WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear evolving flexible

  1. Evolving Networks with Nonlinear Assignment of Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Chao; TANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    We propose a weighted evolving network model in which the underlying topological structure is still driven by the degree according to the preferential attachment rule while the weight assigned to the newly established edges is dependent on the degree in a nonlinear form. By varying the parameter α that controls the function determining the assignment of weight, a wide variety of power-law behaviours of the total weight distributions as well as the diversity of the weight distributions of edges are displayed. Variation of correlation and heterogeneity in the network is illustrated as well.

  2. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE MULTIBODY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Y.T.Leung; WuGuorong; ZhongWeifang

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic equations of a multibody system composed of flexible beams are derived by using the Lagrange multiplier method. The nonlinear Euler beam theory with inclusion of axial deformation effect is employed and its deformation field is described by exact vibration modes. A numerical procedure for solving the dynamic equations is presented based on the Newmark direct integration method combined with Newton-Raphson iterative method. The results of numerical examples prove the correctness and efficiency of the method proposed.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics and Control of Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Freedom," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, in preparation. 5I I URI Reorts Islam , Saiful and Mircea...Theoretical and Applied Mechanics I S. Islam Civil and Environmental Engineering I 2! I 3 URI Accomplishments 3 -Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Flexible...Structures with Symmetry," 31 (1991) 265-285. Islam , S. and M. Grigoriu, "Nonlinear Random Vibration of Pin-Jointed Trusses with Imperfections," in

  4. Control of nonlinear flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun

    With the advances made in computer technology and efficiency of numerical algorithms over last decade, the MPC strategies have become quite popular among control community. However, application of MPC or GPC to flexible space structure control has not been explored adequately in the literature. The work presented in this thesis primarily focuses on application of GPC to control of nonlinear flexible space structures. This thesis is particularly devoted to the development of various approximate dynamic models, design and assessment of candidate controllers, and extensive numerical simulations for a realistic multibody flexible spacecraft, namely, Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO)---a Prometheus class of spacecraft proposed by NASA for deep space exploratory missions. A stable GPC algorithm is developed for Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. An end-point weighting (penalty) is used in the GPC cost function to guarantee the nominal stability of the closed-loop system. A method is given to compute the desired end-point state from the desired output trajectory. The methodologies based on Fake Algebraic Riccati Equation (FARE) and constrained nonlinear optimization, are developed for synthesis of state weighting matrix. This makes this formulation more practical. A stable reconfigurable GPC architecture is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated on both aircraft as well as spacecraft model. A representative in-orbit maneuver is used for assessing the performance of various control strategies using various design models. Different approximate dynamic models used for analysis include linear single body flexible structure, nonlinear single body flexible structure, and nonlinear multibody flexible structure. The control laws evaluated include traditional GPC, feedback linearization-based GPC (FLGPC), reconfigurable GPC, and nonlinear dissipative control. These various control schemes are evaluated for robust stability and robust performance in the presence of

  5. Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutrition...

  6. Food addiction: an evolving nonlinear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriner, Richard; Gold, Mark

    2014-11-21

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutritional pathology. Moving forward, the reader should be able to incorporate some of the findings in this review into their own practice, research, teaching efforts or other interests in the fields of nutrition, diabetes, and/or bariatric (weight) management.

  7. Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shriner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutritional pathology. Moving forward, the reader should be able to incorporate some of the findings in this review into their own practice, research, teaching efforts or other interests in the fields of nutrition, diabetes, and/or bariatric (weight management.

  8. Some properties of evolving wormhole geometries within nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano, Aaron V B; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review some properties for the evolving wormhole solution of Einstein equations coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics. We integrate the geodesic equations in the effective geometry obeyed by photons; we check out the weak field limit and find the traversability conditions. Then we analyze the case when the lagrangian depends on two electromagnetic invariants and it turns out that there is not a more general solution within the assumed geometry.

  9. The rigid-flexible nonlinear robotic manipulator: Modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenili, André; Balthazar, José Manoel

    2011-05-01

    The State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control of a nonlinear rigid-flexible two link robotic manipulator is investigated. Different cases are considered assuming small deviations and large deviations from the desired final states. The nonlinear governing equations of motion are coupled, providing considerable excitation of all the nonlinear terms. The results present satisfactory final states but also undesirable overshoot.

  10. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  11. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  12. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Vibrations of a Deploying Flexible Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunfengLI; ZhaolinWANG

    1996-01-01

    Consider a rigid-flexible coupled system which consists of a central rigid body deploying a flexible appendage,The appendage is modeled as a finite deflection beam having linear constitutive equations.By taking the energy integral as Lyapunov function,it is proved that nonlinear transverse vibrations of the beam undergoing uniform extension or retrieval are stable when there are not controlling moment in the central rigid body and driving force on the beam,according to the partial stablity theorem.

  13. The Effect of Nonlinearities on Flexible Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    No. 87- 0777-CP, 1987. 4. Nayfeh, A. H. and Sanchez, N. E., ’Global Bifurcations Including Escape for a Softening Duffing Oscillator ", submitted for...biock number FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. _ ?onlinear Oscillations , Flexible structures, Resonances, Attractors, Bifurcations 19. 4 TACT jnt nue on r,.erse it...Excitation of Two Internally Resonant Oscillators ", Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 119, No. 2, 1987. 3 4 2. Zavodney, L D. and Nayfeh, A. H., NThe

  14. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Flexible Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-26

    Proceedings of the American Control Conference , pp. 547-551, San Francisco, June 1993. 3 2 1.3 Personnel Dr. Robert Kosut and Dr. M. Giintekin Kabuli worked on...Control of Nonlinear Systems Under Matching Conditions," Proceedings of the American Control Conference , pp. 549-555, San Diego, CA, May 1990. [10] I...Poolla, P. Khargonekar, A. Tikku, J. Krause and K. Nagpal, "A time-domain ap- proach to model validation," Proceedings

  15. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  16. Nonlinear vibration with control for flexible and adaptive structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wagg, David

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive discussion of nonlinear multi-modal structural vibration problems, and shows how vibration suppression can be applied to such systems by considering a sample set of relevant control techniques. It covers the basic principles of nonlinear vibrations that occur in flexible and/or adaptive structures, with an emphasis on engineering analysis and relevant control techniques. Understanding nonlinear vibrations is becoming increasingly important in a range of engineering applications, particularly in the design of flexible structures such as aircraft, satellites, bridges, and sports stadia. There is an increasing trend towards lighter structures, with increased slenderness, often made of new composite materials and requiring some form of deployment and/or active vibration control. There are also applications in the areas of robotics, mechatronics, micro electrical mechanical systems, non-destructive testing and related disciplines such as structural health monitoring. Two broader ...

  17. Numerical simulation of nonlinear continuity equations by evolving diffeomorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, José A.

    2016-09-22

    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for nonlinear continuity equations, which is based on the gradient flow formulation of an energy functional with respect to the quadratic transportation distance. It can be applied to a large class of nonlinear continuity equations, whose dynamics are driven by internal energies, given external potentials and/or interaction energies. The solver is based on its variational formulation as a gradient flow with respect to the Wasserstein distance. Positivity of solutions as well as energy decrease of the semi-discrete scheme are guaranteed by its construction. We illustrate this property with various examples in spatial dimension one and two.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of a flexible portal frame under support excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Aline Souza; Balthazar, José Manoel; Felix, Jorge Luis Palacios

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic analysis of a flexible portal frame subjected to support excitation, which is provided by an electro-dynamical shaker. The problem is reduced to a mathematical model of four degrees of freedom and the equations of motion are derived via Lagrangian formulation. The main goal of this study is to investigate the dynamic interactions between a flexible portal frame and a non-ideal support excitation. The numerical analysis shows a complex behavior of the system, which can be observed by phase spaces, Poincaŕ sections and bifurcation diagrams..

  19. Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua

    This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation

  20. Tracking control of a flexible beam by nonlinear boundary feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Zhu Guo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with tracking control of a dynamic model consisting of a flexible beam rotated by a motor in a horizontal plane at the one end and a tip body rigidly attached at the free end. The well-posedness of the closed loop systems considering the dissipative nonlinear boundary feedback is discussed and the asymptotic stability about difference energy of the hybrid system is also investigated.

  1. Confinement of Vibrations in Variable-Geometry Nonlinear Flexible Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gafsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for controlling a flexible nonlinear beam with the confinement of vibrations. We focus principally on design issues related to the passive control of the beam by proper selection of its geometrical and physical parameters. Due to large deflections within the regions where the vibrations are to be confined, we admit a nonlinear model that describes with precision the beam dynamics. In order to design a set of physical and geometrical parameters of the beam, we first formulate an inverse eigenvalue problem. To this end, we linearize the beam model and determine the linearly assumed modes that guarantee vibration confinement in selected spatial zones and satisfy the boundary conditions of the beam to be controlled. The approximation of the physical and geometrical parameters is based on the orthogonality of the assumed linear mode shapes. To validate the strategy, we input the resulting parameters into the nonlinear integral-partial differential equation that describes the beam dynamics. The nonlinear frequency response curves of the beam are approximated using the differential quadrature method and the finite difference method. We confirm that using the linear model, the strategy of vibration confinement remains valid for the nonlinear beam.

  2. Fault Isolation for Nonlinear Systems Using Flexible Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While support vector regression is widely used as both a function approximating tool and a residual generator for nonlinear system fault isolation, a drawback for this method is the freedom in selecting model parameters. Moreover, for samples with discordant distributing complexities, the selection of reasonable parameters is even impossible. To alleviate this problem we introduce the method of flexible support vector regression (F-SVR, which is especially suited for modelling complicated sample distributions, as it is free from parameters selection. Reasonable parameters for F-SVR are automatically generated given a sample distribution. Lastly, we apply this method in the analysis of the fault isolation of high frequency power supplies, where satisfactory results have been obtained.

  3. EVOLVE

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.

  4. Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Wehmeyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the most promising technologies able to solve this challenge is the floating wind turbine foundation. For the ultimate limit state, where higher order wave loads have a significant influence, a design tool that couples non-linear excitations with structural dynamics is required. To properly describe the behavior of such a structure, a numerical model is proposed and validated by physical test results. The model is applied to a case study of a tension leg platform with a flexible topside mimicking the tower and a lumped mass mimicking the rotor-nacelle assembly. The model is additionally compared to current commercial software, where the need for the coupled higher order dynamics proposed in this paper becomes evident.

  5. Nonlinear Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation of a Flexible Beam Considering Shear Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yang; SHEN Ling-jie; HONG Jia-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear modeling of a flexible beam with large deformation was investigated. Absolute nodal cooridnate formulation is employed to describe the motion, and Lagrange equations of motion of a flexible beam are derived based on the geometric nonlinear theory. Different from the previous nonlinear formulation with EulerBernoulli assumption, the shear strain and transverse normal strain are taken into account. Computational example of a flexible pendulum with a tip mass is given to show the effects of the shear strain and transverse normal strain. The constant total energy verifies the correctness of the present formulation.

  6. Digital Non-Linear Equalization for Flexible Capacity Ultradense WDM Channels for Metro Core Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that digital non-linear equalization allows for using independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking.......We experimentally demonstrate that digital non-linear equalization allows for using independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking....

  7. Localized Effects in the Nonlinear Behavior of Sandwich Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostig, Y.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2005-01-01

    nonlinear analysis approach incorporates the effects of the vertical flexibility of the core, and it is based on the approach of the High-order Sandwich Panel Theory (HSAPT). The results demonstrate that the effects of localized loads, when taken into the geometrically nonlinear domain, change the response...

  8. Tip position control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator based on nonlinear deflection feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, G. E-mail: oke@boun.edu.tr; Istefanopulos, Y

    2003-07-01

    The control of flexible link manipulators has gained an increasing importance in robotics, in recent years. To control the tip of a flexible manipulator, the joint angles should converge to the desired positions fast and elastic deflections must be effectively suppressed. In this study, a two-link flexible manipulator is controlled by three methods and the results are compared. These methods are, Pd control, PD control augmented by a nonlinear correction term feedback, where the correction term is a function of the deflection of each link, and an adaptive fuzzy controller with the nonlinear correction term feedback. Simulations have been carried out to compare the performances of all three methods.

  9. Linear and nonlinear optics of pyronin Y/flexible polymer substrate for flexible organic technology: New optical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Zahran, H. Y.; Alamri, F. H.

    2017-10-01

    Pyronin Y (PY) thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on a flexible polyacetate substrate by using the spin-coating method. Pyronin Y thin films have an amorphous structure as identified by X-ray diffraction method. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of PY thin films were studied in details as a function of wavelengths. Transmittance, absorbance and reflectance spectra of pyronin Y thin films were recorded in the wavelengths range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive and absorption indices have been computed from Fresnel's equation. The optical band gaps were calculated for the studied PY thin film of thicknesses 205, 140 and 95 nm. Both direct and indirect gaps were computed as a function of PY of different thicknesses. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were investigated for the studied material. Spectrophotometric data was used to determine the nonlinear refractive index and the third nonlinear optical susceptibility. Pyronin Y thin films/polymer flexible substrate can be used in many applications such as flexible optoelectronic/electronic devices and for nonlinear optics with specified band gap.

  10. Design and Nonlinear Control of a 2-DOF Flexible Parallel Humanoid Arm Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijie Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the design and nonlinear control of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint based on the cable-driven parallel mechanism which can realize roll and pitch movement. In view of the existence of the flexible parts in the mechanism, it is necessary to solve the vibration control of the flexible wrist/shoulder joint. In this paper, a cable-driven parallel robot platform is developed for the experiment study of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint. And the dynamic model of the mechanism is formulated by using the coupling theory of the flexible body’s large global motion and small flexible deformation. Based on derived dynamics, antivibration control of the joint robot is studied with a nonlinear control method. Finally, simulations and experiments were performed to validate the feasibility of the developed parallel robot prototype and the proposed control scheme.

  11. A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm

    OpenAIRE

    Yushu Bian; Ming Wang; Zhihui Gao; Baofeng Yuan; Ming Fan

    2015-01-01

    For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration ab...

  12. Nonlinear Gust Response Analysis of Free Flexible Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gust response analysis plays a very important role in large aircraft design. This paper presents a methodology for calculating the flight dynamic characteristics and gust response of free flexible aircraft. A multidisciplinary coupled numerical tool is developed to simulate detailed aircraft models undergoing arbitrary free flight motion in the time domain, by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, Computational Structure Dynamics (CSD and Computational Flight Mechanics (CFM coupling. To achieve this objective, a structured, time-accurate flow-solver is coupled with a computational module solving the flight mechanics equations of motion and a structural mechanics code determining the structural deformations. A novel method to determine the trim state of flexible aircraft is also stated. First, the field velocity approach is validated, after the trim state is attained, gust responses for the one-minus-cosine gust profile are analyzed for the longitudinal motion of a slender-wing aircraft configuration with and without the consideration of structural deformation.

  13. Nonlinear model and attitude dynamics of flexible spacecraft with large amplitude slosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingle; Yue, Baozeng

    2017-04-01

    This paper is focused on the nonlinearly modelling and attitude dynamics of spacecraft coupled with large amplitude liquid sloshing dynamics and flexible appendage vibration. The large amplitude fuel slosh dynamics is included by using an improved moving pulsating ball model. The moving pulsating ball model is an equivalent mechanical model that is capable of imitating the whole liquid reorientation process. A modification is introduced in the capillary force computation in order to more precisely estimate the settling location of liquid in microgravity or zero-g environment. The flexible appendage is modelled as a three dimensional Bernoulli-Euler beam and the assumed modal method is employed to derive the nonlinear mechanical model for the overall coupled system of liquid filled spacecraft with appendage. The attitude maneuver is implemented by the momentum transfer technique, and a feedback controller is designed. The simulation results show that the liquid sloshing can always result in nutation behavior, but the effect of flexible deformation of appendage depends on the amplitude and direction of attitude maneuver performed by spacecraft. Moreover, it is found that the liquid sloshing and the vibration of flexible appendage are coupled with each other, and the coupling becomes more significant with more rapid motion of spacecraft. This study reveals that the appendage's flexibility has influence on the liquid's location and settling time in microgravity. The presented nonlinear system model can provide an important reference for the overall design of the modern spacecraft composed of rigid platform, liquid filled tank and flexible appendage.

  14. Geometrically Nonlinear Aeroelastic Stability Analysis and Wind Tunnel Test Validation of a Very Flexible Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VFAs (very flexible aircraft have begun to attract significant attention because of their good flight performances and significant application potentials; however, they also bring some challenges to researchers due to their unusual lightweight designs and large elastic deformations. A framework for the geometrically nonlinear aeroelastic stability analysis of very flexible wings is constructed in this paper to illustrate the unique aeroelastic characteristics and convenient use of these designs in engineering analysis. The nonlinear aeroelastic analysis model includes the geometrically nonlinear structure finite elements and steady and unsteady nonplanar aerodynamic computations (i.e., the nonplanar vortex lattice method and nonplanar doublet-lattice method. Fully nonlinear methods are used to analyse static aeroelastic features, and linearized structural dynamic equations are established at the structural nonlinear equilibrium state to estimate the stability of the system through the quasimode of the stressed and deformed structure. The exact flutter boundary is searched via an iterative procedure. A wind tunnel test is conducted to validate this theoretical analysis framework, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Both the analysis and test results indicate that the geometric nonlinearity of very flexible wings presents significantly different aeroelastic characteristics under different load cases with large deformations.

  15. H∞ Synthesis Method for Control of Non-linear Flexible Joint Models

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Patrik; Pipeleers, Goele; Helmersson, Anders; Norrlöf, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    An H∞ synthesis method for control of a flexible joint, with non-linear spring characteristic, is proposed. The first step of the synthesis method is to extend the joint model with an uncertainty description of the stiffness parameter. In the second step, a non-linear optimisation problem, based on nominal performance and robust stability requirements, has to be solved. Using the Lyapunov shaping paradigm and a change of variables, the non-linear optimisation problem can be rewritten as a con...

  16. Methodology for nonlinear quantification of a flexible beam with a local, strong nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Christopher A.; McFarland, D. Michael; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for nonlinear quantification, i.e., the identification of the linear and nonlinear regimes and estimation of the degree of nonlinearity, for a cantilever beam with a local, strongly nonlinear stiffness element. The interesting feature of this system is that it behaves linearly in the limits of extreme values of the nonlinear stiffness. An Euler-Bernoulli cantilever beam with two nonlinear configurations is used to develop and demonstrate the methodology. One configuration considers a cubic spring attached at a distance from the beam root to achieve a smooth nonlinear effect. The other configuration considers a vibro-impact element that generates non-smooth effects. Both systems have the property that, in the limit of small and large values of a configuration parameter, the system is almost linear and can be modeled as such with negligible error. For the beam with a cubic spring attachment, the forcing amplitude is the varied parameter, while for the vibro-impact beam, this parameter is the clearance between the very stiff stops and the beam at static equilibrium. Proper orthogonal decomposition is employed to obtain an optimal orthogonal basis used to describe the nonlinear system dynamics for varying parameter values. The frequencies of the modes that compose the basis are then estimated using the Rayleigh quotient. The variations of these frequencies are studied to identify parameter values for which the system behaves approximately linearly and those for which the dynamical response is highly nonlinear. Moreover, a criterion based on the Betti-Maxwell reciprocity theorem is used to verify the existence of nonlinear behavior for the set of parameter values suggested by the described methodology. The developed methodology is general and applicable to discrete or continuous systems with smooth or nonsmooth nonlinearities.

  17. A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  18. The influence of and the identification of nonlinearity in flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodney, Lawrence D.

    1988-01-01

    Several models were built at NASA Langley and used to demonstrate the following nonlinear behavior: internal resonance in a free response, principal parametric resonance and subcritical instability in a cantilever beam-lumped mass structure, combination resonance in a parametrically excited flexible beam, autoparametric interaction in a two-degree-of-freedom system, instability of the linear solution, saturation of the excited mode, subharmonic bifurcation, and chaotic responses. A video tape documenting these phenomena was made. An attempt to identify a simple structure consisting of two light-weight beams and two lumped masses using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm showed the inherent difficulty of using a linear based theory to identify a particular nonlinearity. Preliminary results show the technique requires novel interpretation, and hence may not be useful for structural modes that are coupled by a guadratic nonlinearity. A literature survey was also completed on recent work in parametrically excited nonlinear system. In summary, nonlinear systems may possess unique behaviors that require nonlinear identification techniques based on an understanding of how nonlinearity affects the dynamic response of structures. In this was, the unique behaviors of nonlinear systems may be properly identified. Moreover, more accutate quantifiable estimates can be made once the qualitative model has been determined.

  19. Evolving workplace flexibility for U.S. medical school tenure-track faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, Sarah A; Corrice, April M

    2011-04-01

    The academic workplace has seen dramatic changes in recent decades, including growing faculty workloads, an increasingly demographically diverse faculty population, and changing expectations about workplace climate. Despite these significant changes, a typical medical faculty's career trajectory is often still quite linear and follows decades-old tenure policies. The authors describe the existence of flexible faculty policies related to tenure at U.S. medical schools to understand better the ways in which institutions are responding. Data primarily reflect responses from faculty affairs leaders at medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education to a 2008 faculty personnel policies survey. These data are supplemented with results from the same survey fielded in previous years. The number of medical schools that have lengthened their probationary periods for faculty has increased over time, and, in 2008, nearly half of the institutions offered a probationary period length of eight years or more to faculty. Over three-fourths of the schools in 2008 had a tenure-clock-stopping policy available, and a third had a policy allowing faculty to work less than full-time while remaining on a tenure-eligible track. Findings suggest that many medical schools have made progress in making policy additions and modifications that acknowledge the changing academic workplace culture by adding flexibility to traditional tenure policies. Despite those efforts, significant opportunities remain for continued adoption of flexible policies so that faculty can achieve productive academic careers while balancing work, life, and family, and institutions can continue to recruit and retain high-quality faculty members. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  20. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal...... scaling of the solution effort multigrid is employed to precondition a GMRES iterative solution of the discretized Laplace problem. A robust multigrid method based on Gauss-Seidel smoothing is found to require special treatment of the boundary conditions along solid boundaries, and in particular...

  1. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF AN AXIALLY SLIDE-SPIN ROCKET FLEXIBLE SYSTEM WITH CLEARANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Huailiang; Zhang Fuxiang

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid approach is presented to investigate the dynamic behavior of an axially slide-spin flexible rocket with nonlinear clearance. The equations of motion of the flexible rocket are derived based upon Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Hamilton principle and the finite element method. The characteristics of clearance between the spinning rocket and launcher are considered to be piecewise linear. Numerical solution is developed by direct integration method and demonstrates the validity of the method. The coupled dynamic behavior of axial motion and transverse vibrations of rocket are analyzed, and the influences of axially moving acceleration, spin speed, linking stiffness of elastic "shoes", and the nonlinearity of clearance on the motion attitude of rocket are studied.

  2. An exact nonlinear hybrid-coordinate formulation for flexible multibody systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyang Liu; Jiazhen Hong; Lin Cui

    2007-01-01

    The previous low-order approximate nonlinear formulations succeeded in capturing the stiffening terms,but failed in simulation of mechanical systems with large deformation due to the neglect of the high-order deforma-tion terms. In this paper, a new hybrid-coordinate formu-lation is proposed, which is suitable for flexible multibody systems with large deformation. On the basis of exact strain-displacement relation, equations of motion for flexible multi-body system are derived by using virtual work principle. A matrix separation method is put forward to improve the efficiency of the calculation. Agreement of the present results with those obtained by absolute nodal coordinate formula-tion (ANCF) verifies the correctness of the proposed formu-lation. Furthermore, the present results are compared with those obtained by use of the linear model and the low-order approximate nonlinear model to show the suitability of the proposed models.

  3. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  4. A fuzzy robust control scheme for vibration suppression of a nonlinear electromagnetic-actuated flexible system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolpour-Saleh, A. R.; Haddad, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robust vibration control scheme, namely, one degree-of-freedom fuzzy active force control (1DOF-FAFC) is applied to a nonlinear electromagnetic-actuated flexible plate system. First, the flexible plate with clamped-free-clamped-free (CFCF) boundary conditions is modeled and simulated. Then, the validity of the simulation platform is evaluated through experiment. A nonlinear electromagnetic actuator is developed and experimentally modeled through a parametric system identification scheme. Next, the obtained nonlinear model of the actuator is applied to the simulation platform and performance of the proposed control technique in suppressing unwanted vibrations is investigated via simulation. A fuzzy controller is applied to the robust 1DOF control scheme to tune the controller gain using acceleration feedback. Consequently, an intelligent self-tuning vibration control strategy based on an inexpensive acceleration sensor is proposed in the paper. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the proposed acceleration-based control technique owns the benefits of the conventional velocity feedback controllers. Finally, an experimental rig is developed to investigate the effectiveness of the 1DOF-FAFC scheme. It is found that the first, second, and third resonant modes of the flexible system are attenuated up to 74%, 81%, and 90% respectively through which the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is affirmed.

