Nonlinear Faraday rotation in samarium vapor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barkov, L.M.; Melik-Pashaev, D.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.
1988-01-01
Experiments on nonlinear magnetic optical (Faraday) rotation on resonance transitions of atomic samarium are described. Measurements were carried out on transitions with different angular momenta of upper and lower states: 1→0, 0→1 and 1→1. Qualitative explanations of observed phenomena are given
Le Vine, David
2016-01-01
Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).
Optical isolation by Faraday rotator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasai, Takeshi; Matsushima, Isao; Nemoto, Fusashi; Yano, Masaaki
1984-01-01
Three Faraday rotators designed as optical isolators in a high power glass laser system are described. The spatial fluctuation of applied magnetic field is less than 1% throughout the Faraday glass rod. The Faraday rotators transmit more than 80% of the forward-going laser light and reject more than 96% of the backward-going light. (author)
Faraday rotation measurements at Ootacamund
Sethia, G.; Chandra, H.; Deshpande, M. R.; Rastogi, R. G.
1978-01-01
The results of Faraday rotation measurements made at Ootacamund during ATS-6 phase II are presented. For summer and equinoctial months, even though no clear noon bite-out is observed in the variation of Faraday a decrease is observed in the rate of increase of rotation around 0900-1000 hours LT. This is attributed to the 'fountain effect' which is responsible for the noontime bite-out in F2-region peak electron density.
SPARSE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE SYNTHESIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrecut, M.; Stil, J. M.; Taylor, A. R.
2012-01-01
Faraday rotation measure synthesis is a method for analyzing multichannel polarized radio emissions, and it has emerged as an important tool in the study of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. The method requires the recovery of the Faraday dispersion function from measurements restricted to limited wavelength ranges, which is an ill-conditioned deconvolution problem. Here, we discuss a recovery method that assumes a sparse approximation of the Faraday dispersion function in an overcomplete dictionary of functions. We discuss the general case when both thin and thick components are included in the model, and we present the implementation of a greedy deconvolution algorithm. We illustrate the method with several numerical simulations that emphasize the effect of the covered range and sampling resolution in the Faraday depth space, and the effect of noise on the observed data.
Synchrotron Radiation and Faraday Rotation
Heald, George
2015-01-01
Synchrotron radiation and its degree of linear polarization are powerful tracers of magnetic fields that are illuminated by cosmic ray electrons. Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized radiation is induced by intervening line-of-sight magnetic fields that are embedded in ionized plasmas. For
Faraday Rotation Measurement with the SMAP Radiometer
Le Vine, D. M.; Abraham, S.
2016-01-01
Faraday rotation is an issue that needs to be taken into account in remote sensing of parameters such as soil moisture and ocean salinity at L-band. This is especially important for SMAP because Faraday rotation varies with azimuth around the conical scan. SMAP retrieves Faraday rotation in situ using the ratio of the third and second Stokes parameters, a procedure that was demonstrated successfully by Aquarius. This manuscript reports the performance of this algorithm on SMAP. Over ocean the process works reasonably well and results compare favorably with expected values. But over land, the inhomogeneous nature of the scene results in much noisier, and in some cases unreliable estimates of Faraday rotation.
The Faraday rotation experiment. [solar corona
Volland, H.; Levy, G. S.; Bird, M. K.; Stelzried, C. T.; Seidel, B. L.
1984-01-01
The magnetized plasma of the solar corona was remotely sounded using the Faraday rotation effect. The solar magnetic field together with the electrons of the coronal plasma cause a measurable Faraday rotation effect, since the radio waves of Helios are linearly polarized. The measurement is performed at the ground stations. Alfven waves traveling from the Sun's surface through the corona into interplanetary space are observed. Helios 2 signals penetrating through a region where coronal mass is ejected show wavelike structures.
Faraday rotation measurement method and apparatus
Brockman, M. H. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
A method and device for measuring Faraday rotation of a received RF signal is described. A simultaneous orthogonal polarization receiver compensates for a 3 db loss due to splitting of a received signal into left circular and right circular polarization channels. The compensation is achieved by RF and modulation arraying utilizing a specific receiver array which also detects and measures Faraday rotation in the presence or absence of spin stabilization effects on a linear polarization vector. Either up-link or down-link measurement of Faraday rotation is possible. Specifically, the Faraday measurement apparatus utilized in conjunction with the specific receiver array provides a means for comparing the phase of a reference signal in the receiver array to the phase of a tracking loop signal related to the incoming signal, and comparing the phase of the reference signal to the phase of the tracking signal shifted in phase by 90 degrees. The averaged and unaveraged signals, are compared, the phase changes between the two signals being related to Faraday rotation.
Faraday Rotation and L Band Oceanographic Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skou, Niels
2003-01-01
Spaceborne radiometric measurements of the L band brightness temperature over the oceans make it possible to estimate sea surface salinity. However, Faraday rotation in the ionosphere disturbs the signals and must be corrected. Two different ways of assessing the disturbance directly from...
ionFR: Ionospheric Faraday rotation [Dataset
Sotomayor-Beltran, C.; et al., [Unknown; Hessels, J.W.T.; van Leeuwen, J.; Markoff, S.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.
2013-01-01
IonFR calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. The code uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. ionFR can be
Midplane Faraday Rotation: A densitometer for BPX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.
1992-02-01
The density in a high field, high density tokamak such as BPX can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 μm laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n e (R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel version about the center line of the tokamak. For BPX operated at full field and density, the rotation angle would be quite large -- about 75 degrees per pass. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ''fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that BPX would be well served even at low densities by a Midplane Faraday Rotation densitometer of ∼64 channels. Both TFTR and PBX-M would be suitable test beds for the BPX system
Nonlinear pattern formation of Faraday waves
Binks, D.J.; Water, van de W.
1997-01-01
A cascade of surface wave patterns with increasing rotational symmetry ranging from simple square to tenfold quasiperiodic is observed for Faraday waves. The experiment concerns the excitation of subharmonic standing surface waves by oscillating vertical acceleration. Our observation agrees with the
Nonresonant Faraday rotation in glassy semiconductors
van den Keybus, P.; Grevendonk, W.
1986-06-01
Nonresonant interband Faraday rotation in amorphous semiconductors, as a function of photon energy, may be described by an equation derived for direct transitions in crystalline semiconductors. In this paper it is shown how this equation may be obtained for the former case also, assuming a parabolic density of states function N(E) and a correlation between valence- and conduction-band states. The analysis of experiments on chalcogenide glasses reveals a Faraday-rotation energy gap EFRg that is significantly larger than the optical gap Eoptg. The effect is attributed to transitions between extended states, so that it is meaningful to compare EFRg with the mobility gap Eμg. For oxide glasses both gaps are comparable but for chalcogenide glasses EFRg is too large by a few tenths of 1 eV.
MUSIC for Faraday rotation measure synthesis
Andrecut, M.
2013-03-01
Faraday rotation measure (RM) synthesis requires the recovery of the Faraday dispersion function (FDF) from measurements restricted to limited wavelength ranges, which is an ill-conditioned deconvolution problem. Here, we propose a novel deconvolution method based on an extension of the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. The complexity and speed of the method is determined by the eigen-decomposition of the covariance matrix of the observed polarizations. We show numerically that for high to moderate signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) cases the RM-MUSIC method is able to recover the Faraday depth values of closely spaced pairs of thin RM components, even in situations where the peak response of the FDF is outside of the RM range between the two input RM components. This result is particularly important because the standard deconvolution approach based on RM-CLEAN fails systematically in such situations, due to its greedy mechanism used to extract the RM components. For low S/N situations, both the RM-MUSIC and RM-CLEAN methods provide similar results.
Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.
1983-01-01
This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique
Optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy
Johansson, Alexandra C.; Westberg, Jonas; Wysocki, Gerard; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
2018-05-01
We demonstrate optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy (OFC-FRS) for broadband interference-free detection of paramagnetic species. The system is based on a femtosecond doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The sample is placed in a DC magnetic field parallel to the light propagation. Efficient background suppression is implemented via switching the direction of the field on consecutive FTS scans and subtracting the consecutive spectra, which enables long-term averaging. In this first demonstration, we measure the entire Q- and R-branches of the fundamental band of nitric oxide in the 5.2-5.4 µm range and achieve good agreement with a theoretical model.
Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator.
Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V
2015-05-01
A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.
FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melrose, D. B.
2010-01-01
The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, ψ = RMλ 2 , due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution Δψ needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, Δψ is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.
FARADAY ROTATION: EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELD REVERSALS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melrose, D B [SIfA, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)
2010-12-20
The standard formula for the rotation measure (RM), which determines the position angle, {psi} = RM{lambda}{sup 2}, due to Faraday rotation, includes contributions only from the portions of the ray path where the natural modes of the plasma are circularly polarized. In small regions of the ray path where the projection of the magnetic field on the ray path reverses sign (called QT regions) the modes are nearly linearly polarized. The neglect of QT regions in estimating RM is not well justified at frequencies below a transition frequency where mode coupling changes from strong to weak. By integrating the polarization transfer equation across a QT region in the latter limit, I estimate the additional contribution {Delta}{psi} needed to correct this omission. In contrast with a result proposed by Broderick and Blandford, {Delta}{psi} is small and probably unobservable. I identify a new source of circular polarization, due to mode coupling in an asymmetric QT region. I also identify a new circular-polarization-dependent correction to the dispersion measure at low frequencies.
Development of Faraday rotators for high power glass laser systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Kunio; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.
1980-01-01
As a new approach to nuclear fusion, laser-induced fusion has been recently highlighted. It is no exaggeration to say that the future success of this technique depends on the development of high power laser as the energy driver. Faraday rotators are used as photo-diodes to prevent amplifiers and oscillator assemblies from the possibility to be broken by reversely transmitting light. The authors were able to increase the isolation ratio by about 10 times as compared with conventional one by employing the large performance index, disc type Faraday glass, FR-5. In this paper, first, Faraday glasses which are the composing element of Faraday rotators and the optical characteristics of dielectric thin-film polarizers are described, and next, the design of a magnetic coil and its resulting coil characteristics are reported. Then the dominant causes limiting the isolation ratio of Faraday rotators are investigated, and it is clarified that the residual strain in Faraday glasses and the non-uniformity of magnetic field affect predominantly. The measured results are as follows: The magnetic flux densities required to rotate by 45 deg the polarizing plane of the light transmitted through the Faraday rotators A and B are both 27 kG; and the isolation ratios over the whole effective plane are 36 and 32 dB, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
B polarization of the CMB from Faraday rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scoccola, Claudia; Harari, Diego; Mollerach, Silvia
2004-01-01
We study the effect of Faraday rotation due to a uniform magnetic field on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Scalar fluctuations give rise only to parity-even E-type polarization of the cosmic microwave background. However in the presence of a magnetic field, a nonvanishing parity-odd B-type polarization component is produced through Faraday rotation. We derive the exact solution for the E and B modes generated by scalar perturbations including the Faraday rotation effect of a uniform magnetic field, and evaluate their cross correlations with temperature anisotropies. We compute the angular autocorrelation function of the B-modes in the limit that the Faraday rotation is small. We find that uniform primordial magnetic fields of present strength around B 0 =10 -9 G rotate E-modes into B-modes with amplitude comparable to those due to the weak gravitational lensing effect at frequencies around ν=30 GHz. The strength of B-modes produced by Faraday rotation scales as B 0 /ν 2 . We evaluate also the depolarizing effect of Faraday rotation upon the cross correlation between temperature anisotropy and E-type polarization
Non-reciprocity of Faraday rotation in gyrotropic crystals
Vlokh R.; Adamenko D.
2008-01-01
It is shown that, under the conditions of coexisting natural optical activity and non-zero linear optical birefringence, reversal of the light wave vector sign can result in changing angle of Faraday rotation.
Faraday rotation due to excitation of magnetoplasmons in graphene microribbons.
Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Nikitin, Alexey Yu; Martín-Moreno, Luis
2013-11-26
A single graphene sheet, when subjected to a perpendicular static magnetic field, provides a Faraday rotation that, per atomic layer, greatly surpasses that of any other known material. In continuous graphene, Faraday rotation originates from the cyclotron resonance of massless carriers, which allows dynamical tuning through either external electrostatic or magneto-static setting. Furthermore, the rotation direction can be controlled by changing the sign of the carriers in graphene, which can be done by means of an external electric field. However, despite these tuning possibilities, the requirement of large magnetic fields hinders the application of the Faraday effect in real devices, especially for frequencies higher than a few terahertz. In this work we demonstrate that large Faraday rotation can be achieved in arrays of graphene microribbons, through the excitation of the magnetoplasmons of individual ribbons, at larger frequencies than those dictated by the cyclotron resonance. In this way, for a given magnetic field and chemical potential, structuring graphene periodically can produce large Faraday rotation at larger frequencies than what would occur in a continuous graphene sheet. Alternatively, at a given frequency, graphene ribbons produce large Faraday rotation at much smaller magnetic fields than in continuous graphene.
Ultrafast terahertz Faraday rotation in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heyman, J. N.; Foo Kune, R. F.; Alebachew, B. A.; Nguyen, M. D. [Macalester College, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Robinson, J. T. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2014-12-07
Terahertz (THz) Faraday rotation measurements were performed to investigate carrier dynamics in p-type Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene. We used static and time-resolved polarization-sensitive THz transmission measurements in a magnetic field to probe free carriers in GaAs, InP, and Graphene. Static measurements probe the equilibrium carrier density and momentum scattering rate. Time-resolved (optical pump/THz probe) measurements probe the change in these quantities following photoexcitation. In a typical CVD graphene sample, we found that 0.5 ps following photoexcitation with 1 × 10{sup 13} photons/cm{sup 2} pulses at 800 nm the effective hole scattering time decreased from 37 fs to 34.5 fs, while the carrier concentration increased from 2.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} to 2.04 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}, leading to a transient decrease in the conductivity of the film.
Faraday rotation measures in 20 AGN jets at parsec scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kravchenko Evgeniya V.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We present multi wavelength parsec-scale Faraday rotation measure properties of twenty active galactic nuclei, observed with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneously at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz in the full polarization mode. For the observed sources we construct Faraday rotation measure and Faraday-corrected linear polarization maps. Direction of electrical field in the optically thick core regions confirms bimodal distribution. No significant changes of a Faraday rotation measure transverse to the jet direction are found in any of the observed sources. We propose a new magnetic field spatial geometry reconstruction method based on core shift measurements. This technique is applied to the quasar 1004+141. Results indicate an existence of a large scale poloidal magnetic field in the jet of 1004+141.
Fabry-Perot enhanced Faraday rotation in graphene.
Ubrig, Nicolas; Crassee, Iris; Levallois, Julien; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O; Fromm, Felix; Kaiser, Michl; Seyller, Thomas; Kuzmenko, Alexey B
2013-10-21
We demonstrate that giant Faraday rotation in graphene in the terahertz range due to the cyclotron resonance is further increased by constructive Fabry-Perot interference in the supporting substrate. Simultaneously, an enhanced total transmission is achieved, making this effect doubly advantageous for graphene-based magneto-optical applications. As an example, we present far-infrared spectra of epitaxial multilayer graphene grown on the C-face of 6H-SiC, where the interference fringes are spectrally resolved and a Faraday rotation up to 0.15 radians (9°) is attained. Further, we discuss and compare other ways to increase the Faraday rotation using the principle of an optical cavity.
Faraday rotation near charged black holes and other electrovacuum geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerlach, U.H.
1975-01-01
In space permeated by a steady background electromagnetic field a gravitational wave and an electromagnetic wave not only undergo beat frequency oscillations, but the linear polarizations of these waves undergo Faraday rotations as well. The beating and the Faraday rotations are inextricably related. The classification of these phenomena requires three parameters, the three Euler parameters of SU(2). They specify in a more general sense the ''polarization'' of an electrograviton mode. The evolution of the beat frequency oscillations and the Faraday rotations along a propagating wave front is described as a moving point in SU(2). Consequently, a charged black hole serves not only as a catalyst for converting suitably directed electromagnetic radiation into gravitational radiation, but also as an agent that randomized the linear polarizations of radiation emerging from it. An assessment of these phenomena in relation to the origin of Weber's signals is given
Generalized Faraday law derived from classical forces in a rotating frame
Choi, Taeseung
2009-01-01
We show the additional spin dependent classical force due to the rotation of an electron spin's rest frame is essential to derive a spin-Faraday law by using an analogy with the usual Faraday law. The contribution of the additional spin dependent force to the spin-Faraday law is the same as that of the spin geometric phase. With this observations, Faraday law is generalized to include both the usual Faraday and the spin-Faraday laws in a unified manner.
Recent VLA Measurements of CME-Induced Faraday Rotation
Kooi, Jason; Thomas, Najma; Guy, Michael; Spangler, Steven R.
2018-01-01
Observations of Faraday rotation, the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma, have been used for decades to determine the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma density. Similarly, observations of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) have the potential to improve our understanding of the CME’s plasma structure. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light coronagraph and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of cosmic radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. A unique aspect of these observations is that the CME occulted several of these radio sources and, therefore, our Faraday rotation measurements provide information on the plasma structure in different regions of the CME. We successfully measured CME-induced Faraday rotation along multiple lines of sight because we made special arrangements with the staff at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory to trigger VLA observations when a candidate CME appeared low in the corona in near real-time images from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 instrument.
Faraday rotation applied to the hot plasmas diagnosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cojocaru, E.
1980-01-01
In many circumstances it is of theoretical or practical interest to know the electric and magnetic fields in the hot plasmas. A method for the determination of the magnetic field in the hot plasmas is the Faraday rotation measurement. The aim of this paper is to point out the principle and application of this rarely used optical method. (author)
Midplane Faraday rotation: A densitometer for large tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jobes, F.C.; Mansfield, D.K.
1992-01-01
The density in a large tokamak such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), or any of the proposed future US machines, can be determined by measuring the Faraday rotation of a 10.6 μm laser directed tangent to the toroidal field. If there is a horizontal array of such beams, then n e (R) can be readily obtained with a simple Abel inversion about the center line of the tokamak. For a large machine, operated at a full field of 30 T m and a density of 2x10 20 /m 3 , the rotation angle would be quite large-about 60 degree for two passes. A layout in which a single laser beam is fanned out in the horizontal midplane of the tokamak, with a set of retroreflectors on the far side of the vacuum vessel, would provide good spatial resolution, depending only upon the number of reflectors. With this proposed layout, only one window would be needed. Because the rotation angle is never more than 1 ''fringe,'' the data is always good, and it is also a continuous measurement in time. Faraday rotation is dependent only upon the plasma itself, and thus is not sensitive to vibration of the optical components. Simulations of the expected results show that ITER, or any large tokamak, existing or proposed, would be well served even at low densities by a midplane Faraday rotation densitometer of ∼64 channels
Effects of Faraday Rotation Observed in Filter Magnetograph Data
Hagyard, Mona J.; Adams, Mitzi L.; Smith, J. E.; West, Edward A.
1999-01-01
In this paper we analyze the effects of Faraday rotation on the azimuth of the transverse magnetic field from observations taken with the Marshall Space Flight Center's vector magnetograph for a simple sunspot observed on June 9, 1985. Vector magnetograms were obtained over the wavelength interval of 170 mA redward of line center of the Fe I 5250.22 A spectral line to 170 mA to the blue, in steps of 10 mA. These data were analyzed to produce the variation of the azimuth as a function of wavelength at each pixel over the field of vi ew of the sunspot. At selected locations in the sunspot, curves of the observed variation of azimuth with wavelength were compared with model calculations for the amount of Faraday rotation of the azimuth. From these comparisons we derived the amount of rotation as functions of bo th the magnitude and inclination of the sunspot's field and deduced the ranges of these field values for which Faraday rotation presents a significant problem in observations taken near the center of a spectral line.
Faraday rotation measurements in maghemite-silica aerogels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taboada, E.; Real, R.P. del; Gich, M.; Roig, A.; Molins, E.
2006-01-01
Faraday rotation measurements have been performed on γ-Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 nanocomposite aerogels which are light, porous and transparent magnetic materials. The materials have been prepared by sol-gel polymerization of a silicon alkoxide, impregnation of the intermediate silica gel with a ferrous salt and supercritical drying of the gels. During supercritical evacuation of the solvent, spherical nanoparticles of iron oxide, with a mean particle diameter of 8.1±2.0 nm, are formed and are found to be homogenously distributed within the silica matrix. The specific Faraday rotation of the composite was measured at 0.6 T using polarized light of 810 nm, being 29.6 deg./cm. The changes in the plane of polarization of the transmitted light and the magnetization of the material present similar magnetic field dependencies and are characteristic of a superparamagnetic system
Resonant microsphere gyroscope based on a double Faraday rotator system.
Xie, Chengfeng; Tang, Jun; Cui, Danfeng; Wu, Dajin; Zhang, Chengfei; Li, Chunming; Zhen, Yongqiu; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun
2016-10-15
The resonant microsphere gyroscope is proposed based on a double Faraday rotator system for the resonant microsphere gyroscope (RMSG) that is characterized by low insertion losses and does not destroy the reciprocity of the gyroscope system. Use of the echo suppression structure and the orthogonal polarization method can effectively inhibit both the backscattering noise and the polarization error, and reduce them below the system sensitivity limit. The resonance asymmetry rate dropped from 34.2% to 2.9% after optimization of the backscattering noise and the polarization noise, which greatly improved the bias stability and the scale factor linearity of the proposed system. Additionally, based on the optimum parameters for the double Faraday rotator system, a bias stability of 0.04°/s has been established for an integration time of 10 s in 1000 s in a resonator microsphere gyroscope using a microsphere resonator with a diameter of 1 mm and a Q of 7.2×106.
Faraday Rotator 5 kV Capacitor Bank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, C.C.
1975-01-01
A Faraday rotator 5 kV capacitor bank is a pulsed output power supply used to energize Faraday rotators for optical isolation in the ''LLL kJ Glass Laser System.'' Each supply contains either one, two or three parallel 240 μF storage capacitors depending on the size of the isolator used. Generally, the ''A*''(216 μH) isolator is energized with one capacitor, the ''A''(116 μH) isolator uses two capacitors and the ''B''(87 μH) isolator requires three capacitors. All models of isolators have been tested with four capacitors under maximum voltage and 25 feet of RG-217 cable with no hazardous effects. Except for the number of capacitors in each unit, the supplies are otherwise physically identical
Effects of interband transitions on Faraday rotation in metallic nanoparticles.
Wysin, G M; Chikan, Viktor; Young, Nathan; Dani, Raj Kumar
2013-08-14
The Faraday rotation in metallic nanoparticles is considered based on a quantum model for the dielectric function ϵ(ω) in the presence of a DC magnetic field B. We focus on effects in ϵ(ω) due to interband transitions (IBTs), which are important in the blue and ultraviolet for noble metals used in plasmonics. The dielectric function is found using the perturbation of the electron density matrix due to the optical field of the incident electromagnetic radiation. The calculation is applied to transitions between two bands (d and p, for example) separated by a gap, as one finds in gold at the L-point of the Fermi surface. The result of the DC magnetic field is a shift in the effective optical frequency causing IBTs by ±μBB/ħ, where opposite signs are associated with left/right circular polarizations. The Faraday rotation for a dilute solution of 17 nm diameter gold nanoparticles is measured and compared with both the IBT theory and a simpler Drude model for the bound electron response. Effects of the plasmon resonance mode on Faraday rotation in nanoparticles are also discussed.
Suwa, Masayori; Nakano, Yusuke; Tsukahara, Satoshi; Watarai, Hitoshi
2013-05-21
We have constructed an experimental setup for Faraday rotation dispersion imaging and demonstrated the performance of a novel imaging principle. By using a pulsed magnetic field and a polarized light synchronized to the magnetic field, quantitative Faraday rotation images of diamagnetic organic liquids in glass capillaries were observed. Nonaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and naphthalene derivatives were clearly distinguished by the Faraday rotation images due to the difference in Verdet constants. From the wavelength dispersion of the Faraday rotation images in the visible region, it was found that the resonance wavelength in the UV region, which was estimated based on the Faraday B-term, could be used as characteristic parameters for the imaging of the liquids. Furthermore, simultaneous acquisition of Faraday rotation image and natural optical rotation image was demonstrated for chiral organic liquids.
2017-06-15
AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0348 THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL ISOLATORS (POSTPRINT) Dolendra Karki...Interim 9 May 2016 – 1 December 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL...transfer of ultra-compact thin-film magnetless Faraday rotators to silicon photonic substrates. Thin films of magnetization latching bismuth
First measurement of poloidal-field-induced Faraday rotation in a tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunz, W.; Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92
1978-01-01
Faraday rotation measurements using a ferrite modulation technique were performed on one channel of the 337 μm-interferometer on TFR. The experiment is intended as a preparatory step towards poloidal-field determination on the basis of the Faraday effect in a multi-channel configuration. The technical feasibility of precise Faraday rotation measurements under machine conditions is demonstrated. The measured rotation is unambiguously due to the poloidal magnetic field and agrees fairly with what can be estimated. (author)
Faraday Rotation Measure Study of Cluster Magnetic Fields
Frankel, M. M.; Clarke, T. E.
2001-12-01
Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in galaxy cluster evolution. To this end in this study, we looked at polarized radio sources viewed at small impact parameters to the cores of non-cooling flow clusters. By looking at non-cooling flow clusters we hoped to establish what magnetic fields of clusters look like in the absence of the compressed central magnetic fields of the cooling-flow cores. Clarke, Kronberg and Boehringer (2001) examined Faraday rotation measures of radio probes at relatively large impact parameters to the cores of galaxy clusters. The current study is an extension of the Clarke et al. analysis to probe the magnetic fields in the cores of galaxy clusters. We looked at the Faraday rotation of electromagnetic waves from background or imbedded radio galaxies, which were observed with the VLA in A&B arrays. Our results are consistent with previous findings and exhibit a trend towards higher rotation measures and in turn higher magnetic fields at small impact parameters to cluster cores. This research was made possible through funding from the National Science Foundation.
Faraday-rotation measurements in ISX-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.
1982-01-01
A submillimeter-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer is used for simultaneous time-dependent measurement of line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation along chords of the plasma column in ISX-B tokamak. Heterodyne detection and hollow dielectric waveguide are utilized to achieve the high sensitivity required for the multichord experiment. A data analysis code has been developed to reconstruct the asymmetric distributions of plasma density. The validity of the code is examined, and the result shows good agreement with density profiles measured by Thomson scattering
Vanhuyse , B.; Van Den Keybus , P.; Grevendonk , W.
1981-01-01
Measurements of Faraday Rotation (FR) in amorphous As2Se3, as a function of photon energy are reported. In the bulk material the temperature dependence of the FR and the derived energy gap EFRg is investigated in the range 3-300 K. For EFRg a temperature coefficient of 2.4 x 10-4 eV/K is found. In amorphous films the FR could be measured through the energy range where the sign of the FR-angle is reversed. The photon energy corresponding to zero FR is in agreement with the gap value calculated...
Preparation and Faraday rotation of Bi-YIG/PMMA nanocomposite
Fu, H. P.; Hong, R. Y.; Wu, Y. J.; Di, G. Q.; Xu, B.; Zheng, Y.; Wei, D. G.
Bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi-YIG) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by coprecipitation and subsequent heating treatment. Thermal gravity-differential thermal analysis was performed to investigate the thermal behavior of the Bi-YIG precursors and to decide the best annealing temperature. Phase formation of garnet NPs was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. The size of Bi-YIG NPs was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, and the magnetic properties of Bi-YIG NPs were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results show that the temperature needed for the transformation of Bi-YIG from the amorphous phase to the garnet phase decreases with increasing Bi content, and Bi-YIG NPs with sizes of 28-78 nm are obtained after heating treatment at 650-1000 °C. The saturation magnetization of Bi-YIG NPs increases as the Bi content increases. Moreover, the Faraday rotation of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slices doped with Bi-YIG NPs was investigated. The results indicate that the angle of Faraday rotation increases with increasing Bi content in PMMA composites, and the maximum value of the figure of merit is 1.46°, which is comparable to the value of a sputtered film. The Bi-YIG NPs-doped PMMA slices are new promising materials for magneto-optical devices.
PROBING THE ROSETTE NEBULA STELLAR BUBBLE WITH FARADAY ROTATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savage, Allison H.; Spangler, Steven R.; Fischer, Patrick D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)
2013-03-01
We report the results of Faraday rotation measurements of 23 background radio sources whose lines of sight pass through or close to the Rosette Nebula. We made linear polarization measurements with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at frequencies of 4.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz, and 7.6 GHz. We find the background Galactic contribution to the rotation measure in this part of the sky to be +147 rad m{sup -2}. Sources whose lines of sight pass through the nebula have an excess rotation measure of 50-750 rad m{sup -2}, which we attribute to the plasma shell of the Rosette Nebula. We consider two simple plasma shell models and how they reproduce the magnitude and sign of the rotation measure, and its dependence on distance from the center of the nebula. These two models represent different modes of interaction of the Rosette Nebula star cluster with the surrounding interstellar medium. Both can reproduce the magnitude and spatial extent of the rotation measure enhancement, given plausible free parameters. We contend that the model based on a stellar bubble more closely reproduces the observed dependence of rotation measure on distance from the center of the nebula.
High-field Faraday rotation in II-VI-based semimagnetic semiconductors
Savchuk, AI; Fediv, [No Value; Nikitin, PI; Perrone, A; Tatzenko, OM; Platonov, VV
The effects of d-d exchange interaction have been studied by measuring high-field Faraday rotation in II-VI-based semimagnetic semiconductors. For Cd1-xMnxTe crystals with x = 0.43 and at room temperature a saturation in magnetic field dependence of the Faraday rotation has been observed. In the
Absorption lines, Faraday rotation, and magnetic field estimates for QSO absorption-line clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kronberg, P.P.; Perry, J.J.
1982-01-01
We have estimated the extragalactic component of Faraday rotation for a sample of 37 QSOs for which there is good absorption line data, which we have also analyzed. Statistical evidence is presented which suggests that we have isolated a component of Faraday rotation which is occurring in the absorption clouds of some QSOs
Current measurements by Faraday rotation in single mode optical fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandler, G.I.; Jahoda, F.C.
1984-01-01
Development of techniques for measuring magnetic fields and currents by Faraday rotation in single-mode optical fibers has continued. We summarize the results of attempts to measure the toroidal plasma current in the ZT-40 Reversed-Field-Pinch using multi-turn fiber coils. The fiber response is reproducible and in accord with theory, but the amount and distribution of the stress-induced birefringence in this case are such that prediction of the sensor response at low currents is difficult if not impossible. The low-current difficulty can be overcome by twisting the fiber to induce a circular birefringence bias. We report the results of auxiliary experiments with a fiber that has been twisted with 15 turns per meter and then re-coated to lock the twist in place
Faraday rotation calculations for a FIR polarimeter on ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieswand, C.
1997-01-01
The measurement of the safety factor profile has been considered as an essential diagnostics for ITER. Without the presence of a neutral beam, the only reliable diagnostics which can fulfill the requirements for the q-profile determination is at present the polarimetry. This paper presents the results of calculations of the Faraday rotation and the Cotton-Mouton effect for various plasma configurations (considered as typical) and various beam geometries which can eventually be realized in spite of the restricted access. The calculations should help to find a decision for the wavelength and the number and the position of the observation chords of a possible polarimeter system on ITER. The paper does not deal with technical questions concerning the implementation of such a system on ITER. The potential use of internal retro-reflectors or waveguides for the beams is not discussed. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs
Enhancement of Faraday rotation at photonic-band-gap edge in garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhdanov, A.G.; Fedyanin, A.A.; Aktsipetrov, O.A.; Kobayashi, D.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.
2006-01-01
Spectral dependences of Faraday rotation angle in one-dimensional garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals are considered. The enhancement of Faraday angle is demonstrated at the photonic band gap (PBG) edge both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown to be associated with the optical field localization in the magnetic layers of the structure. The advantages of magnetophotonic crystals in comparison with traditional magnetic microcavities are discussed. The specially designed microcavity structures optimized for the Faraday effect enhancement at the PBG edge are suggested
Nonreciprocal plasmonics enables giant enhancement of thin-film Faraday rotation.
Chin, Jessie Yao; Steinle, Tobias; Wehlus, Thomas; Dregely, Daniel; Weiss, Thomas; Belotelov, Vladimir I; Stritzker, Bernd; Giessen, Harald
2013-01-01
Light propagation is usually reciprocal. However, a static magnetic field along the propagation direction can break the time-reversal symmetry in the presence of magneto-optical materials. The Faraday effect in magneto-optical materials rotates the polarization plane of light, and when light travels backward the polarization is further rotated. This is applied in optical isolators, which are of crucial importance in optical systems. Faraday isolators are typically bulky due to the weak Faraday effect of available magneto-optical materials. The growing research endeavour in integrated optics demands thin-film Faraday rotators and enhancement of the Faraday effect. Here, we report significant enhancement of Faraday rotation by hybridizing plasmonics with magneto-optics. By fabricating plasmonic nanostructures on laser-deposited magneto-optical thin films, Faraday rotation is enhanced by one order of magnitude in our experiment, while high transparency is maintained. We elucidate the enhanced Faraday effect by the interplay between plasmons and different photonic waveguide modes in our system.
Faraday rotation in jets of AGN: the case of 3C 120
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gómez, José L; Roca-Sogorb, Mar; Agudo, Iván; Marscher, Alan P; Jorstad, Svetlana G
2012-01-01
The source of Faraday rotation in the jet of the radio galaxy 3C 120 is analyzed through Very Long Baseline Array observations carried out between 1999 and 2007 at 15, 22 and 43 GHz. Uncorrelated changes in the linear polarization of the underlying jet emission and the Faraday rotation screen indicate that the emitting jet and the source of Faraday rotation are not closely connected physically and have different configurations for the magnetic field and/or kinematical properties. Furthermore, the existence of a region of enhanced rotation measure whose properties remain constant over three years requires a localized source of Faraday rotation, favoring a model in which a significant fraction of the rotation measure originates in foreground clouds.
Dani, Raj Kumar; Wang, Hongwang; Bossmann, Stefan H; Wysin, Gary; Chikan, Viktor
2011-12-14
Understanding plasmonic enhancement of nanoscale magnetic materials is important to evaluate their potential for application. In this study, the Faraday rotation (FR) enhancement of gold coated Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NP) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiment shows that the Faraday rotation of a Fe(2)O(3) NP solution changes from approximately 3 rad/Tm to 10 rad/Tm as 5 nm gold shell is coated on a 9.7 nm Fe(2)O(3) core at 632 nm. The results also show how the volume fraction normalized Faraday rotation varies with the gold shell thickness. From the comparison of experiment and calculated Faraday rotation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, it is concluded that the enhancement and shell dependence of Faraday rotation of Fe(2)O(3) NPs is a result of the shifting plasmon resonance of the composite NP. In addition, the clustering of the NPs induces a different phase lag on the Faraday signal, which suggests that the collective response of the magnetic NP aggregates needs to be considered even in solution. From the Faraday phase lag, the estimated time of the full alignment of the magnetic spins of bare (cluster size 160 nm) and gold coated NPs (cluster size 90 nm) are found to be 0.65 and 0.17 μs. The calculation includes a simple theoretical approach based on the Bruggeman theory to account for the aggregation and its effect on the Faraday rotation. The Bruggeman model provides a qualitatively better agreement with the experimentally observed Faraday rotation and points out the importance of making a connection between component properties and the average "effective" optical behavior of the Faraday medium containing magnetic nanoparticles. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
Enhanced Faraday rotation in one dimensional magneto-plasmonic structure due to Fano resonance
Sadeghi, S.; Hamidi, S. M.
2018-04-01
Enhanced Faraday rotation in a new type of magneto-plasmonic structure with the capability of Fano resonance, has been reported theoretically. A magneto-plasmonic structure composed of a gold corrugated layer deposited on a magneto-optically active layer was studied by means of Lumerical software based on finite-difference time-domain. In our proposed structure, plasmonic Fano resonance and localized surface plasmon have induced enhancement in magneto-optical Faraday rotation. It is shown that the influence of geometrical parameters in gold layer offers a desirable platform for engineering spectral position of Fano resonance and enhancement of Faraday rotation.
Electrical control of Faraday rotation at a liquid-liquid interface.
Marinescu, Monica; Kornyshev, Alexei A; Flatté, Michael E
2015-01-01
A theory is developed for the Faraday rotation of light from a monolayer of charged magnetic nanoparticles at an electrified liquid-liquid interface. The polarization fields of neighboring nanoparticles enhance the Faraday rotation. At such interfaces, and for realistic sizes and charges of nanoparticles, their adsorption-desorption can be controlled with a voltage variationFaraday rotation. A calculation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory predicts that the corresponding redistribution of 40 nm nanoparticles of yttrium iron garnet can switch a cavity with a quality factor larger than 10(4) for light of wavelength 500 nm at normal incidence.
A two-in-one Faraday rotator mirror exempt of active optical alignment.
Wan, Qiong; Wan, Zhujun; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming
2014-02-10
A two-in-one Faraday rotator mirror was presented, which functions as two independent Faraday rotation mirrors with a single device. With the introduction of a reflection lens as substitution of the mirror in traditional structure, this device is characterized by exemption of active optical alignment for the designers and manufacturers of Faraday rotator mirrors. A sample was fabricated by passive mechanical assembly. The insertion loss was measured as 0.46 dB/0.50 dB for the two independent ports, respectively.
Differential detection for measurements of Faraday rotation by means of ac magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valev, V K; Wouters, J; Verbiest, T
2008-01-01
We demonstrate that by using a combination of a Wollaston prism and two photodiodes the accuracy in the measurements of Faraday rotation with ac magnetic fields can be greatly improved. Our experiments were performed on microscope cover glass plates with thicknesses between 0.13 and 0.16 mm. We show that our setup is capable of distinguishing between the Faraday rotation signals of glass plates having a difference in thickness of a few micrometers, corresponding to Faraday rotations of hundreds of microdegrees per Tesla only
Magneto-optically modulated CH/sub 3/OH laser For faraday rotation measurements in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansfield, D.K.; Johnson, L.C.
1981-01-01
Distortion-free intracavity polarization modulation of an optically pumped CH/sub 3/OH laser is shown to be viable. The possible use of this modulation technique to make a multichannel Faraday rotation measurement on a Tokamak device is discussed. In addition, the CdTe Faraday modulator employed in this study is shown to have an anomalously large Verdet constant. 12 refs
A magneto-optically modulated CH3OH laser for Faraday rotation measurements in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansfield, D.K.; Johnson, L.C.
1981-01-01
Distortion-free intracavity polarization modulation of an optically pumped CH3OH laser is shown to be viable. The possible use of this modulation technique to make a multichannel Faraday rotation measurement on a tokamak device is discussed. In addition, the CdTe Faraday modulator employed in this study is shown to have an anomalously large Verdet constant
Generalized Faraday law derived from classical forces in a rotating frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Taeseung
2010-01-01
We show that an additional spin-dependent classical force due to the rotation of an electron spin's rest frame is essential to derive a spin-Faraday law that has the same form as the usual Faraday law. We show that the contribution of the additional spin-dependent force to the spin-Faraday law is the same as the time derivative of the spin geometric phase. With this observations, the spin-Faraday law is generalized to include both an Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect and a scalar AC effect in a unified manner.
Faraday rotation signatures of fluctuation dynamos in young galaxies
Sur, Sharanya; Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2018-03-01
Observations of Faraday rotation through high-redshift galaxies have revealed that they host coherent magnetic fields that are of comparable strengths to those observed in nearby galaxies. These fields could be generated by fluctuation dynamos. We use idealized numerical simulations of such dynamos in forced compressible turbulence up to rms Mach number of 2.4 to probe the resulting rotation measure (RM) and the degree of coherence of the magnetic field. We obtain rms values of RM at dynamo saturation of the order of 45-55 per cent of the value expected in a model where fields are assumed to be coherent on the forcing scale of turbulence. We show that the dominant contribution to the RM in subsonic and transonic cases comes from the general sea of volume filling fields, rather than from the rarer structures. However, in the supersonic case, strong field regions as well as moderately overdense regions contribute significantly. Our results can account for the observed RMs in young galaxies.
Faraday rotation in an electron-positron plasma containing a fraction of ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, J.O.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-01-01
The Faraday rotation in a magnetized electron-positron plasma containing a fraction of ions is investigated by using a multifluid description. It is shown that the Faraday rotation for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies much larger than the electron/positron plasma and electron gyrofrequencies is proportional to the ion number density and the magnitude of the ambient magnetic-field strength. The results are relevant for astrophysical observations and diagnostics of laboratory electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
Faraday rotation echo spectroscopy and detection of quantum fluctuations.
Chen, Shao-Wen; Liu, Ren-Bao
2014-04-15
Central spin decoherence is useful for detecting many-body physics in environments and moreover, the spin echo control can remove the effects of static thermal fluctuations so that the quantum fluctuations are revealed. The central spin decoherence approach, however, is feasible only in some special configurations and often requires uniform coupling between the central spin and individual spins in the baths, which are very challenging in experiments. Here, by making analogue between central spin decoherence and depolarization of photons, we propose a scheme of Faraday rotation echo spectroscopy (FRES) for studying quantum fluctuations in interacting spin systems. The echo control of the photon polarization is realized by flipping the polarization with a birefringence crystal. The FRES, similar to spin echo in magnetic resonance spectroscopy, can suppress the effects of the static magnetic fluctuations and therefore reveal dynamical magnetic fluctuations. We apply the scheme to a rare-earth compound LiHoF4 and calculate the echo signal, which is related to the quantum fluctuations of the system. We observe enhanced signals at the phase boundary. The FRES should be useful for studying quantum fluctuations in a broad range of spin systems, including cold atoms, quantum dots, solid-state impurities, and transparent magnetic materials.
Giant Faraday Rotation in Metal-Fluoride Nanogranular Films.
Kobayashi, N; Ikeda, K; Gu, Bo; Takahashi, S; Masumoto, H; Maekawa, S
2018-03-21
Magneto-optical Faraday effect is widely applied in optical devices and is indispensable for optical communications and advanced information technology. However, the bismuth garnet Bi-YIG is only the Faraday material since 1972. Here we introduce (Fe, FeCo)-(Al-,Y-fluoride) nanogranular films exhibiting giant Faraday effect, 40 times larger than Bi-YIG. These films have a nanocomposite structure, in which nanometer-sized Fe, FeCo ferromagnetic granules are dispersed in a Al,Y-fluoride matrix.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, X. H.; Akahori, Takuya; Anderson, C. S.; Farnes, J. S.; O’Sullivan, S. P.; Rudnick, L.; O’Brien, T.; Bell, M. R.; Bray, J. D.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Ideguchi, S.; Kumazaki, K.; Stepanov, R.; Stil, J.; Wolleben, M.; Takahashi, K.; Weeren, R. J. van
2015-01-01
Faraday rotation measures (RMs) and more general Faraday structures are key parameters for studying cosmic magnetism and are also sensitive probes of faint ionized thermal gas. A definition of which derived quantities are required for various scientific studies is needed, as well as addressing the challenges in determining Faraday structures. A wide variety of algorithms has been proposed to reconstruct these structures. In preparation for the Polarization Sky Survey of the Universe's Magnetism (POSSUM) to be conducted with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the ongoing Galactic Arecibo L-band Feeds Array Continuum Transit Survey (GALFACTS), we run a Faraday structure determination data challenge to benchmark the currently available algorithms, including Faraday synthesis (previously called RM synthesis in the literature), wavelet, compressive sampling, and QU-fitting. The input models include sources with one Faraday thin component, two Faraday thin components, and one Faraday thick component. The frequency set is similar to POSSUM/GALFACTS with a 300 MHz bandwidth from 1.1 to 1.4 GHz. We define three figures of merit motivated by the underlying science: (1) an average RM weighted by polarized intensity, RM wtd , (2) the separation Δϕ of two Faraday components, and (3) the reduced chi-squared χ r 2 . Based on the current test data with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 32, we find the following. (1) When only one Faraday thin component is present, most methods perform as expected, with occasional failures where two components are incorrectly found. (2) For two Faraday thin components, QU-fitting routines perform the best, with errors close to the theoretical ones for RM wtd but with significantly higher errors for Δϕ. All other methods, including standard Faraday synthesis, frequently identify only one component when Δϕ is below or near the width of the Faraday point-spread function. (3) No methods as currently implemented work well
Asraf, Sagie; Sintov, Yoav; Zalevsky, Zeev
2017-08-07
We propose a novel configuration for an improved and compact all fiber Faraday rotator based on phase matching between the Faraday rotation and bend-induced birefringence. The device utilizes a coiled fiber within two electro-magnetic toroids, such that the fiber length required for getting the beat length is quite long and several rounds of fiber are needed. Analysis of the capabilities of the proposed device and its sensitivity to different parameters is presented. Faraday rotation of 13° was experimentally measured in six meters of single mode silica fiber, with a magnetic field of about 0.06T at a wavelength of 1064nm. We show that phase matching between the two phenomena significantly improves the polarization rotation by a factor of 4-10. In addition, we demonstrate the ability to achieve higher rotation by using Fabry Perot resonator in low terbium doped glass.
