopes that everyone who looks at this will find something of interest. By a proper breakdown, this lecture consists of four sections: the section on the derivation and justification of the MHD equations, that on the equilibrium problem, that on linearized stability and some comments on nonlinear evolution, magnetic islands and transport. There is still the work to be done with these simple models. The move into some branch of plasma simulation or drift orbit formulation may be done, but this area is worth to spend a professional life, as the tasks are challenging, and the results are satisfying. (Kako, I.) 61 refs

  9. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  10. Radiation-magnetohydrodynamics of fusion plasmas on parallel supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar, O.; Moses, G.A.; Tautges, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    A parallel computational model to simulate fusion plasmas in the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD) framework is presented. Plasmas are often treated in a fluid dynamics context (magnetohydrodynamics, MHD), but when the flow field is coupled with the radiation field it falls into a more complex category, radiation magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD), where the interaction between the flow field and the radiation field is nonlinear. The solution for the radiation field usually dominates the R-MHD computation. To solve for the radiation field, one usually chooses the S N discrete ordinates method (a deterministic method) rather than the Monte Carlo method if the geometry is not complex. The discrete ordinates method on a massively parallel processor (Intel iPSC/860) is implemented. The speedup is 14 for a run on 16 processors and the performance is 3.7 times better than a single CRAY YMP processor implementation. (orig./DG)

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics in rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhart, L.

    1994-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flow in straight ducts or bends is a key issue, which has to be investigated for developing self-cooled liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors. The code presented solves the full set of governing equations and simulates all phenomena of such flows, including inertial effects. The range of application is limited by computer storage only. (orig./WL)

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    We analyse a class of cosmological models in magnetohydrodynamic regime extending and completing the results of a previous paper. The material content of the models is a perfect fluid plus electromagnetic fields. The fluid is neutral in average but admits an electrical current which satisfies Ohm's law. All models fulfil the physical requirements of near equilibrium thermodynamics and can be favourably used as a more realistic description of the interior of a collapsing star in a magnetohydrodynamic regime with or without a magnetic field. (author)

  13. Nonlinear generation of kinetic-scale waves by magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén waves and nonlocal spectral transport in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: js_zhao@pmo.ac.cn [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-04-20

    We study the nonlocal nonlinear coupling and generation of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) and kinetic slow waves (KSWs) by magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén waves (MHD AWs) in conditions typical for the solar wind in the inner heliosphere. This cross-scale process provides an alternative to the turbulent energy cascade passing through many intermediate scales. The nonlinearities we study are proportional to the scalar products of wave vectors and hence are called 'scalar' ones. Despite the strong Landau damping of kinetic waves, we found fast growing KAWs and KSWs at perpendicular wavelengths close to the ion gyroradius. Using the parametric decay formalism, we investigate two independent decay channels for the pump AW: forward decay (involving co-propagating product waves) and backward decay (involving counter-propagating product waves). The growth rate of the forward decay is typically 0.05 but can exceed 0.1 of the pump wave frequency. The resulting spectral transport is nonlocal and anisotropic, sharply increasing perpendicular wavenumbers but not parallel ones. AWs and KAWs propagating against the pump AW grow with about the same rate and contribute to the sunward wave flux in the solar wind. Our results suggest that the nonlocal decay of MHD AWs into KAWs and KSWs is a robust mechanism for the cross-scale spectral transport of the wave energy from MHD to dissipative kinetic scales in the solar wind and similar media.

  14. Validation of extended magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the HIT-SI3 experiment using the NIMROD code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Hossack, A. C.; Chandra, R. N.; Everson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    The HIT-SI3 experiment uses a set of inductively driven helicity injectors to apply a non-axisymmetric current drive on the edge of the plasma, driving an axisymmetric spheromak equilibrium in a central confinement volume. These helicity injectors drive a non-axisymmetric perturbation that oscillates in time, with relative temporal phasing of the injectors modifying the mode structure of the applied perturbation. A set of three experimental discharges with different perturbation spectra are modelled using the NIMROD extended magnetohydrodynamics code, and comparisons are made to both magnetic and fluid measurements. These models successfully capture the bulk dynamics of both the perturbation and the equilibrium, though disagreements related to the pressure gradients experimentally measured exist.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  16. Nonlinear vs. linear biasing in Trp-cage folding simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiwok, Vojtěch, E-mail: spiwokv@vscht.cz; Oborský, Pavel; Králová, Blanka [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 3, Prague 6 166 28 (Czech Republic); Pazúriková, Jana [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Křenek, Aleš [Institute of Computer Science, Masaryk University, Botanická 554/68a, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Center CERIT-SC, Masaryk Univerzity, Šumavská 416/15, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-21

    Biased simulations have great potential for the study of slow processes, including protein folding. Atomic motions in molecules are nonlinear, which suggests that simulations with enhanced sampling of collective motions traced by nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods may perform better than linear ones. In this study, we compare an unbiased folding simulation of the Trp-cage miniprotein with metadynamics simulations using both linear (principle component analysis) and nonlinear (Isomap) low dimensional embeddings as collective variables. Folding of the mini-protein was successfully simulated in 200 ns simulation with linear biasing and non-linear motion biasing. The folded state was correctly predicted as the free energy minimum in both simulations. We found that the advantage of linear motion biasing is that it can sample a larger conformational space, whereas the advantage of nonlinear motion biasing lies in slightly better resolution of the resulting free energy surface. In terms of sampling efficiency, both methods are comparable.

  17. Nonlinear PIC simulation in a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, G.; Delzanno, G.L.; Finn, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids

  18. A data parallel pseudo-spectral semi-implicit magnetohydrodynamics code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Poedts, S.; Meijer, P. M.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Hertzberger, B.; Sloot, P.

    1997-01-01

    The set of eight nonlinear partial differential equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used for time dependent simulations of three-dimensional (3D) fluid flow in a magnetic field. A data parallel code is presented, which integrates the MHD equations in cylindrical geometry, combining a

  19. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Deformation of Electrolyte-Metal Interface in Aluminum Electrolysis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinsong; Rudshaug, Magne; Droste, Christian; Jorgensen, Robert; Giskeodegard, Nils-Haavard

    2018-06-01

    A computational fluid dynamics based multiphase magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow model for simulating the melt flow and bath-metal interface deformation in realistic aluminum reduction cells is presented. The model accounts for the complex physics of the MHD problem in aluminum reduction cells by coupling two immiscible fluids, electromagnetic field, Lorentz force, flow turbulence, and complex cell geometry with large length scale. Especially, the deformation of bath-metal interface is tracked directly in the simulation, and the condition of constant anode-cathode distance (ACD) is maintained by moving anode bottom dynamically with the deforming bath-metal interface. The metal pad deformation and melt flow predicted by the current model are compared to the predictions using a simplified model where the bath-metal interface is assumed flat. The effects of the induced electric current due to fluid flow and the magnetic field due to the interior cell current on the metal pad deformation and melt flow are investigated. The presented model extends the conventional simplified box model by including detailed cell geometry such as the ledge profile and all channels (side, central, and cross-channels). The simulations show the model sensitivity to different side ledge profiles and the cross-channel width by comparing the predicted melt flow and metal pad heaving. In addition, the model dependencies upon the reduction cell operation conditions such as ACD, current distribution on cathode surface and open/closed channel top, are discussed.

  20. Simulation of non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Fox, Paul D.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2002-01-01

    -linear propagation. The speed of sound is calculated from the instantaneous pressure of the pulse and the nonlinearity B/A parameter of the medium. The harmonic field is found by introducing a number of virtual planes in front of the aperture and then propagating the pulse using Burgers' solution between the planes....... Simulations on the acoustical axis of an array transducer were performed and compared to measurements made in a water tank. A 3 MHz convex array transducer with a pitch of 0.53 mm and a height of 13 mm was used. The electronic focus was at 45 mm and 16 elements were used for emission. The emitted pressure...... was 1.4 MPa measured 6 mm from the aperture by a Force Institute MH25-5 needle hydrophone in a water bath. The build-up of higher harmonics can here be predicted accurately up to the 5th harmonic. The second harmonic is simulated with an accuracy of ±2.6 dB and the third harmonic with ±2 dB compared...

  1. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2017-05-02

    We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).

  2. A Collection of Nonlinear Aircraft Simulations in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Frederico R.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulations for a variety of aircraft were created using MATLAB. Data for aircraft geometry, aerodynamic characteristics, mass / inertia properties, and engine characteristics were obtained from open literature publications documenting wind tunnel experiments and flight tests. Each nonlinear simulation was implemented within a common framework in MATLAB, and includes an interface with another commercially-available program to read pilot inputs and produce a three-dimensional (3-D) display of the simulated airplane motion. Aircraft simulations include the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, Convair F-106B Delta Dart, Grumman F-14 Tomcat, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom, NASA Langley Free-Flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research (FASER), NASA HL-20 Lifting Body, NASA / DARPA X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator, and the Vought A-7 Corsair II. All nonlinear simulations and 3-D displays run in real time in response to pilot inputs, using contemporary desktop personal computer hardware. The simulations can also be run in batch mode. Each nonlinear simulation includes the full nonlinear dynamics of the bare airframe, with a scaled direct connection from pilot inputs to control surface deflections to provide adequate pilot control. Since all the nonlinear simulations are implemented entirely in MATLAB, user-defined control laws can be added in a straightforward fashion, and the simulations are portable across various computing platforms. Routines for trim, linearization, and numerical integration are included. The general nonlinear simulation framework and the specifics for each particular aircraft are documented.

  3. Entropy generation in a second grade magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow over a convectively heated stretching sheet with nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithole, Hloniphile; Mondal, Hiranmoy; Sibanda, Precious

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses entropy generation in magnetohydrodynamic flow of a second grade nanofluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet with nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation. The second grade fluid is assumed to be electrically conducting and is permeated by an applied non-uniform magnetic field. We further consider the impact on the fluid properties and the Nusselt number of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and a convective boundary condition. The mathematical equations are solved using the spectral local linearization method. Computations for skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are carried out and displayed in a table. It is observed that the effects of the thermophoresis parameter is to increase the temperature distributions throughout the boundary layer. The entropy generation is enhanced by larger magnetic parameters and increasing Reynolds number. The aim of this manuscript is to pay more attention of entropy generation analysis with heat and fluid flow on second grade nanofluids to improve the system performance. Also the fluid velocity and temperature in the boundary layer region rise significantly for increasing the values of the second grade nanofluid parameter.

  4. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Shibata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi

  6. Simulations of nonlinear continuous wave pressure fields in FOCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hamilton, Mark F.; McGough, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    The Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation that models the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity. Although the KZK equation is only valid in the far field of the paraxial region for mildly focused or unfocused transducers, the KZK equation is widely applied in medical ultrasound simulations. For a continuous wave input, the KZK equation is effectively modeled by the Bergen Code [J. Berntsen, Numerical Calculations of Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, in M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock, editors, Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA, Elsevier, 1990], which is a finite difference model that utilizes operator splitting. Similar C++ routines have been developed for FOCUS, the `Fast Object-Oriented C++ Ultrasound Simulator' (http://www.egr.msu.edu/˜fultras-web) to calculate nonlinear pressure fields generated by axisymmetric flat circular and spherically focused ultrasound transducers. This new routine complements an existing FOCUS program that models nonlinear ultrasound propagation with the angular spectrum approach [P. T. Christopher and K. J. Parker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 488-499 (1991)]. Results obtained from these two nonlinear ultrasound simulation approaches are evaluated and compared for continuous wave linear simulations. The simulation results match closely in the farfield of the paraxial region, but the results differ in the nearfield. The nonlinear pressure field generated by a spherically focused transducer with a peak surface pressure of 0.2MPa radiating in a lossy medium with β = 3.5 is simulated, and the computation times are also evaluated. The nonlinear simulation results demonstrate acceptable agreement in the focal zone. These two related nonlinear simulation approaches are now included with FOCUS to enable convenient simulations of nonlinear pressure fields on desktop and laptop computers.

  7. Linear simulations of the cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bakhsh, Abeer; Gao, Song; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    fusion and suppression by means of a magnetic field, we investigate the RMI via linear MHD simulations in cylindrical geometry. The physical setup is that of a Chisnell-type converging shock interacting with a density interface with either axial

  8. Magneto-Hydrodynamic Simulations of a Magnetic Flux Compression Generator Using ALE3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    3 Fig. 3 Half- plane view of the geometry used in ALE3D simulation showing the materials...to LLNL’s SESAME data.8 Fig. 3 Half- plane view of the geometry used in ALE3D simulation showing the materials There are 2 broad approaches to...of mesh can be time- consuming . Since MFCGs have a cylindrical geometry, a high-resolution mesh is not required; one can use a conformal mesh and

  9. Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes a R&D effort to develop a Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator (UNFDAS) Tool that will combine...

  10. MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DYNAMICS FROM 3D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R ⊙ ). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations

  11. Simulation of nonlinear random vibrations using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, T.L.; Tucker, S.; O`Gorman, C.

    1997-02-01

    The simulation of mechanical system random vibrations is important in structural dynamics, but it is particularly difficult when the system under consideration is nonlinear. Artificial neural networks provide a useful tool for the modeling of nonlinear systems, however, such modeling may be inefficient or insufficiently accurate when the system under consideration is complex. This paper shows that there are several transformations that can be used to uncouple and simplify the components of motion of a complex nonlinear system, thereby making its modeling and random vibration simulation, via component modeling with artificial neural networks, a much simpler problem. A numerical example is presented.

  12. GLOBAL STRUCTURE OF THREE DISTINCT ACCRETION FLOWS AND OUTFLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION-MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin

    2011-01-01

    We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, ρ 0 , we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A, which has the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is ∼22L E (where L E is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B, which has moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than ∼7 R S (where R S is the Schwarzschild radius), while the flow is radiatively inefficient otherwise. The magnetic-pressure-driven disk wind appears in this model. In model C, the density is too low for the flow to be radiatively efficient. The flow thus becomes radiatively inefficient accretion flow, which is geometrically thick and optically thin. The magnetic-pressure force, together with the gas-pressure force, drives outflows from the disk surface, and the flow releases its energy via jets rather than via radiation. Observational implications are briefly discussed.

  13. STUDY OF THE POYNTING FLUX IN ACTIVE REGION 10930 USING DATA-DRIVEN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y. L.; Wang, H. N.; He, H.; Zhu, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Powerful solar flares are closely related to the evolution of magnetic field configuration on the photosphere. We choose the Poynting flux as a parameter in the study of magnetic field changes. We use time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations around a flare occurrence to generate the results, with the temporal variation of the bottom boundary conditions being deduced from the projected normal characteristic method. By this method, the photospheric magnetogram could be incorporated self-consistently as the bottom condition of data-driven simulations. The model is first applied to a simulation datum produced by an emerging magnetic flux rope as a test case. Then, the model is used to study NOAA AR 10930, which has an X3.4 flare, the data of which has been obtained by the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope on 2006 December 13. We compute the magnitude of Poynting flux (S total ), radial Poynting flux (S z ), a proxy for ideal radial Poynting flux (S proxy ), Poynting flux due to plasma surface motion (S sur ), and Poynting flux due to plasma emergence (S emg ) and analyze their extensive properties in four selected areas: the whole sunspot, the positive sunspot, the negative sunspot, and the strong-field polarity inversion line (SPIL) area. It is found that (1) the S total , S z , and S proxy parameters show similar behaviors in the whole sunspot area and in the negative sunspot area. The evolutions of these three parameters in the positive area and the SPIL area are more volatile because of the effect of sunspot rotation and flux emergence. (2) The evolution of S sur is largely influenced by the process of sunspot rotation, especially in the positive sunspot. The evolution of S emg is greatly affected by flux emergence, especially in the SPIL area.

  14. Numerical evaluation of high energy particle effects in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Wu, Y.

    1994-03-01

    The interaction of high energy ions with magnetohydrodynamic modes is analyzed. A numerical code is developed which evaluates the contribution of the high energy particles to mode stability using orbit averaging of motion in either analytic or numerically generated equilibria through Hamiltonian guiding center equations. A dispersion relation is then used to evaluate the effect of the particles on the linear mode. Generic behavior of the solutions of the dispersion relation is discussed and dominant contributions of different components of the particle distribution function are identified. Numerical convergence of Monte-Carlo simulations is analyzed. The resulting code ORBIT provides an accurate means of comparing experimental results with the predictions of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics. The method can be extended to include self consistent modification of the particle orbits by the mode, and hence the full nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system

  15. 6 DOF Nonlinear AUV Simulation Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    advantage of monitor is you can change the shared memory variables at any time. So it can be used for “ hardware in loop ” simulation. An editable monitor...for tuning controller. “ Hardware in loop ” simulation will be tested in recently. In the coming year, we will improve this simulation software. We

  16. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A DISK SUBJECTED TO LENSE-THIRRING PRECESSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorathia, Kareem A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Hawley, John F.

    2013-01-01

    When matter orbits around a central mass obliquely with respect to the mass's spin axis, the Lense-Thirring effect causes it to precess at a rate declining sharply with radius. Ever since the work of Bardeen and Petterson, it has been expected that when a fluid fills an orbiting disk, the orbital angular momentum at small radii should then align with the mass's spin. Nearly all previous work has studied this alignment under the assumption that a phenomenological 'viscosity' isotropically degrades fluid shears in accretion disks, even though it is now understood that internal stress in flat disks is due to anisotropic MHD turbulence. In this paper we report a pair of matched simulations, one in MHD and one in pure (non-viscous) HD in order to clarify the specific mechanisms of alignment. As in the previous work, we find that disk warps induce radial flows that mix angular momentum of different orientation; however, we also show that the speeds of these flows are generically transonic and are only very weakly influenced by internal stresses other than pressure. In particular, MHD turbulence does not act in a manner consistent with an isotropic viscosity. When MHD effects are present, the disk aligns, first at small radii and then at large; alignment is only partial in the HD case. We identify the specific angular momentum transport mechanisms causing alignment and show how MHD effects permit them to operate more efficiently. Last, we relate the speed at which an alignment front propagates outward (in the MHD case) to the rate at which Lense-Thirring torques deliver angular momentum at smaller radii

  18. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling Cooperative Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2008-01-01

    The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) is developing computer simulation models for predicting the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. Over the first phase of support from the Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative, the focus has been on macroscopic dynamics that alter the confinement properties of magnetic field configurations. The ultimate objective is to provide computational capabilities to predict plasma behavior - not unlike computational weather prediction - to optimize performance and to increase the reliability of magnetic confinement for fusion energy. Numerical modeling aids theoretical research by solving complicated mathematical models of plasma behavior including strong nonlinear effects and the influences of geometrical shaping of actual experiments. The numerical modeling itself remains an area of active research, due to challenges associated with simulating multiple temporal and spatial scales. The research summarized in this report spans computational and physical topics associated with state of the art simulation of magnetized plasmas. The tasks performed for this grant are categorized according to whether they are primarily computational, algorithmic, or application-oriented in nature. All involve the development and use of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion (NIMROD) code, which is described at http://nimrodteam.org. With respect to computation, we have tested and refined methods for solving the large algebraic systems of equations that result from our numerical approximations of the physical model. Collaboration with the Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) SciDAC center led us to the SuperLU-DIST software library for solving large sparse matrices using direct methods on parallel computers. Switching to this solver library boosted NIMROD's performance by a factor of five in typical large nonlinear simulations, which has been publicized

  19. 3D nonlinear MHD simulations of ultra-low q plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfiglio, D.; Cappello, S.; Piovan, R.; Zanotto, L.; Zuin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena occurring in the ultra-low safety factor (ULq) configuration are investigated by means of 3D nonlinear MHD simulations. The ULq configuration, a screw pinch characterized by the edge safety factor q edge in the interval 0 edge edge values which are about the major rational numbers, suggesting plasma self-organization. Similar behaviour is observed in experimental ULq discharges, like those recently obtained exploiting the flexibility of the RFX-mod device. The transition of q edge from a major rational number to the next one occurs together with the development of a kink deformation of the plasma column, whose stabilization yields a nearly axisymmetric state with a rather flat q profile. Numerical simulations also show that it is possible to sustain either of the two conditions, namely, the saturated kink helical configuration and the axisymmetric one, by forcing q edge at a suitable value. Finally, the effects of this MHD phenomenology on the confinement properties of ULq plasmas are discussed.

  20. Testing the equation of state and electrical conductivity of copper by the electrical wire explosion in air: Experiment and magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysevich, A. E.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    We perform experiments on testing the equations of state and electrical conductivity of copper in three different regimes of copper wire electrical explosion, when the inserted energy (i) is slightly exceeded, (ii) is approximately equal, and (iii) is substantially exceeded the energy needed for the wire complete evaporation. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation is performed. The results predicted by the two different equations of state are compared with the experiment. Empirical expression for the copper electrical conductivity is presented. Parameters in this expression is fit on every of two equations of state. Map of copper conductivity is plotted.

  1. Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)

  2. Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro

    2001-01-01

    Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)

  3. Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S 1∕3 and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is attributed to

  4. Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S{sup 1∕3} and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is

  5. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Non-linear Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    In this paper results from a non-linear AS (angular spectrum) based ultrasound simulation program are compared to water-tank measurements. A circular concave transducer with a diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) is used as the emitting source. The measured pulses are rst compared with the linear...... simulation program Field II, which will be used to generate the source for the AS simulation. The generated non-linear ultrasound eld is measured by a hydrophone in the focal plane. The second harmonic component from the measurement is compared with the AS simulation, which is used to calculate both...... fundamental and second harmonic elds. The focused piston transducer with a center frequency of 5 MHz is excited by a waveform generator emitting a 6-cycle sine wave. The hydrophone is mounted in the focal plane 118 mm from the transducer. The point spread functions at the focal depth from Field II...

  6. Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the plasma sheet in the presence of oxygen ions: The plasma sheet oscillation and compressional Pc 5 waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Li; Liu Zhenxing; Cao Jinbin

    2002-01-01

    Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the multicomponent plasma sheet with the velocity curl term in the magnetic equation are represented. The simulation results can be summarized as follows: (1) There is an oscillation of the plasma sheet with the period on the order of 400 s (Pc 5 range); (2) the magnetic equator is a node of the magnetic field disturbance; (3) the magnetic energy integral varies antiphase with the internal energy integral; (4) disturbed waves have a propagating speed on the order of 10 km/s earthward; (5) the abundance of oxygen ions influences amplitude, period, and dissipation of the plasma sheet oscillation. It is suggested that the compressional Pc 5 waves, which are observed in the plasma sheet close to the magnetic equator, may be caused by the plasma sheet oscillation, or may be generated from the resonance of the plasma sheet oscillation with some Pc 5 perturbation waves coming from the outer magnetosphere

  7. Nonlinear turbulence theory and simulation of Buneman instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, P. H.; Umeda, T.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, the weak turbulence theory for reactive instabilities, formulated in a companion paper [P. H. Yoon, Phys. Plasmas 17, 112316 (2010)], is applied to the strong electron-ion two-stream (or Buneman) instability. The self-consistent theory involves quasilinear velocity space diffusion equation for the particles and nonlinear wave kinetic equation that includes quasilinear (or induced emission) term as well as nonlinear wave-particle interaction term (or a term that represents an induced scattering off ions). We have also performed one-dimensional electrostatic Vlasov simulation in order to benchmark the theoretical analysis. Under the assumption of self-similar drifting Gaussian distribution function for the electrons it is shown that the current reduction and the accompanying electron heating as well as electric field turbulence generation can be discussed in a self-consistent manner. Upon comparison with the Vlasov simulation result it is found that quasilinear wave kinetic equation alone is insufficient to account for the final saturation amplitude. Upon including the nonlinear scattering term in the wave kinetic equation, however, we find that a qualitative agreement with the simulation is recovered. From this, we conclude that the combined quasilinear particle diffusion plus induced emission and scattering (off ions) processes adequately account for the nonlinear development of the Buneman instability.

  8. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, G.S. [Scientific Software - Intercomp, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  9. Solitary magnetohydrodynamic vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silaev, I.I.; Skvortsov, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the analytical description of fluid flow by means of localized vortices which is traditional for hydrodynamics, oceanology, plasma physics. Recently it has been widely applied to different structure turbulence models. Considerable results involved have been presented where it was shown that in magnetohydrodynamics alongside with the well-known kinds of localized vortices (e.g. Hill's vortex), which are characterized by quite a weak decrease of disturbed velocity or magnetic field (as a power of the inverse distance from vortex center), the vortices with screening (or solitary vortices) may exist. All disturbed parameters either exponentially vanish or become identically zero in outer region in the latter case. (In a number of papers numerical simulations of such the vortices are presented). Solutions in a form of solitary vortices are of particular interest due to their uniformity and solitonlike behavior. On the basis of these properties one can believe for such structures to occur in real turbulent flows

  10. Comparing Numerical Spall Simulations with a Nonlinear Spall Formation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, L.; Melosh, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Spallation accelerates lightly shocked ejecta fragments to speeds that can exceed the escape velocity of the parent body. We present high-resolution simulations of nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface. Initial results show the acceleration of near-surface material to velocities up to 1.8 times greater than the peak particle velocity in the detached shock, while experiencing little to no shock pressure. These simulations suggest a possible nonlinear spallation mechanism to produce the high-velocity, low show pressure meteorites from other planets. Here we pre-sent the numerical simulations that test the production of spall through nonlinear shock interactions in the near sur-face, and compare the results with a model proposed by Kamegai (1986 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report). We simulate near-surface shock interactions using the SALES_2 hydrocode and the Murnaghan equation of state. We model the shock interactions in two geometries: rectangular and spherical. In the rectangular case, we model a planar shock approaching the surface at a constant angle phi. In the spherical case, the shock originates at a point below the surface of the domain and radiates spherically from that point. The angle of the shock front with the surface is dependent on the radial distance of the surface point from the shock origin. We model the target as a solid with a nonlinear Murnaghan equation of state. This idealized equation of state supports nonlinear shocks but is tem-perature independent. We track the maximum pressure and maximum velocity attained in every cell in our simula-tions and compare them to the Hugoniot equations that describe the material conditions in front of and behind the shock. Our simulations demonstrate that nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface produce lightly shocked high-velocity material for both planar and cylindrical shocks. The spall is the result of the free surface boundary condi-tion, which forces a pressure gradient

  11. Development of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas in the presence of nonideal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotnikov, V.I.; Bauer, B.S.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Fiala, V.

    2004-01-01

    The development of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in Z-pinch plasmas has been studied with a three-dimensional hybrid simulation model. Plasma equilibria without and with axial sheared flow, and with different values of the parameter ε H , which appears as a coefficient before the Hall term in dimensionless nonideal MHD equations, have been considered. Increasing the parameter ε H leads to larger simulation growth rates for both m=0 sausage and m=1 kink modes. The hybrid simulations do however show that axial sheared flow severely curtails the linear and nonlinear development of both sausage and kink instabilities. In these respects, the hybrid simulations are in qualitative agreement with linear Hall MHD results. Moreover, in the nonlinear stage, long wavelength modes dominate the excited wave spectrum when the parameter ε H is small. For the larger value of the parameter ε H , small-scale structures do however develop nonlinearly in the excited wave spectrum at late times

  12. Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Systems with Typical Nonlinear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The task was to synthesise an adjustable hydraulic system structure, the mathematical model of which takes into account its inherent nonlinearity. Its solution suggests using a successive computer simulations starting with a structure of the linearized stable hydraulic system, which is then complicated by including the essentially non-linear elements. The hydraulic system thus obtained may be unable to meet the Lyapunov stability criterion and be unstable. This can be eliminated through correcting elements. Control of correction results is provided according to the form of transition processes due to stepwise variation of the control signal.Computer simulation of a throttle-controlled electrohydraulic servo drive with the rotary output element illustrates the proposed method application. A constant pressure power source provides fluid feed for the drive under pressure.For drive simulation the following models were involved: the linear model, the model taking into consideration a non-linearity of the flow-dynamic characteristics of a spool-type valve, and the non-linear models that take into account the dry friction in the spool-type valve, the backlash in the steering angle sensor of the motor shaft.The paper shows possibility of damping oscillation caused by variable hydrodynamic forces through introducing a correction device.The list of references attached contains 16 sources, which were used to justify and explain certain factors of the automatic control theory and the fluid mechanics of unsteady flows.The article presents 6 block-diagrams of the electrohydraulic servo drive and their appropriate transition processes, which have been studied.

  13. Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Orain, Francois; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Becoulet, Marina; Huysmans, Guido [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for the operation of future tokamak devices like ITER or DEMO due to the high transient heat loads induced on divertor targets and wall structures. It is therefore important to study ELMs both theoretically and experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms which is necessary for the prediction of ELM properties and the design of ELM mitigation systems. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed first simulations of full ELM crashes in ASDEX Upgrade, taking into account a large number of toroidal Fourier harmonics. The evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum has been investigated. In particular, we confirm the previously observed non-linear drive of linearly sub-dominant low-n components in the early non-linear phase of the ELM crash. Preliminary comparisons of the simulations with experimental observations regarding heat and particle losses, pedestal evolution and heat deposition patterns are shown. On the long run we aim at code validation as well as an improved understanding of the ELM dynamics and possibly a better characterization of different ELM types.

  14. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet with viscous-Ohmic dissipation and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.

  15. Nonlinear time-dependent simulation of helix traveling wave tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Wei-Feng; Yang Zhong-Hai; Hu Yu-Lu; Li Jian-Qing; Lu Qi-Ru; Li Bin

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes is studied. A generalized electromagnetic field is applied to the expression of the radio frequency field. To simulate the variations of the high frequency structure, such as the pitch taper and the effect of harmonics, the spatial average over a wavelength is substituted by a time average over a wave period in the equation of the radio frequency field. Under this assumption, the space charge field of the electron beam can be treated by a space charge wave model along with the space charge coefficient. The effects of the radio frequency and the space charge fields on the electrons are presented by the equations of the electron energy and the electron phase. The time-dependent simulation is compared with the frequency-domain simulation for a helix TWT, which validates the availability of this theory. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Modeling, Analysis and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Petráš, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    "Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation" presents a study of fractional-order chaotic systems accompanied by Matlab programs for simulating their state space trajectories, which are shown in the illustrations in the book. Description of the chaotic systems is clearly presented and their analysis and numerical solution are done in an easy-to-follow manner. Simulink models for the selected fractional-order systems are also presented. The readers will understand the fundamentals of the fractional calculus, how real dynamical systems can be described using fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, how such equations can be solved, and how to simulate and explore chaotic systems of fractional order. The book addresses to mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and other scientists interested in chaos phenomena or in fractional-order systems. It can be used in courses on dynamical systems, control theory, and applied mathematics at graduate or postgraduate level. ...

  17. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min

    2017-07-01

    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  18. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J.

    2002-01-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  19. Filamentary magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, R.; Tajima, T.; McWilliams, J.C.; Petviashvili, N.

    1994-01-01

    A filamentary construct of magnetohydrodynamical plasma dynamics based on the Elsaesser variables is developed. This approach is modeled after discrete vortex models of hydrodynamical turbulence, which cannot be expected in general to produce results identical to those based on a Fourier decomposition of the fields. In a highly intermittent plasma, the induction force is small compared to the convective motion, and when this force is neglected, the plasma vortex system is described by a Hamiltonian. A statistical treatment of a collection of discrete current-vorticity concentrations is given. Canonical and microcanonical statistical calculations show that both the vorticity and the current spectra are peaked at long wavelengths, and the expected states revert to known hydrodynamical states as the magnetic field vanishes. These results differ from previous Fourier-based statistical theories, but it is found that when the filament calculation is expanded to include the inductive force, the results approach the Fourier equilibria in the low-temperature limit, and the previous Hamiltonian plasma vortex results in the high-temperature limit. Numerical simulations of a large number of filaments are carried out and support the theory. A three-dimensional vortex model is presented as well, which is also Hamiltonian when the inductive force is neglected. A statistical calculation in the canonical ensemble and numerical simulations show that a nonzero large-scale magnetic field is statistically favored, and that the preferred shape of this field is a long, thin tube of flux. Possible applications to a variety of physical phenomena are suggested

  20. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nonlinear Dynamic Flight Simulation (NL-DFS) system will be developed in the Phase II project by combining the classical nonlinear rigid-body flight dynamics...

  1. Nonlinear Aerodynamics-Structure Time Simulation for HALE Aircraft Design/Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time simulation of a nonlinear aerodynamics model (NA) developed at Virginia Tech coupled with a nonlinear structure model (NS) is proposed as a design/analysis...

  2. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2013-01-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called textbook multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  3. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-01-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2010-01-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations - so-called 'textbook' multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David; Doolen, Gary D.

    1987-01-01

    A generalization of the hexagonal lattice gas model of Frisch, Hasslacher and Pomeau is shown to lead to two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. The method relies on the ideal point-wise conservation law for vector potential.

  7. The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi; Pullin, D. I.; Gehre, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.

  8. The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Wheatley, V.

    2014-01-10

    The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.