  5. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRODYNAMIC JOURNAL BEARING-FLEXIBLE ROTOR SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yanjun; Yu Lie; Liu Heng

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic behaviors of flexible rotor system with hydrodynamic bearing supports are analyzed. The shaft is modeled by using the finite element method that takes the effect of inertia and shear into consideration. According to the nonlinearity of the hydrodynamic journal bearing-flexible rotor system, a modified modal synthesis technique with free-interface is represented to reduce degrees-of-freedom of model of the flexible rotor system. According to physical character of oil film, variational constrain approach is introduced to continuously revise the variational form of Reynolds equation at every step of dynamic integration and iteration. Fluid lubrication problem with Reynolds boundary is solved by the isoparametric finite element method without the increasing of computing efforts. Nonlinear oil film forces and their Jacobians are simultaneously calculated and -Newton-Floquet (PNF) method. A method, combining the predictor-corrector mechanism to the PNF method, is presented to calculate the bifurcation point of periodic motions to be subject to change of system parameters. The local stability and bifurcation behaviors of periodic motions are obtained by Floquet theory. The chaotic motions of the beating-rotor system are investigated by power spectrum.The numerical examples show that the scheme of this study saves computing efforts but also is of good precision.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of flexible rotor supported on the gas foil journal bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, Skylab P.; Darpe, Ashish K.

    2013-09-01

    Investigation on nonlinear dynamics of a flexible rotor supported on the gas foil journal bearings is attempted. A time domain orbit simulation is carried out that couples the equations of rotor motion, unsteady Reynolds equation and foil deformation. The unsteady Reynolds equation is solved using control volume formulation with power law hybrid scheme and Gauss-Seidel method. The nonlinear dynamic response is analyzed using disc center and journal center trajectories, Poincaré maps, Fast Fourier transforms and bifurcation plots. The analysis is carried out for different system parameters, namely, rotating speed, unbalance eccentricity, compliance and loss factor of gas foil bearing. The analysis reveals highly nonlinear behavior with periodic, multi-periodic and quasiperiodic motion of the disc and the journal center. The present analysis can be useful in designing and selection of suitable operating parameters of rotor bearing system.

  7. Residual mode correction in calibrating nonlinear damper for vibration control of flexible structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Chen, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Residual mode correction is found crucial in calibrating linear resonant absorbers for flexible structures. The classic modal representation augmented with stiffness and inertia correction terms accounting for non-resonant modes improves the calibration accuracy and meanwhile avoids complex modal analysis of the full system. This paper explores the augmented modal representation in calibrating control devices with nonlinearity, by studying a taut cable attached with a general viscous damper and its Equivalent Dynamic Systems (EDSs), i.e. the augmented modal representations connected to the same damper. As nonlinearity is concerned, Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the EDSs are investigated in detail for parameter calibration, using the harmonic balance method in combination with numerical continuation. The FRFs of the EDSs and corresponding calibration results are then compared with those of the full system documented in the literature for varied structural modes, damper locations and nonlinearity. General agreement is found and in particular the EDS with both stiffness and inertia corrections (quasi-dynamic correction) performs best among available approximate methods. This indicates that the augmented modal representation although derived from linear cases is applicable to a relatively wide range of damper nonlinearity. Calibration of nonlinear devices by this means still requires numerical analysis while the efficiency is largely improved owing to the system order reduction.

  8. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR AERODYNAMIC THEORY OF INTERACTION BETWEEN FLEXIBLE LONG STRUCTURE AND WIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭; 曹志远

    2001-01-01

    In light of the characteristics of the interactions between flexible structure and wind in three directions, and based on the rational mechanical section-model of structure, a new aerodynamic force model is accepted, i. e. the coefficients of three component forces are the functions of the instantaneous attack angle and rotational speed Ci = Ci(β(t),θ),(i = D, L, M). So, a new method to formulate the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic items of wind and structure interacting has been put forward in accordance with "strip theory"and modified "quasi-static theory ", and then the linear and nonlinear coupled theory of super-slender structure for civil engineering analyzing are converged in one model. For the linear aerodynamic-force parts, the semi-analytical expressions of the items so-called "flutter derivatives" corresponding to the one in the classic equations have been given here,and so have the nonlinear parts. The study of the stability of nonlinear aerodynamic-coupled torsional vibration of the old Tacoma bridge shows that the form and results of the nonlinear control equation in rotational direction are in agreement with that of V. F. Bohm's.

  9. A flexible genuinely nonlinear approach for nonlinear wave propagation, breaking and run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, A. G.; Kazolea, M.; Ricchiuto, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we evaluate hybrid strategies for the solution of the Green-Naghdi system of equations for the simulation of fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive free surface waves. We consider a two step solution procedure composed of: a first step where the non-hydrostatic source term is recovered by inverting the elliptic coercive operator associated to the dispersive effects; a second step which involves the solution of the hyperbolic shallow water system with the source term, computed in the previous phase, which accounts for the non-hydrostatic effects. Appropriate numerical methods, that can be also generalized on arbitrary unstructured meshes, are used to discretize the two stages: the standard C0 Galerkin finite element method for the elliptic phase; either third order Finite Volume or third order stabilized Finite Element method for the hyperbolic phase. The discrete dispersion properties of the fully coupled schemes obtained are studied, showing accuracy close to or better than that of a fourth order finite difference method. The hybrid approach of locally reverting to the nonlinear shallow water equations is used to recover energy dissipation in breaking regions. To this scope we evaluate two strategies: simply neglecting the non-hydrostatic contribution in the hyperbolic phase; imposing a tighter coupling of the two phases, with a wave breaking indicator embedded in the elliptic phase to smoothly turn off the dispersive effects. The discrete models obtained are thoroughly tested on benchmarks involving wave dispersion, breaking and run-up, showing a very promising potential for the simulation of complex near shore wave physics in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  10. Likelihood Inference of Nonlinear Models Based on a Class of Flexible Skewed Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of the likelihood inference for nonlinear models with a flexible skew-t-normal (FSTN distribution, which is proposed within a general framework of flexible skew-symmetric (FSS distributions by combining with skew-t-normal (STN distribution. In comparison with the common skewed distributions such as skew normal (SN, and skew-t (ST as well as scale mixtures of skew normal (SMSN, the FSTN distribution can accommodate more flexibility and robustness in the presence of skewed, heavy-tailed, especially multimodal outcomes. However, for this distribution, a usual approach of maximum likelihood estimates based on EM algorithm becomes unavailable and an alternative way is to return to the original Newton-Raphson type method. In order to improve the estimation as well as the way for confidence estimation and hypothesis test for the parameters of interest, a modified Newton-Raphson iterative algorithm is presented in this paper, based on profile likelihood for nonlinear regression models with FSTN distribution, and, then, the confidence interval and hypothesis test are also developed. Furthermore, a real example and simulation are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness and the superiority of our approach.

  11. Nonlinear correlations in the hydrophobicity and average flexibility along the glycolytic enzymes sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorsac, Alecu, E-mail: aleciorsac@yahoo.co [Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Physical Education and Sport, 2 P-ta Victoriei, 300006, Timisoara (Romania); Craciun, Dana, E-mail: craciundana@gmail.co [Teacher Training Department, West University of Timisoara, 4 Boulevard V. Pirvan, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania); Ostafe, Vasile, E-mail: vostafe@cbg.uvt.r [Department of Chemistry, West University of Timisoara, 16 Pestallozi, 300115, Timisoara (Romania); Laboratory of Advanced Researches in Environmental Protection, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen Interdisciplinary Research and Formation Platform, 4 Oituz, Timisoara, 300086 (Romania); Isvoran, Adriana, E-mail: aisvoran@cbg.uvt.r [Department of Chemistry, West University of Timisoara, 16 Pestallozi, 300115, Timisoara (Romania); Laboratory of Advanced Researches in Environmental Protection, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen Interdisciplinary Research and Formation Platform, 4 Oituz, Timisoara, 300086 (Romania)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: lights: We focus our study on the glycolytic enzymes. We reveal correlation of hydrophobicity and flexibility along their chains. We also reveal fractal aspects of the glycolytic enzymes structures and surfaces. The glycolytic enzyme sequences are not random. Creation of fractal structures requires the operation of nonlinear dynamics. - Abstract: Nonlinear methods widely used for time series analysis were applied to glycolytic enzyme sequences to derive information concerning the correlation of hydrophobicity and average flexibility along their chains. The 20 sequences of different types of the 10 human glycolytic enzymes were considered as spatial series and were analyzed by spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis and Hurst coefficient calculation. The results agreed that there are both short range and long range correlations of hydrophobicity and average flexibility within investigated sequences, the short range correlations being stronger and indicating that local interactions are the most important for the protein folding. This correlation is also reflected by the fractal nature of the structures of investigated proteins.

  12. Nonlinear vibration absorption for a flexible arm via a virtual vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yushu; Gao, Zhihui

    2017-07-01

    A semi-active vibration absorption method is put forward to attenuate nonlinear vibration of a flexible arm based on the internal resonance. To maintain the 2:1 internal resonance condition and the desirable damping characteristic, a virtual vibration absorber is suggested. It is mathematically equivalent to a vibration absorber but its frequency and damping coefficients can be readily adjusted by simple control algorithms, thereby replacing those hard-to-implement mechanical designs. Through theoretical analyses and numerical simulations, it is proven that the internal resonance can be successfully established for the flexible arm, and the vibrational energy of flexible arm can be transferred to and dissipated by the virtual vibration absorber. Finally, experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical predictions. Since the proposed method absorbs rather than suppresses vibrational energy of the primary system, it is more convenient to reduce strong vibration than conventional active vibration suppression methods based on smart material actuators with limited energy output. Furthermore, since it aims to establish an internal vibrational energy transfer channel from the primary system to the vibration absorber rather than directly respond to external excitations, it is especially applicable for attenuating nonlinear vibration excited by unpredictable excitations.

  13. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  14. Structure-preserving integrators in nonlinear structural dynamics and flexible multibody dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on structure-preserving numerical methods for flexible multibody dynamics, including nonlinear elastodynamics and geometrically exact models for beams and shells. It also deals with the newly emerging class of variational integrators as well as Lie-group integrators. It discusses two alternative approaches to the discretization in space of nonlinear beams and shells. Firstly, geometrically exact formulations, which are typically used in the finite element community and, secondly, the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, which is popular in the multibody dynamics community. Concerning the discretization in time, the energy-momentum method and its energy-decaying variants are discussed. It also addresses a number of issues that have arisen in the wake of the structure-preserving discretization in space. Among them are the parameterization of finite rotations, the incorporation of algebraic constraints and the computer implementation of the various numerical methods. The practical application...

  15. Nonlinear dynamics and control of flexible, articulated spacecraft - Application to SSF/MRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W. H.; Kwatny, H. G.; Baek, M.-J.

    1992-08-01

    Results are presented of a study on the application of partial feedback linearization methods to the attitude control of an articulated spacecraft configuration representative of the Space Station Freedom with a mobile remote manipulator system (SSF/MRMS). The case considered is the attitude regulation of the SSF while the MRMS undergoes arbitrary prescribed maneuvers. The results of calculations confirm previous observations that MRMS motion can significantly degrade and even destabilize attitude regulation when linear controllers are applied to this nonlinear system. It is shown that, in the flexible case, the linear regulator must be significantly detuned in order to achieve stable responses.

  16. Digital non-linear equalization for flexible capacity ultradense WDM channels for metro core networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J; Zibar, Darko; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2011-12-12

    An experimental demonstration of Ultradense WDM with advanced digital signal processing is presented. The scheme proposed allows the use of independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking. To allocate extremely closed carriers, we demonstrate that a digital non-linear equalization allow to mitigate inter-channel interference and improve overall system performance in terms of OSNR. Evaluation of the algorithm and comparison with an ultradense WDM system with coherent carriers generated from a single laser are also reported. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Digital non-linear equalization for flexible capacity ultradense WDM channels for metro core networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of Ultradense WDM with advanced digital signal processing is presented. The scheme proposed allows the use of independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking. To allocate extremely closed...... carriers, we demonstrate that a digital non-linear equalization allow to mitigate inter-channel interference and improve overall system performance in terms of OSNR. Evaluation of the algorithm and comparison with an ultradense WDM system with coherent carriers generated from a single laser are also...

  18. Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior of a Flexible Structure to Combined External Acoustic and Parametric Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Varoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible structures are frequently subjected to multiple inputs when in the field environment. The accurate determination of the system dynamic response to multiple inputs depends on how much information is available from the excitation sources that act on the system under study. Detailed information include, but are not restricted to appropriate characterization of the excitation sources in terms of their variation in time and in space for the case of distributed loads. Another important aspect related to the excitation sources is how inputs of different nature contribute to the measured dynamic response. A particular and important driving mechanism that can occur in practical situations is the parametric resonance. Another important input that occurs frequently in practice is related to acoustic pressure distributions that is a distributed type of loading. In this paper, detailed theoretical and experimental investigations on the dynamic response of a flexible cantilever beam carrying a tip mass to simultaneously applied external acoustic and parametric excitation signals have been performed. A mathematical model for transverse nonlinear vibration is obtained by employing Lagrange’s equations where important nonlinear effects such as the beam’s curvature and quadratic viscous damping are accounted for in the equation of motion. The beam is driven by two excitation sources, a sinusoidal motion applied to the beam’s fixed end and parallel to its longitudinal axis and a distributed sinusoidal acoustic load applied orthogonally to the beam’s longitudinal axis. The major goal here is to investigate theoretically as well as experimentally the dynamic behavior of the beam-lumped mass system under the action of these two excitation sources. Results from an extensive experimental work show how these two excitation sources interacts for various testing conditions. These experimental results are validated through numerically simulated results

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Behavior Analysis of a Flexible Shaft Supported By Hydrostatic Squeeze Film Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bouzidane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear and non linear models of a hydrostatic squeeze film damper are presented and numerically simulated by a step by step method on a modal basis, in order to study the non-linear dynamic behaviour of a flexible shaft. The Reynolds equation is solved at each step in order to evaluate the film forces. The equations of motion are then integrated by using the Newmark method with a variable step in order to obtain speeds and the position for the next step. The non-linear hydrostatic forces are determined by the application of the boundary conditions, and the integration of the pressure field is determined by resolution of Reynolds equation, by applying the central finite difference method. The aim of this research is to study the effect of pressure ratio, viscosity, and rotational speeds on the vibratory responses and the transmitted bearing forces. The results are discussed, analysed and compared to a linear approach which is restricted to only small vibrations around the equilibrium position. The results show good agreements between linear and non-linear methods when the unbalance force is small, and then the linear model may be used for small vibrations in order to reduce compilation time during the iterative process.

  20. A refined mixed shear flexible finite element for the nonlinear analysis of laminated plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, N. S.; Reddy, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development of a mixed shear flexible finite element with relaxed continuity for the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of laminated anisotropic plates. The formulation of the element is based on a refined higher-order theory. This theory satisfies the zero transverse shear stress boundary conditions on the top and bottom faces of the plate. Shear correction coefficients are not needed. The developed element consists of 11 degrees-of-freedom per node, taking into account three displacements, two rotations, and six moment resultants. An evaluation of the element is conducted with respect to the accuracy obtained in the bending of laminated anistropic rectangular plates with different lamination schemes, loadings, and boundary conditions.

  1. Nonlinear analysis and vibration suppression control for a rigid-flexible coupling satellite antenna system composed of laminated shell reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bin Di; Wen, Jian Min; Zhao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear dynamic modeling method for a rigid-flexible coupling satellite antenna system composed of laminated shell reflector is proposed undergoing a large overall motion. For the study of the characteristics of the reflector using laminated shell structure, the displacement field description of a point in a 3-noded shell element is acquired in conjunction with the length stretch, lateral bending and torsional deformation. Hence, a nonlinear dynamic model of the satellite antenna system is deduced based on Lagrange's equations. The complete expressions of nonlinear terms of elastic deformation and coupling terms between rigid motion and large deflection are considered in the dynamic equations, and the dynamic behavior of the rigid-flexible coupling system is analyzed using linear model and nonlinear model, respectively. In order to eliminate the system vibration, the PD with vibration force feedback control strategy is used to achieve its desired angles and velocity in a much shorter duration, and can further accomplish reduction of residual vibration. Then, the asymptotic stability of the system is proved based on the Lyapunov method. Through numerical computation, the results show that the linear model cannot capture the motion-induced coupling terms and geometric nonlinearity variations. However, the nonlinear model is suitable for dealing with large deformation rigid-flexible problem undergoing large overall motions. Hence, the satellite antenna pointing accuracy would be predicted based on the nonlinear model. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed control strategy can suppress system vibration quickly. The above conclusions would have important academic significance and engineering value.

  2. Effects on strength, power, and flexibility in adolescents of nonperiodized vs. daily nonlinear periodized weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Eveline; Fleck, Steven J; Ricardo Dias, Marcelo; Simão, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily nonlinear periodized (DNLP) training, on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a control group, NP RT program, and DNLP program. The subjects were tested pretraining and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) resistances in the bench press and 45° leg press, sit and reach test, countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Both training groups performed the same sequence of exercises 3 times a week for a total of 36 sessions. The NP RT consisted of 3 sets of 10-12RM throughout the training period. The DNLP training consisted of 3 sets using different training intensities for each of the 3 training sessions per week. The total volume of the training programs was not significantly different. Both the NP and DNLP groups exhibited a significant increase in the 1RM for the bench press and 45° leg press posttraining compared with that pretraining, but there were no significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). The DNLP group's 1RM changes showed greater percentage improvements and effect sizes. Training intensity for the bench press and 45° leg press did not significantly change during the training. In the CMVJ and SLJ tests, NP and DNLP training showed no significant change. The DNLP group showed a significant increase in the sit and reach test after 8 and 12 weeks of training compared with pretraining; this did not occur with NP training. In summary, in untrained adolescents during a 12-week training period, a DNLP program can be used to elicit similar and possible superior maximal strength and flexibility gains compared with an NP multiset training model.

  3. Flexible Mediation Analysis in the Presence of Nonlinear Relations: Beyond the Mediation Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; De Smet, Olivia; Buysse, Ann; Steen, Johan; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2013-11-01

    In the social sciences, mediation analysis has typically been formulated in the context of linear models using the Baron & Kenny (1986) approach. Extensions to nonlinear models have been considered but lack formal justification. By placing mediation analysis within the counterfactual framework of causal inference one can define causal mediation effects in a way that is not tied to a specific statistical model and identify them under certain no unmeasured confounding assumptions. Corresponding estimation procedures using parametric or nonparametric models, based on the so-called mediation formula, have recently been proposed in the psychological literature and made accessible through the R-package mediation. A number of limitations of the latter approach are discussed and a more flexible approach using natural effects models is proposed as an alternative. The latter builds on the same counterfactual framework but enables interpretable and parsimonious modeling of direct and mediated effects and facilitates tests of hypotheses that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to test. We illustrate the approach in a study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship and explore whether the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on unwanted pursuit behavior after the breakup is mediated by negative affect during the breakup.

  4. Bifurcation and response analysis of a nonlinear flexible rotating disc immersed in bounded compressible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigius, W. Dheelibun; Sarkar, Sunetra; Gupta, Sayan

    2017-03-01

    Use of heavy gases in centrifugal compressors for enhanced oil extraction have made the impellers susceptible to failures through acousto-elastic instabilities. This study focusses on understanding the dynamical behavior of such systems by considering the effects of the bounded fluid housed in a casing on a rotating disc. First, a mathematical model is developed that incorporates the interaction between the rotating impeller - modelled as a flexible disc - and the bounded compressible fluid medium in which it is immersed. The nonlinear effects arising due to large deformations of the disc have been included in the formulation so as to capture the post flutter behavior. A bifurcation analysis is carried out with the disc rotational speed as the bifurcation parameter to investigate the dynamical behavior of the coupled system and estimate the stability boundaries. Parametric studies reveal that the relative strengths of the various dissipation mechanisms in the coupled system play a significant role that affect the bifurcation route and the post flutter behavior in the acousto-elastic system.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unbalanced Flexible Rotor Supported by Elastic Bearings Lubricated with Piezo-Viscous Polar Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Lahmar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains.

  6. SNP_NLMM: A SAS Macro to Implement a Flexible Random Effects Density for Generalized Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, David M; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios A

    2014-01-01

    Generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models (GMMMs and NLMMs) are commonly used to represent non-Gaussian or nonlinear longitudinal or clustered data. A common assumption is that the random effects are Gaussian. However, this assumption may be unrealistic in some applications, and misspecification of the random effects density may lead to maximum likelihood parameter estimators that are inconsistent, biased, and inefficient. Because testing if the random effects are Gaussian is difficult, previous research has recommended using a flexible random effects density. However, computational limitations have precluded widespread use of flexible random effects densities for GLMMs and NLMMs. We develop a SAS macro, SNP_NLMM, that overcomes the computational challenges to fit GLMMs and NLMMs where the random effects are assumed to follow a smooth density that can be represented by the seminonparametric formulation proposed by Gallant and Nychka (1987). The macro is flexible enough to allow for any density of the response conditional on the random effects and any nonlinear mean trajectory. We demonstrate the SNP_NLMM macro on a GLMM of the disease progression of toenail infection and on a NLMM of intravenous drug concentration over time.

  7. Nonlinear effects of a modal domain optical fiber sensor in a vibration suppression control loop for a flexible structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, D. K.; Zvonar, G. A.; Baumann, W. T.; Delos, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a modal domain optical fiber sensor has been demonstrated as a sensor in a control system for vibration suppression of a flexible cantilevered beam. This sensor responds to strain through a mechanical attachment to the structure. Because this sensor is of the interferometric type, the output of the sensor has a sinusoidal nonlinearity. For small levels of strain, the sensor can be operated in its linear region. For large levels of strain, the detection electronics can be configured to count fringes. In both of these configurations, the sensor nonlinearity imposes some restrictions on the performance of the control system. In this paper we investigate the effects of these sensor nonlinearities on the control system, and identify the region of linear operation in terms of the optical fiber sensor parameters.

  8. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no

  9. Accurate nonlinear modeling for flexible manipulators using mixed finite element formulation in order to obtain maximum allowable load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandiar, Habib; KoraYem, Moharam Habibnejad [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the researchers try to examine nonlinear dynamic analysis and determine Dynamic load carrying capacity (DLCC) in flexible manipulators. Manipulator modeling is based on Timoshenko beam theory (TBT) considering the effects of shear and rotational inertia. To get rid of the risk of shear locking, a new procedure is presented based on mixed finite element formulation. In the method proposed, shear deformation is free from the risk of shear locking and independent of the number of integration points along the element axis. Dynamic modeling of manipulators will be done by taking into account small and large deformation models and using extended Hamilton method. System motion equations are obtained by using nonlinear relationship between displacements-strain and 2nd PiolaKirchoff stress tensor. In addition, a comprehensive formulation will be developed to calculate DLCC of the flexible manipulators during the path determined considering the constraints end effector accuracy, maximum torque in motors and maximum stress in manipulators. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the method proposed taking two-link flexible and fixed base manipulators for linear and circular paths into consideration. Experimental results are also provided to validate the theoretical model. The findings represent the efficiency and appropriate performance of the method proposed.

  10. Nonlinear Strain Measures, Shape Functions and Beam Elements for Dynamics of Flexible Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharf, I. [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Canada)

    1999-05-15

    In this paper, we examine several aspects of the development of an explicit geometrically nonlinear beam element. These are: (i) linearization of the displacement field; (ii) the effect of a commonly adopted approximation for the nonlinear Lagrangian strain; and (iii) use of different-order shape functions for discretization. The issue of rigid-body check for a nonlinear beam element is also considered. An approximate check is introduced for an element based on an (approximate) intermediate strain measure. Several numerical examples are presented to support the analysis. The paper concludes with a discussion on the use of explicit nonlinear beam elements for multibody dynamics simulation.

  11. Nonlinear Vibration of a Multirotor System Connected by a Flexible Coupling Subjected to the Holonomic Constraint of Dynamic Angular Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mathematical model of the multirotor system with a flexible coupling on spring supports on Lagrange's approach, which has taken into account the effects of dynamic angular misalignment and mass unbalance. Then its nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the system are discussed based on the method of multiple scales and numerical technique, respectively. The results show that the responses of the system in lateral directions contain a similar component to that of the mass unbalanced system on both the vibrating frequency and amplitude and involve the typical nonlinear components such as the ones from some combined frequencies; the results also reveal that the numerical agreements on the above-mentioned methods are perfect for the transient responses.

  12. The rigid-flexible robotic manipulator: Nonlinear control and state estimation considering a different mathematical model for estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenili, André

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the author investigates the angular position and vibration control of a nonlinear rigid-flexible two link robotic manipulator considering fast angular maneuvers. The nonlinear control technique named State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) is used here to achieve these aims. In a more realistic approach, it is considered that some states can be measured and some states cannot be measured. The states not measured are estimated in order to be used for the SDRE control. These states are all the angular velocities and the velocity of deformation of the flexible link. A state-dependent Riccati equation-based estimator is used here. Not only different initial conditions between the system to be controlled (here named "real" system) and the estimator but also a different mathematical model is considered as the estimation model in order to verify the limitations of the proposed estimation and control techniques. The mathematical model that emulates the real system to be controlled considers two modes expansion and the estimation model considers only one mode expansion. The results for the different approaches are compared and discussed.