Giant Faraday Rotation of High-Order Plasmonic Modes in Graphene-Covered Nanowires.
Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Bychkov, Igor V; Shavrov, Vladimir G; Temnov, Vasily V
2016-07-13
Plasmonic Faraday rotation in nanowires manifests itself in the rotation of the spatial intensity distribution of high-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes around the nanowire axis. Here we predict theoretically the giant Faraday rotation for SPPs propagating on graphene-coated magneto-optically active nanowires. Upon the reversal of the external magnetic field pointing along the nanowire axis some high-order plasmonic modes may be rotated by up to ∼100° on the length scale of about 500 nm at mid-infrared frequencies. Tuning the carrier concentration in graphene by chemical doping or gate voltage allows for controlling SPP-properties and notably the rotation angle of high-order azimuthal modes. Our results open the door to novel plasmonic applications ranging from nanowire-based Faraday isolators to the magnetic control in quantum-optical applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Chat, G.; Cohen, O.; Kasper, J. C.; Spangler, S. R.
2014-01-01
Polarized natural radio sources passing behind the Sun experience Faraday rotation as a consequence of the electron density and magnetic field strength in coronal plasma. Since Faraday rotation is proportional to the product of the density and the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight of the observer, a model is required to interpret the observations and infer coronal structures. Faraday rotation observations have been compared with relatively ad hoc models of the corona. Here for the first time we compare these observations with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the solar corona driven by measurements of the photospheric magnetic field. We use observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array of 34 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona between 5 and 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during 1997 May, and 2005 March and April. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona. We find that (1) using a synoptic map of the solar magnetic field just one Carrington rotation off produces poorer agreements, meaning that the outer corona changes in the course of one month, even in solar minimum; (2) global MHD models of the solar corona driven by photospheric magnetic field measurements are generally able to reproduce Faraday rotation observations; and (3) some sources show significant disagreement between the model and the observations, which appears to be a function of the proximity of the line of sight to the large-scale heliospheric current sheet.
Cavity-enhanced Faraday rotation measurement with auto-balanced photodetection.
Chang, Chia-Yu; Shy, Jow-Tsong
2015-10-01
Optical cavity enhancement for a tiny Faraday rotation is demonstrated with auto-balanced photodetection. This configuration is analyzed using the Jones matrix formalism. The resonant rotation signal is amplified, and thus, the angular sensitivity is improved. In the experiment, the air Faraday rotation is measured with an auto-balanced photoreceiver in single-pass and cavity geometries. The result shows that the measured Faraday rotation in the single-pass geometry is enhanced by a factor of 85 in the cavity geometry, and the sensitivity is improved to 7.54×10(-10) rad Hz(-1/2), which agrees well with the Jones matrix analysis. With this verification, we propose an AC magnetic sensor whose magnetic sensitivity is expected to achieve 10 pT Hz(-1/2).
Temperature dependence of the Faraday rotation for CdMnCoTe films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, J. Y.; Tanaka, M.; Imamura, M.
2001-01-01
The temperature dependence of magneto-optical property in the visible wavelength region has been studied on four-element semimagnetic semiconductor CdMnCoTe films deposited on quartz glass substrates by using MBE equipment. A large dispersion of Faraday rotation was observed, and the peak of the Faraday rotation was shifted to the higher photon energies with increasing Mn concentration at low temperatures. At 180 K, the value of the Faraday rotation observed for the Cd 0.647 Mn 0.34 Co 0.013 Te film on quartz glass was -0.36 deg/cmG at 630 nm. It is equivalent to the value of -0.36 deg/cmG observed at 77 K for the Cd 0.52 Mn 0.48 Te film on quartz glass. At 77 K, the Faraday rotation observed for the Cd 0.647 Mn 0.34 Co 0.013 Te film on quartz glass was -0.49 deg/cmG at 610 nm. The value is approximately two times larger than that of the Cd 0.52 Mn 0.48 Te film deposited on the same quartz glass substrate. The origin of the enhancement of Faraday rotation in CdMnCoTe films has been discussed in terms of the magnetic susceptibility χ. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics
Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Qiuling; Wang, Qingwei [Henan University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiuping [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Turin (Italy)
2015-09-15
The Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers were studied by experiments and simulations. TeO{sub 2}-ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-BaO glass family was fabricated and characterized in terms of the thermal and magneto-optical properties. Two core-cladding pairs for two fibers were selected from fabricated glasses. The Verdet constants of the glasses and fibers were measured at different wavelengths using a homemade optical bench, and the Verdet constant of fiber was close to that of the bulk glass. The influence from external factors (wavelength, laser power and magnetic field) and internal factors (thermal expansion coefficient difference, refractive index and Verdet constant of core and cladding) on Faraday rotation in fibers was investigated and discussed, and the purpose of this study is to improve the Faraday rotation in tellurite fibers for MO device applications both from internal material property match and external parameter configuration in measurement. (orig.)
Magneto-optical Faraday rotation of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in dielectric matrices.
Savchuk, Andriy I; Stolyarchuk, Ihor D; Makoviy, Vitaliy V; Savchuk, Oleksandr A
2014-04-01
Faraday rotation has been studied for CdS, CdTe, and CdS:Mn semiconductor nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal chemistry methods. Additionally these materials were prepared in a form of semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol films. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses served as confirmation of nanocrystallinity and estimation of the average size of the nanoparticles. Spectral dependence of the Faraday rotation for the studied nanocrystals and nanocomposites is correlated with a blueshift of the absorption edge due to the confinement effect in zero-dimensional structures. Faraday rotation spectra and their temperature behavior in Mn-doped nanocrystals demonstrates peculiarities, which are associated with s, p-d exchange interaction between Mn²⁺ ions and band carriers in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures.
Polycrystalline (TbXY1-X)2O3 Faraday rotator.
Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin; Makikawa, Shinji; Yahagi, Akira
2017-11-01
We have succeeded for the first time in synthesizing an optical grade (Tb X Y 1-X ) 2 O 3 (X=0.5-1.0) ceramic Faraday rotator, which greatly exceeds the basic characteristics of the commercial terbium gallium garnet (TGG) (Tb 3 Ga 5 O 12 ) crystal. The Faraday rotation angle increased as the Tb concentration increased, and the Verdet constant increased from 2.1 (82 rad T -1 m -1 at X=0.5) to 3.8 times (154 rad T -1 m -1 at X=1.0) than the TGG single crystal, which is regarded as highest class. Therefore, it is possible to minimize the Faraday rotator length and the magnet in building an optical isolator. It was also confirmed that its optical quality was very comparable to the commercial TGG crystal.
Faraday rotation in multiple quantum wells of GaAs/AlGaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudziak, E.; Bozym, J.; Prochnik, D.; Wasilewski, Z.R.
1996-01-01
We report on the results of first measurements on the Faraday rotation of modulated n-doped multiple quantum wells of GaAs/Al x Ga 1-x As (x = 0.312). The measurements have been performed in the magnetic fields up to 13 T at the temperature of 2 K, in the spectral region of interband transitions. A rich structure of magneto-excitons has been found in the measured spectra. Faraday rotation (phase) measurements are proposed as an alternative method to the photoluminescence excitation for investigations of magneto-excitons in quantum wells. The dependence of measured Faraday rotation on magnetic field and hypothetical connections with quantum Hall effect are also discussed. (author)
Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Qiuling; Wang, Qingwei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiuping
2015-01-01
The Faraday rotation influence factors in tellurite-based glass and fibers were studied by experiments and simulations. TeO 2 -ZnO-Na 2 O-BaO glass family was fabricated and characterized in terms of the thermal and magneto-optical properties. Two core-cladding pairs for two fibers were selected from fabricated glasses. The Verdet constants of the glasses and fibers were measured at different wavelengths using a homemade optical bench, and the Verdet constant of fiber was close to that of the bulk glass. The influence from external factors (wavelength, laser power and magnetic field) and internal factors (thermal expansion coefficient difference, refractive index and Verdet constant of core and cladding) on Faraday rotation in fibers was investigated and discussed, and the purpose of this study is to improve the Faraday rotation in tellurite fibers for MO device applications both from internal material property match and external parameter configuration in measurement. (orig.)
Simultaneous measurement of line electron density and Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.
1981-01-01
A new diagnostic system utilizing a submillimetre-wave, phase-modulated polarimeter/interferometer has been used to simultaneously measure the time evolution of the line-averaged electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The measurements, performed along four chords of the plasma column, have been correlated with poloidal field changes associated with a ramp in the Ohmic-heating current and by neutral-beam injection. These are the first simultaneous measurements of line electron density and Faraday rotation to be made along a chord of submillimetre laser beam in a tokamak plasma. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.R.
1977-07-01
This report proposes a device which can overcome certain of the compromises of conventional Faraday rotation methods and at the same time measure the optical phase as well as the polarization. This would be useful for unfolding the Faraday rotation signal using the line-of-sight density along exactly the same path. Preliminary design parameters using a CO 2 laser are presented
ON THE SOURCE OF FARADAY ROTATION IN THE JET OF THE RADIO GALAXY 3C 120
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, Jose L.; Roca-Sogorb, Mar; Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.
2011-01-01
The source of Faraday rotation in the jet of the radio galaxy 3C 120 is analyzed through Very Long Baseline Array observations carried out between 1999 and 2007 at 86, 43, 22, 15, 12, 8, 5, 2, and 1.7 GHz. Comparison of observations from 1999 to 2001 reveals uncorrelated changes in the linear polarization of the underlying jet emission and the Faraday rotation screen: while the rotation measure (RM) remains constant between approximately 2 and 5 mas from the core, the RM-corrected electric vector position angles (EVPAs) of two superluminal components are rotated by almost 90 0 when compared to other components moving through similar jet locations. On the other hand, the innermost 2 mas experiences a significant change in RM-including a sign reversal-but without variations in the RM-corrected EVPAs. Similarly, observations in 2007 reveal a double sign reversal in RM along the jet, while the RM-corrected EVPAs remain perpendicular to the jet axis. Although the observed coherent structure and gradient of the RM along the jet support the idea that the Faraday rotation is produced by a sheath of thermal electrons that surrounds the emitting jet, the uncorrelated changes in the RM and RM-corrected EVPAs indicate that the emitting jet and the source of Faraday rotation are not closely connected physically and have different configurations for the magnetic field and/or kinematical properties. Furthermore, the existence of a region of enhanced RM whose properties remain constant over three years requires a localized source of Faraday rotation, favoring a model in which a significant fraction of the RM originates in foreground clouds.
BROADBAND RADIO POLARIMETRY AND FARADAY ROTATION OF 563 EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Feain, I. J.; Franzen, T. M. O.
2015-01-01
We present a broadband spectropolarimetric survey of 563 discrete, mostly unresolved radio sources between 1.3 and 2.0 GHz using data taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have used rotation-measure synthesis to identify Faraday-complex polarized sources, those objects whose frequency-dependent polarization behavior indicates the presence of material possessing complicated magnetoionic structure along the line of sight (LOS). For sources classified as Faraday-complex, we have analyzed a number of their radio and multiwavelength properties to determine whether they differ from Faraday-simple polarized sources (sources for which LOS magnetoionic structures are comparatively simple) in these properties. We use this information to constrain the physical nature of the magnetoionic structures responsible for generating the observed complexity. We detect Faraday complexity in 12% of polarized sources at ∼1′ resolution, but we demonstrate that underlying signal-to-noise limitations mean the true percentage is likely to be significantly higher in the polarized radio source population. We find that the properties of Faraday-complex objects are diverse, but that complexity is most often associated with depolarization of extended radio sources possessing a relatively steep total intensity spectrum. We find an association between Faraday complexity and LOS structure in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM) and claim that a significant proportion of the Faraday complexity we observe may be generated at interfaces of the ISM associated with ionization fronts near neutral hydrogen structures. Galaxy cluster environments and internally generated Faraday complexity provide possible alternative explanations in some cases
A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems
Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.
1995-01-01
We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soltwisch, H [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Association Euratom-Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)); Equipe, T F.R. [Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee
1981-09-01
The results are reported on the feasibility of using far-infrared polarimetry for Faraday rotation diagnostic measurements on the TRF Tokamak. Precise quantitative results were not obtained but a satisfactory agreement with a simple theoretical model leads to a good understanding of the experimental limitations of the method.
Faraday rotation and magneto-optical figure of merit for the magnetite magnetic fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalandadze L.
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, using magnetite magnetic fluids as examples, we consider the optical and magneto-optical properties of magnetic fluids based on particles of magnetic oxides, for the optical constants of the material of which, n and k , the relation k2 ≺≺ n2 holds. In this work the Faraday rotation is represented within the theoretical Maxwell-Garnett model. A theoretical analysis has shown that Faraday rotation for magnetic fluids is related to the Faraday rotation on the material of particles by the simple relation. According to this result in specific experimental conditions the values of the Faraday rotation prorate to q , which is the occupancy of the volume of the magnetic fluid with magnetic particles and spectral dependences of effect in magnetic fluid and in the proper bulk magnetic are similar. We also show that the values of the magneto-optical figure of merit for ultrafine medium and for the bulk material are equal.
Faraday rotation in the M87 radio/X-ray halo
Dennison, B.
1980-01-01
Comparison of polarization maps at various wavelengths demonstrates the existence of a large Faraday rotation uniform over the radio core of M87. Much of this rotation must be external to the core, lest it appear completely depolarized when the rotation is about 90 degrees. The Faraday rotation is shown to occur primarily in the surrounding radio/X-ray halo. Using the electron density inferred from X-ray observations, the magnetic field in the halo is found to be 2.5 microgauss. The deduced magnetic field strength permits an evaluation of the importance of Compton scattering of 3 K background photons by relativistic electrons in the radio halo. The emergent Compton-scattered spectrum is calculated, and its contribution to the observed X-ray flux is small, probably about a percent or so, while the rest is due to thermal bremsstrahlung.
Strong interband Faraday rotation in 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3.
Ohnoutek, L; Hakl, M; Veis, M; Piot, B A; Faugeras, C; Martinez, G; Yakushev, M V; Martin, R W; Drašar, Č; Materna, A; Strzelecka, G; Hruban, A; Potemski, M; Orlita, M
2016-01-11
The Faraday effect is a representative magneto-optical phenomenon, resulting from the transfer of angular momentum between interacting light and matter in which time-reversal symmetry has been broken by an externally applied magnetic field. Here we report on the Faraday rotation induced in the prominent 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3 due to bulk interband excitations. The origin of this non-resonant effect, extraordinarily strong among other non-magnetic materials, is traced back to the specific Dirac-type Hamiltonian for Bi2Se3, which implies that electrons and holes in this material closely resemble relativistic particles with a non-zero rest mass.
Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas
2012-10-01
We report observations of Faraday rotation measures for a sample of 191 extragalactic radio jets observed within the MOJAVE program. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in 2006 at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec-scale Faraday rotation measures in 149 sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects. The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets. Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. We detect significant transverse rotation measure gradients in four sources (0923+392, 1226+023, 2230+114, and 2251+158). In 1226+023 the rotation measure is for the first time seen to change sign from positive to negative over the transverse cuts, which supports the presence of a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation. By comparing fractional polarization changes in jet components between the four frequency bands to depolarization models, we find that an external purely random Faraday screen viewed through only a few lines of sight can explain most of our polarization observations, but in some sources, such as 1226+023 and 2251+158, internal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.; Homan, Daniel C.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas
2012-01-01
We report observations of Faraday rotation measures for a sample of 191 extragalactic radio jets observed within the MOJAVE program. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in 2006 at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec-scale Faraday rotation measures in 149 sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects. The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets. Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. We detect significant transverse rotation measure gradients in four sources (0923+392, 1226+023, 2230+114, and 2251+158). In 1226+023 the rotation measure is for the first time seen to change sign from positive to negative over the transverse cuts, which supports the presence of a helical magnetic field in the jet. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation. By comparing fractional polarization changes in jet components between the four frequency bands to depolarization models, we find that an external purely random Faraday screen viewed through only a few lines of sight can explain most of our polarization observations, but in some sources, such as 1226+023 and 2251+158, internal
Faraday rotation by the undisturbed bulk and by photoinduced giant polarons in EuTe
Henriques, A. B.; Usachev, P. A.
2017-11-01
A quantum mechanical model is developed for the Faraday effect in europium telluride, for photons of energy within the transparency gap. The model is based on the well known band edge electronic energy states in EuTe. A concise expression for the Verdet constant is obtained, determined by few parameters already available in the literature. The Verdet constant adopted here, defined by the ratio between the Faraday rotation angle and the magnetization, is in effect temperature independent. Its dependence on the photon energy and applied magnetic field is in excellent agreement with published results. Below 3 T the Verdet constant is also nearly independent on field, but above 3 T at low temperatures it increases due to the band gap redshift. The model is used to calculate the photoinduced Faraday rotation associated with photoinduced giant magnetic polarons in EuTe. The theoretical photoinduced Faraday rotation excitation describes quite well the main features seen experimentally. Due to the common band-edge electronic energy structure, the model reported here could be extended to all other europium chalcogenides.
Theory of Kerr and Faraday rotations and linear dichroism in Topological Weyl Semimetals.
Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini
2015-08-03
We consider the electromagnetic response of a topological Weyl semimetal (TWS) with a pair of Weyl nodes in the bulk and corresponding Fermi arcs in the surface Brillouin zone. We compute the frequency-dependent complex conductivities σαβ(ω) and also take into account the modification of Maxwell equations by the topological θ-term to obtain the Kerr and Faraday rotations in a variety of geometries. For TWS films thinner than the wavelength, the Kerr and Faraday rotations, determined by the separation between Weyl nodes, are significantly larger than in topological insulators. In thicker films, the Kerr and Faraday angles can be enhanced by choice of film thickness and substrate refractive index. We show that, for radiation incident on a surface with Fermi arcs, there is no Kerr or Faraday rotation but the electric field develops a longitudinal component inside the TWS, and there is linear dichroism signal. Our results have implications for probing the TWS phase in various experimental systems.
Zou, Z Y; Liu, H Q; Ding, W X; Chen, J; Brower, D L; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Li, W M; Yao, Y; Zeng, L; Jie, Y X
2018-01-01
A double-pass radially view 11 chords polarimeter-interferometer system has been operated on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak and provides important current profile information for plasma control. Stray light originating from spurious reflections along the optical path (unwanted reflections from various optical components/mounts and transmissive optical elements such as windows, waveplates, and lens as well as the detectors) and also direct feedback from the retro-reflector used to realize the double-pass configuration can both contribute to contamination of the Faraday rotation measurement accuracy. Modulation of the Faraday rotation signal due to the interference from multiple reflections is observable when the interferometer phase (plasma density) varies with time. Direct reflection from the detector itself can be suppressed by employing an optical isolator consisting of a λ/4-waveplate and polarizer positioned in front of the mixer. A Faraday angle oscillation during the density ramping up (or down) can be reduced from 5°-10° to 1°-2° by eliminating reflections from the detector. Residual modulation arising from misalignment and stray light from other sources must be minimized to achieve accurate measurements of Faraday rotation.
Parsec-scale Faraday rotation and polarization of 20 active galactic nuclei jets
Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.
2017-05-01
We perform polarimetry analysis of 20 active galactic nuclei jets using the very long baseline array at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz. The study allowed us to investigate linearly polarized properties of the jets at parsec scales: distribution of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and fractional polarization along the jets, Faraday effects and structure of Faraday-corrected polarization images. Wavelength dependence of the fractional polarization and polarization angle is consistent with external Faraday rotation, while some sources show internal rotation. The RM changes along the jets, systematically increasing its value towards synchrotron self-absorbed cores at shorter wavelengths. The highest core RM reaches 16 900 rad m-2 in the source rest frame for the quasar 0952+179, suggesting the presence of highly magnetized, dense media in these regions. The typical RM of transparent jet regions has values of an order of a hundred rad m-2. Significant transverse RM gradients are observed in seven sources. The magnetic field in the Faraday screen has no preferred orientation, and is observed to be random or regular from source to source. Half of the sources show evidence for the helical magnetic fields in their rotating magneto-ionic media. At the same time jets themselves contain large-scale, ordered magnetic fields and tend to align its direction with the jet flow. The observed variety of polarized signatures can be explained by a model of spine-sheath jet structure.
Interaction between Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects in polarimetry modeling for NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A.; Carter, T. A.; Kubota, S.; Peebles, W. A.
2010-01-01
The evolution of electromagnetic wave polarization is modeled for propagation in the major radial direction in the National Spherical Torus Experiment with retroreflection from the center stack of the vacuum vessel. This modeling illustrates that the Cotton-Mouton effect-elliptization due to the magnetic field perpendicular to the propagation direction-is shown to be strongly weighted to the high-field region of the plasma. An interaction between the Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects is also clearly identified. Elliptization occurs when the wave polarization direction is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local transverse magnetic field. Since Faraday rotation modifies the polarization direction during propagation, it must also affect the resultant elliptization. The Cotton-Mouton effect also intrinsically results in rotation of the polarization direction, but this effect is less significant in the plasma conditions modeled. The interaction increases at longer wavelength and complicates interpretation of polarimetry measurements.
Measurements of coronal Faraday rotation at 4.6 R ☉
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R.
2014-01-01
Many competing models for the coronal heating and acceleration mechanisms of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field and plasma structure in the corona within heliocentric distances of 5 R ☉ . We report on sensitive Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations made in 2011 August, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C 228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6-5.0 R ☉ . Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Our data on 3C 228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46'', 33,000 km in the corona). We detected three periods during which there appeared to be a difference in the Faraday rotation measure between these two closely spaced lines of sight. These measurements (termed differential Faraday rotation) yield an estimate of 2.6-4.1 GA for coronal currents. Our data also allow us to impose upper limits on rotation measure fluctuations caused by coronal waves; the observed upper limits were 3.3 and 6.4 rad m –2 along the two lines of sight. The implications of these results for Joule heating and wave heating are briefly discussed.
The Use of Faraday Rotation Sign Maps as a Diagnostic for Helical Jet Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reichstein, Andrea; Gabuzda, Denise
2012-01-01
We present maps of the sign of the Faraday Rotation measure obtained from multi-frequency radio observations made with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) considered have B-field structures with a central 'spine' of B-field orthogonal to the jet and/or a longitudinal B-field near one or both edges of the jet. This structure can plausibly be interpreted as being caused by a helical/toroidal jet magnetic field. Faraday Rotation is a rotation of the plane of polarization that occurs when the polarized radiation passes through a magnetized plasma. The sign of the RM is determined by the direction of the line-of-sight B-field in the region causing the Faraday Rotation, and an ordered toroidal or helical magnetic field associated with an AGN jet will thus produce a distinctive bilateral distribution of the RMs across the jet. We present and discuss RM-sign maps and their possible interpretation regarding the magnetic field geometries for several sources.
Faraday rotation, stochastic magnetic fields and CMB maps
Giovannini, Massimo
2008-01-01
The high- and low-frequency descriptions of the pre-decoupling plasma are deduced from the Vlasov-Landau treatment generalized to curved space-times and in the presence of the relativistic fluctuations of the geometry. It is demonstrated that the interplay between one-fluid and two-fluid treatments is mandatory for a complete and reliable calculation of the polarization observables. The Einstein-Boltzmann hierarchy is generalized to handle the dispersive propagation of the electromagnetic disturbances in the pre-decoupling plasma. Given the improved physical and numerical framework, the polarization observables are computed within the magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm (m$\\Lambda$CDM). In particular, the Faraday-induced B-mode is consistently estimated by taking into account the effects of the magnetic fields on the initial conditions of the Boltzmann hierarchy, on the dynamical equations and on the dispersion relations. The complete calculations of the angular power spectra constitutes the first step for the d...
Giant Faraday rotation in Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe5O12 epitaxial garnet films.
Chandra Sekhar, M; Singh, Mahi R; Basu, Shantanu; Pinnepalli, Sai
2012-04-23
Thin films of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) with x = 0.7 and 0.8 compositions were prepared by using pulsed laser deposition. We investigated the effects of processing parameters used to fabricate these films by measuring various physical properties such as X-ray diffraction, transmittance, magnetization and Faraday rotation. In this study, we propose a phase diagram which provides a suitable window for the deposition of Bi(x)Ce(3-x)Fe(5)O(12) epitaxial films. We have also observed a giant Faraday rotation of 1-1.10 degree/µm in our optimized films. The measured Faraday rotation value is 1.6 and 50 times larger than that of CeYIG and YIG respectively. A theoretical model has been proposed for Faraday rotation based on density matrix method and an excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found. © 2012 Optical Society of America
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bykovskiy, N.E.; Denus, S.; Dubik, A.; Ovsik, Y.; Lisunov, V.V.; Senatskiy, Y.V.; Fedotov, S.I.
1988-01-01
The interaction conditions between powerful laser radiation and a target are examined together with the Faraday rotators designed for suppressing target-reflected backward radiation in the neodymium glass laser optical path
Probing the gravitational Faraday rotation using quasar X-ray microlensing.
Chen, Bin
2015-11-17
The effect of gravitational Faraday rotation was predicted in the 1950s, but there is currently no practical method for measuring this effect. Measuring this effect is important because it will provide new evidence for correctness of general relativity, in particular, in the strong field limit. We predict that the observed degree and angle of the X-ray polarization of a cosmologically distant quasar microlensed by the random star field in a foreground galaxy or cluster lens vary rapidly and concurrently with flux during caustic-crossing events using the first simulation of quasar X-ray microlensing polarization light curves. Therefore, it is possible to detect gravitational Faraday rotation by monitoring the X-ray polarization of gravitationally microlensed quasars. Detecting this effect will also confirm the strong gravity nature of quasar X-ray emission.
Terahertz spectroscopy on Faraday and Kerr rotations in a quantum anomalous Hall state.
Okada, Ken N; Takahashi, Youtarou; Mogi, Masataka; Yoshimi, Ryutaro; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kei S; Ogawa, Naoki; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori
2016-07-20
Electrodynamic responses from three-dimensional topological insulators are characterized by the universal magnetoelectric term constituent of the Lagrangian formalism. The quantized magnetoelectric coupling, which is generally referred to as topological magnetoelectric effect, has been predicted to induce exotic phenomena including the universal low-energy magneto-optical effects. Here we report the experimental indication of the topological magnetoelectric effect, which is exemplified by magneto-optical Faraday and Kerr rotations in the quantum anomalous Hall states of magnetic topological insulator surfaces by terahertz magneto-optics. The universal relation composed of the observed Faraday and Kerr rotation angles but not of any material parameters (for example, dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility) well exhibits the trajectory towards the fine structure constant in the quantized limit.
Faraday Rotation for SMOS Retrievals of Ocean Salinity and Soil Moisture
El-Nimri, Salem; Le Vine, David M.
2016-01-01
Faraday rotation is a change in polarization as radiation propagates from the surface through the ionosphere to the sensor. At L-band (1.4 GHz) this change can be significant and can be important for the remote sensing of soil moisture and ocean salinity from space. Consequently, modern L-band radiometers (SMOS, Aquarius and SMOS) are polarimetric to measure Faraday rotation in situ so that a correction can be made. This is done using the ratio of the third and second Stokes parameters. In the case of SMOS this procedure has produced very noisy estimates. An alternate procedure is reported here in which the total electron content is estimated and averaged to reduce noise.
Transfer matrix approach for the Kerr and Faraday rotation in layered nanostructures.
Széchenyi, Gábor; Vigh, Máté; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József
2016-09-21
To study the optical rotation of the polarization of light incident on multilayer systems consisting of atomically thin conductors and dielectric multilayers we present a general method based on transfer matrices. The transfer matrix of the atomically thin conducting layer is obtained using the Maxwell equations. We derive expressions for the Kerr (Faraday) rotation angle and for the ellipticity of the reflected (transmitted) light as a function of the incident angle and polarization of the light. The method is demonstrated by calculating the Kerr (Faraday) angle for bilayer graphene in the quantum anomalous Hall state placed on the top of dielectric multilayers. The optical conductivity of the bilayer graphene is calculated in the framework of a four-band model.
Nuclear spin optical rotation and Faraday effect in gaseous and liquid water.
Pennanen, Teemu S; Ikäläinen, Suvi; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha
2012-05-14
Nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR) of linearly polarized light, due to the nuclear spins through the Faraday effect, provides a novel probe of molecular structure and could pave the way to optical detection of nuclear magnetization. We determine computationally the effects of the liquid medium on NSOR and the Verdet constant of Faraday rotation (arising from an external magnetic field) in water, using the recently developed theory applied on a first-principles molecular dynamics trajectory. The gas-to-liquid shifts of the relevant antisymmetric polarizability and, hence, NSOR magnitude are found to be -14% and -29% for (1)H and (17)O nuclei, respectively. On the other hand, medium effects both enhance the local electric field in water and, via bulk magnetization, the local magnetic field. Together these two effects partially cancel the solvation influence on the single-molecular property. We find a good agreement for the hydrogen NSOR with a recent pioneering experiment on H(2)O(l).
Electronic density measurement in the TB R-1 tokamak using Faraday rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizondo, Juan Iraburu
1996-01-01
In this work, the experimental results of electronic density measurements in the TBR-1 tokamak, obtained by Faraday rotation of a microwave beam, are presented, The beam (65 GHz, 500 MW) is generated by a Klystron and crosses the plasma in the horizontal plane. The density values obtained are in agreement with the measurements of a conventional microwave interferometer. As a result of numerical simulations and measurements, it can be concluded that it would be advisable the use of lower wavelengths, to minimize the beam refraction when it crosses the plasma. The results show the feasibility of the Faraday rotation method for density measurement, in the first experiment performed in a tokamak, for the geometry considered. (author)
Transfer matrix approach for the Kerr and Faraday rotation in layered nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Széchenyi, Gábor; Vigh, Máté; Cserti, József; Kormányos, Andor
2016-01-01
To study the optical rotation of the polarization of light incident on multilayer systems consisting of atomically thin conductors and dielectric multilayers we present a general method based on transfer matrices. The transfer matrix of the atomically thin conducting layer is obtained using the Maxwell equations. We derive expressions for the Kerr (Faraday) rotation angle and for the ellipticity of the reflected (transmitted) light as a function of the incident angle and polarization of the light. The method is demonstrated by calculating the Kerr (Faraday) angle for bilayer graphene in the quantum anomalous Hall state placed on the top of dielectric multilayers. The optical conductivity of the bilayer graphene is calculated in the framework of a four-band model. (paper)
Generation of Atomic Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States Based on Faraday Rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Honghui; Li Xinghua
2010-01-01
Based on the input-output relation of the cavity and the Faraday Rotation mechanism, we propose a scheme for generating the n-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. In the scheme, the n-atom trapped respectively in n spatially separate cavities would be entangled with the photons going through the atom-cavity system. The successful probabilities of our protocol approach unity in the ideal case. What is more, no requirement for separately addressing further lowers experimental difficulties. (general)
Thin-film magnetless Faraday rotators for compact heterogeneous integrated optical isolators
Karki, Dolendra; Stenger, Vincent; Pollick, Andrea; Levy, Miguel
2017-06-01
This report describes the fabrication, characterization, and transfer of ultra-compact thin-film magnetless Faraday rotators to silicon photonic substrates. Thin films of magnetization latching bismuth-substituted rare-earth iron garnets were produced from commercially available materials by mechanical lapping, dice polishing, and crystal-ion-slicing. Eleven- μ m -thick films were shown to retain the 45 ° Faraday rotation of the bulk material to within 2 ° at 1.55 μ m wavelength without re-poling. Anti-reflection coated films evince 0.09 dB insertion loses and better than -20 dB extinction ratios. Lower extinction ratios than the bulk are ascribed to multimode propagation. Significantly larger extinction ratios are predicted for single-mode waveguides. Faraday rotation, extinction ratios, and insertion loss tests on He-ion implanted slab waveguides of the same material yielded similar results. The work culminated with bond alignment and transfer of 7 μ m -thick crystal-ion-sliced 50 × 480 μ m 2 films onto silicon photonic substrates.
Faraday's Rotating Wire--The Homopolar Motor: Time to Update?
Auty, Geoff
2010-01-01
Answering some of the questions raised in the production of a previous article led to the development of a simple alternative design for the rotating wire demonstration. Significantly, this demonstration avoids the use of mercury as a conducting liquid. The attempt to explain variations in performance of another model and seeking the best…
Quan, Wei; Li, Yang; Li, Rujie; Shang, Huining; Fang, Zishan; Qin, Jie; Wan, Shuangai
2016-04-01
We propose a far off-resonance laser frequency stabilization method by using multipass cells in Rb Faraday rotation spectroscopy. Based on the detuning equation, if multipass cells with several meters optical path length are used in the conventional Faraday spectroscopy, the detuning of the lock point can be extended much further from the alkali metal resonance. A plate beam splitter was used to generate two different Faraday signals at the same time. The transmitted optical path length was L=50 mm and the reflected optical path length was 2L=100 mm. When the optical path length doubled, the detuning of the lock points moved further away from the atomic resonance. The temperature dependence of the detuning of the lock point was also analyzed. A temperature-insensitive lock point was found near resonance when the cell temperature was between 110°C and 130°C. We achieved an rms fluctuation of 0.9 MHz/23 h at a detuning of 0.5 GHz. A frequency drift of 16 MHz/h at a detuning of -5.6 GHz and 4 MHz/h at a detuning of -5.2 GHz were also obtained for the transmitted and reflected light Faraday signal.
Power handling capability of Faraday rotation isolators for CO(2) laser radars.
Klein, C A; Dorschner, T A
1989-03-01
Faraday rotation isolators for CO(2) laser radars must be capable of handling substantial average power loads without degrading the beam quality or experiencing thermal runaway. For this reason, the semiconductorbased isolators, which are of promise for applications at 10.6 microm, must be cooled. This creates radial temperature gradients and, in conjunction with a nonuniform beam pattern, may lead to severe wavefront aberrations. It is the purpose of this paper to formulate simple procedures for assessing the impact of such aberrations in a cw regime and to provide a prescription on how to proceed in the context of designing or evaluating Faraday rotators for CO(2) laser systems. If it is a good approximation to describe the beam-induced temperature rise by means of a fourth-order even polynomial, the degradation in beam quality originates entirely from the quartic term deltaT(4)rho(4). Specifically, it is the spherical aberration factor S = deltaT(4) radicalvar[rho(4)] that best describes the combined impact of temperature profile and beam shape. The heat flow equation for cw-loaded, edge-cooled, or face-cooled cylindrical Faraday rotator elements can be formulated in a simple nondimensional manner, which demonstrates that (a) temperature variations causing optical distortion scale with betaP/K, i.e., linearly with the deposited power per unit path length and inversely with the thermal conductivity; (b) in a transmission mode of operation with edge cooling and no thermal runaway, the power handling capability is independent of the aperture diameter; and (c), in a double-pass reflection mode of operation that takes advantage of a face-cooled back surface, a significant reduction of the distortion requires Nusselt numbers of at least 10, which leads to a new figure of merit for characterizing the performance of Faraday rotator material candidates. Edge-cooled optical isolators described in the published literature then provide cases for exercising the formalism and
Faraday Rotation Studies of Indium Antimonide and CADMIUM(1-X) Manganese(x) Telluride
Jimenez Gonzalez, Hector J.
Faraday rotation has been studied in two material systems: narrow-gap InSb and wide-gap Cd_ {1-x}Mn_{x}Te. The measurements were done in the infrared region using high magnetic fields up to 150 kG. The Faraday rotation of n-type InSb has been measured for wavelengths between 8.0 and 13.0 μm at 9 K, using magnetic fields up to 150 kG. Measurements were made on samples with nominal carrier concentrations of 1 times 10^{14 }, 6 times 10 ^{14}, 1 times 10^{15}, and 5 times 10^{15} cm^{-3}. The experimental results have been successfully analyzed in terms of intraband and interband transitions at the Gamma point in the Brillouin zone, using a quantum-mechanical treatment. In this approach, there are three contributions to the Faraday rotation: (a) interband, (b) plasma, and (c) spin contributions. The interband contribution is dominant in the low concentration samples where the plasma and spin contributions, which are due to the free carriers, are small. At high carrier concentrations the spin and plasma contributions are dominant. In the low-magnetic -field regime the interband and plasma contributions are linearly proportional to the magnetic field and become small. This makes the spin contribution the leading contribution to the Faraday rotation at low magnetic fields. The 4 -band k cdot p Pidgeon and Brown model was used to calculate the energy levels and the matrix elements for these transitions. Quantum oscillatory effects were observed at low magnetic field. Cyclotron resonance absorption was observed in all samples for wavelengths _sp{~}{>}16.0 mum. The Faraday rotation of Cd_{1 -x}Mn_{x}Te has been measured for x = 0 to 0.27 at 300 and 77 K for photon energies between 0.1 and 1.5 eV, corresponding to wavelengths of 12.0 and 0.8 mum, respectively. We have developed a multioscillator model for the Faraday rotation using an analytical expression for the refractive index that includes contributions from interband transitions at the Gamma, L, and X points of the
Liu, Qiang; Gross, S; Dekker, P; Withford, M J; Steel, M J
2014-11-17
We consider the process of Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser direct-write waveguides. The birefringence commonly associated with such waveguides may be expected to impact the observable Faraday rotation. Here, we theoretically calculate and experimentally verify the competition between Faraday rotation and birefringence in two waveguides created by laser writing in a commercial magneto-optic glass. The magnetic field applied to induce Faraday rotation is nonuniform, and as a result, we find that the two effects can be clearly separated and used to accurately determine even weak birefringence. The birefringence in the waveguides was determined to be on the scale of Δn = 10(-6) to 10(-5). The reduction in Faraday rotation caused by birefringence of order Δn = 10(-6) was moderate and we obtained approximately 9° rotation in an 11 mm waveguide. In contrast, for birefringence of order 10(-5), a significant reduction in the polarization azimuth change was found and only 6° rotation was observed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddock, C.; Tong, M.Y.M.
1989-10-01
TRIUMF is presently in the project definition stage of its proposed KAON factory. The facility will require approximately 300 dipole magnets. The rapid measurement of representative parameters of these magnets, in particular effective length, is one of the challenges to be met. As well as the commissioning of a.c magnetic field measurement systems based on established techniques a project is underway to investigate an alternative method utilizing the Faraday Rotation effect in polarization preserving optical fibers. It is shown that a fiber equivalent to a Faraday cell can be constructed by winding a fiber in a such a way that the induced beat length L p is equal to (2n+1) times the bending circumference, with n integer. Background to the subject and preliminary results of the measurements are reported in this paper
Universal Faraday Rotation in HgTe Wells with Critical Thickness.
Shuvaev, A; Dziom, V; Kvon, Z D; Mikhailov, N N; Pimenov, A
2016-09-09
The universal value of the Faraday rotation angle close to the fine structure constant (α≈1/137) is experimentally observed in thin HgTe quantum wells with a thickness on the border between trivial insulating and the topologically nontrivial Dirac phases. The quantized value of the Faraday angle remains robust in the broad range of magnetic fields and gate voltages. Dynamic Hall conductivity of the holelike carriers extracted from the analysis of the transmission data shows a theoretically predicted universal value of σ_{xy}=e^{2}/h, which is consistent with the doubly degenerate Dirac state. On shifting the Fermi level by the gate voltage, the effective sign of the charge carriers changes from positive (holes) to negative (electrons). The electronlike part of the dynamic response does not show quantum plateaus and is well described within the classical Drude model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. W. Su
2013-07-01
Full Text Available An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001 single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broderick, Avery E.; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2010-01-01
It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to ∼10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broderick, Avery E [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: aeb@cita.utoronto.c, E-mail: jmckinne@stanford.ed [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2010-12-10
It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of a three-dimensional global GRMHD jet formation simulation, extrapolated in a self-consistent manner to {approx}10 pc scales, and explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum-jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure. Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. Finally, we are able to constrain the particle content of the jet, finding that at pc scales AGN jets are electromagnetically dominated, with roughly 2% of the comoving energy in nonthermal leptons and much less in baryons.
Ultrafast time-resolved faraday rotation in EuO thin films.
Liu, F; Makino, T; Yamasaki, T; Ueno, K; Tsukazaki, A; Fukumura, T; Kong, Y; Kawasaki, M
2012-06-22
We have investigated the ultrafast spin dynamics in EuO thin films by time-resolved Faraday rotation spectroscopy. The photoinduced magnetization is found to be increased in a transient manner, accompanied with subsequent demagnetization. The dynamical magnetization enhancement showed a maximum slightly below the Curie temperature with prolonged tails toward both lower and higher temperatures and dominates the demagnetization counterpart at 55 K. The magnetization enhancement component decays in ~1 ns. The realization of the transient collective ordering is attributable to the enhancement of the f-d exchange interaction.
Nonlinear and anisotropic polarization rotation in two-dimensional Dirac materials
Singh, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Saikat; Agarwal, Amit
2018-05-01
We predict nonlinear optical polarization rotation in two-dimensional massless Dirac systems including graphene and 8-P m m n borophene. When illuminated, a continuous-wave optical field leads to a nonlinear steady state of photoexcited carriers in the medium. The photoexcited population inversion and the interband coherence give rise to a finite transverse optical conductivity σx y(ω ) . This in turn leads to definitive signatures in associated Kerr and Faraday polarization rotation, which are measurable in a realistic experimental scenario.
Royden, H. N.; Green, D. W.; Walson, G. R.
1981-01-01
Faraday-rotation data from the linearly polarized 137-MHz beacons of the ATS-1, SIRIO, and Kiku-2 geosynchronous satellites are used to determine the ionospheric corrections to the range and Doppler data for interplanetary spacecraft navigation. The JPL operates the Deep Space Network of tracking stations for NASA; these stations monitor Faraday rotation with dual orthogonal, linearly polarized antennas, Teledyne polarization tracking receivers, analog-to-digital converter/scanners, and other support equipment. Computer software examines the Faraday data, resolves the pi ambiguities, constructs a continuous Faraday-rotation profile and converts the profile to columnar zenith total electron content at the ionospheric reference point; a second program computes the line-of-sight ionospheric correction for each pass of the spacecraft over each tracking complex. Line-of-sight ionospheric electron content using mapped Faraday-rotation data is compared with that using dispersive Doppler data from the Voyager spacecraft; a difference of about 0.4 meters, or 5 x 10 to the 16th electrons/sq m is obtained. The technique of determining the electron content of interplanetary plasma by subtraction of the ionospheric contribution is demonstrated on the plasma torus surrounding the orbit of Io.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Rourke, J.; Lazzaro, E.