  9. MULTIFLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENT DECAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, T. P.; O'Sullivan, S.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation that occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512 3 resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity, and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingly we find that, at least at these resolutions, the majority of the physics of multifluid turbulence can be captured by simply introducing fixed (in time and space) resistive terms into the induction equation without the need for a full multifluid MHD treatment. The velocity dispersion is also examined and, in common with previously published results, it is found not to be power law in nature.

  10. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B.J.; Gorla, R.S. Reddy; Abbasi, F.M.; Shehzad, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases. - Highlights: • Hydromagnetic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface is examined. • Cu, Al 2 O3 and TiO 2 types nanoparticles are taken into account. • Numerical solutions have been computed and addressed. • The values of skin-friction and Nusselt number are presented.

  11. Numerical solutions for magnetohydrodynamic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface with prescribed surface heat flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanthesh, B., E-mail: bmanths@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, AIMS Institutes, Peenya, 560058 Bangalore (India); Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Gireesha, B.J., E-mail: bjgireesu@rediffmail.com [Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, 577451 Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Gorla, R.S. Reddy, E-mail: r.gorla@csuohio.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Abbasi, F.M., E-mail: abbasisarkar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Numerical solutions of three-dimensional flow over a non-linear stretching surface are developed in this article. An electrically conducting flow of viscous nanoliquid is considered. Heat transfer phenomenon is accounted under thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. We considered the variable heat flux condition at the surface of sheet. The governing mathematical equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential systems through suitable dimensionless variables. A well-known shooting technique is implemented to obtain the results of dimensionless velocities and temperature. The obtained results are plotted for multiple values of pertinent parameters to discuss the salient features of these parameters on fluid velocity and temperature. The expressions of skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed comprehensively through numerical values. A comparison of present results with the previous results in absence of nanoparticle volume fraction, mixed convection and magnetic field is computed and an excellent agreement noticed. We also computed the results for both linear and non-linear stretching sheet cases. - Highlights: • Hydromagnetic flow of nanofluid over a bidirectional non-linear stretching surface is examined. • Cu, Al{sub 2}O3 and TiO{sub 2} types nanoparticles are taken into account. • Numerical solutions have been computed and addressed. • The values of skin-friction and Nusselt number are presented.

  12. Effects of seed magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic implosion structure and dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of various seed magnetic fields on the dynamics of cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Here, we present a fundamental investigation of this problem utilizing cylindrical and spherical Riemann problems under three seed field configurations to initialize the implosions. The resulting flows are simulated numerically, revealing rich flow structures, including multiple families of magnetohydrodynamic shocks and rarefactions that interact non-linearly. We fully characterize these flow structures, examine their axi- and spherisymmetry-breaking behaviour, and provide data on asymmetry evolution for different field strengths and driving pressures for each seed field configuration. We find that out of the configurations investigated, a seed field for which the implosion centre is a saddle point in at least one plane exhibits the least degree of asymmetry during implosion.

  13. Exponential Growth of Nonlinear Ballooning Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that a perturbation evolving from a linear ballooning instability will continue to grow exponentially in the intermediate nonlinear phase at the same linear growth rate. This prediction is confirmed in ideal MHD simulations. When the Lagrangian compression, a measure of the ballooning nonlinearity, becomes of the order of unity, the intermediate nonlinear phase is entered, during which the maximum plasma displacement amplitude as well as the total kinetic energy continues to grow exponentially at the rate of the corresponding linear phase.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Formation of Molecular Clouds toward the Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2: Interaction of a Jet with a Clumpy Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Yuta; Kawashima, Tomohisa [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsumoto, Ryoji, E-mail: asahina@cfca.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-02-20

    The formation mechanism of CO clouds observed with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 is studied by 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, taking into account the interstellar cooling. These molecular clouds show a peculiar shape composed of an arc-shaped cloud on one side of the TeV γ -ray source HESS J1023-575 and a linear distribution of clouds (jet clouds) on the other side. We propose that these clouds are formed by the interaction of a jet with clumps of interstellar neutral hydrogen (H i). By studying the dependence of the shape of dense cold clouds formed by shock compression and cooling on the filling factor of H i clumps, we found that the density distribution of H i clumps determines the shape of molecular clouds formed by the jet–cloud interaction: arc clouds are formed when the filling factor is large. On the other hand, when the filling factor is small, molecular clouds align with the jet. The jet propagates faster in models with small filling factors.

  16. Real time simulation of nonlinear generalized predictive control for wind energy conversion system with nonlinear observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouari, Kamel; Rekioua, Toufik; Ouhrouche, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    In order to make a wind power generation truly cost-effective and reliable, an advanced control techniques must be used. In this paper, we develop a new control strategy, using nonlinear generalized predictive control (NGPC) approach, for DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control law is based on two points: NGPC-based torque-current control loop generating the rotor reference voltage and NGPC-based speed control loop that provides the torque reference. In order to enhance the robustness of the controller, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the aerodynamic torque which is considered as an unknown perturbation. Finally, a real-time simulation is carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-Dimensional General-Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Remnant Accretion Disks from Neutron Star Mergers: Outflows and r-Process Nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel M; Metzger, Brian D

    2017-12-08

    The merger of binary neutron stars, or of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, can result in the formation of a massive rotating torus around a spinning black hole. In addition to providing collimating media for γ-ray burst jets, unbound outflows from these disks are an important source of mass ejection and rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. We present the first three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks in neutron star mergers, including a realistic equation of state valid at low densities and temperatures, self-consistent evolution of the electron fraction, and neutrino cooling through an approximate leakage scheme. After initial magnetic field amplification by magnetic winding, we witness the vigorous onset of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). The disk quickly reaches a balance between heating from MRI-driven turbulence and neutrino cooling, which regulates the midplane electron fraction to a low equilibrium value Y_{e}≈0.1. Over the 380-ms duration of the simulation, we find that a fraction ≈20% of the initial torus mass is unbound in powerful outflows with asymptotic velocities v≈0.1c and electron fractions Y_{e}≈0.1-0.25. Postprocessing the outflows through a nuclear reaction network shows the production of a robust second- and third-peak r process. Though broadly consistent with the results of previous axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations, extrapolation of our results to late times suggests that the total ejecta mass from GRMHD disks is significantly higher. Our results provide strong evidence that postmerger disk outflows are an important site for the r process.

  18. Research on magnetohydrodynamic turbulent behavior. Development of the turbulence model using large eddy simulation. FY15 report of the JNC cooperative research scheme on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahashi, Takahiko; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Ara, Kuniaki; Ohira, Hiroaki

    2004-08-01

    Investigation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent model with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method was started in FY15 to evaluate MHD turbulent behavior on the conditions of high Reynolds numbers and high magnetic Reynolds numbers. In FY15, the proposed Subgrid Scale (SGS) model for magnetic fields generated by direct current was formulated with GSMAC-FEM (Generalized Simplified Marker and Cell method for Finite Element Method) and the characteristic behavior of MHD turbulence studied theoretically. A Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) method was also developed to verify the theoretical study and construct and advanced SGS model. The last purpose of this study is to analyze the realistic Electromagnetic Pump. In order to understand basic concept, analyses of small-scale Electromagnetic Pump was started with A-φ method. The following results were obtained from these studies: (1) Homogeneous turbulent flows in a conducting fluid which were exposed to uniform magnetic fields were examined through the Direct Numerical Simulation and the characteristics of energy distribution were shown in the MHD turbulence at low magnetic Reynolds numbers. (2) For the analysis of the realistic Electromagnetic Pump, the parallel scheme based on GSMAC-FEM was constructed. Effectiveness of the scheme for large-scale calculation was shown through the benchmark problem, three dimensional cavity flow. (3) A new Balancing Tensor Diffusivity (BTD) formulation for the magnetic fields was proposed in this study and the proposed SGS model in previous study was formulated with GSMAC-FEM. The FEM scheme for MHD turbulence at high magnetic Reynolds number was verified through homogeneous MHD turbulence. (4) An A-φ method formulated with GSMAC-FEM was applied to the analysis of small-scale Electromagnetic pump. The basic concepts for the analysis with B method were obtained through the results. (author)

  19. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Non-Taylor magnetohydrodynamic self-organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shao-ping; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1994-10-01

    A self-organization process in a plasma with a finite pressure is investigated by means of a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation. It is demonstrated that a non-Taylor finite β self-organized state is realized in which a perpendicular component of the electric current is generated and the force-free(parallel) current decreases until they reach to almost the same level. The self-organized state is described by an MHD force-balance relation, namely, j perpendicular = B x ∇p/B·B and j parallel = μB where μ is not a constant, and the pressure structure resembles the structure of the toroidal magnetic field intensity. Unless an anomalous perpendicular thermal conduction arises, the plasma cannot relax to a Taylor state but to a non-Taylor (non-force-free) self-organized state. This state becomes more prominent for a weaker resistivity condition. The non-Taylor state has a rather universal property, for example, independence of the initial β value. Another remarkable finding is that the Taylor's conjecture of helicity conservation is, in a strict sense, not valid. The helicity dissipation occurs and its rate slows down critically in accordance with the stepwise relaxation of the magnetic energy. It is confirmed that the driven magnetic reconnection caused by the nonlinearly excited plasma kink flows plays the leading role in all of these key features of the non-Taylor self-organization. (author)

  1. A Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Formation of Solar Chromospheric Jets with Twisted Magnetic Field Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, H. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0814 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: h.iijima@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    This paper presents a three-dimensional simulation of chromospheric jets with twisted magnetic field lines. Detailed treatments of the photospheric radiative transfer and the equations of state allow us to model realistic thermal convection near the solar surface, which excites various MHD waves and produces chromospheric jets in the simulation. A tall chromospheric jet with a maximum height of 10–11 Mm and lifetime of 8–10 minutes is formed above a strong magnetic field concentration. The magnetic field lines are strongly entangled in the chromosphere, which helps the chromospheric jet to be driven by the Lorentz force. The jet exhibits oscillatory motion as a natural consequence of its generation mechanism. We also find that the produced chromospheric jet forms a cluster with a diameter of several Mm with finer strands. These results imply a close relationship between the simulated jet and solar spicules.

  2. Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S C

    2010-09-28

    Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

  3. Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today's magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today's computers and modern linear and non-linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

  4. Simulation of the Nonlinear Dose Dependence of Stabilized Point Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R; Pagonis, V; Lawless, J L

    2010-01-01

    The dose dependence of the concentration of point defects in alkali-halides as well as other crystals, as exhibited by the dependence of the thermoluminescence (TL), optical absorption and ESR on the dose of non-ionizing UV excitation is studied using numerical simulation. The relevant set of coupled rate equations are first written and plausible sets of trapping parameters are chosen. Instead of using simplifying assumptions previously used for reaching conclusions concerning this dose behavior, exact numerical solutions have now been reached. Depending on the parameters chosen, different dose dependencies are seen. In some cases, linear dose dependence is reached in a broad range. Sublinear dose dependence, close to a D 1/2 dependence when D is the dose of excitation can be reached when retrapping is stronger than trapping in other traps stabilizing the defects. When strong competition between stabilizing traps takes place, an initial linear range is observed followed by strong superlinearity and an approach to saturation. All these behaviors have been observed experimentally in TL measurements as well as ESR and optical absorption in different materials. Similarities and dissimilarities to linear and non-linear dose dependencies obtained experimentally and by simulations when ionizing irradiation is used for excitation are discussed.

  5. Nonlinear polarization of ionic liquids: theory, simulations, experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei

    2010-03-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) composed of large, often asymmetric, organic cations and simple or complex inorganic or organic anions do not freeze at ambient temperatures. Their rediscovery some 15 years ago is widely accepted as a ``green revolution'' in chemistry, offering an unlimited number of ``designer'' solvents for chemical and photochemical reactions, homogeneous catalysis, lubrication, and solvent-free electrolytes for energy generation and storage. As electrolytes they are non-volatile, some can sustain without decomposition up to 6 times higher voltages than aqueous electrolytes, and many are environmentally friendly. The studies of RTILs and their applications have reached a critical stage. So many of them can be synthesized - about a thousand are known already - their mixtures can further provide ``unlimited'' number of combinations! Thus, establishing some general laws that could direct the best choice of a RTIL for a given application became crucial; guidance is expected from theory and modelling. But for a physical theory, RTILs comprise a peculiar and complex class of media, the description of which lies at the frontier line of condensed matter theoretical physics: dense room temperature ionic plasmas with ``super-strong'' Coulomb correlations, which behave like glasses at short time-scale, but like viscous liquids at long-time scale. This talk will introduce RTILs to physicists and overview the current understanding of the nonlinear response of RTILs to electric field. It will focus on the theory, simulations, and experimental characterisation of the structure and nonlinear capacitance of the electrical double layer at a charged electrode. It will also discuss pros and contras of supercapacitor applications of RTILs.

  6. Non-linear Simulations of MHD Instabilities in Tokamaks Including Eddy Current Effects and Perspectives for the Extension to Halo Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzl, M; Merkel, P; Lackner, K; Strumberger, E; Huijsmans, G T A; Aleynikova, K; Liu, F; Atanasiu, C; Nardon, E; Fil, A; McAdams, R; Chapman, I

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of large scale plasma instabilities can be strongly influenced by the mutual interaction with currents flowing in conducting vessel structures. Especially eddy currents caused by time-varying magnetic perturbations and halo currents flowing directly from the plasma into the walls are important. The relevance of a resistive wall model is directly evident for Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) or Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs). However, also the linear and non-linear properties of most other large-scale instabilities may be influenced significantly by the interaction with currents in conducting structures near the plasma. The understanding of halo currents arising during disruptions and VDEs, which are a serious concern for ITER as they may lead to strong asymmetric forces on vessel structures, could also benefit strongly from these non-linear modeling capabilities. Modeling the plasma dynamics and its interaction with wall currents requires solving the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in realistic toroidal X-point geometry consistently coupled with a model for the vacuum region and the resistive conducting structures. With this in mind, the non-linear finite element MHD code JOREK [1, 2] has been coupled [3] with the resistive wall code STARWALL [4], which allows us to include the effects of eddy currents in 3D conducting structures in non-linear MHD simulations. This article summarizes the capabilities of the coupled JOREK-STARWALL system and presents benchmark results as well as first applications to non-linear simulations of RWMs, VDEs, disruptions triggered by massive gas injection, and Quiescent H-Mode. As an outlook, the perspectives for extending the model to halo currents are described

  7. TWO-FLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF CONVERGING H I FLOWS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. II. ARE MOLECULAR CLOUDS GENERATED DIRECTLY FROM A WARM NEUTRAL MEDIUM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Formation of interstellar clouds as a consequence of thermal instability is studied using two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider the situation of converging, supersonic flows of warm neutral medium in the interstellar medium that generate a shocked slab of thermally unstable gas in which clouds form. We find, as speculated in Paper I, that in the shocked slab magnetic pressure dominates thermal pressure and the thermal instability grows in the isochorically cooling, thermally unstable slab that leads to the formation of H I clouds whose number density is typically n ∼ -3 , even if the angle between magnetic field and converging flows is small. We also find that even if there is a large dispersion of magnetic field, evolution of the shocked slab is essentially determined by the angle between the mean magnetic field and converging flows. Thus, the direct formation of molecular clouds by piling up warm neutral medium does not seem to be a typical molecular cloud formation process, unless the direction of supersonic converging flows is biased to the orientation of mean magnetic field by some mechanism. However, when the angle is small, the H I shell generated as a result of converging flows is massive and possibly evolves into molecular clouds, provided gas in the massive H I shell is piled up again along the magnetic field line. We expect that another subsequent shock wave can again pile up the gas of the massive shell and produce a larger cloud. We thus emphasize the importance of multiple episodes of converging flows, as a typical formation process of molecular clouds.

  8. A STUDY OF THE HELIOCENTRIC DEPENDENCE OF SHOCK STANDOFF DISTANCE AND GEOMETRY USING 2.5D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION DRIVEN SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savani, N. P.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Vourlidas, A.; Lugaz, N.

    2012-01-01

    We perform four numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations in 2.5 dimensions (2.5D) of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated shock fronts between 10 Rs and 300 Rs. We investigate the relative change in the shock standoff distance, Δ, as a fraction of the CME radial half-width, D OB (i.e., Δ/D OB ). Previous hydrodynamic studies have related the shock standoff distance for Earth's magnetosphere to the density compression ratio (DR; ρ u /ρ d ) measured across the bow shock. The DR coefficient, k dr , which is the proportionality constant between the relative standoff distance (Δ/D OB ) and the compression ratio, was semi-empirically estimated as 1.1. For CMEs, we show that this value varies linearly as a function of heliocentric distance and changes significantly for different radii of curvature of the CME's leading edge. We find that a value of 0.8 ± 0.1 is more appropriate for small heliocentric distances ( dr value increases linearly with heliocentric distance, such that k dr = 1.1 is most appropriate at a heliocentric distance of about 80 Rs. For terrestrial distances (215 Rs) we estimate k dr = 1.8 ± 0.3, which also indicates that the CME cross-sectional structure is generally more oblate than that of Earth's magnetosphere. These alterations to the proportionality coefficients may serve to improve investigations into the estimates of the magnetic field in the corona upstream of a CME as well as the aspect ratio of CMEs as measured in situ.

  9. Three-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamical Simulations of the Morphology of Head–Tail Radio Galaxies Based on the Magnetic Tower Jet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zhaoming; Yuan, Feng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai, E-mail: zmgan@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: sli@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The distinctive morphology of head–tail radio galaxies reveals strong interactions between the radio jets and their intra-cluster environment, the general consensus on the morphology origin of head–tail sources is that radio jets are bent by violent intra-cluster weather. We demonstrate in this paper that such strong interactions provide a great opportunity to study the jet properties and also the dynamics of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). By three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations, we analyze the detailed bending process of a magnetically dominated jet, based on the magnetic tower jet model. We use stratified atmospheres modulated by wind/shock to mimic the violent intra-cluster weather. Core sloshing is found to be inevitable during the wind-cluster core interaction, which induces significant shear motion and could finally drive ICM turbulence around the jet, making it difficult for the jet to survive. We perform a detailed comparison between the behavior of pure hydrodynamical jets and the magnetic tower jet and find that the jet-lobe morphology could not survive against the violent disruption in all of our pure hydrodynamical jet models. On the other hand, the head–tail morphology is well reproduced by using a magnetic tower jet model bent by wind, in which hydrodynamical instabilities are naturally suppressed and the jet could always keep its integrity under the protection of its internal magnetic fields. Finally, we also check the possibility for jet bending by shock only. We find that shock could not bend the jet significantly, and thus could not be expected to explain the observed long tails in head–tail radio galaxies.

  10. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any

  11. A three-dimensional, iterative mapping procedure for the implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition in global magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Goodman

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical formulation of an iterative procedure for the numerical implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere (IM anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition is presented. The procedure may be used in global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. The basic form of the boundary condition is well known, but a well-defined, simple, explicit method for implementing it in an MHD code has not been presented previously. The boundary condition relates the ionospheric electric field to the magnetic field-aligned current density driven through the ionosphere by the magnetospheric convection electric field, which is orthogonal to the magnetic field B, and maps down into the ionosphere along equipotential magnetic field lines. The source of this electric field is the flow of the solar wind orthogonal to B. The electric field and current density in the ionosphere are connected through an anisotropic conductivity tensor which involves the Hall, Pedersen, and parallel conductivities. Only the height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities (conductances appear in the final form of the boundary condition, and are assumed to be known functions of position on the spherical surface R=R1 representing the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The implementation presented consists of an iterative mapping of the electrostatic potential ψ the gradient of which gives the electric field, and the field-aligned current density between the IM boundary at R=R1 and the inner boundary of an MHD code which is taken to be at R2>R1. Given the field-aligned current density on R=R2, as computed by the MHD simulation, it is mapped down to R=R1 where it is used to compute ψ by solving the equation that is the IM Ohm's law boundary condition. Then ψ is mapped out to R=R2, where it is used to update the electric field and the component of velocity perpendicular to B. The updated electric field and perpendicular velocity serve as new boundary

  12. Turbulence in a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Earth's Magnetosphere during Northward and Southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alaoui, M.; Richard, R. L.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere for idealized steady solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The simulations feature purely northward and southward magnetic fields and were designed to study turbulence in the magnetotail plasma sheet. We found that the power spectral densities (PSDs) for both northward and southward IMF had the characteristics of turbulent flow. In both cases, the PSDs showed the three scale ranges expected from theory: the energy-containing scale, the inertial range, and the dissipative range. The results were generally consistent with in-situ observations and theoretical predictions. While the two cases studied, northward and southward IMF, had some similar characteristics, there were significant differences as well. For southward IMF, localized reconnection was the main energy source for the turbulence. For northward IMF, remnant reconnection contributed to driving the turbulence. Boundary waves may also have contributed. In both cases, the PSD slopes had spatial distributions in the dissipative range that reflected the pattern of resistive dissipation. For southward IMF there was a trend toward steeper slopes in the dissipative range with distance down the tail. For northward IMF there was a marked dusk-dawn asymmetry with steeper slopes on the dusk side of the tail. The inertial scale PSDs had a dusk-dawn symmetry during the northward IMF interval with steeper slopes on the dawn side. This asymmetry was not found in the distribution of inertial range slopes for southward IMF. The inertial range PSD slopes were clustered around values close to the theoretical expectation for both northward and southward IMF. In the dissipative range, however, the slopes were broadly distributed and the median values were significantly different, consistent with a different distribution of resistivity.

  13. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, F.; Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-01-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations

  14. A general sensitivity theory for simulations of nonlinear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenton, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A general sensitivity theory is developed for nonlinear lumped-parameter system simulations. The point-of-departure is general perturbation theory, which has long been used for linear systems in nuclear engineering and reactor physics. The theory allows the sensitivity of particular figures-of-merit of the system behavior to be calculated with respect to any parameter.An explicit procedure is derived for applying the theory to physical systems undergoing sudden events (e.g., reactor scrams, tank ruptures). A related problem, treating figures-of-merit defined as functions of extremal values of system variables occurring at sudden events, is handled by the same procedure. The general calculational scheme for applying the theory to numerical codes is discussed. It is shown that codes which use pre-packaged implicit integration subroutines can be augmented to include sensitivity theory: a companion set of subroutines to solve the sensitivity problem is listed. This combined system analysis code is applied to a simple model for loss of post-accident heat removal in a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. The uses of the theory for answering more general sensitivity questions are discussed. One application of the theory is to systematically determine whether specific physical processes in a model contribute significantly to the figures-of-merit. Another application of the theory is for selecting parameter values which enable a model to match experimentally observed behavior

  15. Simulations of the Ocean Response to a Hurricane: Nonlinear Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2009-10-01

    Superinertial internal waves generated by a tropical cyclone can propagate vertically and laterally away from their local generation site and break, contributing to turbulent vertical mixing in the deep ocean and maintenance of the stratification of the main thermocline. In this paper, the results of a modeling study are reported to investigate the mechanism by which superinertial fluctuations are generated in the deep ocean. The general properties of the superinertial wave wake were also characterized as a function of storm speed and central latitude. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) was used to simulate the open ocean response to realistic westward-tracking hurricane-type surface wind stress and heat and net freshwater buoyancy forcing for regions representative of midlatitudes in the Atlantic, the Caribbean, and low latitudes in the eastern Pacific. The model had high horizontal [Δ(x, y) = 1/6°] and vertical (Δz = 5 m in top 100 m) resolution and employed a parameterization for vertical mixing induced by shear instability. In the horizontal momentum equation, the relative size of the nonlinear advection terms, which had a dominant frequency near twice the inertial, was large only in the upper 200 m of water. Below 200 m, the linear momentum equations obeyed a linear balance to 2%. Fluctuations at nearly twice the inertial frequency (2f) were prevalent throughout the depth of the water column, indicating that these nonlinear advection terms in the upper 200 m forced a linear mode below at nearly twice the inertial frequency via vorticity conservation. Maximum variance at 2f in horizontal velocity occurred on the south side of the track. This was in response to vertical advection of northward momentum, which in the north momentum equation is an oscillatory positive definite term that constituted a net force to the south at a frequency near 2f. The ratio of this term to the Coriolis force was larger on the

  16. Equivalent circuit simulation of HPEM-induced transient responses at nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotzev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the equivalent circuit modeling of a nonlinearly loaded loop antenna and its transient responses to HPEM field excitations are investigated. For the circuit modeling the general strategy to characterize the nonlinearly loaded antenna by a linear and a nonlinear circuit part is pursued. The linear circuit part can be determined by standard methods of antenna theory and numerical field computation. The modeling of the nonlinear circuit part requires realistic circuit models of the nonlinear loads that are given by Schottky diodes. Combining both parts, appropriate circuit models are obtained and analyzed by means of a standard SPICE circuit simulator. It is the main result that in this way full-wave simulation results can be reproduced. Furthermore it is clearly seen that the equivalent circuit modeling offers considerable advantages with respect to computation speed and also leads to improved physical insights regarding the coupling between HPEM field excitation and nonlinearly loaded loop antenna.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  18. Sparse Jacobian construction for mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    We apply the automatic differentiation tool OpenAD toward constructing a preconditioner for fully implicit simulations of mapped grid visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), used in modeling tokamak fusion devices. Our simulation framework employs a fully implicit formulation in time, and a mapped finite volume spatial discretization. We solve this model using inexact Newton-Krylov methods. Of critical importance in these iterative solvers is the development of an effective preconditioner, which typically requires knowledge of the Jacobian of the nonlinear residual function. However, due to significant nonlinearity within our PDE system, our mapped spatial discretization, and stencil adaptivity at physical boundaries, analytical derivation of these Jacobian entries is highly nontrivial. This paper therefore focuses on Jacobian construction using automatic differentiation. In particular, we discuss applying OpenAD to the case of a spatially-adaptive stencil patch that automatically handles differences between the domain interior and boundary, and configuring AD for reduced stencil approximations to the Jacobian. We investigate both scalar and vector tangent mode differentiation, along with simple finite difference approaches, to compare the resulting accuracy and efficiency of Jacobian construction in this application. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Angular spectrum approach for fast simulation of pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA) for simulating pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields. The source of the ASA is generated by Field II, which can simulate array transducers of any arbitrary geometry and focusing. The non-linear ultrasound simulation program - Abersim, is used...... as the reference. A linear array transducer with 64 active elements is simulated by both Field II and Abersim. The excitation is a 2-cycle sine wave with a frequency of 5 MHz. The second harmonic field in the time domain is simulated using ASA. Pulse inversion is used in the Abersim simulation to remove...... the fundamental and keep the second harmonic field, since Abersim simulates non-linear fields with all harmonic components. ASA and Abersim are compared for the pulsed fundamental and second harmonic fields in the time domain at depths of 30 mm, 40 mm (focal depth) and 60 mm. Full widths at -6 dB (FWHM) are f0...

  20. Parallel processing for nonlinear dynamics simulations of structures including rotating bladed-disk assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shang-Hsien

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of this research is to develop, test, and implement coarse-grained, parallel-processing strategies for nonlinear dynamic simulations of practical structural problems. There are contributions to four main areas: finite element modeling and analysis of rotational dynamics, numerical algorithms for parallel nonlinear solutions, automatic partitioning techniques to effect load-balancing among processors, and an integrated parallel analysis system.

  1. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr

  2. Magnetohydrodynamics cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu.

    1990-02-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics and Plasma Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Vlahos, Loukas

    2007-09-01

    We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, both in the Newtonian and the general-relativistic limit, as regards a viscous magnetized fluid of finite conductivity and discuss instability criteria. In addition, we explore the excitation of cosmological perturbations in anisotropic spacetimes, in the presence of an ambient magnetic field. Acoustic, electromagnetic (e/m) and fast-magnetosonic modes, propagating normal to the magnetic field, can be excited, resulting in several implications of cosmological significance.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1990-03-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author).

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1990-01-01

    There has been a renewal of interest in cellular automata, partly because they give an architecture for a special purpose computer with parallel processing optimized to solve a particular problem. The lattice gas cellular automata are briefly surveyed, which are recently developed to solve partial differential equations such as hydrodynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. A new model is given in the present paper to implement the magnetic Lorentz force in a more deterministic and local procedure than the previous one. (author)

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The ARES Directorate at JSC has researched the physical processes that create planetary magnetic fields through dynamo action since 2007. The "dynamo problem" has existed since 1600, when William Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth I, recognized that the Earth was a giant magnet. In 1919, Joseph Larmor proposed that solar (and by implication, planetary) magnetism was due to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), but full acceptance did not occur until Glatzmaier and Roberts solved the MHD equations numerically and simulated a geomagnetic reversal in 1995. JSC research produced a unique theoretical model in 2012 that provided a novel explanation of these physical observations and computational results as an essential manifestation of broken ergodicity in MHD turbulence. Research is ongoing, and future work is aimed at understanding quantitative details of magnetic dipole alignment in the Earth as well as in Mercury, Jupiter and its moon Ganymede, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the Sun and other stars.

  7. Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of computerized blast load simulation for non-linear dynamic response ... commercial software system and a special-purpose, blast-specific software product to ... depend both on the analysis model of choice and the stand-off distances.

  8. Nonlinear dynamic simulation of optimal depletion of crude oil in the lower 48 United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, M.; Cleveland, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study combines the economic theory of optimal resource use with econometric estimates of demand and supply parameters to develop a nonlinear dynamic model of crude oil exploration, development, and production in the lower 48 United States. The model is simulated with the graphical programming language STELLA, for the years 1985 to 2020. The procedure encourages use of economic theory and econometrics in combination with nonlinear dynamic simulation to enhance our understanding of complex interactions present in models of optimal resource use. (author)

  9. A three-dimensional, iterative mapping procedure for the implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition in global magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Goodman

    Full Text Available The mathematical formulation of an iterative procedure for the numerical implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere (IM anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition is presented. The procedure may be used in global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. The basic form of the boundary condition is well known, but a well-defined, simple, explicit method for implementing it in an MHD code has not been presented previously. The boundary condition relates the ionospheric electric field to the magnetic field-aligned current density driven through the ionosphere by the magnetospheric convection electric field, which is orthogonal to the magnetic field B, and maps down into the ionosphere along equipotential magnetic field lines. The source of this electric field is the flow of the solar wind orthogonal to B. The electric field and current density in the ionosphere are connected through an anisotropic conductivity tensor which involves the Hall, Pedersen, and parallel conductivities. Only the height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities (conductances appear in the final form of the boundary condition, and are assumed to be known functions of position on the spherical surface R=R1 representing the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The implementation presented consists of an iterative mapping of the electrostatic potential ψ the gradient of which gives the electric field, and the field-aligned current density between the IM boundary at R=R1 and the inner boundary of an MHD code which is taken to be at R2>R1. Given the field-aligned current density on R=R2, as computed by the MHD simulation, it is mapped down to R=R1 where it is used to compute ψ by solving the equation that is the IM Ohm's law boundary condition. Then ψ is mapped out

  10. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources

  11. Computer simulations on the nonlinear frequency shift and nonlinear modulation of ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu; Kamimura, Tetsuo.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves with rather short wave-length, k lambda sub(De) asymptotically equals 1, is investigated by computer sumulations. It is observed that the nonlinear frequency shift is negative and is proportional to square root of the initial wave amplitude when the amplitude is not too large. This proportionality breaks down and the frequency shift can become positive (for large Te/Ti), when (n tilde sub(i)/n 0 )sup(1/2)>0.25, where n tilde sub(i) is the ion density perturbation and n 0 the average plasma density. Nonlinear modulation of the wave-packet is clearly seen; however, modulational instability was not observed. The importance of the effects of trapped ions to these phenomena is emphasized. (auth.)

  12. Reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics consists of a set of simplified fluid equations which has become a principal tool in the interpretation of plasma fluid motions in tokamak experiments. The Hasegawa-Mima equation is applied to the study of electrostatic fluctuations in turbulent plasmas. The relation between thee two nonlinear models is elucidated. It is shown tht both models can be obtained from appropriate limits of a third, inclusive, nonlinear system. The inclusive system is remarkably simple

  13. Three dimensional nonlinear simulations of edge localized modes on the EAST tokamak using BOUT++ code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z. X., E-mail: zxliu316@ipp.ac.cn; Xia, T. Y.; Liu, S. C.; Ding, S. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q.; Joseph, I.; Meyer, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Gao, X.; Xu, G. S.; Shao, L. M.; Li, G. Q.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Experimental measurements of edge localized modes (ELMs) observed on the EAST experiment are compared to linear and nonlinear theoretical simulations of peeling-ballooning modes using the BOUT++ code. Simulations predict that the dominant toroidal mode number of the ELM instability becomes larger for lower current, which is consistent with the mode structure captured with visible light using an optical CCD camera. The poloidal mode number of the simulated pressure perturbation shows good agreement with the filamentary structure observed by the camera. The nonlinear simulation is also consistent with the experimentally measured energy loss during an ELM crash and with the radial speed of ELM effluxes measured using a gas puffing imaging diagnostic.

  14. Numerical simulation of nonlinear continuity equations by evolving diffeomorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, José A.