  13. Highly efficient flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator and femtosecond two-photon absorption properties of nonlinear lithium niobate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Aneesh, Janardhanakurup; Yadav, Rajesh; Adarsh, K. V.; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-05-01

    We present a high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) device based on the hydrothermally grown lead-free piezoelectric lithium niobate (LiNbO3) nanowires (NWs) for scavenging mechanical energies. The non-linear optical coefficient and optical limiting properties of LiNbO3 were analyzed using femtosecond laser pulse assisted two photon absorption techniques for the first time. Further, a flexible hybrid type NG using a composite structure of the polydimethylsiloxane polymer and LiNbO3 NWs was fabricated, and their piezoelectric output signals were measured. A large output voltage of ˜4.0 V and a recordable large current density of about 1.5 μA cm-2 were obtained under the cyclic compressive force of 1 kgf. A subsequent UV-Vis analysis of the as-prepared sample provides a remarkable increase in the optical band gap (UV absorption cut-off, ˜251 nm) due to the nanoscale size effect. The high piezoelectric output voltage and current are discussed in terms of large band gap, significant nonlinear optical response, and electric dipole alignments under poling effects. Such high performance and unique optical properties of LiNbO3 show its great potential towards various next generation smart electronic applications and self-powered optoelectronic devices.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of flexible beams undergoing large rotations Via symbolic computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiaofeng

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage approach is presented for analyzing flexible beams undergoing large rotations. In the first stage, the symbolic forms of equations of motion and the Jacobian matrix are generated by means of MATLAB and written into a MATLAB script file automatically, where the flexible beams are described by the unified formulation presented in our previous paper. In the second stage, the derived equations of motion are solved by means of implicit numerical methods. Several comparison computations are performed. The two-stage approach proves to be much more efficient than pure numerical one.

  15. PREDICTION OF VORTEX-INDUCED VIBRATION OF LONG FLEXIBLE CYLINDERS MODELED BY A COUPLED NONLINEAR OSCILLATOR:INTEGRAL TRANSFORM SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ji-jun; AN Chen; LEVI Carlos; SU Jian

    2012-01-01

    The Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) was applied to predict dynamic response of Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a long flexible cylinder.A nonlinear wake oscillator model was used to represent the cross-flow force acting on the cylinder,leading to a coupled system of second-order Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in temporal variable.The GITT approach was used to transform the system of PDEs to a system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs),which was numerically solved by using the Adams-Moulton and Gear method (DIVPAG) developed by the International Mathematics and Statistics Library (IMSL).Numerical results were presented for comparison to those given by the finite difference method and experimental results,allowing a critical evaluation of the technique performance.The influence of variation of mean axial tension induced by elongation of flexible cylinder was evaluated,which was shown to be not negligible in numerical simulation of VIV of a long flexible cylinder.

  16. Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Ferri, Francesco; Andersen, Morten Thøtt

    2014-01-01

    The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the most promising te...

  17. Toward a scalable flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.

    for flexibility in the description of structures by the use of curvilinear boundary-fitted meshes. The mathematical equations for potential waves in the physical domain is transformed through $\\sigma$-mapping(s) to a time-invariant boundary-fitted domain which then becomes a basis for an efficient solution...

  18. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Systems With Applications to the Control of Flexible Robot Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-28

    parameters in order to review non. output regulation problem is reviewed and the robust- linear regulator theory in the absence of uncertainty. ness of...system is then rameter uncertainty in the nonlinear output regulation problem ., Recent work by Isidori and Byrnes [1) has z = f(z,9’)+g(z,9)u+p(:,9)w

  19. Vibration reduction on a nonlinear flexible structure through resonant control and disturbance estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Large mechanical structures are often affected by high level vibrations due to their flexibility. These vibrations can reduce the system performances and lifetime and the use of active vibration control strategies becomes very attractive. In this paper a combination of resonant control and a disturbance estimator is proposed. This solution is able to improve the system performances during the transient motion and also to reject the disturbance forces acting on the system. Both control logics are based on a modal approach, since it allows to describe the structure dynamics considering only few degrees of freedom.

  20. Nonlinear modelling and dynamic stability analysis of a flexible Cartesian robotic manipulator with base disturbance and terminal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The flexible Cartesian robotic manipulator (FCRM is coming into widespread application in industry. Because of the feeble rigidity and heavy deflection, the dynamic characteristics of the FCRM are easily influenced by external disturbances which mainly concentrate in the driving end and the load end. Thus, with the influence of driving base disturbance and terminal load considered, the motion differential equations of the FCRM under the plane motion of the base are constructed, which contain the forced and non-linear parametric excitations originated from the disturbances of base lateral and axial motion respectively. Considering the relationship between the coefficients of the motion differential equations and the mode shapes of the flexible manipulator, the analytic expressions of the mode shapes with terminal load are deduced. Then, based on multiple scales method and rectangular coordinate transformation, the average equations of the FCRM are derived to analyze the influence mechanism of base disturbance and terminal load on the system parametric vibration stability. The results show that terminal load mainly affects the node locations of mode shapes and mode frequencies of the FCRM, and the axial motion disturbance of the driving base introduces parametric excitation while the lateral motion disturbance generates forced excitation for the transverse vibration model of the FCRM. Furthermore, with the increase of the base excitation acceleration and terminal load, the parametric vibration instability region of the FCRM increases significantly. This study will be helpful for the dynamic characteristics analysis and vibration control of the FCRM.

  1. Nonlinear oscillations of laminated plates using an accurate four-node rectangular shear flexible material finite element

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gajbir Singh; G Venkateswara Rao

    2000-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the large amplitude vibratory behaviour of unsymmetrically laminated plates. For this purpose, an efficient and accurate four-node shear flexible rectangular material finite element(MFE) with six degrees offreedom per node (three displacements $(u;v;w)$ along the $x, y$ and axes, two rotations ($\\theta_x$ and $\\theta_y$) about and axes and twist $(\\theta_{xy})$) is developed. The element assumes bi-cubic polynomial distribution with sixteen generalized undetermined coefficients for the transverse displacement. The fields for section rotations $\\theta_x$ and $\\theta_y$, and in-plane displacements and are derived using moment-shear equilibrium and in-plane equilibrium equations of composite strips along the - and -axes. The displacement field so derived not only depends on the element coordinates but is a function of extensional, bending-extensional coupling, bending and transverse shear stiffness as well. The element stiffness and mass matrices are computed numerically by employing 3 × 3 Gauss-Legendre product rules. The element is found to be free of shear locking and does not exhibit any spurious modes. In orderto compute the nonlinearfrequencies, linear mode shape corresponding to the fundamental frequency is assumed as the spatial distribution and nonlinear finite element equations are reduced to a single nonlinear second-order differential equation. This equation is solved by employing the direct numerical integration method. A series of numerical examples are solved to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed element.

  2. Nonlinear Vibration Characteristics of a Flexible Blade with Friction Damping due to Tip-Rub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqing Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate approach is proposed in this paper for analyzing the two-dimensional friction contact problem so as to compute the dynamic response of a structure constrained by friction interfaces due to tip-rub. The dynamical equation of motion for a rotational cantilever blade in a centrifugal force field is established. Flow-induced distributed periodic forces and the internal material damping in the blade are accounted for in the governing equation of motion. The Galerkin method is employed to obtain a three-degree-of-freedom oscillator with friction damping due to tip-rub. The combined motion of impact and friction due to tip-rub produced a piecewise linear vibration which is actually nonlinear. Thus, a complete vibration cycle is divided into successive intervals. The system possesses linear vibration characteristic during each of these intervals, which can be determined using analytical solution forms. Numerical simulation shows that the parameters such as gap of the tip and the rotational speed of the blades have significant effects on the dynamical responses of the system. Finally, the nonlinear vibration characteristics of the blade are investigated in terms of the Poincare graph, and the frequency spectrum of the responses and the amplitude-frequency curves.

  3. NONLINEAR NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF A FLEXIBLE ROTOR EQUIPPED WITH SQUEEZE COUPLE STRESS FLUID FILM JOURNAL BEARINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Wan Chang-Jian; Her-Terng Yau

    2007-01-01

    This study performs a dynamic analysis of a rotor supported by two squeeze couple stress fluid film journal bearings with nonlinear suspension. The numerical results show that the stability of the system varies with the non-dimensional speed ratios and the dimensionless parameter l*. It is found that the system is more stable with higher dimensionless parameter l*.Thus it can conclude that the rotor-bearing system lubricated with the couple stress fluid is more stable than that with the conventional Newtonian fluid. The modeling results thus obtained by using the method proposed in this paper can be used to predict the stability of the rotor-bearing system and the undesirable behavior of the rotor and bearing center can be avoided.

  4. Non-Linear and Flexible Regions of the Human Notch1 Extracellular Domain Revealed by High-Resolution Structural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshuhn, Philip C; Sheppard, Devon; Taylor, Paul; Whiteman, Pat; Lea, Susan M; Handford, Penny A; Redfield, Christina

    2016-04-05

    The Notch receptor is a key component of a core metazoan signaling pathway activated by Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 ligands expressed on an adjacent cell. This results in a short-range signal with profound effects on cell-fate determination, cell proliferation, and cell death. Key to understanding receptor function is structural knowledge of the large extracellular portion of Notch which contains multiple repeats of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. Here we investigate the EGF4-13 region of human Notch1 (hN1) using a multidisciplinary approach. Ca(2+)-binding measurements, X-ray crystallography, {(1)H}-(15)N heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effects, and residual dipolar couplings support a non-linear organization for the EGF4-13 region with a rigid, bent conformation for EGF4-7 and a single flexible linkage between EGF9 and EGF10. These data allow us to construct an informed model for EGF10-13 which, in conjunction with comparative binding studies, demonstrates that EGF10 has an important role in determining Notch receptor sensitivity to Dll-4.

  5. On the non-linear high-order theory of unidirectional sandwich panels with a transversely flexible core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frostig, Yeoshua; Sheinman, Izhak [Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Haifa (Israel); Thomsen, Ole Thybo [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Mechanical Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2005-03-01

    The paper presents a general geometrically non-linear high-order theory of sandwich panels that takes into account the high-order geometrical non-linearities in the core as well as in the face sheets and is based on a variational approach. The formulation, which yields a set of rather complicated governing equations, has been simplified in two different approaches and has been compared with FEA results for verification. The first formulation uses the kinematic relations of large displacements with moderate rotations for the face sheets, non-linear kinematic relations for the core and it assumes that the distribution of the vertical normal stresses through the depth of the core are linear. The second approach uses the general formulation to the non-linear high-order theory of sandwich panels (HSAPT) that considers geometrical non-linearities in the face sheets and only linear high-order effects in the core. The numerical results of the two formulations are presented for a three point bending loading scheme, which is associated with a limit point behavior. The results of the two formulations are compared in terms of displacements, bending moments and shear stresses and transverse (vertical) normal stresses at the face-core interfaces on one hand, and load versus these structural quantities on the other hand. The results have compared well with FEA results obtained using the commercial codes ADINA and ANSYS. (Author)

  6. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    -induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach....... The stochastic properties of this non-linear response are calculated through a monotonic Hermite transformation. In addition, the impulse loading due to e.g. bottom slamming or a rapid change in bow flare is included using a modal expansion in the two lowest vertical vibration modes. These whipping vibrations...

  7. Evolving Systems: Adaptive Key Component Control and Inheritance of Passivity and Dissipativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, S. A.; Balas, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. Autonomous assembly of large, complex flexible structures in space is a target application for Evolving Systems. A critical requirement for autonomous assembling structures is that they remain stable during and after assembly. The fundamental topic of inheritance of stability, dissipativity, and passivity in Evolving Systems is the primary focus of this research. In this paper, we develop an adaptive key component controller to restore stability in Nonlinear Evolving Systems that would otherwise fail to inherit the stability traits of their components. We provide sufficient conditions for the use of this novel control method and demonstrate its use on an illustrative example.

  8. Second order nonlinear equations of motion for spinning highly flexible line-elements. [for spacecraft solar sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1979-01-01

    A formulation is given for the second order nonlinear equations of motion for spinning line-elements having little or no intrinsic structural stiffness. Such elements have been employed in recent studies of structural concepts for future large space structures such as the Heliogyro solar sailer. The derivation is based on Hamilton's variational principle and includes the effect of initial geometric imperfections (axial, curvature, and twist) on the line-element dynamics. For comparison with previous work, the nonlinear equations are reduced to a linearized form frequently found in the literature. The comparison has revealed several new spin-stiffening terms that have not been previously identified and/or retained. They combine geometric imperfections, rotary inertia, Coriolis, and gyroscopic terms.

  9. Tool position tracking control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot manipulator by using robust H2/H∞controller via T-S fuzzy model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vahid Azimi; Mohammad Bagher Menhaj; Ahmad Fakharian

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a robust H2/H∞ control with regional Pole-Placement is considered for tool position control of a nonlinear uncertain flexible robot manipulator. The uncertain nonlinear system is first approximated by Takagi and Sugeno's (T-S) fuzzy model. To achieve a better tracking, an extra state (error of tracking) is then augmented to the T-S model. Based on each local linear subsystem with augmented state, a regional pole-placement state feedback H2/H∞ controller is properly designed via linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC) is also used to establish the whole controller for the overall system and the total linear system is obtained by using the weighted sum of the local linear systems. A fuzzy weighted online computation (FWOC) component is employed to update fuzzy weights in real time for different operating points of the system. Simula-tion results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller like robustness and good load disturbance attenuation and accurate tracking, even in the presence of parameter variations and also load disturbances on the motor and the tool. The superiority of the proposed control scheme is finally highlighted in comparison with the Quantitative feedback theory (QFT) controller, the QFT controller of order 13, a polynomial controller and the so-called linear sliding-mode controller methods.

  10. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Planar Flexible Underactuated Manipulators%平面柔性欠驱动机械臂的非线性动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何广平; 陆震

    2005-01-01

    The influence of passive joint on the dynamics of planar flexible underactuated manipulators is studied. A vibration reduction method based on the internal resonance phenomenon of multi-degree nonlinear dynamic system is proposed. The dynamic simulation results reveal that the harmonic input for the actuated joint will induce the passive joint deviating from its equilibrium position, the excursion speed and direction depend on the amplitude of the input. A passive joint position control scheme making use of the vibration of the flexible structure is suggested, and the numerical simulation results of a model of planar two-link flexible underactuated manipulator is shown.%研究了平面柔性欠驱动机械臂中被动关节对系统动态特性的影响,在动力学分析的基础上,提出了一种基于内共振原理的柔性欠驱动机械臂振动控制方法.在对系统的稳态周期运动进行分析研究的基础上,发现处于自由摆动状态的被动关节的平衡位置随系统结构的振动而发生漂移,并且被动关节平衡位置的漂移速度和方向与周期输入的振幅有关.提出利用结构柔性产生的振动实现被动关节位置控制的方法,通过平面二连杆柔性欠驱动机械臂进行了仿真计算.

  11. Sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality: A flexible, non-linear, meta-regression of 40 prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Zu; Xu, Chang; Rota, Matteo; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Ming-Jun; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Weng, Hong; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Kwong, Joey S W; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 27-37% of the general population experience prolonged sleep duration and 12-16% report shortened sleep duration. However, prolonged or shortened sleep duration may be associated with serious health problems. A comprehensive, flexible, non-linear meta-regression with restricted cubic spline (RCS) was used to investigate the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults. Medline (Ovid), Embase, EBSCOhost-PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost-CINAHL Plus databases, reference lists of relevant review articles, and included studies were searched up to Nov. 29, 2015. Prospective cohort studies investigating the association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults with at least three categories of sleep duration were eligible for inclusion. We eventually included in our study 40 cohort studies enrolling 2,200,425 participants with 271,507 deaths. A J-shaped association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was present: compared with 7 h of sleep (reference for 24-h sleep duration), both shortened and prolonged sleep durations were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: relative risk [RR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; 5 h: RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.09; 6 h: RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.03-1.06; 8 h: RR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.02-1.05; 9 h: RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.10-1.16; 10 h: RR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.22-1.28; 11 h: RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.33-1.44; n = 29; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). With regard to the night-sleep duration, prolonged night-sleep duration was associated with increased all-cause mortality (8 h: RR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.99-1.02; 9 h: RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.05-1.11; 10 h: RR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.21-1.28; n = 13; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). Subgroup analysis showed females with short sleep duration a day (<7 h) were at high risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.13; 5 h: RR = 1.08; 95

  12. Flexible Flatfoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Flexible Flatfoot What Is Flatfoot? Flatfoot is often a ... may develop as a result of a flatfoot. Flexible Flatfoot Flexible flatfoot is one of the most ...

  13. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Coupled Nonlinear Aeroelasticity and Flight Dynamics of Flexible Aircraft%柔性飞机非线性气动弹性与飞行动力学耦合静、动态特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 向锦武

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft features slender and flexible structures, which under nominal operation conditions may result in large structural deformation, aerodynamic stall, and coupling between the low-frequency structural vibration and the rigid body motion of the aircraft. These nonlinearities and interactions affect dramatically the static and dynamic behaviors of a HALE flexible aircraft. This paper developed a coupled model of aeroelasticity and flight dynamics for high-aspect-ratio flexible aircraft based on the geometrically exact, fully intrinsic beam theory, ONERA aerodynamic stall model, and a six degree of freedom model of the rigid body motion. This model takes into consideration the geometrical non-linearities, dynamic stall and material anisotropy, etc. Two case models of the conventional configuration and the flying-wing configuration are used to investigate the characteristics of the trim, dynamic stability and time-domain response of the high-aspect-ratio flexible aircraft with nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics coupled. The results obtained indicate that when the wing deformation is relatively small, the angle of attack required for the trim of the flexible aircraft is smaller than that for a rigid aircraft, and stall may occur along the whole wing span, which may cause altitude decrease quickly due to the dramatic reduction in the total lift of the complete aircraft. When the wing deformation is relatively large, the angle of attack required for the trim of the flexible aircraft is larger than that for a rigid aircraft, and stall occurs in a limited region near the wing tip. In addition, the motion of a flexible aircraft may become unstable due to large deformation of its wings, which can be improved by applying aeroelastic tailoring.%高空长航时(HALE)飞机结构细长、具有柔性,在常规飞行条件下可发生结构大变形、气动失速以及结构低频振动与刚体运动耦合,这些现象显著影

  14. Analyzing Evolving Social Network 2 (EVOLVE2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    COVERED (From - To) JUN 2012 – OCT 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYZING EVOLVING SOCIAL NETWORKS 2 (EVOLVE2) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-2-0186... jazz 198 2742 274 0.14 connect 1095 7825 783 0.014 hep-th 8710 14254 1425 0.0003 netscience 1461 2742 274 0.0013 imdb 6260 98235 9824 0.005 technological

  15. Sputtered (barium(x), strontium(1-x))titanate, BST, thin films on flexible copper foils for use as a non-linear dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Brian James

    Ferroelectric thin film dielectrics have a non-linear DC bias dependent permittivity and can be used as the dielectric between metal electrodes to make tunable Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors. Varactors can be used to change the resonance frequency of a circuit allowing high speed frequency switching intra- and inter-band. 2-D geometric arrays of circuitry, where resonant frequency is independently controlled by tunable elements in each section of the array, allow electromagnetic radiation to be focused and the wave front spatial trajectory controlled. BST thin films varactors allow large DC fields to be applied with modest voltages providing large tunabilities. If ferroelectric thin film based devices are to complement or supplant semiconductor varactors as tunable elements then devices must be synthesized using a low cost processing techniques. The Film on Foil process methodology for depositing BST thin films on copper foil substrates was used to create BST/Cu specimens. Sputtering conditions were determined via BST deposition on platinized silicon. Sputtered BST thin films were synthesized on Cu foil substrates and densified using high T, controlled pO2 anneals. XRD showed the absence of Cu2O in as-deposited, post crystallization annealed, and post "re-ox" annealed state. Data showed a polycrystalline BST microstructure with a 55--80 nm grain size and no copper oxidation. HRTEM imaging qualitatively showed evidence of an abrupt BST/Cu interface free from oxide formation. Dielectric properties of Cu/BST/Pt MIM devices were measured as a function of DC bias, frequency, and temperature. A permittivity of 725 was observed with tunability >3:1 while zero bias tan delta of 0.02 saturating to tan delta 3:1 was maintained. These results provide a route for creating temperature stable capacitors using a BST/Cu embodiment. An effort to reduce surface roughness of copper foil substrates adversely impacted BST film integrity by impairing adhesion. XPS analysis of

  16. Flexible supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Shi; Chengjun Xu; Cheng Yang; Jia Li; Hongda Du; Baohua Li; Feiyu Kang

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors show a great potential for applications in wearable,miniaturized,portable,largescale transparent and flexible consumer electronics due to their significant,inherent advantages,such as being flexible,lightweight,low cost and environmentally friendly in comparison with the current energy storage devices.In this report,recent progress on flexible supercapacitors,flexible electrodes and electrolytes is reviewed.In addition,the future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  17. Backward Evolving Quantum States

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidman, L

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of the two-state vector formalism, which is the time symmetric approach to quantum mechanics, is the backward evolving quantum state. However, due to the time asymmetry of the memory's arrow of time, the possible ways to manipulate a backward evolving quantum state differ from those for a standard, forward evolving quantum state. The similarities and the differences between forward and backward evolving quantum states regarding the no-cloning theorem, nonlocal measurements, and teleportation are discussed. The results are relevant not only in the framework of the two-state vector formalism, but also in the framework of retrodictive quantum theory.

  18. Strategic flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, KiHyung

    2014-01-01

    A flexible system is defined as one that can change the entity's stance, capability or status reacting to a change of the entity's environment. Flexibility has gathered the attention of academic researchers and industry practitioners as an efficient approach to cope with today's volatile environment. As the environments become more unpredictable and volatile, it is imperative for a flexible system to respond quickly to a change in its circumstance. How much flexibility is embedded into the sy...

  19. Flexible Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  20. Flexible Software for Flexible Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Frossie; Jenness, Tim; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Hirst, Paul; Adamson, Andy J.; Rippa, Mathew; Delorey, Kynan K.; Isaak, Kate G.

    The JAC Observation Management Project (OMP) provides software for the James Clerk Maxwell (JCMT) and the United Kingdom Infrared (UKIRT) telescopes that manages the life-cycle of flexibly scheduled observations. Its aim is to increase observatory efficiency under flexible (queue) scheduled observing, without depriving the principal investigator (PI) of the flexibility associated with classical scheduling.

  1. Modeling Evolving Innovation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Michael D.; Battiston, Stefano; Schweitzer, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new framework for modeling innovation networks which evolve over time. The nodes in the network represent firms, whereas the directed links represent unilateral interactions between the firms. Both nodes and links evolve according to their own dynamics and on different time scales. The model assumes that firms produce knowledge based on the knowledge exchange with other firms, which involves both costs and benefits for the participating firms. In order to increase their knowledge...

  2. Motion Balancing Control of Flexible Two-wheeled Robot Based on Nonlinear PID%基于非线性PID的柔性两轮机器人运动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮晓钢; 李世臻; 侯旭阳; 李欣源

    2012-01-01

    The flexible two-wheeled balancing robot is a non-stable, non-linear, and strong coupling syslem. The syslem is characterized by a flexible body structure al the robot' s waist, which could belter simulate human and animals" biological dynamics and have mure bionir feature. Such factorleads to a more difficult control system. To make the robot with a strong robust balance performance, this paper presents a nonlinear PD controller for the posture balancing conlrol of FTWBR, and a PID heading differentia] controller is implemented to control the motors of the left and right wheel. The robot could achieve various sport models such as moving in a straight path, spinning and, rotation. The experiment results demonstrate the FTWBR has excellent balance and mobility performance. The results validate the effectiveness of the controller.%柔性两轮机器人是一种不稳定、非线性、强耦合系统.该系统的突出特点是在机器人的腰部装有柔性的机体结构,能够更好地模拟人和动物的生物动力学特性,具有更好的仿生性质,同时,系统的控制难度显著增大,为使机器人能够平衡直立运动,且具有较强的鲁棒性,提出了非线性PD的姿态平衡控制方法,实现了机器人的姿态平衡,并同时设计了PID航向差动控制结构驱动左右轮电机,使机器人能够完成直线行进、自旋、环绕等多种运动平衡模式.实验结果表明,机器人具有优良的平衡能力和机动性能,从而验证了方法的有效性.

  3. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Wagner, Aaron P; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved).

  4. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Fortuna

    Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.

  5. Functionalization based on the substitutional flexibility: strong middle IR nonlinear optical selenides AX(II)(4)X(III)(5)Se12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Liu-Jiang; Wu, Li-Ming

    2013-08-28

    Seven nonlinear optical (NLO) active selenides in the middle IR region, AX(II)4X(III)5Se12 (A = K(+)-Cs(+); X(II) = Mn(2+), Cd(2+); X(III) = Ga(3+), In(3+)) adopting the KCd4Ga5S12-type structure, have been synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction of an elemental mixture with ACl flux. Their three-dimensional network structures are stacked by M9Se24-layers of vertex sharing MSe4 tetrahedra, of which each center is jointly occupied by X(II) and X(III) atoms. Studies suggest that such tetrahedral building units can be regarded as the "multi-functional sites", on which the Cd(2+)/Ga(3+) pair gives rise to the coexistence of NLO and thermochromic properties, and the Mn(2+)/In(3+) pair leads to the coexistence of NLO and magnetic properties. The density functional theory (DFT) studies and the cutoff-energy-dependent NLO coefficient analyses reveal that such "multi-functional sites" contribute to the origin of the second harmonic generation (SHG) that is ascribed to the electronic transitions from the Se-4p states to the ns, np states of X(II) and X(III) atoms. Remarkably, title compounds show very strong SHG at an incident wavelength of 2.05 μm, roughly 16-40 times that of commercial AgGaS2; among them, ACd4In5Se12 (A = Rb, Cs) represents the strongest SHG among chalcogenides to date.