1990-01-01
Abel-inversion of Faraday rotation measurements on JET has shown that in the current flat-top of sawtoothing discharges the axial safety factor, q o , remains significantly below unity (0.75±0.15) throughout the sawtooth period. In this paper we address two limitations of the Abel-inversion technique, namely the dependence of the results on the assumed flux surface geometry (especially the elongation of the flux surfaces near the magnetic axis, κ o ) and their lack of sensitivity to small changes in the poloidal magnetic field. Assumptions about the flux surface geometry have been verified by comparing Faraday rotation measurements along nearly orthogonal chords, and by a self-consistent identification of the plasma equilibirum. The sensitivity to small changes in the poloidal field, such as those which occur during sawtooth instabilities, has been increased by Abel-inverting the changes in the Faraday rotation signals rather than the signals themselves. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, H.; Masuda, Y.; Fujikawa, R.; Baryshev, A.V.; Inoue, M.
2009-01-01
A large enhancement of the Faraday rotation, which is associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), was obtained in a sample with Au nanoparticles embedded in a Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG) film. On a quartz substrate, Au nanoparticles were formed by heating an Au thin film, and a Bi:YIG film was then deposited on them. A sample containing the Au nanoparticles produced by 1000 deg. C heating showed a resonant attenuation with narrower bandwidth in the transmission spectrum than nanoparticles of other samples formed by low-temperature heating. The sharp resonant Faraday rotation angle was 4.4 times larger than the estimated intrinsic Bi:YIG film at the LSPR wavelength; the angular difference was 0.14 deg. A discrepancy in the bandwidth between the transmission attenuation and the resonant Faraday rotation is discussed
The anisotropic magnetic property and Faraday rotation in Er3Ga5O12 under high magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wei; Zhang Xijuan; Liu Gongqiang
2005-01-01
A theoretical investigation on the anisotropic magnetic property and Faraday rotation in Er 3 Ga 5 O 12 (ErGaG) is presented. With particular consideration of the anisotropy of the exchange interaction between rare-earth ions (Er 3+ ), the magnetization, based on the quantum theory, in ErGaG under high magnetic field (HMF) is calculated. Theoretical calculations show that the appropriate choice of the crystal field (CF) parameters is of great importance. A novel three-level model is presented, and in terms of this model the Faraday rotation under HMF is calculated. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Faraday rotation (θ) depends not only on the magnetization (M) but also on the magnetic field (H e ). The theory is in good agreement with the experiment
Electrogyration and Faraday rotation in pure and Cr-doped lead germanate crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamenko, D; Klymiv, I; Vlokh, R; Vlokh, O; Duda, V M
2008-01-01
We present the results of studies on the temperature dependence of the electrogyration (EG) effect, Faraday rotation and natural optical activity in Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 and Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 :Cr crystals at the phase transition. A high EG coefficient is found for Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 :Cr crystals. We demonstrate how the Curie-Weiss constant, the critical exponents of the order parameter and the dielectric permittivity in Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 :Cr crystals, as well as the coefficients of thermodynamic potential, could be derived from the temperature dependences of optical activity and the EG coefficient. We also show that the increment of the Faraday rotation in Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 and Pb 5 Ge 3 O 11 :Cr crystals appearing at the phase transition is caused by a combined magneto-electrooptic effect induced by spontaneous polarization. It is proportional to the square of spontaneous polarization. The phenomenon revealed by us corresponds to combined effects of crystal optics, which appear due to the common action of different fields
Electrogyration and Faraday rotation in pure and Cr-doped lead germanate crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamenko, D; Klymiv, I; Vlokh, R; Vlokh, O [Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov Street, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Duda, V M [Dnipropetrovsk National University, 13 Naukova Street, Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)], E-mail: vlokh@ifo.lviv.ua
2008-02-20
We present the results of studies on the temperature dependence of the electrogyration (EG) effect, Faraday rotation and natural optical activity in Pb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11} and Pb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11}:Cr crystals at the phase transition. A high EG coefficient is found for Pb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11}:Cr crystals. We demonstrate how the Curie-Weiss constant, the critical exponents of the order parameter and the dielectric permittivity in Pb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11}:Cr crystals, as well as the coefficients of thermodynamic potential, could be derived from the temperature dependences of optical activity and the EG coefficient. We also show that the increment of the Faraday rotation in Pb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11} and Pb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 11}:Cr crystals appearing at the phase transition is caused by a combined magneto-electrooptic effect induced by spontaneous polarization. It is proportional to the square of spontaneous polarization. The phenomenon revealed by us corresponds to combined effects of crystal optics, which appear due to the common action of different fields.
Ultraviolet-visible optical isolators based on CeF3 Faraday rotator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Plaza, Gustavo R.
2015-01-01
The first ultraviolet (UV) and visible optical isolators based on CeF 3 are demonstrated. CeF 3 possesses unique properties as Faraday rotator for the UV-visible wavelength region: a wide transparency range (wavelength of >300 nm) and an outstanding Verdet constant. In contrast, currently used terbium-gallium garnets and magneto-optical glasses possess a low transparency in the visible and a small Verdet constant in the UV, respectively. The optical isolator prototypes consist of a CeF 3 rod, a single ring magnet, and a couple of beam splitters. The ring magnets have been designed to guarantee a homogeneous magnetic field; for it, numerical simulations have been carried out. The two prototypes are very compact and operate in the UV at 355 and in the visible at 405 nm, respectively. The performance of these devices indicates the high potential of CeF 3 as a new UV-visible Faraday rotator, specially for shorter wavelengths where at present there are no optical isolators available
Characterization of magnetic field profiles at RFX-mod by Faraday rotation measurements
Auriemma, Fulvio; Brombin, Matteo; Canton, Alessandra; Giudicotti, Leonardo; Innocente, Paolo; Zilli, Enrico
2009-11-01
A multichannel far-infrared (FIR, λ=118.8 μm) polarimeter has been recently upgraded and re-installed on RFX-mod to measure the Faraday rotation angle along five vertical chords. Polarimetric data, associated with electron density profile, allow the reconstruction of the poloidal magnetic field profile. In this work the setup of the diagnostic is presented and the first Faraday rotation measurements are analyzed. The measurements have been performed at plasma current above 1.2 MA and electron density between 2 and 6x10^19 m-3. The actual S/N ratio is slightly lower than the expected one, due to electromagnetic coupling of the detectors with the saddle coils close to the polarimeter position. Due to this limit, only average information in the flat-top phase of the discharge could be so far obtained. The experimental data have been compared with the result of the μ&p equilibrium model [1], showing a good agreement between experiment and model, whereas the main differences are in the external region of the plasma. A different parameterization of the μ=μ0 J.B/B^2 profile has been proposed to enhance the agreement between model and experiment. [0pt] [1] Ortolani and Snack, World Scientific (1993) Singapore
Application of interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snider, R.T.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Ma, C.H.; Peebles, W.A.
1995-01-01
There is a need for real time, reliable density measurement for density control, compatible with the restricted access and radiation environment on ITER. Line average density measurements using microwave or laser interferometry techniques have proven to be robust and reliable for density control on contemporary tokamaks. In ITER, the large path length, high density and density gradients, limit the wavelength of a probing beam to shorter then about 50 microm due to refraction effects. In this paper the authors consider the design of short wavelength vibration compensated interferometers and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on ITER. These techniques allow operation of the diagnostics without a prohibitively large vibration isolated structure and permits the optics to be mounted directly on the radial port plugs on ITER. A beam path designed for 10.6 microm (CO2 laser) with a tangential path through the plasma allows both an interferometer and a Faraday rotation measurement of the line average density with good density resolution while avoiding refraction problems. Plasma effects on the probing beams and design tradeoffs will be discussed along with radiation and long pulse issues. A proposed layout of the diagnostic for ITER will be present
Murdock, Richard J; Putnam, Shawn A; Das, Soumen; Gupta, Ankur; Chase, Elyse D Z; Seal, Sudipta
2017-03-01
A clinically relevant magneto-optical technique (fd-FRS, frequency-domain Faraday rotation spectroscopy) for characterizing proteins using antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is demonstrated. This technique distinguishes between the Faraday rotation of the solvent, iron oxide core, and functionalization layers of polyethylene glycol polymers (spacer) and model antibody-antigen complexes (anti-BSA/BSA, bovine serum albumin). A detection sensitivity of ≈10 pg mL -1 and broad detection range of 10 pg mL -1 ≲ c BSA ≲ 100 µg mL -1 are observed. Combining this technique with predictive analyte binding models quantifies (within an order of magnitude) the number of active binding sites on functionalized MNPs. Comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies are conducted, reproducing the manufacturer advertised BSA ELISA detection limits from 1 ng mL -1 ≲ c BSA ≲ 500 ng mL -1 . In addition to the increased sensitivity, broader detection range, and similar specificity, fd-FRS can be conducted in less than ≈30 min, compared to ≈4 h with ELISA. Thus, fd-FRS is shown to be a sensitive optical technique with potential to become an efficient diagnostic in the chemical and biomolecular sciences. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nitric oxide isotopic analyzer based on a compact dual-modulation Faraday rotation spectrometer.
Zhang, Eric; Huang, Stacey; Ji, Qixing; Silvernagel, Michael; Wang, Yin; Ward, Bess; Sigman, Daniel; Wysocki, Gerard
2015-10-14
We have developed a transportable spectroscopic nitrogen isotopic analyzer. The spectrometer is based on dual-modulation Faraday rotation spectroscopy of nitric oxide isotopologues with near shot-noise limited performance and baseline-free operation. Noise analysis indicates minor isotope ((15)NO) detection sensitivity of 0.36 ppbv·Hz(-1/2), corresponding to noise-equivalent Faraday rotation angle (NEA) of 1.31 × 10(-8) rad·Hz(-1/2) and noise-equivalent absorbance (αL)min of 6.27 × 10(-8) Hz(-1/2). White-noise limited performance at 2.8× the shot-noise limit is observed up to ~1000 s, allowing reliable calibration and sample measurement within the drift-free interval of the spectrometer. Integration with wet-chemistry based on acidic vanadium(III) enables conversion of aqueous nitrate/nitrite samples to gaseous NO for total nitrogen isotope analysis. Isotopic ratiometry is accomplished via time-multiplexed measurements of two NO isotope transitions. For 5 μmol potassium nitrate samples, the instrument consistently yields ratiometric precision below 0.3‰, thus demonstrating potential as an in situ diagnostic tool for environmental nitrogen cycle studies.
Evidence of magnetic field in plasma focus by means of Faraday rotation measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischfeld, G.
1982-01-01
Preliminary results of Faraday rotation measurements on a beam of laser light crossing the plasma column in the axial direction. are repacted. The presence of intense axial magnetic field Bsup(z) in the column both before and during the pinch phase is demonstrated. The experiments were performed on the Mather type Frascati 1 MJ plasma Focus, operated at 250 KJ 3 torr D 2 filling pressure. Is is used in the measurements a Quantel YG 49 YAG laser, frecuency doubled by means of KD*P crystal, which delivers about 60 mJ in 3 ns at = 530 nm. The beam polarization is analized by Wollaston prism. The electronic density is determined by Mach-Zender insterferometry. Two measurements are taken at time close to the end of the radial collapse phase, yielding Faraday rotation angles of 0.25 +- 0.05 rd and 0.56 +- o.05 rd which correspond to values, of axial magnetic fields of b(sup z) = 500 KG and B(sub z) = 400 KG. (Author) [pt
Magnetic Field Studies in BL Lacertae through Faraday Rotation and a Novel Astrometric Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sol N. Molina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available It is thought that dynamically important helical magnetic fields twisted by the differential rotation of the black hole’s accretion disk or ergosphere play an important role in the launching, acceleration, and collimation of active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We present multi-frequency astrometric and polarimetric Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA images at 15, 22, and 43 GHz, as well as Faraday rotation analyses of the jet in BL Lacertae as part of a sample of AGN jets aimed to probe the magnetic field structure at the innermost scales to test jet formation models. The novel astrometric technique applied allows us to obtain the absolute position at mm wavelengths without any external calibrator.
Dynamic Chiral Magnetic Effect and Faraday Rotation in Macroscopically Disordered Helical Metals.
Ma, J; Pesin, D A
2017-03-10
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals. Experimentally, these corrections can be observed as features in the Faraday rotation angle near frequencies that correspond to the bulk plasmon resonances of a material. Such features are not expected to be present in single-crystal samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moyerman, S.; Bierman, E.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B. G. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92037 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wales, Cardiff CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Aiken, R.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Mason, P. V. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barkats, D. [Joint ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Bischoff, C.; Kovac, J. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bock, J. J.; Dowell, C. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chiang, H. C. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Duband, L. [SBT, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (apostrophe), F-38054 Grenoble (France); Hivon, E. F. [Insititut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kuo, C. L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Leitch, E. M., E-mail: smoyerma@ucsd.edu [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others
2013-03-01
The design and performance of a wide bandwidth linear polarization modulator based on the Faraday effect is described. Faraday Rotation Modulators (FRMs) are solid-state polarization switches that are capable of modulation up to 10 kHz. Six FRMs were utilized during the 2006 observing season in the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) experiment; three FRMs were used at each of BICEP's 100 and 150 GHz frequency bands. The technology was verified through high signal-to-noise detection of Galactic polarization using two of the six FRMs during four observing runs in 2006. The features exhibit strong agreement with BICEP's measurements of the Galaxy using non-FRM pixels and with the Galactic polarization models. This marks the first detection of high signal-to-noise mm-wave celestial polarization using fast, active optical modulation. The performance of the FRMs during periods when they were not modulated was also analyzed and compared to results from BICEP's 43 pixels without FRMs.
Moyerman, S.; Bierman, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aiken, R.; Barkats, D.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J. J.; Chiang, H. C.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.;
2012-01-01
The design and performance of a wide bandwidth linear polarization-modulator based on the Faraday effect is described. Faraday Rotation Modulators (FRMs) are solid-state polarization switches that are capable of modulation up to approx 10 kHz. Six FRMs were utilized during the 2006 observing season in the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) experiment; three FRMs were used at each of BICEP fs 100 and 150 GHz frequency bands. The technology was verified through high signal-to-noise detection of Galactic polarization using two of the six FRMs during four observing runs in 2006. The features exhibit strong agreement with BICEP fs measurements of the Galaxy using non-FRM pixels and with the Galactic polarization models. This marks the first detection of high signal-to-noise mm-wave celestial polarization using fast, active optical modulation. The performance of the FRMs during periods when they were not modulated was also analyzed and compared to results from BICEP fs 43 pixels without FRMs.
Giant Faraday Rotation through Ultrasmall Fe0 n Clusters in Superparamagnetic FeO-SiO2 Vitreous Films.
Nakatsuka, Yuko; Pollok, Kilian; Wieduwilt, Torsten; Langenhorst, Falko; Schmidt, Markus A; Fujita, Koji; Murai, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Wondraczek, Lothar
2017-04-01
Magnetooptical (MO) glasses and, in particular, Faraday rotators are becoming key components in lasers and optical information processing, light switching, coding, filtering, and sensing. The common design of such Faraday rotator materials follows a simple path: high Faraday rotation is achieved by maximizing the concentration of paramagnetic ion species in a given matrix material. However, this approach has reached its limits in terms of MO performance; hence, glass-based materials can presently not be used efficiently in thin film MO applications. Here, a novel strategy which overcomes this limitation is demonstrated. Using vitreous films of x FeO·(100 - x )SiO 2 , unusually large Faraday rotation has been obtained, beating the performance of any other glassy material by up to two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this is due to the incorporation of small, ferromagnetic clusters of atomic iron which are generated in line during laser deposition and rapid condensation of the thin film, generating superparamagnetism. The size of these clusters underbids the present record of metallic Fe incorporation and experimental verification in glass matrices.
Magnetoexcitons and Faraday rotation in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons
Have, Jonas; Pedersen, Thomas G.
2018-03-01
The magneto-optical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied theoretically, including excitonic effects. Both diagonal and nondiagonal response functions are obtained and employed to compute Faraday rotation spectra. For single-walled CNTs in a parallel field, the results show field-dependent splitting of the exciton absorption peaks caused by brightening a dark exciton state. Similarly, for GNRs in a perpendicular magnetic field, we observe a field-dependent shift of the exciton peaks and the emergence of an absorption peak above the energy gap. Results show that excitonic effects play a significant role in the optical response of both materials, particularly for the off-diagonal tensor elements.
Vibration-resistant Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source incorporating a Faraday rotator mirror
Zhang, Enkang; Yang, Liu; Gao, Zhongxing; Xue, Bing; Zhang, Yonggang
2018-04-01
Improvement in the mean wavelength vibration stability is crucial to the realization of a high-precision fiber-optic gyroscope. We design a vibration-resistant Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source (VR-EDSFS) incorporated with a Faraday rotator mirror and compare it with the conventional Er-doped superfluorescent fiber source (ED-SFS) under different vibration conditions. As shown by experimental results, the mean wavelength vibration stability of the VR-EDSFS is much better than that of the conventional ED-SFS. Under the 1000 to 2000 Hz vibration condition, the former is just 3.4 ppm, which is about 7 ppm less than the latter over 2 h.
Helios-1 Faraday rotation experiment - Results and interpretations of the solar occultations in 1975
Volland, H.; Bird, M. K.; Levy, G. S.; Stelzried, C. T.; Seidel, B. L.
1977-01-01
The first of two solar occultations of the satellite Helios-1 in 1975 occurred in April when the satellite's ray path approached the west limb of the sun to a minimum distance of 1.63 solar radii. The second occultation took place in late August/early September when Helios-1 was totally eclipsed by the photosphere. Measurements of the polarization angle of the linearly polarized telemetry signal were performed with automatic tracking polarimeters at the 64 m Goldstone Tracking Station in California and also at the 100 m radio telescope in Effelsberg, West Germany. The coronal Faraday rotation as a function of the solar offset for both occultations is shown in graphs. The theoretical significance of the observations is investigated.
Quantized Faraday and Kerr rotation and axion electrodynamics of a 3D topological insulator.
Wu, Liang; Salehi, M; Koirala, N; Moon, J; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2016-12-02
Topological insulators have been proposed to be best characterized as bulk magnetoelectric materials that show response functions quantized in terms of fundamental physical constants. Here, we lower the chemical potential of three-dimensional (3D) Bi 2 Se 3 films to ~30 meV above the Dirac point and probe their low-energy electrodynamic response in the presence of magnetic fields with high-precision time-domain terahertz polarimetry. For fields higher than 5 tesla, we observed quantized Faraday and Kerr rotations, whereas the dc transport is still semiclassical. A nontrivial Berry's phase offset to these values gives evidence for axion electrodynamics and the topological magnetoelectric effect. The time structure used in these measurements allows a direct measure of the fine-structure constant based on a topological invariant of a solid-state system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Mimicking Faraday rotation to sort the orbital angular momentum of light.
Zhang, Wuhong; Qi, Qianqian; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Lixiang
2014-04-18
The efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to both the classical and quantum applications with twisted photons. Here we devise and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method of mimicking the Faraday rotation to sort the OAM based on the OAM-to-polarization coupling effect induced by a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our device is capable of sorting the OAM of positive and negative numbers, as well as their mixtures. Furthermore, we report the first experimental demonstration to sort optical vortices of noninteger charges. The possibility of working at the photon-count level is also shown using an electron-multiplying CCD camera. Our scheme holds promise for quantum information applications with single-photon entanglement and for high-capacity communication systems with polarization and OAM multiplexing.
Fulcher, Lewis P.
1979-01-01
Presents an exact solution to the nonlinear Faraday's law problem of a rod sliding on frictionless rails with resistance. Compares the results with perturbation calculations based on the methods of Poisson and Pincare and of Kryloff and Bogoliuboff. (Author/GA)
Development of a fast response rotating polarimeter for a faraday rotation measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeno, Masaki; Ogiwara, Norio; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Toshiaki
1994-03-01
This paper describes a method for using a spindle sustained with active magnetic bearing to make a rotating half waveplate frequency more fast. The time interval of the zero-cross phase measurement is 189 μsec in this experiment. The magnetic bearing is applicable to increase the rotating waveplate frequency by a factor of 2-3 compared with the conventional one. The waveplate speed as well as the deviation with respect to the stationary laser beam has no influence on the amplitude and phase shift of the rotating polarized beam signal. There is also no influence of the mirror reflections on the phase shift. The overall phase resolution is estimated to be about 0.1 degrees. (author)
Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noel, J. M. A.
2017-12-01
Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices which are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this work we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick model.
Cushley, A. C.; Kabin, K.; Noël, J.-M.
2017-10-01
Radio waves propagating through plasma in the Earth's ambient magnetic field experience Faraday rotation; the plane of the electric field of a linearly polarized wave changes as a function of the distance travelled through a plasma. Linearly polarized radio waves at 1090 MHz frequency are emitted by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) devices that are installed on most commercial aircraft. These radio waves can be detected by satellites in low Earth orbits, and the change of the polarization angle caused by propagation through the terrestrial ionosphere can be measured. In this manuscript we discuss how these measurements can be used to characterize the ionospheric conditions. In the present study, we compute the amount of Faraday rotation from a prescribed total electron content value and two of the profile parameters of the NeQuick ionospheric model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Orazio, F.; Giammaria, F.; Lucari, F.
1991-01-01
Faraday rotation (FR) measurements on three thin single crystalline samples of yttrium iron garnet doped with Sn, Zr, and Sb as a function of temperature in the near infrared region show a monotonic variation of the magneto-optical signal as the temperature is decreased from 300 to about 50 K. At this point the FR signal levels off. Moreover, the slope of the plot for the sample, doped with Sn, changes sign below this temperature, at particular wavelengths. An explanation of the observed phenomena is given in terms of the energy levels of the Fe 2+ ions in the different sites of the crystal and the temperature dependence of their populations caused by the relative orientation between the local symmetry axis of the specific site and the direction of the sample magnetization. Hysteresis loops of the Faraday rotation as a function of applied magnetic field have been also measured showing the presence of a remanence of the sample magnetization
Berent, Michał; Rangelov, Andon A; Vitanov, Nikolay V
2013-01-01
Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we theoretically propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.
HoYbBIG epitaxial thick films used for Faraday rotator in the 1.55μm band
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong, Z.W.; Xu, X.W.; Chong, T.C.; Yuan, S.N.; Li, M.H.; Zhang, G.Y.; Freeman, B.
2005-01-01
Ho 3-x-y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 (HoYbBIG) garnet thick films with Bi content of x=0.9-1.5 were prepared by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. Optical properties and magneto-optical properties were characterized. The LPE-grown HoYbBIG thick films exhibited large Faraday rotation coefficients up to 1540 o /cm at 1.55μm, and good wavelength and temperature stability
Rotating black string with nonlinear source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S. H.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we derive rotating black string solutions in the presence of two kinds of nonlinear electromagnetic fields, so-called Born-Infeld and power Maxwell invariant. Investigation of the solutions show that for the Born-Infeld black string the singularity is timelike and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions is anti-de Sitter, but for power Maxwell invariant solutions, depending on the values of nonlinearity parameter, the singularity may be timelike as well as spacelike and the solutions are not asymptotically anti-de Sitter for all values of the nonlinearity parameter. Next, we calculate the conserved quantities of the solutions by using the counterterm method, and find that these quantities do not depend on the nonlinearity parameter. We also compute the entropy, temperature, the angular velocity, the electric charge, and the electric potential of the solutions, in which the conserved and thermodynamics quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.
Yeh, Yi-Jou; Black, Adam J; Akkin, Taner
2013-10-10
We describe a method for differential phase measurement of Faraday rotation from multiple depth locations simultaneously. A polarization-maintaining fiber-based spectral-domain interferometer that utilizes a low-coherent light source and a single camera is developed. Light decorrelated by the orthogonal channels of the fiber is launched on a sample as two oppositely polarized circular states. These states reflect from sample surfaces and interfere with the corresponding states of the reference arm. A custom spectrometer, which is designed to simplify camera alignment, separates the orthogonal channels and records the interference-related oscillations on both spectra. Inverse Fourier transform of the spectral oscillations in k-space yields complex depth profiles, whose amplitudes and phase difference are related to reflectivity and Faraday rotation within the sample, respectively. Information along a full depth profile is produced at the camera speed without performing an axial scan for a multisurface sample. System sensitivity for the Faraday rotation measurement is 0.86 min of arc. Verdet constants of clear liquids and turbid media are measured at 687 nm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buonsanto, M.J.; Northcott, R.L.; Wright, R.W.H.
1987-01-01
Observations are reported of rapid fluctuations in Faraday rotation angle (FRA) recorded at 137MHz and amplitude scintillation at 4 GHz. The observations were made at Suva, Fiji Islands (average ionospheric coordinates 17 0 S, 178 0 E) and cover the period September, 1978 through March, 1983. Monthly occurrence of both the FRA fluctuations and the amplitude scintillation are positively correlated with sunspot number and negatively correlated with Ap and hmF2 at Tahiti. No events were seen in the summer months (November, December, and January) and it is suggested that the south to north neutral wind may be responsible for this. Maximum occurrence of both the 137 MHz FRA fluctuations and the 4 GHz scintillation is in April-May and August-September. The more rapid FRA fluctuations, termed here V-type, occur more often in months when the ambient electron density is larger. Most events occur in the pre-midnight sector, as observed elsewhere. Fewer 4 GHz events are observed at later times in the evening, as compared to the 137 MHz FRA fluctuations
CONFRONTING THE JET MODEL OF Sgr A* WITH THE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE OBSERVATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Feng [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Daniel Wang, Q., E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: wqd@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2015-01-01
Sgr A* is probably the supermassive black hole being investigated most extensively due to its proximity to Earth. Several theoretical models for its steady state emission have been proposed in the past two decades. Both the radiative-inefficient accretion flow and the jet model have been shown to well explain the observed spectral energy distribution. The Faraday rotation measure (RM) has been unambiguously measured at the submillimeter wavelength, but it has only been tested against the accretion flow model. Here we first calculate the RM based on the jet model and find that the predicted value is two orders of magnitude lower than the measured value. We then include an additional contribution from the accretion flow in front of the jet and show that the measured RM may be reconciled with the model under some tight constraints. The main constraint is that the inclination angle should be greater than ∼73°. However, this requirement is not consistent with an existing observational estimate of the inclination angle.
Probing the Large Faraday Rotation Measure Environment of Compact Active Galactic Nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alice Pasetto
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Knowing how the ambient medium in the vicinity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs is shaped is crucial to understanding generally the evolution of such cosmic giants as well as AGN jet formation and launching. Thanks to the new broadband capability now available at the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA, we can study changes in polarization properties, fractional polarization, and polarization angles, together with the total intensity spectra of a sample of 14 AGNs, within a frequency range from 1 to 12 GHz. Depolarization modeling has been performed by means of so-called “qu-fitting” to the polarized data, and a synchrotron self absorption model has been used for fitting to the total intensity data. We found complex behavior both in the polarization spectra and in the total intensity spectra, and several Faraday components with a large rotation measure (RM and several synchrotron components were needed to represent these spectra. Here, results for three targets are shown. This new method of analyzing broadband polarization data through qu-fitting successfully maps the complex surroundings of unresolved objects.
A fiber-optic sensor based on no-core fiber and Faraday rotator mirror structure
Lu, Heng; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Songling; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yufang
2018-05-01
An optical fiber sensor based on the single-mode/no-core/single-mode (SNS) core-offset technology along with a Faraday rotator mirror structure has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A transverse optical field distribution of self-imaging has been simulated and experimental parameters have been selected under theoretical guidance. Results of the experiments demonstrate that the temperature sensitivity of the sensor is 0.0551 nm/°C for temperatures between 25 and 80 °C, and the correlation coefficient is 0.99582. The concentration sensitivity of the device for sucrose and glucose solutions was found to be as high as 12.5416 and 6.02248 nm/(g/ml), respectively. Curves demonstrating a linear fit between wavelength shift and solution concentration for three different heavy metal solutions have also been derived on the basis of experimental results. The proposed fiber-optic sensor design provides valuable guidance for the measurement of concentration and temperature.
Broadband radio spectro-polarimetric observations of high-Faraday-rotation-measure AGN
Pasetto, Alice; Carrasco-González, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Shane; Basu, Aritra; Bruni, Gabriele; Kraus, Alex; Curiel, Salvador; Mack, Karl-Heinz
2018-06-01
We present broadband polarimetric observations of a sample of high-Faraday-rotation-measure (high-RM) active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) telescope from 1 to 2 GHz, and 4 to 12 GHz. The sample (14 sources) consists of very compact sources (linear resolution smaller than ≈5 kpc) that are unpolarized at 1.4 GHz in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Total intensity data have been modeled using a combination of synchrotron components, revealing complex structure in their radio spectra. Depolarization modeling, through the so-called qu-fitting (the modeling of the fractional quantities of the Stokes Q and U parameters), has been performed on the polarized data using an equation that attempts to simplify the process of fitting many different depolarization models. These models can be divided into two major categories: external depolarization (ED) and internal depolarization (ID) models. Understanding which of the two mechanisms is the most representative would help the qualitative understanding of the AGN jet environment and whether it is embedded in a dense external magneto-ionic medium or if it is the jet-wind that causes the high RM and strong depolarization. This could help to probe the jet magnetic field geometry (e.g., helical or otherwise). This new high-sensitivity data shows a complicated behavior in the total intensity and polarization radio spectrum of individual sources. We observed the presence of several synchrotron components and Faraday components in their total intensity and polarized spectra. For the majority of our targets (12 sources), the depolarization seems to be caused by a turbulent magnetic field. Thus, our main selection criteria (lack of polarization at 1.4 GHz in the NVSS) result in a sample of sources with very large RMs and depolarization due to turbulent magnetic fields local to the source. These broadband JVLA data reveal the complexity of the polarization properties of this class of radio sources
Magnetic circular Dichroism and Faraday rotation of cesium-argon excimers and cesium dimers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, M.A.
1981-01-01
Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD) and Faraday Rotation (FR) of excimer absorption bands in gases are measured to obtain the first direct information about the angular momentum quantum numbers and the angular momentum coupling schemes of excimer molecules. So far, there has been no experimental method to obtain information about the axial angular momentum and the angular momentum coupling schemes of excimer molecules. In this experiment, the MCD and the FR of cesium-argon excimer and cesium dimer absorption bands between 5000 A and 10,000 A are measured for the range of temperature from 116 0 to 355 0 C. Of particular interest is the blue wing of D 2 line in cesium which has been the subject of vigorous investigation. The measured MCD data at the blue wing of D 2 line clearly shows that the assignment of 2 μ/sub 1/2/ to this excited state assuming Hund's case (b) is a poor approximation. By a simple inspection of the MCD data, it is found that the coupling scheme is more nearly Hund's case (c) than Hynd's case (b). Several other new and interesting results are obtained. The blue wing associated with 5D transition in atomic cesium is devoid of MCD and exhibits strong MCD in the red wings. Thus, the assignment of 2 μ/sub 1/2/ and 2 π to the blue and red wings, respectively, assuming Hund's case (a) and (b), is a very good approximation. Again the yellow-green band associated with 7s-6s transition in atomic cesium shows no MCD. It is therefore also a good approximation to assign 2 μ/sub 1/2/ to the upper state assuming Hund's case (b). Much more information can be obtained by a detailed analysis of the MCD data
Static magnetic Faraday rotation spectroscopy combined with a differential scheme for OH detection
Zhao, Weixiong; Deng, Lunhua; Qian, Xiaodong; Fang, Bo; Gai, Yanbo; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun
2015-04-01
The hydroxyl (OH) radical plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry due to its high reactivity with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gaseous species. Because of its very short life time and very low concentration in the atmosphere, interference-free high sensitivity in-situ OH monitoring by laser spectroscopy represents a real challenge. Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) relies on the particular magneto-optic effect observed for paramagnetic species, which makes it capable of enhancing the detection sensitivity and mitigation of spectral interferences from diamagnetic species in the atmosphere. When an AC magnetic field is used, the Zeeman splitting of the molecular absorption line (and thus the magnetic circular birefringence) is modulated. This provides an 'internal modulation' of the sample, which permits to suppress the external noise like interference fringes. An alternative FRS detection scheme is to use a static magnetic field (DC-field) associated with laser wavelength modulation to effectively modulate the Zeeman splitting of the absorption lines. In the DC field case, wavelength modulation of the laser frequency can provide excellent performance compared to most of the sensing systems based on direct absorption and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The dimension of the DC solenoid is not limited by the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit, which makes large dimension solenoid coil achievable and the absorption base length could be further increased. By employing a combination of the environmental photochemical reactor or smog chamber with multipass absorption cell, one can lower the minimum detection limit for high accuracy atmospheric chemistry studies. In this paper, we report on the development of a DC field based FRS in conjunction with a balanced detection scheme for OH radical detection at 2.8 μm and the construction of OH chemistry research platform which combined a large dimension superconducting magnetic coil with the
Wexler, D. B.; Jensen, E. A.; Hollweg, J. V.; Heiles, C.; Efimov, A. I.; Vierinen, J.; Coster, A. J.
2017-02-01
Faraday rotation (FR) of transcoronal radio transmissions from spacecraft near superior conjunction enables study of the temporal variations in coronal plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field. The MESSENGER spacecraft 8.4 GHz radio, transmitting through the corona with closest line-of-sight approach 1.63-1.89 solar radii and near-equatorial heliolatitudes, was recorded soon after the deep solar minimum of solar cycle 23. During egress from superior conjunction, FR gradually decreased, and an overlay of wave-like FR fluctuations (FRFs) with periods of hundreds to thousands of seconds was found. The FRF power spectrum was characterized by a power law relation, with the baseline spectral index being -2.64. A transient power increase showed relative flattening of the spectrum and bands of enhanced spectral power at 3.3 mHz and 6.1 mHz. Our results confirm the presence of coronal FRF similar to those described previously at greater solar offset. Interpreted as Alfvén waves crossing the line of sight radially near the proximate point, low-frequency FRF convey an energy flux density higher than that of the background solar wind kinetic energy, but only a fraction of that required to accelerate the solar wind. Even so, this fraction is quite variable and potentially escalates to energetically significant values with relatively modest changes in estimated magnetic field strength and electron concentration. Given the uncertainties in these key parameters, as well as in solar wind properties close to the Sun at low heliolatitudes, we cannot yet confidently assign the quantitative role for Alfvén wave energy from this region in driving the slow solar wind.
Faraday rotation fluctutation spectra observed during solar occultation of the Helios spacecraft
Andreev, V.; Efimov, A. I.; Samoznaev, L.; Bird, M. K.
1995-01-01
Faraday rotation (FR) measurements using linearly polarized radio signals from the two Helios spacecraft were carried out during the period from 1975 to 1984. This paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of the Helios S-band FR fluctuations observed at heliocentric distances from 2.6 to 15 solar radii during the superior conjunctions 1975-1983. The mean intensity of the FR fluctuations does not exceed the noise level for solar offsets greater than ca. 15 solar radii. The rms FR fluctuation amplitude increases rapidly as the radio ray path approaches the Sun, varying according to a power law (exponent: 2.85 +/- 0.15) at solar distances 4-12 solar radii. At distances inside 4 solar radii the increase is even steeper (exponent: 5.6 +/- 0.2). The equivalent two-dimensional FR fluctuation spectrum is well modeled by a single power-law over the frequency range from 5 to 50 mHz. For heliocentric distances larger than 4 solar radii the spectral index varies between 1.1 and 1.6 with a mean value of 1.4 +/- 0.2, corresponding to a 3-D spectral index p = 2.4. FR fluctuations thus display a somwhat lower spectral index compared with phase and amplitude fluctuations. Surprisingly high values of the spectral index were found for measurements inside 4 solar radii (p = 2.9 +/- 0.2). This may arise from the increasingly dominant effect of the magnetic field on radio wave propagation at small solar offsets. Finally, a quasiperiodic component, believed to be associated with Alfven waves, was discovered in some (but not all!) fluctuation spectra observed simultaneously at two ground stations. Characteristic periods and bulk velocities of this component were 240 +/- 30 sec and 300 +/- 60 km/s, respectively.
Basu, Aritra; Mao, S. A.; Fletcher, Andrew; Kanekar, Nissim; Shukurov, Anvar; Schnitzeler, Dominic; Vacca, Valentina; Junklewitz, Henrik
2018-06-01
Deriving the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of quasar absorption line systems, which are tracers of high-redshift galaxies intervening background quasars, is a powerful tool for probing magnetic fields in distant galaxies. Statistically comparing the RM distributions of two quasar samples, with and without absorption line systems, allows one to infer magnetic field properties of the intervening galaxy population. Here, we have derived the analytical form of the probability distribution function (PDF) of RM produced by a single galaxy with an axisymmetric large-scale magnetic field. We then further determine the PDF of RM for one random sight line traversing each galaxy in a population with a large-scale magnetic field prescription. We find that the resulting PDF of RM is dominated by a Lorentzian with a width that is directly related to the mean axisymmetric large-scale field strength of the galaxy population if the dispersion of B0 within the population is smaller than . Provided that RMs produced by the intervening galaxies have been successfully isolated from other RM contributions along the line of sight, our simple model suggests that in galaxies probed by quasar absorption line systems can be measured within ≈50 per cent accuracy without additional constraints on the magneto-ionic medium properties of the galaxies. Finally, we discuss quasar sample selection criteria that are crucial to reliably interpret observations, and argue that within the limitations of the current data base of absorption line systems, high-metallicity damped Lyman-α absorbers are best suited to study galactic dynamo action in distant disc galaxies.
Basu, Aritra; Mao, S. A.; Fletcher, Andrew; Kanekar, Nissim; Shukurov, Anvar; Schnitzeler, Dominic; Vacca, Valentina; Junklewitz, Henrik
2018-03-01
Deriving the Faraday rotation measure (RM) of quasar absorption line systems, which are tracers of high-redshift galaxies intervening background quasars, is a powerful tool for probing magnetic fields in distant galaxies. Statistically comparing the RM distributions of two quasar samples, with and without absorption line systems, allows one to infer magnetic field properties of the intervening galaxy population. Here, we have derived the analytical form of the probability distribution function (PDF) of RM produced by a single galaxy with an axisymmetric large-scale magnetic field. We then further determine the PDF of RM for one random sight line traversing each galaxy in a population with a large-scale magnetic field prescription. We find that the resulting PDF of RM is dominated by a Lorentzian with a width that is directly related to the mean axisymmetric large-scale field strength ⟨B0⟩ of the galaxy population if the dispersion of B0 within the population is smaller than ⟨B0⟩. Provided that RMs produced by the intervening galaxies have been successfully isolated from other RM contributions along the line of sight, our simple model suggests that ⟨B0⟩ in galaxies probed by quasar absorption line systems can be measured within ≈50 per cent accuracy without additional constraints on the magneto-ionic medium properties of the galaxies. Finally, we discuss quasar sample selection criteria that are crucial to reliably interpret observations, and argue that within the limitations of the current database of absorption line systems, high-metallicity damped Lyman-α absorbers are best suited to study galactic dynamo action in distant disc galaxies.
FARADAY ROTATION IN THE TAIL OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA DeHt 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ransom, R. R.; Kothes, R.; Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.
2010-01-01
We present 1420 MHz polarization images of a 5 0 x 5 0 region around the planetary nebula (PN) DeHt 5. The images reveal narrow Faraday-rotation structures on the visible disk of DeHt 5, as well as two wider, tail-like, structures 'behind' DeHt 5. Though DeHt 5 is an old PN known to be interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM), a tail has not previously been identified for this object. The innermost tail is ∼3 pc long and runs away from the northeast edge of DeHt 5 in a direction roughly opposite that of the sky-projected space velocity of the white dwarf central star, WD 2218+706. We believe this tail to be the signature of ionized material ram-pressure stripped and deposited downstream during a >74,000 yr interaction between DeHt 5 and the ISM. We estimate the rotation measure (RM) through the inner tail to be -15 ± 5 rad m -2 , and, using a realistic estimate for the line-of-sight component of the ISM magnetic field around DeHt 5, derive an electron density in the inner tail of n e = 3.6 ± 1.8 cm -3 . Assuming the material is fully ionized, we estimate a total mass in the inner tail of 0.68 ± 0.33 M sun and predict that 0.49 ± 0.33 M sun was added during the PN-ISM interaction. The outermost tail consists of a series of three roughly circular components, which have a collective length of ∼11.0 pc. This tail is less conspicuous than the inner tail and may be the signature of the earlier interaction between the WD 2218+706 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor and the ISM. The results for the inner and outer tails are consistent with hydrodynamic simulations and may have implications for the PN missing-mass problem as well as for models which describe the impact of the deaths of intermediate-mass stars on the ISM.
O'Sullivan, S. P.; Lenc, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.
2018-04-01
We present a low-frequency, broad-band polarization study of the FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036 (z = 0.0551), using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) from 70 to 230 MHz. The northern and southern hotspots (separated by ˜14.5 arcmin on the sky) are resolved by the MWA (3.3 arcmin resolution) and both are detected in linear polarization across the full frequency range. A combination of Faraday rotation measure (RM) synthesis and broad-band polarization model fitting is used to constrain the Faraday depolarization properties of the source. For the integrated southern hotspot emission, two-RM-component models are strongly favoured over a single RM component, and the best-fitting model requires Faraday dispersions of approximately 0.7 and 1.2 rad m-2 (with a mean RM of ˜50 rad m-2). High-resolution imaging at 5 arcsec with the Australia Telescope Compact Array shows significant sub-structure in the southern hotspot and highlights some of the limitations in the polarization modelling of the MWA data. Based on the observed depolarization, combined with extrapolations of gas density scaling relations for group environments, we estimate magnetic field strengths in the intergalactic medium between ˜0.04 and 0.5 μG. We also comment on future prospects of detecting more polarized sources at low frequencies.
Exploring the accretion model of M87 and 3C 84 with the Faraday rotation measure observations
Li, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Feng; Xie, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are believed to be powered by an accretion-jet model, consisting of an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF), an outer truncated standard thin disk, and a jet. But model degeneracy still exists in this framework. For example, the X-ray emission can originate from either the ADAF or jet. The aim of the present work is to check these models with the Faraday rotation measure (RM) observations recently detected for two LLAGNs, M87 and 3C 84...
Faraday Screen and Reversal of Rotation Measure in the Local Supercluster Plane
Vallée, Jacques P.