    2016-09-22

    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for nonlinear continuity equations, which is based on the gradient flow formulation of an energy functional with respect to the quadratic transportation distance. It can be applied to a large class of nonlinear continuity equations, whose dynamics are driven by internal energies, given external potentials and/or interaction energies. The solver is based on its variational formulation as a gradient flow with respect to the Wasserstein distance. Positivity of solutions as well as energy decrease of the semi-discrete scheme are guaranteed by its construction. We illustrate this property with various examples in spatial dimension one and two.

  15. Numerical simulation of non-linear phenomena in geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed

    Geotechnical problems are often characterized by the non-linear behavior of soils and rock which are strongly linked to the inherent properties of the porous structure of the material as well as the presence and possible flow of any surrounding fluids. Dynamic problems involving such soil-fluid i...

  16. Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. IV. Whistler instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.; Strohmaier, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    A very large low-frequency whistler mode is excited with magnetic loop antennas in a uniform laboratory plasma. The wave magnetic field exceeds the ambient field causing in one polarity a field reversal, and a magnetic topology resembling that of spheromaks in the other polarity. These propagating ''whistler spheromaks'' strongly accelerate the electrons and create non-Maxwellian distributions in their toroidal current ring. It is observed that the locally energized electrons in the current ring excite new electromagnetic instabilities and emit whistler modes with frequencies unrelated to the applied frequency. Emissions are also observed from electrons excited in X-type neutral lines around the antenna. The properties of the excited waves such as amplitudes, frequency spectra, field topologies, propagation, polarization, growth, and damping have been investigated. The waves remain linear (B wave 0 ) and convert a small part of the electron kinetic energy into wave magnetic energy (B wave 2 /2μ 0 e )

  17. Interactions between two magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S. H.; Ip, W.-H.

    2011-01-01

    Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) driven by velocity shear is a generator of waves found away from the vicinity of the velocity-shear layers since the fast-mode waves radiated from the surface perturbation can propagate away from the transition layer. Thus the nonlinear evolution associated with KHI is not confined near the velocity-shear layer. To understand the physical processes in multiple velocity-shear layers, the interactions between two KHIs at a pair of tangential discontinuities are studied by two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. It is shown that the interactions between two neighboring velocity-shear layers are dominated by the propagation of the fast-mode waves radiated from KHIs in a nonuniform medium. That is, the fast-mode Mach number of the surface waves M Fy , a key factor of the nonlinear evolution of KHI, will vary with the nonuniform background plasma velocity due to the existence of two neighboring velocity-shear layers. As long as the M Fy observed in the plasma rest frame across the neighboring velocity-shear layer is larger than one, newly formed fast-mode Mach-cone-like (MCL) plane waves generated by the fast-mode waves can be found in this region. As results of the interactions of two KHIs, reflection and distortion of the MCL plane waves generate the turbulence and increase the plasma temperature, which provide possible mechanisms of heating and accelerating local plasma between two neighboring velocity-shear layers.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.

    1995-01-01

    The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  20. Depression of Nonlinearity in Decaying Isotropic MHD Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dmitruk, P.

    2008-01-01

    Spectral method simulations show that undriven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence spontaneously generates coherent spatial correlations of several types, associated with local Beltrami fields, directional alignment of velocity and magnetic fields, and antialignment of magnetic and fluid acceleration components. These correlations suppress nonlinearity to levels lower than what is obtained from Gaussian fields, and occur in spatial patches. We suggest that this rapid relaxation leads to non-Gaussian statistics and spatial intermittency

  1. SIMULATION OF SYNCHRONIZATION OF NONLINEAR OSCILLATORS BY THE EXTERNAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kuklin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the self-consistent model was considered, consisting of a system of oscillators, the coupling between them was assumed to be integral (due to the fields formed as a result of their co-radiation. With the help of this model, the features of synchronization by waves of finite amplitude of a system of oscillators were refined, the initial phase values of which are random. The effect of nonlinearity, in particular, due to the change in the mass of the oscillator due to relativistic effects, was taken into account. It was shown that the nonlinearity does not violate the nature of the energy exchange between the wave and the oscillator system, leading only to a slight decrease in the efficiency of such an exchange.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  3. Toward high-speed 3D nonlinear soft tissue deformation simulations using Abaqus software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    We aim to achieve a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a porcine liver deformation under a surgical tool pressure using the commercial finite element software Abaqus. The liver geometry is obtained using magnetic resonance imaging, and a nonlinear constitutive law is employed to capture large deformations of the tissue. Effects of implicit versus explicit analysis schemes, element type, and mesh density on computation time are studied. We find that Abaqus explicit and implicit solvers are capable of simulating nonlinear soft tissue deformations accurately using first-order tetrahedral elements in a relatively short time by optimizing the element size. This study provides new insights and guidance on accurate and relatively fast nonlinear soft tissue simulations. Such simulations can provide force feedback during robotic surgery and allow visualization of tissue deformations for surgery planning and training of surgical residents.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Tadahisa; Ishibashi, Eiichi; Kojima, Akihiro.

    1967-01-01

    The present invention relates to a magneto-hydrodynamic generation method which increases the conductivity of active gas and the generated energy. In the conventional method of open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic generation, the working fluid does not possess a favorable electric conductivity since the collision cross section is large when the combustion is carried out in a condition of excess oxygen. Furthermore, combustion under a condition of oxygen shortage is uncapable of completely converting the generated energy. The air preheater or boiler is not sufficient to collect the waste gas resulting in damage and other economic disadvantages. In the present invention, the combustion gas caused by excess fuel in the combuster is supplied to the generator as the working gas, to which air or fully oxidized air is added to be reheated. While incomplete gas used for heat collection is not adequate, the unburned damage may be eliminated by combusting again and increasing the gas temperature and heat collection rate. Furthermore, a diffuser is mounted at the rear side of the generator to decrease the gas combustion rate. Thus, even when directly absorbing the preheated fully oxidized air or the ordinary air, the boiler is free from damage caused by combustion delay or impulsive force. (M. Ishida)

  5. Time-domain simulation and nonlinear analysis on ride performance of four-wheel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y S; He, H; Geng, A L [School of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001 (China)], E-mail: jzwbt@163.com

    2008-02-15

    A nonlinear dynamic model with eight DOFs of a four-wheel vehicle is established in this paper. After detaching the nonlinear characteristics of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, the multi-step linearizing method is used to simulate the vehicle vibration in time domain, under a correlated four-wheel road roughness model. Experimental verifications suggest that the newly built vehicle model and simulation procedure are reasonable and feasible to be used in vehicle vibration analysis. Furthermore, some nonlinear factors of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, which affect the vehicle ride performance (or comfort), are investigated under different vehicle running speeds. Some substaintial rules of the nonlinear vehicle vibrations are revealed in this paper.

  6. Time-domain simulation and nonlinear analysis on ride performance of four-wheel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y S; He, H; Geng, A L

    2008-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model with eight DOFs of a four-wheel vehicle is established in this paper. After detaching the nonlinear characteristics of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, the multi-step linearizing method is used to simulate the vehicle vibration in time domain, under a correlated four-wheel road roughness model. Experimental verifications suggest that the newly built vehicle model and simulation procedure are reasonable and feasible to be used in vehicle vibration analysis. Furthermore, some nonlinear factors of the leaf springs and shock absorbers, which affect the vehicle ride performance (or comfort), are investigated under different vehicle running speeds. Some substaintial rules of the nonlinear vehicle vibrations are revealed in this paper

  7. Numerical simulation of electro-osmotic consolidation coupling non-linear variation of soil parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Hu, Liming; Wen, Qingbo

    2017-06-01

    Electro-osmotic consolidation is an effective method for soft ground improvement. A main limitation of previous numerical models on this technique is the ignorance of the non-linear variation of soil parameters. In the present study, a multi-field numerical model is developed with the consideration of the non-linear variation of soil parameters during electro-osmotic consolidation process. The numerical simulations on an axisymmetric model indicated that the non-linear variation of soil parameters showed remarkable impact on the development of the excess pore water pressure and degree of consolidation. A field experiment with complex geometry, boundary conditions, electrode configuration and voltage application was further simulated with the developed numerical model. The comparison between field and numerical data indicated that the numerical model coupling of the non-linear variation of soil parameters gave more reasonable results. The developed numerical model is capable to analyze engineering cases with complex operating conditions.

  8. Nonlinear δf Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T perpendicularb >> T parallelb ). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with ∂/∂θ = 0

  9. Nonlinear adaptive robust back stepping force control of hydraulic load simulator: Theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jianyong; Jiao, Zongxia; Yao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    High performance robust force control of hydraulic load simulator with constant but unknown hydraulic parameters is considered. In contrast to the linear control based on hydraulic linearization equations, hydraulic inherent nonlinear properties and uncertainties make the conventional feedback proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control not yield to high performance requirements. Furthermore, the hydraulic system may be subjected to non-smooth and discontinuous nonlinearities due to the directional change of valve opening. In this paper, based on a nonlinear system model of hydraulic load simulator, a discontinuous projection-based nonlinear adaptive robust back stepping controller is developed with servo valve dynamics. The proposed controller constructs a novel stable adaptive controller and adaptation laws with additional pressure dynamic related unknown parameters, which can compensate for the system nonlinearities and uncertain parameters, meanwhile a well-designed robust controller is also synthesized to dominate the model uncertainties coming from both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities including unmodeled and ignored system dynamics. The controller theoretically guarantee a prescribed transient performance and final tracking accuracy in presence of both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities; while achieving asymptotic output tracking in the absence of unstructured uncertainties. The implementation issues are also discussed for controller simplification. Some comparative results are obtained to verify the high-performance nature of the proposed controller.

  10. Nonlinear adaptive robust back stepping force control of hydraulic load simulator: Theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jianyong [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Jiao, Zongxia [Beihang University, Beijing (China); Yao, Bin [Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2014-04-15

    High performance robust force control of hydraulic load simulator with constant but unknown hydraulic parameters is considered. In contrast to the linear control based on hydraulic linearization equations, hydraulic inherent nonlinear properties and uncertainties make the conventional feedback proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control not yield to high performance requirements. Furthermore, the hydraulic system may be subjected to non-smooth and discontinuous nonlinearities due to the directional change of valve opening. In this paper, based on a nonlinear system model of hydraulic load simulator, a discontinuous projection-based nonlinear adaptive robust back stepping controller is developed with servo valve dynamics. The proposed controller constructs a novel stable adaptive controller and adaptation laws with additional pressure dynamic related unknown parameters, which can compensate for the system nonlinearities and uncertain parameters, meanwhile a well-designed robust controller is also synthesized to dominate the model uncertainties coming from both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities including unmodeled and ignored system dynamics. The controller theoretically guarantee a prescribed transient performance and final tracking accuracy in presence of both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities; while achieving asymptotic output tracking in the absence of unstructured uncertainties. The implementation issues are also discussed for controller simplification. Some comparative results are obtained to verify the high-performance nature of the proposed controller.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Self-Focused Pulses Using the Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that are currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Kerr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations. Abstract of a proposed paper for presentation at the meeting NONLINEAR OPTICS: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Hyatt Regency Waikaloa, Waikaloa, Hawaii, July 24-29, 1994, Cosponsored by IEEE/Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and Optical Society of America

  13. Non-Linear Metamodeling Extensions to the Robust Parameter Design of Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The combined-array RSM approach has been applied to a piston simulation [11] and an economic order quantity inventory model [12, 13]. A textbook ...are limited when applied to simulations. In the former case, the mean and variance models can be inadequate due to a high level of non-linearity...highly non-linear nature of typical simulations. In the multi-response RPD problem, the objective is to find the optimal control parameter levels

  14. Fast simulation of non-linear pulsed ultrasound fields using an angular spectrum approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    A fast non-linear pulsed ultrasound field simulation is presented. It is implemented based on an angular spectrum approach (ASA), which analytically solves the non-linear wave equation. The ASA solution to the Westervelt equation is derived in detail. The calculation speed is significantly...... increased compared to a numerical solution using an operator splitting method (OSM). The ASA has been modified and extended to pulsed non-linear ultrasound fields in combination with Field II, where any array transducer with arbitrary geometry, excitation, focusing and apodization can be simulated...... with a center frequency of 5 MHz. The speed is increased approximately by a factor of 140 and the calculation time is 12 min with a standard PC, when simulating the second harmonic pulse at the focal point. For the second harmonic point spread function the full width error is 1.5% at 6 dB and 6.4% at 12 d...

  15. Numerical simulation of ultrasound-thermotherapy combining nonlinear wave propagation with broadband soft-tissue absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, S

    2000-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) thermotherapy is used to treat tumours, located deep in human tissue, by heat. It features by the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), high local temperatures of about 90 degrees C and short treating time of a few seconds. Dosage of the therapy remains a problem. To get it under control, one has to know the heat source, i.e. the amount of absorbed US power, which shows nonlinear influences. Therefore, accurate simulations are essential. In this paper, an improved simulation model is introduced which enables accurate investigations of US thermotherapy. It combines nonlinear US propagation effects, which lead to generation of higher harmonics, with a broadband frequency-power law absorption typical for soft tissue. Only the combination of both provides a reliable calculation of the generated heat. Simulations show the influence of nonlinearities and broadband damping for different source signals on the absorbed US power density distribution.

  16. Introduction to modern magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of ordinary matter in the Universe is in the form of ionized fluids, or plasmas. The study of the magnetic properties of such electrically conducting fluids, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), has become a central theory in astrophysics, as well as in areas such as engineering and geophysics. This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to MHD and its recent applications, in nature and in laboratory plasmas; from the machinery of the Sun and galaxies, to the cooling of nuclear reactors and the geodynamo. It exposes advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both classical and modern concepts, making them aware of current research and the ever-widening scope of MHD. Rigorous derivations within the text, supplemented by over 100 illustrations and followed by exercises and worked solutions at the end of each chapter, provide an engaging and practical introduction to the subject and an accessible route into this wide-ranging field.

  17. Introduction to magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays a crucial role in astrophysics, planetary magnetism, engineering and controlled nuclear fusion. This comprehensive textbook emphasizes physical ideas, rather than mathematical detail, making it accessible to a broad audience. Starting from elementary chapters on fluid mechanics and electromagnetism, it takes the reader all the way through to the latest ideas in more advanced topics, including planetary dynamos, stellar magnetism, fusion plasmas and engineering applications. With the new edition, readers will benefit from additional material on MHD instabilities, planetary dynamos and applications in astrophysics, as well as a whole new chapter on fusion plasma MHD. The development of the material from first principles and its pedagogical style makes this an ideal companion for both undergraduate students and postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Elementary knowledge of vector calculus is the only prerequisite.

  18. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator is described comprising a magnet having a magnetic field, an elongate hollow housing containing an electrically conductive liquid and a thermoacoustic structure positioned in the liquid, heat exchange means thermally connected to the thermoacoustic structure for inducing the liquid to oscillate at an acoustic resonant frequency within the housing. The housing is positioned in the magnetic field and oriented such that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid are substantially orthogonal to one another, first and second electrical conductor means connected to the liquid on opposite sides of the housing along an axis which is substantially orthogonal to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid, an alternating current output signal is generated in the conductor means at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the oscillatory motion of the liquid

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic calculations on pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper, the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic is presented in covariant form and applied to some problems in the field of pulsar magnetospheres. In addition, numerical methods to solve the resulting equations of motion are investigated. The theory of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic presented here is valid in the framework of the theory of general relativity, describing the interaction of electromagnetic fields with an ideal fluid. In the two-dimensional case, a Lax-Wendroff method is studied which should be optimally stable with the operator splitting of Strang. In the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic also the model of a stationary aequatorial stellar pulsar wind as well as the parallel rotator is investigated. (orig.) [de

  20. Nonlinear genetic-based simulation of soil shear strength parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stress and the excess pore water pressure. If the pore water pressures are measured during the test, the effective ..... A sedimentation test was carried out throughout a hydrometer ...... a C/C++ Simulation Model of a Waste Incinerator Sci-.

  1. Numerical simulation and comparison of nonlinear self-focusing based on iteration and ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaotong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weiwei; Ruan, Wangchao; Zhang, Luwei; Cen, Zhaofeng

    2017-05-01

    Self-focusing is observed in nonlinear materials owing to the interaction between laser and matter when laser beam propagates. Some of numerical simulation strategies such as the beam propagation method (BPM) based on nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ray tracing method based on Fermat's principle have applied to simulate the self-focusing process. In this paper we present an iteration nonlinear ray tracing method in that the nonlinear material is also cut into massive slices just like the existing approaches, but instead of paraxial approximation and split-step Fourier transform, a large quantity of sampled real rays are traced step by step through the system with changing refractive index and laser intensity by iteration. In this process a smooth treatment is employed to generate a laser density distribution at each slice to decrease the error caused by the under-sampling. The characteristics of this method is that the nonlinear refractive indices of the points on current slice are calculated by iteration so as to solve the problem of unknown parameters in the material caused by the causal relationship between laser intensity and nonlinear refractive index. Compared with the beam propagation method, this algorithm is more suitable for engineering application with lower time complexity, and has the calculation capacity for numerical simulation of self-focusing process in the systems including both of linear and nonlinear optical media. If the sampled rays are traced with their complex amplitudes and light paths or phases, it will be possible to simulate the superposition effects of different beam. At the end of the paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this algorithm are discussed.

  2. Analytical vs. Simulation Solution Techniques for Pulse Problems in Non-linear Stochastic Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically-numerical tec......Advantages and disadvantages of available analytical and simulation techniques for pulse problems in non-linear stochastic dynamics are discussed. First, random pulse problems, both those which do and do not lead to Markov theory, are presented. Next, the analytical and analytically...

  3. A framework for simulating ultrasound imaging based on first order nonlinear pressure–velocity relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Fan, Rui; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging framework modeled with the first order nonlinear pressure–velocity relations (NPVR) based simulation and implemented by a half-time staggered solution and pseudospectral method is presented in this paper. The framework is capable of simulating linear and nonlinear ultrasound...... propagation and reflections in a heterogeneous medium with different sound speeds and densities. It can be initialized with arbitrary focus, excitation and apodization for multiple individual channels in both 2D and 3D spatial fields. The simulated channel data can be generated using this framework......, and ultrasound image can be obtained by beamforming the simulated channel data. Various results simulated by different algorithms are illustrated for comparisons. The root mean square (RMS) errors for each compared pulses are calculated. The linear propagation is validated by an angular spectrum approach (ASA...

  4. Finite element and network electrical simulation of rotating magnetofluid flow in nonlinear porous media with inclined magnetic field and hall currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bég Anwar O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for viscous hydromagnetic flow through a hybrid non-Darcy porous media rotating generator. The system is simulated as steady, incompressible flow through a nonlinear porous regime intercalated between parallel plates of the generator in a rotating frame of reference in the presence of a strong, inclined magnetic field A pressure gradient term is included which is a function of the longitudinal coordinate. The general equations for rotating viscous magnetohydrodynamic flow are presented and neglecting convective acceleration effects, the two-dimensional viscous flow equations are derived incorporating current density components, porous media drag effects, Lorentz drag force components and Hall current effects. Using an appropriate group of dimensionless variables, the momentum equations for primary and secondary flow are rendered nondimensional and shown to be controlled by six physical parameters-Hartmann number (Ha, Hall current parameter (Nh, Darcy number (Da, Forchheimer number (Fs, Ekman number (Ek and dimensionless pressure gradient parameter (Np, in addition to one geometric parameter-the orientation of the applied magnetic field (θ . Several special cases are extracted from the general model, including the non-porous case studied earlier by Ghosh and Pop (2006. A numerical solution is presented to the nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using both the Network Simulation Method and Finite Element Method, achieving excellent agreement. Additionally very good agreement is also obtained with the earlier analytical solutions of Ghosh and Pop (2006. for selected Ha, Ek and Nh values. We examine in detail the effects of magnetic field, rotation, Hall current, bulk porous matrix drag, second order porous impedance, pressure gradient and magnetic field inclination on primary and secondary velocity distributions and also frictional shear stresses at the plates. Primary velocity is seen to decrease

  5. Nonlinear dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor from voice analysis and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis and model simulations are used to study the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of vocal folds with vocal tremor, which can typically be characterized by low-frequency modulation and aperiodicity. Tremor voices from patients with disorders such as paresis, Parkinson's disease, hyperfunction, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia show low-dimensional characteristics, differing from random noise. Correlation dimension analysis statistically distinguishes tremor voices from normal voices. Furthermore, a nonlinear tremor model is proposed to study the vibrations of the vocal folds with vocal tremor. Fractal dimensions and positive Lyapunov exponents demonstrate the evidence of chaos in the tremor model, where amplitude and frequency play important roles in governing vocal fold dynamics. Nonlinear dynamic voice analysis and vocal fold modeling may provide a useful set of tools for understanding the dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor in patients with laryngeal diseases.

  6. Solution of the time-dependent, three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finan, C.H. III; Killeen, J.; California Univ., Davis

    1981-01-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is described by a set of eight coupled, nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, partial differential equations. A computer code, IMP (Implicit MHD Program), has been developed to solve these equations numerically by the method of finite differences on an Eulerian mesh. In this model, the equations are expressed in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, making the code applicable to a variety of coordinate systems. The Douglas-Gunn algorithm for Alternating-Direction Implicit (ADI) temporal advancement is used to avoid the limitations in timestep size imposed by explicit methods. The equations are expressed as conservation laws, the momentum and energy equations are nonconservative. This is to: (1) provide enhanced numerical stability by eliminating errors introduced by the nonvanishing of nabla x B on the finite difference mesh; and, (2) allow the simulation of low β plasmas. The resulting finite difference equations are a coupled system of nonlinear algebraic equations which are solved by the Newton-Raphson iteration technique. We apply our model to a number of problems of importance in magnetic fusion research. Ideal and resistive internal kink instabilities are simulated in a Cartesian geometry. Growth rates and nonlinear saturation amplitudes are found to be in agreement with previous analytic and numerical predictions. We also simulate these instabilities in a torus, which demonstrates the versatility of the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate representation. (orig.)

  7. Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Arka; Dalal, Neal, E-mail: abanerj6@illinois.edu, E-mail: dalaln@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.

  8. Simulating nonlinear cosmological structure formation with massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Arka; Dalal, Neal

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method for simulating cosmologies that contain massive particles with thermal free streaming motion, such as massive neutrinos or warm/hot dark matter. This method combines particle and fluid descriptions of the thermal species to eliminate the shot noise known to plague conventional N-body simulations. We describe this method in detail, along with results for a number of test cases to validate our method, and check its range of applicability. Using this method, we demonstrate that massive neutrinos can produce a significant scale-dependence in the large-scale biasing of deep voids in the matter field. We show that this scale-dependence may be quantitatively understood using an extremely simple spherical expansion model which reproduces the behavior of the void bias for different neutrino parameters.

  9. Nonlinear punctual dynamic applied to simulation of PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysne, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study some kinds of nuclear reactor accidents, a simulation is made using the punctual kinetics model to the reactor core. The following integration methods are used: Hansen's method in which a linearization is made and C S M P using a variable interval fourth-order Runge Kutta method. The results were good and were compared with those obtained by the code Dinamica I which uses a finite difference integration method of backward kind. (author)

  10. Non-linear punctual kinetics applied to PWR reactors simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysne, F.S.

    1978-11-01

    In order to study some kinds of nuclear reactor accidents, a simulation is made using the punctual kinetics model for the reactor core. The following integration methods are used: Hansen's method in which a linearization is made and CSMP using a variable interval fourth-order Runge Kutta method. The results were good and were compared with those obtained by the code Dinamica I which uses a finite difference integration method of backward kind. (Author) [pt

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  12. Nonlinear Wave Simulation on the Xeon Phi Knights Landing Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Ivan; Goranov Goran; Hristova Radoslava

    2018-01-01

    We consider an interesting from computational point of view standing wave simulation by solving coupled 2D perturbed Sine-Gordon equations. We make an OpenMP realization which explores both thread and SIMD levels of parallelism. We test the OpenMP program on two different energy equivalent Intel architectures: 2× Xeon E5-2695 v2 processors, (code-named “Ivy Bridge-EP”) in the Hybrilit cluster, and Xeon Phi 7250 processor (code-named “Knights Landing” (KNL). The results show 2 times better per...

  13. Nonlinear Wave Simulation on the Xeon Phi Knights Landing Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Ivan; Goranov, Goran; Hristova, Radoslava

    2018-02-01

    We consider an interesting from computational point of view standing wave simulation by solving coupled 2D perturbed Sine-Gordon equations. We make an OpenMP realization which explores both thread and SIMD levels of parallelism. We test the OpenMP program on two different energy equivalent Intel architectures: 2× Xeon E5-2695 v2 processors, (code-named "Ivy Bridge-EP") in the Hybrilit cluster, and Xeon Phi 7250 processor (code-named "Knights Landing" (KNL). The results show 2 times better performance on KNL processor.

  14. Nonlinear Wave Simulation on the Xeon Phi Knights Landing Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an interesting from computational point of view standing wave simulation by solving coupled 2D perturbed Sine-Gordon equations. We make an OpenMP realization which explores both thread and SIMD levels of parallelism. We test the OpenMP program on two different energy equivalent Intel architectures: 2× Xeon E5-2695 v2 processors, (code-named “Ivy Bridge-EP” in the Hybrilit cluster, and Xeon Phi 7250 processor (code-named “Knights Landing” (KNL. The results show 2 times better performance on KNL processor.

  15. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheindlin, A.E.; Jackson, W.D.; Brzozowski, W.S.; Rietjens, L.H.Th.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m 3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; Magnetohydrodynamische Kelvin-Helmholtz-Instabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, Walter

    2014-07-21

    In the presented work the Kelvin-Helmholtz-Instability in magnetohydrodynamic flows is analyzed with the methods of Multiple Scales. The concerned fluids are incompressible or have a varying density perpendicular to the vortex sheet, which is taken into account using a Boussinesq-Approximation and constant Brunt-Vaeisaelae-Frequencies. The Multiple Scale Analysis leads to nonlinear evolution equations for the amplitude of the perturbations. Special solutions to these equations are presented and the effects of the magnetic fields are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High-Intensity Bunched Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong; Hudson, Stuart R; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams are described self-consistently by the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations.* The nonlinear delta-f method,** a particle simulation method for solving the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations, is being used to study the collective effects in high-intensity 3D bunched beams. The delta-f method, as a nonlinear perturbative scheme, splits the distribution function into equilibrium and perturbed parts. The perturbed distribution function is represented as a weighted summation over discrete particles, where the particle orbits are advanced by equations of motion in the focusing field and self-consistent fields, and the particle weights are advanced by the coupling between the perturbed fields and the zero-order distribution function. The nonlinear delta-f method exhibits minimal noise and accuracy problems in comparison with standard particle-in-cell simulations. A self-consistent 3D kinetic equilibrium is first established for high intensity bunched beams. The...

  19. Landau fluid models of collisionless magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, P.B.; Hammett, G.W.; Dorland, W.

    1997-01-01

    A closed set of fluid moment equations including models of kinetic Landau damping is developed which describes the evolution of collisionless plasmas in the magnetohydrodynamic parameter regime. The model is fully electromagnetic and describes the dynamics of both compressional and shear Alfven waves, as well as ion acoustic waves. The model allows for separate parallel and perpendicular pressures p parallel and p perpendicular , and, unlike previous models such as Chew-Goldberger-Low theory, correctly predicts the instability threshold for the mirror instability. Both a simple 3 + 1 moment model and a more accurate 4 + 2 moment model are developed, and both could be useful for numerical simulations of astrophysical and fusion plasmas

  20. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  1. Particle simulations of nonlinear whistler and Alfven wave instabilities - Amplitude modulation, decay, soliton and inverse cascading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Yoshiharu; Matsumoto, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    Past theoretical and numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of electromagnetic cyclotron waves are reviewed. Such waves are commonly observed in space plasmas such as Alfven waves in the solar wind or VLF whistler mode waves in the magnetosphere. The use of an electromagnetic full-particle code to study an electron cyclotron wave and of an electromagnetic hybrid code to study an ion cyclotron wave is demonstrated. Recent achievements in the simulations of nonlinear revolution of electromagnetic cyclotron waves are discussed. The inverse cascading processes of finite-amplitude whistler and Alfven waves is interpreted in terms of physical elementary processes. 65 refs

  2. Nonlinear delta f Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hong Qi

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, ...

  3. Stochastic Simulation of Integrated Circuits with Nonlinear Black-Box Components via Augmented Deterministic Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANFREDI, P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends recent literature results concerning the statistical simulation of circuits affected by random electrical parameters by means of the polynomial chaos framework. With respect to previous implementations, based on the generation and simulation of augmented and deterministic circuit equivalents, the modeling is extended to generic and ?black-box? multi-terminal nonlinear subcircuits describing complex devices, like those found in integrated circuits. Moreover, based on recently-published works in this field, a more effective approach to generate the deterministic circuit equivalents is implemented, thus yielding more compact and efficient models for nonlinear components. The approach is fully compatible with commercial (e.g., SPICE-type circuit simulators and is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of a realistic interconnect structure with a 16-bit memory chip. The accuracy and the comparison against previous approaches are also carefully established.

  4. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics in the extreme relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The evolution equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics are derived in the extreme relativistic regime and contrasted with the treatment of hydromagnetic nonlinearities pioneered by Lichnerowicz in the absence of anomalous currents. In particular we explore the situation where the conventional vector currents are complemented by the axial-vector currents arising either from the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons of a spontaneously broken symmetry or because of finite fermionic density effects. After expanding the generally covariant equations in inverse powers of the conductivity, the relativistic analog of the magnetic diffusivity equation is derived in the presence of vortical and magnetic currents. While the anomalous contributions are generally suppressed by the diffusivity, they are shown to disappear in the perfectly conducting limit. When the flow is irrotational, boost-invariant and with vanishing four-acceleration the corresponding evolution equations are explicitly integrated so that the various physic...

  5. Nonideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and toroidal magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-05-01

    The marked divergence of experimentally observed plasma instability phenomena from the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics led in the early 1960s to the formulations of finite-resistivity stability theory. Beginning in the 1970s, advanced plasma diagnostics have served to establish a detailed correspondence between the predictions of the finite-resistivity theory and experimental plasma behavior - particularly in the case of the resistive kink mode and the tokamak plasma. Nonlinear resistive-kink phenomena have been found to govern the transport of magnetic flux and plasma energy in the reversed-field pinch. The other predicted finite-resistivity instability modes have been more difficult to identify directly and their implications for toroidal magnetic confinement are still unresolved

  6. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  7. Hall magnetohydrodynamics: Conservation laws and Lyapunov stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Hall electric fields produce circulating mass flow in confined ideal-fluid plasmas. The conservation laws, Hamiltonian structure, equilibrium state relations, and Lyapunov stability conditions are presented here for ideal Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD) in two and three dimensions. The approach here is to use the remarkable array of nonlinear conservation laws for HMHD that follow from its Hamiltonian structure in order to construct explicit Lyapunov functionals for the HMHD equilibrium states. In this way, the Lyapunov stability analysis provides classes of HMHD equilibria that are stable and whose linearized initial-value problems are well posed (in the sense of possessing continuous dependence on initial conditions). Several examples are discussed in both two and three dimensions

  8. Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using PZFlex and the KZK Texas code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin-C.; Cleveland, Robin

    2015-10-01

    In biomedical ultrasound nonlinear acoustics can be important in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and robust simulations tools are needed in the design process but also for day-to-day use such as treatment planning. For most biomedical application the ultrasound sources generate focused sound beams of finite amplitude. The KZK equation is a common model as it accounts for nonlinearity, absorption and paraxial diffraction and there are a number of solvers available, primarily developed by research groups. We compare the predictions of the KZK Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm) to an FEM-based commercial software, PZFlex. PZFlex solves the continuity equation and momentum conservation equation with a correction for nonlinearity in the equation of state incorporated using an incrementally linear, 2nd order accurate, explicit algorithm in time domain. Nonlinear ultrasound beams from two transducers driven at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz respectively were simulated by both the KZK Texas code and PZFlex, and the pressure field was also measured by a fibre-optic hydrophone to validate the models. Further simulations were carried out a wide range of frequencies. The comparisons showed good agreement for the fundamental frequency for PZFlex, the KZK Texas code and the experiments. For the harmonic components, the KZK Texas code was in good agreement with measurements but PZFlex underestimated the amplitude: 32% for the 2nd harmonic and 66% for the 3rd harmonic. The underestimation of harmonics by PZFlex was more significant when the fundamental frequency increased. Furthermore non-physical oscillations in the axial profile of harmonics occurred in the PZFlex results when the amplitudes were relatively low. These results suggest that careful benchmarking of nonlinear simulations is important.