  6. Forgiveness Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Seda Çolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness flexibility is the skill to minimize the negative effect of an event by using cognitive, affective and behavioral skills while taking a stand at the end of an injurious process. A number of studies were conducted to test the flexibility of the structure of forgiveness. The theoretical structure, structural validity and the confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical structure of forgiveness flexibility. The criterion validity evaluated in similar manners was found high. Forgiveness flexibility designed as a three dimensional structure and its sub-dimensions was confirmed theoretically as the recognition of forgivenessand the internalization of forgiveness through insight and its practice.

  7. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  8. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  9. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  10. Evolving Patterns of Enterprise Organisation: The Move towards Greater Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    After analyzing some of the factors--technological development, innovation, work reform movements--that have contributed to the erosion of the conventional model of enterprise organization, the author turns to what may happen in the future. (Author/CT)

  11. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Task Force (USPSTF). Most doctors recommend colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer because colonoscopy shows the entire colon and can remove colon polyps. However, preparing for and performing a flexible sigmoidoscopy may take less time and you may ...

  12. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  13. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  14. Modal Analysis of the Flexible Rotor System of Magnetic Levitation Motors Under Nonlinear Contact%非线性接触下磁悬浮电机柔性转子系统模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梓嫄; 韩邦成; 周银锋

    2014-01-01

    According to the large error problem of modal analysis of the rotor system for magnetic levitation motors, the nonlinear contact behavior between rotor components was considered. The flexible rotor system modal can be analyzed accurately based on the penalty method by optimizing the contact stiffness factor. Through the establishment of the rotor-bearing system finite element analysis model, the ten order natural frequencies and variations of the rotor system under different bearing stiffness were obtained. The simulation results are in good agreement with the test values. This article also analyzed the rotor system with the dynamic balancing ring. The accuracy of results has been proved by the critical speed tests of the experimental prototype.%针对磁悬浮电机转子系统模态分析误差较大的问题,提出考虑转子组件间的非线性接触行为,基于罚函数方法通过修正优化接触刚度因子实现对电机柔性转子系统模态的精确分析。通过建立弹性支承转子-轴承系统有限元分析模型,得到了在不同的支承刚度下转子系统前10阶固有频率的仿真值及变化规律。进行模态测试实验验证,结果表明仿真分析和测试值吻合较好,并对加动平衡环后的转子系统进行固有频率的仿真,其结果的准确性在试验样机穿越临界转速时得到了验证。

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics and Control of Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-10

    control problem is to drive the outputs asymptotically to zero. Since output regulation problem seeks to enforce the set of constraints I hi() = , i = 1...K an m x m constant matrix, solves the output regulation problem if sliding can be achieved. In sliding the equivalent control is, Uq = -B(x)-KAz - B

  16. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Flexible Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-18

    disturbances. The following example illustrates the need for a robust state-feedback law and the sensi- tivity of the exact - linearization based control law... exact linearization , one can bring an input-output approach to a particular case of certainty- equivalence based adaptive control design. We now...are available for this model, exact linearization can be performed. Let C(s) be the compensator that is being used so far in the previous three

  17. Piping Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  18. Dynamic Model of a Rotating Flexible Arm-Flexible Root Mechanism Driven by a Shaft Flexible in Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic model of a rotating flexible beam carrying a payload at its tip. The model accounts for the driving shaft and the arm root flexibilities. The finite element method and the Lagrangian dynamics are used in deriving the equations of motion with the small deformation theory assumptions and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The obtained model is a nonlinear-coupled system of differential equations. The model is simulated for different combinations of shaft and root flexibilities and arm properties. The simulation results showed that the root flexibility is an important factor that should be considered in association with the arm and shaft flexibilities, as its dynamics influence the motor motion. Moreover, the effect of system non-linearity on the dynamic behavior is investigated by simulating the equivalent linearized system and it was found to be an important factor that should be considered, particularly when designing a control strategy for practical implementation.

  19. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  20. Evolving XSLT stylesheets

    CERN Document Server

    Zorzano, Nestor; Laredo, J L J; Sevilla, J P; Garcia, Pablo; Merelo, J J

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a procedure based on genetic programming to evolve XSLT programs (usually called stylesheets or logicsheets). XSLT is a general purpose, document-oriented functional language, generally used to transform XML documents (or, in general, solve any problem that can be coded as an XML document). The proposed solution uses a tree representation for the stylesheets as well as diverse specific operators in order to obtain, in the studied cases and a reasonable time, a XSLT stylesheet that performs the transformation. Several types of representation have been compared, resulting in different performance and degree of success.

  1. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  2. Evolving NoSQL Databases Without Downtime

    OpenAIRE

    Saur, Karla; Dumitraş, Tudor; Hicks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NoSQL databases like Redis, Cassandra, and MongoDB are increasingly popular because they are flexible, lightweight, and easy to work with. Applications that use these databases will evolve over time, sometimes necessitating (or preferring) a change to the format or organization of the data. The problem we address in this paper is: How can we support the evolution of high-availability applications and their NoSQL data online, without excessive delays or interruptions, even in the presence of b...

  3. Multipolar nonlinear nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field with many useful applications for a design of nonlinear nanoantennas, light sources, nanolasers, sensors, and ultrafast miniature metadevices. A tight confinement of the local electromagnetic fields in resonant photonic nanostructures can boost nonlinear optical effects, thus offering versatile opportunities for subwavelength control of light. To achieve the desired functionalities, it is essential to gain flexible control over the near- and far-field properties of nanostructures. Thus, both modal and multipolar analyses are widely exploited for engineering nonlinear scattering from resonant nanoscale elements, in particular for enhancing the near-field interaction, tailoring the far-field multipolar interference, and optimization of the radiation directionality. Here, we review the recent advances in this recently emerged research field ranging from metallic structures exhibiting localized plasmonic resonances to hybrid metal-dielectric and all-dielectric...

  4. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  5. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  6. Logistic Regression for Evolving Data Streams Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhi-wu; HUANG Shang-teng; XUE Gui-rong

    2007-01-01

    Logistic regression is a fast classifier and can achieve higher accuracy on small training data. Moreover,it can work on both discrete and continuous attributes with nonlinear patterns. Based on these properties of logistic regression, this paper proposed an algorithm, called evolutionary logistical regression classifier (ELRClass), to solve the classification of evolving data streams. This algorithm applies logistic regression repeatedly to a sliding window of samples in order to update the existing classifier, to keep this classifier if its performance is deteriorated by the reason of bursting noise, or to construct a new classifier if a major concept drift is detected. The intensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  7. The flexibility of optical metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, Eduardo; Smolyaninov, Igor; Smolyaninova, Vera N

    2015-01-01

    We firstly revisit the importance, naturalness and limitations of the so-called optical metrics for describing the propagation of light rays in the limit of geometric optics. We then exemplify their flexibility and nontriviality in some nonlinear material media and in the context of nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism, both underlain by curved backgrounds, where optical metrics could be flat and impermeable membranes only to photons could be conceived, respectively. Finally, we underline and discuss the relevance and potential applications of our analyses in a broad sense, ranging from material media to compact astrophysical systems.

  8. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal...... and external contingency factors and having a more detailed look at the structural dimensions chosen, beyond the well-known characteristics of centralization, formalization, participation, specialization, standardization and size. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be leveraged...

  9. Flexible isotopy classification of flexible links

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we define and study flexible links and flexible isotopy in projective space. Flexible links are meant to capture the topological properties of real algebraic links. We classify all flexible links up to flexible isotopy using Ekholms interpretation of Viros encomplexed writhe.

  10. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  11. Static inelastic analysis of steel frames with flexible connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefovska-Danilović M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of connection flexibility and material yielding on the behavior of plane steel frames subjected to static (monotonic loads are presented in this paper. Two types of material nonlinearities are considered: flexible nodal connections and material yielding, as well as geometric nonlinearity of the structure. To account for material yielding, a plastic hinge concept is adopted. A flexible connection is idealized by nonlinear rotational spring. Plastic hinge is also idealized by nonlinear rotational spring attached in series with the rotational spring that accounts for connection flexibility. The stiffness matrix for the beam with flexible connections and plastic hinges at its ends is obtained. To illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed numerical model, several examples have been conducted.

  12. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  13. Rapidly Evolving Giant Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Lang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma, also known as “fibrous histiocytoma”, is a benign dermal or subcutaneous poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and macrophages in the dermis. Although it is commonly present as a brownish nodule the legs of females, it may also arise on the upper extremities, trunk, and rarely on the head. The exact pathogenesis is unclear. However, it is widely believed that the originating insult to the dermis is a folliculitis, an arthropod bite, or an unspecified initial inflammatory condition. Giant dermatofibromas of greater than 5 cm in diameter are rare, with only 22 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a rapidly evolving pedunculated mass in the groin of a male patient. Histological examination confirmed this to be a giant dermatofibroma. Though this specimen cannot is not confirmed as such, the cellular subtype is sometimes present as a larger lesion with anecdotal reports of local recurrence and distant metastases. The clinical and radiological features which were somewhat suspicious of malignancy are considered in the context of the definitive pathological diagnosis of a benign lesion.

  14. Communicability across evolving networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark C; Higham, Desmond J; Estrada, Ernesto

    2011-04-01

    Many natural and technological applications generate time-ordered sequences of networks, defined over a fixed set of nodes; for example, time-stamped information about "who phoned who" or "who came into contact with who" arise naturally in studies of communication and the spread of disease. Concepts and algorithms for static networks do not immediately carry through to this dynamic setting. For example, suppose A and B interact in the morning, and then B and C interact in the afternoon. Information, or disease, may then pass from A to C, but not vice versa. This subtlety is lost if we simply summarize using the daily aggregate network given by the chain A-B-C. However, using a natural definition of a walk on an evolving network, we show that classic centrality measures from the static setting can be extended in a computationally convenient manner. In particular, communicability indices can be computed to summarize the ability of each node to broadcast and receive information. The computations involve basic operations in linear algebra, and the asymmetry caused by time's arrow is captured naturally through the noncommutativity of matrix-matrix multiplication. Illustrative examples are given for both synthetic and real-world communication data sets. We also discuss the use of the new centrality measures for real-time monitoring and prediction.

  15. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  16. Fat: an evolving issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2012-09-01

    Work on obesity is evolving, and obesity is a consequence of our evolutionary history. In the space of 50 years, we have become an obese species. The reasons why can be addressed at a number of different levels. These include separating between whether the primary cause lies on the food intake or energy expenditure side of the energy balance equation, and determining how genetic and environmental effects contribute to weight variation between individuals. Opinion on whether increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure drives the obesity epidemic is still divided, but recent evidence favours the idea that food intake, rather than altered expenditure, is most important. There is more of a consensus that genetics explains most (probably around 65% of weight variation between individuals. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have identified many polymorphisms that are linked to obesity, yet much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. Finding the causes of this unexplained variation will be an impetus of genetic and epigenetic research on obesity over the next decade. Many environmental factors – including gut microbiota, stress and endocrine disruptors – have been linked to the risk of developing obesity. A better understanding of gene-by-environment interactions will also be key to understanding obesity in the years to come.

  17. Evolving paradigms in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Wendy; Gibbs, Trevor; Lacroix, Karol; Murray, Alison; Tydeman, Michael; Almenoff, June

    2006-05-01

    All medicines have adverse effects as well as benefits. The aim of pharmacovigilance is to protect public health by monitoring medicines to identify and evaluate issues and ensure that the overall benefits outweigh the potential risks. The tools and processes used in pharmacovigilance are continually evolving. Increasingly sophisticated tools are being designed to evaluate safety data from clinical trials to enhance the likelihood of detecting safety signals ahead of product registration. Methods include integration of safety data throughout development, meta-analytical techniques, quantitative and qualitative methods for evaluation of adverse event data and graphical tools to explore laboratory and biometric data. Electronic data capture facilitates monitoring of ongoing studies so that it is possible to promptly identify potential issues and manage patient safety. In addition, GSK employs a number of proactive methods for post-marketing signal detection and knowledge management using state-of-the-art statistical and analytical tools. Using these tools, together with safety data collected through pharmacoepidemiologic studies, literature and spontaneous reporting, potential adverse drug reactions can be better identified in marketed products. In summary, the information outlined in this paper provides a valuable benchmark for risk management and pharmacovigilance in pharmaceutical development.

  18. Simulation and analysis of flexibly jointed manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George M.

    1990-01-01

    Modeling, simulation, and analysis of robot manipulators with non-negligible joint flexibility are studied. A recursive Newton-Euler model of the flexibly jointed manipulator is developed with many advantages over the traditional Lagrange-Euler methods. The Newton-Euler approach leads to a method for the simulation of a flexibly jointed manipulator in which the number of computations grows linearly with the number of links. Additionally, any function for the flexibility between the motor and link may be used permitting the simulation of nonlinear effects, such as backlash, in a uniform manner for all joints. An analysis of the control problems for flexibly jointed manipulators is presented by converting the Newton-Euler model to a Lagrange-Euler form. The detailed structure available in the model is used to examine linearizing controllers and shows the dependency of the control on the choice of flexible model and structure of the manipulator.

  19. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  20. Some geometrical iteration methods for nonlinear equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xing-jiang; QIAN Chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes geometrical essentials of some iteration methods (e.g. Newton iteration,secant line method,etc.) for solving nonlinear equations and advances some geomet-rical methods of iteration that are flexible and efficient.

  1. Sliding Mode Control of a Slewing Flexible Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Parker, Gordon G.; Starr, Gregory P.; Robinett, Rush D., III

    1997-01-01

    An output feedback sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed to minimize the effects of vibrations of slewing flexible manipulators. A spline trajectory is used to generate ideal position and velocity commands. Constrained nonlinear optimization techniques are used to both calibrate nonlinear models and determine optimized gains to produce a rest-to-rest, residual vibration-free maneuver. Vibration-free maneuvers are important for current and future NASA space missions. This study required the development of the nonlinear dynamic system equations of motion; robust control law design; numerical implementation; system identification; and verification using the Sandia National Laboratories flexible robot testbed. Results are shown for a slewing flexible beam.

  2. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  3. Dynamical modeling of serial manipulators with flexible links and joints using the method of kinematic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A method of formulating the dynamical equations of a flexible, serial manipulator is presented, using the Method of Kinematic Influence. The resulting equations account for rigid body motion, structural motion due to link and joint flexibilities, and the coupling between these two motions. Nonlinear inertial loads are included in the equations. A finite order mode summation method is used to model flexibilities. The structural data may be obtained from experimental, finite element, or analytical methods. Nonlinear flexibilities may be included in the model.

  4. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  5. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  6. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  7. Review of Evolving Planet [game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A review of Evolving Planet is an agent-based model situated in the archaeology of hominin dispersal, wrapped in the trappings of a casual video game. In Evolving Planet, a terrestrial world has been discovered, replete with artefacts and sites from a now-extinct intelligent species, dubbed the 'Lovans'. You (the player are the distinguished archaeologist sent from Earth to oversee a project trying to work out why the 'Lovans' became extinct.

  8. Review of Evolving Planet [game

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Graham

    2016-01-01

    A review of Evolving Planet is an agent-based model situated in the archaeology of hominin dispersal, wrapped in the trappings of a casual video game. In Evolving Planet, a terrestrial world has been discovered, replete with artefacts and sites from a now-extinct intelligent species, dubbed the 'Lovans'. You (the player) are the distinguished archaeologist sent from Earth to oversee a project trying to work out why the 'Lovans' became extinct.

  9. Floating-point array processors evolve into tailorable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelly, G.

    1983-05-12

    Recently introduced 32-bit floating point array processors (APs) combine configuration flexibility, integrated hardware/software system architecture and real-time computational power to meet a variety of application requirements. APS have now evolved into general-purpose boxes and PC boards which readily adapt to changing OEM needs. Contributing to this greater AP versatility are a variety of hardware and software features. These features are described and the range of available products is surveyed.

  10. The evolution of flexible parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Nick J; Russell, Andrew F; Wilson, Alastair J

    2014-08-15

    Parenting behaviors, such as the provisioning of food by parents to offspring, are known to be highly responsive to changes in environment. However, we currently know little about how such flexibility affects the ways in which parenting is adapted and evolves in response to environmental variation. This is because few studies quantify how individuals vary in their response to changing environments, especially social environments created by other individuals with which parents interact. Social environmental factors differ from nonsocial factors, such as food availability, because parents and offspring both contribute and respond to the social environment they experience. This interdependence leads to the coevolution of flexible behaviors involved in parenting, which could, paradoxically, constrain the ability of individuals to rapidly adapt to changes in their nonsocial environment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our

  12. Shaping behaviour: How institutions evolve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodhill, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Any form of development and social change requires institutional innovation. Societies have become much better at technological innovation than institutional innovation. Institutional innovation requires nonlinear, complex and evolutionary processes of change. Coping with the complex crises of our t

  13. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  14. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  15. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  16. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  17. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  18. Evolving Systems: An Outcome of Fondest Hopes and Wildest Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    New theory is presented for evolving systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new evolved system with a higher purpose. Evolving systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control that operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition, this control must often overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. Theoretical results will be presented for Adaptive Key Component control for persistent disturbance rejection. An illustrative example will demonstrate the Adaptive Key Component controller on a system composed of rigid body and flexible body modes.

  19. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  20. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  1. Nonlinear Inflaton Fragmentation after Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G N; Felder, Gary N.; Kofman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear dynamics of inflaton fragmentation during and after preheating in the simplest model of chaotic inflation. While the earlier regime of parametric resonant particle production and the later turbulent regime of interacting fields evolving towards equilibrium are well identified and understood, the short intermediate stage of violent nonlinear dynamics remains less explored. Lattice simulations of fully nonlinear preheating dynamics show specific features of this intermediate stage: occupation numbers of the scalar particles are peaked, scalar fields become significantly non-gaussian and the field dynamics become chaotic and irreversible. Visualization of the field dynamics in configuration space reveals that nonlinear interactions generate non-gaussian inflaton inhomogeneities with very fast growing amplitudes. The peaks of the inflaton inhomogeneities coincide with the peaks of the scalar field(s) produced by parametric resonance. When the inflaton peaks reach their maxima, they stop ...

  2. Balance and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  3. Thermal and evolved gas analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Boynton, W. V.; James, R. L.; Verts, W. T.; Bailey, S. H.; Hamara, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument will perform calorimetry and evolved gas analysis on soil samples collected from the Martian surface. TEGA is one of three instruments, along with a robotic arm, that form the Mars Volatile and Climate Survey (MVACS) payload. The other instruments are a stereo surface imager, built by Peter Smith of the University of Arizona and a meteorological station, built by JPL. The MVACS lander will investigate a Martian landing site at approximately 70 deg south latitude. Launch will take place from Kennedy Space Center in January, 1999. The TEGA project started in February, 1996. In the intervening 24 months, a flight instrument concept has been designed, prototyped, built as an engineering model and flight model, and tested. The instrument performs laboratory-quality differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC) over the temperature range of Mars ambient to 1400K. Low-temperature volatiles (water and carbon dioxide ices) and the carbonates will be analyzed in this temperature range. Carbonates melt and evolve carbon dioxide at temperatures above 600 C. Evolved oxygen (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) is detected, and C02 and water vapor and the isotopic variations of C02 and water vapor are detected and their concentrations measured. The isotopic composition provides important tests of the theory of solar system formation.

  4. Evolving sensitivity balances Boolean Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie X Luo

    Full Text Available We investigate the sensitivity of Boolean Networks (BNs to mutations. We are interested in Boolean Networks as a model of Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs. We adopt Ribeiro and Kauffman's Ergodic Set and use it to study the long term dynamics of a BN. We define the sensitivity of a BN to be the mean change in its Ergodic Set structure under all possible loss of interaction mutations. In silico experiments were used to selectively evolve BNs for sensitivity to losing interactions. We find that maximum sensitivity was often achievable and resulted in the BNs becoming topologically balanced, i.e. they evolve towards network structures in which they have a similar number of inhibitory and excitatory interactions. In terms of the dynamics, the dominant sensitivity strategy that evolved was to build BNs with Ergodic Sets dominated by a single long limit cycle which is easily destabilised by mutations. We discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Stem Cell Differentiation and propose a relationship between pluripotent stem cells and our evolved sensitive networks.

  5. Evolving Objects for Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evolving objects method for softwaredesign that can adapt to the changing environments and requirements automatically. We presen t system architecture with objects library, where there are objects based on dom ain ontologies. We define some genetic operators for objects, and discuss how to apply these genetic operators on objects to get new objects, which can satisfy new requirements.

  6. Evolving MPSoC Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows to explore the mapping onto a fixed platform architecture as well as to a flexible platform architecture where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone...

  7. Evolving MPSoC Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows to explore the mapping onto a fixed platform architecture as well as to a flexible platform architecture where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone...

  8. Evolving MPSoC Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows to explore the mapping onto a fixed platform architecture as well as to a flexible platform architecture where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone...

  9. Evolving MPSoC Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows to explore the mapping onto a fixed platform architecture as well as to a flexible platform architecture where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone...

  10. Nonlinear Control of Heartbeat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Thanom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of nonlinear control theory to heartbeat models. Existing heartbeat models are investigated and modified by incorporating the control input as a pacemaker to provide the control channel. A nonlinear feedback linearization technique is applied to force the output of the systems to generate artificial electrocardiogram (ECG signal using discrete data as the reference inputs. The synthetic ECG may serve as a flexible signal source to assess the effectiveness of a diagnostic ECG signal-processing device.

  11. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  12. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  13. The role of sensory cortex in behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Ponvert, Nicholas D; Jaramillo, Santiago

    2017-03-14

    To thrive in a changing environment, organisms evolved strategies for rapidly modifying their behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. In this review, we investigate the role of sensory cortical circuits in these flexible behaviors. First, we provide a framework for classifying tasks in which flexibility is required. We then present studies in animal models which demonstrate that responses of sensory cortical neurons depend on the expected outcome associated with a stimulus. Last, we discuss inactivation studies which indicate that sensory cortex facilitates behavioral flexibility, but is not always required for adapting to changes in environmental conditions. This analysis provides insights into the contributions of cortical and subcortical sensory circuits to flexibility in behavior.

  14. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  15. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  16. Coupled oscillators on evolving networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Bagarti, Trilochan

    2016-12-01

    In this work we study coupled oscillators on evolving networks. We find that the steady state behavior of the system is governed by the relative values of the spread in natural frequencies and the global coupling strength. For coupling strong in comparison to the spread in frequencies, the system of oscillators synchronize and when coupling strength and spread in frequencies are large, a phenomenon similar to amplitude death is observed. The network evolution provides a mechanism to build inter-oscillator connections and once a dynamic equilibrium is achieved, oscillators evolve according to their local interactions. We also find that the steady state properties change by the presence of additional time scales. We demonstrate these results based on numerical calculations studying dynamical evolution of limit-cycle and van der Pol oscillators.

  17. Mandelbrot Law of Evolving Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xue-Zao; YANG Zi-Mo; WANG Bing-Hong; ZHOU Tao

    2012-01-01

    We show that the degree distribution of a growing network with linear preferential attachment approximately follows the Mandelbrot law,and propose an analytical method based on a recursive formula that can be used to obtain a more accurate expression of the shifting coefficient.Simulations demonstrate the advantages of our method. This work provides a possible mechanism leading to the Mandelbrot law of evolving networks,and refines the mainstream analytical methods for the shifting coefficient.

  18. A Calculus of Evolving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demands of developing modern, highly dynamic applications have led to an increasing interest in dynamic programming languages and mechanisms. Not only must applications evolve over time, but the object models themselves may need to be adapted to the requirements of different run-time contexts. Class-based models and prototype-based models, for example, may need to co-exist to meet the demands of dynamically evolving applications. Multi-dimensional dispatch, fine-grained and dynamic software composition, and run-time evolution of behaviour are further examples of diverse mechanisms which may need to co-exist in a dynamically evolving run-time environment. How can we model the semantics of these highly dynamic features, yet still offer some reasonable safety guarantees?To this end we present an original calculus in which objects can adapt their behaviour at run-time. Both objects and environments are represented by first-class mappings between variables and values. Message sends are dynamically resolved to method calls. Variables may be dynamically bound, making it possible to model a variety of dynamic mechanisms within the same calculus. Despite the highly dynamic nature of the calculus, safety properties are assured by a type assignment system.

  19. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  20. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  1. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  2. Nonlinear Behaviour of Coflexip Risers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Zare; T. K. Datta

    2001-01-01

    A modified Newton-Raphson iterative technique is formulated for obtaining the static configuration of the Lazy "S" flexible marine riser between the floater and mid-arch buoy under its submerged self weight and the applied top tension. The geometrically non-linear problem is solved by finite difference with the above technique. The problem is formulated as a regular boundary value problem with specified moments and deflections at both ends. Usually the bending stiffness of the flexible riser made of Coflexip pipe is very low. By use of the above analysis, several flexible riser configurations are analyzed and their characteristic behaviors are investigated. Also, changes in the riser characteristics due to quasi-static motion of the floater end are estimated for the safety of the riser layout.