2002-09-01
I investigate the possible existence, strength, and structure of magnetic fields in intergalactic space, within the Local Supercluster of galaxies (LSC), centered on the Virgo Cluster, at a distance of about 18 Mpc from us. The LSC medium has no obvious effect on the intrinsic position angle (IPA) of the polarized radio emission from more distant objects located behind it. There does not seem statistically (at the 1.6 σ level) to be a different averaged IPA for objects in different redshift ranges. I find a tantalizing structure (at the 5.5 σ level), which is like a foreground Faraday screen acting on the radio waves coming from more distant objects, in the rotation measure (RM) along the LSC plane, up to a radius of about 20° (0.35 radians, or about 6 Mpc), and this may extend to a similar distance along the line of sight. Defining the central meridian (CM) as the longitude crossing the LSC plane through the center of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies (LSC longitude lV=0°), I find a mean RM~0 within 5° (half a bin) of the CM. Going east of the CM, one finds a mean RM~+10 rad m-2 at lV~15° (LSC magnetic field is moving toward us). Going west of the CM, one finds an RM~-10 rad m-2 at lV~-15° (magnetic field is moving away from us), indicating a parity reversal in RM (same shape on both sides, but opposite in sign). The same RM structure shape can be seen in adjacent redshift ranges. For this RM, I infer a regular magnetic field of ~0.3 μG in the LSC or randomly oriented cells of magnetic field of ~2 μG (for cell sizes of about 100 kpc). Preliminary modeling suggests that the patchy 2 μG field is the likely scenario, and I speculate that the 2 μG patchy field may extend all the way to the Sun.
Soft X-ray magnetic dichroism and Faraday rotation measured with linearly polarised light
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mertins, H. Ch.; Schäfers, F.; Gaupp, A.; Gudat, W.; Kuneš, Jan; Oppeneer, P. M.
467-468, - (2001), s. 1407-1410 ISSN 0168-9002 Grant - others:ERBFM(XX) GECT 980105; SFB(XX) 463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : Faraday-effect * magneto-optical effects * optical properties of consensed matter * synchrotron radiation * X-ray Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2001
Optical absorption and Faraday rotation in spin doped Cd1-xHgxSe : Mn crystals
Savchuk, AI; Paranchich, SY; Paranchich, LD; Romanyuk, OS; Andriychuk, MD; Nikitin, PI; Tomlinson, RD; Hill, AE; Pilkington, RD
1998-01-01
Optical absorption spectra and the Faraday effect in crystals of Cd1-xHgxSe : Mn have been studied. The studied samples have been characterized abrupt absorption edge and transparency region with high transmission coefficient. The measured values of Verdet constant were considerably larger than in
EXPLORING THE ACCRETION MODEL OF M87 AND 3C 84 WITH THE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE OBSERVATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Feng; Xie, Fu-Guo, E-mail: fyuan@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)
2016-10-20
Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are believed to be powered by an accretion-jet model, consisting of an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF), an outer truncated standard thin disk, and a jet; however, model degeneracy still exists in this framework. For example, the X-ray emission can originate from either the ADAF or the jet. The aim of the present work is to check these models with the Faraday rotation measure (RM) observations recently detected for two LLAGNs, M87 and 3C 84, in the sub-mm band. For M87, we find that the RM predicted by the model in which the X-ray emission originates from the ADAF is larger than the observed upper limit of RM by over two orders of magnitude, while the model in which the X-ray emission originates from the jet predicts a RM lower than the observed upper limit. For 3C 84, the sub-mm emission is found to be dominated by the jet component, while the Faraday screen is attributed to the ADAFs. This scenario can naturally explain the observed external origin of the RM and why the RM is found to be stable during a two-year interval although the sub-mm emission increases at the same period.
EXPLORING THE ACCRETION MODEL OF M87 AND 3C 84 WITH THE FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE OBSERVATIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Feng; Xie, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are believed to be powered by an accretion-jet model, consisting of an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF), an outer truncated standard thin disk, and a jet; however, model degeneracy still exists in this framework. For example, the X-ray emission can originate from either the ADAF or the jet. The aim of the present work is to check these models with the Faraday rotation measure (RM) observations recently detected for two LLAGNs, M87 and 3C 84, in the sub-mm band. For M87, we find that the RM predicted by the model in which the X-ray emission originates from the ADAF is larger than the observed upper limit of RM by over two orders of magnitude, while the model in which the X-ray emission originates from the jet predicts a RM lower than the observed upper limit. For 3C 84, the sub-mm emission is found to be dominated by the jet component, while the Faraday screen is attributed to the ADAFs. This scenario can naturally explain the observed external origin of the RM and why the RM is found to be stable during a two-year interval although the sub-mm emission increases at the same period.
Exploring the Accretion Model of M87 and 3C 84 with the Faraday Rotation Measure Observations
Li, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Feng; Xie, Fu-Guo
2016-10-01
Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) are believed to be powered by an accretion-jet model, consisting of an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF), an outer truncated standard thin disk, and a jet; however, model degeneracy still exists in this framework. For example, the X-ray emission can originate from either the ADAF or the jet. The aim of the present work is to check these models with the Faraday rotation measure (RM) observations recently detected for two LLAGNs, M87 and 3C 84, in the sub-mm band. For M87, we find that the RM predicted by the model in which the X-ray emission originates from the ADAF is larger than the observed upper limit of RM by over two orders of magnitude, while the model in which the X-ray emission originates from the jet predicts a RM lower than the observed upper limit. For 3C 84, the sub-mm emission is found to be dominated by the jet component, while the Faraday screen is attributed to the ADAFs. This scenario can naturally explain the observed external origin of the RM and why the RM is found to be stable during a two-year interval although the sub-mm emission increases at the same period.
Chen, Qiuling; Su, Kai; Li, Yantao; Zhao, Zhiwei
2018-06-01
Faraday rotation diamagnetic glass has attracted research attentions in photonics, sensing and magneto optical devices due to their high refractive index, wide transmittance in UV and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) range and temperature independent Faraday rotation. Selenite modified heavy metal oxides glasses with composition of xSeO2-(10-x) B2O3-45PbO-45Bi2O3 (x = 0, 1, 5 and 10mol%) and 15%SeO2-40%PbO-45%Bi2O3 have been fabricated by melt-quenching method in present study. The influence of SeO2 on glass forming ability, thermal, mechanical properties and Faraday rotation were evaluated through X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectra (FT-IR), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Vicker's hardness and Verdet constant measurements. XRD spectra reveal that the good vitrification was achieved for glass with SeO2 amounts ≤10% even without B2O3. FT-IR, Raman and XPS spectra ascertain the existence of characteristic vibration of SeO4, SeO3, PbO4, BiO3 and BO3 units. The incorporation of SeO2 increases the connectivity of glassy network by increasing the Tg, thermal stability and mechanical hardness. The small band gap, high polarizable Se4+ ions and isolated SeO3 units contribute to Faraday rotation improvement.
Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence.
Salhi, A; Jacobitz, F G; Schneider, K; Cambon, C
2014-01-01
Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations.
Faraday Rotation Due to Surface States in the Topological Insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3.
Shao, Yinming; Post, Kirk W; Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Dai, Siyuan; Frenzel, Alex J; Richardella, Anthony R; Lee, Joon Sue; Samarth, Nitin; Fogler, Michael M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Kharzeev, Dmitri E; Basov, D N
2017-02-08
Using magneto-infrared spectroscopy, we have explored the charge dynamics of (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 thin films on InP substrates. From the magneto-transmission data we extracted three distinct cyclotron resonance (CR) energies that are all apparent in the broad band Faraday rotation (FR) spectra. This comprehensive FR-CR data set has allowed us to isolate the response of the bulk states from the intrinsic surface states associated with both the top and bottom surfaces of the film. The FR data uncovered that electron- and hole-type Dirac Fermions reside on opposite surfaces of our films, which paves the way for observing many exotic quantum phenomena in topological insulators.
ROTAX: a nonlinear optimization program by axes rotation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Tadakazu
1977-09-01
A nonlinear optimization program employing the axes rotation method has been developed for solving nonlinear problems subject to nonlinear inequality constraints and its stability and convergence efficiency were examined. The axes rotation method is a direct search of the optimum point by rotating the orthogonal coordinate system in a direction giving the minimum objective. The searching direction is rotated freely in multi-dimensional space, so the method is effective for the problems represented with the contours having deep curved valleys. In application of the axes rotation method to the optimization problems subject to nonlinear inequality constraints, an improved version of R.R. Allran and S.E.J. Johnsen's method is used, which deals with a new objective function composed of the original objective and a penalty term to consider the inequality constraints. The program is incorporated in optimization code system SCOOP. (auth.)
Properties and structure of Faraday rotating glasses for magneto optical current transducer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Q.; Ma, Q.; Wang, H.; Wang, Q.; Hao, Y.; Chen, Q.
2017-07-01
High heavy metal oxides (60–100mol.%) ternary PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 (PBB) glasses were fabricated and characterized. Using a homemade single lightway DC magnetic setup, Verdet constants of PBB glasses were measured to be 0.0923–0.1664min/G cm at 633nm wavelengths. Glasses with substitution of PbO by Bi2O3 were studied in terms of their Faraday effects. PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 = 50–40–10mol.% exhibited good thermal stability, high Verdet constant (0.1503min/G cm) and good figure of merit (0.071). Based on this glass, a magneto optical current sensor prototype was constructed and its sensitivity at different currents was evaluated to be 8.31nW/A. © 2. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sizov, F.F.; Lashkarev, G.V.; Martynchuk, E.K.
1977-01-01
The temeprature dependences of Faraday rotation in Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te of p type with the hole density 3x10 16 -2.2x10 18 cm -3 are studied in the range 40-370 K and in the spectral interval 4-16 μm. The analysis of interband Faraday rotation confirms a conclusion made by the authors earlier that the g factor for the c band (gsub(c)) is positive, for the v band (gsub(v))-negative and that [gsub(c)] > [gsub(v)]. The temperature dependences of carrier effective masses are investigated on the basis of the two-band model. It is demonstrated that for T < 200 K the Faraday effective mass of holes near the ceiling of the valency band varies in direct proportion to the width of the forbidden band. The temperature increase of the Faraday effective mass of current carriers, which is faster than that of the effective electron mass, is discovered, and this is related to the effect of the heavy hole band
Lazio, T. Joseph; Spangler, Steven R.; Cordes, James M.
1990-01-01
Linear polarization observations were made of eight double-lobed radio galaxies viewed through the galactic plane in the Cygnus region. These observations have been used to determine intra- and intersource rotation measure differences; in some cases, unambiguous rotation measures have been extracted. The rotation measures are dominated by foreground magnetoionic material. The differences in rotation measure between pairs of sources correlate with angular separation for separations from 10 arcsec to 1.5 deg. These rotation measure fluctuations are consistent with a model in which the electron density varies on roughly 0.1-200 pc scales. The amplitudes of these variations are, in turn, consistent with those electron density variations that cause diffractive interstellar scattering on scales less than 10 to the 11th cm.
Linear instability and nonlinear motion of rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.
1985-01-01
Two coupled nonlinear equations describing the flute dynamics of the magnetically confined low-β collisionless rotating plasma are derived. The linear instability and nonlinear dynamics of the rotating column are analyzed theoretically. In the linear stability analysis, a new sufficient condition of stability is obtained. From the exact solution of eigenvalue equation for Gaussian density profile and uniform rotation of the plasma, the stability of the system strongly depends on the direction of plasma rotation, FLR effect and the location of the conducting wall. An analytic expression showing the finite wall effect on different normal modes is obtained and it explains the different behavior of (1,0) normal mode from other modes. The sheared rotation driven instability is investigated by using three model equilibrium profiles, and the analytic expressions of eigenvalues which includes the wall effect are obtained. The analogy between shear rotation driven instability and the instability driven by sheared plane parallel flow in the inviscid fluid is analyzed. Applying the linear analysis to the central cell of tandem mirror system, the trapped particle instability with only passing electronics is analyzed. For uniform rotation and Gaussian density profile, an analytic expression that determines the stability boundary is found. The nonlinear analysis shows that the nonlinear equations have a solitary vortex solution which is very similar to the vortex solution of nonlinear Rossby wave equation
Sensorless Estimation and Nonlinear Control of a Rotational Energy Harvester
Nunna, Kameswarie; Toh, Tzern T.; Mitcheson, Paul D.; Astolfi, Alessandro
2013-12-01
It is important to perform sensorless monitoring of parameters in energy harvesting devices in order to determine the operating states of the system. However, physical measurements of these parameters is often a challenging task due to the unavailability of access points. This paper presents, as an example application, the design of a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller for a rotational energy harvester. A dynamic model of a rotational energy harvester with its power electronic interface is derived and validated. This model is then used to design a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller which yield a sensorless closed-loop system. The observer estimates the mechancial quantities from the measured electrical quantities while the control law sustains power generation across a range of source rotation speeds. The proposed scheme is assessed through simulations and experiments.
Paul, M. P.
1982-01-01
Measurement of integrated columnar electron content and total electron content for the local ionosphere and the overlying protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group delay techniques has proven very useful. A field station was established having the geographic location of 31.5 deg N latitude and 91.06 deg W longitude to accomplish these objectives. A polarimeter receiving system was set up in the beginning to measure the Faraday rotation of 137.35 MHz radio signal from geostationary satellite ATS 3 to yield the integrated columnar electron content of the local ionosphere. The measurement was continued regularly, and the analysis of the data thus collected provided a synopsis of the statistical variation of the ionosphere along with the transient variations that occurred during the periods of geomagnetic and other disturbances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhui Li
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR missions operating at low frequencies, such as L-band or P-band, are significantly influenced by the ionosphere. As one of the serious ionosphere effects, Faraday rotation (FR is a remarkable distortion source for the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR application. Various published FR estimators along with an improved one have been introduced to solve this issue, all of which are implemented by processing a set of PolSAR real data. The improved estimator exhibits optimal robustness based on performance analysis, especially in term of the system noise. However, all published estimators, including the improved estimator, suffer from a potential FR angle (FRA ambiguity. A novel strategy of the ambiguity correction for those FR estimators is proposed and shown as a flow process, which is divided into pixel-level and image-level correction. The former is not yet recognized and thus is considered in particular. Finally, the validation experiments show a prominent performance of the proposed strategy.
Li, Jinhui; Ji, Yifei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Qilei; Huang, Haifeng; Dong, Zhen
2018-04-10
Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) missions operating at low frequencies, such as L-band or P-band, are significantly influenced by the ionosphere. As one of the serious ionosphere effects, Faraday rotation (FR) is a remarkable distortion source for the polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) application. Various published FR estimators along with an improved one have been introduced to solve this issue, all of which are implemented by processing a set of PolSAR real data. The improved estimator exhibits optimal robustness based on performance analysis, especially in term of the system noise. However, all published estimators, including the improved estimator, suffer from a potential FR angle (FRA) ambiguity. A novel strategy of the ambiguity correction for those FR estimators is proposed and shown as a flow process, which is divided into pixel-level and image-level correction. The former is not yet recognized and thus is considered in particular. Finally, the validation experiments show a prominent performance of the proposed strategy.
Nonlinear vibrations analysis of rotating drum-disk coupling structure
Chaofeng, Li; Boqing, Miao; Qiansheng, Tang; Chenyang, Xi; Bangchun, Wen
2018-04-01
A dynamic model of a coupled rotating drum-disk system with elastic support is developed in this paper. By considering the effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces as well as rotation-induced hoop stress, the governing differential equation of the drum-disk is derived by Donnell's shell theory. The nonlinear amplitude-frequency characteristics of coupled structure are studied. The results indicate that the natural characteristics of the coupling structure are sensitive to the supporting stiffness of the disk, and the sensitive range is affected by rotating speeds. The circumferential wave numbers can affect the characteristics of the drum-disk structure. If the circumferential wave number n = 1 , the vibration response of the drum keeps a stable value under an unbalanced load of the disk, there is no coupling effect if n ≠ 1 . Under the excitation, the nonlinear hardening characteristics of the forward traveling wave are more evident than that of the backward traveling wave. Moreover, because of the coupling effect of the drum and the disk, the supporting stiffness of the disk has certain effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the forward and backward traveling waves. In addition, small length-radius and thickness-radius ratios have a significant effect on the nonlinear characteristics of the coupled structure, which means nonlinear shell theory should be adopted to design rotating drum's parameter for its specific structural parameters.
Probing nonlinear electrodynamics in slowly rotating spacetimes through neutrino astrophysics
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, Gaetano; Pereira, Jonas P.
2017-01-01
Huge electromagnetic fields are known to be present during the late stages of the dynamics of supernovae. Thus, when dealing with electrodynamics in this context, the possibility may arise to probe nonlinear theories (generalizations of the Maxwellian electromagnetism). We firstly solve Einstein field equations minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) nonlinear Lagrangian of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime $a\\ll M$ (black hole's mass), up to first order in $a/M$. We...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mao, S. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; McConnell, D. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Haverkorn, M. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Beck, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolleben, M. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa, The Park, Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Stanimirovic, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [Physics Department, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Staveley-Smith, L., E-mail: mao@astro.wisc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
2012-11-01
We present a study of the magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), carried out using diffuse polarized synchrotron emission data at 1.4 GHz acquired at the Parkes Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observed diffuse polarized emission is likely to originate above the LMC disk on the near side of the galaxy. Consistent negative rotation measures (RMs) derived from the diffuse emission indicate that the line-of-sight magnetic field in the LMC's near-side halo is directed coherently away from us. In combination with RMs of extragalactic sources that lie behind the galaxy, we show that the LMC's large-scale magnetic field is likely to be of quadrupolar geometry, consistent with the prediction of dynamo theory. On smaller scales, we identify two brightly polarized filaments southeast of the LMC, associated with neutral hydrogen arms. The filaments' magnetic field potentially aligns with the direction toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We suggest that tidal interactions between the SMC and the LMC in the past 10{sup 9} years are likely to have shaped the magnetic field in these filaments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Z.C.; Huang, M.; Li Miao
2006-01-01
The Bi, Tb and Yb partially substituted iron garnet bulk single crystals of Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 were grown by using Bi 2 O 3 /B 2 O 3 as flux and accelerated crucible rotation technique for single-crystal growth. Faraday rotation (FR) spectra showed that the specific FR of the (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 )Fe 5 O 12 crystal under magnetic field at saturation was measured to be about -1617 o /cm at λ=1.55 μm, Faraday rotation wavelength coefficient (FWC, 0.009%/nm) in the wavelength range of 1.50-1.62 μm and Faraday rotation temperature coefficient (FTC, 3.92x10 -5 /K) at λ=1.55 μm were even smaller than that of YIG. It is proven that through combining two types of Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets with opposite FWC and FTC signs, the compound rare-earth iron garnets with low FWC and FTC may be obtained due to the compensation effect. The saturation magnetization of (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 ) Fe 5 O 12 crystal is 0.48x10 6 A/M and is also much smaller than that of YIG. We have found empirically that there is a simple relationship between the FR θ f (x) and Bi content x for Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 , which is given by θ f (x)=(-2759x+400) o /cm
Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denisov, V.I.; Pimenov, A.B.; Sokolov, V.A. [Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Denisova, I.P. [Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
In this paper we investigate the corrections of vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed. (orig.)
Hide, Raymond
1997-02-01
This paper discusses the derivation of the autonomous sets of dimensionless nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE's) that govern the behaviour of a hierarchy of related electro-mechanical self-exciting Faraday-disk homopolar dynamo systems driven by steady mechanical couples. Each system comprises N interacting units which could be arranged in a ring or lattice. Within each unit and connected in parallel or in series with the coil are electric motors driven into motion by the dynamo, all having linear characteristics, so that nonlinearity arises entirely through the coupling between components. By introducing simple extra terms into the equations it is possible to represent biasing effects arising from impressed electromotive forces due to thermoelectric or chemical processes and from the presence of ambient magnetic fields. Dissipation in the system is due not only to ohmic heating but also to mechanical friction in the disk and the motors, with the latter agency, no matter how weak, playing an unexpectedly crucial rôle in the production of régimes of chaotic behaviour. This has already been demonstrated in recent work on a case of a single unit incorporating just one series motor, which is governed by a novel autonomous set of nonlinear ODE's with three time-dependent variables and four control parameters. It will be of mathematical as well as geophysical and astrophysical interest to investigate systematically phase and amplitude locking and other types of behaviour in the more complicated cases that arise when N > 1, which can typically involve up to 6 N dependent variables and 19 N-5 control parameters. Even the simplest members of the hierarchy, with N as low as 1, 2 or 3, could prove useful as physically-realistic low-dimensional models in theoretical studies of fluctuating stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Geomagnetic polarity reversals could be affected by the presence of the Earth's solid metallic inner core, driven like an electric motor
Faraday effect in hollow quantum cylinder of finite thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismailov, T.G.; Jabrailova, G.G.
2009-01-01
The interband Faraday rotation in hollow quantum cylinder of finite thickness is theoretically investigated. Faraday rotation in the dependence on incident light energy for different values of cylinder thickness. It is seen that the resonance peaks appear on Faraday rotation curve. The roles of selection are obtained
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Azamat, Dmitry; Belykh, V.V.; Yakovlev, D.R.; Fobbe, F.; Feng, D.H.; Evers, E.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Dejneka, Alexandr; Bayer, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 96, č. 7 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 075160. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA16-22092S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin dynamics * Ce 3+ ions * YAG crystals * pulse-EPR * Faraday rotation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe
2009-01-01
This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...
NONLINEAR DYNAMO IN A ROTATING ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Kopp
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We found a new large-scale instability, which arises in the rotating conductive fluid with small-scale turbulence. Turbulence is generated by small-scale external force with a low Reynolds number. The theory is built simply by the method of multiscale asymptotic expansions. Nonlinear equations for vortex and magnetic perturbations obtained in the third order for small Reynolds number. It is shown that the combined effects of the Coriolis force and the small external forces in a rotating conducting fluid possible large-scale instability. The large-scale increments of the instability, correspond to generation as the vortex and magnetic disturbances. This type of instability is classified as hydrodynamic and MHD alpha-effect. We studied the stationary regimes of nonlinear equations of magneto-vortex dynamo. In the limit of weakly conducting fluid found stationary solutions in the form of helical kinks. In the limit of high conductivity fluid was obtained stationary solutions in the form of nonlinear periodic waves and kinks.
Nonlinear dynamics near the stability margin in rotating pipe flow
Yang, Z.; Leibovich, S.
1991-01-01
The nonlinear evolution of marginally unstable wave packets in rotating pipe flow is studied. These flows depend on two control parameters, which may be taken to be the axial Reynolds number R and a Rossby number, q. Marginal stability is realized on a curve in the (R, q)-plane, and the entire marginal stability boundary is explored. As the flow passes through any point on the marginal stability curve, it undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation and the steady base flow is replaced by a traveling wave. The envelope of the wave system is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The Ginzburg-Landau equation admits Stokes waves, which correspond to standing modulations of the linear traveling wavetrain, as well as traveling wave modulations of the linear wavetrain. Bands of wavenumbers are identified in which the nonlinear modulated waves are subject to a sideband instability.
Rotating Dilaton Black Strings Coupled to Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Sheykhi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a new class of charged rotating black string solutions coupled to dilaton and exponential nonlinear electrodynamic fields with cylindrical or toroidal horizons in the presence of a Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field. Due to the presence of the dilaton field, the asymptotic behaviors of these solutions are neither flat nor (AdS. We analyze the physical properties of the solutions in detail. We compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions and verify the first law of thermodynamics on the black string horizon. When the nonlinear parameter β2 goes to infinity, our results reduce to those of black string solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity.
Nonlinear travelling waves in rotating Hagen–Poiseuille flow
Pier, Benoît; Govindarajan, Rama
2018-03-01
The dynamics of viscous flow through a rotating pipe is considered. Small-amplitude stability characteristics are obtained by linearizing the Navier–Stokes equations around the base flow and solving the resulting eigenvalue problems. For linearly unstable configurations, the dynamics leads to fully developed finite-amplitude perturbations that are computed by direct numerical simulations of the complete Navier–Stokes equations. By systematically investigating all linearly unstable combinations of streamwise wave number k and azimuthal mode number m, for streamwise Reynolds numbers {{Re}}z ≤slant 500 and rotational Reynolds numbers {{Re}}{{Ω }} ≤slant 500, the complete range of nonlinear travelling waves is obtained and the associated flow fields are characterized.
Nonlinear dynamics of rotating shallow water methods and advances
Zeitlin, Vladimir
2007-01-01
The rotating shallow water (RSW) model is of wide use as a conceptual tool in geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), because, in spite of its simplicity, it contains all essential ingredients of atmosphere and ocean dynamics at the synoptic scale, especially in its two- (or multi-) layer version. The book describes recent advances in understanding (in the framework of RSW and related models) of some fundamental GFD problems, such as existence of the slow manifold, dynamical splitting of fast (inertia-gravity waves) and slow (vortices, Rossby waves) motions, nonlinear geostrophic adjustment and wa
Nonlinear quantum dynamics in diatomic molecules: Vibration, rotation and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Ciann-Dong; Weng, Hung-Jen
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► This paper reveals the internal nonlinear dynamics embedded in a molecular quantum state. ► Analyze quantum molecular dynamics in a deterministic way, while preserving the consistency with probability interpretation. ► Molecular vibration–rotation interaction and spin–orbital coupling are considered simultaneously. ► Spin is just the remnant angular motion when orbital angular momentum is zero. ► Spin is the “zero dynamics” of nonlinear quantum dynamics. - Abstract: For a given molecular wavefunction Ψ, the probability density function Ψ ∗ Ψ is not the only information that can be extracted from Ψ. We point out in this paper that nonlinear quantum dynamics of a diatomic molecule, completely consistent with the probability prediction of quantum mechanics, does exist and can be derived from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion determined by Ψ. It can be said that the probability density function Ψ ∗ Ψ is an external representation of the quantum state Ψ, while the related Hamilton dynamics is an internal representation of Ψ, which reveals the internal mechanism underlying the externally observed random events. The proposed internal representation of Ψ establishes a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and quantum mechanics, which allows the methods and tools already developed by the former to be applied to the latter. Based on the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived from Ψ, vibration, rotation and spin motions of a diatomic molecule and the interactions between them can be analyzed simultaneously. The resulting dynamic analysis of molecular motion is compared with the conventional probability analysis and the consistency between them is demonstrated.
The correspondance of Michael Faraday
1991-01-01
The initial volume of the correspondence of Micahel Faraday (1791-1867), published in the year of the bicentenary of his birth, covers his early years up to his discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831. Other scientific and technical topics covered include Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic rotations (in 1821), the liquefaction of gases (in 1823) and the long series of experiments in the latter part of the 1820s to improve optical glass.
Zhao, Weixiong; Fang, Bo; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Yanbo; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Wenge; Chen, Zhiyou; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Weidong
2018-03-20
Atmospheric simulation chambers play vital roles in the validation of chemical mechanisms and act as a bridge between field measurements and modeling. Chambers operating at atmospheric levels of OH radicals (10 6 -10 7 molecule/cm 3 ) can significantly enhance the possibility for investigating the discrepancies between the observation and model predications. However, few chambers can directly detect chamber OH radicals at ambient levels. In this paper, we report on the first combination of a superconducting magnet with midinfrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) for real time in situ measurement of the OH concentration in an atmospheric simulation chamber. With the use of a multipass enhanced FRS, a detection limit of 3.2 × 10 6 OH/cm 3 (2σ, 4 s) was achieved with an absorption path length of 108 m. The developed FRS system provided a unique, self-calibrated analytical instrument for in situ direct measurement of chamber OH concentration.
Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.
2016-01-01
We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.
Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.; O'Brien, Dennis W.
1996-01-01
A tomographic technique for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0.degree. to 360.degree. and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-din-tensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment.
Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Brahlek, M; Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Koirala, N; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2015-11-20
We have utilized time-domain magnetoterahertz spectroscopy to investigate the low-frequency optical response of the topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency dependence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both materials. The small amount of Cu incorporated into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single type of conduction with a total sheet carrier density of ~4.9×10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as high as 4000 cm^{2}/V·s. This is consistent with conduction from two virtually identical topological surface states (TSSs) on the top and bottom of the film with a chemical potential ~145 meV above the Dirac point and in the bulk gap. The CR broadens at high fields, an effect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis of the zero-field Drude conductance. In contrast, in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, two conduction channels were observed, and we developed a self-consistent analysis method to distinguish the dominant TSSs and coexisting trivial bulk or two-dimensional electron gas states. Our high-resolution Faraday rotation spectroscopy on Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} paves the way for the observation of quantized Faraday rotation under experimentally achievable conditions to push the chemical potential in the lowest Landau level.
Hide, Raymond; Moroz, Irene M.
1999-10-01
The elucidation of the behaviour of physically realistic self-exciting Faraday-disk dynamos bears inter alia on attempts by theoretical geophysicists to interpret observations of geomagnetic polarity reversals. Hide [The nonlinear differential equations governing a hierarchy of self-exciting coupled Faraday-disk homopolar dynamos, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 103 (1997) 281-291; Nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 4 (1998) 201-205] has introduced a novel 4-mode set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations to describe such a dynamo in which a nonlinear electric motor is connected in series with the coil. The applied couple, α, driving the disk is steady and the Lorentz couple driving the motor is a quadratic function, x(1-ɛ)+ɛσx 2, of the dynamo-generated current x, with 0≤ɛ≤1. When there are no additional biasing effects due to background magnetic fields etc., the behaviour of the dynamo is determined by eight independent non-negative control parameters. These include ρ, proportional to the resistance of the disk to azimuthal eddy currents, and β, an inverse measure of the moment of inertia of the armature of the motor. When β=0 (the case when the motor is absent and ɛ and σ are redundant) and ρ -1≠0 , the 4-mode dynamo equations reduce to the 3-mode Lorenz equations, which can behave chaotically [E. Knobloch, Chaos in the segmented disc dynamo, Phys. Lett. A 82 (1981) 439-440]. When β≠0 but ρ -1=0 , the 4-mode set of equations reduces to a 3-mode dynamo [R. Hide (1997), see above], which can also behave chaotically when ɛ=0 [R. Hide, A.C. Skeldon, D.J. Acheson, A study of two novel self-exciting single-disk homopolar dynamos: theory, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 452 (1996) 1369-1395] but not when ɛ=1 [R. Hide (1998), see above]. In the latter case, however, all persistent fluctuations are completely quenched [R. Hide (1998), see above]. In this paper we investigate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayhall, D.J.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.
1977-01-01
As part of a cost optimization study, a computer based circuit analysis is performed to determine the energy storage requirements a homopolar generator must meet to drive an inductive load of Faraday rotator coils, which is an option considered for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) Shiva laser system upgrade. The reference load consists of five parallel sets of three different size solenoidal coils in series. Each coil is modelled as a series inductance and resistance. The homopolar is modelled as a capacitance in series with a resistance and an inductance. The transmission lines connecting the homopolar and the coils are modelled as series inductances and resistances. The initial homopolar voltages and energies to create the required coil magnetic fields are obtained versus the small coil turns, homopolar capacitance, and line length, as are the times to current maximum, peak homopolar currents, and peak coil currents. For 50 ft lines, the minimum initial homopolar voltage varies from 20 to 17 MJ. The axial magnetic field variation in the rotator glass is <1.0%. The stored energy for the thickest coils is 2.4 times that of the thinnest coils
Stray-field-induced Faraday contributions in wide-field Kerr microscopy and -magnetometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markó, D.; Soldatov, I.; Tekielak, M.; Schäfer, R.
2015-01-01
The magnetic domain contrast in wide-field Kerr microscopy on bulk specimens can be substantially distorted by non-linear, field-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective lens that are caused by stray-field components emerging from the specimen. These Faraday contributions, which were detected by Kerr-magnetometry on grain-oriented iron–silicon steel samples, are thoroughly elaborated and characterized. They express themselves as a field-dependent gray-scale offset to the domain contrast and in highly distorted surface magnetization curves if optically measured in a wide field Kerr microscope. An experimental method to avoid such distortions is suggested. In the course of these studies, a low-permeability part in the surface magnetization loop of slightly misoriented (110)-surfaces in iron–silicon sheets was discovered that is attributed to demagnetization effects in direction perpendicular to the sheet surface. - Highlights: • Magnetizing a finite sample in a Kerr microscope leads to sample-generated stray-fields. • They cause non-linear, field- and position-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective. • This leads to a modulation of the Kerr contrast and to distorted MOKE loops. • A method to compensate these Faraday rotations is presented
Bisi, Mario M.; Fallows, Richard A.; Sobey, Charlotte; Eftekhari, Tarraneh; Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Hick, P. Paul; Odstrcil, Dusan; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Oyuki Chang, M. T.
2016-04-01
Space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather (describing the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth) - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such on the Earth. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects including forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather near the Earth is of critical importance to protecting our modern-day reliance on satellites, global-communications and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. This includes both military and commercial considerations. Two ground-based radio-observing techniques that can add to and lead our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modelling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input to support and better-interpret individual case-study results.
On the Cauchy problem for nonlinear Schrödinger equations with rotation
Antonelli, Paolo; Marahrens, Daniel; Sparber, Christof
2011-01-01
We consider the Cauchy problem for (energy-subcritical) nonlinear Schrödinger equations with sub-quadratic external potentials and an additional angular momentum rotation term. This equation is a well-known model for superuid quantum gases in rotating traps. We prove global existence (in the energy space) for defocusing nonlinearities without any restriction on the rotation frequency, generalizing earlier results given in [11, 12]. Moreover, we find that the rotation term has a considerable in fiuence in proving finite time blow-up in the focusing case.
On the Cauchy problem for nonlinear Schrödinger equations with rotation
Antonelli, Paolo
2011-10-01
We consider the Cauchy problem for (energy-subcritical) nonlinear Schrödinger equations with sub-quadratic external potentials and an additional angular momentum rotation term. This equation is a well-known model for superuid quantum gases in rotating traps. We prove global existence (in the energy space) for defocusing nonlinearities without any restriction on the rotation frequency, generalizing earlier results given in [11, 12]. Moreover, we find that the rotation term has a considerable in fiuence in proving finite time blow-up in the focusing case.
Faraday effect in semimagnetic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, P.I.; Savchuk, A.I.
1990-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of the Faraday effect in a new class of materials -semimagnetic semiconductors (SS) have been received. Mechanisms of the giant Faraday effect in SS based on s, p-d exchange interaction of excitons, electrons and holes with magnetic ions have been discussed. Faraday rotation as a function of a radiation wavelength, magnetic component concentration, temperature, magnetic field intensity for crystals A 2 B 6 (Mn)A 2 x -1Mn xB 6 : and other SS (GaAs(Mn), CdP 2 (Mn),Pb 1-X2 )Mn x J 2 have been considered. We have attended to use FR for the study of a paramagnetic-spin glass transmission for determining the role of the relaxation effects with a participation of magnetic Mn 2+ ions, exitons, polarons in the direct and inverse Faraday effects. In addition the features of FR in thin films of SS and in spin superlattices have been discussed. Finally, we have analysed possibilities of applying the SS Faraday effect for developing magnetooptic devices (optical isolators and fibre optic sensors of magnetic fields)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Ying D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A. [Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) Space, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Owens, Mathew J.; Davis, Chris J., E-mail: mxiong@spacweather.ac.cn [Reading University, Reading (United Kingdom)
2013-11-01
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub ∥} and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression I∝r {sup –3}. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r{sub sheath} and the mass of plasma at that position M{sub sheath} can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B{sub ∥sheath} at r{sub sheath} can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and magnetic field properties.
Bisi, Mario Mark; Jensen, Elizabeth; Sobey, Charlotte; Fallows, Richard; Jackson, Bernard; Barnes, David; Giunta, Alessandra; Hick, Paul; Eftekhari, Tarraneh; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Odstrcil, Dusan; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Wood, Brian
2017-04-01
Geomagnetic storms of the highest intensity are general driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) impacting the Earth's space environment. Their intensity is driven by the speed, density, and, most-importantly, their magnetic-field orientation and magnitude of the incoming solar plasma. The most-significant magnetic-field factor is the North-South component (Bz in Geocentric Solar Magnetic - GSM - coordinates). At present, there are no reliable prediction methods available for this magnetic-field component ahead of the in-situ monitors around the Sun-Earth L1 point. Observations of Faraday rotation (FR) can be used to attempt to determine average magnetic-field orientations in the inner heliosphere. Such a technique has already been well demonstrated through the corona, ionosphere, and also the interstellar medium. Measurements of the polarisation of astronomical (or spacecraft in superior conjunction) radio sources (beacons/radio frequency carriers) through the inner corona of the Sun to obtain the FR have been demonstrated but mostly at relatively-high radio frequencies. Here we show some initial results of true heliospheric FR using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) below 200 MHz to investigate the passage of a coronal mass ejection (CME) across the line of sight. LOFAR is a next-generation low-frequency radio interferometer, and a pathfinder to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - LOW telescope. We demonstrate preliminary heliospheric FR results through the analysis of observations of pulsar J1022+1001, which commenced on 13 August 2014 at 13:00UT and spanned over 150 minutes in duration. We also show initial comparisons to the FR results via various modelling techniques and additional context information to understand the structure of the inner heliosphere being detected. This observation could indeed pave the way to an experiment which might be implemented for space-weather purposes that will eventually lead to a near-global method for determining the magnetic
Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Sobey, C.; Eftekhari, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Odstrcil, D.; Tokumaru, M.
2015-12-01
The phenomenon of space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather which describes the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such changes on the Earth's magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects which includes its forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather in the near-Earth environment is vitally important to protecting our modern-day reliance (militarily and commercially) on satellites, global-communication and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. Two ground-based radio-observing remote-sensing techniques that can aid our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a next-generation 'software' radio telescope centered in The Netherlands with international stations spread across central and northwest Europe. For several years, scientific observations of IPS on LOFAR have been undertaken on a campaign basis and the experiment is now well developed. More recently, LOFAR has been used to attempt scientific heliospheric FR observations aimed at remotely sensing the magnetic field of the plasma traversing the inner heliosphere. We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input
Gradiometer Based on Nonlinear Magneto-Optic Rotation, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project will demonstrate sensitive measurements of magnetic field gradients by nonlinear atomic spectroscopy. The gradients are determined by...
Hsieh, Shang-Hsien
1993-01-01
The principal objective of this research is to develop, test, and implement coarse-grained, parallel-processing strategies for nonlinear dynamic simulations of practical structural problems. There are contributions to four main areas: finite element modeling and analysis of rotational dynamics, numerical algorithms for parallel nonlinear solutions, automatic partitioning techniques to effect load-balancing among processors, and an integrated parallel analysis system.
Faraday's first dynamo: A retrospective
Smith, Glenn S.
2013-12-01
In the early 1830s, Michael Faraday performed his seminal experimental research on electromagnetic induction, in which he created the first electric dynamo—a machine for continuously converting rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. His machine was a conducting disc, rotating between the poles of a permanent magnet, with the voltage/current obtained from brushes contacting the disc. In his first dynamo, the magnetic field was asymmetric with respect to the axis of the disc. This is to be contrasted with some of his later symmetric designs, which are the ones almost invariably discussed in textbooks on electromagnetism. In this paper, a theoretical analysis is developed for Faraday's first dynamo. From this analysis, the eddy currents in the disc and the open-circuit voltage for arbitrary positioning of the brushes are determined. The approximate analysis is verified by comparing theoretical results with measurements made on an experimental recreation of the dynamo. Quantitative results from the analysis are used to elucidate Faraday's qualitative observations, from which he learned so much about electromagnetic induction. For the asymmetric design, the eddy currents in the disc dissipate energy that makes the dynamo inefficient, prohibiting its use as a practical generator of electric power. Faraday's experiments with his first dynamo provided valuable insight into electromagnetic induction, and this insight was quickly used by others to design practical generators.
ICRF antenna Faraday shield plasma sheath model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whealton, J.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Raridon, R.J.
1990-01-01
A two-dimensional nonlinear formulation that explicitly considers the plasma edge near a Faraday shield in a self-consistent manner is used in the modeling of the ion motion for a Faraday shield concept and model suggested by Perkins. Two models are considered that may provide significant insight into the generation of impurities for ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas. In one of these models a significant sheath periodically forms next to the Faraday screen, with ion acoustic waves heating the ions in the plasma. (orig.)
Nonlinear model of a rotating hub-beams structure: Equations of motion
Warminski, Jerzy
2018-01-01
Dynamics of a rotating structure composed of a rigid hub and flexible beams is presented in the paper. A nonlinear model of a beam takes into account bending, extension and nonlinear curvature. The influence of geometric nonlinearity and nonconstant angular velocity on dynamics of the rotating structure is presented. The exact equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are derived on the basis of the Hamilton's principle. The simplification of the exact nonlinear mathematical model is proposed taking into account the second order approximation. The reduced partial differential equations of motion together with associated boundary conditions can be used to study natural or forced vibrations of a rotating structure considering constant or nonconstant angular speed of a rigid hub and an arbitrary number of flexible blades.
Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited
Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.
2010-11-01
The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).
Nonlinearity in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes
Rothmayer, Mark; Dultz, Wolfgang; Frins, Erna; Zhan, Qiwen; Tierney, Dennis; Schmitzer, Heidrun
2007-10-01
Haidinger's brushes are an entoptic effect of the human visual system that enables us to detect polarized light. However, individual perceptions of Haidinger's brushes can vary significantly. We find that the birefringence of the cornea influences the rotational motion and the contrast of Haidinger's brushes and may offer an explanation for individual differences. We have devised an experimental setup to simulate various phase shifts of the cornea and found a switching effect in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes. In addition, age related macular degeneration reduces the polarization effect of the macula and thus also leads to changes in the brush pattern.
Faraday instability on patterned surfaces
Feng, Jie; Rubinstein, Gregory; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard
2013-11-01
We show how micro-scale surface patterning can be used to control the onset of the Faraday instability in thin liquid films. It is well known that when a liquid film on a planar substrate is subject to sufficient vibrational accelerations, the free surface destabilizes, exhibiting a family of non-linear standing waves. This instability remains a canonical problem in the study of spontaneous pattern formation, but also has practical uses. For example, the surface waves induced by the Faraday instability have been studied as a means of enhanced damping for mechanical vibrations (Genevaux et al. 2009). Also the streaming within the unstable layer has been used as a method for distributing heterogeneous cell cultures on growth medium (Takagi et al. 2002). In each of these applications, the roughness of the substrate significantly affects the unstable flow field. We consider the effect of patterned substrates on the onset and behavior of the Faraday instability over a range of pattern geometries and feature heights where the liquid layer is thicker than the pattern height. Also, we describe a physical model for the influence of patterned roughness on the destabilization of a liquid layer in order to improve the design of practical systems which exploit the Faraday instability.
Tensor B mode and stochastic Faraday mixing
Giovannini, Massimo
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the Faraday effect as a different source of B mode polarization. The E mode polarization is Faraday rotated provided a stochastic large-scale magnetic field is present prior to photon decoupling. In the first part of the paper we discuss the case where the tensor modes of the geometry are absent and we argue that the B mode recently detected by the Bicep2 collaboration cannot be explained by a large-scale magnetic field rotating, through the Faraday effect, the well established E mode polarization. In this case, the observed temperature autocorrelations would be excessively distorted by the magnetic field. In the second part of the paper the formation of Faraday rotation is treated as a stationary, random and Markovian process with the aim of generalizing a set of scaling laws originally derived in the absence of the tensor modes of the geometry. We show that the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the brightness perturbations can all be Faraday rotated even if the vector and tensor par...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahrokhvand, S.M.; Mozaffari, M.; Rozatian, A.S.H. [University of Isfahan, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, S.M. [Shahid Beheshti University, Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehranchi, M.M. [Shahid Beheshti University, Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-01-15
In this work, cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Ce{sub x}Y{sub 3-x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, x = 0.25-1) targets were fabricated by conventional ceramic method at different temperatures, and their crystal structures were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. The results showed that the minimum calcining temperature required to get single-phase targets depends on x value and decreased by increasing x value. Then, thin films of the targets were deposited on GGG (444) single-crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. Based on the previous studies, preferred (444) oriented Ce{sub x}Y{sub 3-x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} thin films were fabricated under optimum conditions. Faraday rotation of the thin films was measured at 635 nm wavelength, and the results showed that Faraday rotation and sensitivity constant increased by increasing x value. Scanning electron microscope images showed that by increasing x value, cracks on the thin films' surface increased. Atomic force microscopy images showed that the films have smooth surfaces and the surface roughness decreased by increasing the x value. (orig.)