  9. Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using PZFlex and the KZK Texas code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Shan, E-mail: shan.qiao@eng.ox.ac.uk; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin-C; Cleveland, Robin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    In biomedical ultrasound nonlinear acoustics can be important in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and robust simulations tools are needed in the design process but also for day-to-day use such as treatment planning. For most biomedical application the ultrasound sources generate focused sound beams of finite amplitude. The KZK equation is a common model as it accounts for nonlinearity, absorption and paraxial diffraction and there are a number of solvers available, primarily developed by research groups. We compare the predictions of the KZK Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm) to an FEM-based commercial software, PZFlex. PZFlex solves the continuity equation and momentum conservation equation with a correction for nonlinearity in the equation of state incorporated using an incrementally linear, 2nd order accurate, explicit algorithm in time domain. Nonlinear ultrasound beams from two transducers driven at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz respectively were simulated by both the KZK Texas code and PZFlex, and the pressure field was also measured by a fibre-optic hydrophone to validate the models. Further simulations were carried out a wide range of frequencies. The comparisons showed good agreement for the fundamental frequency for PZFlex, the KZK Texas code and the experiments. For the harmonic components, the KZK Texas code was in good agreement with measurements but PZFlex underestimated the amplitude: 32% for the 2nd harmonic and 66% for the 3rd harmonic. The underestimation of harmonics by PZFlex was more significant when the fundamental frequency increased. Furthermore non-physical oscillations in the axial profile of harmonics occurred in the PZFlex results when the amplitudes were relatively low. These results suggest that careful benchmarking of nonlinear simulations is important.

  10. Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using PZFlex and the KZK Texas code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Shan; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin-C; Cleveland, Robin

    2015-01-01

    In biomedical ultrasound nonlinear acoustics can be important in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications and robust simulations tools are needed in the design process but also for day-to-day use such as treatment planning. For most biomedical application the ultrasound sources generate focused sound beams of finite amplitude. The KZK equation is a common model as it accounts for nonlinearity, absorption and paraxial diffraction and there are a number of solvers available, primarily developed by research groups. We compare the predictions of the KZK Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm) to an FEM-based commercial software, PZFlex. PZFlex solves the continuity equation and momentum conservation equation with a correction for nonlinearity in the equation of state incorporated using an incrementally linear, 2nd order accurate, explicit algorithm in time domain. Nonlinear ultrasound beams from two transducers driven at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz respectively were simulated by both the KZK Texas code and PZFlex, and the pressure field was also measured by a fibre-optic hydrophone to validate the models. Further simulations were carried out a wide range of frequencies. The comparisons showed good agreement for the fundamental frequency for PZFlex, the KZK Texas code and the experiments. For the harmonic components, the KZK Texas code was in good agreement with measurements but PZFlex underestimated the amplitude: 32% for the 2nd harmonic and 66% for the 3rd harmonic. The underestimation of harmonics by PZFlex was more significant when the fundamental frequency increased. Furthermore non-physical oscillations in the axial profile of harmonics occurred in the PZFlex results when the amplitudes were relatively low. These results suggest that careful benchmarking of nonlinear simulations is important

  11. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  12. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term −ΔQ, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and Δ is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensional Euler vorticity equation of a neutral fluid. A heuristic estimate shows that current sheets grow exponentially (even in a fully nonlinear regime) together with the action variable P that is conjugate to Q. By numerical simulation, the predicted behavior of the canonical variables, yielding exponential growth of current sheets, has been demonstrated

  13. Forward and inverse cascades in decaying two-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, C. J.; Hollerbach, R.

    2009-01-01

    Electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) turbulence in two dimensions is studied via high-resolution numerical simulations with a normal diffusivity. The resulting energy spectra asymptotically approach a k -5/2 law with increasing R B , the ratio of the nonlinear to linear time scales in the governing equation. No evidence is found of a dissipative cutoff, consistent with nonlocal spectral energy transfer. Dissipative cutoffs found in previous studies are explained as artificial effects of hyperdiffusivity. Relatively stationary structures are found to develop in time, rather than the variability found in ordinary or MHD turbulence. Further, EMHD turbulence displays scale-dependent anisotropy with reduced energy transfer in the direction parallel to the uniform background field, consistent with previous studies. Finally, the governing equation is found to yield an inverse cascade, at least partially transferring magnetic energy from small to large scales.

  14. Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface

  15. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  16. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the I-mode high confinement regime and comparisons with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A. E., E-mail: whitea@mit.edu; Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego (UCSD) San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Candy, J.; Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [York University, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.

  17. Local interaction simulation approach to modelling nonclassical, nonlinear elastic behavior in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, Marco; Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Johnson, Paul A

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies show that a broad category of materials share "nonclassical" nonlinear elastic behavior much different from "classical" (Landau-type) nonlinearity. Manifestations of "nonclassical" nonlinearity include stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasistatic experiments, and specific dependencies of the harmonic amplitudes with respect to the drive amplitude in dynamic wave experiments, which are remarkably different from those predicted by the classical theory. These materials have in common soft "bond" elements, where the elastic nonlinearity originates, contained in hard matter (e.g., a rock sample). The bond system normally comprises a small fraction of the total material volume, and can be localized (e.g., a crack in a solid) or distributed, as in a rock. In this paper a model is presented in which the soft elements are treated as hysteretic or reversible elastic units connected in a one-dimensional lattice to elastic elements (grains), which make up the hard matrix. Calculations are performed in the framework of the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Experimental observations are well predicted by the model, which is now ready both for basic investigations about the physical origins of nonlinear elasticity and for applications to material damage diagnostics.

  18. Fuzzy Control Model and Simulation for Nonlinear Supply Chain System with Lead Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fuzzy robust control strategy for the nonlinear supply chain system in the presence of lead times is proposed. Based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control system, the fuzzy control model of the nonlinear supply chain system with lead times is constructed. Additionally, we design a fuzzy robust H∞ control strategy taking the definition of maximal overlapped-rules group into consideration to restrain the impacts such as those caused by lead times, switching actions among submodels, and customers’ stochastic demands. This control strategy can not only guarantee that the nonlinear supply chain system is robustly asymptotically stable but also realize soft switching among subsystems of the nonlinear supply chain to make the less fluctuation of the system variables by introducing the membership function of fuzzy system. The comparisons between the proposed fuzzy robust H∞ control strategy and the robust H∞ control strategy are finally illustrated through numerical simulations on a two-stage nonlinear supply chain with lead times.

  19. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila; Manohar, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Volterra representation enables modeling of complex synaptic nonlinear dynamics in large-scale simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Eric Y; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C; Song, Dong; Baudry, Michel; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical synapses are comprised of a wide collection of intricate signaling pathways involving complex dynamics. These mechanisms are often reduced to simple spikes or exponential representations in order to enable computer simulations at higher spatial levels of complexity. However, these representations cannot capture important nonlinear dynamics found in synaptic transmission. Here, we propose an input-output (IO) synapse model capable of generating complex nonlinear dynamics while maintaining low computational complexity. This IO synapse model is an extension of a detailed mechanistic glutamatergic synapse model capable of capturing the input-output relationships of the mechanistic model using the Volterra functional power series. We demonstrate that the IO synapse model is able to successfully track the nonlinear dynamics of the synapse up to the third order with high accuracy. We also evaluate the accuracy of the IO synapse model at different input frequencies and compared its performance with that of kinetic models in compartmental neuron models. Our results demonstrate that the IO synapse model is capable of efficiently replicating complex nonlinear dynamics that were represented in the original mechanistic model and provide a method to replicate complex and diverse synaptic transmission within neuron network simulations.

  1. Modeling of fatigue crack induced nonlinear ultrasonics using a highly parallelized explicit local interaction simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a parallelized modeling technique for the efficient simulation of nonlinear ultrasonics introduced by the wave interaction with fatigue cracks. The elastodynamic wave equations with contact effects are formulated using an explicit Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA). The LISA formulation is extended to capture the contact-impact phenomena during the wave damage interaction based on the penalty method. A Coulomb friction model is integrated into the computation procedure to capture the stick-slip contact shear motion. The LISA procedure is coded using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which enables the highly parallelized supercomputing on powerful graphic cards. Both the explicit contact formulation and the parallel feature facilitates LISA's superb computational efficiency over the conventional finite element method (FEM). The theoretical formulations based on the penalty method is introduced and a guideline for the proper choice of the contact stiffness is given. The convergence behavior of the solution under various contact stiffness values is examined. A numerical benchmark problem is used to investigate the new LISA formulation and results are compared with a conventional contact finite element solution. Various nonlinear ultrasonic phenomena are successfully captured using this contact LISA formulation, including the generation of nonlinear higher harmonic responses. Nonlinear mode conversion of guided waves at fatigue cracks is also studied.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of nonlinear reactive contaminant transport in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacobbo, F.; Patelli, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the current proposed solutions of radioactive waste repositories, the protective function against the radionuclide water-driven transport back to the biosphere is to be provided by an integrated system of engineered and natural geologic barriers. The occurrence of several nonlinear interactions during the radionuclide migration process may render burdensome the classical analytical-numerical approaches. Moreover, the heterogeneity of the barriers' media forces approximations to the classical analytical-numerical models, thus reducing their fidelity to reality. In an attempt to overcome these difficulties, in the present paper we adopt a Monte Carlo simulation approach, previously developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov-Dmitriev theory of branching stochastic processes. The approach is here extended for describing transport through unsaturated porous media under transient flow conditions and in presence of nonlinear interchange phenomena between the liquid and solid phases. This generalization entails the determination of the functional dependence of the parameters of the proposed transport model from the water content and from the contaminant concentration, which change in space and time during the water infiltration process. The corresponding Monte Carlo simulation approach is verified with respect to a case of nonreactive transport under transient unsaturated flow and to a case of nonlinear reactive transport under stationary saturated flow. Numerical applications regarding linear and nonlinear reactive transport under transient unsaturated flow are reported

  3. Magnetohydrodynamics of neutron star interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, I.; Pethick, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic equations for the charged particles in the fluid interior of a neutron star are derived from the Landau-Boltzmann kinetic equations. It is assumed that the protons are normal and the neutrons are superfluid. The dissipative processes associated with the weak interactions are shown to be negligible except in very hot neutron stars; we neglect them here. Among the topics discussed are: the influence of the neutron-proton nuclear force (Fermi liquid corrections) on the magnetohydrodynamics; the effects of the magnetic field on the pressure, viscosity, and heat conductivity tensors; the plasma equation of state; and the form of the generalized Ohm's law

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar eruption on 2010 April 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, B.; Su, Y. N.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the coronal magnetic field prior to eruptive processes and the conditions for the onset of eruption are important issues that can be addressed through studying the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and evolution of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models. This paper uses data-constrained NLFFF models of a solar active region (AR) that erupted on 2010 April 8 as initial conditions in MHD simulations. These models, constructed with the techniques of flux rope insertion and magnetofrictional relaxation (MFR), include a stable, an approximately marginally stable, and an unstable configuration. The simulations confirm previous related results of MFR runs, particularly that stable flux rope equilibria represent key features of the observed pre-eruption coronal structure very well, and that there is a limiting value of the axial flux in the rope for the existence of stable NLFFF equilibria. The specific limiting value is located within a tighter range, due to the sharper discrimination between stability and instability by the MHD description. The MHD treatment of the eruptive configuration yields a very good agreement with a number of observed features, like the strongly inclined initial rise path and the close temporal association between the coronal mass ejection and the onset of flare reconnection. Minor differences occur in the velocity of flare ribbon expansion and in the further evolution of the inclination; these can be eliminated through refined simulations. We suggest that the slingshot effect of horizontally bent flux in the source region of eruptions can contribute significantly to the inclination of the rise direction. Finally, we demonstrate that the onset criterion, formulated in terms of a threshold value for the axial flux in the rope, corresponds very well to the threshold of the torus instability in the considered AR.

  5. Pulsar Magnetohydrodynamic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Isao; Sigalo, Friday B.

    2006-12-01

    The acceleration and collimation/decollimation of relativistic magnetocentrifugal winds are discussed concerning a cold plasma from a strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star in a steady axisymmetric state based on ideal magnetohydrodynamics. There exist unipolar inductors associated with the field line angular frequency, α, at the magnetospheric base surface, SB, with a huge potential difference between the poles and the equator, which drive electric current through the pulsar magnetosphere. Any ``current line'' must emanate from one terminal of the unipolar inductor and return to the other, converting the Poynting flux to the kinetic flux of the wind at finite distances. In a plausible field structure satisfying the transfield force-balance equation, the fast surface, SF, must exist somewhere between the subasymptotic and asymptotic domains, i.e., at the innermost point along each field line of the asymptotic domain of \\varpaA2/\\varpi2 ≪ 1, where \\varpiA is the Alfvénic axial distance. The criticality condition at SF yields the Lorentz factor, γF = μ\\varepsilon1/3, and the angular momentum flux, β, as the eigenvalues in terms of the field line angular velocity, α, the mass flux per unit flux tube, η, and one of the Bernoulli integrals, μδ, which are assumed to be specifiable as the boundary conditions at SB. The other Bernoulli integral, μɛ, is related to μδ as μɛ = μδ[1-(α2\\varpiA2/c2)]-1, and both μɛ and \\varpiA2 are eigenvalues to be determined by the criticality condition at SF. Ongoing MHD acceleration is possible in the superfast domain. This fact may be helpful in resolving a discrepancy between the wind theory and the Crab-nebula model. It is argued that the ``anti-collimation theorem'' holds for relativistic winds, based on the curvature of field streamlines determined by the transfield force balance. The ``theorem'' combines with the ``current-closure condition'' as a global condition in the wind zone to produce a

  6. Semi-physical Simulation Platform of a Parafoil Nonlinear Dynamic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hai-Tao; Yang Sheng-Bo; Zhu Er-Lin; Sun Qing-Lin; Chen Zeng-Qiang; Kang Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the problems in the process of simulation and experiment on a parafoil nonlinear dynamic system, such as limited methods, high cost and low efficiency we present a semi-physical simulation platform. It is designed by connecting parts of physical objects to a computer, and remedies the defect that a computer simulation is divorced from a real environment absolutely. The main components of the platform and its functions, as well as simulation flows, are introduced. The feasibility and validity are verified through a simulation experiment. The experimental results show that the platform has significance for improving the quality of the parafoil fixed-point airdrop system, shortening the development cycle and saving cost

  7. Real-time simulation of the nonlinear visco-elastic deformations of soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Farahmand, Farzam

    2011-05-01

    Mass-spring-damper (MSD) models are often used for real-time surgery simulation due to their fast response and fairly realistic deformation replication. An improved real time simulation model of soft tissue deformation due to a laparoscopic surgical indenter was developed and tested. The mechanical realization of conventional MSD models was improved using nonlinear springs and nodal dampers, while their high computational efficiency was maintained using an adapted implicit integration algorithm. New practical algorithms for model parameter tuning, collision detection, and simulation were incorporated. The model was able to replicate complex biological soft tissue mechanical properties under large deformations, i.e., the nonlinear and viscoelastic behaviors. The simulated response of the model after tuning of its parameters to the experimental data of a deer liver sample, closely tracked the reference data with high correlation and maximum relative differences of less than 5 and 10%, for the tuning and testing data sets respectively. Finally, implementation of the proposed model and algorithms in a graphical environment resulted in a real-time simulation with update rates of 150 Hz for interactive deformation and haptic manipulation, and 30 Hz for visual rendering. The proposed real time simulation model of soft tissue deformation due to a laparoscopic surgical indenter was efficient, realistic, and accurate in ex vivo testing. This model is a suitable candidate for testing in vivo during laparoscopic surgery.

  8. The Study of Non-Linear Acceleration of Particles during Substorms Using Multi-Scale Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    2011-01-01

    To understand particle acceleration during magnetospheric substorms we must consider the problem on multple scales ranging from the large scale changes in the entire magnetosphere to the microphysics of wave particle interactions. In this paper we present two examples that demonstrate the complexity of substorm particle acceleration and its multi-scale nature. The first substorm provided us with an excellent example of ion acceleration. On March 1, 2008 four THEMIS spacecraft were in a line extending from 8 R E to 23 R E in the magnetotail during a very large substorm during which ions were accelerated to >500 keV. We used a combination of a global magnetohydrodynamic and large scale kinetic simulations to model the ion acceleration and found that the ions gained energy by non-adiabatic trajectories across the substorm electric field in a narrow region extending across the magnetotail between x = -10 R E and x = -15 R E . In this strip called the 'wall region' the ions move rapidly in azimuth and gain 100s of keV. In the second example we studied the acceleration of electrons associated with a pair of dipolarization fronts during a substorm on February 15, 2008. During this substorm three THEMIS spacecraft were grouped in the near-Earth magnetotail (x ∼-10 R E ) and observed electron acceleration of >100 keV accompanied by intense plasma waves. We used the MHD simulations and analytic theory to show that adiabatic motion (betatron and Fermi acceleration) was insufficient to account for the electron acceleration and that kinetic processes associated with the plasma waves were important.

  9. Non-axisymmetric simulation of the vertical displacement event in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Y.Y.; Lee, J.K.; Shin, K.J.; Hur, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Tokamak plasmas with highly elongated cross sections are subject to a vertical displacement event (VDE). The nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) evolutions of tokamak plasmas during the VDE are simulated by a three-dimensional MHD code as a combination of N=0 and N=1 components. The nonlinear evolution during the VDE is strongly affected by the relative amplitude of the N=1 to the N=0 modes. (author)

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between general plasma physics lectures and the real world problems in MHD stability. In order to support the understanding of concepts and their implication, it refers to real world problems such as toroidal mode coupling or nonlinear evolution in a conceptual and phenomenological approach. Detailed mathematical treatment will involve classical linear stability analysis and an outline of more recent concepts such as the ballooning formalism. The book is based on lectures that the author has given to Master and PhD students in Fusion Plasma Physics. Due its strong lin

  11. Fuzzy robust nonlinear control approach for electro-hydraulic flight motion simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Songshan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy robust nonlinear controller for hydraulic rotary actuators in flight motion simulators is proposed. Compared with other three-order models of hydraulic rotary actuators, the proposed controller based on first-order nonlinear model is more easily applied in practice, whose control law is relatively simple. It not only does not need high-order derivative of desired command, but also does not require the feedback signals of velocity, acceleration and jerk of hydraulic rotary actuators. Another advantage is that it does not rely on any information of friction, inertia force and external disturbing force/torque, which are always difficult to resolve in flight motion simulators. Due to the special composite vane seals of rectangular cross-section and goalpost shape used in hydraulic rotary actuators, the leakage model is more complicated than that of traditional linear hydraulic cylinders. Adaptive multi-input single-output (MISO fuzzy compensators are introduced to estimate nonlinear uncertain functions about leakage and bulk modulus. Meanwhile, the decomposition of the uncertainties is used to reduce the total number of fuzzy rules. Different from other adaptive fuzzy compensators, a discontinuous projection mapping is employed to guarantee the estimation process to be bounded. Furthermore, with a sufficient number of fuzzy rules, the controller theoretically can guarantee asymptotic tracking performance in the presence of the above uncertainties, which is very important for high-accuracy tracking control of flight motion simulators. Comparative experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, which can guarantee transient performance and better final accurate tracking in the presence of uncertain nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties.

  12. NUMERICAL MODELING AND DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF NONLINEAR AEROTHERMOELASTIC OF A DOUBLE-WEDGE LIFTING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIF A. EBRAHEEM AL-QASSAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of the re-entry space vehicles and high-speed aircrafts requires special attention to the nonlinear thermoelastic and aerodynamic instabilities of their structural components. The thermal effects are important since temperature environment influences significantly the static and dynamic behaviors of flight structures in supersonic/hypersonic regimes. To contribute to the understanding of dynamic behavior of these “hot” structures, a double-wedge lifting surface with combined freeplay and cubic stiffening structural nonlinearities in both plunging and pitching degrees-of-freedom operating in supersonic/hypersonic flight speed regimes has been analyzed. A third order Piston Theory Aerodynamics is used to evaluate the applied nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads. The loss of torsional stiffness that may be incurred by lifting surfaces subjected to axial stresses induced by aerodynamic heating is also considered. The aerodynamic heating effect is estimated based on the adiabatic wall temperature due to high speed airstreams. Modelling issues as well as simulation results have been presented and pertinent conclusions outlined. It is highlighted that a serious loss of torsional stiffness may induce the dynamic instability of the lifting surfaces. The influence of various parameters such as flight condition, thickness ratio, freeplays and pitching stiffness nonlinearity are also discussed.

  13. Accuracy of three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis in time domain using nonlinear numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fayun; Chen, Haibing; Huang, Maosong

    2017-07-01

    To provide appropriate uses of nonlinear ground response analysis for engineering practice, a three-dimensional soil column with a distributed mass system and a time domain numerical analysis were implemented on the OpenSees simulation platform. The standard mesh of a three-dimensional soil column was suggested to be satisfied with the specified maximum frequency. The layered soil column was divided into multiple sub-soils with a different viscous damping matrix according to the shear velocities as the soil properties were significantly different. It was necessary to use a combination of other one-dimensional or three-dimensional nonlinear seismic ground analysis programs to confirm the applicability of nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures in soft soil or for strong earthquakes. The accuracy of the three-dimensional soil column finite element method was verified by dynamic centrifuge model testing under different peak accelerations of the earthquake. As a result, nonlinear seismic ground motion response analysis procedures were improved in this study. The accuracy and efficiency of the three-dimensional seismic ground response analysis can be adapted to the requirements of engineering practice.

  14. New human-centered linear and nonlinear motion cueing algorithms for control of simulator motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telban, Robert J.

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input

  15. Nonlinear plasma wave models in 3D fluid simulations of laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Arrighi, Bill; Langer, Steve; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions require multi-mm spatial scales due to the typical laser beam size and durations of order 100 ps in order for numerical laser reflectivities to converge. To be computationally achievable, these scales necessitate a fluid-like treatment of light and plasma waves with a spatial grid size on the order of the light wave length. Plasma waves experience many nonlinear phenomena not naturally described by a fluid treatment, such as frequency shifts induced by trapping, a nonlinear (typically suppressed) Landau damping, and mode couplings leading to instabilities that can cause the plasma wave to decay rapidly. These processes affect the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, and are of direct interest to the modeling and prediction of deleterious LPI in ICF. It is not currently computationally feasible to simulate these Debye length-scale phenomena in 3D across experimental scales. Analytically-derived and/or numerically benchmarked models of processes occurring at scales finer than the fluid simulation grid offer a path forward. We demonstrate the impact of a range of kinetic processes on plasma reflectivity via models included in the LPI simulation code pF3D. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Neoclassical viscous stress tensor for non-linear MHD simulations with XTOR-2F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellet, N.; Maget, P.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Lütjens, H.

    2013-01-01

    The neoclassical viscous stress tensor is implemented in the non-linear MHD code XTOR-2F (Lütjens and Luciani 2010 J. Comput. Phys. 229 8130–43), allowing consistent bi-fluid simulations of MHD modes, including the metastable branch of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) (Carrera et al 1986 Phys. Fluids 29 899–902). Equilibrium flows and bootstrap current from the neoclassical theory are formally recovered in this Chew–Goldberger–Low formulation. The non-linear behaviour of the new model is verified on a test case coming from a Tore Supra non-inductive discharge. A NTM threshold that is larger than with the previous model is obtained. This is due to the fact that the velocity is now part of the bootstrap current and that it differs from the theoretical neoclassical value. (paper)

  17. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  18. Feedback control systems for non-linear simulation of operational transients in LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Srinivasan, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    Feedback control systems for non-linear simulation of operational transients in LMFBRs are developed. The models include (1) the reactor power control and rod drive mechanism, (2) sodium flow control and pump drive system, (3) steam generator flow control and valve actuator dynamics, and (4) the supervisory control. These models have been incorporated into the SSC code using a flexible approach, in order to accommodate some design dependent variations. The impact of system nonlinearity on the control dynamics is shown to be significant for severe perturbations. Representative result for a 10 cent and 25 cent step insertion of reactivity and a 10% ramp change in load in 40 seconds demonstrate the suitability of this model for study of operational transients without scram in LMFBRs

  19. Simulation of nonlinear wave run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the numerical simulation of nonlinear wave run-up within a highly accurate Boussinesq-type model. Moving wet–dry boundary algorithms based on so-called extrapolating boundary techniques are utilized, and a new variant of this approach is proposed in two horizontal dimensions....... As validation, computed results involving the nonlinear run-up of periodic as well as transient waves on a sloping beach are considered in a single horizontal dimension, demonstrating excellent agreement with analytical solutions for both the free surface and horizontal velocity. In two horizontal dimensions...... cases involving long wave resonance in a parabolic basin, solitary wave evolution in a triangular channel, and solitary wave run-up on a circular conical island are considered. In each case the computed results compare well against available analytical solutions or experimental measurements. The ability...

  20. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  1. Wave-Kinetic Simulations of the Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic VLF Waves through Velocity Ring Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.; Mithaiwala, M.

    2014-12-01

    Velocity ring instabilities are a common naturally occuring magnetospheric phenomenon that can also be generated by man made ionospheric experiments. These instabilities are known to generate lower-hybrid waves, which generally cannot propagte out of the source region. However, nonlinear wave physics can convert these linearly driven electrostatic lower-hybrid waves into electromagnetic waves that can escape the source region. These nonlinearly generated waves can be an important source of VLF turbulence that controls the trapped electron lifetime in the radiation belts. We develop numerical solutions to the wave-kinetic equation in a periodic box including the effects of nonlinear (NL) scattering (nonlinear Landau damping) of Lower-hybrid waves giving the evolution of the wave-spectra in wavenumber space. Simultaneously we solve the particle diffusion equation of both the background plasma particles and the ring ions, due to both linear and nonlinear Landau resonances. At initial times for cold ring ions, an electrostatic beam mode is excited, while the kinetic mode is stable. As the instability progresses the ring ions heat, the beam mode is stabilized, and the kinetic mode destabilizes. When the amplitude of the waves becomes sufficient the lower-hybrid waves are scattered (by either nearly unmagnetized ions or magnetized electrons) into electromagnetic magnetosonic waves [Ganguli et al 2010]. The effect of NL scattering is to limit the amplitude of the waves, slowing down the quasilinear relaxation time and ultimately allowing more energy from the ring to be liberated into waves [Mithaiwala et al. 2011]. The effects of convection out of the instability region are modeled, additionally limiting the amplitude of the waves, allowing further energy to be liberated from the ring [Scales et al., 2012]. Results are compared to recent 3D PIC simulations [Winske and Duaghton 2012].

  2. Two-dimensional Radiative Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Partial Ionization in the Chromosphere. II. Dynamics and Energetics of the Low Solar Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Pontieu, Bart De; Hansteen, Viggo H. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Carlsson, Mats; Gudiksen, Boris V. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Nóbrega-Siverio, Daniel, E-mail: juanms@lmsal.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2017-09-20

    We investigate the effects of interactions between ions and neutrals on the chromosphere and overlying corona using 2.5D radiative MHD simulations with the Bifrost code. We have extended the code capabilities implementing ion–neutral interaction effects using the generalized Ohm’s law, i.e., we include the Hall term and the ambipolar diffusion (Pedersen dissipation) in the induction equation. Our models span from the upper convection zone to the corona, with the photosphere, chromosphere, and transition region partially ionized. Our simulations reveal that the interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles have important consequences for the magnetothermodynamics of these modeled layers: (1) ambipolar diffusion increases the temperature in the chromosphere; (2) sporadically the horizontal magnetic field in the photosphere is diffused into the chromosphere, due to the large ambipolar diffusion; (3) ambipolar diffusion concentrates electrical currents, leading to more violent jets and reconnection processes, resulting in (3a) the formation of longer and faster spicules, (3b) heating of plasma during the spicule evolution, and (3c) decoupling of the plasma and magnetic field in spicules. Our results indicate that ambipolar diffusion is a critical ingredient for understanding the magnetothermodynamic properties in the chromosphere and transition region. The numerical simulations have been made publicly available, similar to previous Bifrost simulations. This will allow the community to study realistic numerical simulations with a wider range of magnetic field configurations and physics modules than previously possible.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of nonlinear spectroscopies of intermolecular motions in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Saito, Shinji

    2009-09-15

    Water is the most extensively studied of liquids because of both its ubiquity and its anomalous thermodynamic and dynamic properties. The properties of water are dominated by hydrogen bonds and hydrogen bond network rearrangements. Fundamental information on the dynamics of liquid water has been provided by linear infrared (IR), Raman, and neutron-scattering experiments; molecular dynamics simulations have also provided insights. Recently developed higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies open new windows into the study of the hydrogen bond dynamics of liquid water. For example, the vibrational lifetimes of stretches and a bend, intramolecular features of water dynamics, can be accurately measured and are found to be on the femtosecond time scale at room temperature. Higher-order nonlinear spectroscopy is expressed by a multitime correlation function, whereas traditional linear spectroscopy is given by a one-time correlation function. Thus, nonlinear spectroscopy yields more detailed information on the dynamics of condensed media than linear spectroscopy. In this Account, we describe the theoretical background and methods for calculating higher order nonlinear spectroscopy; equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, and a combination of both, are used. We also present the intermolecular dynamics of liquid water revealed by fifth-order two-dimensional (2D) Raman spectroscopy and third-order IR spectroscopy. 2D Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to couplings between modes; the calculated 2D Raman signal of liquid water shows large anharmonicity in the translational motion and strong coupling between the translational and librational motions. Third-order IR spectroscopy makes it possible to examine the time-dependent couplings. The 2D IR spectra and three-pulse photon echo peak shift show the fast frequency modulation of the librational motion. A significant effect of the translational motion on the fast frequency modulation of the librational motion is

  4. Quasi-static earthquake cycle simulation based on nonlinear viscoelastic finite element analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hyodo, M.; Barbot, S.; Hori, T.

    2017-12-01

    To explain earthquake generation processes, simulation methods of earthquake cycles have been studied. For such simulations, the combination of the rate- and state-dependent friction law at the fault plane and the boundary integral method based on Green's function in an elastic half space is widely used (e.g. Hori 2009; Barbot et al. 2012). In this approach, stress change around the fault plane due to crustal deformation can be computed analytically, while the effects of complex physics such as mantle rheology and gravity are generally not taken into account. To consider such effects, we seek to develop an earthquake cycle simulation combining crustal deformation computation based on the finite element (FE) method with the rate- and state-dependent friction law. Since the drawback of this approach is the computational cost associated with obtaining numerical solutions, we adopt a recently developed fast and scalable FE solver (Ichimura et al. 2016), which assumes use of supercomputers, to solve the problem in a realistic time. As in the previous approach, we solve the governing equations consisting of the rate- and state-dependent friction law. In solving the equations, we compute stress changes along the fault plane due to crustal deformation using FE simulation, instead of computing them by superimposing slip response function as in the previous approach. In stress change computation, we take into account nonlinear viscoelastic deformation in the asthenosphere. In the presentation, we will show simulation results in a normative three-dimensional problem, where a circular-shaped velocity-weakening area is set in a square-shaped fault plane. The results with and without nonlinear viscosity in the asthenosphere will be compared. We also plan to apply the developed code to simulate the post-earthquake deformation of a megathrust earthquake, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Acknowledgment: The results were obtained using the K computer at the RIKEN (Proposal number

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics and the thermonuclear problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1958-07-01

    The importance of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics for the solution of thermonuclear problem is presented in the paper. Methods for capture of a plasma by a magnetic field are discussed. From the study it is concluded that in principle it is possible to shoot heated plasma into a magnetic field and capture it there. A possible method of capturing plasma which is shot into a magnetic field is illustrated. Magnetohydrodynamic research performed during the last decade in Stockholm is presented. Following a long series of investigations of relatively cool plasmas, it has been started a series of experimental investigations on hot plasmas, concentrating on the fundamental properties of the plasma. New ways of the approach to the thermonuclear problem are analysed. Experiments have been with discharges of a few hundred kiloamps to produce fast-moving magnetized plasmas, in order to investigate whether they could be captured by magnetic fields in the discussed way.

  6. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures.

  7. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures

  8. 3D nonlinear numerical simulation of the current-convective instability in detached diverter plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2017-10-01

    One of the possible mechanisms responsible for strong radiation fluctuations observed in the recent experiments with detached plasmas at ASDEX Upgrade [Potzel et al., Nuclear Fusion, 2014] can be related to the onset of the current-convective instability (CCI) driven by strong asymmetry of detachment in the inner and outer tokamak divertors [Krasheninnikov and Smolyakov, PoP, 2016]. In this study we present the first results of 3D nonlinear numerical simulations of the CCI in divertor plasma for the conditions relevant to the AUG experiment. The general physical model used to simulate the CCI, qualitative estimates for the instability characteristic growth rate and transverse wavelengths derived for plasma, which is spatially inhomogeneous both across and along the magnetic field lines, are presented. The simulation results, demonstrating nonlinear dynamics of the CCI, provide the frequency spectra of turbulent divertor plasma fluctuations showing good agreement with the available experimental data. This material is based upon the work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD and by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science Grant No. 14.Y26.31.0008 at MEPhI.