  3. Eliminating material constraints for nonlinearity with plasmonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Andres D.; Olivier, Nicolas; Nasir, Mazhar E.; Dickson, Wayne; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical materials comprise the foundation of modern photonics, offering functionalities ranging from ultrafast lasers to optical switching, harmonic and soliton generation. Optical nonlinearities are typically strong near the electronic resonances of a material and thus provide limited tuneability for practical use. Here we show that in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials, the Kerr-type nonlinearity is not limited by the nonlinear properties of the constituents. Compared with gold's nonlinearity, the measured nonlinear absorption and refraction demonstrate more than two orders of magnitude enhancement over a broad spectral range that can be engineered via geometrical parameters. Depending on the metamaterial's effective plasma frequency, either a focusing or defocusing nonlinearity is observed. The ability to obtain strong and fast optical nonlinearities in a given spectral range makes these metamaterials a flexible platform for the development of low-intensity nonlinear applications. PMID:26195182

  4. Recursive Formulation for Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Multilink Spatial Flexible Robotic Manipulators

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenjie Qian; Dingguo Zhang; Jun Liu

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics for spatial manipulator arms consisting of n flexible links and n flexible joints is presented. All the transversal, longitudinal, and torsional deformation of flexible links are considered. Within the total longitudinal deformation, the nonlinear coupling term, also known as the longitudinal shortening caused by transversal deformation, also is considered here. Each flexible joint is modeled as a linearly elastic torsional spring, and the mass of joint is considered. Lagrange's ...

  5. Nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-01-01

    Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.

  6. Convergence of joint mechanics in independently evolving, articulated coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Kyra; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-02-01

    Flexible joints are a key innovation in the evolution of upright coralline algae. These structures have evolved in parallel at least three separate times, allowing the otherwise rigid, calcified thalli of upright corallines to achieve flexibility when subjected to hydrodynamic stress. As all bending occurs at the joints, stress is amplified, which necessitates that joints be made of material that is both extensible and strong. Data presented here indicate that coralline joints are in fact often stronger and more extensible, as well as tougher, than fleshy seaweed tissues. Corallinoids are particularly strong and tough, which is largely due to the presence of secondary cell walls that strengthen the joint tissue without adding bulk to the joint itself. Cell wall thickness is shown to be a large contributing factor to strength across all groups, with the exception of the corallinoid Cheilosporum sagittatum, which likely possesses distinct chemical composition in its walls to increase strength beyond that of all other species tested.

  7. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  8. Synchronization in an evolving network

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, R K

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamics of Kuramoto oscillators on a stochastically evolving network whose evolution is governed by the phases of the individual oscillators and degree distribution. Synchronization is achieved after a threshold connection density is reached. This cumulative effect of topology and dynamics has many real-world implications, where synchronization in a system emerges as a collective property of its components in a self-organizing manner. The synchronous state remains stable as long as the connection density remains above the threshold value, with additional links providing resilience against network fluctuations.

  9. Static Aeroelastic Characteristics Analysis of a Very Flexible Solar Powered UAV with Geometrical Nonlinear Effect Considered%考虑几何非线性效应的大柔性太阳能无人机静气动弹性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 周洲; 祝小平; 王睿

    2014-01-01

    大柔性太阳能无人机在气动力的作用下产生较大的弯曲变形,引起气动载荷的重新分布及作用方向的改变,线性理论难以获得足够的精度。基于共旋转有限元理论,推导了几何非线性空间梁单元的切线刚度矩阵和内力求解格式,几何精确的描述了无人机机翼结构的几何非线性弹性变形;编写了空间共旋坐标有限元求解代码,利用计算流体力学软件FLUENT计算气动力,构造了流固耦合求解器;研究了类“太阳神”布局太阳能无人机几何大变形下的静气动弹性响应问题。研究结果表明:无人机受载变形后导致升阻比降低,翼尖弯曲变形为展长的13%时,升阻比降低4�2%,滚转力矩导数增加了300%,偏航力矩导数增加了350%;几何非线性效应改善了气动载荷在展向的分布,有利于机翼结构设计。研究工作对大柔性太阳能无人机的设计具有一定的参考意义。%Very flexible solar powered UAV under aerodynamic loading undergoes large deformation and aerody-namic load distribution is not possible to be obtained sufficiently precisely by means of linear theory. Starting from Ref.12 by Crisfield et al, we develop a static aeroelastic characteristics analysis algorithm suitable to very flexible aircraft;this is explained in sections 1 and 2 of the full paper. The core of section 1 is that, using the co-rotational theory, we derive the expression of tangent stiff matrix and that of internal force of a spatial two-node beam element of a geometrically nonlinear structure. The static aeroelastic equations are set up in section 2. Section 3 analyzes the static aeroelastic characteristics of a solar powered UAV with the layout similar to Helios. The results given in Figs.5 through 8 and their analysis show preliminarily that:the distortion of the flexible wing leads to lift loss, when the wingtip displacement is 13% of span, the lift-drag ratio

  10. Data-driven Simulations of Evolving Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M.; DeRosa, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of coronal field evolution in response to photospheric driving. In the simulations, the coronal field evolves according to magnetofriction, which ensures that the model field evolves toward a non-linear force-free state. Unlike static field extrapolation methods, this approach takes into account the history of the photospheric field evolution. This allows for the formation of flux ropes as well as current sheets between magnetic domains of connectivity. Using time sequences of HMI magnetograms as the bottom boundary condition, we apply this method to model the emergence and evolution of various active regions. Comparisons of the models with AIA observations and with HMI vector magnetogram inversions will be discussed.

  11. Distribution-Independent Evolvability of Linear Threshold Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Vitaly

    2011-01-01

    Valiant's (2007) model of evolvability models the evolutionary process of acquiring useful functionality as a restricted form of learning from random examples. Linear threshold functions and their various subclasses, such as conjunctions and decision lists, play a fundamental role in learning theory and hence their evolvability has been the primary focus of research on Valiant's framework (2007). One of the main open problems regarding the model is whether conjunctions are evolvable distribution-independently (Feldman and Valiant, 2008). We show that the answer is negative. Our proof is based on a new combinatorial parameter of a concept class that lower-bounds the complexity of learning from correlations. We contrast the lower bound with a proof that linear threshold functions having a non-negligible margin on the data points are evolvable distribution-independently via a simple mutation algorithm. Our algorithm relies on a non-linear loss function being used to select the hypotheses instead of 0-1 loss in V...

  12. FUZZY-PID Control of Nonlinear Active Suspension for Rigid-Flexible Coupling Model%刚柔耦合非线性主动悬架系统的 FUZZY-PID控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海潮; 刘夫云; 张骥; 王珂; 杨孟杰

    2016-01-01

    To solve the control technical problem of commercial vehicle front suspension, the paper presents a new fuzzy-PID controller for active suspension.Firstly, a detailed rigid-flexible model of the vehicle was established by applying the multi-body dynamics method and the finite element method.Secondly, a fuzzy-PID controller was designed for active suspension system based on the idea of variable domain, then programmed by means of Matlab.Finally, the joint simulation was carried out based on the ADAMS and the Matlab/Simulink.The joint simulation model can simulate vehicle dynamic response with the control of ASS under random road by using different control strategies, the results show that the proposed active suspension is considerably superior to the other strategies, and effectively improve the smooth performance of the vehicle.%针对商用车前悬架主动控制问题,运用有限元和多体动力学方法,对车架进行柔性化处理,建立了某型商用车刚柔耦合整车模型;基于变论域理论设计了主动悬架模糊控制器并通过Matlab编写了控制算法,利用ADAMS与Matlab/Simulink对主动悬架系统进行联合仿真。在随机路面输入下,对多种控制策略进行了仿真分析与性能对比,结果表明该控制方法明显优于其他控制策略,能有效提高汽车的平顺性能。

  13. Analytical and Numerical Modeling for Flexible Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; CHEN Geng

    2011-01-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers,in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties,has been analyzed.Specifically,the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics.The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness.With consideration of the effective elastic moduli,the structure can be properly analyzed.Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated.A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque.Further,the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered.Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed,which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  14. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  15. Stability of Evolving Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, P; Briscoe, G

    2011-08-01

    A multiagent system is a distributed system where the agents or nodes perform complex functions that cannot be written down in analytic form. Multiagent systems are highly connected, and the information they contain is mostly stored in the connections. When agents update their state, they take into account the state of the other agents, and they have access to those states via the connections. There is also external user-generated input into the multiagent system. As so much information is stored in the connections, agents are often memory less. This memory-less property, together with the randomness of the external input, has allowed us to model multiagent systems using Markov chains. In this paper, we look at multiagent systems that evolve, i.e., the number of agents varies according to the fitness of the individual agents. We extend our Markov chain model and define stability. This is the start of a methodology to control multiagent systems. We then build upon this to construct an entropy-based definition for the degree of instability (entropy of the limit probabilities), which we used to perform a stability analysis. We then investigated the stability of evolving agent populations through simulation and show that the results are consistent with the original definition of stability in nonevolving multiagent systems, proposed by Chli and De Wilde. This paper forms the theoretical basis for the construction of digital business ecosystems, and applications have been reported elsewhere.

  16. Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  17. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BODY WITH DEFINITE MOVING ATTITUTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-ming; ZHANG Wei; SONG Tian-xia; CHEN Chuan-yao

    2006-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic control equation of a flexible multi-body system with definite moving attitude is discussed. The motion of the aircraft in space is regarded as known and the influence of the flexible structural members in the aircraft on the motion and attitude of the aircraft is analyzed. By means of a hypothetical mode, the deformation of flexible members is regarded as composed of the line element vibration in the axial direction of rectangular coordinates in space. According to Kane's method in dynamics, a dynamic equation is established, which contains the structural stiffness matrix that represents the elastic deformation and the geometric stiffness matrix that represents the nonlinear deformation of the deformed body. Through simplification the dynamic equation of the influence of the planar flexible body with a windsurfboard structure on the spacecraft motion is obtained. The numerical solution for this kind of equation can be realized by a computer.

  18. Flexible parallel implicit modelling of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Mauro; Jacquey, Antoine B.

    2017-09-01

    Theory and numerical implementation describing groundwater flow and the transport of heat and solute mass in fully saturated fractured rocks with elasto-plastic mechanical feedbacks are developed. In our formulation, fractures are considered as being of lower dimension than the hosting deformable porous rock and we consider their hydraulic and mechanical apertures as scaling parameters to ensure continuous exchange of fluid mass and energy within the fracture-solid matrix system. The coupled system of equations is implemented in a new simulator code that makes use of a Galerkin finite-element technique. The code builds on a flexible, object-oriented numerical framework (MOOSE, Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment) which provides an extensive scalable parallel and implicit coupling to solve for the multiphysics problem. The governing equations of groundwater flow, heat and mass transport, and rock deformation are solved in a weak sense (either by classical Newton-Raphson or by free Jacobian inexact Newton-Krylow schemes) on an underlying unstructured mesh. Nonlinear feedbacks among the active processes are enforced by considering evolving fluid and rock properties depending on the thermo-hydro-mechanical state of the system and the local structure, i.e. degree of connectivity, of the fracture system. A suite of applications is presented to illustrate the flexibility and capability of the new simulator to address problems of increasing complexity and occurring at different spatial (from centimetres to tens of kilometres) and temporal scales (from minutes to hundreds of years).

  19. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  20. Using Synchronic and Diachronic Relations for Summarizing Multiple Documents Describing Evolving Events

    CERN Document Server

    Afantenos, Stergos D; Stamatopoulos, P; Halatsis, C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a fresh look at the problem of summarizing evolving events from multiple sources. After a discussion concerning the nature of evolving events we introduce a distinction between linearly and non-linearly evolving events. We present then a general methodology for the automatic creation of summaries from evolving events. At its heart lie the notions of Synchronic and Diachronic cross-document Relations (SDRs), whose aim is the identification of similarities and differences between sources, from a synchronical and diachronical perspective. SDRs do not connect documents or textual elements found therein, but structures one might call messages. Applying this methodology will yield a set of messages and relations, SDRs, connecting them, that is a graph which we call grid. We will show how such a grid can be considered as the starting point of a Natural Language Generation System. The methodology is evaluated in two case-studies, one for linearly evolving events (descriptions of football matc...

  1. A simple numerical model of a geometrically nonlinear Timoshenko beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijdener, C.; Metrikine, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the original problem for which this model was developed, onedimensional flexible objects interact through a non-linear contact model. Due to the non-linear nature of the contact model, a numerical time-domain approach was adopted. One of the goals was to see if the coupling between axial and tran

  2. Evolving networks by merging cliques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Oosawa, Chikoo

    2005-10-01

    We propose a model for evolving networks by merging building blocks represented as complete graphs, reminiscent of modules in biological system or communities in sociology. The model shows power-law degree distributions, power-law clustering spectra, and high average clustering coefficients independent of network size. The analytical solutions indicate that a degree exponent is determined by the ratio of the number of merging nodes to that of all nodes in the blocks, demonstrating that the exponent is tunable, and are also applicable when the blocks are classical networks such as Erdös-Rényi or regular graphs. Our model becomes the same model as the Barabási-Albert model under a specific condition.

  3. Peripartum hysterectomy: an evolving picture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Peripartum hysterectomy (PH) is one of the obstetric catastrophes. Evidence is emerging that the role of PH in modern obstetrics is evolving. Improving management of postpartum hemorrhage and newer surgical techniques should decrease PH for uterine atony. Rising levels of repeat elective cesarean deliveries should decrease PH following uterine scar rupture in labor. Increasing cesarean rates, however, have led to an increase in the number of PHs for morbidly adherent placenta. In the case of uterine atony or rupture where PH is required, a subtotal PH is often sufficient. In the case of pathological placental localization involving the cervix, however, a total hysterectomy is required. Furthermore, the involvement of other pelvic structures may prospectively make the diagnosis difficult and the surgery challenging. If resources permit, PH for pathological placental localization merits a multidisciplinary approach. Despite advances in clinical practice, it is likely that peripartum hysterectomy will be more challenging for obstetricians in the future.

  4. Axial Spondyloarthritis: An Evolving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ziadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA is the prototype of a family of inter-related yet heterogeneous diseases sharing common clinical and genetic manifestations: the spondyloarthritides (SpAs. The condition mainly affects the sacroiliac joints and axial skeleton, and has a clear classification scheme, wider epidemiological data, and distinct therapeutic guidelines when compared with other SpAs. However, the concept of AxSpA has not been immutable over time and has evolved tremendously on many levels over the past decades. This review identifies the evolution of the AxSpA concept at two levels. First, at the level of classification, the old classifications and rationales leading to the current Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification are reviewed, and the advantages and drawbacks are discussed. Second, at the therapeutic level, current and future treatments are described and treatment strategies are discussed.

  5. The evolving Gleason grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-02-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s-1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new "Grade Group" system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate.

  6. Mandelbrot Law of Evolving Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Xue-Zao; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Degree distributions of many real networks are known to follow the Mandelbrot law, which can be considered as an extension of the power law that determined by not only the power-law exponent, but also the shifting coefficient. Although the shifting coefficient highly affect the shape of distribution, it receives less attention in the literature and in fact, mainstream analytical method based on backward or forward difference will lead to considerable deviation to its value. In this article, we show that the degree distribution of a growing network with linear preferential attachment approximately follows the Mandelbrot law. We propose an analytical method based on a recursive formula that can obtain a more accurate expression of the shifting coefficient than the previous methods. Simulations demonstrate the advantages of our method. This work provides a possible mechanism leading to the Mandelbrot law of evolving networks, and refines the mainstream analytical methods for the shifting coefficient.

  7. Invertible flexible matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Júlia

    2017-06-01

    Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.

  8. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy......Recent studies show that flexibility is a key concern for firms that engage in the global sourcing of services. In this conceptual paper, we seek to explore two central aspects of global sourcing flexibility: In the first part of the paper, we provide a definition of the construct of global...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  9. Nonlinear Evolution of Aggregates with Inextensible Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-XiangCHEN; WeiYANG; 等

    1996-01-01

    Crystalline and semicrystalline polymers are formed as aggregates of grains with evolving inextensible axes.This inextensible constratint leads to texture evolution under large plastic deformation.This paper reveals the nonlinear texture evolution of crystalline polymers under axi-symmetric straining.

  10. Call centres: constructing flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Arzbächer, Sandra; Holtgrewe, Ursula; Kerst, Christian

    2002-01-01

    "The development of call centres as a flexible interface between firms and their environments has been seen as exemplary or even symptomatic of flexible capitalism (Sennett 1998). We are going to point out that they do not just stand for organisational change but also for changes of institutions towards deregulation. Employers and managers hoped for gains of flexibility, decreasing labour costs, and market gains by an expanded 24-hour-service. Surveillance and control by flexib...

  11. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taki...

  12. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  13. Adaptive inferential sensors based on evolving fuzzy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Plamen; Kordon, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    A new technique to the design and use of inferential sensors in the process industry is proposed in this paper, which is based on the recently introduced concept of evolving fuzzy models (EFMs). They address the challenge that the modern process industry faces today, namely, to develop such adaptive and self-calibrating online inferential sensors that reduce the maintenance costs while keeping the high precision and interpretability/transparency. The proposed new methodology makes possible inferential sensors to recalibrate automatically, which reduces significantly the life-cycle efforts for their maintenance. This is achieved by the adaptive and flexible open-structure EFM used. The novelty of this paper lies in the following: (1) the overall concept of inferential sensors with evolving and self-developing structure from the data streams; (2) the new methodology for online automatic selection of input variables that are most relevant for the prediction; (3) the technique to detect automatically a shift in the data pattern using the age of the clusters (and fuzzy rules); (4) the online standardization technique used by the learning procedure of the evolving model; and (5) the application of this innovative approach to several real-life industrial processes from the chemical industry (evolving inferential sensors, namely, eSensors, were used for predicting the chemical properties of different products in The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX). It should be noted, however, that the methodology and conclusions of this paper are valid for the broader area of chemical and process industries in general. The results demonstrate that well-interpretable and with-simple-structure inferential sensors can automatically be designed from the data stream in real time, which predict various process variables of interest. The proposed approach can be used as a basis for the development of a new generation of adaptive and evolving inferential sensors that can address the

  14. Seismic base isolation by nonlinear mode localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [University of Illinois, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Washington University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); McFarland, D.M. [University of Illinois, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States); Vakakis, A.F. [National Technical University of Athens, Division of Mechanics (Greece); Bergman, L.A. [University of Illinois, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, the performance of a nonlinear base-isolation system, comprised of a nonlinearly sprung subfoundation tuned in a 1:1 internal resonance to a flexible mode of the linear primary structure to be isolated, is examined. The application of nonlinear localization to seismic isolation distinguishes this study from other base-isolation studies in the literature. Under the condition of third-order smooth stiffness nonlinearity, it is shown that a localized nonlinear normal mode (NNM) is induced in the system, which confines energy to the subfoundation and away from the primary or main structure. This is followed by a numerical analysis wherein the smooth nonlinearity is replaced by clearance nonlinearity, and the system is excited by ground motions representing near-field seismic events. The performance of the nonlinear system is compared with that of the corresponding linear system through simulation, and the sensitivity of the isolation system to several design parameters is analyzed. These simulations confirm the existence of the localized NNM, and show that the introduction of simple clearance nonlinearity significantly reduces the seismic energy transmitted to the main structure, resulting in significant attenuation in the response. (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    From the Back Cover: The emphasis throughout the present volume is on the practical application of theoretical mathematical models helping to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved in processes from mathematical physics and biosciences. It has been conceived as a unique collection of abstract methods dealing especially with nonlinear partial differential equations (either stationary or evolutionary) that are applied to understand concrete processes involving some important applications re...

  16. Evolving RBF neural networks for adaptive soft-sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Alex

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an adaptive framework for building soft-sensors based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network models. The adaptive fuzzy means algorithm is utilized in order to evolve an RBF network, which approximates the unknown system based on input-output data from it. The methodology gradually builds the RBF network model, based on two separate levels of adaptation: On the first level, the structure of the hidden layer is modified by adding or deleting RBF centers, while on the second level, the synaptic weights are adjusted with the recursive least squares with exponential forgetting algorithm. The proposed approach is tested on two different systems, namely a simulated nonlinear DC Motor and a real industrial reactor. The results show that the produced soft-sensors can be successfully applied to model the two nonlinear systems. A comparison with two different adaptive modeling techniques, namely a dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS) and neural networks trained with online backpropagation, highlights the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  17. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  18. Organizational flexibility estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Komarynets, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    By the help of parametric estimation the evaluation scale of organizational flexibility and its parameters was formed. Definite degrees of organizational flexibility and its parameters for the Lviv region enterprises were determined. Grouping of the enterprises under the existing scale was carried out. Special recommendations to correct the enterprises behaviour were given.

  19. Flexible magnetoimpidence sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, flexible electronic devices have attracted increasing interest, due to the opportunities they promise for new applications such as wearable devices, where the components are required to flex during normal use[1]. In this light, different magnetic sensors, like microcoil, spin valve, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), magnetoimpedance (MI), have been studied previously on flexible substrates.

  20. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  1. Recommendation in evolving online networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, An; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Recommender system is an effective tool to find the most relevant information for online users. By analyzing the historical selection records of users, recommender system predicts the most likely future links in the user-item network and accordingly constructs a personalized recommendation list for each user. So far, the recommendation process is mostly investigated in static user-item networks. In this paper, we propose a model which allows us to examine the performance of the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in evolving networks. We find that the recommendation accuracy in general decreases with time if the evolution of the online network fully depends on the recommendation. Interestingly, some randomness in users' choice can significantly improve the long-term accuracy of the recommendation algorithm. When a hybrid recommendation algorithm is applied, we find that the optimal parameter gradually shifts towards the diversity-favoring recommendation algorithm, indicating that recommendation diversity is essential to keep a high long-term recommendation accuracy. Finally, we confirm our conclusions by studying the recommendation on networks with the real evolution data.

  2. CERN internal communication is evolving

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CERN news will now be regularly updated on the CERN People page (see here).      Dear readers, All over the world, communication is becoming increasingly instantaneous, with news published in real time on websites and social networks. In order to keep pace with these changes, CERN's internal communication is evolving too. From now on, you will be informed of what’s happening at CERN more often via the “CERN people” page, which will frequently be updated with news. The Bulletin is following this trend too: twice a month, we will compile the most important articles published on the CERN site, with a brand-new layout. You will receive an e-mail every two weeks as soon as this new form of the Bulletin is available. If you have interesting news or stories to share, tell us about them through the form at: https://communications.web.cern.ch/got-story-cern-website​. You can also find out about news from CERN in real time...

  3. Multiscale modelling of evolving foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saye, R. I.; Sethian, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a set of multi-scale interlinked algorithms to model the dynamics of evolving foams. These algorithms couple the key effects of macroscopic bubble rearrangement, thin film drainage, and membrane rupture. For each of the mechanisms, we construct consistent and accurate algorithms, and couple them together to work across the wide range of space and time scales that occur in foam dynamics. These algorithms include second order finite difference projection methods for computing incompressible fluid flow on the macroscale, second order finite element methods to solve thin film drainage equations in the lamellae and Plateau borders, multiphase Voronoi Implicit Interface Methods to track interconnected membrane boundaries and capture topological changes, and Lagrangian particle methods for conservative liquid redistribution during rearrangement and rupture. We derive a full set of numerical approximations that are coupled via interface jump conditions and flux boundary conditions, and show convergence for the individual mechanisms. We demonstrate our approach by computing a variety of foam dynamics, including coupled evolution of three-dimensional bubble clusters attached to an anchored membrane and collapse of a foam cluster.

  4. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  5. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  6. Flexible Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Schwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials with a large inner surface area. Due to their high electrical conductivity they are excellent electrode materials in supercapacitors. Their brittleness, however, imposes certain limitations in terms of applicability. In that context, novel carbon aerogels with varying degree of flexibility have been developed. These highly porous, light aerogels are characterized by a high surface area and possess pore structures in the micrometer range, allowing for a reversible deformation of the aerogel network. A high ratio of pore size to particle size was found to be crucial for high flexibility. For dynamic microstructural analysis, compression tests were performed in-situ within a scanning electron microscope allowing us to directly visualize the microstructural flexibility of an aerogel. The flexible carbon aerogels were found to withstand between 15% and 30% of uniaxial compression in a reversible fashion. These findings might stimulate further research and new application fields directed towards flexible supercapacitors and batteries.

  7. Evolving Culture vs Local Minima

    CERN Document Server

    Bengio, Yoshua

    2012-01-01

    We propose a theory that relates difficulty of learning in deep architectures to culture and language. It is articulated around the following hypotheses: (1) learning in an individual human brain is hampered by the presence of effective local minima; (2) this optimization difficulty is particularly important when it comes to learning higher-level abstractions, i.e., concepts that cover a vast and highly-nonlinear span of sensory configurations; (3) such high-level abstractions are best represented in brains by the composition of many levels of representation, i.e., by deep architectures; (4) a human brain can learn such high-level abstractions if guided by the signals produced by other humans, which act as hints or indirect supervision for these high-level abstractions; and (5), language and the recombination and optimization of mental concepts provide an efficient evolutionary recombination operator, and this gives rise to rapid search in the space of communicable ideas that help humans build up better high-...