Measurement of rotational dynamics by the simultaneous nonlinear analysis of optical and EPR data.
Hustedt, E J; Cobb, C E; Beth, A H; Beechem, J M
1993-01-01
In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marq...
Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schenk, A.K.; Arras, P.; Flanagan, E.E.; Teukolsky, S.A.; Wasserman, I.
2002-01-01
We develop the formalism required to study the nonlinear interaction of modes in rotating Newtonian stars, assuming that the mode amplitudes are only mildly nonlinear. The formalism is simpler than previous treatments of mode-mode interactions for spherical stars, and simplifies and corrects previous treatments for rotating stars. At linear order, we elucidate and extend slightly a formalism due to Schutz, show how to decompose a general motion of a rotating star into a sum over modes, and obtain uncoupled equations of motion for the mode amplitudes under the influence of an external force. Nonlinear effects are added perturbatively via three-mode couplings, which suffices for moderate amplitude modal excitations; the formalism is easy to extend to higher order couplings. We describe a new, efficient way to compute the modal coupling coefficients, to zeroth order in the stellar rotation rate, using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The formalism is general enough to allow computation of the initial trends in the evolution of the spin frequency and differential rotation of the background star. We apply this formalism to derive some properties of the coupling coefficients relevant to the nonlinear interactions of unstable r modes in neutron stars, postponing numerical integrations of the coupled equations of motion to a later paper. First, we clarify some aspects of the expansion in stellar rotation frequency Ω that is often used to compute approximate mode functions. We show that, in zero-buoyancy stars, the rotational modes (those modes whose frequencies vanish as Ω→0) are orthogonal to zeroth order in Ω. From an astrophysical viewpoint, the most interesting result of this paper is that many couplings of r modes to other rotational modes are small: either they vanish altogether because of various selection rules, or they vanish to lowest order in Ω or in compressibility. In particular, in zero-buoyancy stars, the coupling of three r modes is forbidden
Competing Turing and Faraday Instabilities in Longitudinally Modulated Passive Resonators.
Copie, François; Conforti, Matteo; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Mussot, Arnaud; Trillo, Stefano
2016-04-08
We experimentally investigate the interplay of Turing (modulational) and Faraday (parametric) instabilities in a bistable passive nonlinear resonator. The Faraday branch is induced via parametric resonance owing to a periodic modulation of the resonator dispersion. We show that the bistable switching dynamics is dramatically affected by the competition between the two instability mechanisms, which dictates two completely novel scenarios. At low detunings from resonance, switching occurs between the stable stationary lower branch and the Faraday-unstable upper branch, whereas at high detunings we observe the crossover between the Turing and Faraday periodic structures. The results are well explained in terms of the universal Lugiato-Lefever model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Feain, I. J.
2016-01-01
We present a broadband polarization analysis of 36 discrete polarized radio sources over a very broad, densely sampled frequency band. Our sample was selected on the basis of polarization behavior apparent in narrowband archival data at 1.4 GHz: half the sample shows complicated frequency-dependent polarization behavior (i.e., Faraday complexity) at these frequencies, while half shows comparatively simple behavior (i.e., they appear Faraday simple ). We re-observed the sample using the Australia Telescope Compact Array in full polarization, with 6 GHz of densely sampled frequency coverage spanning 1.3–10 GHz. We have devised a general polarization modeling technique that allows us to identify multiple polarized emission components in a source, and to characterize their properties. We detect Faraday complex behavior in almost every source in our sample. Several sources exhibit particularly remarkable polarization behavior. By comparing our new and archival data, we have identified temporal variability in the broadband integrated polarization spectra of some sources. In a number of cases, the characteristics of the polarized emission components, including the range of Faraday depths over which they emit, their temporal variability, spectral index, and the linear extent of the source, allow us to argue that the spectropolarimetric data encode information about the magneto-ionic environment of active galactic nuclei themselves. Furthermore, the data place direct constraints on the geometry and magneto-ionic structure of this material. We discuss the consequences of restricted frequency bands on the detection and interpretation of polarization structures, and the implications for upcoming spectropolarimetric surveys.
Nonlinear Interaction of Waves in Rotating Spherical Layers
Zhilenko, D.; Krivonosova, O.; Gritsevich, M.
2018-01-01
Flows of a viscous incompressible fluid in a spherical layer that are due to rotational oscillations of its inner boundary at two frequencies with respect to the state of rest are numerically studied. It is found that an increase in the amplitude of oscillations of the boundary at the higher frequency can result in a significant enhancement of the low-frequency mode in a flow near the outer boundary. The direction of propagation of the low-frequency wave changes from radial to meridional, whereas the high-frequency wave propagates in the radial direction in a limited inner region of the spherical layer. The role of the meridional circulation in the energy exchange between spaced waves is demonstrated.
The Inverse Faraday Effect In Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.
1999-01-01
The existence of axial magnetic field 1-3 induced by the interaction of circularly polarized laser light with plasma is reported. Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss up to 2.17 MegaGauss were measured using a Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns for irradiance from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm'2 accordingly. Up to 5 - 10 13 W/cm 2 , the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. Two diagnostic methods were used to measure the axial magnetic field. At low irradiance (10 9 - 10 1 '1 W/cm 2 ) the axial magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser light (CPLL) in a ferrite target was measured from the voltage signal induced by the magnetic field in an output coil. At higher irradiance the axial magnetic field was measured using the Faraday rotation diagnostic. The scaling law of the measured axial magnetic field B from the experiments performed with CPLL, in the intensities range of 10 9 - 10 13 W/cm 2 , is B ∼ I / 1/2 . At higher intensities of the order of 3 . 10 1 '4 W/cm 2 a sudden increase of the axial magnetic field beyond the above scaling law is observed in the experiments performed with CPLL. This study might have interesting implications in creating a mini tokamak configuration in laser produced plasmas, with intermediate plasma densities (10 22 cm 3 ) and confinement times (100 ns). Such an approach to fusion circumvents many of the complexities of inertial confinement fusion where very symmetric implosions using many laser beams are required. Intermediate fusion density may also overcome severe requirements of tokamak fusion
Faraday scaling and the Bicep2 observations
Giovannini, Massimo
2014-01-01
As repeatedly speculated in the past, the linear polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background can be rotated via the Faraday effect. An economic explanation of the recent Bicep2 observations, not relying on long-wavelength tensor modes of the geometry, would stipulate that the detected B mode comes exclusively from a Faraday rotated E mode polarization. We show hereunder that this interpretation is ruled out by the existing upper limits on the B mode polarization obtained by independent experiments at observational frequencies much lower than the operating frequency of the Bicep2 experiment. We then derive the fraction of the observed B mode polarization ascribable to the Faraday effect and suggest a dedicated experimental strategy for its detection.
The hyperfine Paschen–Back Faraday effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zentile, Mark A; Andrews, Rebecca; Weller, Lee; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G; Knappe, Svenja
2014-01-01
We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive index. Fitting to the atomic spectra, we achieve magnetic field sensitivity at the 10 −4 level. Finally we note that the Faraday signal shows zero crossings which can be used as temperature insensitive error signals for laser frequency stabilization at large detuning. The theoretical sensitivity for 87 Rb is found to be ∼40 kHz °C −1 . (paper)
Faraday effect and solar neutrino problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawaz, S.
2001-01-01
We have studied the Faraday effect and solar neutrino problem. Our main emphasis was on the Faraday rotation of neutrino de Broglie wave of electron-neutrino producing in the nuclear reactions in the sun and converting into any other flavor of neutrino while passing through matter and/or magnetic field of the sun. We have shown that specific Faraday angle can minimize the number of free parameters occurring in the neutrino oscillation. We have also shown that the resonant Faraday angle corresponding to the resonance of MSW effect can be obtained the knowledge of the oscillation parameter delta m/sup 2/ and the neutrino energy. Using neutrino-Faraday angle approach, we have shown that the matter enhanced neutrino oscillations is dominating over the resonant spin flavor precession (RSFP) even in the favorable region of the spin flavor procession. Using the latest solar neutrino data, we have shown that Faraday angle is almost 10/sup -3/ times smaller. This can be interpreted as the interaction of magnetic moment of neutrino with the solar magnetic field is negligibly small as compare to the effect of matter field on the neutrino oscillation. (author)
Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach
Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.
2016-10-01
In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.
The Faraday effect of natural and artificial ferritins.
Koralewski, M; Kłos, J W; Baranowski, M; Mitróová, Z; Kopčanský, P; Melníková, L; Okuda, M; Schwarzacher, W
2012-09-07
Measurements of the Faraday rotation at room temperature over the light wavelength range of 300-680 nm for horse spleen ferritin (HSF), magnetoferritin with different loading factors (LFs) and nanoscale magnetite and Fe(2)O(3) suspensions are reported. The Faraday rotation and the magnetization of the materials studied present similar magnetic field dependences and are characteristic of a superparamagnetic system. The dependence of the Faraday rotation on the magnetic field is described, excluding HSF and Fe(2)O(3), by a Langevin function with a log-normal distribution of the particle size allowing the core diameters of the substances studied to be calculated. It was found that the specific Verdet constant depends linearly on the LF. Differences in the Faraday rotation spectra and their magnetic field dependences allow discrimination between magnetoferritin with maghemite and magnetite cores which can be very useful in biomedicine.
The Faraday effect of natural and artificial ferritins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koralewski, M; Kłos, J W; Baranowski, M; Mitróová, Z; Kopčanský, P; Melníková, L; Okuda, M; Schwarzacher, W
2012-01-01
Measurements of the Faraday rotation at room temperature over the light wavelength range of 300–680 nm for horse spleen ferritin (HSF), magnetoferritin with different loading factors (LFs) and nanoscale magnetite and Fe 2 O 3 suspensions are reported. The Faraday rotation and the magnetization of the materials studied present similar magnetic field dependences and are characteristic of a superparamagnetic system. The dependence of the Faraday rotation on the magnetic field is described, excluding HSF and Fe 2 O 3 , by a Langevin function with a log-normal distribution of the particle size allowing the core diameters of the substances studied to be calculated. It was found that the specific Verdet constant depends linearly on the LF. Differences in the Faraday rotation spectra and their magnetic field dependences allow discrimination between magnetoferritin with maghemite and magnetite cores which can be very useful in biomedicine. (paper)
One-Piece Faraday Generator: A Paradoxical Experiment from 1851
Crooks, M. J.; And Others
1978-01-01
Describes an experiment based on Faraday's one-piece generator, where the rotating disk is replaced by a cylindrical permanent magnet. Explains the apparent paradox that an observer in an inertial frame could measure his absolute velocity. (GA)
Study on the Nonlinear Characteristics of a Rotating Flexible Blade with Dovetail Interface Feature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaofeng Li
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed in this paper for analyzing the nonlinear characteristics of a flexible blade. The dynamical equation of motion for a rotational flexible blade in a centrifugal force field is established based on the finite element method. A macro-stick-slip mechanical model of dry friction is established to simulate the constraint condition of the flexible blade. The combined motion of the external excitation and friction produces a piecewise linear vibration which is actually nonlinear. The numerical integration method is employed to calculate the vibration reduction characteristics of the nonlinear constrained rotating blade. The results show that the nonlinear dry friction force produced by the dovetail interface plays an important role in vibration reduction. And the effect of dry friction vibration reduction is significant when the rotating speed is slow or the friction coefficient is small. Besides, the magnitude of external excitation also has a great impact on the state of the friction. Therefore, some relevant experimental researches should be done in the future.
Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroon Rungamornrat
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.
Michael Faraday's Bicentenary.
Williams, L. Pearce; And Others
1991-01-01
Six articles discuss the work of Michael Faraday, a chemist whose work revolutionized physics and led directly to both classical field and relativity theory. The scientist as a young man, the electromagnetic experiments of Faraday, his search for the gravelectric effect, his work on optical glass, his laboratory notebooks, and his creative use of…
The effect of gas and fluid flows on nonlinear lateral vibrations of rotating drill strings
Khajiyeva, Lelya; Kudaibergenov, Askar; Kudaibergenov, Askat
2018-06-01
In this work we develop nonlinear mathematical models describing coupled lateral vibrations of a rotating drill string under the effect of external supersonic gas and internal fluid flows. An axial compressive load and a torque also affect the drill string. The mathematical models are derived by the use of Novozhilov's nonlinear theory of elasticity with implementation of Hamilton's variation principle. Expressions for the gas flow pressure are determined according to the piston theory. The fluid flow is considered as added mass inside the curved tube of the drill string. Using an algorithm developed in the Mathematica computation program on the basis of the Galerkin approach and the stiffness switching method the numerical solution of the obtained approximate differential equations is found. Influences of the external loads, drill string angular speed of rotation, parameters of the gas and fluid flows on the drill string vibrations are shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-01-01
We present experimental measurements of a sidewall traveling wave in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection. The fluid, water with Prandtl number about 6.3, was confined in a 1-cm-high cylindrical cell with radius-to-height ratio Γ=5. We used simultaneous optical-shadowgraph, heat-transport, and local temperature measurements to determine the stability and characteristics of the traveling-wave state for dimensionless rotation rates 60<Ω<420. The state is well described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation for which the linear and nonlinear coefficients were determined for Ω=274. The Eckhaus-Benjamin-Feir-stability boundary was established and the phase-diffusion coefficient and nonlinear group velocity were determined in the stable regime. Higher-order corrections to the CGL equation were also investigated. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L
2014-01-01
We study numerically the frequency modulated kicked nonlinear rotator with effective dimension d=1,2,3,4. We follow the time evolution of the model up to 10 9 kicks and determine the exponent α of subdiffusive spreading which changes from 0.35 to 0.5 when the dimension changes from d = 1 to 4. All results are obtained in a regime of relatively strong Anderson localization well below the Anderson transition point existing for d = 3, 4. We explain that this variation of the exponent is different from the usual d− dimensional Anderson models with local nonlinearity where α drops with increasing d. We also argue that the renormalization arguments proposed by Cherroret N et al (arXiv:1401.1038) are not valid for this model and the Anderson model with local nonlinearity in d = 3. (paper)
Linear and Nonlinear Response of a Rotating Tokamak Plasma to a Resonant Error-Field
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2014-10-01
An in-depth investigation of the effect of a resonant error-field on a rotating, quasi-cylindrical, tokamak plasma is preformed within the context of resistive-MHD theory. General expressions for the response of the plasma at the rational surface to the error-field are derived in both the linear and nonlinear regimes, and the extents of these regimes mapped out in parameter space. Torque-balance equations are also obtained in both regimes. These equations are used to determine the steady-state plasma rotation at the rational surface in the presence of the error-field. It is found that, provided the intrinsic plasma rotation is sufficiently large, the torque-balance equations possess dynamically stable low-rotation and high-rotation solution branches, separated by a forbidden band of dynamically unstable solutions. Moreover, bifurcations between the two stable solution branches are triggered as the amplitude of the error-field is varied. A low- to high-rotation bifurcation is invariably associated with a significant reduction in the width of the magnetic island chain driven at the rational surface, and vice versa. General expressions for the bifurcation thresholds are derived, and their domains of validity mapped out in parameter space. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-FG02-04ER-54742.
Faraday effect in hybrid magneto-plasmonic photonic crystals.
Caballero, B; García-Martín, A; Cuevas, J C
2015-08-24
We present a theoretical study of the Faraday effect in hybrid magneto-plasmonic crystals that consist of Au-Co-Au perforated membranes with a periodic array of sub-wavelength holes. We show that in these hybrid systems the interplay between the extraordinary optical transmission and the magneto-optical activity leads to a resonant enhancement of the Faraday rotation, as compared to purely ferromagnetic membranes. In particular, we determine the geometrical parameters for which this enhancement is optimized and show that the inclusion of a noble metal like Au dramatically increases the Faraday rotation over a broad bandwidth. Moreover, we show that the analysis of the Faraday rotation in these periodically perforated membranes provides a further insight into the origin of the extraordinary optical transmission.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sheykhi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a new class of charged rotating black brane solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics with complete set of the rotation parameters in arbitrary dimensions. The topology of the horizon of these rotating black branes is flat, while due to the presence of the dilaton field the asymptotic behavior of them is neither flat nor (anti-de Sitter [(AdS]. We investigate the physical properties of the solutions. The mass and angular momentum of the spacetime are obtained by using the counterterm method inspired by AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive temperature, electric potential, and entropy associated with the horizon and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon. We study thermal stability of the solutions in both canonical and grand-canonical ensemble and disclose the effects of the rotation parameter, nonlinearity of electrodynamics, and dilaton field on the thermal stability conditions. We find the solutions are thermally stable for α1 the solutions may encounter an unstable phase, where α is dilaton-electromagnetic coupling constant.
Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.
Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K
2016-08-09
Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.
Real time Faraday spectrometer
Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.
1991-01-01
This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.
Real time Faraday spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.
1991-01-01
This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements
Nonlinear modeling of a rotational MR damper via an enhanced Bouc–Wen model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miah, Mohammad S; Chatzi, Eleni N; Dertimanis, Vasilis K; Weber, Felix
2015-01-01
The coupling of magnetorheological (MR) dampers with semi-active control schemes has proven to be an effective and failsafe approach for vibration mitigation of low-damped structures. However, due to the nonlinearities inherently relating to such damping devices, the characterization of the associated nonlinear phenomena is still a challenging task. Herein, an enhanced phenomenological modeling approach is proposed for the description of a rotational-type MR damper, which comprises a modified Bouc–Wen model coupled with an appropriately selected sigmoid function. In a first step, parameter optimization is performed on the basis of individual models in an effort to approximate the experimentally observed response for varying current levels and actuator force characteristics. In a second step, based on the previously identified parameters, a generalized best-fit model is proposed by performing a regression analysis. Finally, model validation is carried out via implementation on different sets of experimental data. The proposed model indeed renders an improved representation of the actually observed nonlinear behavior of the tested rotational MR damper. (paper)
Neutrino Astrophysics in Slowly Rotating Spacetimes Permeated by Nonlinear Electrodynamics Fields
Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.
2017-02-01
Many theoretical and astrophysical arguments involve consideration of the effects of super strong electromagnetic fields and the rotation during the late stages of core-collapse supernovae. In what follows, we solve Einstein field equations that are minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) Born-Infeld nonlinear Lagrangian L(F,G) of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime a ≪ r+ (outer horizon size), up to first order in a/r. We cross-check the physical properties of such NLED spacetime w.r.t. against the Maxwell one. A study case on both neutrino flavor ({ν }e\\to {ν }μ ,{ν }τ ) oscillations and flavor+helicity (spin) flip ({ν }e\\to {\\overline{ν }}μ ,τ ) gyroscopic precession proves that in the spacetime of a slowly rotating nonlinear charged black hole (RNCBH), the neutrino dynamics translates into a positive enhancement of the r-process (reduction of the electron fraction Ye < 0.5). Consequently, it guarantees successful hyperluminous core-collapse supernova explosions due to the enlargement of the number and amount of decaying nuclide species. This posits that, as far as the whole luminosity is concerned, hypernovae will be a proof of the formation of astrophysical RNCBH.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Liang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.
Gluck, Paul
2004-03-01
The Faraday ice-pail experiment is performed when studying the distribution of charges in conductors: Inside a hollow conductor the net charge is zero, and any excess charge resides on the outside surface.
Fara, Patricia
2006-03-01
Michael Faraday was an enthusiastic portrait collector, and he welcomed the invention of photography not only as a possible means of recording observations accurately, but also as a method for advertising science and its practitioners. This article (which is part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) shows that like many eminent scientists, Faraday took advantage of the burgeoning Victorian media industry by posing in various roles.
Tsuchida, Satoshi; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi
2018-05-01
A stochastic theory is developed for the light transmitting the optical media exhibiting linear and nonlinear birefringence. The starting point is the two-component nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). On the basis of the ansatz of “soliton” solution for the NLSE, the evolution equation for the Stokes parameters is derived, which turns out to be the Langevin equation by taking account of randomness and dissipation inherent in the birefringent media. The Langevin equation is converted to the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the probability distribution by employing the technique of functional integral on the assumption of the Gaussian white noise for the random fluctuation. The specific application is considered for the optical rotation, which is described by the ellipticity (third component of the Stokes parameters) alone: (i) The asymptotic analysis is given for the functional integral, which leads to the transition rate on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) The FP equation is analyzed in the strong coupling approximation, by which the diffusive behavior is obtained for the linear and nonlinear birefringence. These would provide with a basis of statistical analysis for the polarization phenomena in nonlinear birefringent media.
Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry
2014-01-01
We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph. (paper)
Damping and non-linearity of a levitating magnet in rotation above a superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druge, J; Jean, C; Laurent, O; Méasson, M-A; Favero, I
2014-01-01
We study the dissipation of moving magnets in levitation above a superconductor. The rotation motion is analyzed using optical tracking techniques. It displays a remarkable regularity together with long damping time up to several hours. The magnetic contribution to the damping is investigated in detail by comparing 14 distinct magnetic configurations and points towards amplitude-dependent dissipation mechanisms. The non-linear dynamics of the mechanical rotation motion is also revealed and described with an effective Duffing model. The magnetic mechanical damping is consistent with measured hysteretic cycles M(H) that are discussed within a modified critical state model. The obtained picture of the coupling of levitating magnets to their environment sheds light on their potential as ultra-low dissipation mechanical oscillators for high precision physics. (paper)
Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics
Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry
2014-10-01
We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph.
Rotation and oscillation of nonlinear dipole vortex in the drift-unstable plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orito, Kohtaro; Hatori, Tadatsugu.
1997-10-01
The behaviors of the nonlinear dipole vortex in the drift unstable plasma are studied by numerical approaches. Model equations used in numerical simulation are derived from two-fluid model and are composed of two equations with respect to the electrostatic potential and the density perturbation. When the initial dipole vortex is inclined at some angle with respect to the direction of the drift velocity, the dipole vortex oscillates or rotates in the first stage. These phenomenon also happen in the stable system. In the second stage, one part of the dipole vortex grows and another decays because of the destabilization. The shrunk vortex rotates around the enlarged vortex. Consequently, a monopole vortex appears out of the dipole vortex. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budker, D.; Hollberg, L.; Kimball, D.F.; Kitching, J.; Pustclny, S.; Robinson, H.G.; Yashchuk, V.V.
2004-01-01
Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between the components of the ground-state hyperfine structure for 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, which may be useful for atomic clocks and magnetometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budker, Dmitry; Hollberg, Leo; Kimball, Derek F.; Kitching, J.; Pustelny, Szymon; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.
2004-01-01
Using laser optical pumping, widths and frequency shifts are determined for microwave transitions between ground-state hyperfine components of 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms contained in vapor cells with alkane anti-relaxation coatings. The results are compared with data on Zeeman relaxation obtained in nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) experiments, a comparison important for quantitative understanding of spin-relaxation mechanisms in coated cells. By comparing cells manufactured over a forty-year period we demonstrate the long-term stability of coated cells, an important property for atomic clocks and magnetometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Zelenskij, I.V.
2002-01-01
The effect of the nonlinear resonance rotation of the polarization plane of the electromagnetic radiation under the conditions of the coherent occupation captivity in the 87 Rb pairs at the F = 2 → F' = 1 transition of the D 1 -line is studied within the wide range of the experimental parameters change. The nonmonotonous dependence of the turning angle on the laser radiation intensity and applied magnetic field is identified. The effect of the occupation optical pumping out on the F = 1 level is discussed. The twofold increase in the polarization plane turning angle by the pumping out compensation is experimentally demonstrated [ru
Ghodousi, Maryam; Shahgholi, Majid; Payganeh, Gholamhassan
2018-03-01
The objective of the present work is to investigate the nonlinear vibrations of the rotating asymmetrical nano-shafts by considering surface effect. In order to compute the surface stress tensor, the surface elasticity theory is used. The governing nonlinear equations of motion are obtained with the aid of variational approach. Bubnov-Galerkin is a very effective method for exploiting the reduced-order model of the equations of motion. The averaging method is employed to analyze the reduced-order model of the system. For this purpose, the well-known Van der Pol transformation in the complex form and angle-action transformation are utilized. The effect of surface stress on the forward and backward speeds, steady state responses of the system, fixed points, close orbits and stability of the solutions is examined. The preliminary results of the research show that the absolute values of forward and backward whirling speeds in the presence of surface effect with positive residual surface stress are higher than those of regarding the system without surface effect and in the presence of surface effect with negative residual surface stress. In addition, it is seen that the undamped rotating asymmetrical nano-shaft, for specified value of detuning parameter, in the absence or presence of surface effect has various number of stable and unstable periodic solutions. Besides, there is different number of separatrix (homoclinic orbit type). Furthermore, bifurcations, number of solutions and their stability for damped rotating asymmetrical nano-shaft are investigated. Also, the above results have been obtained for rotating symmetrical nano-shaft.
Wallen, Samuel P.
Granular media are one of the most common, yet least understood forms of matter on earth. The difficulties in understanding the physics of granular media stem from the fact that they are typically heterogeneous and highly disordered, and the grains interact via nonlinear contact forces. Historically, one approach to reducing these complexities and gaining new insight has been the study of granular crystals, which are ordered arrays of similarly-shaped particles (typically spheres) in Hertzian contact. Using this setting, past works explored the rich nonlinear dynamics stemming from contact forces, and proposed avenues where such granular crystals could form designer, dynamically responsive materials, which yield beneficial functionality in dynamic regimes. In recent years, the combination of self-assembly fabrication methods and laser ultrasonic experimental characterization have enabled the study of granular crystals at microscale. While our intuition may suggest that these microscale granular crystals are simply scaled-down versions of their macroscale counterparts, in fact, the relevant physics change drastically; for example, short-range adhesive forces between particles, which are negligible at macroscale, are several orders of magnitude stronger than gravity at microscale. In this thesis, we present recent advances in analytical and computational modeling of microscale granular crystals, in particular concerning the interplay of nonlinearity, shear interactions, and particle rotations, which have previously been either absent, or included separately at macroscale. Drawing inspiration from past works on phononic crystals and nonlinear lattices, we explore problems involving locally-resonant metamaterials, nonlinear localized modes, amplitude-dependent energy partition, and other rich dynamical phenomena. This work enhances our understanding of microscale granular media, which may find applicability in fields such as ultrasonic wave tailoring, signal processing
Grants, Ilmars; Gerbeth, Gunter
2010-07-01
The stability of a thermally stratified liquid metal flow is considered numerically. The flow is driven by a rotating magnetic field in a cylinder heated from above and cooled from below. The stable thermal stratification turns out to destabilize the flow. This is explained by the fact that a stable stratification suppresses the secondary meridional flow, thus indirectly enhancing the primary rotation. The instability in the form of Taylor-Görtler rolls is consequently promoted. These rolls can only be excited by finite disturbances in the isothermal flow. A sufficiently strong thermal stratification transforms this nonlinear bypass instability into a linear one reducing, thus, the critical value of the magnetic driving force. A weaker temperature gradient delays the linear instability but makes the bypass transition more likely. We quantify the non-normal and nonlinear components of this transition by direct numerical simulation of the flow response to noise. It is observed that the flow sensitivity to finite disturbances increases considerably under the action of a stable thermal stratification. The capabilities of the random forcing approach to identify disconnected coherent states in a general case are discussed.
A review on prognostic techniques for non-stationary and non-linear rotating systems
Kan, Man Shan; Tan, Andy C. C.; Mathew, Joseph
2015-10-01
The field of prognostics has attracted significant interest from the research community in recent times. Prognostics enables the prediction of failures in machines resulting in benefits to plant operators such as shorter downtimes, higher operation reliability, reduced operations and maintenance cost, and more effective maintenance and logistics planning. Prognostic systems have been successfully deployed for the monitoring of relatively simple rotating machines. However, machines and associated systems today are increasingly complex. As such, there is an urgent need to develop prognostic techniques for such complex systems operating in the real world. This review paper focuses on prognostic techniques that can be applied to rotating machinery operating under non-linear and non-stationary conditions. The general concept of these techniques, the pros and cons of applying these methods, as well as their applications in the research field are discussed. Finally, the opportunities and challenges in implementing prognostic systems and developing effective techniques for monitoring machines operating under non-stationary and non-linear conditions are also discussed.
Response statistics of rotating shaft with non-linear elastic restoring forces by path integration
Gaidai, Oleg; Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael
2017-07-01
Extreme statistics of random vibrations is studied for a Jeffcott rotor under uniaxial white noise excitation. Restoring force is modelled as elastic non-linear; comparison is done with linearized restoring force to see the force non-linearity effect on the response statistics. While for the linear model analytical solutions and stability conditions are available, it is not generally the case for non-linear system except for some special cases. The statistics of non-linear case is studied by applying path integration (PI) method, which is based on the Markov property of the coupled dynamic system. The Jeffcott rotor response statistics can be obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation of the 4D dynamic system. An efficient implementation of PI algorithm is applied, namely fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to simulate dynamic system additive noise. The latter allows significantly reduce computational time, compared to the classical PI. Excitation is modelled as Gaussian white noise, however any kind distributed white noise can be implemented with the same PI technique. Also multidirectional Markov noise can be modelled with PI in the same way as unidirectional. PI is accelerated by using Monte Carlo (MC) estimated joint probability density function (PDF) as initial input. Symmetry of dynamic system was utilized to afford higher mesh resolution. Both internal (rotating) and external damping are included in mechanical model of the rotor. The main advantage of using PI rather than MC is that PI offers high accuracy in the probability distribution tail. The latter is of critical importance for e.g. extreme value statistics, system reliability, and first passage probability.
Following Michael Faraday's Footprints
Galeano, Javier
2011-01-01
Last fall I had the good fortune of receiving financial support to shoot a documentary about Michael Faraday. I took the opportunity to learn more about this great experimentalist and to visit the highlights of places in his life. In this paper, I would like to share a list and description of some of the most remarkable places in London suitable…
Pump-probe nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.
2006-01-01
Specific types of atomic coherences between Zeeman sublevels can be generated and detected using a method based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light. Linearly polarized, frequency-modulated light is employed to selectively generate ground-state coherences between Zeeman sublevels for which Δm=2 and Δm=4 in 85 Rb and 87 Rb atoms, and additionally Δm=6 in 85 Rb. The atomic coherences are detected with a separate, unmodulated probe light beam. Separation of the pump and probe beams enables independent investigation of the processes of creation and detection of the atomic coherences. With the present technique the transfer of the Zeeman coherences, including high-order coherences, from excited to ground state by spontaneous emission has been observed
Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with modulated light in tilted magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustelny, S.; Gawlik, W.; Rochester, S. M.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.
2006-01-01
Larmor precession of laser-polarized atoms contained in antirelaxation-coated cells, detected via nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR), is a promising technique for a new generation of ultrasensitive atomic magnetometers. For magnetic fields directed along the light propagation direction, resonances in NMOR appear when linearly polarized light is frequency or amplitude modulated at twice the Larmor frequency. Because the frequency of these resonances depends on the magnitude but not the direction of the field, they are useful for scalar magnetometry. Additional NMOR resonances at the Larmor frequency appear when the magnetic field is tilted away from the light propagation direction in the plane defined by the light propagation and polarization vectors. These resonances, studied both experimentally and with a density matrix calculation in the present work, offer a convenient method of achieving additional information about a direction of the magnetic field
Liu, Guodong; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Tianyong; Shang, Chao; Gao, Kaiqiang
2015-06-01
A simple measurement scheme of the linewidth enhancement factor based on the nonlinear polarization rotation of a semiconductor optical amplifier is proposed. Considering the polarization dependent gain, the relationship between the linewidth enhancement factor and the Stokes vector was derived theoretically. It is proven that the linewidth enhancement factor can be calculated directly from the Stokes parameters without any other assistant measurement system. The results demonstrate that the linewidth enhancement factor varies in a small range from 10.5 to 8.5 for TE mode and from 8.2 to 5.8 for TM mode, respectively, when the input optical power varies from 50 μW to 1 mW and the bias current varies from 90 to 170 mA.
ICRF Faraday shield plasma sheath models: Low and high conductivity limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whealton, J.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Raridon, R.J.
1989-01-01
Using a 2-D nonlinear formulation which explicitly considers the plasma edge near a Faraday shield in a self consistent manner, progress is indicated in the modeling of the ion motion for a Faraday shield concept and model suggested by Perkins. Several models are considered which may provide significant insight into the impurities generation for ICRH antennas. 6 refs., 8 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musil, F.; Zacek, F.; Buerger, A.; Karlovsky, J.
1976-01-01
The measurement is described of electron mobility in semiconducting plates placed between two cylindrical antennas with diameter d approximately equal to 0.75lambda 0 by means of the microwave Faraday effect. This system makes it possible (i) to measure the Faraday rotation in semiconductina plates of arbitrary transverse dimensions, greater or at least equal to the diameter of dielectric antennas, (ii) to evaluate the unknown value of the charge carrier mobility from the measured rotation in an unbounded solid state plasma slab approximation. The measurement of Faraday rotation in n-type Ge plates is reported. The comparison of the experimental data with the theory shows good agreement. (author)
Faraday tarotion: new parameter for electromagnetic pulse propagation in magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloch, S.C.; Lyons, P.W.
1976-01-01
Extreme distortion and time-dependent Faraday rotation occur for propagation of short electromagnetic pulses in magnetoplasma, for some ranges of plasma parameters. In order to relate pulse and monochromatic waves for propagation-path diagnostic purposes, a new parameter is introduced for the transmitted pulse train which has properties that correspond very accurately to results that would be expected for Faraday rotation of a continuous wave having the central frequency of the incident pulse spectrum. Results for 5-ns pulses (10 GHz) are presented for varying propagating length, static magnetic field, electron density, and collisional absorption
The Faraday effect of an antiferromagnetic photonic crystal with a defect layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xuanzhang
2005-01-01
A theoretical calculation of the Faraday optical rotation effect of an antiferromagnetic (AF) photonic crystal is presented. This crystal is composed of AF and dielectric (D) layers and contains an AF defect layer. From the theoretical results for the FeF 2 -SiO 2 crystal, we see a defect mode with high transmission and a high Faraday rotation angle in the optical stop band for ω/2πc -1 . The Faraday rotation of the mode is about 28 deg. mm -1 and 15 times that of the single AF film. Another more striking property is that the rotation in the vicinity of the zero-field AF resonance frequency is even larger than that of the defect mode: about 250 times. The Faraday rotation can be tuned by changing the strength of the external static magnetic field
A novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope with closed-loop Faraday modulation.
Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Qin, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Dong, Haifeng
2013-08-01
We report a novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) with closed-loop Faraday modulation method. This ASG requires approximately 30 min to start-up and 110 °C to operate. A closed-loop Faraday modulation method for measurement of the optical rotation was used in this ASG. This method uses an additional Faraday modulator to suppress the laser intensity fluctuation and Faraday modulator thermal induced fluctuation. We theoretically and experimentally validate this method in the Cs-(129)Xe ASG and achieved a bias stability of approximately 3.25 °∕h.
Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A; Wondraczek, Lothar
2015-03-10
We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb(3+) ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 10(21) cm(-3), the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb(3+) concentration of ~6.5 × 10(21) cm(-3). For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb(3+) photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) for ~ 5.0 × 10(21) cm(-3) Tb(3+). This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10(-24) cm(2)s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb(3+) fiber laser.
Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A.; Wondraczek, Lothar
2015-01-01
We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb3+ ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 1021 cm−3, the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400–1500 nm is found for a Tb3+ concentration of ~6.5 × 1021 cm−3. For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb3+ photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10−21 cm2 for ~ 5.0 × 1021 cm−3 Tb3+. This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10−24 cm2s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb3+ fiber laser. PMID:25754819
Faraday effect on stimulated Raman scattering in the linear region
Liu, Z. J.; Li, B.; Xiang, J.; Cao, L. H.; Zheng, C. Y.; Hao, L.
2018-04-01
The paper presents the effect of Faraday rotation on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). When light propagates along the magnetic field upon plasma, Faraday rotation occurs. The rotation angle can be expressed as {{d}}θ /{{d}}{s}=2.93× {10}-4B\\tfrac{{n}e/{n}c}{\\sqrt{1-{n}e/{n}c}} {cm}}-1 approximately, where θ is the rotation angle and s is distance, n e is the electron density, n c is the critical density and B is magnetic field in unit of Gauss. Both the incident light and Raman light have Faraday effects. The angle between the polarization directions of incident light and Raman light changes with position. The driven force of electron plasma wave also reduces, and then SRS scattering level is reduced. Faraday rotation effect can increase the laser intensity threshold of Raman scattering, even if the magnetic field strength is small. The circularly polarized light incident case is also compared with that of the linearly polarized light incident. The Raman scattering level of linearly polarized light is much smaller than that of circularly polarized light in the magnetized plasma. The difference between linearly and circularly polarized lights is also discussed.
French, M M J
2011-01-01
A Faraday cage is an interesting physics phenomena where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can! The background of the physics behind this is described in some detail followed by a explanation of some demonstrations and experiments which I have used.
Michael Faraday vs. the Spiritualists
Hirshfeld, Alan
2006-12-01
In the 1850s, renowned physicist Michael Faraday launched a public campaign against pseudoscience and spiritualism, which were rampant in England at the time. Faraday objected especially to claims that electrical or magnetic forces were responsible for paranormal phenomena, such as table-spinning and communication with the dead. Using scientific methods, Faraday unmasked the deceptions of spiritualists, clairvoyants and mediums and also laid bare the credulity of a public ill-educated in science. Despite his efforts, Victorian society's fascination with the paranormal swelled. Faraday's debacle anticipates current controversies about public science education and the interface between science and religion. This episode is one of many described in the new biography, The Electric Life of Michael Faraday (Walker & Co.), which chronicles Faraday's discoveries and his unlikely rise from poverty to the pinnacle of the English science establishment.
ICRF Faraday shield plasma sheath physics: The Perkins paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whealton, J.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Raridon, R.J.
1989-01-01
Using a 2-D nonlinear formulation which considers the plasma edge near a Faraday shield in a self consistent manner, progress is indicated in the modeling of the ion motion for a Perkins embodiment. Ambiguities in the formulation are also indicated, the resolution of which will provide significant insight into the impurities generation for ICRH antennas. 6 refs., 3 figs
Seismic induced nonlinear rotor-bearing-casing interaction of rotating nuclear components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choy, F.K.; Padovan, J.; Li, W.H.
1989-01-01
The study of the dynamics of turbomachinery during seismic events has been of continuous interest to both researchers and designers of large rotating equipment. Failure in such equipment, especially those associated with nuclear power generation, can lead to catastrophic consequences. Hence, there is a general trend for corporations to overdesign the equipment without any indepth understanding of the dynamical performance of the machine under extreme operating conditions. The overall objective of this paper are fourfold, namely: (1) To study the nonlinear dynamics of rotor-bearing casing system during rub interactions; (2) To examine the effects of suddenly induced imbalance and base motion in the global dynamical behavior of the system; (3) To develop engineering insights through the modal parameters in both time and frequency domain; (4) To generate signature analysis on rub forces for pattern recognition. These goals are achieved through the development of a modal impact model. Accuracy and efficiency of this transient model are maintained using a self-adaptive integration scheme
Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Mørch, Troels
2013-01-01
We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit...
Faraday effect in Hg1-xMnxTe semimagnetic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savchuk, A.I.; Frasunyak, V.M.; Fediv, V.I.
1995-01-01
Results on studies of spectral and temperature dependencies of the Faraday rotation in the Hg 1-x Mn x Te semiconductors are presented. It is shown that the Faraday rotation spectral dependence in the Hg 1-x Mn x Te crystals corresponds to model of the Faraday giant effect in other A 1-x 2 Mn x B 6 semimagnetic semiconductors, caused by strong exchange interaction between Mn d-electrons and s,p - zone carriers. The phase transition into the glass spin state is observed in the Hg 1-x Mn x Te crystals with Mn high content. 5 refs.; 2 figs
Budzinskiy, S. S.; Razgulin, A. V.
2017-08-01
In this paper we study one-dimensional rotating and standing waves in a model of an O(2)-symmetric nonlinear optical system with diffraction and delay in the feedback loop whose dynamics is governed by a system of coupled delayed parabolic equation and linear Schrodinger-type equation. We elaborate a two-step approach: transition to a rotating coordinate system to obtain the profiles of the waves as small parameter expansions and the normal form technique to study their qualitative dynamic behavior and stability. Theoretical results stand in a good agreement with direct computer simulations presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shouzhao Sheng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.
Growth, Faraday and inverse Faraday characteristics of Tb2Ti2O7 crystal.
Guo, Feiyun; Sun, Yilin; Yang, Xiongsheng; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Bin; Zhuang, Naifeng; Chen, Jianzhong
2016-03-21
Tb2Ti2O7 (TTO) single crystal with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 16 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. Rietveld structure refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms that the compound crystallizes in the cubic system with pyrochlore structure. Transmission spectra, Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra, Faraday and inverse Faraday characteristics of TTO crystal have been measured and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that TTO crystal has high transmittance at 700-1400 nm waveband and a larger Verdat constant than that of TGG reported. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra showed that the 4f→4f transitions of Tb3+ have significant contributions to the magneto-optical activity (MOA). In the time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, the rotation signals of the probe beam based on the inverse Faraday effect in magneto-optical crystal were observed at zero time delay, the full width at half maximum of the rotation and ellipticity signals can be as fast as ~500 fs, which indicates that TTO crystal can be a promising material for ultrafast all-optical magnetic switching.
Faraday instability and Faraday patterns in a superfluid Fermi gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Rongan; Xue Jukui; Li Haocai
2011-01-01
With the consideration of the coupling between the transverse width and the longitudinal density, the parametric excitations related to Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas are studied. A Mathieu equation is obtained, and it is demonstrated firstly that the excited actual 3D Faraday pattern is the combination of the longitudinal Faraday density wave and the corresponding transverse width fluctuation in the longitudinal direction. The Faraday instability growth index and the kinematic equations of the Faraday density wave and the width fluctuation along the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) crossover are also given for the first time. It is found that the 3D Faraday pattern presents quite different behaviours (such as the excitations and the motions) when the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side. The coupling not only plays an important role in the parametric excitation, but also determines the dominant wavelength of the spatial structure. Along the crossover, the coupling effects are more significant in the BCS side. The final numerical investigation verifies these results and gives a detailed study of the parametric excitations (i.e. Faraday instability) and the 3D pattern formation.
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shehzad, S. A.; Rauf, A.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath
2018-05-01
This research is made to visualize the nonlinear radiated flow of hydromagnetic nano-fluid induced due to rotation of the disk. The considered nano-fluid is a mixture of water and Ti6Al4V or AA7072 nano-particles. The various shapes of nanoparticles like lamina, column, sphere, tetrahedron and hexahedron are chosen in the analysis. The irregular heat source and nonlinear radiative terms are accounted in the law of energy. We used the heat flux condition instead of constant surface temperature condition. Heat flux condition is more relativistic and according to physical nature of the problem. The problem is made dimensionless with the help of suitable similarity constraints. The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme is adopted to find the numerical solutions of governing nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The solutions are plotted by considering the various values of emerging physical constraints. The effects of various shapes of nanoparticles are drawn and discussed.
PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SNYDER, P.B.; WILSON, H.R.; XU, X.Q.; WEBSTER, A.J.
2004-01-01
Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n ∼ 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces
Faraday imaging at high temperatures
Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick
1997-01-01
A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners
Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.