  9. Progress in triangular magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnack, D.D.; Mikic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the advances in our understanding of fusion plasmas over the past ten years has resulted from the application of techniques of large scale numerical simulation to three dimensional toroidal geometry. Since the dominant toroidal motions in a tokamak are generally long wavelength, finite Fourier series provides an efficient spatial representation for that coordinate. However, the next generation of numerical tokamak simulations will require that the poloidal cross section of actual experimental devices be more accurately represented. The authors address these difficulties by the application of an unstructured adaptive mesh to the representation of the poloidal plane, coupled with a finite Fourier representation of the toroidal coordinate. These meshes are not tied to a particular coordinate system, so that mesh points can be arbitrarily distributed to simulate the details of experimental apparatus. Since mesh points do not have a sequential orientation with their spatial neighbors, they can be easily added and deleted based on physical criteria. Evolving fine scale spatial structures are thus efficiently and accurately represented. The authors have derived an algorithm for the solution of the resistive MHD equations on these meshes. This algorithm is based on the triangulation of arbitrarily distributed points in the plane; hence the term triangular MHD. The algorithm preserves the solenoidal properties of B and J identically, and is a generalization of staggered mesh techniques used in structured, rectangular grids. A new 3-D MHD code, TRIM, based on this algorithm has been developed. Preliminary results from TRIM are presented

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldreich, P.; Sridhar, S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1965, Kraichnan proposed that MHD turbulence occurs as a result of collisions between oppositely directed Alfvacute en wave packets. Recent work has generated some controversy over the nature of nonlinear couplings between colliding Alfvacute en waves. We find that the resolution to much of the confusion lies in the existence of a new type of turbulence, intermediate turbulence, in which the cascade of energy in the inertial range exhibits properties intermediate between those of weak and strong turbulent cascades. Some properties of intermediate MHD turbulence are the following: (1) in common with weak turbulent cascades, wave packets belonging to the inertial range are long-lived; (2) however, components of the strain tensor are so large that, similar to the situation in strong turbulence, perturbation theory is not applicable; (3) the breakdown of perturbation theory results from the divergence of neighboring field lines due to wave packets whose perturbations in velocity and magnetic fields are localized, but whose perturbations in displacement are not; (4) three-wave interactions dominate individual collisions between wave packets, but interactions of all orders n≥3 make comparable contributions to the intermediate turbulent energy cascade; (5) successive collisions are correlated since wave packets are distorted as they follow diverging field lines; (6) in common with the weak MHD cascade, there is no parallel cascade of energy, and the cascade to small perpendicular scales strengthens as it reaches higher wavenumbers; (7) for an appropriate weak excitation, there is a natural progression from a weak, through an intermediate, to a strong cascade. copyright 1997 The American Astronomical Society

  11. Non-linear 3D simulations of current-driven instabilities in jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovski, S.; Bonanno, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present global 3D nonlinear simulations of the Taylor instability in the presence of vertical fields. The initial configuration is in equilibrium, which is achieved by a pressure gradient or an external potential force. The non linear evolution of the system leads to a stable equilibrium with a current free toroidal field. We find the that presence of a vertical poloidal field stabilize the system if B φ ∼B z . The implication of our findings for the physics of astrophysical jets are discussed.

  12. Self-consistent nonlinear simulations of high-power free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, H.P.; Jackson, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Two 3-D nonlinear formulations of FEL amplifiers are described which treat both planar and helical wiggler geometries. For convenience, the authors refer to the planar (helical) formulation and simulation code as WIGGLIN (ARACHNE). These formulations are slow-time-scale models for FEL amplifiers in which the electron dynamics are treated using the complete 3-D Lorentz force equations without recourse to a wiggler period average. The application of these codes to the description of a collective reversed-field FEL experiment and to random wiggler field errors is described

  13. SCARF-4, Nonlinear Stresses in Pressure Vessel Liner with Plastic Behaviour Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, A.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Calculates non-linear stresses in a pressure vessel liner, simulating plastic behaviour on both panels and shear connectors. 2 - Method of solution: Iterations on the relevant formulae to obtain values of forces and deflections, adding a displacement factor when yielding has occurred. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: It is assumed that the left-hand end-load will stay constant throughout each loading cycle. Number of panels must be less than or equal to 62

  14. Neurosurgery simulation using non-linear finite element modeling and haptic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huai-Ping; Audette, Michel; Joldes, Grand R.; Enquobahrie, Andinet

    2012-02-01

    Real-time surgical simulation is becoming an important component of surgical training. To meet the realtime requirement, however, the accuracy of the biomechancial modeling of soft tissue is often compromised due to computing resource constraints. Furthermore, haptic integration presents an additional challenge with its requirement for a high update rate. As a result, most real-time surgical simulation systems employ a linear elasticity model, simplified numerical methods such as the boundary element method or spring-particle systems, and coarse volumetric meshes. However, these systems are not clinically realistic. We present here an ongoing work aimed at developing an efficient and physically realistic neurosurgery simulator using a non-linear finite element method (FEM) with haptic interaction. Real-time finite element analysis is achieved by utilizing the total Lagrangian explicit dynamic (TLED) formulation and GPU acceleration of per-node and per-element operations. We employ a virtual coupling method for separating deformable body simulation and collision detection from haptic rendering, which needs to be updated at a much higher rate than the visual simulation. The system provides accurate biomechancial modeling of soft tissue while retaining a real-time performance with haptic interaction. However, our experiments showed that the stability of the simulator depends heavily on the material property of the tissue and the speed of colliding objects. Hence, additional efforts including dynamic relaxation are required to improve the stability of the system.

  15. Nonlinear analysis and analog simulation of a piezoelectric buckled beam with fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokem Fokou, I. S.; Buckjohn, C. Nono Dueyou; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, an analog circuit for implementing fractional-order derivative and a harmonic balance method for a vibration energy harvesting system under pure sinusoidal vibration source is proposed in order to predict the system response. The objective of this paper is to discuss the performance of the system with fractional derivative and nonlinear damping (μb). Bifurcation diagram, phase portrait and power spectral density (PSD) are provided to deeply characterize the dynamics of the system. These results are corroborated by the 0-1 test. The appearance of the chaotic vibrations reduces the instantaneous voltage. The pre-experimental investigation is carried out through appropriate software electronic circuit (Multisim). The corresponding electronic circuit is designed, exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior, in accord with numerical simulations. The impact of fractional derivative and nonlinear damping is presented with detail on the output voltage and power of the system. The agreement between numerical and analytical results justifies the efficiency of the analytical technique used. In addition, by combining the harmonic excitation with the random force, the stochastic resonance phenomenon occurs and improves the harvested energy. It emerges from these results that the order of fractional derivative μ and nonlinear damping μb play an important role in the response of the system.

  16. Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.

    2017-10-01

    Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.

  17. Semi-implicit magnetohydrodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnack, D.D.; Barnes, D.C.; Mikic, Z.; Harned, D.S.; Caramana, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    A semi-implicit algorithm for the solution of the nonlinear, three-dimensional, resistive MHD equations in cylindrical geometry is presented. The specific model assumes uniform density and pressure, although this is not a restriction of the method. The spatial approximation employs finite differences in the radial coordinate, and the pseudo-spectral algorithm in the periodic poloidal and axial coordinates. A leapfrog algorithm is used to advance wave-like terms; advective terms are treated with a simple predictor--corrector method. The semi-implicit term is introduced as a simple modification to the momentum equation. Dissipation is treated implicitly. The resulting algorithm is unconditionally stable with respect to normal modes. A general discussion of the semi-implicit method is given, and specific forms of the semi-implicit operator are compared in physically relevant test cases. Long-time simulations are presented. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. I. Simulation model and monochromatic wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    An economical low-noise plasma simulation model originated by Denavit is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation. These tests serve to establish the low-noise features of the model, and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 10 -6 of the plasma thermal energy: Better quantitative results are obtained, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories

  19. Simulations of fluid flow through porous media based on cellular automata and non-linear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, K V

    1992-05-15

    A study is being carried out to apply cellular automata and non-linear dynamics in the construction of efficient and accurate computer simulations of multiphase fluid flow through porous media, with the objective of application to reservoir modelling for hydrocarbon recovery. An algorithm based on Boolean operations has been developed which transforms a PC clone into a highly efficient vector processor capable of cellular automata simulation of single fluid flow through two-dimensional rock matrix models of varying porosities. Macroscopic flow patterns have been established through spatial and temporal averaging with no floating point operations. Permeabilities of the different models have been calculated. Hardware allows the algorithm to function on dual processors on a PC platform using a video recording and editing facility. Very encouraging results have been obtained. 4 figs.

  20. Energy Decay Laws in Strongly Anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sebastien; Politano, Helene

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a uniform magnetic field B 0 =B 0 e parallel on energy decay laws in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The nonlinear transfer reduction along B 0 is included in a model that distinguishes parallel and perpendicular directions, following a phenomenology of Kraichnan. We predict a slowing down of the energy decay due to anisotropy in the limit of strong B 0 , with distinct power laws for energy decay of shear- and pseudo-Alfven waves. Numerical results from the kinetic equations of Alfven wave turbulence recover these predictions, and MHD numerical results clearly tend to follow them in the lowest perpendicular planes

  1. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E

    2003-01-01

    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  2. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    OpenAIRE

    Imazio, P. Rodriguez; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure funct...

  3. Modeling Nonlinear Site Response Uncertainty in Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimaki, D.; Li, W.; Steidl, J. M.; Schmedes, J.

    2007-12-01

    The assessment of strong motion site response is of great significance, both for mitigating seismic hazard and for performing detailed analyses of earthquake source characteristics. There currently exists, however, large degree of uncertainty concerning the mathematical model to be employed for the computationally efficient evaluation of local site effects, and the site investigation program necessary to evaluate the nonlinear input model parameters and ensure cost-effective predictions; and while site response observations may provide critical constraints on interpretation methods, the lack of a statistically significant number of in-situ strong motion records prohibits statistical analyses to be conducted and uncertainties to be quantified based entirely on field data. In this paper, we combine downhole observations and broadband ground motion synthetics for characteristic site conditions the Los Angeles Basin, and investigate the variability in ground motion estimation introduced by the site response assessment methodology. In particular, site-specific regional velocity and attenuation structures are initially compiled using near-surface geotechnical data collected at downhole geotechnical arrays, inverse low-strain velocity and attenuation profiles at these sites obtained by inversion of weak motion records and the crustal velocity structure at the corresponding locations obtained from the Southern California Earthquake Centre Community Velocity Model. Successively, broadband ground motions are simulated by means of a hybrid low/high-frequency finite source model with correlated random parameters for rupture scenaria of weak, medium and large magnitude events (M =3.5-7.5). Observed estimates of site response at the stations of interest are first compared to the ensemble of approximate and incremental nonlinear site response models. Parametric studies are next conducted for each fixed magnitude (fault geometry) scenario by varying the source-to-site distance and

  4. Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tsvelodub, O

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. Weakly nonlinear steady-state traveling solutions of the equation with wave numbers in a vicinity of neutral wave numbers are constructed analytically. The nature of the wave branching from the undisturbed solution is investigated. Steady-state traveling solutions, whose wave numbers within the instability area are far from neutral wave numbers, are found numerically. (paper)

  5. Nonperturbative quantum simulation of time-resolved nonlinear spectra: Methodology and application to electron transfer reactions in the condensed phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haobin; Thoss, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A quantum dynamical method is presented to accurately simulate time-resolved nonlinear spectra for complex molecular systems. The method combines the nonpertubative approach to describe nonlinear optical signals with the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree theory to calculate the laser-induced polarization for the overall field-matter system. A specific nonlinear optical signal is obtained by Fourier decomposition of the overall polarization. The performance of the method is demonstrated by applications to photoinduced ultrafast electron transfer reactions in mixed-valence compounds and at dye-semiconductor interfaces

  6. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Wheatley, V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  7. Geometrical shock dynamics for magnetohydrodynamic fast shocks

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2016-12-12

    We describe a formulation of two-dimensional geometrical shock dynamics (GSD) suitable for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fast shocks under magnetic fields of general strength and orientation. The resulting area–Mach-number–shock-angle relation is then incorporated into a numerical method using pseudospectral differentiation. The MHD-GSD model is verified by comparison with results from nonlinear finite-volume solution of the complete ideal MHD equations applied to a shock implosion flow in the presence of an oblique and spatially varying magnetic field ahead of the shock. Results from application of the MHD-GSD equations to the stability of fast MHD shocks in two dimensions are presented. It is shown that the time to formation of triple points for both perturbed MHD and gas-dynamic shocks increases as (Formula presented.), where (Formula presented.) is a measure of the initial Mach-number perturbation. Symmetry breaking in the MHD case is demonstrated. In cylindrical converging geometry, in the presence of an azimuthal field produced by a line current, the MHD shock behaves in the mean as in Pullin et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 2014, 097103), but suffers a greater relative pressure fluctuation along the shock than the gas-dynamic shock. © 2016 Cambridge University Press

  8. A Compact Synchronous Cellular Model of Nonlinear Calcium Dynamics: Simulation and FPGA Synthesis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hamid; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that calcium is a widespread intracellular ion that controls a wide range of temporal dynamics in the mammalian body. The simulation and validation of such studies using experimental data would benefit from a fast large scale simulation and modelling tool. This paper presents a compact and fully reconfigurable cellular calcium model capable of mimicking Hopf bifurcation phenomenon and various nonlinear responses of the biological calcium dynamics. The proposed cellular model is synthesized on a digital platform for a single unit and a network model. Hardware synthesis, physical implementation on FPGA, and theoretical analysis confirm that the proposed cellular model can mimic the biological calcium behaviors with considerably low hardware overhead. The approach has the potential to speed up large-scale simulations of slow intracellular dynamics by sharing more cellular units in real-time. To this end, various networks constructed by pipelining 10 k to 40 k cellular calcium units are compared with an equivalent simulation run on a standard PC workstation. Results show that the cellular hardware model is, on average, 83 times faster than the CPU version.

  9. The Magnetohydrodynamic Generator A Physics Olympiad Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Magnetohydrodynamic Generator A Physics Olympiad Problem (2001). Vijay A Singh ... Magnetohydrodynamics; generator; power; efficiency; Faraday's law; Physics Olympiad . Author Affiliations. Vijay A Singh1 Manish Kapoor2. Physics Department Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208016, India. MPE College ...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics modeling and simulation of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle system is a kind of naturally unstable underactuated system with high-rank unstable multivariable strongly coupling complicated dynamic nonlinear property. Nonlinear dynamics modeling and simulation, as a basis of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle dynamics research, has the guiding effect for system design of the project demonstration and design phase. Dynamics model of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is established by importing a TSi ProPac package to the Mathematica software (version 8.0, which analyzes the stability and calculates the Lyapunov exponents of the system. The relationship between external force and stability of the system is analyzed by the phase trajectory. Proportional–integral–derivative control is added to the system in order to improve the stability of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle. From the research, Lyapunov exponent can be used to research the stability of hyperchaos system. The stability of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is better by inputting the proportional–integral–derivative control. The Lyapunov exponent and phase trajectory can help us analyze the stability of a system better and lay the foundation for the analysis and control of the two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle system.

  11. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: michael.kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: tassi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.grasso@infm.polito.it [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  12. Intermittency in Hall-magnetohydrodynamics with a strong guide field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Imazio, P.; Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Mininni, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of intermittency in the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations of compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with an external guide field. To solve the equations numerically, a reduced model valid when a strong guide field is present is used. Different values for the ion skin depth are considered in the simulations. The resulting data are analyzed computing field increments in several directions perpendicular to the guide field, and building structure functions and probability density functions. In the magnetohydrodynamic limit, we recover the usual results with the magnetic field being more intermittent than the velocity field. In the presence of the Hall effect, field fluctuations at scales smaller than the ion skin depth show a substantial decrease in the level of intermittency, with close to monofractal scaling

  13. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear Stochastic stability analysis of Wind Turbine Wings by Monte Carlo Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Iwankiewiczb, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    and inertial contributions. A reduced two-degrees-of-freedom modal expansion is used specifying the modal coordinate of the fundamental blade and edgewise fixed base eigenmodes of the beam. The rotating beam is subjected to harmonic and narrow-banded support point motion from the nacelle displacement...... under narrow-banded excitation, and it is shown that the qualitative behaviour of the strange attractor is very similar for the periodic and almost periodic responses, whereas the strange attractor for the chaotic case loses structure as the excitation becomes narrow-banded. Furthermore......, the characteristic behaviour of the strange attractor is shown to be identifiable by the so-called information dimension. Due to the complexity of the coupled nonlinear structural system all analyses are carried out via Monte Carlo simulations....

  15. Time domain simulation of the response of geometrically nonlinear panels subjected to random loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The response of composite panels subjected to random pressure loads large enough to cause geometrically nonlinear responses is studied. A time domain simulation is employed to solve the equations of motion. An adaptive time stepping algorithm is employed to minimize intermittent transients. A modified algorithm for the prediction of response spectral density is presented which predicts smooth spectral peaks for discrete time histories. Results are presented for a number of input pressure levels and damping coefficients. Response distributions are calculated and compared with the analytical solution of the Fokker-Planck equations. RMS response is reported as a function of input pressure level and damping coefficient. Spectral densities are calculated for a number of examples.

  16. Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. I. Simulation model and monochromatic wave propagtion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matda, Y.; Crawford, F.W.

    1974-12-01

    An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described. (auth)

  17. Cosmological N-body simulations with a tree code - Fluctuations in the linear and nonlinear regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginohara, Tatsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Bouchet, F.R.; Hernquist, L.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational systems is studied numerically in a cosmological context using a hierarchical tree algorithm with fully periodic boundary conditions. The simulations employ 262,144 particles, which are initially distributed according to scale-free power spectra. The subsequent evolution is followed in both flat and open universes. With this large number of particles, the discretized system can accurately model the linear phase. It is shown that the dynamics in the nonlinear regime depends on both the spectral index n and the density parameter Omega. In Omega = 1 universes, the evolution of the two-point correlation function Xi agrees well with similarity solutions for Xi greater than about 100 but its slope is steeper in open models with the same n. 28 refs

  18. Nonlinear simulation of magnetic reconnection with a drift kinetic electron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingmann, W.; Ottaviani, M.

    2004-01-01

    The process of reconnection allows for a change of magnetic topology inside a plasma. It is an important process for eruptive phenomena in astrophysical plasma, and the sawtooth relaxation in laboratory plasma close to thermonuclear conditions. The sawtooth relaxation is associated with the collisionless electron tearing instability, caused by the electron inertia. A thorough treatment therefore requires a kinetic model for the electron dynamics. In this contribution, we report on the numerical simulation of the electron tearing instability by solving the Vlasov equation directly. The results confirm results of an early paper on the same subject, and extends them to smaller values of the collision skin depth d e = 0.25. Our results suggest a faster than exponential growth in the early nonlinear phase of the instability. We observe as well an asymmetry of the resulting fields. It seems, however, that the field structure becomes closer to the fluid case for small values of d e

  19. Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapillonne, X; Brunner, S; Sauter, O; Villard, L [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fable, E; Goerler, T; Jenko, F; Merz, F, E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} < 0.5, k{sub p}erpendicular being the characteristic perpendicular wavenumber and {rho}{sub i} the ion Larmor radius) and shorter wavelength ion temperature gradient modes (ITG, k{sub p}erpendicular{rho}{sub i} > 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.

  20. Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence in TCV electron internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, X.; Brunner, S.; Sauter, O.; Villard, L.; Fable, E.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.

    2011-05-01

    Using the local (flux-tube) version of the Eulerian code GENE (Jenko et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1904), gyrokinetic simulations of microturbulence were carried out considering parameters relevant to electron-internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the TCV tokamak (Sauter et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 105002), generated under conditions of low or negative shear. For typical density and temperature gradients measured in such barriers, the corresponding simulated fluctuation spectra appears to simultaneously contain longer wavelength trapped electron modes (TEMs, for typically k⊥ρi 0.5). The contributions to the electron particle flux from these two types of modes are, respectively, outward/inward and may cancel each other for experimentally realistic gradients. This mechanism may partly explain the feasibility of e-ITBs. The non-linear simulation results confirm the predictions of a previously developed quasi-linear model (Fable et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 015007), namely that the stationary condition of zero particle flux is obtained through the competitive contributions of ITG and TEM. A quantitative comparison of the electron heat flux with experimental estimates is presented as well.

  1. A fast, user-friendly code for calculating magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.W.; Freidberg, J.P.; Solomon, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Using variational techniques, we have developed a fast, user-friendly code for computing approximate, but highly accurate fixed boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibria for tokamak plasmas. The variational procedure simplifies the problem---a two-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation---to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. The reduced problem can be readily solved on workstations or personal computers. This allows us to exploit sophisticated graphical user interfaces that make supplying calculation data and viewing results easy. This ease-of-use, along with the semianalytic nature of our calculation, allows researchers to routinely incorporate equilibrium information into their work. It also provides a tool for educators teaching fusion theory. We describe the variational formulation, the speed and accuracy of the computer implementation, and the design and operation of a user-friendly graphical interface

  2. Radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, R.; Schuessler, M.; Vögler, A.; Zakharov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Context. Solar pores represent a class of magnetic structures intermediate between small-scale magnetic flux concentrations in intergranular lanes and fully developed sunspots with penumbrae. Aims. We study the structure, energetics, and internal dynamics of pore-like magnetic structures by means of

  3. Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X.Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Jardin, S.C.; Lowe, L.L.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Although high-temperature plasmas in laboratory magnetic fusion confinements are sufficiently collisionless that formal fluid closures are difficult to attain, the resistive MHD model has proven, by comparison with experimental data, to be useful for describing the large scale dynamics of magnetized plasmas. Resistive MHD model consists of Faraday's law for the evolution of the magnetic field and Navier-Stokes equation for the plasma flow. These equations are closed by the Ohm's law and an equation of state for the plasma

  4. Numerical resolution of a bi-temperature MHD model with a general Ohm's law: Roe solver - Front-tracking - Nonlinear transport equations with discontinuous coefficients. Simulation of a Plasma Opening Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassier, Stephane

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations represent the coupling between fluid dynamics equations and Maxwell's equations. We consider here a new MHD model with two temperatures. A Roe scheme is first constructed in the one dimensional case, for a multi-species model and a general equation of state. The multidimensional case is treated thanks to the Powell approach. The notion of Roe-Powell matrix, generalization of the notion of Roe matrix for multidimensional MHD, allows us to develop an original scheme on a curvilinear grid. We focus on a second part on the modelling of a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). A front-tracking method is first set up, in order to correctly handle the deformation of the front between the vacuum and the plasma. Besides, by taking into account a general Ohm's law, we have to deal with the Hall effect, which leads to nonlinear transport equations with discontinuous coefficients. Several numerical schemes are proposed and tested on a variety of test cases. This work has allowed us to construct an industrial MHD code, intended to handle complex flows and in particular to correctly simulate the behaviour of the POS. (author) [fr

  5. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall technical objective of the Phase I effort is to develop a nonlinear aeroelastic solver utilizing the FUN3D generated nonlinear aerodynamic Reduced Order...

  6. A Lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate diffractive nonlinear ultrasound beam propagation in a dissipative fluid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mohamad; Hajihasani, Mojtaba; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound waves have been widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Accurate and effective simulation of ultrasound beam propagation and its interaction with tissue has been proved to be important. The nonlinear nature of the ultrasound beam propagation, especially in the therapeutic regime, plays an important role in the mechanisms of interaction with tissue. There are three main approaches in current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to model and simulate nonlinear ultrasound beams: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic approaches. In this work, a mesoscopic CFD method based on the Lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) was investigated. In the developed method, the Boltzmann equation is evolved to simulate the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the collision model instead of solving the Navier-Stokes, continuity and state equations which are used in conventional CFD methods. The LBM has some prominent advantages over conventional CFD methods, including: (1) its parallel computational nature; (2) taking microscopic boundaries into account; and (3) capability of simulating in porous and inhomogeneous media. In our proposed method, the propagating medium is discretized with a square grid in 2 dimensions with 9 velocity vectors for each node. Using the developed model, the nonlinear distortion and shock front development of a finiteamplitude diffractive ultrasonic beam in a dissipative fluid medium was computed and validated against the published data. The results confirm that the LBM is an accurate and effective approach to model and simulate nonlinearity in finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with Mach numbers of up to 0.01 which, among others, falls within the range of therapeutic ultrasound regime such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams. A comparison between the HIFU nonlinear beam simulations using the proposed model and pseudospectral methods in a 2D geometry is presented.

  7. Modeling, numerical simulation, and nonlinear dynamic behavior analysis of PV microgrid-connected inverter with capacitance catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sichen; Liao, Zhixian; Luo, Xiaoshu; Wei, Duqu; Jiang, Pinqun; Jiang, Qinghong

    2018-02-01

    The value of the output capacitance (C) should be carefully considered when designing a photovoltaic (PV) inverter since it can cause distortion in the working state of the circuit, and the circuit produces nonlinear dynamic behavior. According to Kirchhoff’s laws and the characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier for a strict piecewise linear state equation, a circuit simulation model is constructed to study the system parameters (time, C) for the current passing through an inductor with an inductance of L and the voltage across the capacitor with a capacitance of C. The developed simulation model uses Runge-Kutta methods to solve the state equations. This study focuses on predicting the fault of the circuit from the two aspects of the harmonic distortion and simulation results. Moreover, the presented model is also used to research the working state of the system in the case of a load capacitance catastrophe. The nonlinear dynamic behaviors in the inverter are simulated and verified.

  8. Efficient simulation of multimodal nonlinear propagation in step-index fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    A numerical approach to nonlinear propagation in waveguides based on real-space Gaussian quadrature integration of the nonlinear polarization during propagation is investigated and compared with the more conventional approach based on expressing the nonlinear polarization by a sum of mode overlap...

  9. Linear and non-linear simulation of joints contact surface using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The joint modelling including non-linear effects needs accurate and precise study of their behaviors. When joints are under the dynamic loading, micro, macro- slip happens in contact surface which is non-linear reason of the joint contact surface. The non-linear effects of joint contact surface on total behavior of structure are ...

  10. International Benchmark on Numerical Simulations for 1D, Nonlinear Site Response (PRENOLIN) : Verification Phase Based on Canonical Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régnier, Julie; Bonilla, Luis-Fabian; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Bertrand, Etienne; Hollender, Fabrice; Kawase, Hiroshi; Sicilia, Deborah; Arduino, Pedro; Amorosi, Angelo; Asimaki, Dominiki; Pisano, F.

    2016-01-01

    PREdiction of NOn‐LINear soil behavior (PRENOLIN) is an international benchmark aiming to test multiple numerical simulation codes that are capable of predicting nonlinear seismic site response with various constitutive models. One of the objectives of this project is the assessment of the

  11. ANISOTROPIC INTERMITTENCY OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2014-01-01

    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas

  12. Self-organizing magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Horiuchi, R.; Watanabe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Kusano, K.

    1990-09-01

    In a resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma, both the magnetic energy and the magnetic helicity dissipate with the resistive time scale. When sufficiently large free magnetic energy does exist, however, an ideal current driven instability is excited whereby magnetic reconnection is driven at a converging point of induced plasma flows which does exist in a bounded compressible plasma. At a reconnection point excess free energy (entropy) is rapidly dissipated by ohmic heating and lost by radiation, while magnetic helicity is completely conserved. The magnetic topology is largely changed by reconnection and a new ordered structure with the same helicity is created. It is discussed that magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the MHD self-organization process. (author)

  13. The classical Pierce diode: Using particle simulations on linear and nonlinear behavior and final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, T.L.; Kuhn, S.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The classical Pierce diode is a simple 1-d system of two shorted metal plates, a cold beam of electrons injected from one side and a neutralizing background of rigid ions. While the plasma medium is technically stable, the finiteness of the Pierce system allows stable and unstable operation. It is usefully studied as an archetypical bounded plasma system, related e.g., to Q-machines, particle accelerators, thermionic converters. New particle simulations of the Pierce diode have successfully recovered many novel linear phenomena including the dominant linear eigenmodes (seen in the internal electrostatic fields), and the dominant and subdominant eigenfrequencies, (seen both in the internal electrostatics and in the external circuit current, J/sub ext/(t)). These simulation results conform very well to detailed predictions of a new linear analysis. The final (nonlinear) state recovered can show critical dependence on initial (linear perturbation) conditions, and can be made steady-state (d.c.) or periodic-oscillatory by simply changing the initial conditions by a factor of 10/sup -4/ or less. A third class of final state is also possible which has oscillations which seem to be nonperiodic

  14. Two-dimensional Nonlinear Simulations of Temperature-anisotropy Instabilities with a Proton-alpha Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovskii, S. A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Vasquez, Bernard J.

    2018-04-01

    We present two-dimensional hybrid simulations of proton-cyclotron and mirror instabilities in a proton-alpha plasma with particle-in-cell ions and a neutralizing electron fluid. The instabilities are driven by the protons with temperature perpendicular to the background magnetic field larger than the parallel temperature. The alpha particles with initially isotropic temperature have a nonzero drift speed with respect to the protons. The minor ions are known to influence the relative effect of the proton-cyclotron and mirror instabilities. In this paper, we show that the mirror mode can dominate the power spectrum at the nonlinear stage even if its linear growth rate is significantly lower than that of the proton-cyclotron mode. The proton-cyclotron instability combined with the alpha-proton drift is a possible cause of the nonzero magnetic helicity observed in the solar wind for fluctuations propagating nearly parallel to the magnetic field. Our simulations generally confirm this concept but reveal a complex helicity spectrum that is not anticipated from the linear theory of the instability.

  15. Non-linear friction in reciprocating hydraulic rod seals: Simulation and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, A K; Tilley, D G; Johnston, D N; Bowen, C R; Keogh, P S

    2009-01-01

    Non-linear seal friction can impede the performance of hydraulic actuation systems designed for high precision positioning with favourable dynamic response. Methods for predicting seal friction are required to help develop sealing systems for this type of application. Recent simulation techniques have claimed progress, although have yet to be validated experimentally. A conventional reciprocating rod seal is analysed using established elastohydrodynamic theory and the mixed lubrication Greenwood-Williamson-average Reynolds model. A test rig was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation results for both instroke and outstroke. Inverse hydrodynamic theory is shown to predict a U 0.5 power law between rod speed and friction. Comparison with experimental data shows the theory to be qualitatively inaccurate and to predict friction levels an order of magnitude lower than those measured. It was not possible to model the regions very close to the inlet and outlet due to the high pressure gradients at the edges of the contact. The mixed lubrication model produces friction levels within the correct order of magnitude, although incorrectly predicts higher friction during instroke than outstroke. Previous experiments have reported higher friction during instroke than outstroke for rectangular seals, suggesting that the mixed lubrication model used could possibly be suitable for symmetric seals, although not for seal tribology in general.

  16. Prediction of Flood Warning in Taiwan Using Nonlinear SVM with Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.

    2013-12-01

    The issue of the floods is important in Taiwan. It is because the narrow and high topography of the island make lots of rivers steep in Taiwan. The tropical depression likes typhoon always causes rivers to flood. Prediction of river flow under the extreme rainfall circumstances is important for government to announce the warning of flood. Every time typhoon passed through Taiwan, there were always floods along some rivers. The warning is classified to three levels according to the warning water levels in Taiwan. The propose of this study is to predict the level of floods warning from the information of precipitation, rainfall duration and slope of riverbed. To classify the level of floods warning by the above-mentioned information and modeling the problems, a machine learning model, nonlinear Support vector machine (SVM), is formulated to classify the level of floods warning. In addition, simulated annealing (SA), a probabilistic heuristic algorithm, is used to determine the optimal parameter of the SVM model. A case study of flooding-trend rivers of different gradients in Taiwan is conducted. The contribution of this SVM model with simulated annealing is capable of making efficient announcement for flood warning and keeping the danger of flood from residents along the rivers.

  17. Relativistic conformal magneto-hydrodynamics from holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study first-order relativistic viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of (2+1)-dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. It is shown that the first order magneto-hydrodynamics constructed following Landau and Lifshitz from the positivity of the entropy production is inconsistent. We propose additional contributions to the entropy motivated dissipative current and, correspondingly, new dissipative transport coefficients. We use the strongly coupled M2-brane plasma in external magnetic field to show that the new magneto-hydrodynamics leads to self-consistent results in the shear and sound wave channels.

  18. Simulation of nonlinear propagation of biomedical ultrasound using pzflex and the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov Texas code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Jackson, Edward; Coussios, Constantin C; Cleveland, Robin O

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear acoustics plays an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications of biomedical ultrasound and a number of research and commercial software packages are available. In this manuscript, predictions of two solvers available in a commercial software package, pzflex, one using the finite-element-method (FEM) and the other a pseudo-spectral method, spectralflex, are compared with measurements and the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) Texas code (a finite-difference time-domain algorithm). The pzflex methods solve the continuity equation, momentum equation and equation of state where they account for nonlinearity to second order whereas the KZK code solves a nonlinear wave equation with a paraxial approximation for diffraction. Measurements of the field from a single element 3.3 MHz focused transducer were compared with the simulations and there was good agreement for the fundamental frequency and the harmonics; however the FEM pzflex solver incurred a high computational cost to achieve equivalent accuracy. In addition, pzflex results exhibited non-physical oscillations in the spatial distribution of harmonics when the amplitudes were relatively low. It was found that spectralflex was able to accurately capture the nonlinear fields at reasonable computational cost. These results emphasize the need to benchmark nonlinear simulations before using codes as predictive tools.