  8. Fulfilling a European Vision through Flexible Learning and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret S. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the value of flexibility and free choice in learning, and examines the increasing recognition of the evolving and wide range of appropriate environments for learning, such as the workplace, the home, the community, and the virtual world. This "Lifeplace Learning" is compared to the requirements and visions of the…

  9. Using Cultures and Values to Support Flexible Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhée, L.C.B.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis proposes a method for supporting flexible coordination in multi-agent systems (MASs). In other words, we aim at influencing societies of artificial agents such that they can handle complex and evolving environments and collective goals (emergency rescue robots capable of handling various

  10. Earthquakes as plastic failure on spontaneously evolving faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranger, Casper; van Dinther, Ylona; Herrendörfer, Robert; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; May, Dave; Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    Subduction zones evolve over millions of years. The state of stress, the distribution of materials, and the strength and structure of the interface between the two plates is intricately tied to a host of time-dependent physical processes, such as damage, friction, (nonlinear) viscous relaxation, and fluid migration. In addition, the subduction interface has a complex three-dimensional geometry that evolves with time and can adjust in response to a changing stress environment or in response to impinging topographical features, and can branch off as a splay fault. All in all, the behaviour of (large) earthquakes at the millisecond to minute timescale is heavily dependent on the pattern of stress accumulation during the 100 year inter-seismic period, the events occurring on or near the interface in the past thousands of years, as well as the extended geological history of the region. We try to deal with all of these considerations by developing a self-consistent 2D/3D staggered grid finite difference continuum description of motion, thermal advection-diffusion, and poro-visco-elastic two-phase flow. Faults are modelled as plastic shear bands that can develop and evolve in response to a changing stress environment without having a prescribed geometry. They obey a Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager yield criterion and a rate-and-state friction law. For a sound treatment of plasticity, we borrow elements from mechanical engineering, and extend these with high-quality nonlinear iteration schemes and adaptive time-stepping to resolve the rupture process at all time scales. We will present these techniques and demonstrate its applicability via several examples showing the development of self-consistent fault rupture in 2D and 3D.

  11. Energy Shaping Control of an Inverted Flexible Pendulum Fixed to a Cart

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Control of compliant mechanical systems is increasingly being researched for several applications including flexible link robots and ultra-precision positioning systems. The control problem in these systems is challenging, especially with gravity coupling and large deformations, because of inherent underactuation and the combination of lumped and distributed parameters of a nonlinear system. In this paper we consider an ultra-flexible inverted pendulum on a cart and propose a new nonlinear en...

  12. Modelling and Control of the Multi-stage Cable Pulley-driven Flexible-joint Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Phongsaen Pitakwatchara

    2014-01-01

    This work is concerned with the task space impedance control of a robot driven through a multi-stage nonlinear flexible transmission system. Specifically, a two degrees-of-freedom cable pulley-driven flexible-joint robot is considered. Realistic modelling of the system is developed within the bond graph modelling framework. The model captures the nonlinear compliance behaviour of the multi-stage cable pulley transmission system, the spring effect of the augmented counterbalancing mechanism, t...

  13. Evolvability Search: Directly Selecting for Evolvability in order to Study and Produce It

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of natural organisms is their significant evolvability, i.e.,their increased potential for further evolution. However, reproducing such evolvability in artificial evolution remains a challenge, which both reduces the performance of evolutionary algorithms and inhibits the study of evolvable digital phenotypes. Although some types of selection in evolutionary computation indirectly encourage evolvability, one unexplored possibility is to directly select for evolvability. To do so,...

  14. A fast platform for simulating semi-flexible fiber suspensions applied to cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Rahimian, Abtin; Zorin, Denis; Shelley, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel platform for the large-scale simulation of three-dimensional fibrous structures immersed in a Stokesian fluid and evolving under confinement or in free-space in three dimensions. One of the main motivations for this work is to study the dynamics of fiber assemblies within biological cells. For this, we also incorporate the key biophysical elements that determine the dynamics of these assemblies, which include the polymerization and depolymerization kinetics of fibers, their interactions with molecular motors and other objects, their flexibility, and hydrodynamic coupling. This work, to our knowledge, is the first technique to include many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs), and the resulting fluid flows, in cellular assemblies of flexible fibers. We use non-local slender body theory to compute the fluid-structure interactions of the fibers and a second-kind boundary integral formulation for other rigid bodies and the confining boundary. A kernel-independent implementation of the fast multipole method is utilized for efficient evaluation of HIs. The deformation of the fibers is described by nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and their polymerization is modeled by the reparametrization of the dynamic equations in the appropriate non-Lagrangian frame. We use a pseudo-spectral representation of fiber positions and implicit time-stepping to resolve large fiber deformations, and to allow time-steps not excessively constrained by temporal stiffness or fiber-fiber interactions. The entire computational scheme is parallelized, which enables simulating assemblies of thousands of fibers. We use our method to investigate two important questions in the mechanics of cell division: (i) the effect of confinement on the hydrodynamic mobility of microtubule asters; and (ii) the dynamics of the positioning of mitotic spindle in complex cell geometries. Finally to demonstrate the general applicability of the method, we simulate the sedimentation of a cloud of

  15. A fast platform for simulating semi-flexible fiber suspensions applied to cell mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan, E-mail: ehssan@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Computational Biology, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Rahimian, Abtin, E-mail: arahimian@acm.org [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Zorin, Denis, E-mail: dzorin@cs.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Shelley, Michael, E-mail: shelley@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Computational Biology, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10010 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    We present a novel platform for the large-scale simulation of three-dimensional fibrous structures immersed in a Stokesian fluid and evolving under confinement or in free-space in three dimensions. One of the main motivations for this work is to study the dynamics of fiber assemblies within biological cells. For this, we also incorporate the key biophysical elements that determine the dynamics of these assemblies, which include the polymerization and depolymerization kinetics of fibers, their interactions with molecular motors and other objects, their flexibility, and hydrodynamic coupling. This work, to our knowledge, is the first technique to include many-body hydrodynamic interactions (HIs), and the resulting fluid flows, in cellular assemblies of flexible fibers. We use non-local slender body theory to compute the fluid–structure interactions of the fibers and a second-kind boundary integral formulation for other rigid bodies and the confining boundary. A kernel-independent implementation of the fast multipole method is utilized for efficient evaluation of HIs. The deformation of the fibers is described by nonlinear Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and their polymerization is modeled by the reparametrization of the dynamic equations in the appropriate non-Lagrangian frame. We use a pseudo-spectral representation of fiber positions and implicit time-stepping to resolve large fiber deformations, and to allow time-steps not excessively constrained by temporal stiffness or fiber–fiber interactions. The entire computational scheme is parallelized, which enables simulating assemblies of thousands of fibers. We use our method to investigate two important questions in the mechanics of cell division: (i) the effect of confinement on the hydrodynamic mobility of microtubule asters; and (ii) the dynamics of the positioning of mitotic spindle in complex cell geometries. Finally to demonstrate the general applicability of the method, we simulate the sedimentation of a

  16. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-10-04

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  17. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  18. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Tarter, J. C.; DeVore, E. K.; O'Sullivan, K. A.; Taylor, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a recurring theme in every realm of science: over time, the universe, the planet Earth, life, and human technologies all change, albeit on vastly different scales. Evolution offers scientific explanations for the age-old question, "Where did we come from?" In addition, historical perspectives of science show how our understanding has evolved over time. The complexities of all of these systems will never reveal a "finished" story. But it is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place, and eminently worthy of investigating. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time. Voyages Through Time (VTT), provides teachers with not only background science content and pedagogy, but also with materials and resources for the teaching of evolution. The six modules, Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and Evolution of Technology, emphasize student inquiry, and promote the nature of science, as recommended in the NSES and BSL. The modules are unified by the overarching theme of evolution and the meta questions: "What is changing?" "What is the rate of change?" and "What is the mechanism of change?" Determination of student outcomes for the project required effective collaboration of scientists, teachers, students and media specialists. The broadest curricula students outcomes are 1) an enjoyment of science, 2) an understanding of the nature of science, especially the understanding of evidence and re-evaluation, and 3) key science content. The curriculum is being developed by the SETI Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences, and San Francisco State University, and is funded by the NSF (IMD 9730693), with support form Hewlett-Packard Company, The Foundation for Microbiology, Combined Federated Charities, NASA Astrobiology Institute, and NASA Fundamental

  19. Modelling and Identification of Robots with Joint and Drive Flexibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, Toon; Aarts, Ronald; Jonker, Ben; Ulrich, H.; Günther, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling and identification of flexible-joint robot models that can be used for dynamic simulation and model based control of industrial robots. A nonlinear finite element based method is used to derive the dynamic equations of motion in a form suitable for both simulation and

  20. Modelling and identification of robots with joint and drive flexibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, T.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Jonker, Jan B.; Ulrich, H.; Günther, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling and identification of flexible-joint robot models that can be used for dynamic simulation and model based control of industrial robots. A nonlinear finite element based method is used to derive the dynamic equations of motion in a form suitable for both simulation and

  1. Evolving evolutionary algorithms using linear genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Mihai

    2005-01-01

    A new model for evolving Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The model is based on the Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) technique. Every LGP chromosome encodes an EA which is used for solving a particular problem. Several Evolutionary Algorithms for function optimization, the Traveling Salesman Problem and the Quadratic Assignment Problem are evolved by using the considered model. Numerical experiments show that the evolved Evolutionary Algorithms perform similarly and sometimes even better than standard approaches for several well-known benchmarking problems.

  2. Painful Flexible Flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid; Feldman, David S

    2015-12-01

    Flatfoot is commonly encountered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians. A paucity of literature exists on how to define a flatfoot. The absence of the medial arch with a valgus hindfoot is the hallmark of this pathology. Flatfoot can be flexible or rigid. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the flexible flatfoot. Most flatfeet are flexible and clinically asymptomatic, and warrant little intervention. If feet are symptomatic, treatment is needed. Most patients who require treatment improve with foot orthotics and exercises. Only feet resistant to conservative modalities are deemed surgical candidates. The presence of a tight heel cord is often found in patients who fail conservative management.

  3. Flexible Support Stanchion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-05-11

    Figure 1 shows the assembly drawing of the Central Calorimeter Cryostat Flexible Support Stanchion. Figures 2 and 3 show the Flexible Support STanchion in detail. These Stanchions support the cryostat safely, reduce the heat load to the cryostat from the ambient by a factor of more than ten, provide a spring like action that reduce the loads created by thermal contraction of the cryostat and position the cryostate accurately. Table 1 shows all of the details of the Flexible Support system for the C.C. Cryostat.

  4. Flexible couplings: diffusing neuromodulators and adaptive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippides, Andy; Husbands, Phil; Smith, Tom; O'Shea, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen the discovery of freely diffusing gaseous neurotransmitters, such as nitric oxide (NO), in biological nervous systems. A type of artificial neural network (ANN) inspired by such gaseous signaling, the GasNet, has previously been shown to be more evolvable than traditional ANNs when used as an artificial nervous system in an evolutionary robotics setting, where evolvability means consistent speed to very good solutions--here, appropriate sensorimotor behavior-generating systems. We present two new versions of the GasNet, which take further inspiration from the properties of neuronal gaseous signaling. The plexus model is inspired by the extraordinary NO-producing cortical plexus structure of neural fibers and the properties of the diffusing NO signal it generates. The receptor model is inspired by the mediating action of eurotransmitter receptors. Both models are shown to significantly further improve evolvability. We describe a series of analyses suggesting that the reasons for the increase in evolvability are related to the flexible loose coupling of distinct signaling mechanisms, one "chemical" and one "electrical."

  5. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  6. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  7. Flexibility in insulin prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication explores the concept of flexibility, a propos insulin preparations and insulin regimes used in the management of type 2 diabetes. The flexibility of an insulin regime or preparation is defined as their ability to be injected at variable times, with variable injection-meal time gaps, in a dose frequency and quantum determined by shared decision making, with a minimal requirement of glucose monitoring and health professional consultation, with no compromise on safety, efficiency and tolerability. The relative flexibility of various basal, prandial and dual action insulins, as well as intensive regimes, is compared. The biopsychosocial model of health is used to assess the utility of different insulins while encouraging a philosophy of flexible insulin usage.

  8. Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Cui, Yonghao; Lan, Shoufeng; Rodrigues, Sean P; Brongersma, Mark L; Cai, Wenshan

    2014-08-11

    Metamaterials have not only enabled unprecedented flexibility in producing unconventional optical properties that are not found in nature, they have also provided exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with high-order properties correlated to linear behaviour. Two particularly compelling directions are active metamaterials, whose optical properties can be purposely tailored by external stimuli in a reversible manner, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light waves. Here, by exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically controlled nonlinear optical processes from a metamaterial. Both second harmonic generation and optical rectification, enhanced by the resonance behaviour in the metamaterial absorber, are modulated externally with applied voltage signals. Our results reveal an opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electro-optic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities.

  9. Nonlinear terahertz devices utilizing semiconducting plasmonic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Seren, Huseyin R; Keiser, George R; Maddox, Scott J; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Bank, Seth R; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The development of responsive metamaterials has enabled the realization of compact tunable photonic devices capable of manipulating the amplitude, polarization, wave vector, and frequency of light. Integration of semiconductors into the active regions of metallic resonators is a proven approach for creating nonlinear metamaterials through optoelectronic control of the semiconductor carrier density. Metal-free subwavelength resonant semiconductor structures offer an alternative approach to create dynamic metamaterials. We present InAs plasmonic disk arrays as a viable resonant metamaterial at terahertz frequencies. Importantly, InAs plasmonic disks exhibit a strong nonlinear response arising from electric field induced intervalley scattering resulting in a reduced carrier mobility thereby damping the plasmonic response. We demonstrate nonlinear perfect absorbers configured as either optical limiters or saturable absorbers, including flexible nonlinear absorbers achieved by transferring the disks to polyimide f...

  10. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  11. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 A Unified Nonlinear Feedback Functional Method for Study Both Control and Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Chaos Fang Jinqing Ali M. K. (Department of Physics, The University of Lethbridge,Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4,Canada) Two fundamental questions dominate future chaos control theories.The first is the problem of controlling hyperchaos in higher dimensional systems.The second question has yet to be addressed:the problem of controlling spatiotemporal chaos in a spatiotemporal system.In recent years, control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos and hyperchaos have became a much more important and challenging subject. The reason for this is the control and synchronism of such behaviours have extensive and great potential of interdisciplinary applications, such as security communication, information processing, medicine and so on. However, this subject is not much known and remains an outstanding open.

  13. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, D. F. [Paul C. Kizzo and Associates Inc., Seismic Structural Group, Oakland, CA 94612 (United States); Razavi, H. [AREVA Inc., Civil Seismic Group, San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  14. COUPLING EFFECT OF FLEXIBLE JOINT AND FLEXIBLE LINK ON DYNAMIC SINGULARITY OF FLEXIBLE MANIPULATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhihui; YUN Chao; BIAN Yushu

    2008-01-01

    The coupling effect of the flexible joint and the flexible link on the dynamic singularity of the flexible manipulator is addressed. Firstly, the dynamic equations of a flexible manipulator with a flexible joint and a flexible link are derived. Secondly, the relationship and property between the flexible joint and the flexible link are analyzed. It shows that the flexible joint's amplitude will increase abruptly, thereby the dynamic singularity occurs if the frequency of a flexible joint is near or equal to some natural frequency of a flexible link. Finally, some numerical simulations which will verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis, are carried out. The results are fundamental for the design of a flexible manipulator and for the avoidance of the dynamic singularity.

  15. Implementation of a Fuzzy TSK Controller for a Flexible Joint Robot

    OpenAIRE

    AKBARI, M.E; Badamchizadeh, M. A.; Poor, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy TSK controller to control a rotary flexible joint manipulator. The flexibility of joint is performed by means of a solenoid nonlinear spring, which is connected between actuator output and joint input in a bilateral connection form to transfer the produced torque; also the smooth model of frictions is used for modeling the dynamics of flexible manipulator. The effect of coulomb friction and also gearbox backlashes is decreased by a pulsation signal as an extra volt...

  16. Evolving Technologies: A View to Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarkin, Molly; Rodrigo, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Technology leaders must participate in strategy creation as well as operational delivery within higher education institutions. The future of higher education--the view to tomorrow--is irrevocably integrated and intertwined with evolving technologies. This article focuses on two specific evolving technologies: (1) alternative IT sourcing; and (2)…

  17. Evolving Technologies: A View to Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarkin, Molly; Rodrigo, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Technology leaders must participate in strategy creation as well as operational delivery within higher education institutions. The future of higher education--the view to tomorrow--is irrevocably integrated and intertwined with evolving technologies. This article focuses on two specific evolving technologies: (1) alternative IT sourcing; and (2)…

  18. The Problem of Evolving a Genetic Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, Carl R.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes models for the evolution of the genetic code and translation mechanisms. Suggests that the translation process is so complex and precise that it must have evolved in many stages, and that the evolution of the code was influenced by the constraints imposed by the evolving translation mechanism. (EB)

  19. The Computational Complexity of Evolving Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaan, P.R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Evolving systems are systems that change over time. Examples of evolving systems are computers with soft-and hardware upgrades and dynamic networks of computers that communicate with each other, but also colonies of cooperating organisms or cells within a single organism. In this research, several m

  20. Position and Velocity Estimation for Two-Inertia System with Nonlinear Stiffness Based on Acceleration Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Tae Nam; Seung-Joon Lee; Tae-Yong Kuc; Hyungjong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the state estimation problem for flexible joint manipulators that involve nonlinear characteristics in their stiffness. The two key ideas of our design are that (a) an accelerometer is used in order that the estimation error dynamics do not depend on nonlinearities at the link part of the manipulators and (b) the model of the nonlinear stiffness is indeed a Lipschitz function. Based on the measured acceleration, we propose a nonlinear observer under the Lipschitz co...

  1. Optimal design of systems that evolve over time using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Michael K.

    2007-04-01

    Design optimization is challenging when the number of variables becomes large. One method of addressing this problem is to use pattern recognition to decrease the solution space in which the optimizer searches. Human "common sense" is used by designers to narrow the scope of search to a confined area defined by patterns conforming to likely solution candidates. However, computer-based optimization generally does not apply similar heuristics. In this paper, a system is presented that recognizes patterns and adjusts its search for optimal solutions based on these patterns. A design problem was selected that requires the optimization algorithm to assess designs that evolve over time. A small sensor network design is evolved into a larger sensor network design. Optimal design solutions for the small network do not necessarily lead to optimal solutions for the larger network. Systems that are well-positioned to evolve have characteristics that distinguish themselves from systems that are not well-positioned to evolve. In this study, a neural network was able to recognize a pattern whereby flexible sensor networks evolved more successfully than less flexible networks. The optimizing algorithm used this pattern to select candidate systems that showed promise for evolution. A genetic algorithm assisted by a neural network achieved better performance than an unassisted genetic algorithm did. This thesis advocates the merit of neural network use in multi-objective system design optimization and to lay a basis for future study.

  2. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  3. Extended and Unscented Kalman Filtering Applied to a Flexible-Joint Robot with Jerk Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Badamchizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust nonlinear control of flexible-joint robots requires that the link position, velocity, acceleration, and jerk be available. In this paper, we derive the dynamic model of a nonlinear flexible-joint robot based on the governing Euler-Lagrange equations and propose extended and unscented Kalman filters to estimate the link acceleration and jerk from position and velocity measurements. Both observers are designed for the same model and run with the same covariance matrices under the same initial conditions. A five-bar linkage robot with revolute flexible joints is considered as a case study. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed filters.

  4. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho N.; Kosel, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.kosel@kaust.edu.sa

    2015-03-15

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors's deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor's large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications. - Highlights: • A flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor is developed. • Studies are carried out using a flexible microstrip transmission line. • An MI ratio of up to 90% is obtained. • The effect of magnetostriction is studied.

  5. Equation-free analysis of a dynamically evolving multigraph

    CERN Document Server

    Holiday, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In order to illustrate the adaptation of traditional continuum numerical techniques to the study of complex network systems, we use the equation-free framework to analyze a dynamically evolving multigraph. This approach is based on coupling short intervals of direct dynamic network simulation with appropriately-defined lifting and restriction operators, mapping the detailed network description to suitable macroscopic (coarse-grained) variables and back. This enables the acceleration of direct simulations through Coarse Projective Integration (CPI), as well as the identification of coarse stationary states via a Newton-GMRES method. We also demonstrate the use of data-mining, both linear (principal component analysis, PCA) and nonlinear (diffusion maps, DMAPS) to determine good macroscopic variables (observables) through which one can coarse-grain the model. These results suggest methods for decreasing simulation times of dynamic real-world systems such as epidemiological network models. Additionally, the data...

  6. Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.

  7. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  8. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HOMIŠIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned situation, we suggest for mechanical systems application of a newly developed pneumatic couplings that have constant characteristicfeatures during the whole current operation and thus they have a positive influence on the system running.

  9. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus on structural flexibility due to scarcity of previous research in that area. The purpose of the research is to answer a question: how can companies design structural supply chain flexibility? In a...

  10. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  11. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  12. Flexible pipe crawling device having articulated two axis coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, William T.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for moving through the linear and non-linear segments of piping systems. The apparatus comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a mechanism for extension and retraction of the front and rear leg assembles with respect to each other, such as an air cylinder, and a pivoting joint. One end of the flexible joint attaches to the front leg assembly and the other end to the air cylinder, which is also connected to the rear leg assembly. The air cylinder allows the front and rear leg assemblies to progress through a pipe in "inchworm" fashion, while the joint provides the flexibility necessary for the pipe crawler to negotiate non-linear piping segments. The flexible connecting joint is coupled with a spring-force suspension system that urges alignment of the front and rear leg assemblies with respect to each other. The joint and suspension system cooperate to provide a firm yet flexible connection between the front and rear leg assemblies to allow the pivoting of one with respect to the other while moving around a non-linear pipe segment, but restoring proper alignment coming out of the pipe bend.

  13. WSC-07: Evolving the Web Services Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, M. Brian; Cheung, William K.W.; Jaeger, Michael C.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an evolving architectural paradigm where businesses can expose their capabilities as modular, network-accessible software services. By decomposing capabilities into modular services, organizations can share their offerings at multiple levels of granularity whil

  14. Robot navigation system using intrinsic evolvable hardware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been great interest in the idea that evolvable system based on the principle of ar tifcial intelligence can be used to continuously and autonomously adapt the behaviour of physically embedded systems such as autonomous mobile robots and intelligent home devices. Meanwhile, we have seen the introduc tion of evolvable hardware(EHW): new integrated electronic circuits that are able to continuously evolve to a dapt the chages in the environment implemented by evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithm(GA)and reinforcement learning. This paper concentrates on developing a robotic navigation system whose basic behav iours are obstacle avoidance and light source navigation. The results demonstrate that the intrinsic evolvable hardware system is able to create the stable robotiiuc behaviours as required in the real world instead of the tra ditional hardware systems.

  15. Evolvability Characterization in the Context of SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas H., Jose L.; Dueñas L., Juan C.

    Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style which promotes reuse of self-contained services. These self-contained services allow a better consideration of software quality characteristics as they can be independently analyzed. In our work, the evolvability quality characteristic has been considered, due to its impact in the stages of Maintenance and Evolution (M&E) for the software enterprises. Three goals are underlined in this paper: first, the relationship between SOA and quality characteristics focusing on a precise definition of evolvability of a software product from the SOA perspective, second a M&E model for SOA, and finally, some experiences are presented in order to assess evolvability in real software products. Two case studies have been executed: the first one analyzing the evolvability of the OSGi framework. And in the second case, the model is used in local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), where an improvement process has been executed.

  16. Dynamical Stress Reliability and Sensitivity Analysis of Nonlinear Rotor System with Rigid-flexible Structure%刚柔混合非线性转子系统的动态应力可靠性及可靠性灵敏度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 朱丽莎; 唐乐; 卢昊

    2011-01-01

    以工程实际中具有复杂结构的非线性转子系统为研究对象,以有限元分析软件和多体动力学仿真软件为平台,建立参数化刚柔混合非线性转子动力学模型,对转子系统进行动力学仿真,并结合神经网络技术,随机摄动技术,可靠性设计和可靠性灵敏度设计相关理论,建立动态应力可靠性模型,提出对具有复杂结构的非线性转子系统的可靠性灵敏度设计的新方法,研究设计参数的改变对转子系统可靠性的影响,得到可靠性对基本随机变量均值和方差的灵敏度,在基本随机变量是混合变量的情况下对其灵敏度进行量纲一化,将各个基本随机变量对可靠性的影响程度进行排序,为产品在设计阶段提供理论参考,有着积极的现实意义和理论价值.%A nonlinear rotor system with complex structure in engineering is studied and the finite element analysis software and the multi-body dynamics simulation software are used to establish and analyze the parametric dynamic model of the rigid-flexible rotor system. The dynamic simulation of the rotor system is carried out and the dynamic stress model for reliability analysis is established on the basis of artificial neural network (ANN) technique, stochastic perturbation method, reliability design and reliability-based sensitivity design theory. Thus, an efficient method is proposed to compute the reliability-based sensitivity of the non-linear rotor system with complex structure. The influence degree of the designed parameters on the reliability of rotor system is discussed, and the sensitivity of reliability to the mean value and variance of original random parameters is obtained. On condition that the units of original random parameters are different, the sensitivity is transformed into dimensionless value and each basic random variable is then sequenced by the influence degree of reliability. The proposed method provides theoretical reference for the

  17. Nonlinear feedback control of spatiotemporal chaos in coupled map lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a nonlinear feedback functional method for study both of control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos. The method is illustrated by the coupled map lattices with five different connection forms. A key issue addressed is to find nonlinear feedback functions. Two large types of nonlinear feedback functions are introduced. The efficient and robustness of the method based on the flexibility of choices of nonlinear feedback functions are discussed. Various numerical results of nonlinear control are given. We have not found any difficulty for study both of control and synchronization using nonlinear feedback functional method. The method can also be extended to time continuous dynamical systems as well as to society problems.