1992-01-01
Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.
Faraday imaging at high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.
1997-01-01
A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allam M. N. M.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations.Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.
Soft X-Ray Magneto-optical Faraday Effect around Ni M2,3 Edges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kai, Chen; Ming-Qi, Cui; Fen, Yan; Li-Juan, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Chen-Yan, Ma; Shi-Bo, Xi; Yi-Dong, Zhao; Jia, Zhao
2008-01-01
We present magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectra measured around the M 2,3 edges (60–70eV) of Ni films at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). A polarization analysis of the final state of the transmitted radiation from the Ni film is employed to determine the Faraday rotation at the edges. The MO effect becomes resonantly enhanced at the M 2,3 edges, and accordingly large values for the rotation angle β of 1.85 ± 0.19° for this ferromagnetic Ni film with thickness of 31 nm are measured. Without the magnetic field, the azimuthal angles do not shift; with parallel and antiparallel magnetic field the rotation angles shift in the opposite way and they are symmetrical. The uncertainty of Faraday rotation angles mainly comes from the data fitting and the state change of the beamline when the angles are measured
Measurement of the current in water discharge using magneto-optical Faraday effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkisov, G.S.; Woodworth, J.R.
2006-01-01
The observation of magnetooptical Faraday effects in water in experiments with electrical breakdown is presented. After high-voltage breakdown, the ionized channel with ∼4 kA current was generated. The magnetic field from the current channel induces a circular birefringence which results in rotation of the polarization plane of a probing laser (200 ps, 532 nm). In spite of fast opposite radius drop of the magnetic field in radial direction, the Faraday rotation effect drops very slowly. The rotation of the polarization plane was ∼0.65 deg. ±5%. The optical measurements are in good agreement within ∼7% with the electrical measurements of the current
1/f Noise Inside a Faraday Cage
Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.
2009-04-01
We show that quantum 1/f noise does not have a lower frequency limit given by the lowest free electromagnetic field mode in a Faraday cage, even in an ideal cage. Indeed, quantum 1/f noise comes from the infrared-divergent coupling of the field with the charges, in their joint nonlinear system, where the charges cause the field that reacts back on the charges, and so on. This low-frequency limitation is thus not applicable for the nonlinear system of matter and field in interaction. Indeed, this nonlinear system is governed by Newton's laws, Maxwell's equations, in general also by the diffusion equations for particles and heat, or reaction kinetics given by quantum matrix elements. Nevertheless, all the other quantities can be eliminated in principle, resulting in highly nonlinear integro-differential equations for the electromagnetic field only, which no longer yield a fundamental frequency. Alternatively, we may describe this through the presence of an infinite system of subharmonics. We show how this was proven early in the classical and quantum domains, adding new insight.
1/f Noise Inside a Faraday Cage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.
2009-01-01
We show that quantum 1/f noise does not have a lower frequency limit given by the lowest free electromagnetic field mode in a Faraday cage, even in an ideal cage. Indeed, quantum 1/f noise comes from the infrared-divergent coupling of the field with the charges, in their joint nonlinear system, where the charges cause the field that reacts back on the charges, and so on. This low-frequency limitation is thus not applicable for the nonlinear system of matter and field in interaction. Indeed, this nonlinear system is governed by Newton's laws, Maxwell's equations, in general also by the diffusion equations for particles and heat, or reaction kinetics given by quantum matrix elements. Nevertheless, all the other quantities can be eliminated in principle, resulting in highly nonlinear integro-differential equations for the electromagnetic field only, which no longer yield a fundamental frequency. Alternatively, we may describe this through the presence of an infinite system of subharmonics. We show how this was proven early in the classical and quantum domains, adding new insight.
Huang, Yonghui; Yang, Zhicheng; Liu, Airong; Fu, Jiyang
2018-05-28
The buckling behavior of functionally graded graphene platelet-reinforced composite (FG-GPLRC) shallow arches with elastic rotational constraints under uniform radial load is investigated in this paper. The nonlinear equilibrium equation of the FG-GPLRC shallow arch with elastic rotational constraints under uniform radial load is established using the Halpin-Tsai micromechanics model and the principle of virtual work, from which the critical buckling load of FG-GPLRC shallow arches with elastic rotational constraints can be obtained. This paper gives special attention to the effect of the GPL distribution pattern, weight fraction, geometric parameters, and the constraint stiffness on the buckling load. The numerical results show that all of the FG-GPLRC shallow arches with elastic rotational constraints have a higher buckling load-carrying capacity compared to the pure epoxy arch, and arches of the distribution pattern X have the highest buckling load among four distribution patterns. When the GPL weight fraction is constant, the thinner and larger GPL can provide the better reinforcing effect to the FG-GPLRC shallow arch. However, when the value of the aspect ratio is greater than 4, the flakiness ratio is greater than 103, and the effect of GPL's dimensions on the buckling load of the FG-GPLRC shallow arch is less significant. In addition, the buckling model of FG-GPLRC shallow arch with elastic rotational constraints is changed as the GPL distribution patterns or the constraint stiffness changes. It is expected that the method and the results that are presented in this paper will be useful as a reference for the stability design of this type of arch in the future.
Active Faraday optical frequency standard.
Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao
2014-11-01
We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks.
Blanchard, Antoine; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2017-07-01
We computationally investigate the dynamics of a linearly-sprung circular cylinder immersed in an incompressible flow and undergoing transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV), to which is attached a rotational nonlinear energy sink (NES) consisting of a mass that freely rotates at constant radius about the cylinder axis, and whose motion is restrained by a rotational linear viscous damper. The inertial coupling between the rotational motion of the attached mass and the rectilinear motion of the cylinder is ;essentially nonlinear;, which, in conjunction with dissipation, allows for one-way, nearly irreversible targeted energy transfer (TET) from the oscillating cylinder to the nonlinear dissipative attachment. At the intermediate Reynolds number Re = 100, the NES-equipped sprung cylinder undergoes repetitive cycles of slowly decaying oscillations punctuated by intervals of chaotic instabilities. During the slowly decaying portion of each cycle, the dynamics of the cylinder is regular and, for large enough values of the ratio ε of the NES mass to the total mass (i.e., NES mass plus cylinder mass), can lead to significant vortex street elongation with partial stabilization of the wake. As ε approaches zero, no such vortex elongation is observed and the wake patterns appear similar to that for a sprung cylinder with no NES. We apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to the velocity flow field during a slowly decaying portion of the solution and show that, in situations where vortex elongation occurs, the NES, though not in direct contact with the surrounding fluid, has a drastic effect on the underlying flow structures, imparting significant and continuous passive redistribution of energy among POD modes. We construct a POD-based reduced-order model for the lift coefficient to characterize energy transactions between the fluid and the cylinder throughout the slowly decaying cycle. We introduce a quantitative signed measure of the work done by the fluid on the
Faraday effect in Gd3Al5O12 and Gd3Ga5O12 rare earth garnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, U.V.; Klochkov, A.A.; Popov, A.I.; Sokolov, Y.B.
1989-01-01
The dispersion of the Faraday rotation of the garnets Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 and Gd 3 Al 5 O 12 in the 440--700-nm region in the 85--295-K temperature interval and the spectral dependence of the Faraday effect in the garnets Y 3 Ga 5 O 12 and Y 3 Al 5 O 12 for wavelengths from 250 to 700 nm are investigated. The contributions to the Faraday rotation caused by the Gd 3+ ions and the diamagnetic lattice of the garnets are separated
Anomalous Faraday effect of a system with extraordinary optical transmittance.
Khanikaev, Alexander B; Baryshev, Alexander V; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Granovsky, Alexander B; Inoue, Mitsuteru
2007-05-28
It is shown theoretically that the Faraday rotation becomes anomalously large and exhibits extraordinary behavior near the frequencies of the extraordinary optical transmittance through optically thick perforated metal film with holes filled with a magneto-optically active material. This phenomenon is explained as result of strong confinement of the evanescent electromagnetic field within magnetic material, which occurs due to excitation of the coupled plasmon-polaritons on the opposite surfaces of the film.
Neutrino oscillations and a new Faraday effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anwar Mughal, M.; Ahmed, K.
1992-07-01
By analogy with the classical Faraday effect for the electromagnetic waves, a Faraday effect for massive neutrinos is found to be a somewhat generic description of neutrino oscillations when the neutrinos traverse a dense medium with or without a magnetic field. We further plot the Faraday angle for the solar neutrino problem as an illustration of the fact that the Faraday effect may yield a conceptually convenient parametrization of various neutrino oscillation scenarios. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs
Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2018-04-01
Mathematical model for Maxwell fluid flow in rotating frame induced by an isothermal stretching wall is explored numerically. Scale analysis based boundary layer approximations are applied to simplify the conservation relations which are later converted to similar forms via appropriate substitutions. A numerical approach is utilized to derive similarity solutions for broad range of Deborah number. The results predict that velocity distributions are inversely proportional to the stress relaxation time. This outcome is different from that observed for the elastic parameter of second grade fluid. Unlike non-rotating frame, the solution curves are oscillatory decaying functions of similarity variable. As angular velocity enlarges, temperature rises and significant drop in the heat transfer coefficient occurs. We note that the wall slope of temperature has an asymptotically decaying profile against the wall to ambient ratio parameter. From the qualitative view point, temperature ratio parameter and radiation parameter have similar effect on the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, radiation parameter has a definite role in improving the cooling process of the stretching boundary. A comparative study of current numerical computations and those from the existing studies is also presented in a limiting case. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of non-linear radiation in rotating viscoelastic flow due to linearly stretched plate is just modeled here.
Efficient computation of quasiperiodic oscillations in nonlinear systems with fast rotating parts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schilder, Frank; Rübel, Jan; Starke, Jens
2008-01-01
We present a numerical method for the investigation of quasiperiodic oscillations in applications modeled by systems of ordinary differential equations. We focus on systems with parts that have a significant rotational speed. An important element of our approach is that it allows us to verify whe...
Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engels, P.; Atherton, C.; Hoefer, M. A.
2007-01-01
Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Basu, Biswajit
2015-01-01
Tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) utilize the sloshing motion of the fluid to suppress structural vibrations and become a natural candidate for damping vibrations in rotating wind turbine blades. The centrifugal acceleration at the tip of a wind turbine blade can reach a magnitude of 7–8g. This facilit......Tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) utilize the sloshing motion of the fluid to suppress structural vibrations and become a natural candidate for damping vibrations in rotating wind turbine blades. The centrifugal acceleration at the tip of a wind turbine blade can reach a magnitude of 7–8g...... free-surface elevation equally well, the one-mode model can still be utilized for the design of TLD. Parametric optimization of the TLD is carried out based on the one-mode model, and the optimized damper effectively improves the dynamic response of wind turbine blades....
Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion
De Luca, R.
2010-01-01
Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…
Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning
Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.
1992-01-01
Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.
French, M. M. J.
2011-01-01
A Faraday cage is an interesting physical phenomenon where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can. The background of the physics behind this is…
Various Paths to Faraday's Law
Redzic, Dragan V.
2008-01-01
In a recent note, the author presented a derivation of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction for a closed filamentary circuit C(t) which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves via the magnetic vector potential. Recently, Kholmetskii et al, while correcting an error in an equation, showed that it can be…
Building a better Faraday cage
MartinAlfven; Wright, David; skocpol; Rounce, Graham; Richfield, Jon; W, Nick; wheelsonfire
2015-11-01
In reply to the physicsworld.com news article “Are Faraday cages less effective than previously thought?” (15 September, http://ow.ly/SfklO), about a study that indicated, based on mathematical modelling, that conducting wire-mesh cages may not be as good at excluding electromagnetic radiation as is commonly assumed.
Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.; Tanner, J. A.
1984-01-01
An effective computational strategy is presented for the large-rotation, nonlinear axisymmetric analysis of shells of revolution. The three key elements of the computational strategy are: (1) use of mixed finite-element models with discontinuous stress resultants at the element interfaces; (2) substantial reduction in the total number of degrees of freedom through the use of a multiple-parameter reduction technique; and (3) reduction in the size of the analysis model through the decomposition of asymmetric loads into symmetric and antisymmetric components coupled with the use of the multiple-parameter reduction technique. The potential of the proposed computational strategy is discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy of the mixed models developed and to show the potential of using the proposed computational strategy for the analysis of tires.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mantovani
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of symmetric circulations of a rotating baroclinic flow, forced by a steady thermal wind and dissipated by Laplacian friction. The analysis is performed with numerical time-integration. Symmetric flows, vertically bound by horizontal walls and subject to either periodic or vertical wall lateral boundary conditions, are investigated in the region of parameter-space where unstable small amplitude modes evolve into stable stationary nonlinear solutions. The distribution of solutions in parameter-space is analysed up to the threshold of chaotic behaviour and the physical nature of the nonlinear interaction operating on the finite amplitude unstable modes is investigated. In particular, analysis of time-dependent energy-conversions allows understanding of the physical mechanisms operating from the initial phase of linear instability to the finite amplitude stable state. Vertical shear of the basic flow is shown to play a direct role in injecting energy into symmetric flow since the stage of linear growth. Dissipation proves essential not only in limiting the energy of linearly unstable modes, but also in selecting their dominant space-scales in the finite amplitude stage.
Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-05-01
Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.
Nonlinear analysis of flexible beams undergoing large rotations Via symbolic computations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan Xiaofeng
2001-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage approach is presented for analyzing flexible beams undergoing large rotations. In the first stage, the symbolic forms of equations of motion and the Jacobian matrix are generated by means of MATLAB and written into a MATLAB script file automatically, where the flexible beams are described by the unified formulation presented in our previous paper. In the second stage, the derived equations of motion are solved by means of implicit numerical methods. Several comparison computations are performed. The two-stage approach proves to be much more efficient than pure numerical one.
Giant magneto-optical Kerr effect and universal Faraday effect in thin-film topological insulators.
Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H
2010-07-30
Topological insulators can exhibit strong magneto-electric effects when their time-reversal symmetry is broken. In this Letter we consider the magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday effects of a topological insulator thin film weakly exchange coupled to a ferromagnet. We find that its Faraday rotation has a universal value at low frequencies θF=tan(-1)α, where α is the vacuum fine structure constant, and that it has a giant Kerr rotation θK=π/2. These properties follow from a delicate interplay between thin-film cavity confinement and the surface Hall conductivity of a topological insulator's helical quasiparticles.
Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Katgert, P.; de Bruyn, A. G.
Aims. We investigate the distribution and properties of Faraday rotating and synchrotron emitting regions in the Galactic ISM in the direction of the Galactic anti-centre. Methods. We apply Faraday tomography to a radio polarization dataset that we obtained with the WSRT. We developed a new method
Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)
2009-07-01
Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.
Antoine, Xavier; Levitt, Antoine; Tang, Qinglin
2017-08-01
We propose a preconditioned nonlinear conjugate gradient method coupled with a spectral spatial discretization scheme for computing the ground states (GS) of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), modeled by the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation (GPE). We first start by reviewing the classical gradient flow (also known as imaginary time (IMT)) method which considers the problem from the PDE standpoint, leading to numerically solve a dissipative equation. Based on this IMT equation, we analyze the forward Euler (FE), Crank-Nicolson (CN) and the classical backward Euler (BE) schemes for linear problems and recognize classical power iterations, allowing us to derive convergence rates. By considering the alternative point of view of minimization problems, we propose the preconditioned steepest descent (PSD) and conjugate gradient (PCG) methods for the GS computation of the GPE. We investigate the choice of the preconditioner, which plays a key role in the acceleration of the convergence process. The performance of the new algorithms is tested in 1D, 2D and 3D. We conclude that the PCG method outperforms all the previous methods, most particularly for 2D and 3D fast rotating BECs, while being simple to implement.
Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation produced by atoms near a J=1→J=0 transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roscinski, Vitalij; Czub, Janusz; Miklaszewski, Wieslaw
2004-01-01
The nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in a medium consisting of J=1→J=0 atoms placed in a static magnetic field is studied. The density matrix approach and irreducible atomic basis are used to describe the state of the atomic system. The stationary propagation equations for two collinear laser beams with perpendicular circular polarizations are derived and analyzed in the case of the magnetic field perpendicular to the light propagation direction. The effect of the linear polarization rotation toward the direction parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field vector and lossless propagation of the resulting light are predicted. The conversion of the circularly polarized beam into linearly polarized one is shown. The propagation of the leading edges of switched on cw-laser beams and their stationary propagation are analyzed numerically. The dependence of the considered effects on the light detuning and on the additional magnetic field component parallel to the light propagation direction is discussed. The destructive role of the collisional relaxation is demonstrated
Plasma polarimetry for large Cotton--Mouton and Faraday effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segre, S.E.
1995-01-01
A formalism is presented for treating plasma polarimetry when both the Cotton--Mouton and the Faraday effects are large. For this general case it is shown that, for each measuring chord, up to nine parameters related to the plasma can be determined, instead of the usual single Faraday rotation. These parameters can be measured by a convenient modulation of the polarization state of the input radiation, and they can be used in the reconstruction of the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. Thus, the potential of the polarimetric diagnostic can be significantly increased, and the range of plasma conditions where the latter can be used, is extended. The importance of refraction is discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Intracavity Faraday modulation spectroscopy (INFAMOS): A tool for radical detection
Gianella, Michele; Pinto, Tomas H. P.; Wu, Xia; Ritchie, Grant A. D.
2017-08-01
We present the intra-cavity Faraday modulation spectroscopy technique, whereby optical feedback cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is coupled with Faraday modulation spectroscopy to greatly enhance the interaction path length of a laser beam with a paramagnetic sample in a magnetic field. We describe a first prototype based upon a cw quantum cascade laser targeting a selection of fundamental rovibrational R-branch transitions of nitric oxide (1890 cm-1), consisting of a linear cavity (finesse F =6300 ) and a water-cooled solenoid. We demonstrate a minimum detectable Verdet constant of Vmin=4.7 ×10-14 rad cm-1 G-1 H z-1/2 (at SNR = 1), corresponding to a single-pass rotation angle of 1.6 ×10-10 rad Hz-1/2 and a limit of detection of 0.21 ppbv Hz-1/2 NO.
Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms
Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob
2013-05-01
We investigate non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. In particular, we pursue applications to dynamically controlled ultracold atoms. The dependence of the Faraday signal on laser detuning, atomic density and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. In particular the destructivity per measurement is extremely low and we illustrate this by imaging the same cloud up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration. Adding dynamic changes to system parameters, we demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. The method can be implemented particularly easily in standard imaging systems by the insertion of an extra polarizing beam splitter. These results are steps towards quantum state engineering using feedback control of ultracold atoms.
Intracavity Faraday modulation spectroscopy (INFAMOS): A tool for radical detection.
Gianella, Michele; Pinto, Tomas H P; Wu, Xia; Ritchie, Grant A D
2017-08-07
We present the intra-cavity Faraday modulation spectroscopy technique, whereby optical feedback cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is coupled with Faraday modulation spectroscopy to greatly enhance the interaction path length of a laser beam with a paramagnetic sample in a magnetic field. We describe a first prototype based upon a cw quantum cascade laser targeting a selection of fundamental rovibrational R-branch transitions of nitric oxide (1890 cm -1 ), consisting of a linear cavity (finesse F=6300) and a water-cooled solenoid. We demonstrate a minimum detectable Verdet constant of V min =4.7×10 -14 rad cm -1 G -1 Hz -1/2 (at SNR = 1), corresponding to a single-pass rotation angle of 1.6×10 -10 rad Hz -1/2 and a limit of detection of 0.21 ppbv Hz -1/2 NO.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrillo-Delgado, C; Torres-Torres, C; García-Merino, J A; García-Gil, C I; Khomenko, A V; Trejo-Valdez, M; Martínez-Gutiérrez, H; Torres-Martínez, R
2016-01-01
Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by a ZnO thin solid film deposited on a SnO 2 substrate are presented. The samples were prepared by a spray pyrolysis processing route. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and UV–Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out. The picosecond response at 1064 nm was explored by the z-scan technique. A large optical Kerr effect with two-photon absorption was obtained. The inhibition of the nonlinear optical absorption together with a noticeable enhancement in the optical Kerr effect in the sample was achieved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles into the ZnO film. Additionally, a two-wave mixing configuration at 532 nm was performed and an optical Kerr effect was identified as the main cause of the nanosecond third-order optical nonlinearity. The relaxation time of the photothermal response of the sample was estimated to be about 1 s when the sample was excited by nanosecond single-shots. The rotation of the sample during the nanosecond two-wave mixing experiments was analyzed. It was stated that a non-monotonic relation between rotating frequency and pulse repetition rate governs the thermal contribution to the nonlinear refractive index exhibited by a rotating film. Potential applications for switching photothermal interactions in rotating samples can be contemplated. A rotary logic system dependent on Kerr transmittance in a two-wave mixing experiment was proposed. (paper)
Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters
Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.
1993-01-01
The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.
Faraday effect in Cd1-xMnxTe semimagnetic semiconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatamanyuk, P.P.; Savitskij, A.V.; Savchuk, A.I.; Ul'yanitskij, K.S.
1988-01-01
The Faraday effect is investigated in the semimagnetic semiconductor Cd 1-x Mn x Te (0≥x≤0.3) in the spectral range from 0.6 to 1.8 eV at temperatures between 4.2 and 350 K and in magnetic fields up to 250 kOe. Some peculiarities in the dispersion of the Faraday rotation (FR) are observed which are connected with a change in the direction of rotation depending on the composition and temperature. The results are analyzed by assuming the FR to consist of three components: an interband, exciton and intracentral contribution. The deviation of FR from saturation in strong magnetic fields is interpreted within the framework of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the Mn 2+ ions. On the basis of an analysis of the FR temperature dependence it is suggested that the spontaneous Faraday effect is characteristic of semimagnetic semiconductors in spin glass phase
Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo
2009-02-01
The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi [Graduate Student, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Kanazawa, Chikara [Undergraduate, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 63-8522 (Japan); Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo, E-mail: maeno@faculty.chiba-u.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)
2009-02-01
The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo
2009-01-01
The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.
Reconfigurable antennas radiations using plasma Faraday cage
Barro , Oumar Alassane; Himdi , Mohamed; Lafond , Olivier
2015-01-01
International audience; This letter presents a new reconfigurable plasma antenna associated with a Faraday cage. The Faraday cage is realized using a fluorescent lamp. A patch antenna with a broadside radiation pattern or a monopole antenna with an end-fire radiation pattern , operating at 2.45 GHz, is placed inside Faraday cage. The performance of the reconfigurable system is observed in terms of input reflection coefficient, gain and radiation pattern via simulation and measurement. It is s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiu Zian Cheak; Tan Sin Jin; Zarei Arman; Ahmad Harith; Harun Sulaiman Wadi
2014-01-01
A simple mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with three switchable operation states is proposed and demonstrated based on nonlinear polarization rotation. The EDFL generates a stable square pulse at a third harmonic pulse repetition rate of 87 kHz as the 1480 nm pump power increases from the threshold of 17.5 mW to 34.3 mW. The square pulse duration increases from 105 ns to 245 ns as the pump power increases within this region. The pulse operation switches to the second operation state as the pump power is varied from 48.2 mW to 116.7 mW. The laser operates at a fundamental repetition rate of 29 kHz with a fixed pulse width of 8.5 μs within the pump power region. At a pump power of 116.7 mW, the average output power is 3.84 mW, which corresponds to the pulse energy of 131.5 nJ. When the pump power continues to increase, the pulse train experiences unstable oscillation before it reaches the third stable operation state within a pump power region of 138.9 mW to 145.0 mW. Within this region, the EDFL produces a fixed pulse width of 2.8 μs and a harmonic pulse repetition rate of 58 kHz. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa
2017-01-01
We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2017-01-15
We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, A-P; Luo, Z-C; Xu, W-C; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Dianov, E M
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Exploiting the spectral filtering effect caused by the combination of the polarizer and intracavity birefringence, the wavelength separation of dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses can be flexibly tuned between 2.38 and 20.45 nm. Taking the advantage of NPR-induced intensity-dependent loss to suppress the mode competition, the stable dual-wavelength pulses output is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation is achieved by simply rotating the polarization controllers (PCs)
The Correspondence of Michael Faraday Pt 6 1860-1867
Frank, James
2012-01-01
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was one of the most important men of science in nineteenth century Britain. His discoveries of electro-magnetic rotations (1821) and electro-magnetic induction (1831) laid the foundations of the modern electrical industry. His discovery of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetism (1845) led him to formulate the field theory of electro-magnetism, which forms one of the cornerstones of modern physics.These and a whole host of other fundamental discoveries in physics and chemistry, together with his lecturing at the Royal Institution, his work for the state (includi
Faraday screen sputtering on TPX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehst, D.A.
1994-12-01
The TPX design stipulates that the ion-cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antenna must have a Faraday screen (FS). The author considers here possible low Z coatings for the screen, as well as sputtering behavior of the Ni and Ti substrates. The theory of rf-induced sputtering has been developed, and he follows those theoretical approaches. The author's emphasis will be on both impurity generation as a possible source of increased Z eff , and also on actual erosion-lifetime of the materials under worst case conditions
Auchmann, Bernhard; Russenschuck, Stephan
2014-01-01
The validity of the flux rule to determine the electromotive force in a cycle, epsilon = -d Phi/dt, has been the subject of a large amount of controversy since the beginning of electrical technology. Although most authors reach correct conclusions for a class of problems called Faraday paradoxes, the arguments that are used vary and often rely on ad-hoc physical reasoning. A didactic and insightful treatment should be based solely on Maxwell's equations, the constitutive laws, and a detailed study of the mathematics involved.
Gyromagnetic Faraday effect in transparent magnetic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krinchik, G.S.; Koptsik, S.V.; Gan'shina, E.A.
1982-01-01
Faraday effect in the transparent paramagnetic Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 50 kE within 1-2.5 μm range is studied. The gyromagnetic Faraday effect caused by precession of magnetization vector under the effect of the magnetic field of wave light is shown to be the determinimg one in the infrared range. Hyromagnetic and gyroelectric contributions to Faraday effect in Gd 3 Fe 5 O 12 and Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 are determined. It is shown that field dependence of Faraday effect in non-colinear ferrimagnetic Yb 3 Fe 5 O 12 qualitatively proves the existence of gyromagnetic Faraday effect
Ibragimov, Ranis N.
2018-03-01
The nonlinear Euler equations are used to model two-dimensional atmosphere dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell. The energy balance is deduced on the basis of two classes of functorially independent invariant solutions associated with the model. It it shown that the energy balance is exactly the conservation law for one class of the solutions whereas the second class of invariant solutions provides and asymptotic convergence of the energy balance to the conservation law.
Ren, Pengyu; Li, Bowen; Dong, Shiyao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Yuelin
2018-01-01
Although many mathematical methods were used to analyze the neural activity under sinusoidal stimulation within linear response range in vestibular system, the reliabilities of these methods are still not reported, especially in nonlinear response range. Here we chose nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA) with sinusoidal model to analyze the neural response of semicircular canal neurons (SCNs) during sinusoidal rotational stimulation (SRS) over a nonlinear response range. Our aim was to acquire a reliable mathematical method for data analysis under SRS in vestibular system. Our data indicated that the reliability of this method in an entire SCNs population was quite satisfactory. However, the reliability was strongly negatively depended on the neural discharge regularity. In addition, stimulation parameters were the vital impact factors influencing the reliability. The frequency had a significant negative effect but the amplitude had a conspicuous positive effect on the reliability. Thus, NLSA with sinusoidal model resulted a reliable mathematical tool for data analysis of neural response activity under SRS in vestibular system and more suitable for those under the stimulation with low frequency but high amplitude, suggesting that this method can be used in nonlinear response range. This method broke out of the restriction of neural activity analysis under nonlinear response range and provided a solid foundation for future study in nonlinear response range in vestibular system.
Faraday instability in deformable domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pucci, G.
2013-01-01
Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.
Magneto-optical Faraday spectroscopy of completely bismuth-substituted Bi3Fe5O12 garnet thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb, M; Popova, E; Fouchet, A; Keller, N
2012-01-01
We performed a magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectroscopy study of bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 thin single-crystalline films with thickness from 5 to 220 nm. The Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra were measured for photon energies ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 eV. Using a model based on two electric dipole transitions associated with tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites, we successfully reproduce the observed rotation and ellipticity spectra. The sign of both site contributions to the Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra has been used to interpret the complex thermal dependence of the Faraday rotation and ellipticity. For a Faraday ellipticity, anomalous hysteresis loops have been observed around specific photon energies. To explain the surprising shape of hysteresis loop, a model based on the superposition of two hysteresis loops with opposite sign associated with both sites is proposed. The modelling of these hysteresis loops allows accessing the magnetic properties of each individual sublattice. Finally, we have studied the dependence of the energy level parameters on bismuth content in Yi 3-x Bi x Fe 5 O 12 garnet and on the thickness of bismuth iron garnet. Based on this analysis, we show that MO spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive technique to determine the bi-deficiency of BIG films.
Faraday diamagnetism under slowly oscillating magnetic fields
Kimura, Tsunehisa; Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Yosuke
2018-04-01
Diamagnetism is a universal phenomenon of materials arising from the orbital motion of electrons bound to atoms, which is commonly known as Langevin diamagnetism. The orbital motion also occurs according to the Faraday's law of induction when the applied magnetic field is oscillating. However, the influence of this dynamic effect on the magnetism of materials has seldom been studied. Here, we propose a new type diamagnetism coined Faraday diamagnetism. The magnitude of this diamagnetism evaluated by an atomic electric circuit model was as large as that of Langevin diamagnetism. The predicted scale of Faraday diamagnetism was supported by experiments.
Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.
Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A
2016-05-01
Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.
Theory of nanotube faraday cage
Roxana Margine, Elena; Nisoli, Cristiano; Kolmogorov, Aleksey; Crespi, Vincent H.
2003-03-01
Charge transfer between dopants and double-wall carbon nanotubes is examined theoretically. We model the system as a triple cylindrical capacitor with the dopants forming a shell around the outer wall of the nanotube. The total energy of the system contains three terms: the band structure energies of the inner and outer tube, calculated in a tight-binding model with rigid bands, and the electrostatic energy of the tri-layer distribution. Even for metallic inner and outer tube walls, wherein the diameter dependence of the bandgap does not favor the outer wall, nearly all of the dopant charge resides on the outer layer, a nanometer-scale Faraday cage. The calculated charge distribution is in agreement with recent experimental measurements.
Sun, L; Jiang, S; Marciante, J R
2010-06-07
A compact all-fiber Faraday isolator and a Faraday mirror are demonstrated. At the core of each of these components is an all-fiber Faraday rotator made of a 4-cm-long, 65-wt%-terbium-doped silicate fiber. The effective Verdet constant of the terbium-doped fiber is measured to be -32 rad/(Tm), which is 27 x larger than that of silica fiber. This effective Verdet constant is the largest value measured to date in any fiber and is 83% of the Verdet constant of commercially available crystal used in bulk optics-based isolators. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with fiber polarizers results in a fully fusion spliced all-fiber isolator whose isolation is measured to be 19 dB. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with a fiber Bragg grating results in an all-fiber Faraday mirror that rotates the polarization state of the reflected light by 88 +/- 4 degrees .
Shot-noise-limited optical Faraday polarimetry with enhanced laser noise cancelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jiaming; Luo, Le; Carvell, Jeff; Cheng, Ruihua; Lai, Tianshu; Wang, Zixin
2014-01-01
We present a shot-noise-limited measurement of optical Faraday rotations with sub-ten-nanoradian angular sensitivity. This extremely high sensitivity is achieved by using electronic laser noise cancelling and phase sensitive detection. Specially, an electronic laser noise canceller with a common mode rejection ratio of over 100 dB was designed and built for enhanced laser noise cancelling. By measuring the Faraday rotation of ambient air, we demonstrate an angular sensitivity of up to 9.0×10 −9 rad/√(Hz), which is limited only by the shot-noise of the photocurrent of the detector. To date, this is the highest angular sensitivity ever reported for Faraday polarimeters in the absence of cavity enhancement. The measured Verdet constant of ambient air, 1.93(3)×10 −9 rad/(G cm) at 633 nm wavelength, agrees extremely well with the earlier experiments using high finesse optical cavities. Further, we demonstrate the applications of this sensitive technique in materials science by measuring the Faraday effect of an ultrathin iron film
Heating profiles on ICRF antenna Faraday shields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Hahs, C.L. Riemer, B.W.; Ryan, D.M.; Williamson, D.E.
1992-01-01
Poor definition of the heating profiles that occur during normal operation of Faraday shields for ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas has complicated the mechanical design of ICRF system components. This paper reports that at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Faraday shield analysis is being used in defining rf heating profiles. In recent numerical analyses of proposed hardware for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) and DIII-D, rf magnetic fields at Faraday shield surfaces were calculated, providing realistic predictions of the induced skin currents flowing on the shield elements and the resulting dissipated power profile. Detailed measurements on mock-ups of the Faraday shields for DIII-D and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) confirmed the predicted magnetic field distributions. A conceptual design for an uncooled Faraday shield for the BPX ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna, which should withstand the proposed long-pulse operation, has been completed. The analytical effort is described in detail, with emphasis on the design work for the BPX ICRH antenna conceptual design and for the replacement Faraday shield for the DIII-D FWCD antenna. Results of analyses are shown, and configuration issues involved in component modeling are discussed
Innovative technologies for Faraday shield cooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenfeld, J.H.; Lindemuth, J.E.; North, M.T.; Goulding, R.H.
1995-01-01
Alternative advanced technologies are being evaluated for use in cooling the Faraday shields used for protection of ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICR) antennae in Tokamaks. Two approaches currently under evaluation include heat pipe cooling and gas cooling. A Monel/water heat pipe cooled Faraday shield has been successfully demonstrated. Heat pipe cooling offers the advantage of reducing the amount of water discharged into the Tokamak in the event of a tube weld failure. The device was recently tested on an antenna at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The heat pipe design uses inclined water heat pipes with warm water condensers located outside of the plasma chamber. This approach can passively remove absorbed heat fluxes in excess of 200 W/cm 2 ;. Helium-cooled Faraday shields are also being evaluated. This approach offers the advantage of no liquid discharge into the Tokamak in the event of a tube failure. Innovative internal cooling structures based on porous metal cooling are being used to develop a helium-cooled Faraday shield structure. This approach can dissipate the high heat fluxes typical of Faraday shield applications while minimizing the required helium blower power. Preliminary analysis shows that nominal helium flow and pressure drop can sufficiently cool a Faraday shield in typical applications. Plans are in progress to fabricate and test prototype hardware based on this approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyu, L.H.; Kan, J.R.
1989-01-01
Nonlinear one-dimensional constant-profile hydromagnetic wave solutions are obtained in finite-temperature two-fluid collisionless plasmas under adiabatic equation of state. The nonlinear wave solutions can be classified according to the wavelength. The long-wavelength solutions are circularly polarized incompressible oblique Alfven wave trains with wavelength greater than hudreds of ion inertial length. The oblique wave train solutions can explain the high degree of alignment between the local average magnetic field and the wave normal direction observed in the solar wind. The short-wavelength solutions include rarefaction fast solitons, compression slow solitons, Alfven solitons and rotational discontinuities, with wavelength of several tens of ion inertial length, provided that the upstream flow speed is less than the fast-mode speed
Kaczmarek, J. F.; Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.
2018-05-01
We present full-polarization, broad-band observations of the radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS B0131-637) from 1.3 to 3.1 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The relatively large angular scale of the radio galaxy makes it a good candidate with which to investigate the polarization mechanisms responsible for the observed Faraday depth structure. By fitting complex polarization models to the polarized spectrum of each pixel, we find that a single polarization component can adequately describe the observed signal for the majority of the radio galaxy. While we cannot definitively rule out internal Faraday rotation, we argue that the bulk of the Faraday rotation is taking place in a thin skin that girts the polarized emission. Using minimum energy estimates, we find an implied total magnetic field strength of 4.2 μG.
Spin-flip transition and Faraday effect in antiferromagnet KMnF3 in megagauss magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhin, A.A.; Plis, V.I.; Popov, A.I.; Zvezdin, A.K.; Platonov, V.; Tatsenko, O.M.
1998-01-01
Faraday effect in the antiferromagnet KMnF 3 has been investigated in pulse explosive fields up to 500 T at T=78 K. The laser wavelength 0.63 μm was used in the experiment. The magnetic field dependence of Faraday rotation in this antiferromagnet shows a unique feature of a lack of saturation effect in the fields up to 500 T whereas critical field of spin-flip transition is about 120 T. The theoretical analysis of microscopic nature of Faraday rotation, including the diamagnetic, magneto-dipole and paramagnetic mechanisms has been performed. The strong competition of these mechanisms is important to explain the extremely small value of the effect and its unusual magnetic field dependence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bég Anwar O.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for viscous hydromagnetic flow through a hybrid non-Darcy porous media rotating generator. The system is simulated as steady, incompressible flow through a nonlinear porous regime intercalated between parallel plates of the generator in a rotating frame of reference in the presence of a strong, inclined magnetic field A pressure gradient term is included which is a function of the longitudinal coordinate. The general equations for rotating viscous magnetohydrodynamic flow are presented and neglecting convective acceleration effects, the two-dimensional viscous flow equations are derived incorporating current density components, porous media drag effects, Lorentz drag force components and Hall current effects. Using an appropriate group of dimensionless variables, the momentum equations for primary and secondary flow are rendered nondimensional and shown to be controlled by six physical parameters-Hartmann number (Ha, Hall current parameter (Nh, Darcy number (Da, Forchheimer number (Fs, Ekman number (Ek and dimensionless pressure gradient parameter (Np, in addition to one geometric parameter-the orientation of the applied magnetic field (θ . Several special cases are extracted from the general model, including the non-porous case studied earlier by Ghosh and Pop (2006. A numerical solution is presented to the nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using both the Network Simulation Method and Finite Element Method, achieving excellent agreement. Additionally very good agreement is also obtained with the earlier analytical solutions of Ghosh and Pop (2006. for selected Ha, Ek and Nh values. We examine in detail the effects of magnetic field, rotation, Hall current, bulk porous matrix drag, second order porous impedance, pressure gradient and magnetic field inclination on primary and secondary velocity distributions and also frictional shear stresses at the plates. Primary velocity is seen to decrease
Surfactants non-monotonically modify the onset of Faraday waves
Strickland, Stephen; Shearer, Michael; Daniels, Karen
2017-11-01
When a water-filled container is vertically vibrated, subharmonic Faraday waves emerge once the driving from the vibrations exceeds viscous dissipation. In the presence of an insoluble surfactant, a viscous boundary layer forms at the contaminated surface to balance the Marangoni and Boussinesq stresses. For linear gravity-capillary waves in an undriven fluid, the surfactant-induced boundary layer increases the amount of viscous dissipation. In our analysis and experiments, we consider whether similar effects occur for nonlinear Faraday (gravity-capillary) waves. Assuming a finite-depth, infinite-breadth, low-viscosity fluid, we derive an analytic expression for the onset acceleration up to second order in ɛ =√{ 1 / Re } . This expression allows us to include fluid depth and driving frequency as parameters, in addition to the Marangoni and Boussinesq numbers. For millimetric fluid depths and driving frequencies of 30 to 120 Hz, our analysis recovers prior numerical results and agrees with our measurements of NBD-PC surfactant on DI water. In both case, the onset acceleration increases non-monotonically as a function of Marangoni and Boussinesq numbers. For shallower systems, our model predicts that surfactants could decrease the onset acceleration. DMS-0968258.
Continuous Faraday measurement of spin precession without light shifts
Jasperse, M.; Kewming, M. Â. J.; Fischer, S. Â. N.; Pakkiam, P.; Anderson, R. Â. P.; Turner, L. Â. D.
2017-12-01
We describe a dispersive Faraday optical probe of atomic spin which performs a weak measurement of spin projection of a quantum gas continuously for more than one second. To date, focusing bright far-off-resonance probes onto quantum gases has proved invasive due to strong scalar and vector light shifts exerting dipole and Stern-Gerlach forces. We show that tuning the probe near the magic-zero wavelength at 790 nm between the fine-structure doublet of 87Rb cancels the scalar light shift, and careful control of polarization eliminates the vector light shift. Faraday rotations due to each fine-structure line reinforce at this wavelength, enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio for a fixed rate of probe-induced decoherence. Using this minimally invasive spin probe, we perform microscale atomic magnetometry at high temporal resolution. Spectrogram analysis of the Larmor precession signal of a single spinor Bose-Einstein condensate measures a time-varying magnetic field strength with 1 μ G accuracy every 5 ms; or, equivalently, makes more than 200 successive measurements each at 10 pT /√{Hz } sensitivity.
Agarwal, Shilpi; Rana, Puneet
2016-04-01
In this paper, we examine a layer of Oldroyd-B nanofluid for linear and nonlinear regimes under local thermal non-equilibrium conditions for the classical Rayleigh-Bénard problem. The free-free boundary condition has been implemented with the flux for nanoparticle concentration being zero at edges. The Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation holds good and for the rotational effect Coriolis term is included in the momentum equation. A two-temperature model explains the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium among the particle and fluid phases. The criteria for onset of stationary convection has been derived as a function of the non-dimensionalized parameters involved including the Taylor number. The assumed boundary conditions negate the possibility of overstability due to the absence of opposing forces responsible for it. The thermal Nusselt number has been obtained utilizing a weak nonlinear theory in terms of various pertinent parameters in the steady and transient mode, and has been depicted graphically. The main findings signify that the rotation has a stabilizing effect on the system. The stress relaxation parameter λ_1 inhibits whereas the strain retardation parameter λ_2 exhibits heat transfer utilizing Al2O3 nanofluids.
The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law
Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James
2015-04-01
Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.
Spin reorientation in HoIG investigated by means of Faraday effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balanda, M.; Niziol, S.
1979-01-01
Faraday rotation measurements in pulsed magnetic fields up to 160 kOe and in low dc fields are carried out for Ho 3 Fe 5 O 12 near the compensation point. Transition to the canted phase is observed and the temperature dependence of the critical field determined. From the holmium sublattice magnetization and Hsub(cr) versus. T gradient, values of the two molecular field coefficients are determined. (author)
Faraday polarization fluctuations of satellite beacon signals
Lee, M. C.; Klobuchar, J. A.
1988-01-01
The anisotropic effects of random density irregularities in causing Faraday polarization fluctuations of VHF radio signals are examined, taking both rod-like and sheet-like irregularities into consideration. It is found that the variance of Faraday polarization fluctuations depends on the ratio of perpendicular to parallel correlation lengths. The anisotropic effect of rod-like ionospheric irregularities are shown to be most appreciable for longitudinal propagation. The anisotropic effect of sheet-like ionospheric irregularities, however, is not strongly dependent on the radio propagation angle. During transionospheric propagation at large angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, sheet-like irregularities may cause greater Faraday polarization fluctuations than rod-like irregularities.
Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.
Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas
2013-03-01
Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.
Heating profiles on ICRF antenna Faraday shields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Hahs, C.L.; Riemer, B.W.; Ryan, P.M.; Williamson, D.E.
1991-01-01
A conceptual design for an uncooled Faraday shield for the BPX ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna, which should withstand the proposed long-pulse operation, has been completed. A high-heat-flux, uncooled Faraday shield has also been designed for the fast-wave current drive (FWCD) antenna on D3-D. For both components, the improved understanding of the heating profiles made it possible to design for heat fluxes that would otherwise have been too close to mechanically established limits. The analytical effort is described in detail, with emphasis on the design work for the BPX ICRH antenna conceptual design and for the replacement Faraday shield for the D3-D FWCD antenna. Results of analyses are shown, and configuration issues involved in component modeling are discussed. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Faraday effect in rare-earth ferrite garnets located in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, U.V.; Zvezdin, A.K.; Krinchik, G.S.; Levitin, R.Z.; Mukimov, K.M.; Popov, A.I.