  19. Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria in local polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Grad--Shafranov equation for an ideal magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric toroidal configuration is solved analytically in a local polar coordinate system using a novel method which produces solutions valid up to the second order in the inverse aspect ratio expansion

  20. Thermomechanical earthquake cycle simulations with rate-and-state friction and nonlinear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K. L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    We simulate earthquake cycles on a 2D strike-slip fault, modeling both rate-and-state fault friction and an off-fault nonlinear power-law rheology. The power-law rheology involves an effective viscosity that is a function of temperature and stress, and therefore varies both spatially and temporally. All phases of the earthquake cycle are simulated, allowing the model to spontaneously generate earthquakes, and to capture frictional afterslip and postseismic and interseismic viscous flow. We investigate the interaction between fault slip and bulk viscous flow, using experimentally-based flow laws for quartz-diorite in the crust and olivine in the mantle, representative of the Mojave Desert region in Southern California. We first consider a suite of three linear geotherms which are constant in time, with dT/dz = 20, 25, and 30 K/km. Though the simulations produce very different deformation styles in the lower crust, ranging from significant interseismc fault creep to purely bulk viscous flow, they have almost identical earthquake recurrence interval, nucleation depth, and down-dip coseismic slip limit. This indicates that bulk viscous flow and interseismic fault creep load the brittle crust similarly. The simulations also predict unrealistically high stresses in the upper crust, resulting from the fact that the lower crust and upper mantle are relatively weak far from the fault, and from the relatively small role that basal tractions on the base of the crust play in the force balance of the lithosphere. We also find that for the warmest model, the effective viscosity varies by an order of magnitude in the interseismic period, whereas for the cooler models it remains roughly constant. Because the rheology is highly sensitive to changes in temperature, in addition to the simulations with constant temperature we also consider the effect of heat generation. We capture both frictional heat generation and off-fault viscous shear heating, allowing these in turn to alter the

  1. Nonlinear analysis and simulation of soliton in the traffic flow; Kotsu jutai soliton no hassei kiko nikansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, M. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nagatani, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-07-25

    Traffic jams are investigated numerically and analystically in the optimal velocity model on a single-line highway. The condition is found whether or not traffic jams occur when a car stops instantly. It is shown that traffic soliton appears at the threshold of occurrence of traffic jams. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived from the optimal velocity model by the use of the nonlinear analysis. It is found that the traffic soliton appears only near the neutral stability point. The soliton obtained from the nonlinear analysis is consistent with that of the numerical simulation. (author)

  2. ''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs

  3. Orbital Advection with Magnetohydrodynamics and Vector Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Wladimir; McNally, Colin P.; Heinemann, Tobias; Masset, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Orbital advection is a significant bottleneck in disk simulations, and a particularly tricky one when used in connection with magnetohydrodynamics. We have developed an orbital advection algorithm suitable for the induction equation with magnetic potential. The electromotive force is split into advection and shear terms, and we find that we do not need an advective gauge since solving the orbital advection implicitly precludes the shear term from canceling the advection term. We prove and demonstrate the third order in time accuracy of the scheme. The algorithm is also suited to non-magnetic problems. Benchmarked results of (hydrodynamical) planet–disk interaction and of the magnetorotational instability are reproduced. We include detailed descriptions of the construction and selection of stabilizing dissipations (or high-frequency filters) needed to generate practical results. The scheme is self-consistent, accurate, and elegant in its simplicity, making it particularly efficient for straightforward finite-difference methods. As a result of the work, the algorithm is incorporated in the public version of the Pencil Code, where it can be used by the community.

  4. Orbital Advection with Magnetohydrodynamics and Vector Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Wladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northrige, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge CA 91130 (United States); McNally, Colin P. [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Heinemann, Tobias [Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Masset, Frédéric, E-mail: wlyra@csun.edu [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    2017-10-01

    Orbital advection is a significant bottleneck in disk simulations, and a particularly tricky one when used in connection with magnetohydrodynamics. We have developed an orbital advection algorithm suitable for the induction equation with magnetic potential. The electromotive force is split into advection and shear terms, and we find that we do not need an advective gauge since solving the orbital advection implicitly precludes the shear term from canceling the advection term. We prove and demonstrate the third order in time accuracy of the scheme. The algorithm is also suited to non-magnetic problems. Benchmarked results of (hydrodynamical) planet–disk interaction and of the magnetorotational instability are reproduced. We include detailed descriptions of the construction and selection of stabilizing dissipations (or high-frequency filters) needed to generate practical results. The scheme is self-consistent, accurate, and elegant in its simplicity, making it particularly efficient for straightforward finite-difference methods. As a result of the work, the algorithm is incorporated in the public version of the Pencil Code, where it can be used by the community.

  5. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  6. Multiple time scale methods in tokamak magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods are discussed for integrating the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in tokamak systems on other than the fastest time scale. The dynamical grid method for simulating ideal MHD instabilities utilizes a natural nonorthogonal time-dependent coordinate transformation based on the magnetic field lines. The coordinate transformation is chosen to be free of the fast time scale motion itself, and to yield a relatively simple scalar equation for the total pressure, P = p + B 2 /2μ 0 , which can be integrated implicitly to average over the fast time scale oscillations. Two methods are described for the resistive time scale. The zero-mass method uses a reduced set of two-fluid transport equations obtained by expanding in the inverse magnetic Reynolds number, and in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities. The momentum equation becomes a constraint equation that forces the pressure and magnetic fields and currents to remain in force balance equilibrium as they evolve. The large mass method artificially scales up the ion mass and viscosity, thereby reducing the severe time scale disparity between wavelike and diffusionlike phenomena, but not changing the resistive time scale behavior. Other methods addressing the intermediate time scales are discussed

  7. Relaxation model for extended magnetohydrodynamics: Comparison to magnetohydrodynamics for dense Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyler, C. E.; Martin, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the two-fluid model under a generalized Ohm's law formulation and the resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can both be described as relaxation systems. In the relaxation model, the under-resolved stiff source terms constrain the dynamics of a set of hyperbolic equations to give the correct asymptotic solution. When applied to the collisional two-fluid model, the relaxation of fast time scales associated with displacement current and finite electron mass allows for a natural transition from a system where Ohm's law determines the current density to a system where Ohm's law determines the electric field. This result is used to derive novel algorithms, which allow for multiscale simulation of low and high frequency extended-MHD physics. This relaxation formulation offers an efficient way to implicitly advance the Hall term and naturally simulate a plasma-vacuum interface without invoking phenomenological models. The relaxation model is implemented as an extended-MHD code, which is used to analyze pulsed power loads such as wire arrays and ablating foils. Two-dimensional simulations of pulsed power loads are compared for extended-MHD and MHD. For these simulations, it is also shown that the relaxation model properly recovers the resistive-MHD limit.

  8. Numerical Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of numerical hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD in general relativity. Some significant additions have been incorporated with respect to the previous two versions of this review (2000, 2003, most notably the coverage of general-relativistic MHD, a field in which remarkable activity and progress has occurred in the last few years. Correspondingly, the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general-relativistic hydrodynamics is enlarged to account for recent relevant advances, while those dealing with general-relativistic MHD are amply covered in this review for the first time. The basic outline of this article is nevertheless similar to its earlier versions, save for the addition of MHD-related issues throughout. Hence, different formulations of both the hydrodynamics and MHD equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of numerical approaches for solving such hyperbolic systems of equations is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. As previously stated, a comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is also presented. These are detailed in three basic sections, namely gravitational collapse, black-hole accretion, and neutron-star evolutions; despite the boundaries, these sections may (and in fact do overlap throughout the discussion. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances in the formulation of the gravitational field, hydrodynamics and MHD equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them. To keep the length of this article reasonable

  9. Numerical simulation of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction for the application to solar radio burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, T.

    1981-01-01

    By the use of semi-analytical method the numerical simulations for the nonlinear scattering of axially symmetric plasma waves into plasma waves and radio waves have been made. The initial electron beam has a finite length and one-dimensional velocity distribution of power law. Induced back-scattering of plasma waves by thermal ions is strong even for a solar electron stream of rather low flux, say 2x10 11 cm -2 above 5 keV at fsub(p) of 40 MHz, which is enough to emit the observed type III bursts as the second harmonic. The ratio between the energy densities of plasma waves and thermal electrons (nkT) is of the order of 10 -6 , which may be a few orders lower than the threshold value for a caviton collapse of the plasma waves to occur. The second harmonic radio emission as attributed to the coalescence of two plasma waves, i.e. one excited by electron beam and one back-scattered by ions, is several orders higher than the fundamental radio emission caused by the scattering of plasma waves by thermal ions. (Auth.)

  10. A fully implicit Newton-Krylov-Schwarz method for tokamak magnetohydrodynamics: Jacobian construction and preconditioner formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Reynolds, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fluid description of fusion plasmas which is often used to investigate macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks. In MHD modeling of tokamaks, it is often desirable to compute MHD phenomena to resistive time scales or a combination of resistive-Alfvén time scales, which can render explicit time stepping schemes computationally expensive. We present recent advancements in the development of preconditioners for fully nonlinearly implicit simulations of single-fluid resistive tokamak MHD. Our work focuses on simulations using a structured mesh mapped into a toroidal geometry with a shaped poloidal cross-section, and a finite-volume spatial discretization of the partial differential equation model. We discretize the temporal dimension using a fully implicit or the backwards differentiation formula method, and solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic system using a standard inexact Newton-Krylov approach, provided by the sundials library. The focus of this paper is on the construction and performance of various preconditioning approaches for accelerating the convergence of the iterative solver algorithms. Effective preconditioners require information about the Jacobian entries; however, analytical formulae for these Jacobian entries may be prohibitive to derive/implement without error. We therefore compute these entries using automatic differentiation with OpenAD. We then investigate a variety of preconditioning formulations inspired by standard solution approaches in modern MHD codes, in order to investigate their utility in a preconditioning context. We first describe the code modifications necessary for the use of the OpenAD tool and sundials solver library. We conclude with numerical results for each of our preconditioning approaches in the context of pellet-injection fueling of tokamak plasmas. Of these, our optimal approach results in a speedup of a factor of 3 compared with non-preconditioned implicit tests, with

  11. Simulating nonlinear steady-state traveling waves on the falling liquid film entrained by a gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvelodub, O. Yu; Bocharov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The article is devoted to the simulation of nonlinear waves on a liquid film flowing under gravity in the known stress field at the interface. The paper studies nonlinear waves on a liquid film, flowing under the action of gravity in a known stress field at the interface. In the case of small Reynolds numbers the problem is reduced to the consideration of solutions of the nonlinear integral-differential equation for film thickness deviation from the undisturbed level. The periodic and soliton steady-state traveling solutions of this equation have been numerically found. The analysis of branching of new families of steady-state traveling solutions has been performed. In particular, it is shown that this model equation has solutions in the form of solitons-humps.

  12. Some axisymmetric equilibria for certain ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics with incompressible flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Moawad

    Full Text Available In this paper, the equilibrium properties of some ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are investigated. The governing equations are taken in the steady state for parallel and non-parallel flow to magnetic filed. The governing equations are reduced to Bernoulli-Grad-Shafranov system. The problem of finding exact equilibria to the governing equations in the presence of incompressible mass flows is studied. Several nonlinear equilibria of the governing equations are obtained with aid of constructed constraints. The obtained results cover several previously configurations and include new considerations about the nonlinearity of magnetic flux stream variables. The possibility of applying the obtained results to magnetic confinement devices are discussed. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamics, Axisymmetric plasma, Resistivity, Incompressible flows, Exact equilibria, Magnetic confinement devices

  13. On the Energy Spectrum of Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Perez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence attracts interest due to its fundamental importance and its relevance for interpreting astrophysical data. Here we present measurements of the energy spectra from a series of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence with a strong guide field and for increasing Reynolds number. The presented simulations, with numerical resolutions up to 2048^{3} mesh points and statistics accumulated over 30 to 150 eddy turnover times, constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the largest statistical sample of steady state magnetohydrodynamics turbulence to date. We study both the balanced case, where the energies associated with Alfvén modes propagating in opposite directions along the guide field, E^{+}(k_{⊥} and E^{-}(k_{⊥}, are equal, and the imbalanced case where the energies are different. In the balanced case, we find that the energy spectrum converges to a power law with exponent -3/2 as the Reynolds number is increased, which is consistent with phenomenological models that include scale-dependent dynamic alignment. For the imbalanced case, with E^{+}>E^{-}, the simulations show that E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2} for all Reynolds numbers considered, while E^{+} has a slightly steeper spectrum at small Re. As the Reynolds number increases, E^{+} flattens. Since E^{±} are pinned at the dissipation scale and anchored at the driving scales, we postulate that at sufficiently high Re the spectra will become parallel in the inertial range and scale as E^{+}∝E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2}. Questions regarding the universality of the spectrum and the value of the “Kolmogorov constant” are discussed.

  14. Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Slender Viscoelastic Beams Associating Cosserat Theory and a Fractional Derivative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailton S. Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract A broad class of engineering systems can be satisfactory modeled under the assumptions of small deformations and linear material properties. However, many mechanical systems used in modern applications, like structural elements typical of aerospace and petroleum industries, have been characterized by increased slenderness and high static and dynamic loads. In such situations, it becomes indispensable to consider the nonlinear geometric effects and/or material nonlinear behavior. At the same time, in many cases involving dynamic loads, there comes the need for attenuation of vibration levels. In this context, this paper describes the development and validation of numerical models of viscoelastic slender beam-like structures undergoing large displacements. The numerical approach is based on the combination of the nonlinear Cosserat beam theory and a viscoelastic model based on Fractional Derivatives. Such combination enables to derive nonlinear equations of motion that, upon finite element discretization, can be used for predicting the dynamic behavior of the structure in the time domain, accounting for geometric nonlinearity and viscoelastic damping. The modeling methodology is illustrated and validated by numerical simulations, the results of which are compared to others available in the literature.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Molecular Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kelvin; Fiege, Jason D.

    2017-07-01

    Recent observations near the Galactic Center (GC) have found several molecular filaments displaying striking helically wound morphology that are collectively known as molecular tornadoes. We investigate the equilibrium structure of these molecular tornadoes by formulating a magnetohydrodynamic model of a rotating, helically magnetized filament. A special analytical solution is derived where centrifugal forces balance exactly with toroidal magnetic stress. From the physics of torsional Alfvén waves we derive a constraint that links the toroidal flux-to-mass ratio and the pitch angle of the helical field to the rotation laws, which we find to be an important component in describing the molecular tornado structure. The models are compared to the Ostriker solution for isothermal, nonmagnetic, nonrotating filaments. We find that neither the analytic model nor the Alfvén wave model suffer from the unphysical density inversions noted by other authors. A Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space is constrained by observational measurements of the Pigtail Molecular Cloud, the Double Helix Nebula, and the GC Molecular Tornado. Observable properties such as the velocity dispersion, filament radius, linear mass, and surface pressure can be used to derive three dimensionless constraints for our dimensionless models of these three objects. A virial analysis of these constrained models is studied for these three molecular tornadoes. We find that self-gravity is relatively unimportant, whereas magnetic fields and external pressure play a dominant role in the confinement and equilibrium radial structure of these objects.

  16. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Al-Habahbeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps. In this work, the progress achieved in this field is surveyed and organized according to the type of application. The literature of the past 27 years is searched for the major developments of MHD applications. MHD seawater thrusters are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and velocity. MHD molten metal pump is important replacement to conventional pumps because their moving parts cannot stand the molten metal temperature. MHD molten salt pump is used for nuclear reactor coolants due to its no-moving-parts feature. Nanofluid MHD pumping is a promising technology especially for bioapplications. Advantages of MHD include silence due to no-moving-parts propulsion. Much progress has been made, but with MHD pump still not suitable for wider applications, this remains a fertile area for future research.

  17. Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhanu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Molecular Tornadoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, Kelvin; Fiege, Jason D., E-mail: fiege@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2017-07-10

    Recent observations near the Galactic Center (GC) have found several molecular filaments displaying striking helically wound morphology that are collectively known as molecular tornadoes. We investigate the equilibrium structure of these molecular tornadoes by formulating a magnetohydrodynamic model of a rotating, helically magnetized filament. A special analytical solution is derived where centrifugal forces balance exactly with toroidal magnetic stress. From the physics of torsional Alfvén waves we derive a constraint that links the toroidal flux-to-mass ratio and the pitch angle of the helical field to the rotation laws, which we find to be an important component in describing the molecular tornado structure. The models are compared to the Ostriker solution for isothermal, nonmagnetic, nonrotating filaments. We find that neither the analytic model nor the Alfvén wave model suffer from the unphysical density inversions noted by other authors. A Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space is constrained by observational measurements of the Pigtail Molecular Cloud, the Double Helix Nebula, and the GC Molecular Tornado. Observable properties such as the velocity dispersion, filament radius, linear mass, and surface pressure can be used to derive three dimensionless constraints for our dimensionless models of these three objects. A virial analysis of these constrained models is studied for these three molecular tornadoes. We find that self-gravity is relatively unimportant, whereas magnetic fields and external pressure play a dominant role in the confinement and equilibrium radial structure of these objects.

  19. Girsanov's transformation based variance reduced Monte Carlo simulation schemes for reliability estimation in nonlinear stochastic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjilal, Oindrila, E-mail: oindrila@civil.iisc.ernet.in; Manohar, C.S., E-mail: manohar@civil.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-07-15

    The study considers the problem of simulation based time variant reliability analysis of nonlinear randomly excited dynamical systems. Attention is focused on importance sampling strategies based on the application of Girsanov's transformation method. Controls which minimize the distance function, as in the first order reliability method (FORM), are shown to minimize a bound on the sampling variance of the estimator for the probability of failure. Two schemes based on the application of calculus of variations for selecting control signals are proposed: the first obtains the control force as the solution of a two-point nonlinear boundary value problem, and, the second explores the application of the Volterra series in characterizing the controls. The relative merits of these schemes, vis-à-vis the method based on ideas from the FORM, are discussed. Illustrative examples, involving archetypal single degree of freedom (dof) nonlinear oscillators, and a multi-degree of freedom nonlinear dynamical system, are presented. The credentials of the proposed procedures are established by comparing the solutions with pertinent results from direct Monte Carlo simulations. - Highlights: • The distance minimizing control forces minimize a bound on the sampling variance. • Establishing Girsanov controls via solution of a two-point boundary value problem. • Girsanov controls via Volterra's series representation for the transfer functions.

  20. Final Technical Report: Collaborative Research Center for Nonlinear Simulation of Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2018-02-15

    The study of this project focused on developing a reduced nonlinear model to describe chirping processes in a fusion plasma. A successful method was developed with results clear enough to allow an analytic theory to be developed that replicates the long term response of a nonlinear phase space structure immersed in the MHD continnuum.

  1. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of packets of spiral density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a numerical experiment, the behavior of nonlinear packets of spiral density waves in a gas disk has been investigated for different initial wave amplitudes. If the amplitude of the density perturbations is small (<5%), the wave packet is drawn toward the center or toward the periphery of the disk in accordance with the linear theory. The behavior of linear packets of waves with wavelength comparable to the disk radius (R/sub d//lambda = 4) exhibits good agreement with the conclusions of the linear theory of tightly wound spiral waves. The dynamics of wave packets with initial density amplitudes 16, 30, 50% demonstrates the nonlinear nature of the behavior. THe behavior is governed by whether or not the nonlinear effects of higher than third order in the wave amplitude play a part. If the wave packet dynamics is determined by the cubic nonlinearity, the results of the numerical experiment are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the nonlinear theory of short waves, although the characteristic scale of the packet and the wavelength are of the order of the disk radius. In the cases when the nonlinear effects of higher orders in the amplitude play an important part, the behavior of a packet does not differ qualitatively from the behavior predicted by the theory of cubic nonlinearity, but the nonlinear spreading of the packet takes place more rapidly

  2. A new theoretical basis for numerical simulations of nonlinear acoustic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Janusz

    2000-07-01

    Nonlinear acoustic equations can be considerably simplified. The presented model retains the accuracy of a more complex description of nonlinearity and a uniform description of near and far fields (in contrast to the KZK equation). A method has been presented for obtaining solutions of Kuznetsov's equation from the solutions of the model under consideration. Results of numerical calculations, including comparative ones, are presented.

  3. Multi-scale semi-ideal magnetohydrodynamics of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazdenkov, S.; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kunihiko.

    1995-09-01

    An analytical model of fast spatial flattening of the toroidal current density and q-profile at the nonlinear stage of (m = 1/n = 1) kink instability of a tokamak plasma is presented. The flattening is shown to be an essentially multi-scale phenomenon which is characterized by, at least, two magnetic Reynolds numbers. The ordinary one, R m , is related with a characteristic radial scale-length, while the other, R m * , corresponds to a characteristic scale-length of plasma inhomogeneity along the magnetic field line. In a highly conducting plasma inside the q = 1 magnetic surface, where q value does not much differ from unity, plasma evolution is governed by a multi-scale non-ideal dynamics characterized by two well-separated magnetic Reynolds numbers, R m and R m * ≡ (1 - q) R m , where R m * - O(1) and R m >> 1. This dynamics consistently explains two seemingly contradictory features recently observed in a numerical simulation [Watanabe et al., 1995]: i) the current profile (q-profile) is flattened in the magnetohydrodynamic time scale within the q = 1 rational surface; ii) the magnetic surface keeps its initial circular shape during this evolution. (author)

  4. Multi-scale semi-ideal magnetohydrodynamics of a tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazdenkov, S.; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    1995-09-01

    An analytical model of fast spatial flattening of the toroidal current density and q-profile at the nonlinear stage of (m = 1/n = 1) kink instability of a tokamak plasma is presented. The flattening is shown to be an essentially multi-scale phenomenon which is characterized by, at least, two magnetic Reynolds numbers. The ordinary one, R{sub m}, is related with a characteristic radial scale-length, while the other, R{sub m}{sup *}, corresponds to a characteristic scale-length of plasma inhomogeneity along the magnetic field line. In a highly conducting plasma inside the q = 1 magnetic surface, where q value does not much differ from unity, plasma evolution is governed by a multi-scale non-ideal dynamics characterized by two well-separated magnetic Reynolds numbers, R{sub m} and R{sub m}{sup *} {identical_to} (1 - q) R{sub m}, where R{sub m}{sup *} - O(1) and R{sub m} >> 1. This dynamics consistently explains two seemingly contradictory features recently observed in a numerical simulation [Watanabe et al., 1995]: (i) the current profile (q-profile) is flattened in the magnetohydrodynamic time scale within the q = 1 rational surface; (ii) the magnetic surface keeps its initial circular shape during this evolution. (author).

  5. Power-level regulation and simulation of nonlinear pressurized water reactor core with xenon oscillation using H-infinity loop shaping control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is to solve the power-level control issue of a nonlinear pressurized water reactor core with xenon oscillations. A nonlinear pressurized water reactor core is modeled using the lumped parameter method, and a linear model of the core is then obtained through the small perturbation linearization way. The H∞loop shapingcontrolis utilized to design a robust controller of the linearized core model.The calculated H∞loop shaping controller is applied to the nonlinear core model. The nonlinear core model and the H∞ loop shaping controller build the nonlinear core power-level H∞loop shaping control system.Finally, the nonlinear core power-level H∞loop shaping control system is simulatedconsidering two typical load processes that are a step load maneuver and a ramp load maneuver, and simulation results show that the nonlinear control system is effective.

  6. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid–structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuxin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  7. Simulating closed- and open-loop voluntary movement: a nonlinear control-systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Paul R; Jones, Richard D; Andreae, John H; Sirisena, Harsha R

    2002-11-01

    In many recent human motor control models, including feedback-error learning and adaptive model theory (AMT), feedback control is used to correct errors while an inverse model is simultaneously tuned to provide accurate feedforward control. This popular and appealing hypothesis, based on a combination of psychophysical observations and engineering considerations, predicts that once the tuning of the inverse model is complete the role of feedback control is limited to the correction of disturbances. This hypothesis was tested by looking at the open-loop behavior of the human motor system during adaptation. An experiment was carried out involving 20 normal adult subjects who learned a novel visuomotor relationship on a pursuit tracking task with a steering wheel for input. During learning, the response cursor was periodically blanked, removing all feedback about the external system (i.e., about the relationship between hand motion and response cursor motion). Open-loop behavior was not consistent with a progressive transfer from closed- to open-loop control. Our recently developed computational model of the brain--a novel nonlinear implementation of AMT--was able to reproduce the observed closed- and open-loop results. In contrast, other control-systems models exhibited only minimal feedback control following adaptation, leading to incorrect open-loop behavior. This is because our model continues to use feedback to control slow movements after adaptation is complete. This behavior enhances the internal stability of the inverse model. In summary, our computational model is currently the only motor control model able to accurately simulate the closed- and open-loop characteristics of the experimental response trajectories.

  8. Quantitative comparison of electron temperature fluctuations to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, C., E-mail: csung@physics.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Churchill, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Theiler, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SPC, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    Long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} < 0.3) are measured in the outer core region (r/a > 0.8) of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [E. S. Marmar et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104014 (2009)] with a correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. The relative amplitude and frequency spectrum of the fluctuations are compared quantitatively with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] in two different confinement regimes: linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) regime and saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regime. When comparing experiment with nonlinear simulations, it is found that local, electrostatic ion-scale simulations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} ≲ 1.7) performed at r/a ∼ 0.85 reproduce the experimental ion heat flux levels, electron temperature fluctuation levels, and frequency spectra within experimental error bars. In contrast, the electron heat flux is robustly under-predicted and cannot be recovered by using scans of the simulation inputs within error bars or by using global simulations. If both the ion heat flux and the measured temperature fluctuations are attributed predominantly to long-wavelength turbulence, then under-prediction of electron heat flux strongly suggests that electron scale turbulence is important for transport in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges. In addition, no evidence is found from linear or nonlinear simulations for a clear transition from trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient turbulence across the LOC/SOC transition, and also there is no evidence in these Ohmic L-mode plasmas of the “Transport Shortfall” [C. Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)].

  9. High-precision numerical simulation with autoadaptative grid technique in nonlinear thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambarel, A.; Pumborios, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that many engineering problems concern the determination of a steady state solution in the case with strong thermal gradients, and results obtained using the finite-element technique are sometimes inaccurate, particularly for nonlinear problems with unadapted meshes. Building on previous results in linear problems, we propose an autoadaptive technique for nonlinear cases that uses quasi-Newtonian iterations to reevaluate an interpolation error estimation. The authors perfected an automatic refinement technique to solve the nonlinear thermal problem of temperature calculus in a cast-iron cylinder head of a diesel engine

  10. Comparison of simulated and measured response of load rejection on A hydro power plant model with mixed mode nonlinear controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babunski, Darko; Tuneski, Atanasko; Zaev, Emil [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Revised Hydro Power Plant model of the IEEE working group recommended converted to state space model is used for simulation of transient response of hydro turbine, and verification was made using measurements of transients from real Hydro Power Plant (HPP). Nonlinear mixed model controller was designed and implemented into complete HPP simulation model and compared with PID with real parameters used in HPP, and with adjusted PID parameters with consideration of smallest frequency error. Verification of performance of the model was made comparing model response with measured load rejection, which is worst case of HPP operation. (Author)

  11. Numerical Simulation of Freak Waves Based on the Four-Order Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-qiu; ZHANG Ning-chuan; PEI Yu-guo

    2007-01-01

    A numerical wave model based on the modified four-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation in deep water is developed to simulate freak waves. A standard split-step, pseudo-spectral method is used to solve NLS equation. The validation of the model is firstly verified, and then the simulation of freak waves is performed by changing sideband conditions. Results show that freak waves entirely consistent with the definition in the evolution of wave trains are obtained. The possible occurrence mechanism of freak waves is discussed and the relevant characteristics are also analyzed.

  12. Experimental evidence of phase coherence of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind: GEOTAIL satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, D; Chian, A C-L; Hada, T; Rempel, E L

    2008-02-13

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is commonly observed in the solar wind. Nonlinear interactions among MHD waves are likely to produce finite correlation of the wave phases. For discussions of various transport processes of energetic particles, it is fundamentally important to determine whether the wave phases are randomly distributed (as assumed in the quasi-linear theory) or have a finite coherence. Using a method based on the surrogate data technique, we analysed the GEOTAIL magnetic field data to evaluate the phase coherence in MHD turbulence in the Earth's foreshock region. The results demonstrate the existence of finite phase correlation, indicating that nonlinear wave-wave interactions are in progress.

  13. MOMCON: A spectral code for obtaining three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Lee, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    A new code, MOMCON (spectral moments code with constraints), is described that computes three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria in a fixed toroidal domain using a Fourier expansion for the inverse coordinates (R, Z) representing nested magnetic surfaces. A set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations for the spectral coefficients of (R, Z) is solved using an accelerated steepest descent method. A stream function, lambda, is introduced to improve the mode convergence properties of the Fourier series for R and Z. The convergence rate of the R-Z spectra is optimized on each flux surface by solving nonlinear constraint equations relating the m>=2 spectral coefficients of R and Z. (orig.)

  14. Artificial Neural Networks for Nonlinear Dynamic Response Simulation in Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how artificial neural networks can be trained to predict dynamic response of a simple nonlinear structure. Data generated using a nonlinear finite element model of a simplified wind turbine is used to train a one layer artificial neural network. When trained properly the network is ab...... to perform accurate response prediction much faster than the corresponding finite element model. Initial result indicate a reduction in cpu time by two orders of magnitude....

  15. Simulation and measurement of nonlinear behavior in a high-power test cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gerald; Gachagan, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    High-power ultrasound has many diverse uses in process applications in industries ranging from food to pharmaceutical. Because cavitation is frequently a desirable effect within many high-power, low-frequency systems, these systems are commonly expected to feature highly nonlinear acoustic propagation because of the high input levels employed. This generation of harmonics significantly alters the field profile compared with that of a linear system, making accurate field modeling difficult. However, when the short propagation distances involved are considered, it is not unreasonable to assume that these systems may remain largely linear until the onset of cavitation, in terms of classical acoustic propagation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible nonlinear effects within such systems before the onset of cavitation. A theoretical description of nonlinear propagation will be presented and the merits of common analytical models will be discussed. Following this, a numerical model of nonlinearity will be outlined and the advantages it presents for representing nonlinear effects in bounded fields will be discussed. Next, the driving equipment and transducers will be evaluated for linearity to disengage any effects from those formed in the transmission load. Finally, the linearity of the system will be measured using an acoustic hydrophone and compared with finite element analysis to confirm that nonlinear effects are not prevalent in such systems at the onset of cavitation. © 2011 IEEE

  16. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florinski, V.; Guo, X.; Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Numerical simulation of shear and the Poynting effects by the finite element method: An application of the generalised empirical inequalities in non-linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Angela Mihai, L.; Goriely, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects

  18. Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, F

    2013-01-01

    Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen

  19. The nonlinear Galerkin method: A multi-scale method applied to the simulation of homogeneous turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debussche, A.; Dubois, T.; Temam, R.

    1993-01-01

    Using results of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) in the case of two-dimensional homogeneous isotropic flows, the behavior of the small and large scales of Kolmogorov like flows at moderate Reynolds numbers are first analyzed in detail. Several estimates on the time variations of the small eddies and the nonlinear interaction terms were derived; those terms play the role of the Reynolds stress tensor in the case of LES. Since the time step of a numerical scheme is determined as a function of the energy-containing eddies of the flow, the variations of the small scales and of the nonlinear interaction terms over one iteration can become negligible by comparison with the accuracy of the computation. Based on this remark, a multilevel scheme which treats differently the small and the large eddies was proposed. Using mathematical developments, estimates of all the parameters involved in the algorithm, which then becomes a completely self-adaptive procedure were derived. Finally, realistic simulations of (Kolmorov like) flows over several eddy-turnover times were performed. The results are analyzed in detail and a parametric study of the nonlinear Galerkin method is performed.

  20. Edge localized linear ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability studies in an extended-magnetohydrodynamic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B. J.; Kruger, S. E.; Hegna, C. C.; Zhu, P.; Snyder, P. B.; Sovinec, C. R.; Howell, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    A linear benchmark between the linear ideal MHD stability codes ELITE [H. R. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1277 (2002)], GATO [L. Bernard et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 24, 377 (1981)], and the extended nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al.., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] is undertaken for edge-localized (MHD) instabilities. Two ballooning-unstable, shifted-circle tokamak equilibria are compared where the stability characteristics are varied by changing the equilibrium plasma profiles. The equilibria model an H-mode plasma with a pedestal pressure profile and parallel edge currents. For both equilibria, NIMROD accurately reproduces the transition to instability (the marginally unstable mode), as well as the ideal growth spectrum for a large range of toroidal modes (n=1-20). The results use the compressible MHD model and depend on a precise representation of 'ideal-like' and 'vacuumlike' or 'halo' regions within the code. The halo region is modeled by the introduction of a Lundquist-value profile that transitions from a large to a small value at a flux surface location outside of the pedestal region. To model an ideal-like MHD response in the core and a vacuumlike response outside the transition, separate criteria on the plasma and halo Lundquist values are required. For the benchmarked equilibria the critical Lundquist values are 10 8 and 10 3 for the ideal-like and halo regions, respectively. Notably, this gives a ratio on the order of 10 5 , which is much larger than experimentally measured values using T e values associated with the top of the pedestal and separatrix. Excellent agreement with ELITE and GATO calculations are made when sharp boundary transitions in the resistivity are used and a small amount of physical dissipation is added for conditions very near and below marginal ideal stability.