  18. Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards Harry L. Levinson Software Engineering Institute Carnegie...Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER OF PAGES 22 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form

  19. Flexible home care automation adapting to the personal and evolving needs and situations of the patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarifi Eslami, Mohammad; Sinderen, van Marten

    2009-01-01

    Health monitoring and healthcare provisioning at home (i.e., outside the hospital) have received increasingly attention as a possible and partial solution for addressing the problems of an aging population. There are still many technological issues that need to be solved before home healthcare syste

  20. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  1. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  2. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...

  3. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  4. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  5. Flexible metal bellows

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    A set of flexible metal bellows being fatigue-tested by repeated offset motion. Such bellows assemblies were used in the SPS vacuum system at places where , for instance, beam stoppers and collimators had to be moved frequently in and out of the beam path.

  6. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  7. Viscous pumping inspired by flexible propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Arco, Roger M; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-suspended microorganisms have evolved different swimming and feeding strategies in order to cope with an environment dominated by viscous effects. For instance ciliated organisms rely on the collective motion of flexible appendices to move and feed. By performing a non-reciprocal motion, flexible filaments can produce a net propulsive force, or pump fluid, in the absence of inertia. Inspired by such fundamental concept, we propose a strategy to produce macroscopic pumping and mixing in creeping flow. We measure experimentally the net motion of a Newtonian viscous fluid induced by the reciprocal motion of a flapper. When the flapper is rigid no net motion is induced. In contrast, when the flapper is made of a flexible material, a net fluid pumping is measured. We quantify the effectiveness of this pumping strategy and show that optimal pumping is achieved when the length of the flapper is on the same order as the elasto-hydrodynamic penetration length. We finally discuss the possible applications of flex...

  8. Adding flexibility to physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E

    2011-05-02

    Demographic changes among junior doctors are driving demand for increased flexibility in advanced physician training, but flexible training posts are lacking. Suitable flexible training models include flexible full-time, job-share and part-time positions. Major barriers to establishing flexible training positions include difficulty in finding job-share partners, lack of funding for creating supernumerary positions, and concern over equivalence of educational quality compared with full-time training. Pilot flexible training positions should be introduced across the medical specialties and educational outcomes examined prospectively.

  9. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... the energy units. However, aggregated flexibility should support normal grid operation. In this paper, we build on the flex-offer (FO) concept to model the inherent flexibility of a prosumer (e.g., a single flexible consumption device such as a clothes washer). An FO captures flexibility in both time...

  10. NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SHIGE

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.

  11. Photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Feng, Tianrun; Wang, Sainan; Han, Rong; Hu, Zhijian; Zhang, Tianhao; Tian, Jianguo; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-05-01

    We report an alternate type of nonlinear waveguides, photorefractive surface nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays, which can be directly induced by photorefractive surface waves in virtue of diffusion and drift nonlinearities. The amplitude of such nonlinearly chirped waveguide arrays has an apodized envelope owing to the diffusion nonlinearity. The refractive-index change of the apodized tails converges to a nonzero value which can be handily adjusted by an external electric field. Moreover, the chirp parameters such as amplitude, sign (positive or negative), and initial position can be conveniently adjusted by an external electric field, background illumination, incident beam, etc. Then the guided-wave properties of this type of waveguide arrays are analyzed by using the transfer matrix method. Owing to the flexible tail and the nonlinear chirp, the dispersion curves of the index-guided modes can be tailored by an external electric field and the dispersion curves of ordinary and extraordinary Bragg guided modes couple, intertwine, and anticross with each other. Meanwhile, there is a clear "competition" in the coupling hybrid mode near anticrossing.

  12. On the Influence of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions and model test results of the wave induced bending moments in a 9,400 TEU post-Panamax container vessel are presented for two regular wave scenarios. Different numerical procedures have been applied: a linear and non-linear time-domain strip theory and a direct calculation (...... (CFD) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. In all procedures the flexibility of the hull girder is modelled as a non-uniform Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the non-linear models agree well with the model tests...

  13. Nonlinear Analysis of Airship Envelop Aerolasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. M.; Lu, C. J.; Xue, L. P.

    The large airship in flow field is a flexible body with low rigidity. The distribution of the peripheral flow field around the airship is closely related to its shape. It is essentially one of the Fluid-structure Interaction problems. Based on this, this paper aims at the numerical simulation of nonlinear airship envelop aeroelasticity by means of coupling aerodynamics and structure using an iteration method. The three-dimensional flow around the airship was studied numerically by means of SIMPLE method based on the Finite Volume Method. Two approaches, the linear method whose equilibrium equations are based on the membrance theory of thin shell and the nonlinear method which uses a nonlinear finite element method to account for the large deformation of the airship envelop, are introduced for geometrically deformation of the airship shape. A thin plate spline method is adopted as the interface of exchanging information between the fluid and structure models.

  14. Some Comments on the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Portal Frame under Base Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Souza de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic analysis of a flexible portal frame subjected to support excitation, which is provided by an electro-dynamical shaker. The main goal of this study is to investigate the dynamic interactions between a flexible portal frame and a nonlinear electrical support excitation. The numerical analysis shows a complex behavior of the system, which can be observed by phase spaces, Poincaré sections and bifurcation diagrams.

  15. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  16. Flexible Metasurface Holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James; Chen, Xianzhong; Di Falco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Metasurface holograms are typically fabricated on rigid substrates. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband, flexible, conformable, helicity multiplexed metasurface holograms operating in the visible range, offering increased potential for real life out-of-the-lab applications. Two symmetrically distributed holographic images are obtained when circularly polarized light impinges on the reflective-type metasurface positioned on non- planar targets. The two off-axis images with high fidelity are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of incident light. Our metasurface features the arrangement of spatially varying gold nanorods on a flexible, conformable epoxy resist membrane to realize a Pancharatnam- Berry phase profile. These results pave the way to practical applications including polarization manipulation, beam steering, novel lenses, and holographic displays.

  17. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  18. Flexible training under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Anita; Eaton, Jennifer

    2002-10-01

    As the number of women in medicine and the general demand for a better work-life balance rises, flexible training is an increasingly important mechanism for maintaining the medical workforce. The new pay deal, together with entrenched cultural attitudes, are potential threats. Ways forward include more substantive part-time posts, more part-time opportunities at consultant level, and using positive experiences as a way of tackling attitudes in the less accepting specialties.

  19. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  20. More flexibility for DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the future, budgeting at DESY will be more efficient. The 16 associated research centers are to be granted a wider margin in matters of finance and human resources. The Budget Committee of the German Bundestag has agreed to abstain from mandatory staff appointments. The current pre-determined "job pyramid" will be replaced by a more flexible mechanism, so that the conclusion of fixed labor contracts can more closely follow the needs of research (1 page).

  1. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  2. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  3. Flexible Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    reconfiguring the waveform characteristics (on-the-fly) based on the engagement environment. Therefore, flexibility was the highest priority in the design of...the aircraft to a ground antenna . Utilizing the threshold system requirements (100 km range), we calculate the multipath of the aircraft as it...approaches the ground antenna . Figure 3: Multipath scenario #1 The calculation of the reflected path (denoted as A + C in Figure 3) is found through the

  4. Flexible Proteins at the Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A; Shannon, Gareth

    2017-06-05

    Almost all modern proteins possess well-defined, relatively rigid scaffolds that provide structural preorganization for desired functions. Such scaffolds require the sufficient length of a polypeptide chain and extensive evolutionary optimization. How ancestral proteins attained functionality, even though they were most likely markedly smaller than their contemporary descendants, remains a major, unresolved question in the origin of life. On the basis of evidence from experiments and computer simulations, we argue that at least some of the earliest water-soluble and membrane proteins were markedly more flexible than their modern counterparts. As an example, we consider a small, evolved in vitro ligase, based on a novel architecture that may be the archetype of primordial enzymes. The protein does not contain a hydrophobic core or conventional elements of the secondary structure characteristic of modern water-soluble proteins, but instead is built of a flexible, catalytic loop supported by a small hydrophilic core containing zinc atoms. It appears that disorder in the polypeptide chain imparts robustness to mutations in the protein core. Simple ion channels, likely the earliest membrane protein assemblies, could also be quite flexible, but still retain their functionality, again in contrast to their modern descendants. This is demonstrated in the example of antiamoebin, which can serve as a useful model of small peptides forming ancestral ion channels. Common features of the earliest, functional protein architectures discussed here include not only their flexibility, but also a low level of evolutionary optimization and heterogeneity in amino acid composition and, possibly, the type of peptide bonds in the protein backbone.

  5. Reliability of genetic networks is evolvable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunewell, Stefan; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    Control of the living cell functions with remarkable reliability despite the stochastic nature of the underlying molecular networks—a property presumably optimized by biological evolution. We ask here to what extent the ability of a stochastic dynamical network to produce reliable dynamics is an evolvable trait. Using an evolutionary algorithm based on a deterministic selection criterion for the reliability of dynamical attractors, we evolve networks of noisy discrete threshold nodes. We find that, starting from any random network, reliability of the attractor landscape can often be achieved with only a few small changes to the network structure. Further, the evolvability of networks toward reliable dynamics while retaining their function is investigated and a high success rate is found.

  6. Quantifying evolvability in small biological networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mugler, Andrew [COLUMBIA UNIV; Ziv, Etay [COLUMBIA UNIV; Wiggins, Chris H [COLUMBIA UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.

  7. Mammals evolve faster on smaller islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie

    2011-07-01

    Island mammals often display remarkable evolutionary changes in size and morphology. Both theory and empirical data support the hypothesis that island mammals evolve at faster rates than their mainland congeners. It is also often assumed that the island effect is stronger and that evolution is faster on the smallest islands. I used a dataset assembled from the literature to test these assumptions for the first time. I show that mammals on smaller islands do indeed evolve more rapidly than mammals on larger islands, and also evolve by a greater amount. These results fit well the theory of an evolutionary burst due to the opening of new ecological opportunities on islands. This evolutionary burst is expected to be the strongest on the smallest islands where the contrast between the island and the mainland environments is the most dramatic.

  8. Metanetworks of artificially evolved regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Danacı, Burçin

    2014-01-01

    We study metanetworks arising in genotype and phenotype spaces, in the context of a model population of Boolean graphs evolved under selection for short dynamical attractors. We define the adjacency matrix of a graph as its genotype, which gets mutated in the course of evolution, while its phenotype is its set of dynamical attractors. Metanetworks in the genotype and phenotype spaces are formed, respectively, by genetic proximity and by phenotypic similarity, the latter weighted by the sizes of the basins of attraction of the shared attractors. We find that populations of evolved networks form giant clusters in genotype space, have Poissonian degree distributions but exhibit hierarchically organized $k$-core decompositions, while random populations of Boolean graphs are typically so far removed from each other genetically that they cannot form a metanetwork. In phenotype space, the metanetworks of evolved populations are super robust both under the elimination of weak connections and random removal of nodes. ...

  9. Evolution of evolvability in gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Crombach

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are perhaps the most important organizational level in the cell where signals from the cell state and the outside environment are integrated in terms of activation and inhibition of genes. For the last decade, the study of such networks has been fueled by large-scale experiments and renewed attention from the theoretical field. Different models have been proposed to, for instance, investigate expression dynamics, explain the network topology we observe in bacteria and yeast, and for the analysis of evolvability and robustness of such networks. Yet how these gene regulatory networks evolve and become evolvable remains an open question. An individual-oriented evolutionary model is used to shed light on this matter. Each individual has a genome from which its gene regulatory network is derived. Mutations, such as gene duplications and deletions, alter the genome, while the resulting network determines the gene expression pattern and hence fitness. With this protocol we let a population of individuals evolve under Darwinian selection in an environment that changes through time. Our work demonstrates that long-term evolution of complex gene regulatory networks in a changing environment can lead to a striking increase in the efficiency of generating beneficial mutations. We show that the population evolves towards genotype-phenotype mappings that allow for an orchestrated network-wide change in the gene expression pattern, requiring only a few specific gene indels. The genes involved are hubs of the networks, or directly influencing the hubs. Moreover, throughout the evolutionary trajectory the networks maintain their mutational robustness. In other words, evolution in an alternating environment leads to a network that is sensitive to a small class of beneficial mutations, while the majority of mutations remain neutral: an example of evolution of evolvability.

  10. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  11. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  12. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  13. The sound of an evolving floating sculpture

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Commissioned by MIT's in-house artist Jane Philbrick, we evolve an abstract 2D surface (resembling Marta Pan's 1961 "Sculpture Flottante I") under mean curvature, all the while calculating the eigenmodes and eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the resulting shapes. These are then synthesized into a sound-wave embodying the "swan song" of the surfaces as the evolve to points and vanish. The surface is approximated by a triangulation, and we present a robust approach to approximate the normal directions and the mean curvature. The resulting video and sound-track were parts in the Jane Philbrick's exhibition "Everything Trembles" in Lund, Sweden, 2009.

  14. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved......, CPPNs can theoretically compute any function and can build on those present in traditional synthesizers (e.g. square, sawtooth, triangle, and sine waves functions) to produce completely novel timbres. Evolved with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), the aim of this paper is to explore...

  15. How the first biopolymers could have evolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkevich, V I; Gutin, A M; Shakhnovich, E I

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we discuss a possible origin of the first biopolymers with stable unique structures. We suggest that at the prebiotic stage of evolution, long organic polymers had to be compact to avoid hydrolysis and had to be soluble and thus must not be exceedingly hydrophobic. We present an algorithm that generates such sequences for model proteins. The evolved sequences turn out to have a stable unique structure, into which they quickly fold. This result illustrates the idea that the unique three-dimensional native structures of first biopolymers could have evolved as a side effect of nonspecific physicochemical factors acting at the prebiotic stage of evolution. PMID:8570645

  16. Evolving Intelligent Systems Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik

    2010-01-01

    From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th

  17. Self-Adaptation in Evolving Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, C R; Mora, J; Waelbroeck, H

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis is made of the effects of self-adaptation in a simple evolving system. Specifically, we consider the effects of coding the mutation and crossover probabilities of a genetic algorithm evolving in certain model fitness landscapes. The resultant genotype-phenotype mapping is degenerate, there being no direct selective advantage for one probability versus another. We show that the action of mutation and crossover breaks this degeneracy leading to an induced symmetry breaking among the genotypic synonyms. We demonstrate that this induced symmetry breaking allows the system to self-adapt in a time dependent environment.

  18. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  19. Soft dentin results in unique flexible teeth in scraping catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerinckx, Tom; Huysseune, Ann; Boone, Matthieu; Claeys, Myriam; Couvreur, Marjolein; De Kegel, Barbara; Mast, Peter; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Verbeken, Kim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Teeth are generally used for actions in which they experience mainly compressive forces acting toward the base. The ordered tooth enamel(oid) and dentin structures contribute to the high compressive strength but also to the minor shear and tensile strengths. Some vertebrates, however, use their teeth for scraping, with teeth experiencing forces directed mostly normal to their long axis. Some scraping suckermouth catfishes (Loricariidae) even appear to have flexible teeth, which have not been found in any other vertebrate taxon. Considering the mineralized nature of tooth tissues, the notion of flexible teeth seems paradoxical. We studied teeth of five species, testing and measuring tooth flexibility, and investigating tooth (micro)structure using transmission electron microscopy, staining, computed tomography scanning, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectrometry. We quantified the extreme bending capacity of single teeth (up to 180°) and show that reorganizations of the tooth (micro)structure and extreme hypomineralization of the dentin are adaptations preventing breaking by allowing flexibility. Tooth shape and internal structure appear to be optimized for bending in one direction, which is expected to occur frequently when feeding (scraping) under natural conditions. Not all loricariid catfishes possess flexible teeth, with the trait potentially having evolved more than once. Flexible teeth surely rank among the most extreme evolutionary novelties in known mineralized biological materials and might yield a better understanding of the processes of dentin formation and (hypo)mineralization in vertebrates, including humans.

  20. Evolvability Search: Directly Selecting for Evolvability in order to Study and Produce It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of natural organisms is their significant evolvability, i.e.,their increased potential for further evolution. However, reproducing such evolvability in artificial evolution remains a challenge, which both reduces the performance of evolutionary algorithms and inhibits the study of ev...

  1. Static aeroelastic analysis of very flexible wings based on non-planar vortex lattice method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Changchuan; Wang Libo; Yang Chao; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and efficient method for static aeroelastic analysis of a flexible slender wing when considering the structural geometric nonlinearity has been developed in this paper.A non-planar vortex lattice method herein is used to compute the non-planar aerodynamics of flexible wings with large deformation.The finite element method is introduced for structural nonlinear statics analysis.The surface spline method is used for structure/aerodynamics coupling.The static aeroelastic characteristics of the wind tunnel model of a flexible wing are studied by the nonlinear method presented,and the nonlinear method is also evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained from two other methods and the wind tunnel test.The results indicate that the traditional linear method of static aeroelastic analysis is not applicable for cases with large deformation because it produces results that are not realistic.However,the nonlinear methodology,which involves combining the structure finite element method with the non-planar vortex lattice method,could be used to solve the aeroelastic deformation with considerable accuracy,which is in fair agreement with the test results.Moreover,the nonlinear finite element method could consider complex structures.The non-planar vortex lattice method has advantages in both the computational accuracy and efficiency.Consequently,the nonlinear method presented is suitable for the rapid and efficient analysis requirements of engineering practice.It could be used in the preliminary stage and also in the detailed stage of aircraft design.

  2. Mass Loss and Variability in Evolved Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Marengo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss and variability are two linked, fundamental properties of evolved stars. In this paper I review our current understanding of these processes, with a particular focus on how observations and models are used to constrain reliable mass loss prescriptions for stellar evolution and population synthesis models.

  3. Views on Evolvability of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Punter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Evolvability, the ability to respond effectively to change, represents a major challenge to today's high-end embedded systems, such as those developed in the medical domain by Philips Healthcare. These systems are typically developed by multi-disciplinary teams, located around the world, and are in

  4. Systems of Accumulation and the Evolving MEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ashman (Sam); B. Fine (Ben); S.A. Newman (Susan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe limitations of the Developmental State Paradigm were discussed in the introductory chapter to this volume. This chapter offers an alternative approach to the DSP through use of the notion of systems of (capital) accumulation and its specific application to South Africa’s evolving pol

  5. Toward an Evolved Concept of Landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañas, Francesc; Simó, Joan; Casals, Joan; Prohens, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The term "landrace" has generally been defined as a cultivated, genetically heterogeneous variety that has evolved in a certain ecogeographical area and is therefore adapted to the edaphic and climatic conditions and to its traditional management and uses. Despite being considered by many to be inalterable, landraces have been and are in a constant state of evolution as a result of natural and artificial selection. Many landraces have disappeared from cultivation but are preserved in gene banks. Using modern selection and breeding technology tools to shape these preserved landraces together with the ones that are still cultivated is a further step in their evolution in order to preserve their agricultural significance. Adapting historical landraces to present agricultural conditions using cutting-edge breeding technology represents a challenging opportunity to use them in a modern sustainable agriculture, as an immediate return on the investment is highly unlikely. Consequently, we propose a more inclusive definition of landraces, namely that they consist of cultivated varieties that have evolved and may continue evolving, using conventional or modern breeding techniques, in traditional or new agricultural environments within a defined ecogeographical area and under the influence of the local human culture. This includes adaptation of landraces to new management systems and the unconscious or conscious selection made by farmers or breeders using available technology. In this respect, a mixed selection system might be established in which farmers and other social agents develop evolved landraces from the variability generated by public entities.

  6. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests...

  7. Satcom access in the Evolved Packet Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano Soveri, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is consid

  8. Satcom access in the evolved packet core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is consid

  9. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Market theories evolve, and so do markets

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Responding to Mirowski's target article, this paper discusses some intellectual currents of 1970s-1990s and offers suggestions on measuring market performance, on including automated agents as market participants, on evolving new market formats, and on dealing with highly differentiated goods. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Information Spreading in Stationary Markovian Evolving Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Pasquale, Francesco; Silvestri, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Markovian evolving graphs are dynamic-graph models where the links among a fixed set of nodes change during time according to an arbitrary Markovian rule. They are extremely general and they can well describe important dynamic-network scenarios. We study the speed of information spreading in the "stationary phase" by analyzing the completion time of the "flooding mechanism". We prove a general theorem that establishes an upper bound on flooding time in any stationary Markovian evolving graph in terms of its node-expansion properties. We apply our theorem in two natural and relevant cases of such dynamic graphs. "Geometric Markovian evolving graphs" where the Markovian behaviour is yielded by "n" mobile radio stations, with fixed transmission radius, that perform independent random walks over a square region of the plane. "Edge-Markovian evolving graphs" where the probability of existence of any edge at time "t" depends on the existence (or not) of the same edge at time "t-1". In both cases, the obtained upper...

  12. A Course Evolves-Physical Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an online physical anthropology course at Palomar College (California) that evolved from online tutorials. Discusses the ability to update materials on the Web more quickly than in traditional textbooks; creating Web pages that are readable by most Web browsers; test security issues; and clarifying ownership of online…

  13. Mass Loss and Variability in Evolved Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Marengo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Mass loss and variability are two linked, fundamental properties of evolved stars. In this paper I review our current understanding of these processes, with a particular focus on how observations and models are used to constrain reliable mass loss prescriptions for stellar evolution and population synthesis models.

  14. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  15. Research Notes Openness and Evolvability Legal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    enforceable? Are interface providers (granule vendors) legally required to disclose (including license) semantic characteristics of their interfaces to...not be possible to adequately maintain and evolve the supporting material. Similarly, if the tool is proprietary to a related entity (such as the

  16. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  17. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  18. Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2002-01-01

    We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).

  19. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  20. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  1. Measuring and Comparing Energy Flexibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in energy supply and demand becomes more and more important with increasing Renewable Energy Sources (RES) production and the emergence of the Smart Grid. So-called prosumers, i.e., entities that produce and/or consume energy, can offer their inherent flexibilities through so......-called demand response and thus help stabilize the energy markets. Thus, prosumer flexibility becomes valuable and the ongoing Danish project TotalFlex [1] explores the use of prosumer flexibility in the energy market using the concept of a flex-offer [2], which captures energy flexibilities in time and...... induced by time and amount individually, and by their com- bination. To this end, we introduce several flexibility measures that take into account the combined effect of time and energy on flex-offer flexibility and discuss their respective pros and cons through a number of realistic examples....

  2. Evolving Regional Security in the Andean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    security forces or judicial systems reduces the effectiveness of regional cooperation. Past efforts to achieve consensus among the Andean states have...Trimestre 2001. Nuñez, Joseph. Una Arquitectura para la Seguridad del Siglo XXI par alas Américas: Cooperación Multilateral, Paz y Poder Flexible

  3. Evolutionary Mechanics: new engineering principles for the emergence of flexibility in a dynamic and uncertain world

    CERN Document Server

    Whitacre, James M; Bender, Axel; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Engineered systems are designed to deftly operate under predetermined conditions yet are notoriously fragile when unexpected perturbations arise. In contrast, biological systems operate in a highly flexible manner; learn quickly adequate responses to novel conditions, and evolve new routines/traits to remain competitive under persistent environmental change. A recent theory on the origins of biological flexibility has proposed that degeneracy - the existence of multi-functional components with partially overlapping functions - is a primary determinant of the robustness and adaptability found in evolved systems. While degeneracy's contribution to biological flexibility is well documented, there has been little investigation of degeneracy design principles for achieving flexibility in systems engineering. Actually, the conditions that can lead to degeneracy are routinely eliminated in engineering design. With the planning of transportation vehicle fleets taken as a case study, this paper reports evidence that d...

  4. Resonant Meta-atoms with Nonlinearities on Demand

    CERN Document Server

    Filonov, Dmitry; Kozlov, Vitali; Malomed, Boris A; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear light-matter interactions and their applications are constrained by properties of available materials. The use of metamaterials opens the way to achieve precise control over electromagnetic properties at a microscopic level, providing new tools for experimental studies of complex nonlinear phenomena in photonics. Here a doubly resonant nonlinear meta-atom is proposed, analyzed and characterized in the GHz spectral range. The underlying structure is composed of a pair of split rings, resonant at both fundamental and nonlinear frequencies. The rings share a varactor diode, which serves as a microscopic source of nonlinearity. Flexible control over the coupling and near- and far-field patterns are reported, favoring the doubly resonant structure over other realizations. Relative efficiencies of the second and third harmonics, generated by the diode, are tailored by dint of the double-ring geometry, providing a guideline for selecting one frequency against another, using the design of the auxiliary stru...