1983-01-01
The Faraday effect is investigated experimentally in single crystal specimens of rare earth iron garnets (REIG) R 3 Fe 5 O 12 (R=Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Eu, Sm and Ho) and also in mixed iron garnets Rsub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (R=Tb, Dy). The m.easurements are carried out in pulsed magnetic fields of intensity up to 200 kOe, in a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and at a wavelength of the light lambda=1.15 μm. The field dependence of the Faraday effect observed in the REIG cannot be explained if only the usually considered ''paramagnetic'' contribution to the Faraday effect is taken into account. A theory is developed which, besides the paramagnetic mechanism, takes into account a diamagnetic mechanism and also the mixing of the wave functions of the ground and excited multiplets. The contributions of each of these three mechanisms to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization by the rare earth sublattice of the iron garnet are estimated theoretically. It is concluded that the mixing mechanism contributes significantly to the field and temperature dependences of the Faraday effect in REIG
Lei, Chengxin; Chen, Leyi; Tang, Zhixiong; Li, Daoyong; Cheng, Zhenzhi; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei
2016-02-15
The properties of optics and magneto-optical Faraday effects in a metal-dielectric tri-layer structure with subwavelength rectangular annular arrays are investigated. It is noteworthy that we obtained the strongly enhanced Faraday rotation of the desired sign along with high transmittance by optimizing the parameters of the nanostructure in the visible spectral ranges. In this system, we obtained two extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) resonant peaks with enhanced Faraday rotations, whose signs are opposite, which may provide the possibility of designing multi-channel magneto-optical devices. Study results show that the maximum of the figure of merit (FOM) of the structure can be obtained between two EOT resonant peaks accompanied by an enhanced Faraday rotation. The positions of the maximum value of the FOM and resonant peaks of transmission along with a large Faraday rotation can be tailored by simply adjusting the geometric parameters of our models. These research findings are of great importance for future applications of magneto-optical devices.
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2006-01-01
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. At zero temperature and zero frequency...
The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law Revisited
O'Sullivan, Colm; Hurley, Donal
2013-01-01
By introducing the mathematical concept of orientation, the significance of the minus sign in Faraday's law may be made clear to students with some knowledge of vector calculus. For many students, however, the traditional approach of treating the law as a relationship between positive scalars and of relying on Lenz's law to provide the information…
Fast Faraday Cup With High Bandwidth
Deibele, Craig E [Knoxville, TN
2006-03-14
A circuit card stripline Fast Faraday cup quantitatively measures the picosecond time structure of a charged particle beam. The stripline configuration maintains signal integrity, and stitching of the stripline increases the bandwidth. A calibration procedure ensures the measurement of the absolute charge and time structure of the charged particle beam.
The Faraday effect revisited: General theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia Decebal; Nenciu, Gheorghe; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse...
Reflections of a Faraday Challenge Day Leader
Sewell, Keira
2014-01-01
Keira Sewell has just finished her second year as a Challenge Leader for the Faraday Challenge, a STEM-based scheme run by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Aimed at 12-13 year-old students, its purpose is to engage students in future careers in engineering. Each year, a new challenge is held in over sixty schools and universities…
Nonlinear kinematics for piezoelectricity in ALEGRA-EMMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitchell, John Anthony; Fuller, Timothy Jesse
2013-09-01
This report develops and documents nonlinear kinematic relations needed to implement piezoelectric constitutive models in ALEGRA-EMMA [5], where calculations involving large displacements and rotations are routine. Kinematic relationships are established using Gausss law and Faradays law; this presentation on kinematics goes beyond piezoelectric materials and is applicable to all dielectric materials. The report then turns to practical details of implementing piezoelectric models in an application code where material principal axes are rarely aligned with user defined problem coordinate axes. This portion of the report is somewhat pedagogical but is necessary in order to establish documentation for the piezoelectric implementation in ALEGRA-EMMA. This involves transforming elastic, piezoelectric, and permittivity moduli from material principal axes to problem coordinate axes. The report concludes with an overview of the piezoelectric implementation in ALEGRA-EMMA and small verification examples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Tonghui; Jia, Dongfang; Yang, Jingwen; Chen, Jiong; Wang, Zhaoying; Yang, Tianxin
2013-01-01
In this paper we investigate an ultra-long cavity passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Experimental results are presented which indicate that stable mode-locked pulses can be obtained by combining nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in the SOA with a polarization controller. By adding a 4 km single mode fiber into the ring cavity, a stable fundamental-order mode-locked pulse train with a repetition rate of 50.72 kHz is generated through the NPR effect in the SOA. The central wavelength, 3 dB bandwidth and single pulse energy of the output pulse are 1543.95 nm, 1.506 nm and 33.12 nJ, respectively. Harmonic mode-locked pulses are also observed in experiments when the parameters are chosen properly. (paper)
Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xinyu; Tian, Qinghua; Wang, Lina; Xin, Xiangjun
2018-03-01
Basic configurations of various all-optical clocked flip-flops (FFs) and optical random access memory (RAM) based on the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect of low-polarization-dependent semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) are proposed. As the constituent elements, all-optical logic gates and all-optical SR latches are constructed by taking advantage of the SOA's NPR switch. Different all-optical FFs (AOFFs), including SR-, D-, T-, and JK-types as well as an optical RAM cell were obtained by the combination of the proposed all-optical SR latches and logic gates. The effectiveness of the proposed schemes were verified by simulation results and demonstrated by a D-FF and 1-bit RAM cell experimental system. The proposed all-optical clocked FFs and RAM cell are significant to all-optical signal processing.
Design and modeling of Faraday cages for substrate noise isolation
Wu, Joyce H.; del Alamo, Jesús A.
2013-07-01
A Faraday cage structure using through-substrate vias is an effective strategy to suppress substrate crosstalk, particularly at high frequencies. Faraday cages can reduce substrate noise by 32 dB at 10 GHz, and 26 dB at 50 GHz. We have developed lumped-element, equivalent circuit models of the Faraday cages and test structures to better understand the performance of the Faraday cages. These models compare well to measured results and show that the vias of the Faraday cage act as an RLC shunt to ground that draws substrate current. Designing a Faraday cage to achieve optimum isolation requires low via impedance and mitigation of via sidewall capacitance. The Faraday cage inductance is correlated to the number of vias and via spacing of the cage and can be optimized for the frequency of operation.
Demonstration of a mid-infrared NO molecular Faraday optical filter.
Wu, Kuijun; Feng, Yutao; Li, Juan; Yu, Guangbao; Liu, Linmei; Xiong, Yuanhui; Li, Faquan
2017-12-11
A molecular Faraday optical filter (MFOF) working in the mid-infrared region is realized for the first time. NO molecule was used as the working material of the MFOF for potential applications in atmospheric remote sensing and combustion diagnosis. We develop a complete theory to describe the performance of MFOF by taking both Zeeman absorption and Faraday rotation into account. We also record the Faraday rotation transmission (FRT) signal using a quantum cascade laser over the range of 1,820 cm -1 to 1,922 cm -1 and calibrate it by using a 101.6 mm long solid germanium etalon with a free spectral range of 0.012 cm -1 . Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data is achieved. The NO-MFOF's transmission characteristics as a function of magnetic field and pressure are studied in detail. Both Comb-like FRT spectrum and single branch transmission spectrum are obtained by changing the magnetic field. The diversity of FRT spectrum expands the range of potential applications in infrared optical remote sensing. This filtering method can also be extended to the lines of other paramagnetic molecules.
Giant Faraday effect due to Pauli exclusion principle in 3D topological insulators.
Paudel, Hari P; Leuenberger, Michael N
2014-02-26
Experiments using ARPES, which is based on the photoelectric effect, show that the surface states in 3D topological insulators (TI) are helical. Here we consider Weyl interface fermions due to band inversion in narrow-bandgap semiconductors, such as Pb1-xSnxTe. The positive and negative energy solutions can be identified by means of opposite helicity in terms of the spin helicity operator in 3D TI as ĥ(TI) = (1/ |p|_ |) β (σ|_ x p|_ ) · z^, where β is a Dirac matrix and z^ points perpendicular to the interface. Using the 3D Dirac equation and bandstructure calculations we show that the transitions between positive and negative energy solutions, giving rise to electron-hole pairs, obey strict optical selection rules. In order to demonstrate the consequences of these selection rules, we consider the Faraday effect due to the Pauli exclusion principle in a pump-probe setup using a 3D TI double interface of a PbTe/Pb₀.₃₁Sn₀.₆₉Te/PbTe heterostructure. For that we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of this heterostructure, which we use to solve Maxwell's equations. The Faraday rotation angle exhibits oscillations as a function of probe wavelength and thickness of the heterostructure. The maxima in the Faraday rotation angle are of the order of mrds.
The impact of Faraday effects on polarized black hole images of Sagittarius A*.
Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra; Dexter, Jason
2018-05-01
We study model images and polarization maps of Sagittarius A* at 230 GHz. We post-process GRMHD simulations and perform a fully relativistic radiative transfer calculation of the emitted synchrotron radiation to obtain polarized images for a range of mass accretion rates and electron temperatures. At low accretion rates, the polarization map traces the underlying toroidal magnetic field geometry. At high accretion rates, we find that Faraday rotation internal to the emission region can depolarize and scramble the map. We measure the net linear polarization fraction and find that high accretion rate "jet-disc" models are heavily depolarized and are therefore disfavoured. We show how Event Horizon Telescope measurements of the polarized "correlation length" over the image provide a model-independent upper limit on the strength of these Faraday effects, and constrain plasma properties like the electron temperature and magnetic field strength.
Yeung, Chung-Hei (Simon)
The study of compressor instabilities in gas turbine engines has received much attention in recent years. In particular, rotating stall and surge are major causes of problems ranging from component stress and lifespan reduction to engine explosion. In this thesis, modeling and control of rotating stall and surge using bleed valve and air injection is studied and validated on a low speed, single stage, axial compressor at Caltech. Bleed valve control of stall is achieved only when the compressor characteristic is actuated, due to the fast growth rate of the stall cell compared to the rate limit of the valve. Furthermore, experimental results show that the actuator rate requirement for stall control is reduced by a factor of fourteen via compressor characteristic actuation. Analytical expressions based on low order models (2--3 states) and a high fidelity simulation (37 states) tool are developed to estimate the minimum rate requirement of a bleed valve for control of stall. A comparison of the tools to experiments show a good qualitative agreement, with increasing quantitative accuracy as the complexity of the underlying model increases. Air injection control of stall and surge is also investigated. Simultaneous control of stall and surge is achieved using axisymmetric air injection. Three cases with different injector back pressure are studied. Surge control via binary air injection is achieved in all three cases. Simultaneous stall and surge control is achieved for two of the cases, but is not achieved for the lowest authority case. This is consistent with previous results for control of stall with axisymmetric air injection without a plenum attached. Non-axisymmetric air injection control of stall and surge is also studied. Three existing control algorithms found in literature are modeled and analyzed. A three-state model is obtained for each algorithm. For two cases, conditions for linear stability and bifurcation criticality on control of rotating stall are
Biology's built-in Faraday cages
Klee, Maurice M.
2014-05-01
Biological fluids are water-based, ionic conductors. As such, they have both high relative dielectric constants and substantial conductivities, meaning they are lossy dielectrics. These fluids contain charged molecules (free charges), whose movements play roles in essentially all cellular processes from metabolism to communication with other cells. Using the problem of a point source in air above a biological fluid of semi-infinite extent, the bound charges in the fluid are shown to perform the function of a fast-acting Faraday cage, which protects the interior of the fluid from external electric fields. Free charges replace bound charges in accordance with the fluid's relaxation time, thereby providing a smooth transition between the initial protection provided by the bound charges and the steady state protection provided by the free charges. The electric fields within the biological fluid are thus small for all times just as they would be inside a classical Faraday cage.
La electricidad antes de Faraday. Parte 2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Poveda Ramos
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Esta es la segunda y última parte de este artículo, cuya primera parte fue publicada en el número anterior de esta revista. Esta parte cubre el período de la Edad Moderna posterior al Renacimiento, hasta llegar a Faraday. Presenta los descubrimientos y los inventos que en este tramo de historia se hicieron en la teoría y en la experimentación en el campo de la electricidad, los cuales forman parte muy importante de esa ciencia, con el nombre de electrostática. Esta parte final (y el artículo completo llegan hasta Faraday porque este gran científico reunió en un solo cuerpo de conocimientos la electricidad y el magnetismo.
Inverse Faraday effect with plasmon beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S; Mendonca, J T
2011-01-01
The angular momentum conservation equation is considered for an electron gas, in the presence of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) plasmons propagating along the z-axis. The LG plasmons carry a finite orbital angular momentum despite longitudinal nature, which can be partly transfered to the electrons. For short timescales, such that ion motion can be neglected, plasmons primarily interact with the electrons, creating an azimuthal electric field and generating an axial magnetic field. This effect can be called an inverse Faraday effect due to plasmons. Numerically, it is found that the magnitude of the magnetic field enhances with the plasmon density or with the energy of the electron plasma waves. A comparison of the magnitudes of the axial magnetic field is made for the inverse Faraday effect excited by both plasmons and transverse photons.
Delaney, Paul; Greer, J.C.
2004-01-01
Endohedral fullerenes have been proposed for a number of technological uses, for example, as a nanoscale switch, memory bit and as qubits for quantum computation. For these technology applications, it is important to know the ease with which the endohedral atom can be manipulated using an applied electric field. We find that the Buckminsterfullerene (C-60) acts effectively as a small Faraday cage, with only 25% of the field penetrating the interior of the molecule. Thus influencing the atom i...
La electricidad antes de Faraday. Parte 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Poveda Ramos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Este documento es una monografía sobre el surgimiento y el desarrollo de la ciencia de la electricidad desde la remota antigüedad hasta la época de Michael Faraday, a comienzos del siglo XIX. Está escrito con el propósito de reunirlo con otro que el autor ya escribió sobre la historia del magnetismo durante el mismo período.
Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi
2016-04-01
This study evaluated an effect of an coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect to a measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method which uses counter-circular-polarized probing-laser for measuring the Faraday effect. When the coupling is small (the Faraday effect is dominant and the characteristic eigenmodes are approximately circularly polarized), the measurement signal can be algebraically expressed and it is shown that the finite effect of the coupling is still significant. When the Faraday effect is not dominant, a numerical calculation is necessary. The numerical calculation under an ITER-like condition (Bt = 5.3 T, Ip = 15 MA, a = 2 m, ne = 10(20) m(-3) and λ = 119 μm) showed that difference between the pure Faraday rotation and the measurement signal of the Dodel-Kunz method was an order of one degree, which exceeds allowable error of ITER poloidal polarimeter. In conclusion, similar to other polarimeter techniques, the Dodel-Kunz method is not free from the coupling between the Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effect.
Rethinking Faraday's law for teaching motional electromotive force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo
2012-01-01
This study shows physicists' discussions on the meaning of Faraday's law where situations involving extended conductors or moving contact points are particularly troublesome. We raise questions to test students' difficulties in applying Faraday's law in motional electromotive force phenomena. We suggest the benefit of analysing these phenomena when teaching Faraday's law in introductory physics courses at university. We are not implying that Faraday's law should be revised, but we do want to set the stage for careful rethinking regarding the meaning and application of each term of the law as it appears in traditional introductory courses. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, S; Fu, S; Tang, M; Shum, P; Liu, D
2013-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate simultaneous 4 × 10 Gb s −1 all-optical wavelength multicasting and non-return-to-zero (NRZ)-on-off-keying (OOK) to return-to-zero (RZ)-OOK format conversion with a tunable duty cycle using nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The experimental results show that the duty cycle of four converted RZ-OOK signals can be tuned by adjusting the orientation of a polarizer placed at the SOA output. Four-channel NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-OOK conversion with a full width at half maximum of 33–67 ps can be simultaneously obtained with an extinction ratio over 10 dB. Moreover, it is experimentally verified that such a wavelength multicasting scheme with simultaneous NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-OOK conversion is insensitive to the wavelength of the input signal, indicating that such a scheme can be operated in the whole C-band with less than 0.18 dB power penalty at a bit error ratio level of 10 −9 . The device can facilitate the cross-connection between optical transmission networks employing different modulation formats. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qamar, F.
2013-01-01
Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser, EDF L, passively mode-locked via only Nonlinear Polarization Rotation, NPR, and via NPR with Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror, SESAM, is studied. Self start single pulse train with pulse width of 114 fs and repetition rate (PRR) of 80 MHz has been obtained when 55 cm EDFL, passively mode-locked via NPR only. Inserting SESAM in EDFL cavity leads to shorten the pulse width up to 88 fs, increases the amplitude stability up to 96% and lower the phase noise jittering to around 26 fsec. Stable second harmonic self starting passively mode-locked EDFL with pulse width of 284 fs has also been observed only when SESAM was used in the cavity. Multi-pulsed system passively mode-locked via NPR for EDFL length of 80 cm with time difference between the successive multi-pulses ranged from few picoseconds to nanoseconds, has been observed. The time difference can be controlled by the polarizer controller and the half wave plate. Further controlling of the cavity polarization leads to developing the multiple mode locking pulses train to second harmonic mode-locking pulse train with PRR of 160MHz and pulse width of 156 fs. Three harmonic superposed trains of mode locked pulse have been achieved only when SESAM added to the cavity. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kučera, M.; Kolinský, V.; Višňovský, Š.; Chvostová, Dagmar; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, S.; Kulkarni, P.D.; Krishnan, R.
2007-01-01
Roč. 316, - (2007), e688-e691 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : Faraday rotation * magneto-optic * copper ferrite * CuFe 2 O 4 * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2007
Possibility to obtain the classical Faraday effect with a recoiless gamma ray emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barb, Danila; Rogalski, Mircea
1975-01-01
The possibility to obtain the classical Faraday effect with a linearly polarized Moessbauer radiation, which passes through a Moessbauer absorber in a longitudinal applied magnetic field was studied. As in the classical optics, the emergent radiation is linearly polarized and his plane of polarization rotated. The same problem for the case of the magnetic field of the absorber making an angle theta=0 with the gamma radiation direction is solved. This enables to do a better analysis of the experimental data. The application of the formulae in the case of iron-57 shows a good agreement with the experiments [fr
Rethinking Faraday's Law for Teaching Motional Electromotive Force
Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo
2012-01-01
This study shows physicists' discussions on the meaning of Faraday's law where situations involving extended conductors or moving contact points are particularly troublesome. We raise questions to test students' difficulties in applying Faraday's law in motional electromotive force phenomena. We suggest the benefit of analysing these phenomena…
Self-Induced Faraday Instability Laser
Perego, A. M.; Smirnov, S. V.; Staliunas, K.; Churkin, D. V.; Wabnitz, S.
2018-05-01
We predict the onset of self-induced parametric or Faraday instabilities in a laser, spontaneously caused by the presence of pump depletion, which leads to a periodic gain landscape for light propagating in the cavity. As a result of the instability, continuous wave oscillation becomes unstable even in the normal dispersion regime of the cavity, and a periodic train of pulses with ultrahigh repetition rate is generated. Application to the case of Raman fiber lasers is described, in good quantitative agreement between our conceptual analysis and numerical modeling.
Delaney, P.; Greer, J. C.
2004-01-01
Endohedral fullerenes have been proposed for a number of technological uses, for example, as a nanoscale switch, memory bit and as qubits for quantum computation. For these technology applications, it is important to know the ease with which the endohedral atom can be manipulated using an applied electric field. We find that the Buckminsterfullerene (C60) acts effectively as a small Faraday cage, with only 25% of the field penetrating the interior of the molecule. Thus influencing the atom is difficult, but as a qubit the endohedral atom should be well shielded from environmental electrical noise. We also predict how the field penetration should increase with the fullerene radius.
Faraday instability of crystallization waves in 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H; Ueda, T; Morikawa, M; Saitoh, Y; Nomura, R; Okuda, Y
2007-01-01
Periodic modulation of the gravity acceleration makes a flat surface of a fluid unstable and standing waves are parametrically excited on the surface. This phenomenon is called Faraday instability. Since a crystal-superfluid interface of 4 He at low temperatures is very mobile and behaves like a fluid surface, Saarloos and Weeks predicted that Faraday instability of the crystallization waves exists in 4 He and that the threshold excitation for the instability depends on the crystal growth coefficient. We successfully observed the Faraday instability of the crystal-liquid interface at 160 mK. Faraday waves were parametrically generated at one half of the driving frequency 90 Hz. Amplitude of the Faraday wave becomes smaller at higher temperature due to decrease of the crystal growth coefficient and disappears above 200 mK
Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)
2016-01-15
Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Faraday and Kerr Effects Diagnostics for Underwater Exploding Wires
Sarkisov, G. S.; Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.
2012-10-01
Two-channel laser polarimeter was used to measure magnetic and electric fields in vicinity of underwater exploding wire. Nd:YAG Q-switch laser with 532nm wavelength, 100mJ energy and 5ns pulse width was used for probing. Single wire, parallel wires and X and V- shaped wires was used in experiments. Electric and magnetic field induced birefringes in the water results in changing of polarization stage of probing beam after propagation through this anisotropic medium. Magnetic field results in circular anisotropy of the water, while electric field creates linear anisotropy. Magnetic field results in rotation of polarization plan of linear-polarized probing beam. Electric field effect is more complicated- polarization plan of the laser beam subjected to pulsation and changing of ellipticity. Effect of electric field depends on initial probing geometry- angle between electrical field vector E and polarization plane of probing wave. In our exploding wire experiments we found influence of both Faraday and Kerr effects. It was demonstrated existence of Kerr effect inside bubbles at high voltage electrode. Effect of magnetic fields interaction for multi-wire loads was observed.
Preinjector for Linac 1, Faraday cage
1974-01-01
The 50 MeV Linac 1 started up in 1958 as injector to the 26 GeV PS, with a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator as its preinjector, housed in a vast Faraday cage, visible here. When the Cockcroft-Walton broke down in 1973, it was replaced by a much smaller SAMES generator, of the kind used for electrostatic separators. From 1980 on, Linac 2 took over as injector for the 800 MeV Booster, and Linac 1 continued as injector for LEAR. In 1984, the electrostatic preinjector (i.e. the Faraday cage with its contents, SAMES generator and all) was replaced by a 520 keV RFQ. At the lower left corner we see the HV connectors to the SAMES generator, at the right edge part of the opened electronics-platform. Jean-Luc Vallet sees to it that all parts are properly grounded. See also 7403073X, 7403074X, 7403081X, 7403083X.
[Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile
The RSC Faraday prize lecture of 1989 on platinum.
Thomas, John Meurig
2017-08-25
In 1861, Michael Faraday gave one of his last Friday Evening Discourses at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, on platinum, which he described as "this beautiful, magnificent and valuable metal". More than a hundred and twenty years later (in 1989), the author re-enacted, at the Royal Institution, many of the demonstrations that Faraday carried out in his memorable Discourse. This article outlines many of Faraday's views on, and experiments with, platinum. It also describes the continuing importance and utilization of platinum, both as perceived in 1989 and from present perspectives.
Theory of the inverse Faraday effect in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertel, Riccardo
2006-01-01
An analytic expression is given for the inverse Faraday effect, i.e., for the magnetization occurring in a transparent medium exposed to a circularly polarized high-frequency electromagnetic wave. Using a microscopic approach based on the Drude approximation of a free-electron gas, the magnetization of the medium due to the inverse Faraday effect is identified as the result of microscopic solenoidal currents generated by the electromagnetic wave. In contrast to the better known phenomenological derivation, this microscopic treatment provides important information on the frequency dependence of the inverse Faraday effect
Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolin, Alexandru I.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2007-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates we investigate both analytically and numerically the dynamics of cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gases subject to periodic modulation of the strength of the transverse confinement. We offer a fully analytical explanation of the observed parametric resonance, based on a Mathieu-type analysis of the non-polynomial Schroedinger equation. The theoretical prediction for the pattern periodicity versus the driving frequency is directly compared to the experimental data, yielding good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the two. These results are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of both the one-dimensional non-polynomial Schroedinger equation and of the fully three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation
The Faraday effect revisited General theory
Cornean, H D; Pedersen, T G
2005-01-01
This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field $B$. Then the linear term in $B$ of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in $B$ of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed, in contrast to earlier work.
Faraday Discussions meeting Catalysis for Fuels.
Fischer, Nico; Kondrat, Simon A; Shozi, Mzamo
2017-05-02
Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting. The scene was set by the opening lecture of Prof. Enrique Iglesias (UC Berkeley) and wrapped-up with the concluding remarks by Philip Gibson (SASOL).
Modeling the Ionosphere with GPS and Rotation Measure Observations
Malins, J. B.; Taylor, G. B.; White, S. M.; Dowell, J.
2017-12-01
Advances in digital processing have created new tools for looking at and examining the ionosphere. We have combined data from dual frequency GPSs, digital ionosondes and observations from The Long Wavelength Array (LWA), a 256 dipole low frequency radio telescope situated in central New Mexico in order to examine ionospheric profiles. By studying polarized pulsars, the LWA is able to very accurately determine the Faraday rotation caused by the ionosphere. By combining this data with the international geomagnetic reference field, the LWA can evaluate ionospheric profiles and how well they predict the actual Faraday rotation. Dual frequency GPS measurements of total electron content, as well as measurements from digisonde data were used to model the ionosphere, and to predict the Faraday rotation to with in 0.1 rad/m2. Additionally, it was discovered that the predicted topside profile of the digisonde data did not accurate predict faraday rotation measurements, suggesting a need to reexamine the methods for creating the topside predicted profile. I will discuss the methods used to measure rotation measure and ionosphere profiles as well as discuss possible corrections to the topside model.
Diagnose of large area electron beam with faraday cup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Ying; Qian Hang; Yi Aiping; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Liu Jingru; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo
2008-01-01
In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. This paper introduces Faraday cup is used in the diagnose experiment on the uniformity of large area e-beam generated by SPG-200 pulsed power generator. Construction of Faraday cup and the results of calibration are presented in detail. The uniformity of velvet emission is given, and the results of experiment are analyzed. (authors)
Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Radiations Using Plasma Faraday Shield Effect
Barro , Oumar Alassane; Himdi , Mohamed; Lafond , Olivier
2016-01-01
International audience; This letter presents a new reconfigurable antenna associated with a plasma Faraday shield effect. The Faraday shield effect is realized by using a fluorescent lamp. A patch antenna operating at 2.45 GHz is placed inside the lamp. The performance of the reconfigurable system is observed in terms of S11, gain and radiation patterns by simulation and measurement. It is shown that by switching ON the fluorescent lamp, the gain of the antenna decreases and the antenna syste...
Faraday cup for analyzing multi-ion plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, Takao
1987-01-01
A compact and convenient ion analyzer (a kind of a Faraday cup) is developed in order to analyze weakly ionized multi-ion plasmas. This Faraday cup consists of three mesh electrodes and a movable ion collector. With a negative gate pulse superimposed on the ion retarding bias, ions are analyzed by means of time-of-flight. The identification of ion species and measurements of ion density and ion temperature are studied. (author)
Galactic foreground science: Faraday Tomography at low frequencies
Haverkorn, Marijke
2018-05-01
This contribution describes how low-frequency radio-spectropolarimetric imaging as done for Epoch of Reionization detection is used to investigate the nearby Galactic interstellar medium. The method of Faraday Tomography allows disentangling of every line of sight into various components in Faraday depth, which is a proxy for density-weighted magnetic field. I discuss instrumental biases and side effects of this method, and early results it has yielded.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1997-01-01
Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry
Examination of electromagnetic powers with the example of a uc(Faraday) disc dynamo
Reich, Felix A.; Müller, Wolfgang H.
2018-03-01
This paper studies the mathematical form of electromagnetic powers and their influence on the balance of energy by using the example of a uc(Faraday) disc. First, two forms of energy (and balances thereof) are discussed. These employ different forms of powers, which can be distinguished w.r.t. their physical origins and their interpretations in context with the notions of supply and production. The stationary uc(Faraday) disc experiment is modeled following the description by Kovetz (Electromagnetic theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000). Concepts for formulating the electromagnetic field equations for the rotating disc are discussed, and the corresponding approximate analytical solutions are presented. Based on the obtained electromagnetic fields, the powers of the disc are analyzed for a stationary process. The conversion of mechanical power to heating and electromagnetic powering of an external resistor is explained. The paper concludes with the computation of the time evolution of the angular velocity for a magnetically induced breaking process of the disc.
Faraday instability in a near-critical fluid under weightlessness.
Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D
2014-01-01
Experiments on near-critical hydrogen have been conducted under magnetic compensation of gravity to investigate the Faraday instability that arises at the liquid-vapor interface under zero-gravity conditions. We investigated such instability in the absence of stabilizing gravity. Under such conditions, vibration orients the interface and can destabilize it. The experiments confirm the existence of Faraday waves and demonstrate a transition from a square to a line pattern close to the critical point. They also show a transition very close to the critical point from Faraday to periodic layering of the vapor-liquid interface perpendicular to vibration. It was seen that the Faraday wave instability is favored when the liquid-vapor density difference is large enough (fluid far from the critical point), whereas periodic layering predominates for small difference in the liquid and vapor densities (close to the critical point). It was observed for the Faraday wave instability that the wavelength of the instability decreases as one approaches the critical point. The experimental results demonstrate good agreement to the dispersion relation for zero gravity except for temperatures very close to the critical point where a transition from a square pattern to a line pattern is detected, similarly to what is observed under 1g conditions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tuz, Vladimir R.; Novitsky, Denis V.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.
2014-01-01
Optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures consisting of Kerr-type nonlinear and magnetic layers under the action of an external static magnetic field in the Faraday geometry are investigated. The structure is a periodic arrangement of alternating nonlinear and magnetic layers (a o...
Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.
1975-01-01
An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation
On Faraday's law in the presence of extended conductors
Bilbao, Luis
2018-06-01
The use of Faraday's Law of induction for calculating the induced currents in an extended conducting body is discussed. In a general case with arbitrary geometry, the solution to the problem of a moving metal object in the presence of a magnetic field is difficult and implies solving Maxwell's equations in a time-dependent situation. In many cases, including cases with good conductors (but not superconductors) Ampère's Law can be neglected and a simpler solution based solely in Faraday's law can be obtained. The integral form of Faraday's Law along any loop in the conducting body is equivalent to a Kirkhhoff's voltage law of a circuit. Therefore, a numerical solution can be obtained by solving a linear system of equations corresponding to a discrete number of loops in the body.
Faraday effect and λ-modulation absorption spectra of GaP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petkova, P N; Dimov, T N; Iliev, I A
2007-01-01
There are presented the absorption optical spectra of GaP measured by λ-modulation method at room temperature in the spectral region from 505 nm to 700 nm. It is not possible even by λ-modulation to be registered at room temperature the wave bands due to the exciton-phonon interaction. The absorption spectra of GaP carried out by a λ-modulation can be separated exactly in the spectral parts as follows: the transmittance region where the absorption is too slightly expressed; the region determined by the phonon-assisted indirect transitions; the region of the interband absorption. The purpose of Faraday rotation measurements is to establish the influence of the exciton-phonon interaction on the magneto-optical effect. The magneto-optical effect has been investigated by a φ-modulation. The spectral dependence of dn/dλ in the transmittance region is determined by the φ-modulated spectra
Evaluation of ion collection area in Faraday probes.
Brown, Daniel L; Gallimore, Alec D
2010-06-01
A Faraday probe with three concentric rings was designed and fabricated to assess the effect of gap width and collector diameter in a systematic study of the diagnostic ion collection area. The nested Faraday probe consisted of two concentric collector rings and an outer guard ring, which enabled simultaneous current density measurements on the inner and outer collectors. Two versions of the outer collector were fabricated to create gaps of 0.5 and 1.5 mm between the rings. Distribution of current density in the plume of a low-power Hall thruster ion source was measured in azimuthal sweeps at constant radius from 8 to 20 thruster diameters downstream of the exit plane with variation in facility background pressure. A new analytical technique is proposed to account for ions collected in the gap between the Faraday probe collector and guard ring. This method is shown to exhibit excellent agreement between all nested Faraday probe configurations, and to reduce the magnitude of integrated ion beam current to levels consistent with Hall thruster performance analyses. The technique is further studied by varying the guard ring bias potential with a fixed collector bias potential, thereby controlling ion collection in the gap. Results are in agreement with predictions based on the proposed analytical technique. The method is applied to a past study comparing the measured ion current density profiles of two Faraday probe designs. These findings provide new insight into the nature of ion collection in Faraday probe diagnostics, and lead to improved accuracy with a significant reduction in measurement uncertainty.
An assessment of the lifetime of Faraday shield elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caughman, J.B.O. II; Ruzic, D.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Langley, R.A.; Lewis, M.B.; Ryan, P.M.
1989-01-01
The interaction of plasma with rf fields from an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna has been studied to estimate the amount of Faraday shield erosion expected in normal ICRF heating (ICRH) operation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been measured in the near field of an antenna and used in a model to estimate the erosion rate of the Faraday shield surface. Experiments were conducted on the RF Test Facility (RFTF), a magnetic mirror device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), using a single-strap resonant loop antenna with a two-tier Faraday shield. The outer tier, facing the plasma, was layered with graphite tiles. The antenna was operated at currents and voltages (∼500 A, ∼20 kV at 25 kW) within 50% of those expected in tokamaks. The time varying floating potential was measured with a capacitively coupled probe, and the time-averaged floating potential, electron temperature, and electron density were measured with a Langmuir probe. Both probes were scanned in front of the antenna. Ion energies were measured with a gridded energy analyzer located below the antenna, and samples of silicon were placed on the Faraday shield surface to estimate the incident ion energy. The capacitive probe measurements show that the rf floating potential follows the magnetic field pattern of the antenna, indicating that the electromagnetic fields are responsible for the potential formation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been correlated with the antenna current and used in s computational model of the plasma sheath to predict the amount of erosion expected from the Faraday shield elements exposed to plasma. Predictions of light ion sputtering of candidate Faraday shield materials are presented. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
An assessment of the lifetime of Faraday shield elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caughman, J.B.O. II; Ruzic, D.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Langley, R.A.; Lewis, M.B.; Ryan, P.M.
1990-01-01
The interaction of plasma with rf fields from an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna has been studied to estimate the amount of Faraday shield erosion expected in normal ICRF heating operation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been measured in the near field of an antenna and used in a model to estimate the erosion rate of the Faraday shield surface. Experiments were conducted on the RF Test Facility, a magnetic mirror device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using a single-strap resonant loop antenna with a two-tier Faraday shield. The outer tier, facing the plasma, was layered with graphite tiles. The antenna was operated at currents and voltages within 50% of those expected in tokamaks. The time-varying floating potential was measured with a capacitively coupled probe, and the time-averaged floating potential, electron temperature, and electron density were measured with a Langmuir probe. Ion energies were measured with a gridded energy analyser located below the antenna, and samples of silicon were placed on the Faraday shield surface to estimate the incident ion energy. The capacitive probe measurements show that the rf floating potential follows the magnetic field pattern of the antenna, indicating that the electromagnetic fields are responsible for the potential formation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been correlated with the antenna current and used in a computational model of the plasma sheath to predict the amount of erosion expected from the Faraday shield elements exposed to plasma. Predictions of light ion sputtering of candidate Faraday shield materials are presented
Evaluation of ion collection area in Faraday probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, Daniel L.; Gallimore, Alec D.
2010-01-01
A Faraday probe with three concentric rings was designed and fabricated to assess the effect of gap width and collector diameter in a systematic study of the diagnostic ion collection area. The nested Faraday probe consisted of two concentric collector rings and an outer guard ring, which enabled simultaneous current density measurements on the inner and outer collectors. Two versions of the outer collector were fabricated to create gaps of 0.5 and 1.5 mm between the rings. Distribution of current density in the plume of a low-power Hall thruster ion source was measured in azimuthal sweeps at constant radius from 8 to 20 thruster diameters downstream of the exit plane with variation in facility background pressure. A new analytical technique is proposed to account for ions collected in the gap between the Faraday probe collector and guard ring. This method is shown to exhibit excellent agreement between all nested Faraday probe configurations, and to reduce the magnitude of integrated ion beam current to levels consistent with Hall thruster performance analyses. The technique is further studied by varying the guard ring bias potential with a fixed collector bias potential, thereby controlling ion collection in the gap. Results are in agreement with predictions based on the proposed analytical technique. The method is applied to a past study comparing the measured ion current density profiles of two Faraday probe designs. These findings provide new insight into the nature of ion collection in Faraday probe diagnostics, and lead to improved accuracy with a significant reduction in measurement uncertainty.
The contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to electrical science
Tricker, R A R
1966-01-01
The Contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to Electrical Science deals with the development of electromagnetic theory following the establishment of the basis for the first law of circulation relating to the magnetic fields generated by steady currents. This book is organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters that specifically treat the provision of the basis for the second law of circulation, the law that deals with the induction of currents, which was predominantly the work of British physicists, Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Part I highlights their life, career, and contri
Concluding remarks: Faraday Discussion on chemistry in the urban atmosphere.
Jimenez, Jose L
2016-07-18
This article summarises the Concluding remarks from the Faraday Discussion on Chemistry in the Urban Atmosphere. The following themes are addressed: (a) new results that inform our understanding of the evolving sources and composition of the urban atmosphere ("News"); (b) results that identify gaps in our understanding that necessitate further work ("Gaps"); (c) the emerging instrumentation revolution and some of the challenges that it brings; (d) the structural issues of insufficient support for the analysis of field campaigns; and (e) some important areas that were missing from this Faraday Discussion and that should receive an increasing focus in the future.
Fast Faraday fading of long range satellite signals.
Heron, M. L.
1972-01-01
20 MHz radio signals have been received during the day from satellite Beacon-B when it was below the optical horizon by using a bank of narrow filters to improve the signal to noise ratio. The Faraday fading rate becomes constant, under these conditions, at a level determined by the plasma frequency just below the F-layer peak. Variations in the Faraday fading rate reveal fluctuations in the electron density near the peak, while the rate of attaining the constant level depends on the shape of the electron density profile.
Compensation of thermally induced polarisation distortions in Faraday isolators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khazanov, E A
1999-01-01
Two new Faraday isolator designs are proposed. They make it possible to compensate partly for the depolarisation of radiation which occurs in magneto-optical elements because of the photoelastic effect caused by heating associated with the absorption of laser radiation. Analytic and numerical comparisons of the new and traditional designs demonstrate a significant (by orders of magnitude) increase in the isolation ratio of the new isolators. The results obtained indicate that it should be possible to construct a Faraday isolator with the isolation ratio of 30 dB for laser radiation with an average power of several kilowatts. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsujimura, S.; Iida, O.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)
2000-02-25
The generation mechanism of the vertical vortices associated with the baroclinic instability and the effects of nonlinear term on the vortices are investigated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and rapid distortion theory (RDT). Two kinds of the anisotropic flow fields are used as initial conditions. As a result, the initial anisotropy of Reynolds stresses is found to affect asymmetry of the vertical vortices. In the cases where the initial vertical velocity is set to be zero, the p. d. f. of the vertical vorticity tends to incline toward the anticyclonic side. When the vertical component of initial velocity is larger than the horizontal one, the cyclonic vortices are more enhanced. By comparing DNS and RDT, it is found that in both cases of the initial conditions the enhanced vortices of DNS are stretched in the vertical direction, which is not observed in the RDT results. This should be because the nonlinear vortex-stretching term intensifies and elongates vertical vortices in the vertical direction. The anticyclones are markedly augmented in low Prandtl number fluids, while the cyclones become dominant in the high Prandtl number case. In particular, the flow field becomes almost two-dimensionalized and Taylor columns are formed in the vertical direction in the low Prandtl number case. However, neither two-dimensionalization nor Taylor column is observed in the RDT analysis which neglects the nonlinear terms. (author)
Electromagnetic analysis of the Faraday shield of the EAST ICRF antenna
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Qingxi; Song Yuntao; Wu Songtao; Zhao Yanping
2011-01-01
Faraday shield is one of the important components of ICRF antenna for EAST. In view of the structural safety of the Faraday shield, the electromagnetic and structural analyses for the Faraday shield have been carried out by applying the finite element method and the formulas under the cases of plasma disruption and vertical displacement event (VDE). Results of the electromagnetic forces, the stresses distribution as well as the deformation in the Faraday shield have been obtained under the two cases. They meet the design requirements and provide the theoretical basis for the structural safety evaluation of the Faraday shield. (authors)
The Journey from Maxwell to Faraday (From Fields to Strings)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2010-07-02
Jul 2, 2010 ... markets!). Signature of its robustness and versatility. Basically it is tailor-made for describing systems with infinitely many interacting degrees of freedom. ... QED is a successful theory of quantum fields. Faraday's picture is not quantitatively useful. What are the equations governing the diffuse lines of flux?
Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method
Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Ebert, Hans
2011-01-01
The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz while it is essentially useless for higher frequencies.
Assessment of the Usability of the Workbench Faraday Cage Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.
2011-01-01
The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...
Faraday's Investigation of Electromagnetic Induction. Experiment No. 21.
Devons, Samuel
This paper focuses on Michael Faraday's experimental research in electricity in the 1830's. Historical notes related to his work are included as well as experiments, his objectives, and illustrations of equipment for the experiments. Examples from his diary are given so that students can attempt to emulate his honest and systematic manner of…
Quantum noise for Faraday light–matter interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vasliyev, D.V.; Hammerer, K.; Korolev, N.
2012-01-01
In light–matter interfaces based on the Faraday effect, quite a number of quantum information protocols have been successfully demonstrated. In order to further increase the performance and fidelities achieved in these protocols, a deeper understanding of the relevant noise and decoherence...
Coarsening of Faraday Heaps: Experiment, Simulation, and Theory
Gerner, van H.J.; Robledo, Caballero G.A.; Meer, van der D.; Weele, van der J.P.; Hoef, van der M.A.
2009-01-01
When a layer of granular material is vertically shaken, the surface spontaneously breaks up in a landscape of small Faraday heaps that merge into larger ones on an ever increasing time scale. This coarsening process is studied in a linear setup, for which the average life span of the transient state
Correspondence of Michael Faraday, v.5 1855-1860
Faraday, Michael
2008-01-01
This volume includes 70% of previously unpublished letters of Michael Farday spanning half of the 1850s and most of 1860. Topics include Faraday's work on regelation, the transmission of light through gold and his appointment by Emperor Napoleon III to be a Commander of the Legion of Honour.
Faraday, Dickens and Science Education in Victorian Britain
Melville, Wayne; Allingham, Philip V.
2011-01-01
The achievements of Michael Faraday in the fields of electricity and electrochemistry have led some to describe him as the greatest experimental scientist in history. Charles Dickens was the creative genius behind some of the most memorable characters in literature. In this article, we share an historical account of how the collaboration of these…
Faraday effect revisited: sum rules and convergence issues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe
2010-01-01
This is the third paper of a series revisiting the Faraday effect. The question of the absolute convergence of the sums over the band indices entering the Verdet constant is considered. In general, sum rules and traces per unit volume play an important role in solid-state physics, and they give...
CISM Course on Rotating Fluids
1992-01-01
The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.
An assessment of the lifetime of Faraday shield elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caughman, J.B.O. II; Ruzic, D.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Langley, R.A.; Lewis, M.B.; Ryan, P.M.