  1. Investigations of the role of nonlinear couplings in structure formation and transport regulation: Experiment, simulation, and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, C.; Kim, E.J.; Champeaux, S.; Gurcan, O.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Diamond, P.H.; Tynan, G.R.; Nevins, W.; Candy, J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the physics of shear flow and structure formation in plasmas is a central problem for the advancement of magnetic fusion because of the roles such flows are believed to play in regulating turbulence and transport levels. In this paper, we report on integrated experimental, computational, and theoretical studies of sheared zonal flows and radially extended convective cells, with the aim of assessing the results of theory experiment and theory-simulation comparisons. In particular, simulations are used as test beds for verifying analytical predictions and demonstrating the suitability of techniques such as bispectral analysis for isolating nonlinear couplings in data. Based on intriguing initial results suggesting increased levels of nonlinear coupling occur during L-H transitions, we have undertaken a comprehensive study of bispectral quantities in fluid and gyrokinetic simulations, and compared these results with theoretical expectations. Topics of study include locality and directionality of energy transfer, amplitude scaling, and parameter dependences. Techniques for inferring nonlinear coupling coefficients from data are discussed, and initial results from experimental data are presented. Future experimental studies are motivated. We also present work investigating the role of structures in transport. Analysis of simulation data indicates that the turbulent heat flux can be represented as an ensemble of 'heat pulses' of varying sizes, with a power law distribution. The slope of the power law is shown to determine global transport scaling (i.e. Bohm or gyro-Bohm). Theoretical work studying the dynamics of the largest cells (termed 'streamers') is presented, as well as results from ongoing analysis studying connections between heat pulse distribution and bispectral quantities. (author)

  2. Hall effect in a strong magnetic field: Direct comparisons of compressible magnetohydrodynamics and the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we numerically test a model of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field: the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic model (RHMHD) derived by [Gomez et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 102303 (2008)] with the addition of weak compressible effects. The main advantage of this model lies in the reduction of computational cost. Nevertheless, up until now the degree of agreement with the original Hall MHD system and the range of validity in a regime of turbulence were not established. In this work direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field are compared with simulations of the weak compressible RHMHD model. The results show that the degree of agreement is very high (when the different assumptions of RHMHD, such as spectral anisotropy, are satisfied). Nevertheless, when the initial conditions are isotropic but the mean magnetic field is maintained strong, the results differ at the beginning but asymptotically reach a good agreement at relatively short times. We also found evidence that the compressibility still plays a role in the dynamics of these systems, and the weak compressible RHMHD model is able to capture these effects. In conclusion the weak compressible RHMHD model is a valid approximation of the Hall MHD turbulence in the relevant physical context.

  3. Numerical simulation of internal reconnection event in spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mizuguchi, Naoki; Sato, Tetsuya

    1999-07-01

    Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are executed in a full toroidal geometry to clarify the physical mechanisms of the Internal Reconnection Event (IRE), which is observed in the spherical tokamak experiments. The simulation results reproduce several main properties of IRE. Comparison between the numerical results and experimental observation indicates fairly good agreements regarding nonlinear behavior, such as appearance of localized helical distortion, appearance of characteristic conical shape in the pressure profile during thermal quench, and subsequent appearance of the m=2/n=1 type helical distortion of the torus. (author)

  4. Two-Fluid and Resistive Nonlinear Simulations of Tokamak Equilibrium, Stability, and Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.; Sovinec, C.; Breslau, J.; Ferraro, N.; Hudson, S.; King, J.; Kruger, S.; Ramos, J.; Schnack, D.

    2008-01-01

    The NIMROD and M3D/M3D-C1 codes now each have both a resistive MHD and a two-fluid (2F) capability including gyroviscosity and Hall terms. We describe: (1) a nonlinear 3D verification test in the resistive MHD regime in which the two codes are in detailed agreement, (2) new studies that illuminate the effect of two-fluid physics on spontaneous rotation in tokamaks, (3) studies of nonlinear reconnection in regimes of relevance to fusion plasmas with peak nonlinear reconnection rates that are essentially independent of the resistivity, and (4) linear two-fluid tearing mode calculations including electron mass that agree with analytic studies over a wide range of parameter regimes

  5. Nonlinear ω*-stabilization of the m = 1 mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Zakharov, L.

    1995-08-01

    Earlier studies of sawtooth oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor supershots (Levinton et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2895 (1994); Zakharov, et al, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Nucl. Fus. Res., Proc. 15th Int. Conf., Seville 1994, Vienna) have found an apparent contradiction between conventional linear theory and experiment: even in sawtooth-free discharges, the theory typically predicts instability due to a nearly ideal m = 1 mode. Here, the nonlinear evolution of such mode is analyzed using numerical simulations of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We find the mode saturates nonlinearly at a small amplitude provided the ion and electron drift-frequencies ω* i,e are somewhat above the linear stability threshold of the collisionless m = 1 reconnecting mode. The comparison of the simulation results to m = 1 mode activity in TFTR suggests additional, stabilizing effects outside the present model are also important

  6. Influence of magnetic flutter on tearing growth in linear and nonlinear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifels, L.; Hornsby, W. A.; Weikl, A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2018-06-01

    Recent simulations of tearing modes in turbulent regimes show an unexpected enhancement in the growth rate. In this paper the effect is investigated analytically. The enhancement is linked to the influence of turbulent magnetic flutter, which is modelled by diffusion terms in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) momentum balance and Ohm’s law. Expressions for the linear growth rate as well as the island width in nonlinear theory for small amplitudes are derived. The results indicate an enhanced linear growth rate and a larger linear layer width compared with resistive MHD. Also the island width in the nonlinear regime grows faster in the diffusive model. These observations correspond well to simulations in which the effect of turbulence on the magnetic island width and tearing mode growth is analyzed.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Foil Bearing Supported Rotor System: Simulation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Flowers, George T.

    1996-01-01

    Foil bearings provide noncontacting rotor support through a number of thin metal strips attached around the circumference of a stator and separated from the rotor by a fluid film. The resulting support stiffness is dominated by the characteristics of the foils and is a nonlinear function of the rotor deflection. The present study is concerned with characterizing this nonlinear effect and investigating its influence on rotordynamical behavior. A finite element model is developed for an existing bearing, the force versus deflection relation characterized, and the dynamics of a sample rotor system are studied. Some conclusions are discussed with regard to appropriate ranges of operation for such a system.

  8. Simulation of nonlinear convective thixotropic liquid with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, M.; Waqas, M.; Hayat, T.; Ayub, M.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this communication we utilized a modified Fourier approach featuring thermal relaxation effect in nonlinear convective flow by a vertical exponentially stretchable surface. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity describes the heat transfer process. Thixotropic liquid is modeled. Convergent local similar solutions by homotopic approach are obtained. Graphical results for emerging parameters of interest are analyzed. Skin friction is calculated and interpreted. Consideration of larger local buoyancy and nonlinear convection parameters yields an enhancement in velocity distribution. Temperature and thermal layer thickness are reduced for larger thermal relaxation factor.

  9. A lattice Boltzmann model with an amending function for simulating nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin-Jie, Chen; Chang-Feng, Ma

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a lattice Boltzmann model with an amending function for one-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) in the form u t + αuu x + βu n u x + γu xx + δu xxx + ζu xxxx = 0. This model is different from existing models because it lets the time step be equivalent to the square of the space step and derives higher accuracy and nonlinear terms in NPDEs. With the Chapman–Enskog expansion, the governing evolution equation is recovered correctly from the continuous Boltzmann equation. The numerical results agree well with the analytical solutions. (general)

  10. Simulation of creep effects in framework of a geometrically nonlinear endochronic theory of inelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabavnikova, T. A.; Kadashevich, Yu. I.; Pomytkin, S. P.

    2018-05-01

    A geometric non-linear endochronic theory of inelasticity in tensor parametric form is considered. In the framework of this theory, the creep strains are modelled. The effect of various schemes of applying stresses and changing of material properties on the development of creep strains is studied. The constitutive equations of the model are represented by non-linear systems of ordinary differential equations which are solved in MATLAB environment by implicit difference method. Presented results demonstrate a good qualitative agreement of theoretical data and experimental observations including the description of the tertiary creep and pre-fracture of materials.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic studies of the strong Focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezin, Robert

    1971-01-01

    The POTTER magnetohydrodynamic code is used. It consists of a two-dimensional fluid model with two temperatures Te, Ti and transverse transport coefficients for a fully ionized plasma. Applied to the FOCUS geometry used at Limeil, it gives temperatures consistent with the BENNETT law but much lower than those evaluated experimentally by the X-ray absorbing foils technique. (author) [fr

  12. Magneto-hydrodynamical model for plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruikuan; Yang, Jiayan

    2017-10-01

    Based on the Newton's second law and the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field, we establish a new 3-D incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics model for the motion of plasma under the standard Coulomb gauge. By using the Galerkin method, we prove the existence of a global weak solution for this new 3-D model.

  13. PHANTOM: Smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel J.; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris; Tricco, Terrence S.; Toupin, Stéven; Pettitt, Alex; Chan, Conrad; Laibe, Guillaume; Glover, Simon; Dobbs, Clare; Nealon, Rebecca; Liptai, David; Worpel, Hauke; Bonnerot, Clément; Dipierro, Giovanni; Ragusa, Enrico; Federrath, Christoph; Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Forgan, Duncan; Hutchison, Mark; Constantino, Thomas; Ayliffe, Ben; Mentiplay, Daniel; Hirsh, Kieran; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Phantom is a smoothed particle hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code focused on stellar, galactic, planetary, and high energy astrophysics. It is modular, and handles sink particles, self-gravity, two fluid and one fluid dust, ISM chemistry and cooling, physical viscosity, non-ideal MHD, and more. Its modular structure makes it easy to add new physics to the code.

  14. Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics as a Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, A.

    1985-01-01

    The equations of ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in the laboratory frame form a noncanonical Hamiltonian system with the same Poisson bracket as for the nonrelativistic system, but with dynamical variables and Hamiltonian obtained via a regular deformation of their nonrelativistic counterparts [fr

  15. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  16. Comparisons of measurements and numerical simulations of a nonlinear beam subjected to a multi-harmonic non-ideal input signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, M.; Sinou, J.J.; Lambelin, J.P.; Alcoverro, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a direct comparison of measured and predicted nonlinear vibrations of a clamped-clamped steel beam. A multi-harmonic comparison of simulations with measurements is performed at the vicinity of the primary resonance. First of all, a nonlinear analytical model of the beam is developed taking into account non-ideal boundary conditions. The Harmonic Balance Method is implemented to estimate the nonlinear behavior of the clamped-clamped beam. This nonlinear method enables to simulate the vibration stationary response of a nonlinear system projected on several harmonics. This study then proposes a method to compare numerical simulations with measurements on all these harmonics. A signal analysis tool is developed to extract the system harmonics' frequency responses from a temporal signal of a swept sine experiment. An evolutionary updating algorithm (Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy), coupled with highly selective filters is used to identify both fundamental frequency and harmonics' amplitude in the temporal signal, at every moment. This tool enables to extract the harmonic amplitudes of the output signal as well as the input signal. The input of the Harmonic Balance Method can then be either an ideal mono-harmonic signal or a multi-harmonic experimental input signal. Finally, the present work focuses on the comparison of experimental and simulated results. From experimental output harmonics and numerical simulations, it is shown that it is possible to distinguish the nonlinearities of the clamped-clamped beam and the effect of the non-ideal input signal. (authors)

  17. Aeroelastic oscillations of a cantilever with structural nonlinearities: theory and numerical simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Brandon [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Rocha da Costa, Leandro Jose [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Poirel, Dominique [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Pettit, Chris [US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Khalil, Mohammad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sarkar, Abhijit [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2017-09-01

    Our study details the derivation of the nonlinear equations of motion for the axial, biaxial bending and torsional vibrations of an aeroelastic cantilever undergoing rigid body (pitch) rotation at the base. The primary attenstion is focussed on the geometric nonlinearities of the system, whereby the aeroelastic load is modeled by the theory of linear quasisteady aerodynamics. This modelling effort is intended to mimic the wind-tunnel experimental setup at the Royal Military College of Canada. While the derivation closely follows the work of Hodges and Dowell [1] for rotor blades, this aeroelastic system contains new inertial terms which stem from the fundamentally different kinematics than those exhibited by helicopter or wind turbine blades. Using the Hamilton’s principle, a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) and an ordinary differential equation (ODE) are derived which describes the coupled axial-bending-bending-torsion-pitch motion of the aeroelastic cantilever with the pitch rotation. The finite dimensional approximation of the coupled system of PDEs are obtained using the Galerkin projection, leading to a coupled system of ODEs. Subsequently, these nonlinear ODEs are solved numerically using the built-in MATLAB implicit ODE solver and the associated numerical results are compared with those obtained using Houbolt’s method. It is demonstrated that the system undergoes coalescence flutter, leading to a limit cycle oscillation (LCO) due to coupling between the rigid body pitching mode and teh flexible mode arising from the flapwise bending motion.

  18. Energy spectrum, dissipation, and spatial structures in reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomez, D. O. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    We analyze the effect of the Hall term in the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence under a strong externally supported magnetic field, seeing how this changes the energy cascade, the characteristic scales of the flow, and the dynamics of global magnitudes, with particular interest in the dissipation. Numerical simulations of freely evolving three-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics are performed, for different values of the Hall parameter (the ratio of the ion skin depth to the macroscopic scale of the turbulence) controlling the impact of the Hall term. The Hall effect modifies the transfer of energy across scales, slowing down the transfer of energy from the large scales up to the Hall scale (ion skin depth) and carrying faster the energy from the Hall scale to smaller scales. The final outcome is an effective shift of the dissipation scale to larger scales but also a development of smaller scales. Current sheets (fundamental structures for energy dissipation) are affected in two ways by increasing the Hall effect, with a widening but at the same time generating an internal structure within them. In the case where the Hall term is sufficiently intense, the current sheet is fully delocalized. The effect appears to reduce impulsive effects in the flow, making it less intermittent.

  19. Pre-launch simulation experiment of microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment in the space plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N. (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan); Tsutsui, M. (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan); Matsumoto, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan)

    1980-09-01

    A pre-flight test experiment of a microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment (MINIX) has been carried out in a space plasma simulation chamber. Though the first rocket experiment ended up in failure because of a high voltage trouble, interesting results are observed in the pre-flight experiment. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 300% temperature increase is observed. Strong excitations of plasma waves by the transmitted microwaves in the VLF and HF range are observed as well. These microwave effects may have to be taken into account in solar power satellite projects in the future.

  20. Suppression of AGN-driven Turbulence by Magnetic Fields in a Magnetohydrodynamic Model of the Intracluster Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambic, Christopher J.; Morsony, Brian J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in turbulent heating of galaxy clusters. Specifically, we analyze the production of turbulence by g-modes generated by the supersonic expansion and buoyant rise of AGN-driven bubbles. Previous work that neglects magnetic fields has shown that this process is inefficient, with less than 1% of the injected energy ending up in turbulence. This inefficiency primarily arises because the bubbles are shredded apart by hydrodynamic instabilities before they can excite sufficiently strong g-modes. Using a plane-parallel model of the intracluster medium (ICM) and 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we examine the role of a large-scale magnetic field that is able to drape around these rising bubbles, preserving them from hydrodynamic instabilities. We find that while magnetic draping appears better able to preserve AGN-driven bubbles, the driving of g-modes and the resulting production of turbulence is still inefficient. The magnetic tension force prevents g-modes from transitioning into the nonlinear regime, suppressing turbulence in our model ICM. Our work highlights the ways in which ideal MHD is an insufficient description for the cluster feedback process, and we discuss future work such as the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity as a means of simulating high β plasma kinetic effects. These results suggest the hypothesis that other mechanisms of heating the ICM plasma such as sound waves or cosmic rays may be responsible for the observed feedback in galaxy clusters.

  1. RESEARCH OF LINEAR AND NONLINEAR PROCESSES AT FEMTOSECOND LASER RADIATION PROPAGATION IN THE MEDIUM SIMULATING THE HUMAN EYE VITREOUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Rogov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical model of linear and nonlinear processes occurring at the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in the vitreous of the human eye. Methods of computing modeling are applied for the nonlinear spectral equation solution describing the dynamics of a two-dimensional TE-polarized radiation in a homogeneous isotropic medium with cubic fast-response nonlinearity without the usage of slowly varying envelope approximation. Environments close to the optical media parameters of the eye were used for the simulation. The model of femtosecond radiation propagation takes into account the process dynamics for dispersion broadening of pulses in time and the occurence of the self-focusing near the retina when passing through the vitreous body of the eye. Dependence between the pulse duration on the retina has been revealed and the duration of the input pulse and the values of power density at which there is self-focusing have been found. It is shown that the main mechanism of radiation damage with the use of titanium-sapphire laser is photoionization. The results coincide with those obtained by the other scientists, and are usable for creation Russian laser safety standards for femtosecond laser systems.

  2. Simulation of nonlinear transient elastography: finite element model for the propagation of shear waves in homogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W; Bel-Brunon, A; Catheline, S; Combescure, A; Rochette, M

    2018-01-01

    In this study, visco-hyperelastic Landau's model, which is widely used in acoustical physic field, is introduced into a finite element formulation. It is designed to model the nonlinear behaviour of finite amplitude shear waves in soft solids, typically, in biological tissues. This law is used in finite element models based on elastography, experiments reported in Jacob et al, the simulations results show a good agreement with the experimental study: It is observed in both that a plane shear wave generates only odd harmonics and a nonplane wave generates both odd and even harmonics in the spectral domain. In the second part, a parametric study is performed to analyse the influence of different factors on the generation of odd harmonics of plane wave. A quantitative relation is fitted between the odd harmonic amplitudes and the non-linear elastic parameter of Landau's model, which provides a practical guideline to identify the non-linearity of homogeneous tissues using elastography experiment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Nonlinear Dynamic Subscale Model for Partially Resolved Numerical Simulation (PRNS)/Very Large Eddy Simulation (VLES) of Internal Non-Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    A brief introduction of the temporal filter based partially resolved numerical simulation/very large eddy simulation approach (PRNS/VLES) and its distinct features are presented. A nonlinear dynamic subscale model and its advantages over the linear subscale eddy viscosity model are described. In addition, a guideline for conducting a PRNS/VLES simulation is provided. Results are presented for three turbulent internal flows. The first one is the turbulent pipe flow at low and high Reynolds numbers to illustrate the basic features of PRNS/VLES; the second one is the swirling turbulent flow in a LM6000 single injector to further demonstrate the differences in the calculated flow fields resulting from the nonlinear model versus the pure eddy viscosity model; the third one is a more complex turbulent flow generated in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor, the calculated result has demonstrated that the current PRNS/VLES approach is capable of capturing the dynamically important, unsteady turbulent structures while using a relatively coarse grid.

  4. Elucidating and tuning the strain-induced non-linear behavior of polymer nanocomposites: a detailed molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxiang; Liu, Jun; Gao, Yangyang; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-07-28

    By setting up a coarse-grained model of polymer nanocomposites, we monitored the change in the elastic modulus as a function of the strain, derived from the stress-strain behavior by determining uniaxial tension and simple shear of two typical spatial distribution states (aggregation and dispersion) of nanoparticles (NPs). In both these cases, we observed that the elastic modulus decreases non-linearly with the increase of strain and reaches a low plateau at larger strains. This phenomenon is similar to the so-called "Payne effect" for elastomer nanocomposites. Particularly, the modulus of the aggregation case is more sensitive to the imposed strain. By examining the structural parameters, such as the number of neighboring NPs, coordination number of NPs, root-mean-squared average force exerted on the NPs, local strain, chain conformations (bridge, dangle, loop, interface bead and connection bead), and the total interaction energy of NP-polymer and NP-NP, we inferred that the underlying mechanism of the aggregation case is the disintegration of the NP network or clusters formed through direct contact; however, for the dispersion case, the non-linear behavior is attributed to the destruction of the NP network or clusters formed through the bridging of adsorbed polymer segments among the NPs. The former physical network is influenced by NP-NP interaction and NP volume fraction, while the latter is influenced by NP-polymer interaction and NP volume fraction. Lastly, we found that for the dispersion case, further increasing the inter-particle distance or grafting NPs with polymer chains can effectively reduce the non-linear behavior due to the decrease of the physical network density. In general, this simulation work, for the first time, establishes the correlation between the micro-structural evolution and the strain-induced non-linear behavior of polymer nanocomposites, and sheds some light on how to reduce the "Payne effect".

  5. Predominant nonlinear atmospheric response to meridional shift of the Gulf Stream path from the WRF atmospheric model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H.; Kwon, Y. O.; Joyce, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    A remarkably strong nonlinear behavior of the atmospheric circulation response to North Atlantic SST anomalies (SSTA) is revealed from a set of large-ensemble, high-resolution, and hemispheric-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations. The model is forced with the SSTA associated with meridional shift of the Gulf Stream (GS) path, constructed from a lag regression of the winter SST on a GS Index from observation. Analysis of the systematic set of experiments with SSTAs of varied amplitudes and switched signs representing various GS-shift scenarios provides unique insights into mechanism for emergence and evolution of transient and equilibrium response of atmospheric circulation to extratropical SSTA. Results show that, independent of sign of the SSTA, the equilibrium response is characterized by an anomalous trough over the North Atlantic Ocean and the Western Europe concurrent with enhanced storm track, increased rainfall, and reduced blocking days. To the north of the anomalous low, an anomalous ridge emerges over the Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian Seas accompanied by weakened storm track, reduced rainfall and increased blocking days. This nonlinear component of the total response dominates the weak and oppositely signed linear response that is directly forced by the SSTA, yielding an anomalous ridge (trough) downstream of the warm (cold) SSTA. The amplitude of the linear response is proportional to that of the SSTA, but this is masked by the overwhelmingly strong nonlinear behavior showing no clear correspondence to the SSTA amplitude. The nonlinear pattern emerges 3-4 weeks after the model initialization in November and reaches its first peak amplitude in December/January. It appears that altered baroclinic wave activity due to the GS SSTA in November lead to low-frequency height responses in December/January through transient eddy vorticity flux convergence.

  6. Nonlinear Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Effects in Microcantilever Resonators Dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadayon, M A; Sayyaadi, H; Jazar, G Nakhaie

    2006-01-01

    Thermal dependency of material characteristics in micro electromechanical systems strongly affects their performance, design, and control. Hence, it is essential to understand and model that in MEMS devices to optimize their designs. A thermal phenomenon introduces two main effects: damping due to internal friction, and softening due to Young modulus temperature relation. Based on some reported theoretical and experimental results, we model the thermal phenomena and use two Lorentzian functions to describe the restoring and damping forces caused by thermal phenomena. In order to emphasize the thermal effects, a nonlinear model of the MEMS, by considering capacitor nonlinearity, have been used. The response of the system is developed by employing multiple time scales perturbation method on nondimensionalized form of equations. Frequency response, resonant frequency and peak amplitude are examined for variation of dynamic parameters involved

  7. Numerical Simulation of Coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations Using the Generalized Differential Quadrature Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, R.; Toodar, A. Samadi; Chegini, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    We the extend application of the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) to solve some coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The cosine-based GDQM is employed and the obtained system of ordinary differential equations is solved via the fourth order Runge—Kutta method. The numerical solutions coincide with the exact solutions in desired machine precision and invariant quantities are conserved sensibly. Some comparisons with the methods applied in the literature are carried out. (general)

  8. Nonlinear Diamagnetic Stabilization of Double Tearing Modes in Cylindrical MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephen; Germaschewski, Kai

    2014-10-01

    Double tearing modes (DTMs) may occur in reversed-shear tokamak configurations if two nearby rational surfaces couple and begin reconnecting. During the DTM's nonlinear evolution it can enter an ``explosive'' growth phase leading to complete reconnection, making it a possible driver for off-axis sawtooth crashes. Motivated by similarities between this behavior and that of the m = 1 kink-tearing mode in conventional tokamaks we investigate diamagnetic drifts as a possible DTM stabilization mechanism. We extend our previous linear studies of an m = 2 , n = 1 DTM in cylindrical geometry to the fully nonlinear regime using the MHD code MRC-3D. A pressure gradient similar to observed ITB profiles is used, together with Hall physics, to introduce ω* effects. We find the diamagnetic drifts can have a stabilizing effect on the nonlinear DTM through a combination of large scale differential rotation and mechanisms local to the reconnection layer. MRC-3D is an extended MHD code based on the libMRC computational framework. It supports nonuniform grids in curvilinear coordinates with parallel implicit and explicit time integration.

  9. Criterion of magnetic saturation and simulation of nonlinear magnetization for a linear multi-core pulse transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhengzhong; Kuai Bin; Sun Fengju; Cong Peitian; Qiu Aici

    2002-01-01

    The linear multi-core pulse transformer is an important primary driving source used in pulsed power apparatus for the production of dense plasm owing to its compact, relatively low-cost and easy-to-handle characteristics. The evaluation of the magnetic saturation of the transformer cores is essential to the transformer design, because the energy transfer efficiency of the transformer will degrade significantly after magnetic saturation. This work proposes analytical formulas of the criterion of magnetic saturation for the cores when the transformer drives practical loads. Furthermore, an electric circuit model based on a dependent source treatment for simulating the electric behavior of the cores related to their nonlinear magnetization is developed using the initial magnetization curve of the cores. The numerical simulation with the model is used to evaluate the validity of the criterion. Both the criterion and the model are found to be in agreement with the experimental data

  10. Fatigue damage estimation in non-linear systems using a combination of Monte Carlo simulation and the First Order Reliability Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    For non-linear systems the estimation of fatigue damage under stochastic loadings can be rather time-consuming. Usually Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied, but the coefficient-of-variation (COV) can be large if only a small set of simulations can be done due to otherwise excessive CPU time...

  11. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  12. Analysis and simulation of nonlinearity and effects of spontaneous emission in Schottky-junction-based plasmonic amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livani, Abdolber Mallah; Kaatuzian, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    An amplifier that operates on surface plasmon polaritons has been analyzed and simulated. Nonlinearity behavior and the spontaneous emission effects of the plasmonic amplifier are investigated in this paper. A rate equations approach has been used in which parameters are derived from simulation results of the plasmonic amplifier (Silvaco/ATLAS). Details on the method of this derivation are included, which were not previously reported. Rate equations are solved numerically by MATLAB codes. These codes verify the Silvaco results. The plasmonic amplifier operates on surface plasmons with a free-space wavelength of 1550 nm. Results show that, even without the effect of spontaneous emission, gain of the plasmonic amplifier saturates in high input levels. Saturation power, which can be used for comparing nonlinearity of different amplifiers, is 2.1 dBm for this amplifier. Amplified spontaneous emission reduces the gain of the amplifiers, which is long. There is an optimum value for the length of the amplifier. For the amplifier of this work, the optimum length for the small signal condition is 265 μm.

  13. On the kinematic criterion for the inception of breaking in surface gravity waves: Fully nonlinear numerical simulations and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khait, A.; Shemer, L.

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of unidirectional wave trains containing a wave that gradually becomes steep is evaluated experimentally and numerically using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The boundary conditions for the nonlinear numerical simulations corresponded to the actual movements of the wavemaker paddle as recorded in the physical experiments, allowing direct comparison between the measured in experiments' characteristics of the wave train and the numerical predictions. The high level of qualitative and quantitative agreement between the measurements and simulations validated the kinematic criterion for the inception of breaking and the location of the spilling breaker, on the basis of the BEM computations and associated experiments. The breaking inception is associated with the fluid particle at the crest of the steep wave that has been accelerated to match and surpass the crest velocity. The previously observed significant slow-down of the crest while approaching breaking is verified numerically; both narrow-/broad-banded wave trains are considered. Finally, the relative importance of linear and nonlinear contributions is analyzed.

  14. Gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamics and the associated equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. W.; Hudson, S. R.; Ma, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The gyrokinetic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, related to the recent paper by W. W. Lee ["Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective," Phys. Plasmas 23, 070705 (2016)], and their associated equilibria properties are discussed. This set of equations consists of the time-dependent gyrokinetic vorticity equation, the gyrokinetic parallel Ohm's law, and the gyrokinetic Ampere's law as well as the equations of state, which are expressed in terms of the electrostatic potential, ϕ, and the vector potential, A , and support both spatially varying perpendicular and parallel pressure gradients and the associated currents. The corresponding gyrokinetic MHD equilibria can be reached when ϕ→0 and A becomes constant in time, which, in turn, gives ∇.(J∥+J⊥)=0 and the associated magnetic islands, if they exist. Examples of simple cylindrical geometry are given. These gyrokinetic MHD equations look quite different from the conventional MHD equations, and their comparisons will be an interesting topic in the future.

  15. Multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R., E-mail: graham.dennis@anu.edu.au; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present an extension of the multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRxMHD) equilibrium model that includes plasma flow. This new model is a generalization of Woltjer's model of relaxed magnetohydrodynamics equilibria with flow. We prove that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, our extension of MRxMHD reduces to ideal MHD with flow. We also prove that some solutions to MRxMHD with flow are not time-independent in the laboratory frame, and instead have 3D structure which rotates in the toroidal direction with fixed angular velocity. This capability gives MRxMHD potential application to describing rotating 3D MHD structures such as 'snakes' and long-lived modes.

  16. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  17. Relabeling symmetries in hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhye, N.; Morrison, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Lagrangian symmetries and concomitant generalized Bianchi identities associated with the relabeling of fluid elements are found for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In hydrodynamics relabeling results in Ertel's theorem of conservation of potential vorticity, while in MHD it yields the conservation of cross helicity. The symmetries of the reduction from Lagrangian (material) to Eulerian variables are used to construct the Casimir invariants of the Hamiltonian formalism

  18. Nambu brackets in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Roberto; Kurgansky, Michael V

    2010-01-01

    Concrete examples of the construction of Nambu brackets for equations of motion (both 3D and 2D) of Boussinesq stratified fluids and also for magnetohydrodynamical equations are given. It serves a generalization of Hamiltonian formulation for the considered equations of motion. Two alternative Nambu formulations are proposed, first by using fluid dynamical (kinetic) helicity and/or enstrophy as constitutive elements and second, by using the existing conservation laws of the governing equation.

  19. FDTD Simulation of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Pulse Propagation in ESWL Using Equations Including Lagrangian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Keisuke; Morita, Nagayoshi

    New FDTD algorithm is proposed for analyzing ultrasonic pulse propagation in the human body, the problem being connected with ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy). In this method, we do not use plane wave approximation but employ directly the original equations taking account of Lagrangian to derive new FDTD algorithms. This method is applied to an experimental setup and its numerical model that resemble actual treatment situation to compare sound pressure distributions obtained numerically with those obtained experimentally. It is shown that the present method gives clearly better results than the earlier method, in the viewpoint of numerical reappearance of strongly nonlinear waveform.

  20. Extended generalized Lagrangian multipliers for magnetohydrodynamics using adaptive multiresolution methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new adaptive multiresoltion method for the numerical simulation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The governing equations, i.e., the compressible Euler equations coupled with the Maxwell equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a two-dimensional Cartesian mesh. Adaptivity in space is obtained via Harten’s cell average multiresolution analysis, which allows the reliable introduction of a locally refined mesh while controlling the error. The explicit time discretization uses a compact Runge–Kutta method for local time stepping and an embedded Runge-Kutta scheme for automatic time step control. An extended generalized Lagrangian multiplier approach with the mixed hyperbolic-parabolic correction type is used to control the incompressibility of the magnetic field. Applications to a two-dimensional problem illustrate the properties of the method. Memory savings and numerical divergences of magnetic field are reported and the accuracy of the adaptive computations is assessed by comparing with the available exact solution.

  1. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  2. A study of shock-associated magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Three major topics were addressed, one theoretical and two observational. The topics were: (1) an attempt to understand the evolution of the large-amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the foreshock, using a nonlinear wave equation called the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (henceforth DNLS) as a model, (2) using the extensive set of ISE data to test for the presence of various nonlinear wave processes which might be present, and (3) a study of plasma turbulence in the interstellar medium which might be physically similar to that in the solar wind. For these investigations we used radioastronomical techniques. Good progress was made in each of these areas and a separate discussion of each is given.

  3. Fast and local non-linear evolution of steep wave-groups on deep water: A comparison of approximate models to fully non-linear simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, T. A. A.; Taylor, P. H.