1989-01-01
The interaction of plasma with rf fields from an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antenna has been studied to estimate the amount of Faraday shield erosion expected in normal ICRF heating operation. Plasma parameters and ion energies have been measured in the near field of an antenna and used in a model to estimate the erosion rate of the Faraday shield surface. Experiments were conducted on the RF Test Facility, a magnetic mirror device at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, using a single-strap resonant loop antenna with a two-tier Faraday shield. The outer tier, facing the plasma, was layered with graphite tiles. The antenna was operated at currents and voltages within 50% of those expected in tokamaks. The time-varying floating potential was measured with a capacitively coupled probe, and the time-averaged floating potential, electron temperature, and electron density were measured with Langmuir probe. Both probes were scanned in front of the antenna. Ion energies were measured with a gridded energy analyzer located below the antenna, and samples of silicon were placed on the Faraday shield surface to estimate the incident ion energy. The capacitive probe measurement show that the rf floating potential follows the magnetic field pattern of the antenna, indicating that the electromagnetic fields are responsible for the potential formation. Electron temperatures increase with rf power and can reach values ≥60 eV for an rf power of ∼25 kW. Incident ion energies ≥300 eV have been measured for the same power level. Predictions of light ion sputtering of candidate Faraday shield materials are presented. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Jihun; Linganna, Kadathala; Watekar, Pramod R; Kang, Seong Gu; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Boo, Seongjae; Lee, Youjin; An, Yong Ho; Kim, Cheol Jin; Han, Won-Taek
2018-03-27
All-optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on the Gd₂O₃ nano-particles (NPs)-doped alumino-silicate glass optical fiber was developed, and its temperature and vibration dependence on the Faraday Effect were investigated. Uniformly embedded Gd₂O₃ NPs were identified to form in the core of the fiber, and the measured absorption peaks of the fiber appearing at 377 nm, 443 nm, and 551 nm were attributed to the Gd₂O₃ NPs incorporated in the fiber core. The Faraday rotation angle (FRA) of the linearly polarized light was measured at 650 nm with the induced magnetic field by the solenoid. The Faraday rotation angle was found to increase linearly with the magnetic field, and it was about 18.16° ± 0.048° at 0.142 Tesla (T) at temperatures of 25 °C-120 °C, by which the estimated Verdet constant was 3.19 rad/(T∙m) ± 0.01 rad/(T∙m). The variation of the FRA with time at 0.142 T and 120 °C was negligibly small (-9.78 × 10 -4 °/min). The variation of the FRA under the mechanical vibration with the acceleration below 10 g and the frequency above 50 Hz was within 0.5°.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Breńkacz Łukasz
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Hydrodynamic bearings are commonly used in ship propulsion systems. Typically, they are calculated using numerical or experimental methods. This paper presents an experimental study through which it has been possible to estimate 24 dynamic coefficients of two hydrodynamic slide bearings operating under nonlinear conditions. During the investigation, bearing mass coefficients are identified by means of a newly developed algorithm. An impact hammer was used to excite vibration of the shaft. The approximation by means of the least squares method was applied to determine bearing dynamic coefficients. Based on the performed research, the four (i.e. two main and two crosscoupled coefficients of stiffness, damping and mass for each bearing were obtained. The mass coefficients add up to the complex shaft weight. These values are not required for modeling dynamics of the machine because the rotor mass is usually known, however, they may serve as a good indicator to validate the correctness of the stiffness and damping coefficients determined. Additionally, the experimental research procedure was described. The signals of displacements in the bearings and the excitation forces used for determination of the bearing dynamic coefficients were shown. The study discussed in this article is about a rotor supported by two hydrodynamic bearings operating in a nonlinear manner. On the basis of computations, the results of bearing dynamic coefficients were presented for a selected speed.
CRADA Final Report, 2011S003, Faraday Technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraday Technologies
2012-01-01
This Phase I SBIR program addressed the need for an improved manufacturing process for electropolishing niobium RF superconducting cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The ILC is a proposed particle accelerator that will be used to gain a deeper understanding of the forces of energy and matter by colliding beams of electrons and positrons at nearly the speed of light. The energy required for this to happen will be achieved through the use of advanced superconducting technology, specifically ∼16,000 RF superconducting cavities operating at near absolute zero. The RF superconductor cavities will be fabricated from highly pure Nb, which has an extremely low surface resistance at 2 Kelvin when compared to other materials. To take full advantage of the superconducting properties of the Nb cavities, the inner surface must be a) polished to a microscale roughness < 0.1 µm with removal of at least 100 µm of material, and b) cleaned to be free of impurities that would degrade performance of the ILC. State-of-the-art polishing uses either chemical polishing or electropolishing, both of which require hydrofluoric acid to achieve breakdown of the strong passive film on the surface. In this Phase I program, Faraday worked with its collaborators at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) to demonstrate the feasibility of an electropolishing process for pure niobium, utilizing an environmentally benign alternative to chemical or electrochemical polishing electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid. Faraday utilized a 31 wt% aqueous sulfuric acid solution (devoid of hydrofluoric acid) in conjunction with the FARADAYICSM Process, which uses pulse/pulse reverse fields for electropolishing, to demonstrate the ability to electropolish niobium to the desired surface finish. The anticipated benefits of the FARADAYICSM Electropolishing process will be a simpler, safer, and less expensive method capable of surface finishing high purity niobium cavities
An optimized Faraday cage design for electron beam current measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, J.N.; Hausner, G.G.; Parsons, D.F.
1975-01-01
A Faraday cage detector is described for measuring electron beam intensity for use with energies up to 1.2 Mev, with the present data taken at 100 keV. The design features a readily changeable limiting aperture and detector cup geometry, and a secondary electron suppression grid. The detection efficiency of the cage is shown to be limited only by primary backscatter through the detector solid angle of escape, which is optimized with respect to primary backscattered electrons and secondary electron escape. The geometry and stopping material of the detection cup are varied, and the results show that for maximum detection efficiency with carbon as the stopping mateiral, the solid angle of escape must be equal to or less than 0.05πsr. The experimental results are consistent within the +-2% accuracy of the detection electronics, and are not limited by the Faraday cage detection efficiency. (author)
Faraday waves in a Hele-Shaw cell
Li, Jing; Li, Xiaochen; Chen, Kaijie; Xie, Bin; Liao, Shijun
2018-04-01
We investigate Faraday waves in a Hele-Shaw cell via experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies. Inspired by the Kelvin-Helmholtz-Darcy theory, we develop the gap-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and end up with the stable standing waves with half frequency of the external forced vibration. To overcome the dependency of a numerical model on the experimental parameter of wave length, we take two-phase flow into consideration and a novel dispersion relation is derived. The numerical results compare well with our experimental data, which effectively validates our proposed mathematical model. Therefore, this model can produce robust solutions of Faraday wave patterns and resolve related physical phenomena, which demonstrates the practical importance of the present study.
A variable suppressed aperture and Faraday cup system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, H.G.; Charlesworth, T.R.
1979-02-01
The injection system of the NSF accelerator within the high voltage enclosure is illustrated. The optics calls for a waist close to the entrance of the 500 kV accelerator tube. This waist will be the initial diagnostic point on the injection path for determining ion source performance and transmission through the later system. This will be made by determining the beam current after a preliminary mass analysis by the 30 0 magnet. To provide this diagnostic and to enable a waist to be formed at this point, a variable aperture and Faraday cup system is required. The Faraday cup will measure the beam transmitted by the aperture. Maximisation of this beam by adjustment of the preceding optical elements will ensure the waist in the beam at that point. (author)
A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging.
Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W
2006-02-21
An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.
Sodium and potassium vapor Faraday filters revisited: theory and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrell, S. D.; She, C.-Y.; Yuan Tao; Krueger, David A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S. S.; Hu, Z. L.
2009-01-01
A complete theory describing the transmission of atomic vapor Faraday filters is developed. The dependence of the filter transmission on atomic density and external magnetic field strength, as well as the frequency dependence of transmission, are explained in physical terms. As examples, applications of the computed results to ongoing research to suppress sky background, thus allowing Na lidar operation under sunlit conditions, and to enable measurement of the density of mesospheric oxygen atoms are briefly discussed
Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages
Hewett, DP; Hewitt, IJ
2016-01-01
We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called `Faraday cage e ect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to in nity we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an e ective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the...
Faraday cage angled-etching of nanostructures in bulk dielectrics
Latawiec, Pawel; Burek, Michael J.; Sohn, Young-Ik; Lončar, Marko
2016-01-01
For many emerging optoelectronic materials, heteroepitaxial growth techniques do not offer the same high material quality afforded by bulk, single-crystal growth. However, the need for optical, electrical, or mechanical isolation at the nanoscale level often necessitates the use of a dissimilar substrate, upon which the active device layer stands. Faraday cage angled-etching (FCAE) obviates the need for these planar, thin-film technologies by enabling in-situ device release and isolation thro...
A flat spectral Faraday filter for sodium lidar.
Yang, Yong; Cheng, Xuewu; Li, Faquan; Hu, Xiong; Lin, Xin; Gong, Shunsheng
2011-04-01
We report a flat spectral Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FS-FADOF) for sodium lidar. The physical and technical considerations for obtaining a FS-FADOF with a 3.5 GHz flat spectral transmission function are presented. It was found that the effective transmission of this filter was much higher (>94%) and more uniform than that of the ultranarrowband FADOF, and therefore were less sensitive to laser-frequency drift. Thus, the FS-FADOF can improve lidar efficiency and precision.
Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.
Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2012-09-14
We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.
Joule loss on a Faraday shield of JT-60 ICRF test antenna
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Saigusa, Mikio; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Haruyuki; Hirashima, Teruhisa; Uehara, Munenori.
1988-01-01
Joule loss on a Faraday shield of JT-60 ICRF test antenna with a conductive casing is investigated at the frequency range of 120 MHz. The magnetic field radiated from the antenna is measured by three-dimensionally scanning an rf probe both inside and outside the antenna casing. The magnetic field perpendicular to the Faraday shield, B x , is found to be the largest component near the Faraday shield. It consequently gives the major part of the joule loss on the Faraday shield. The temperature distribution of the Faraday shield due to joule loss is measured directly with a thermocamera. It is confirmed that the area of the high temperature rise is consistent with the peak positions of the B x field. Faraday shield resistance which is estimated from power measurements agrees with the theoretical value. (author)
Simple theory of the inverse Faraday effect with relationship to optical constants N and K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshino, Toshihiko
2011-01-01
The inverse Faraday effect in general materials is theoretically investigated based on the classical motion of an electron. It is shown that the inverse Faraday effect is simply and explicitly expressed in terms of optical constants N and K, i.e., the real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index of materials. The derived new formula provides a good physical perspective for the inverse Faraday effect and enables its easy quantitative evaluation from familiar optical constants. - Highlights: → The theory of the inverse Faraday effect in general materials is presented based on the classical motion model of electron. → The simple relationship between optical constants of materials and the inverse Faraday effect is given. → The given new formula enables easy quantitative evaluation of the inverse Faraday effect from known optical constants.
Development of an external Faraday cup for beam current measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kye-Ryung; Jung, Myung-Hwan; Ra, Se-Jin; Lee, Seok-Ki
2010-01-01
In general, beam current measurements are very important for many kinds of experiments using highly energetic particle beams at accelerators, such as cyclotrons, linacs, etc. The Faraday cup is known to be one of the most popular beam current measurement tools. We developed an external Faraday cup to measure the beam current at a dedicated beam line for low-flux experiments installed at the MC-50 cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). It was designed for external beam current measurements and is composed of a vacuum chamber, an entrance window, a collimator, a electrostatic suppressor ring, and a cup. The window is made of 75-um-thick Kapton film, and the diameter of the collimator is 10 mm or 20 mm. The ring and the cup has 5-cm inner diameters, and the thickness of the bottom of the cup is 2 cm, which is enough to absorb the total proton energy up to 45 MeV. Using this external Faraday cup, we measured the beam current from the cyclotron, and we compared measured flux to the results from film dosimetry using GAF films.
Wave-particle interaction in the Faraday waves.
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2015-10-01
Wave motion in disordered Faraday waves is analysed in terms of oscillons or quasi-particles. The motion of these oscillons is measured using particle tracking tools and it is compared with the motion of fluid particles on the water surface. Both the real floating particles and the oscillons, representing the collective fluid motion, show Brownian-type dispersion exhibiting ballistic and diffusive mean squared displacement at short and long times, respectively. While the floating particles motion has been previously explained in the context of two-dimensional turbulence driven by Faraday waves, no theoretical description exists for the random walk type motion of oscillons. It is found that the r.m.s velocity ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) of oscillons is directly related to the turbulent r.m.s. velocity ⟨μ̃⟩(rms) of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. The measured ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) accurately explains the broadening of the frequency spectra of the surface elevation observed in disordered Faraday waves. These results suggest that 2D turbulence is the driving force behind both the randomization of the oscillons motion and the resulting broadening of the wave frequency spectra. The coupling between wave motion and hydrodynamic turbulence demonstrated here offers new perspectives for predicting complex fluid transport from the knowledge of wave field spectra and vice versa.
Development and first experimental tests of Faraday cup array.
Prokůpek, J; Kaufman, J; Margarone, D; Krůs, M; Velyhan, A; Krása, J; Burris-Mog, T; Busold, S; Deppert, O; Cowan, T E; Korn, G
2014-01-01
A new type of Faraday cup, capable of detecting high energy charged particles produced in a high intensity laser-matter interaction environment, has recently been developed and demonstrated as a real-time detector based on the time-of-flight technique. An array of these Faraday cups was designed and constructed to cover different observation angles with respect to the target normal direction. Thus, it allows reconstruction of the spatial distribution of ion current density in the subcritical plasma region and the ability to visualise its time evolution through time-of-flight measurements, which cannot be achieved with standard laser optical interferometry. This is a unique method for two-dimensional visualisation of ion currents from laser-generated plasmas. A technical description of the new type of Faraday cup is introduced along with an ad hoc data analysis procedure. Experimental results obtained during campaigns at the Petawatt High-Energy Laser for Heavy Ion Experiments (GSI, Darmstadt) and at the Prague Asterix Laser System (AS CR) are presented. Advantages and limitations of the used diagnostic system are discussed.
Study of the Vertical Magnetic Field in Face-on Galaxies Using Faraday Tomography
Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Tashiro, Yuichi; Akahori, Takuya; Takahashi, Keitaro; Ryu, Dongsu
2017-07-01
Faraday tomography allows astronomers to probe the distribution of the magnetic field along the line of sight (LOS), but that can be achieved only after the Faraday spectrum is interpreted. However, the interpretation is not straightforward, mainly because the Faraday spectrum is complicated due to a turbulent magnetic field; it ruins the one-to-one relation between the Faraday depth and the physical depth, and appears as many small-scale features in the Faraday spectrum. In this paper, by employing “simple toy models” for the magnetic field, we describe numerically as well as analytically the characteristic properties of the Faraday spectrum. We show that the Faraday spectrum along “multiple LOSs” can be used to extract the global properties of the magnetic field. Specifically, considering face-on spiral galaxies and modeling turbulent magnetic field as a random field with a single coherence length, we numerically calculate the Faraday spectrum along a number of LOSs and its shape-characterizing parameters, that is, the moments. When multiple LOSs cover a region of ≳(10 coherence length)2, the shape of the Faraday spectrum becomes smooth and the shape-characterizing parameters are well specified. With the Faraday spectrum constructed as a sum of Gaussian functions with different means and variances, we analytically show that the parameters are expressed in terms of the regular and turbulent components of the LOS magnetic field and the coherence length. We also consider the turbulent magnetic field modeled with a power-law spectrum, and study how the magnetic field is revealed in the Faraday spectrum. Our work suggests a way to obtain information on the magnetic field from a Faraday tomography study.
The Faraday effect in two-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzlikin, A.M.; Vinogradov, A.P.; Inoue, M.; Khanikaev, A.B.; Granovsky, A.B.
2006-01-01
The necessary conditions for the observation of the Faraday effect in 2D magneto-photonic crystals are discussed. It is found. that the Faraday effect may be observed in the directions where any couple of the wave vectors of the harmonics consisting the Bloch waves of TE and TM solutions in zero magnetic field are identical. This direction corresponds neither to Faraday nor to Voigt geometry
The Faraday effect in two-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merzlikin, A.M. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetism, OIVT, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: merzlikin_a@mail.ru; Vinogradov, A.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetism, OIVT, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Inoue, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A.B. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Hibari-Ga-Oka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Granovsky, A.B. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninski Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)
2006-05-15
The necessary conditions for the observation of the Faraday effect in 2D magneto-photonic crystals are discussed. It is found. that the Faraday effect may be observed in the directions where any couple of the wave vectors of the harmonics consisting the Bloch waves of TE and TM solutions in zero magnetic field are identical. This direction corresponds neither to Faraday nor to Voigt geometry.
Observation of two-dimensional Faraday waves in extremely shallow depth.
Li, Xiaochen; Yu, Zhengyue; Liao, Shijun
2015-09-01
A family of two-dimensional Faraday waves in extremely shallow depth (1 mm to 2 mm) of absolute ethanol are observed experimentally using a Hele-Shaw cell that vibrates vertically. The same phenomena are not observed by means of water, ethanol solution, and silicone oil. These Faraday waves are quite different from the traditional ones. These phenomena are helpful to deepen and enrich our understandings about Faraday waves, and besides provide a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics.
Study of the Vertical Magnetic Field in Face-on Galaxies Using Faraday Tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Ryu, Dongsu; Tashiro, Yuichi; Takahashi, Keitaro; Akahori, Takuya
2017-01-01
Faraday tomography allows astronomers to probe the distribution of the magnetic field along the line of sight (LOS), but that can be achieved only after the Faraday spectrum is interpreted. However, the interpretation is not straightforward, mainly because the Faraday spectrum is complicated due to a turbulent magnetic field; it ruins the one-to-one relation between the Faraday depth and the physical depth, and appears as many small-scale features in the Faraday spectrum. In this paper, by employing “simple toy models” for the magnetic field, we describe numerically as well as analytically the characteristic properties of the Faraday spectrum. We show that the Faraday spectrum along “multiple LOSs” can be used to extract the global properties of the magnetic field. Specifically, considering face-on spiral galaxies and modeling turbulent magnetic field as a random field with a single coherence length, we numerically calculate the Faraday spectrum along a number of LOSs and its shape-characterizing parameters, that is, the moments. When multiple LOSs cover a region of ≳(10 coherence length) 2 , the shape of the Faraday spectrum becomes smooth and the shape-characterizing parameters are well specified. With the Faraday spectrum constructed as a sum of Gaussian functions with different means and variances, we analytically show that the parameters are expressed in terms of the regular and turbulent components of the LOS magnetic field and the coherence length. We also consider the turbulent magnetic field modeled with a power-law spectrum, and study how the magnetic field is revealed in the Faraday spectrum. Our work suggests a way to obtain information on the magnetic field from a Faraday tomography study.
Ultrafast magnetic vortex core switching driven by the topological inverse Faraday effect.
Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tatara, Gen
2012-09-21
We present a theoretical discovery of an unconventional mechanism of inverse Faraday effect which acts selectively on topological magnetic structures. The effect, topological inverse Faraday effect, is induced by the spin Berry's phase of the magnetic structure when a circularly polarized light is applied. Thus a spin-orbit interaction is not necessary unlike that in the conventional inverse Faraday effect. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that topological inverse Faraday effect realizes ultrafast switching of a magnetic vortex within a switching time of 150 ps without magnetic field.
Childs, Peter R N
2010-01-01
Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...
Lee, William H K.
2016-01-01
Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.
Finite element model for nonlinear shells of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, W.A.
1979-01-01
Nuclear material shipping containers have shells of revolution as basic structural components. Analytically modeling the response of these containers to severe accident impact conditions requires a nonlinear shell-of-revolution model that accounts for both geometric and material nonlinearities. Existing models are limited to large displacements, small rotations, and nonlinear materials. The paper presents a finite element model for a nonlinear shell of revolution that will account for large displacements, large strains, large rotations, and nonlinear materials
Rotation measure synthesis at the 2 m wavelength of the FAN region: unveiling screens and bubbles
Iacobelli, M.; Haverkorn, M.; Katgert, P.
2013-01-01
Context. Rotation measure synthesis of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) observations at λ ~ 2 m of the FAN region at l = 137°, b = +7° shows the morphology of structures in the ionized interstellar medium. Aims: We interpret the diffuse polarized synchrotron emission in terms of coherent structures in the interstellar medium and the properties of the interstellar magnetic field. Methods: We performed statistical analysis of the polarization data cube obtained through rotation measure synthesis. For the first time, cross-correlation is applied to identify and characterize polarized structures in Faraday depth space. Complementary information about the medium are derived from Hα emission, properties of nearby pulsars, and optical polarized starlight measurements. Results: We find an overall asymmetric Faraday dispersion function in a Faraday depth range of [-13, +5] rad m-2, which is peaked around -1 rad m-2. Three morphological patterns are recognized, showing structures on scales from degrees down to the beam size. The first structure is a nearby synchrotron emission component with low Faraday depth, filling the entire field of view. The second pattern is a circular polarization structure with enhanced (negative) Faraday depth, which has the same morphology as a low-emission region within the third component. This third component is interpreted as the background in which the circular structure is embedded. At low Faraday depth values, a low gradient across the imaged field is detected, almost aligned with the Galactic plane. Power spectra of polarized structures in Faraday depth space provide evidence of turbulence. Conclusions: A sign reversal in Faraday depth from the nearby component to the circular component indicates a reversal of the magnetic field component along the line of sight, from towards the observer and nearby to away from the observer at large distances. The distance to the nearby, extended component is estimated as ≲100 pc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ataei, Nader
2006-05-09
Different types of exciter are used for voltage supply to the synchronous generators of power stations depending on the required power and design. The exciter system of the generator, which as a rule consists syncronous motors and commutators, is commonly modeled in conventional models by control units with nonlinear characteristics which do not give an accurate picture of the dynamic processes inside the exciter motor. It was not possible to assess the component loads of the exciter components and the physical characteristics within the exciter system. In this study, a brushless exciter for the grid-connected synchronous generator was investigated which consists of two synchronous motors as primary and secondary exciter and two commutator bridges. A dynamic simulation model was developed for calculating the interactions between the grid, generator and exciter unit in consideration of electromagnetic and galvanic coupling. For this, the normal control units were replaced by physical components of the exciter system, i.e. electric exciter motors and commutators. The study was carried out using an enhanced version of the Siemens NETOMAC software, which provided information on the loads on the exciter components in case of internal and external failures. In particular, loads in coils and commutators were calculated that could not be measured before. The findings enable more accurate dimensioning of the exciter unit making it more fail-safe, and the protective systems can be adjusted more accurately. One important result of the investigation was the identification of all dynamic processes going on between the exciter motors, commutators, generator and grid induced by external and internal failures. (orig.) [German] Zur Spannungsversorgung der Synchrongeneratoren in Kraftwerken werden je nach Leistungsanforderung und Baukonzept unterschiedliche Erregereinrichtungen verwendet. Das Erregersystem des Generators, das in der Regel aus Erregersynchronmaschinen und
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inui, Chie; Ozaki, Shinsuke; Kura, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsuya
2011-01-01
Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal (1-D MPC) prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method, including a magnetic defect layer composed of mixture of CoFe 2 O 4 and SiO 2 , are investigated from both the experimental and theoretical standpoints. The resonant transmission of light was observed around 570 nm in the photonic band gap. The Faraday rotation angle θ F showed two maxima at 490 and 640 nm, and the wavelength dependence of θ F above 760 nm was similar to that of the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 single-layer film. The two maxima of θ F are attributed to the enhanced Faraday rotation of nonmagnetic TiO 2 layers in the cavity structure and that in magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer through the light localization in MPC. The maximum value of θ F due to the magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer in the MPC was 22-times larger than that in the single-layer film. The simulation study of MPC with CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer, based on the matrix approach method, showed that the resonant light transmission was accompanied by the localization of electric field, and large enhancement of θ F appeared at different wavelengths so as to agree with the experimental features. This can be explained in terms of the wavelength dependent off-diagonal components of the dielectric constant tensor in addition to the large extinction coefficient in the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer. - Highlights: → 1-D magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) prepared by sol-gel method. → Enhancement of Faraday rotation due to the magnetic defect layer of CoFe 2 O 4 . → Shift of wavelength of Faraday rotation maximum from resonant light transmission.
A Left-Hand Rule for Faraday's Law
Salu, Yehuda
2014-01-01
A left-hand rule for Faraday's law is presented here. This rule provides a simple and quick way of finding directional relationships between variables of Faraday's law without using Lenz's rule.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Jing; Rovey, Joshua L.
2011-01-01
A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 Ω characteristic impedance to match with 50 Ω standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a ''double-humped'' energy distribution.
Representing the Electromagnetic Field: How Maxwell's Mathematics Empowered Faraday's Field Theory
Tweney, Ryan D.
2011-01-01
James Clerk Maxwell "translated" Michael Faraday's experimentally-based field theory into the mathematical representation now known as "Maxwell's Equations." Working with a variety of mathematical representations and physical models Maxwell extended the reach of Faraday's theory and brought it into consistency with other…
Hu, Jing; Rovey, Joshua L
2011-07-01
A movable Faraday cup design with simple structure and adjustable impedance is described in this work. This Faraday cup has external adjustable shunt resistance for self-biased measurement setup and 50 Ω characteristic impedance to match with 50 Ω standard BNC coaxial cable and vacuum feedthroughs for nanosecond-level pulse signal measurements. Adjustable shunt resistance allows self-biased measurements to be quickly acquired to determine the electron energy distribution function. The performance of the Faraday cup is validated by tests of response time and amplitude of output signal. When compared with a reference source, the percent difference of the Faraday cup signal fall time is less than 10% for fall times greater than 10 ns. The percent difference of the Faraday cup signal pulse width is below 6.7% for pulse widths greater than 10 ns. A pseudospark-generated electron beam is used to compare the amplitude of the Faraday cup signal with a calibrated F-70 commercial current transformer. The error of the Faraday cup output amplitude is below 10% for the 4-14 kV tested pseudospark voltages. The main benefit of this Faraday cup is demonstrated by adjusting the external shunt resistance and performing the self-biased method for obtaining the electron energy distribution function. Results from a 4 kV pseudospark discharge indicate a "double-humped" energy distribution.
Application of Faraday cup array detector in measurement of electron-beam distribution homogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Zhiguo; Wang Jinchuan; Xiao Guoqing; Guo Zhongyan; Wu Lijie; Mao Ruishi; Zhang Li
2005-01-01
It is described that a kind of Faraday cup array detector, which consists of Faraday cup, suppressor electrode insulation PCB board, Base etc. The homogeneity of electron-beam distribution is measured and the absorbed dose for the irradiated sample is calculated. The results above provide the important parameters for the irradiation experiment and the improvement for the quality of electron beam. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosquist, K.
1980-01-01
Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)
Electric potential behaviour in segmented Faraday-type MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, M.I.; Mittal, M.L.; Gupta, G.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1985-01-01
The potential distribution in the transverse cross-section of a segmented Faraday-type MHD generator is studied. The governing elliptic equation, derived with allowance for the finite electrode segmentation effect and nonuniformity of the gas in the channel, is solved numerically using the Alternating Direction Implicit method in the finite difference scheme, instead of the successive over-relaxation method. The computed potential distribution and the potential drops are found to compare well with experimental results. The potential drops at the electrodes are found to increase with increasing current density. (author)
Faraday cup: absolute dosimetry for ELIMED beam line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leanza, R.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.G.; Cuttone, G.; Larosa, G.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Margarone, D.; Schillaci, F.
2017-01-01
The scientific community has shown a growing interest towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams. In this framework, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline will be the first transport beamline dedicated to the medical and multidisciplinary studies with laser-accelerated ion beams. Detectors for dosimetry represent one of key-element of the ELIMED beamline, allowing a dose delivering with good result as required in the clinical applications. In this contribution, a Faraday Cup for absolute dosimetry, designed and realized at INFN-LNS, is described.
Preinjector for Linac 1, inside the Faraday cage
1974-01-01
For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Here, the view is towards the upper level of the Faraday cage. Far to the right, a technician is peering through the service door. The huge box-shaped cubicle is the electronics platform, at 520 kV potential during operation. The "bull eye" at the left back sits at the top end of the accelerating column (see 7403081X) and houses the ion source with its electronics (see 7403083X). The SAMES generator, providing the 520 kV HV (7403074) sits on the floor and is not visible here.
Localized instability on the route to disorder in Faraday waves.
Shani, Itamar; Cohen, Gil; Fineberg, Jay
2010-05-07
We experimentally investigate how disorder comes about in parametrically excited waves on a fluid surface (Faraday waves). We find that the transition from an ordered pattern to disorder corresponding to "defect-mediated turbulence" is mediated by a spatially incoherent oscillatory phase. This phase consists of highly damped waves that propagate through the effectively elastic lattice defined by the pattern. They have a well-defined frequency, velocity, and transverse polarization. As these waves decay within a few lattice spaces, they are spatially and temporally uncorrelated at larger scales.
Anisotropy of the Faraday effect in the weak ferromagnet YFeO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenkov, A.V.; Krichevtsov, B.B.; Moskvin, A.S.; Mukimov, K.M.; Pisarev, R.V.; Ruvinshtein, M.M.
1989-01-01
An experimental investigation was made of the magnetic-field dependence of the Faraday effect in a weak ferromagnet YFeO 3 at the wavelength λ = 0.63 μm. Measurements were made for different orientations of the direction of light propagation k and of the magnetic field H. Changes in the Faraday effect in the k parallel c, H parallel a case were not proportional to changes in the component of the magnetic moment m z . A phenomenological description of the Faraday effect in YFeO 3 was used to separate the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and diamagnetic contributions to the effect. The antiferromagnetic contribution dominating the Faraday effect was strongly anisotropic. A theoretical analysis was made of the microscopic Faraday effect mechanisms in YFeO 3 using the example of a dipole-allowed transition 6 A 1g → 6 T 1u
Rotation, Stability and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Connor, J. W.
2007-07-01
Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.
1998-01-01
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1
Analysis of Faraday Mirror in Auto-Compensating Quantum Key Distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Ke-Jin; Ma Hai-Qiang; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu; Liu Hong-Wei; Zhang Yong; Jiao Rong-Zhen
2015-01-01
The ‘plug and play’ quantum key distribution system is the most stable and the earliest commercial system in the quantum communication field. Jones matrix and Jones calculus are widely used in the analysis of this system and the improved version, which is called the auto-compensating quantum key distribution system. Unfortunately, existing analysis has two drawbacks: only the auto-compensating process is analyzed and existing systems do not fully consider laser phase affected by a Faraday mirror (FM). In this work, we present a detailed analysis of the output of light pulse transmitting in a plug and play quantum key distribution system that contains only an FM, by Jones calculus. A similar analysis is made to a home-made auto-compensating system which contains two FMs to compensate for environmental effects. More importantly, we show that theoretical and experimental results are different in the plug and play interferometric setup due to the fact that a conventional Jones matrix of FM neglected an additional phase π on alternative polarization direction. To resolve the above problem, we give a new Jones matrix of an FM according to the coordinate rotation. This new Jones matrix not only resolves the above contradiction in the plug and play interferometric setup, but also is suitable for the previous analyses about auto-compensating quantum key distribution. (paper)
Interaction of vortices with ultrasound and the acoustic Faraday effect in type-II superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, D.; Bulaevskii, L.; Ivlev, B.; Maley, M.; Bishop, A.R.
1996-01-01
We study the interaction of sound waves with vortices in type-II superconductors, taking into account pinning and electrodynamic forces between vortices and crystal displacements. We propose ultrasound techniques as a method for obtaining information about vortex dynamics. This is particularly appropiate at low temperatures where transport measurements are ineffective. The changes in sound velocity and attenuation due to vortices, can provide information on the elastic constants of the vortex system and on vortex dissipation, respectively. At low temperatures the Magnus force acting on vortices leads to the acoustic Faraday effect: there is a rotation of the polarization plane of tranverse sound waves propagating along the magnetic field. This effect is linear in the Magnus force and magnetic field in crystals with equivalent a and b axes for a field parallel to the c axis. We discuss how this effect can be measured by means of either pulse-echo techniques or standing sound waves. Also, we show that an ac electromagnetic field acting on the vortex system can generate ultrasound. We calculate the amplitude of the generated sound waves in the linear regime and compare with recent experiments. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Microreactors for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis: From Faraday to Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Taifur Rahman
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The seminal work of Michael Faraday in 1850s transmuted the “Alchemy of gold” into a fascinating scientific endeavor over the millennia, particularly in the past half century. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs arguably hold the central position of nanosciences due to their intriguing size-and-shape dependent physicochemical properties, non-toxicity, and ease of functionalization and potential for wide range of applications. The core chemistry involved in the syntheses is essentially not very different from what Michael Faraday resorted to: transforming ions into metallic gold using mild reducing agents. However, the process of such reduction and outcome (shapes and sizes are intricately dependent on basic operational parameters such as sequence of addition and efficiency of mixing of the reagents. Hence, irreproducibility in synthesis and maintaining batch-to-batch quality are major obstacles in this seemingly straightforward process, which poses challenges in scaling-up. Microreactors, by the virtue of excellent control over reagent mixing in space and time within narrow channel networks, opened a new horizon of possibilities to tackle such problems to produce GNPs in more reliable, reproducible and scalable ways. In this review, we will delineate the state-of-the-art of GNPs synthesis using microreactors and will discuss in length how such “flask-to-chip” paradigm shift may revolutionize the very concept of nanosyntheses.
Michael Faraday and the concept of atomic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pocock, R.F.
1991-01-01
Written to commemorate the bicentenary of Faraday's birth, this article surveys his influence on atomic theory during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It identifies which developments were derived from projects which he had started; it shows that his ideas and methods determined the direction of researches which he had not himself initiated. The account is in the form of a chronological narrative. This is based entirely on published sources, and the treatment is non-mathematical. In consequence it contains no new factual data. The presentation of Faraday's work in this particular context is, however, original. Although not covering studies of the nucleus - which were mostly later than the period considered -this article describes the origins of modern theories of atomic structure reasonably completely. It is a useful overview for engineers unfamiliar with details of the history of physics. In addition, it is a case-study of the persistence of scientific ideas in researches occupying a century or more. (author)
High magnetic field measurement utilizing Faraday rotation in SF11 glass in simplified diagnostics.
Dey, Premananda; Shukla, Rohit; Venkateswarlu, D
2017-04-01
With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver. SF11 glass is used as a magneto-optic modulating medium for the measurement of the magnetic field. A magnetic field of magnitude more than 8 Tesla, generated by a solenoid has been measured using this simple assembly. The measured Verdet constant of 12.46 rad/T-m is obtained at the wavelength of 672 nm for the SF11 glass. The complete measurement system is a cost-effective solution.
Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2016-01-01
Logic-qubit entanglement is a promising resource in quantum information processing, especially in future large-scale quantum networks. In the paper, we put forward an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for nonlocal mixed logic entangled states with the bit-flip error in the logic qubits of the logic Bell state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity and atomic state measurement. Different from existing EPPs, this protocol can also purify the logic p...
Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.
2006-01-01
We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....
Fabrication of Faraday Cup Array for the Measurement of 2-Dimensional Proton Beam Profile
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Bom Sok; Kim, Kyeryung
2014-01-01
It has an advantage of easy-to-use and possible to visually check, immediately; on the other hand, the measurement range is very limited. Another method is using the CCD camera-scintillator device such as p43 phosphor screen or chromox. A variety of faraday cup detectors have been recently introduced. The faraday cup is one of the powerful and popular tools for the measurement of beam current. By using several faraday cups in array geometry, it is possible to observe current distribution. In this study, we developed an external faraday cup array for the measure the beam current and profile at a KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) beam utilization facility. To measure the beam profile, before fabrication of faraday cup array, we use gafchromic film. By making the faraday cup array we were able to reduce the consumption of Gafchromic film and a more accurate diagnosis of the proton beam is possible. The use of faraday cup array, experiment using the proton beam is more reliable and confident
Lekner, John
2008-01-01
Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noe, C.
1984-01-01
Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr
Ramsey-CPT spectrum with the Faraday effect and its application to atomic clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yuan; Gu Si-Hong; Tan Bo-Zhong; Yang Jing; Zhang Yi
2015-01-01
A method that obtains the Ramsey-coherent population trapping (CPT) spectrum with the Faraday effect is investigated. An experiment is implemented to detect the light polarization components generated from the Faraday effect. The experimental results agree with the theoretical calculations based on the Liouville equation. By comparing with the method without using the Faraday effect, the potential of this method for a CPT-based atomic clock is assessed. The results indicate that this method should improve the short-term frequency stability by several times. (paper)
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2013-05-10
We report the generation of large coherent vortices via inverse energy cascade in Faraday wave driven turbulence. The motion of floaters in the Faraday waves is three dimensional, but its horizontal velocity fluctuations show unexpected similarity with two-dimensional turbulence. The inverse cascade is detected by measuring frequency spectra of the Lagrangian velocity, and it is confirmed by computing the third moment of the horizontal velocity fluctuations. This is observed in deep water in a broad range of wavelengths and vertical accelerations. The results broaden the scope of recent findings on Faraday waves in thin layers [A. von Kameke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 074502 (2011)].
Faraday cup for electron flux measurements on the microtron MT 25
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vognar, M.; Simane, C.; Chvatil, D.
2001-01-01
The basic design criteria for construction of an evacuated Faraday cup for precise measurement of 5-25 MeV electron beam currents in air from a microtron are characterized. The homemade Faraday cup is described along with the electronic chain and its incorporation into the measuring beam line. The provisions applied to reduce backward electron escape are outlined. The current range was 10 -5 to 10 -10 A. The diameter of the Al entrance window of the Faraday cup was 1.8 cm, its area was 2.54 cm 2 and thickness 0.1 mm
Faraday cup dosimetry in a proton therapy beam without collimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grusell, Erik; Isacsson, Ulf; Montelius, Anders; Medin, Joakim
1995-01-01
A Faraday cup in a proton beam can give an accurate measurement of the number of protons collected by the cup. It is shown that the collection efficiency with a proper design can be close to unity. To be able to calibrate an ionization chamber from such a measurement, as is recommended in some dosimetry protocols, the energy spectrum of the proton beam must be accurately known. This is normally not the case when the lateral beam extension is defined by collimators. Therefore a method for relating an ionization chamber measurement in an uncollimated beam to the total number of protons in the beam has been developed and is described together with experimental results from calibrating an ionization chamber using this method in the therapeutic beam in Uppsala. This method is applicable to ionization chambers of any shape and the accuracy is estimated to be 1.6% (1 SD). (Author)
Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ya' akobovitz, A. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Bedewy, M. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. J. [Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-02-02
Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.
Virtual resistive network and conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Min Gi; Ko, Min-Su; Kim, Yong-Jung
2014-01-01
A network-based conductivity reconstruction method is introduced using the third Maxwell equation, or Faraday's law, for a static case. The usual choice in electrical impedance tomography is the divergence-free equation for the electrical current density. However, if the electrical current density is given, the curl-free equation for the electrical field gives a direct relation between the current and the conductivity and this relation is used in this paper. Mimetic discretization is applied to the equation, which gives the virtual resistive network system. Properties of the numerical schemes introduced are investigated and their advantages over other conductivity reconstruction methods are discussed. Numerically simulated results, with an analysis of noise propagation, are presented. (paper)
Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya'akobovitz, A.; Bedewy, M.; Hart, A. J.
2015-01-01
Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices
Electrostatic capacitance and Faraday cage behavior of carbon nanotube forests
Ya'akobovitz, A.; Bedewy, M.; Hart, A. J.
2015-02-01
Understanding of the electrostatic properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests is essential to enable their integration in microelectronic and micromechanical devices. In this study, we sought to understand how the hierarchical geometry and morphology of CNT forests determines their capacitance. First, we find that at small gaps, solid micropillars have greater capacitance, yet at larger gaps the capacitance of the CNT forests is greater. The surface area of the CNT forest accessible to the electrostatic field was extracted by analysis of the measured capacitance, and, by relating the capacitance to the average density of CNTs in the forest, we find that the penetration depth of the electrostatic field is on the order of several microns. Therefore, CNT forests can behave as a miniature Faraday cage. The unique electrostatic properties of CNT forests could therefore enable their use as long-range proximity sensors and as shielding elements for miniature electronic devices.
Compensating Faraday Depolarization by Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandenburg, Axel; Ashurova, Mohira B. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jabbari, Sarah, E-mail: brandenb@nordita.org [School of Mathematical Sciences and Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)
2017-08-20
A turbulent dynamo in spherical geometry with an outer corona is simulated to study the sign of magnetic helicity in the outer parts. In agreement with earlier studies, the sign in the outer corona is found to be opposite to that inside the dynamo. Line-of-sight observations of polarized emission are synthesized to explore the feasibility of using the local reduction of Faraday depolarization to infer the sign of helicity of magnetic fields in the solar corona. This approach was previously identified as an observational diagnostic in the context of galactic magnetic fields. Based on our simulations, we show that this method can be successful in the solar context if sufficient statistics are gathered by using averages over ring segments in the corona separately for the regions north and south of the solar equator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, R.W.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliezer, S.; Paiss, Y.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.
1997-01-01
A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss, depending on the laser intensity. In this configuration the circularly polarized light is used to obtain confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces. The Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n = 5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 ns. The laser and plasma parameters required to obtain an energetic gain are calculated. Experiments and preliminary calculations were performed to study the feasibility of the above scheme. Measurements of the axial magnetic field induced by circularly polarized laser light, the so called inverse Faraday effect, and of the absorption of circularly polarized laser light in plasma, are reported. The experiments were performed with a circularly polarized Nd:YAG laser, having a wavelength of 1.06 τm and a pulse duration of 7 ns, in a range of irradiances from 10 9 to 10 14 W/cm 2 . Axial magnetic fields from 500 Gauss to 2 megagauss were measured. Up to 5*10 13 W/cm 3 the results are in agreement with a nonlinear model of the inverse Faraday effect dominated by the ponderomotive force. For the laser irradiance studied here, 9*10 13 - 2.5*10 14 W/cm 2 , the absorption of circularly polarized light was 14% higher relative to the absorption of linear polarized light
2015-09-17
photonic system. ML: master laser; SL: slave laser; L; lens; PBS: polarizing beam splitter ; M: mirror; HW: half-wave plate; FR: Faraday rotator; V...microwave generation and stabilization, and photonic microwave amplification. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Non -linear Dynamics, Add-drop
Analytic expressions for polarimetry in plasma with large Cotton endash Mouton or Faraday effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segre, S.E.
1996-01-01
Analytic expressions for plasma polarimetry are derived for the case when either the Cotton endash Mouton effect or the Faraday effect is large while the other effect is small. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saigusa, M.; Moriyama, S.; Fujii, T.; Kimura, H.
1994-01-01
A new conceptual antenna, which we call as a spiral antenna, is proposed as a traveling wave antenna for fast wave current drive in tokamaks. The features of the spiral antenna are a sharp N z spectrum, easy impedance matching, N z controllable and good coupling. A back Faraday shield is proposed for improving the cooling design of Faraday shield and better antenna-plasma coupling. A helical support which is a compact and wide band support is proposed as a kind of quarter wave length stub supports. The RF properties of the spiral antenna and the back Faraday shield have been investigated by using mock-up antennas. The VSWR of spiral antenna is low at the wide frequency band from 15 MHz to 201 MHz. The back Faraday shield is effective for suppressing the RF toroidal electric field between adjacent currents straps. (author)