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Schrödinger equation and its higher order extensions are routinely used for analysis of extreme ocean waves. This paper compares the evolution of individual wave-packets modelled using non-linear Schrödinger type equations with packets modelled using fully non-linear potential flow models. The modified non-linear Schrödinger Equation accurately models the relatively large scale non-linear changes to the shape of wave-groups, with a dramatic contraction of the group along the mean propagation direction and a corresponding extension of the width of the wave-crests. In addition, as extreme wave form, there is a local non-linear contraction of the wave-group around the crest which leads to a localised broadening of the wave spectrum which the bandwidth limited non-linear Schrödinger Equations struggle to capture. This limitation occurs for waves of moderate steepness and a narrow underlying spectrum

  4. Enhanced nonlinearity interval mapping scheme for high-performance simulation-optimization of watershed-scale BMP placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rui; Riverson, John; Liu, Yong; Murphy, Ryan; Sim, Youn

    2015-03-01

    Integrated continuous simulation-optimization models can be effective predictors of a process-based responses for cost-benefit optimization of best management practices (BMPs) selection and placement. However, practical application of simulation-optimization model is computationally prohibitive for large-scale systems. This study proposes an enhanced Nonlinearity Interval Mapping Scheme (NIMS) to solve large-scale watershed simulation-optimization problems several orders of magnitude faster than other commonly used algorithms. An efficient interval response coefficient (IRC) derivation method was incorporated into the NIMS framework to overcome a computational bottleneck. The proposed algorithm was evaluated using a case study watershed in the Los Angeles County Flood Control District. Using a continuous simulation watershed/stream-transport model, Loading Simulation Program in C++ (LSPC), three nested in-stream compliance points (CP)—each with multiple Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) targets—were selected to derive optimal treatment levels for each of the 28 subwatersheds, so that the TMDL targets at all the CP were met with the lowest possible BMP implementation cost. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and NIMS were both applied and compared. The results showed that the NIMS took 11 iterations (about 11 min) to complete with the resulting optimal solution having a total cost of 67.2 million, while each of the multiple GA executions took 21-38 days to reach near optimal solutions. The best solution obtained among all the GA executions compared had a minimized cost of 67.7 million—marginally higher, but approximately equal to that of the NIMS solution. The results highlight the utility for decision making in large-scale watershed simulation-optimization formulations.

  5. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term -{\\Delta}Q, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and {\\Delta} is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensi...

  6. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Cable-Robot-Based Motion Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katliar, Mikhail; Fischer, Joerg; Frison, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present the implementation of a model-predictive controller (MPC) for real-time control of a cable-robot-based motion simulator. The controller computes control inputs such that a desired acceleration and angular velocity at a defined point in simulator's cabin are tracked while...... satisfying constraints imposed by working space and allowed cable forces of the robot. In order to fully use the simulator capabilities, we propose an approach that includes the motion platform actuation in the MPC model. The tracking performance and computation time of the algorithm are investigated...

  7. Faster Simulation Methods for the Non-Stationary Random Vibrations of Non-Linear MDOF Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askar, A.; Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    subject to nonstationary Gaussian white noise excitation, as an alternative to conventional direct simulation methods. These alternative simulation procedures rely on an assumption of local Gaussianity during each time step. This assumption is tantamount to various linearizations of the equations....... Such a treatment offers higher rates of convergence, faster speed and higher accuracy. These procedures are compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation procedure, which uses a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme with the white noise process approximated by a broad band Ruiz-Penzien broken line process...

  8. Faster Simulation Methods for the Nonstationary Random Vibrations of Non-linear MDOF Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askar, A.; Köylüo, U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    1996-01-01

    subject to nonstationary Gaussian white noise excitation, as an alternative to conventional direct simulation methods. These alternative simulation procedures rely on an assumption of local Gaussianity during each time step. This assumption is tantamount to various linearizations of the equations....... Such a treatment offers higher rates of convergence, faster speed and higher accuracy. These procedures are compared to the direct Monte Carlo simulation procedure, which uses a fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme with the white noise process approximated by a broad band Ruiz-Penzien broken line process...

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic models of astrophysical jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskin, Vasily S

    2010-01-01

    In this review, analytical results obtained for a wide class of stationary axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of compact astrophysical objects are analyzed, with an emphasis on quantitative predictions for specific sources. Recent years have witnessed a great increase in understanding the formation and properties of astrophysical jets. This is due not only to new observations but also to advances in analytical theory which has produced fairly simple relations, and to what can undoubtedly be called a breakthrough in numerical simulation which has enabled confirmation of theoretical predictions. Of course, we are still very far from fully understanding the physical processes occurring in compact sources. Nevertheless, the progress made raises hopes for near-future test observations that can give insight into the physical processes occurring in active astrophysical objects. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic Three-Dimensional Flowof a Second-Grade Fluid with Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Nawaz, Muhammad

    2010-09-01

    An analysis has been carried out for the heat transfer on steady boundary layer flow of a secondgrade fluid bounded by a stretching sheet. The magnetohydrodynamic nature of the fluid is considered in the presence of Hall and ion-slip currents. The nonlinear mathematical problem is computed by a powerful tool, namely, the homotopy analysis method (HAM). A comparative study between the present and existing limiting results is carefully made. Convergence regarding the obtained solution is discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are analyzed. Effects of embedded parameters on the dimensionless velocities and temperature are examined

  11. A New Class of Non-Linear, Finite-Volume Methods for Vlasov Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, J.W.; Hittinger, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods for the numerical discretization of the Vlasov equation should efficiently use the phase space discretization and should introduce only enough numerical dissipation to promote stability and control oscillations. A new high-order, non-linear, finite-volume algorithm for the Vlasov equation that discretely conserves particle number and controls oscillations is presented. The method is fourth-order in space and time in well-resolved regions, but smoothly reduces to a third-order upwind scheme as features become poorly resolved. The new scheme is applied to several standard problems for the Vlasov-Poisson system, and the results are compared with those from other finite-volume approaches, including an artificial viscosity scheme and the Piecewise Parabolic Method. It is shown that the new scheme is able to control oscillations while preserving a higher degree of fidelity of the solution than the other approaches.

  12. Earthquake Cycle Simulations with Rate-and-State Friction and Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K. L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    We have implemented a parallel code that simultaneously models both rate-and-state friction on a strike-slip fault and off-fault viscoelastic deformation throughout the earthquake cycle in 2D. Because we allow fault slip to evolve with a rate-and-state friction law and do not impose the depth of the brittle-to-ductile transition, we are able to address: the physical processes limiting the depth of large ruptures (with hazard implications); the degree of strain localization with depth; the relative partitioning of fault slip and viscous deformation in the brittle-to-ductile transition zone; and the relative contributions of afterslip and viscous flow to postseismic surface deformation. The method uses a discretization that accommodates variable off-fault material properties, depth-dependent frictional properties, and linear and nonlinear viscoelastic rheologies. All phases of the earthquake cycle are modeled, allowing the model to spontaneously generate earthquakes, and to capture afterslip and postseismic viscous flow. We compare the effects of a linear Maxwell rheology, often used in geodetic models, with those of a nonlinear power law rheology, which laboratory data indicates more accurately represents the lower crust and upper mantle. The viscosity of the Maxwell rheology is set by power law rheological parameters with an assumed a geotherm and strain rate, producing a viscosity that exponentially decays with depth and is constant in time. In contrast, the power law rheology will evolve an effective viscosity that is a function of the temperature profile and the stress state, and therefore varies both spatially and temporally. We will also integrate the energy equation for the thermomechanical problem, capturing frictional heat generation on the fault and off-fault viscous shear heating, and allowing these in turn to alter the effective viscosity.

  13. A correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and the importance of multifield fluctuation measurements for testing nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A E; Schmitz, L; Peebles, W A; Carter, T A; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Gourdain, P A; Hillesheim, J C; Wang, G; Holland, C; Tynan, G R; Austin, M E; McKee, G R; Shafer, M W; Burrell, K H; Candy, J; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Staebler, G M; Waltz, R E; Makowski, M A

    2008-10-01

    A correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been used to measure local, turbulent fluctuations of the electron temperature in the core of DIII-D plasmas. This paper describes the hardware and testing of the CECE diagnostic and highlights the importance of measurements of multifield fluctuation profiles for the testing and validation of nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. The process of testing and validating such codes is critical for extrapolation to next-step fusion devices. For the first time, the radial profiles of electron temperature and density fluctuations are compared to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The CECE diagnostic at DIII-D uses correlation radiometry to measure the rms amplitude and spectrum of the electron temperature fluctuations. Gaussian optics are used to produce a poloidal spot size with w(o) approximately 1.75 cm in the plasma. The intermediate frequency filters and the natural linewidth of the EC emission determine the radial resolution of the CECE diagnostic, which can be less than 1 cm. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are k(theta) < or = 1.8 cm(-1) and k(r) < or = 4 cm(-1), relevant for studies of long-wavelength turbulence associated with the trapped electron mode and the ion temperature gradient mode. In neutral beam heated L-mode plasmas, core electron temperature fluctuations in the region 0.5 < r/a < 0.9, increase with radius from approximately 0.5% to approximately 2%, similar to density fluctuations that are measured simultaneously with beam emission spectroscopy. After incorporating "synthetic diagnostics" to effectively filter the code output, the simulations reproduce the characteristics of the turbulence and transport at one radial location r/a = 0.5, but not at a second location, r/a = 0.75. These results illustrate that measurements of the profiles of multiple fluctuating fields can provide a significant constraint on the turbulence models employed by the code.

  14. Analytical theory and nonlinear δf perturbative simulations of temperature anisotropy instability in intense charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Startsev

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions (T_{∥b}/T_{⊥b}≪1 a Harris-like collective instability may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Such anisotropies develop naturally in accelerators and may lead to a deterioration of beam quality. This paper extends previous numerical studies [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002] of the stability properties of intense non-neutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T_{⊥b}≫T_{∥b} to allow for nonaxisymmetric perturbations with ∂/∂θ≠0. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined. The simulation results clearly show that moderately intense beams with s_{b}=ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}/2γ_{b}^{2}ω_{β⊥}^{2}≳0.5 are linearly unstable to short-wavelength perturbations with k_{z}^{2}r_{b}^{2}≳1, provided the ratio of longitudinal and transverse temperatures is smaller than some threshold value. Here, ω[over ^]_{pb}^{2}=4πn[over ^]_{b}e_{b}^{2}/γ_{b}m_{b} is the relativistic plasma frequency squared, and ω_{β⊥} is the betatron frequency associated with the applied smooth-focusing field. A theoretical model is developed based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations which describes the essential features of the linear stages of instability. Both the simulations and the analytical theory predict that the dipole mode (azimuthal mode number m=1 is the most unstable mode. In the nonlinear stage, tails develop in the longitudinal momentum distribution function, and the kinetic instability saturates due to resonant wave-particle interactions.

  15. Full radius linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for tokamaks and stellarators: Zonal flows, applied E x B flows, trapped electrons and finite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Allfrey, S.J.; Bottino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on recent advances made on global gyrokinetic simulations of Ion Temperature Gradient modes (ITG) and other microinstabilities. The nonlinear development and saturation of ITG modes and the role of E x B zonal flows are studied with a global nonlinear δ f formulation that retains parallel nonlinearity and thus allows for a check of the energy conservation property as a means to verify the quality of the numerical simulation. Due to an optimised loading technique the conservation property is satisfied with an unprecedented quality well into the nonlinear stage. The zonal component of the perturbation establishes a quasi-steady state with regions of ITG suppression, strongly reduced radial energy flux and steepened effective temperature profile alternating with regions of higher ITG mode amplitudes, larger radial energy flux and flattened effective temperature profile. A semi-Lagrangian approach free of statistical noise is proposed as an alternative to the nonlinear δf formulation. An ASDEX-Upgrade experiment with an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) is analysed with a global gyrokinetic code that includes trapped electron dynamics. The weakly destabilizing effect of trapped electron dynamics on ITG modes in an axisymmetric bumpy configuration modelling W7-X is shown in global linear simulations that retain the full electron dynamics. Finite β effects on microinstabilities are investigated with a linear global spectral electromagnetic gyrokinetic formulation. The radial global structure of electromagnetic modes shows a resonant behaviour with rational q values. (author)

  16. Contribution to the resolution of magnetohydrodynamic and magnetostatic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulbe, C.

    2007-10-01

    Interaction between a plasma and a magnetic field appears and has an important role in various domains such as thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement or astrophysical plasmas for example. In evolution, these interactions are described by the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). At equilibrium, the MHD equations result in the magnetostatic equations involving the magnetic field and the kinetic pressure of the plasma. The magnetostatic equations form a system of 3-dimensional non linear partial differential equations involving a magnetic field and a kinetic plasma pressure. When the pressure is supposed negligible, the magnetic field is known as Beltrami field. In a first time, we propose to solve numerically the Beltrami field problem using a fixed point iterative algorithm associated with finite element methods. This iterative strategy is extended in a second time to the computation of magnetostatic configurations with pressure. In the sequel, we interest in the approximation of ideal MHD equations. This system forms a nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law. We propose to use a finite volume approach, in which fluxes are calculated by a Roe's method on a tetrahedral mesh. Fluxes of the magnetic field are modified in order to satisfy the constraint of divergence free imposed on it. The proposed methods have been implemented in two new 3-dimensional codes called TETRAFFF for equilibrium, and TETRAMHD for MHD. The obtained numerical results confirm the high performance of these methods. (author)

  17. Theory and Transport of Nearly Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zank, G. P.; Adhikari, L.; Hunana, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Shiota, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Bruno, R. [INAF-IAPS Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Telloni, D. [INAF—Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    The theory of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (NI MHD) was developed largely in the early 1990s, together with an important extension to inhomogeneous flows in 2010. Much of the focus in the earlier work was to understand the apparent incompressibility of the solar wind and other plasma environments, and the relationship of density fluctuations to apparently incompressible manifestations of turbulence in the solar wind and interstellar medium. Further important predictions about the “dimensionality” of solar wind turbulence and its relationship to the plasma beta were made and subsequently confirmed observationally. However, despite the initial success of NI MHD in describing fluctuations in the solar wind, a detailed application to solar wind turbulence has not been undertaken. Here, we use the equations of NI MHD to describe solar wind turbulence, rewriting the NI MHD system in terms of Elsässer variables. Distinct descriptions of 2D and slab turbulence emerge naturally from the Elsässer formulation, as do the nonlinear couplings between 2D and slab components. For plasma beta order 1 or less regions, predictions for 2D and slab spectra result from the NI MHD description, and predictions for the spectral characteristics of density fluctuations can be made. We conclude by presenting a NI MHD formulation describing the transport of majority 2D and minority slab turbulence throughout the solar wind. A preliminary comparison of theory and observations is presented.

  18. On spectral scaling laws for incompressible anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtier, Sebastien; Pouquet, Annick; Mangeney, Andre

    2005-01-01

    A heuristic model is given for anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics turbulence in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field B 0 e parallel . The model is valid for both moderate and strong B 0 and is able to describe both the strong and weak wave turbulence regimes as well as the transition between them. The main ingredient of the model is the assumption of constant ratio at all scales between the linear wave period and the nonlinear turnover time scale. Contrary to the model of critical balance introduced by Goldreich and Sridhar [Astrophys. J. 438, 763 (1995)], it is not assumed, in addition, that this ratio be equal to unity at all scales. This allows us to make use of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan phenomenology; it is then possible to recover the widely observed anisotropic scaling law k parallel ∝k perpendicular 2/3 between parallel and perpendicular wave numbers (with reference to B 0 e parallel and to obtain for the total-energy spectrum E(k perpendicular ,k parallel )∼k perpendicular -α k parallel -β the universal prediction, 3α+2β=7. In particular, with such a prediction, the weak Alfven wave turbulence constant-flux solution is recovered and, for the first time, a possible explanation to its precursor found numerically by Galtier et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 63, 447 (2000)] is given.

  19. Numerical and adaptive grid methods for ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, Burlen

    2008-02-01

    In this thesis numerical finite difference methods for ideal magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) are investigated. A review of the relevant physics, essential for interpreting the results of numerical solutions and constructing validation cases, is presented. This review includes a discusion of the propagation of small amplitude waves in the MHD system as well as a thorough discussion of MHD shocks, contacts and rarefactions and how they can be piece together to obtain a solutions to the MHD Riemann problem. Numerical issues relevant to the MHD system such as: the loss of nonlinear numerical stability in the presence of discontinuous solutions, the introduction of spurious forces due to the growth of the divergence of the magnetic flux density, the loss of pressure positivity, and the effects of non-conservative numerical methods are discussed, along with the practical approaches which can be used to remedy or minimize the negative consequences of each. The use of block structured adaptive mesh refinement is investigated in the context of a divergence free MHD code. A new method for conserving magnetic flux across AMR grid interfaces is developed and a detailed discussion of our implementation of this method using the CHOMBO AMR framework is given. A preliminary validation of the new method for conserving magnetic flux density across AMR grid interfaces illustrates that the method works. Finally a number of code validation cases are examined spurring a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the numerics employed.

  20. Steepest descent moment method for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Whitson, J.C.

    1983-11-01

    An energy principle is used to obtain the solution of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium equation J Vector x B Vector - del p = 0 for nested magnetic flux surfaces that are expressed in the inverse coordinate representation x Vector = x Vector(rho, theta, zeta). Here, theta and zeta are poloidal and toroidal flux coordinate angles, respectively, and p = p(rho) labels a magnetic surface. Ordinary differential equations in rho are obtained for the Fourier amplitudes (moments) in the doubly periodic spectral decomposition of x Vector. A steepest descent iteration is developed for efficiently solving these nonlinear, coupled moment equations. The existence of a positive-definite energy functional guarantees the monotonic convergence of this iteration toward an equilibrium solution (in the absence of magnetic island formation). A renormalization parameter lambda is introduced to ensure the rapid convergence of the Fourier series for x Vector, while simultaneously satisfying the MHD requirement that magnetic field lines are straight in flux coordinates. A descent iteration is also developed for determining the self-consistent value for lambda

  1. Improvements on nonlinear gyrokinetic particle simulations based on δf-discretization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorat, R.; Tessarotto, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work various issues regarding the definition of improved theoretical models appropriate to describe the dynamics of confined magnetoplasmas by particle simulation methods are proposed. These concern in particular an improved non linear δf discretization scheme and the treatment of binary, i.e. Coulomb, and collective interactions. (orig.)

  2. Simulation study of generalized electron cyclotron harmonic waves and nonlinear scattering in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Part One examines the properties of electron cyclotron harmonic waves by means of computer simulation. The electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic modes not previously observed in simulation are emphasized and compared with the better known electrostatic (Bernstein) modes for perpendicular propagation. The investigation is performed by a spectrum analysis (both wavelength and frequency) of the thermal equilibrium electromagnetic fluctuation fields present in the simulation. A numerical solution of the fully electromagnetic dispersion relation shows that extreme frequency resolution is necessary to discern shifts of the electromagnetic mode frequencies from the cyclotron harmonics except at high plasma density or temperature. The simulation results show that at high plasma pressure the amplitude of the electromagnetic modes can become greater than that of the electrostatic modes. Part Two examines the interaction of an external electromagnetic wave with the electrostatic cylotron harmonic modes. The stimulated Raman scattering with an extraordinary wave as the pump is observed to occur in a wavelength regime where it would be prevented by Landau damping in an unmagnetized plasma

  3. Nonlinear simulation of tearing mode and m=1 kink mode based on kinetic RMHD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Yoshida, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Naitou, H.; Nagahara, H.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Itoh, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Tokuda, S.; Azumi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate dynamics of sawtooth oscillation and neoclassical tearing modes based on kinetic RMHD model, putting an emphasis on interaction with microscopic and transport processes. The simulation results show that the assumption in the conventional theory of neoclassical tearing mode is rather rude. (author)

  4. Nonlinear energy transfer and current sheet development in localized Alfvén wavepacket collisions in the strong turbulence limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniero, J. L.; Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is responsible for transferring energy from large scales driven by violent events or instabilities, to smaller scales where turbulent energy is ultimately converted into plasma heat by dissipative mechanisms. The nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, denoted Alfvén wave collisions, drives this turbulent energy cascade, as recognized by early work with incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Recent work employing analytical calculations and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén wave collisions in an idealized periodic initial state have demonstrated the key properties that strong Alfvén wave collisions mediate effectively the transfer of energy to smaller perpendicular scales and self-consistently generate current sheets. For the more realistic case of the collision between two initially separated Alfvén wavepackets, we use a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation to show here that these key properties persist: strong Alfvén wavepacket collisions indeed facilitate the perpendicular cascade of energy and give rise to current sheets. Furthermore, the evolution shows that nonlinear interactions occur only while the wavepackets overlap, followed by a clean separation of the wavepackets with straight uniform magnetic fields and the cessation of nonlinear evolution in between collisions, even in the gyrokinetic simulation presented here which resolves dispersive and kinetic effects beyond the reach of the MHD theory.

  5. Robust and adaptive techniques for numerical simulation of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, some nonlinear space-fractional order reaction-diffusion equations (SFORDE) on a finite but large spatial domain x ∈ [0, L], x = x(x , y , z) and t ∈ [0, T] are considered. Also in this work, the standard reaction-diffusion system with boundary conditions is generalized by replacing the second-order spatial derivatives with Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivatives of order α, for 0 Fourier spectral method is introduced as a better alternative to existing low order schemes for the integration of fractional in space reaction-diffusion problems in conjunction with an adaptive exponential time differencing method, and solve a range of one-, two- and three-components SFORDE numerically to obtain patterns in one- and two-dimensions with a straight forward extension to three spatial dimensions in a sub-diffusive (0 reaction-diffusion case. With application to models in biology and physics, different spatiotemporal dynamics are observed and displayed.

  6. Numerical simulation of nonlinear wave force on a quasi-ellipse caisson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxue; Ren, Xiaozhong; Wang, Guoyu

    2011-09-01

    A three dimensional numerical model of nonlinear wave action on a quasi-ellipse caisson in a time domain was developed in this paper. Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the finite difference method, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method was employed to trace the free surface. The partial cell method was used to deal with the irregular boundary typical of this type of problem during first-time wave interaction with the structure, and a satisfactory result was obtained. The numerical model was verified and used to investigate the effects of the relative wave height H/d, relative caisson width kD, and relative length-width ratio B/D on the wave forces of the quasi-ellipse caisson. It was shown that the relative wave height H/d has a significant effect on the wave forces of the caisson. Compared with the non-dimensional inline wave force, the relative length-width ratio B/D was shown to have significant influence on the non-dimensional transverse wave force.

  7. A nonlinear 3D real-time model for simulation of BWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Y.

    1982-02-01

    A nonlinear transient model for BWR nuclear power plants which consists of a 3D-core (subdivided into a number of superboxes, and with parallel flow and subcooled boiling), a top plenum, steam removal and feed water systems and main coolant recirculation pumps is given. The model describes the local core and global plant transient situation as dependent on both the inherent core dynamics and external control actions, i.e., disturbances such as motions of control rod banks, changes of mass flow rates of coolant, feed water and steam outlet. The case of a pressure-controlled reactor operation is also considered. The model which forms the basis for the digital code GARLIC-B (Er et al. 82) is aimed to be used on an on-site process computer in parallel to the actual reactor process (or even in predictive mode). Thus, special measures had to be taken into account in order to increase the computational speed and reduce the necessary computer storage. This could be achieved by - separating the neutron and power kinetics from the xenon-iodine dynamics, - treating the neutron kinetics and most of the thermodynamics and hydrodynamics in a pseudostationary way, - developing a special coupling coefficient concept to describe the neutron diffusion, calculating the coupling coefficients from a basic neutron kinetics code, - combining coarse mesh elements into superboxes, taking advantage of the symmetry properties of the core and - applying a sparse matrix technique for solving the resulting algebraic power equation system. (orig.) [de

  8. Nonideal, helical, vortical magnetohydrodynamic steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agim, Y.Z.; Montgomery, D.

    1991-01-01

    The helically-deformed profiles of driven, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are constructed through second order in helical amplitude. The resultant plasma configurations are presented in terms of contour plots of magnetic flux function, pressure, current flux function and the mass flux function, along with the stability boundary at which they are expected to appear. For the Wisconsin Phaedrus-T Tokamak, plasma profiles with significant m = 3, n = 1 perturbation seem feasible; for these, the plasma pressure peaks off-axis. For the smaller aspect ratio case, the configuration with m 1,n =1 is thought to be relevant to the density perturbation observed in JET after a pellet injection. (author)

  9. Notes on the eigensystem of magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, P.L.; Balsara, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The eigenstructure of the equations governing one-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics is examined, motivated by the wish to exploit it for construction of high-resolution computational algorithms. The results are given in simple forms that avoid indeterminacy or degeneracy whenever possible. The unavoidable indeterminacy near the magnetosonic (or triple umbilic) state is analyzed and shown to cause no difficulty in evaluating a numerical flux function. The structure of wave paths close to this singularity is obtained, and simple expressions are presented for the structure coefficients that govern wave steepening

  10. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of axisymmetric mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Hafizi, B.; Myra, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The governing partial differential equation for general mode-number pressure-driven ballooning modes in a long-thin, axisymmetric plasma is derived within the context of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. It is shown that the equation reduces in special limits to the Hain--Luest equation, the high-m diffuse p(psi) ballooning equation, and the low-m sharp-boundary equation. A low-β analytic solution of the full partial differential equation is presented for quasiflute modes in an idealized tandem mirror model to elucidate the relationship of the various limiting cases

  11. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of the NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Guo Yong; Isaev, Maxim Yu; Ku, Long-Poe; Mikhailov, M.; Redi, M.H; Sanchez, Raul; Subbotin, A; Hirshman, Steven Paul; Cooper, W. Anthony; Monticello, D.; Reiman, A.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is extensively analyzed using the most advanced three-dimensional MHD codes. It is shown that the NCSX is stable to finite-n MHD modes, including the vertical mode, external kink modes and ballooning modes. However, high-n external kink modes that peak near the plasma edge are found to be weakly unstable. A global calculation shows that finite-n ballooning modes are significantly more stable than the local infinite-n modes

  12. The infinite interface limit of multiple-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, G. R.; Dewar, R. L.; Hole, M. J. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Hudson, S. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    We show the stepped-pressure equilibria that are obtained from a generalization of Taylor relaxation known as multi-region, relaxed magnetohydrodynamics (MRXMHD) are also generalizations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD). We show this by proving that as the number of plasma regions becomes infinite, MRXMHD reduces to ideal MHD. Numerical convergence studies illustrating this limit are presented.

  13. Development an efficient calibrated nonlocal plate model for nonlinear axial instability of zirconia nanosheets using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S; Fattahi, A M

    2017-08-01

    New ceramic materials containing nanoscaled crystalline phases create a main object of scientific interest due to their attractive advantages such as biocompatibility. Zirconia as a transparent glass ceramic is one of the most useful binary oxides in a wide range of applications. In the present study, a new size-dependent plate model is constructed to predict the nonlinear axial instability characteristics of zirconia nanosheets under axial compressive load. To accomplish this end, the nonlocal continuum elasticity of Eringen is incorporated to a refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. A perturbation-based solving process is put to use to derive explicit expressions for nonlocal equilibrium paths of axial-loaded nanosheets. After that, some molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for axial instability response of square zirconia nanosheets with different side lengths, the results of which are matched with those of the developed nonlocal plate model to capture the proper value of nonlocal parameter. It is demonstrated that the calibrated nonlocal plate model with nonlocal parameter equal to 0.37nm has a very good capability to predict the axial instability characteristics of zirconia nanosheets, the accuracy of which is comparable with that of MD simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A combined nonlinear and hysteresis model of shock absorber for quarter car simulation on the basis of experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Barethiye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling dynamic characteristics of an automotive shock absorber is a challenging task due to its complex behavior. In the present paper, the nonparametric and hybrid approach is proposed to represent the nonlinear and hysteresis characteristics of the shock absorber. An experiment is carried out on a car damper utilizing INSTRON to obtain force-velocity characteristics of the shock absorber. The experimental data is used to devise two different models, namely, piecewise linear model and hysteresis model, to capture the damping properties of the absorber and for consequent use in simulations. The complexity involved due to certain physical phenomenon such as oil compressibility, gas entrapment etc. gives rise to hysteresis behavior and the present paper tries to model such behavior with the help of Neural Networks. Finally, a combined (hybrid shock absorber model (including the characteristics of both piecewise linear and hysteresis behavior is developed in Simulink and integrated into a quarter car simulation to verify its feasibility. The results generated by the combined (hybrid model are compared with linear as well as piecewise linear model and the comparison shows that the proposed model substantially a better option to study the vehicle characteristics more accurately and precisely.

  15. A symbiotic approach to fluid equations and non-linear flux-driven simulations of plasma dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Federico

    2017-10-01

    The fluid framework is ubiquitous in studies of plasma transport and stability. Typical forms of the fluid equations are motivated by analytical work dating several decades ago, before computer simulations were indispensable, and can be, therefore, not optimal for numerical computation. We demonstrate a new first-principles approach to obtaining manifestly consistent, skew-symmetric fluid models, ensuring internal consistency and conservation properties even in discrete form. Mass, kinetic, and internal energy become quadratic (and always positive) invariants of the system. The model lends itself to a robust, straightforward discretization scheme with inherent non-linear stability. A simpler, drift-ordered form of the equations is obtained, and first results of their numerical implementation as a binary framework for bulk-fluid global plasma simulations are demonstrated. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, Theory Program, under Award No. DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  16. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Guo, X. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.

  17. Simulation of High-current Pulse Effect on the Electrode with Nonlinear Material Characteristics and Phase Transitions Taken into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Arutjunjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the thermal and electrical processes when heating the metal electrode by a high current pulse. The aim is to understand an impact nature of the nonlinearities of thermal parameters, the phase transitions of melting and evaporation, and the type of boundary conditions in the current spot. To solve the problem was formulated a mathematical model, and were also developed a finite-difference method and computer programmes which allow an effective computer simulations of thermal and electrical processes under the high current pulse impact on the metal electrodes. The Stefan problem is solved by the through "enthalpy" method. Calculation of the electric field is performed by Seidel iteration. Thermal and current balance and comparison with solution results of model problems allow computer error monitoring.The work involved a series of calculations for an informative case of iron. It enabled to find a significant influence of the nonlinearities of thermal parameters, the phase transitions of melting and evaporation, the type of boundary conditions on the values of the temperature and electric fields, especially in the vicinity of the current spot. The presence of high current density and temperature, respectively, in the vicinity of the current spot edge confirms the well-known hypothesis about the causes of contact welding on the edges of the contact area. It has been found that the impact of losses on radiation and convection cooling is negligible. The article continues and complements the well-known research in the theory of electrical contacts and welding processes based on detailed consideration of the electrode material properties, the nonlinearities, and a type of boundary conditions for temperature and electric fields.The results can be used in the practice in research and design of electrical machines and other electrical devices.The study has revealed the need to improve the enthalpy finite- difference method for

  18. Numerical Simulation of Entropy Growth for a Nonlinear Evolutionary Model of Random Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Keshtkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, the generalized continuous economic model for random markets is revisited. In this model for random markets, agents trade by pairs and exchange their money in a random and conservative way. They display the exponential wealth distribution as asymptotic equilibrium, independently of the effectiveness of the transactions and of the limitation of the total wealth. In the current work, entropy of mentioned model is defined and then some theorems on entropy growth of this evolutionary problem are given. Furthermore, the entropy increasing by simulation on some numerical examples is verified.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics and rheology of active fluids: simulations in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, S M; Marenduzzo, D; Cates, M E

    2011-04-01

    We report simulations of a continuum model for (apolar, flow aligning) active fluids in two dimensions. Both free and anchored boundary conditions are considered, at parallel confining walls that are either static or moving at fixed relative velocity. We focus on extensile materials and find that steady shear bands, previously shown to arise ubiquitously in one dimension for the active nematic phase at small (or indeed zero) shear rate, are generally replaced in two dimensions by more complex flow patterns that can be stationary, oscillatory, or apparently chaotic. The consequences of these flow patterns for time-averaged steady-state rheology are examined. ©2011 American Physical Society

  20. Feasibility of non-linear simulation for Field II using an angular spectrum approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    this procedure is to find the accuracy of the approach for linear propagation, where the result can be validated using Field II simulations. The ASA calculations are carried out by 3D fast Fourier transform using Matlab, where lambda=2 is chosen as the spatial sampling rate to reduce aliasing errors. Zero......-padding is applied to enlarge the source plane to a (4N - 1) times (4N - 1) matrix to overcome artifacts in terms of the circular convolution. The source plane covering an area of 9 times 9 mm2 with N = 61 samples along both side, is 0.05 mm away from a 5 MHz planar piston transducer, which is simulated by Field II....... To determine the accuracy, different sampling intervals and zero-paddings are compared and the errors are calculated with Field II as a reference. It can be seen that zero-padding with 4N - 1 and lambda=2 sampling can both reduce the errors from 25.7% to 12.9% for the near-field and from 18.1% to 5...