  5. A new, challenging benchmark for nonlinear system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiso, Paolo; Noël, Jean-Philippe

    2017-02-01

    The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identification in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by challenging the community through a new benchmark structure exhibiting complex nonlinear dynamics. The proposed structure consists of two offset cantilevered beams connected by a highly flexible element. For increasing forcing amplitudes, the system sequentially features linear behaviour, localised nonlinearity associated with the buckling of the connecting element, and distributed nonlinearity resulting from large elastic deformations across the structure. A finite element-based code with time integration capabilities is made available at https://sem.org/nonlinear-systems-imac-focus-group/. This code permits the numerical simulation of the benchmark dynamics in response to arbitrary excitation signals.

  6. Time-reversed wave mixing in nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Ren, Huaijin; Wan, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng

    2013-11-19

    Time-reversal symmetry is important to optics. Optical processes can run in a forward or backward direction through time when such symmetry is preserved. In linear optics, a time-reversed process of laser emission can enable total absorption of coherent light fields inside an optical cavity of loss by time-reversing the original gain medium. Nonlinearity, however, can often destroy such symmetry in nonlinear optics, making it difficult to study time-reversal symmetry with nonlinear optical wave mixings. Here we demonstrate time-reversed wave mixings for optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and optical parametric amplification (OPA) by exploring this well-known but underappreciated symmetry in nonlinear optics. This allows us to observe the annihilation of coherent beams. Our study offers new avenues for flexible control in nonlinear optics and has potential applications in efficient wavelength conversion, all-optical computing.

  7. An Evolvable Approach to Launch Vehicles for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, David L.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents ideas that may be used individually or in combination to mitigate high costs for separate developments of new crew and heavy-lift cargo launch vehicles, while providing the foundation for a highly reliable and evolvable approach to exploration. Consideration is given to reclassification of cargo for launch purposes into high value versus low value categories, rather than the presently-defined crew versus cargo categories. Objectives for the reclassification are to reduce the gap between payload mass requirements for crew and cargo payloads to better allow closure on a single moderately-sized common core vehicle to reduce development cost, achieve an economical balance between launch frequency and payload mass, and to improve total mission reliability and safety, as compared a light-weight crew vehicle and heavy cargo lift approach. Concepts to reduce design and flight qualification costs for a common core vehicle with derivatives are presented. Appropriate types and mass of cargo for each class of vehicle are identified. Utilization of existing infrastructure and flight hardware is considered to reduce costs and build on proven capabilities. The approach enables low-risk incorporation of international and commercial launch of relatively low-cost, easily replaceable assets as a means to evolve toward longer-duration and more distant missions. Benefits are identified for ground idrastructure, personnel, training, logistics, spares, and system evolution. Technology needs are compared with needs for other aspects of exploration. Technology development phasing, demonstration, and reliability growth opportunities are considered. Flexibility to adapt to future technologies such as advanced in-space propulsion is contrasted with an approach of sizing the cargo launch vehicle based on today's in-space propellants.

  8. PBH tests for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concepts of nonlinear eigenvalues and eigenvectors are introduced. In this paper, we establish connections between the nonlinear eigenvalues and nonlinear accessibility/observability. In particular, we provide a generalization of Popov- Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test to nonlinear accessibilit

  9. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  10. Flexible composite radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  11. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  12. Flexible plasma linear antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiansen; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Chang, Yongmeng; Chen, Xinqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce a type of plasma antenna that was fabricated using flexible materials and excited using a 5-20 kHz alternating current (ac) power supply. The results showed that the antenna characteristics, including the impedance, the reflection coefficient (S11), the radiation pattern, and the gain, can be controlled rapidly and easily by varying both the discharge parameters and the antenna shapes. The scope for reconfiguration is greatly enhanced when the antenna shape is changed from a monopole to a helix configuration. Additionally, the antenna polarization can also be adjusted by varying the antenna shapes.

  13. ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY OF SINGULAR NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH UNBOUNDED DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the asymptotic stability of singular nonlinear differential systems with unbounded delays is considered.The stability criteria are derived based on a kind of Lyapunov-functional and some technique of matrix inequalities.The criteria are described as matrix equation and matrix inequalities,which are computationally flexible and efficient.Two examples are given to illustrate the results.

  14. Nonlinear reaction coordinate analysis in the reweighted path ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, W.; Rogal, J.; Juraszek, J.; Ensing, B.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible nonlinear reaction coordinate analysis method for the transition path ensemble based on the likelihood maximization approach developed by Peters and Trout [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 054108 (2006)] . By parametrizing the reaction coordinate by a string of images in a collective variab

  15. Flexible Mechanical Conveyors for Regolith Extraction and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.; Vollmer, Hubert J.

    2013-01-01

    A report describes flexible mechanical conveying systems for transporting fine cohesive regolith under microgravity and vacuum conditions. They are totally enclosed, virtually dust-free, and can include enough flexibility in the conveying path to enable an expanded range of extraction and transport scenarios, including nonlinear drill-holes and excavation of enlarged subsurface openings without large entry holes. The design of the conveyors is a modification of conventional screw conveyors such that the central screw-shaft and the outer housing or conveyingtube have a degree of bending flexibility, allowing the conveyors to become nonlinear conveying systems that can convey around gentle bends. The central flexible shaft is similar to those used in common tools like a weed whacker, consisting of multiple layers of tightly wound wires around a central wire core. Utilization of compliant components (screw blade or outer wall) increases the robustness of the conveying, allowing an occasional oversized particle to pass hough the conveyor without causing a jam or stoppage

  16. Large deflection of flexible tapered functionally graded beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Davoodinik; G.H.Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the semi-analytical analyses of the flexible cantilever tapered functionally graded beam under combined inclined end loading and intermediate loading are studied.In order to derive the fully non-linear equations governing the non-linear deformation,a curvilinear coordinate system is introduced.A general non-linear second order differential equation that governs the shape of a deflected beam is derived based on the geometric nonlinearities,infinitesimal local displacements and local rotation concepts with remarkable physical properties of functionally graded materials.The solutions obtained from semi-analytical methods are numerically compared with the existing elliptic integral solution for the case of a flexible uniform cantilever functionally graded beam.The effects of taper ratio,inclined end load angle and material property gradient on large deflection of the beam are evaluated.The Adomian decomposition method will be useful toward the design of tapered functionally graded compliant mechanisms driven by smart actuators.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  18. Improved Evolvability in Genetic Programming with Polyandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Waganda Ragalo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes Polyandry, a new nature-inspired modification to canonical Genetic Programming (GP. Polyandry aims to improve evolvability in GP. Evolvability is a critically important GP trait, the maintenance of which determines the arrival of the GP at the global optimum solution. Specifically evolvability is defined as the ability of the genetic operators employed in GP to produce offspring that are fitter than their parents. When GP fails to exhibit evolvability, further adaptation of the GP individuals towards the global optimum solution becomes impossible. Polyandry improves evolvability by improving the typically disruptive standard GP crossover operator. The algorithm employs a dual strategy towards this goal. The chief part of this strategy is an incorporation of genetic material from multiple mating partners into broods of offspring. Given such a brood, the offspring in the brood then compete according to a culling function, which we make equivalent to the main GP fitness function. Polyandry’s incorporation of genetic material from multiple GP individuals into broods of offspring represents a more aggressive search for building block information. This characteristic of the algorithm leads to an advanced explorative capability in both GP structural space and fitness space. The second component of the Polyandry strategy is an attempt at multiple crossover points, in order to find crossover points that minimize building block disruption from parents to offspring. This strategy is employed by a similar algorithm, Brood Recombination. We conduct experiments to compare Polyandry with the canonical GP. Our experiments demonstrate that Polyandry consistently exhibits better evolvability than the canonical GP. As a consequence, Polyandry achieves higher success rates and finds solutions faster than the latter. The result of these observations is that given certain brood size settings, Polyandry requires less computational effort to

  19. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractElectrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm based AB3alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM. An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion®membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  20. Decentralized vibration control of a multi-link flexible robotic manipulator using smart piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Dunant; Luo, Xi; Trivailo, Pavel M.

    2014-11-01

    The work in this paper is aimed to investigate the use of a decentralized control system for suppressing vibration of a multi-link flexible robotic manipulator using embedded smart piezoelectric transducers. To achieve this, a non-linear dynamic model of a flexible robotic manipulator with smart piezoelectric actuators/sensors, is developed based on the co-rotational finite element method. The method incorporates multiple co-ordinate (co-rotational) systems which rotate and translate with each element, so that the geometric non-linearity present in rotating manipulator system can be dealt with efficiently. The placement of piezoelectric actuators and sensors over the flexible links are considered for the application of decentralized control system. A numerical study shows that the developed co-rotational finite element method can be utilized to investigate the piezoelectric actuator/sensor placement and vibration control performances for a multi-link flexible manipulator undertaking complicated motion.

  1. A review of flexibility-based finite element method for beam-column elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; ZHAI Changhai; XIE Lili

    2009-01-01

    For material nonlinear problem, elements derived with the flexibility-based method are more accurate than classical elements derived with the stiffness-based method. A review of the current state of the art of the flexibility-based finite element method is provided to enhance the robustness of structure analysis. The research on beam-column elements is the mainstream in the research on flexibility-based finite element method at present. The original development of flexibility-based finite element method is reviewed, and the further development of this method is then presented in several specific aspects, such as geometrically nonlinear analysis and dynamic analysis. The further research needed to be carried out in the future is finally discussed.

  2. Dynamic analysis and control of lightweight manipulators with flexible parallel link mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeh Won

    1991-01-01

    The flexible parallel link mechanism is designed for increased rigidity to sustain the buckling when it carries a heavy payload. Compared to a one link flexible manipulator, a two link flexible manipulator, especially the flexible parallel mechanism, has more complicated characteristics in dynamics and control. The objective of this research is the theoretical analysis and the experimental verification of dynamics and control of a two link flexible manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism. Nonlinear equations of motion of the lightweight manipulator are derived by the Lagrangian method in symbolic form to better understand the structure of the dynamic model. A manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism is a constrained dynamic system whose equations are sensitive to numerical integration error. This constrained system is solved using singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. The discrepancies between the analytical model and the experiment are explained using a simplified and a detailed finite element model. The step response of the analytical model and the TREETOPS model match each other well. The nonlinear dynamics is studied using a sinusoidal excitation. The actuator dynamic effect on a flexible robot was investigated. The effects are explained by the root loci and the Bode plot theoretically and experimentally. For the base performance for the advanced control scheme, a simple decoupled feedback scheme is applied.

  3. Hybrid adaptive ascent flight control for a flexible launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Brian D.

    For the purpose of maintaining dynamic stability and improving guidance command tracking performance under off-nominal flight conditions, a hybrid adaptive control scheme is selected and modified for use as a launch vehicle flight controller. This architecture merges a model reference adaptive approach, which utilizes both direct and indirect adaptive elements, with a classical dynamic inversion controller. This structure is chosen for a number of reasons: the properties of the reference model can be easily adjusted to tune the desired handling qualities of the spacecraft, the indirect adaptive element (which consists of an online parameter identification algorithm) continually refines the estimates of the evolving characteristic parameters utilized in the dynamic inversion, and the direct adaptive element (which consists of a neural network) augments the linear feedback signal to compensate for any nonlinearities in the vehicle dynamics. The combination of these elements enables the control system to retain the nonlinear capabilities of an adaptive network while relying heavily on the linear portion of the feedback signal to dictate the dynamic response under most operating conditions. To begin the analysis, the ascent dynamics of a launch vehicle with a single 1st stage rocket motor (typical of the Ares 1 spacecraft) are characterized. The dynamics are then linearized with assumptions that are appropriate for a launch vehicle, so that the resulting equations may be inverted by the flight controller in order to compute the control signals necessary to generate the desired response from the vehicle. Next, the development of the hybrid adaptive launch vehicle ascent flight control architecture is discussed in detail. Alterations of the generic hybrid adaptive control architecture include the incorporation of a command conversion operation which transforms guidance input from quaternion form (as provided by NASA) to the body-fixed angular rate commands needed by the

  4. Dynamics modeling and simulation of flexible airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwen

    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities of these lighter-than-air vehicles. The focus of this thesis is a theoretical framework that integrates the flight dynamics, structural dynamics, aerostatics and aerodynamics of flexible airships. The study begins with a dynamics model based on a rigid-body assumption. A comprehensive computation of aerodynamic effects is presented, where the aerodynamic forces and moments are categorized into various terms based on different physical effects. A series of prediction approaches for different aerodynamic effects are unified and applied to airships. The numerical results of aerodynamic derivatives and the simulated responses to control surface deflection inputs are verified by comparing to existing wind-tunnel and flight test data. With the validated aerodynamics and rigid-body modeling, the equations of motion of an elastic airship are derived by the Lagrangian formulation. The airship is modeled as a free-free Euler-Bernoulli beam and the bending deformations are represented by shape functions chosen as the free-free normal modes. In order to capture the coupling between the aerodynamic forces and the structural elasticity, local velocity on the deformed vehicle is used in the computation of aerodynamic forces. Finally, with the inertial, gravity, aerostatic and control forces incorporated, the dynamics model of a flexible airship is represented by a single set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The proposed model is implemented as a dynamics simulation program to analyze the dynamics characteristics of the Skyship-500 airship. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the influence of structural deformation on the aerodynamic forces and the dynamics behavior of the airship. The nonlinear equations of motion are linearized numerically for the purpose of frequency domain analysis and for aeroelastic stability analysis. The results from the latter for the

  5. Multiple attractors in the response of a flexible rotor in active magnetic bearings with geometric coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inayat-Hussain, J I [School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: jawaid.inayat-hussain@eng.monash.edu.my

    2008-02-15

    Numerical results on the response of a flexible rotor supported by nonlinear active magnetic bearings are presented. Nonlinearity arising from the magnetic actuator forces that are nonlinear functions of the coil current and the air gap between the rotor and the stator, and from the geometric coupling of the magnetic actuators is incorporated into the mathematical model of the flexible rotor - active magnetic bearing system. For relatively large values of the geometric coupling parameter, the response of the rotor with the variation of the speed parameter within the range 0.05 {<=}{omega} {<=} 5.0 displayed a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena including sub-synchronous vibrations of periods -2, -3, -6, -9, and -17, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Numerical results also reveal the occurrence of bi-stable operation within certain ranges of the speed parameter where multiple attractors may co-exist at the same speed parameter value depending on the operating speed of the rotor.

  6. A Spectral Element Method for Nonlinear and Dispersive Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bigoni, Daniele; Eskilsson, Claes

    The use of flexible mesh discretisation methods are important for simulation of nonlinear wave-structure interactions in offshore and marine settings such as harbour and coastal areas. For real applications, development of efficient models for wave propagation based on unstructured discretisation...... methods is of key interest. We present a high-order general-purpose three-dimensional numerical model solving fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow equations with a free surface.......The use of flexible mesh discretisation methods are important for simulation of nonlinear wave-structure interactions in offshore and marine settings such as harbour and coastal areas. For real applications, development of efficient models for wave propagation based on unstructured discretisation...

  7. Evolving Quantum Circuits using Genetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Prashant

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an application of genetic algorithm for evolving quantum computing circuits. The circuits use reversible one qubit and two qubit gates which are applied on a multi-qubit system having some initial state. The genetic algorithm automatically searches the space and comes out with the appropriate circuit design, which yields desired output state. The fitness function used matches the output with desired output and the search stops when it is found. The fitness value becomes higher if the output is close to the desired output. The paper briefly discusses the operation of a quantum gate over the multi-qubit system. The paper also demonstrates some examples of the evolved circuits using the algorithm.

  8. A novel evolving model for power grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,a novel power grid evolving model,which can well describe the evolving property of power grids,is presented. Based on the BA model,motivated by the fact that in real power grids,connectivity of node not only depends on its degree,but also is influenced by many uncertain factors,so we introduce the subconnection factor K for each node. Using the mean-field theory,we get the analytical expression of power-law degree distribution with the exponent γ∈ (3,∞ ). Finally,simulation results show that the new model can provide a satisfactory description for empirical characteristics of power network,and power network falls somewhere in between scale-free network and uncertain network.

  9. Evolvement Complexity in an Artificial Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun-Xia; ZHOU Tao; ZHOU Pei-Ling; LIU Jun; TANG Zi-Nan

    2005-01-01

    @@ An artificial stock market is established based on the multi-agent model.Each agent has a limited memory of the history of stock price, and will choose an action according to its memory and trading strategy.The trading strategy of each agent evolves ceaselessly as a result of a self-teaching mechanism.The simulation results exhibit that large events are frequent in the fluctuation of the stock price generated by the present model when compared with a normal process, and the price returns distribution is a L関y distribution in the central part followed by an approximately exponential truncation.In addition, by defining a variable to gauge the evolvement complexity of this system, we have found a phase cross-over from simple-phase to complex-phase along with the increase of the number of individuals, which may be a ubiquitous phenomenon in multifarious real-life systems.

  10. Architecture for Pseudo Acausal Evolvable Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abubakr, Mohd

    2007-01-01

    Advances in semiconductor technology are contributing to the increasing complexity in the design of embedded systems. Architectures with novel techniques such as evolvable nature and autonomous behavior have engrossed lot of attention. This paper demonstrates conceptually evolvable embedded systems can be characterized basing on acausal nature. It is noted that in acausal systems, future input needs to be known, here we make a mechanism such that the system predicts the future inputs and exhibits pseudo acausal nature. An embedded system that uses theoretical framework of acausality is proposed. Our method aims at a novel architecture that features the hardware evolability and autonomous behavior alongside pseudo acausality. Various aspects of this architecture are discussed in detail along with the limitations.

  11. Dust obscuration by an evolving galaxy population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najita, Joan; Silk, Joseph; Wachter, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of an evolving luminosity function (LF) on the ability of foreground galaxies to obscure background sources is discussed, using the Press-Schechter/CDM standard evolving LF model. Galaxies are modeled as simplified versions of local spirals and Poisson statistics are used to estimate the fraction of sky covered by intervening dusty galaxies and the mean optical depths due to these galaxies. The results are compared to those obtained in the case of nonevolving luminosity function in a low-density universe. It is found that evolution of the galaxy LF does not allow the quasar dust obscuration hypothesis to be sustained for dust disks with plausible sizes. Even in a low-density universe, where evolution at z = less than 10 is unimportant, large disk radii are needed to achieve the desired obscuring effect. The mean fraction of sky covered is presented as a function of the redshift z along with adequate diagram illustrations.

  12. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved...... by the musician through interactive evolutionary computation. Each timbre is produced by an oscillator, which is represented by a special type of artificial neural network (ANN) called a compositional pattern producing network (CPPN). While traditional ANNs compute only sigmoid functions at their hidden nodes......, CPPNs can theoretically compute any function and can build on those present in traditional synthesizers (e.g. square, sawtooth, triangle, and sine waves functions) to produce completely novel timbres. Evolved with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), the aim of this paper is to explore...

  13. Nonlinear Instability of Liquid Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Lori Ann

    The nonlinear instability of two superposed viscous liquid layers in planar and axisymmetric configurations is investigated. In the planar configuration, the light layer fluid is bounded below by a wall and above by a heavy semiinfinite fluid. Gravity drives the instability. In the first axisymmetric configuration, the layer is confined between a cylindrical wall and a core of another fluid. In the second, a thread is suspended in an infinite fluid. Surface tension forces drive the instability in the axisymmetric configurations. The nonlinear evolution of the fluid-fluid interface is computed for layers of arbitrary thickness when their dynamics are fully coupled to those of the second fluid. Under the assumption of creeping flow, the flow field is represented by an interfacial distribution of Green's functions. A Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the strength of the distribution is derived and then solved using an iterative technique. The Green's functions produce flow fields which are periodic in the direction parallel to the wall and have zero velocity on the wall. For small and moderate surface tension, planar layers evolve into a periodic array of viscous plumes which penetrate into the overlying fluid. The morphology of the plumes depends on the surface tension and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. As the viscosity of the layer increases, the plumes change from a well defined drop on top of a narrow stem to a compact column of rising fluid. The capillary instability of cylindrical interfaces and interfaces in which the core thickness varies in the axial direction are investigated. In both the unbounded and wall bounded configurations, the core evolves into a periodic array of elongated fluid drops connected by thin, almost cylindrical fluid links. The characteristics of the drop-link structure depend on the core thickness, the ratio of the core radius to the wall radius, and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. The factors controlling the

  14. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  15. NN robust based-PID Control of A Two-Link Flexible Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Khairudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator. A planar two-link flexible manipulator that moves in the horizontal plane is considered. A dynamic model of the system is developed using an assumed mode methods. The NN robust based-PID controller is used to reduce a nonlinearities problem that can be efficiently solved. The system responses namely hub angular position, deflection and end-point acceleration responses at both links are obtained and analysed.

  16. A family of asymptotically stable control laws for flexible robots based on a passivity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Leonardo; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A general family of asymptotically stabilizing control laws is introduced for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. The inherent passivity property of this class of systems and the Passivity Theorem are used to show the closed-loop input/output stability which is then related to the internal state space stability through the stabilizability and detectability condition. Applications of these results include fully actuated robots, flexible joint robots, and robots with link flexibility.

  17. Composite Sliding Mode Control for a Free-Floating Space Rigid-Flexible Coupling Manipulator System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Congqing; Wu Pengfei; Zhou Xin; Pei Xiwu

    2013-01-01

    The flexible space manipulator is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamic system. This paper proposes a novel composite sliding mode control to deal with the vibration suppression and trajectory tracking of a free‐floating space rigid‐flexible coupling manipulator with a rigid payload. First, the dynamic equations of this system are established by using Lagrange and assumed mode methods and in the meantime this dynamic modelling allows consideration of the modelling errors, the external distur...

  18. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  19. Quantum games on evolving random networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pawela, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    We study the advantages of quantum strategies in evolutionary social dilemmas on evolving random networks. We focus our study on the two-player games: prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and stag-hunt games. The obtained result show the benefits of quantum strategies for the prisoner's dilemma game. For the other two games, we obtain regions of parameters where the quantum strategies dominate, as well as regions where the classical strategies coexist.

  20. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  1. Circumstellar Molecular Spectra towards Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of, and possible scientific gains which can be acquired from studying circumstellar molecular spectra toward evolved stars. Where can we expect circumstellar molecular spectra, why would we want to study these spectra, which molecules might be present, and what can we learn from these studies? We present an overview of reported detections, and discuss some of the results.

  2. Evolving economic architecture in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how East Asia's economic architecture has been evolving over the last ten years and how it will shape itself in the future. With the progress of market-driven economic integration, East Asian economies have developed various cooperative initiatives for trade and finance, including free trade agreements (FTAs), the Chiang Mai Initiative, the Economic Review and Policy Dialogue, and the Asian Bond Markets Initiative. The paper suggests policy directions for greater regional ...

  3. Continual Learning through Evolvable Neural Turing Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM......) approach is able to perform one-shot learning in a reinforcement learning task without catastrophic forgetting of previously stored associations....

  4. The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2012-01-02

    This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

  5. Evolving Information Filtering for Personalized Information Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田范江; 李丛蓉; 王鼎兴

    2001-01-01

    Information filtering (IF) systems are important for personalized information service. However, most current IF systems suffer from low quality and long training time. In this paper, a refined evolving information filtering method is presented. This method describes user's information need from multi-aspects and improves filtering quality through a process like natural selection. Experimental result shows this method can shorten training time, improve filtering quality, and reduce the relevance between filtering results and training sequence.

  6. Evolving networks:from topology to dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengping FAN; Guanrong CHEN; King Tim KO

    2004-01-01

    A multi-local-world model is introduced to describe the evolving networks that have a localization property such as the Intemet. Based on this model, we show that the traffic load defined by "betweenness centrality" on the multi-local-world scale-free networks' model also follows a power law form. In this kind of network, a few vertices have heavier loads and so play more important roles than the others in the network.

  7. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonella Fiacca; Nikolaos Matzakos; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou; Raffaella Servadei

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all $\\mathbb{R}$. Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower solution, we prove the existence of a solution between them. Also for a special version of the problem, we prove the existence of extremal solutions in the order interval formed by the upper and lower solutions. Then we drop the requirement that the monotone nonlinearity is defined on all of $\\mathbb{R}$. This case is important because it covers variational inequalities. Using the theory of operators of monotone type we show that the problem has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth locally Lipschitz functionals we prove the existence of at least two nontrivial solutions (multiplicity theorem).

  8. The Flexibility Hypothesis of Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2017-03-01

    Theories of healing have attempted to identify general mechanisms that may work across different modalities. These include altering expectations, remoralization, and instilling hope. In this paper, we argue that many forms of healing and psychotherapy may work by inducing positive psychological states marked by flexibility or an enhanced ability to shift cognitive sets. Healing practices may induce these states of cognitive and emotional flexibility through specific symbolic interventions we term "flexibility primers" that can include images, metaphors, music, and other media. The flexibility hypothesis suggests that cognitive and emotional flexibility is represented, elicited, and enacted through multiple modalities in healing rituals. Identifying psychological processes and cultural forms that evoke and support cognitive and emotional flexibility provides a way to understand the cultural specificity and potential efficacy of particular healing practices and can guide the design of interventions that promote resilience and well-being.

  9. Continuous evaluation of evolving behavioral intervention technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M; Hendricks Brown, C; Duan, Naihua

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can "learn." A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers.

  10. Breast cancer management: Past, present and evolving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is known from ancient time,and the treatment strategy evolved as our understanding of the disease changed with time. In 460 BC Hippocrates described breast cancer as a humoral disease and presently after a lot of studies breast cancer is considered as a local disease with systemic roots. For most of the twentieth century Halsted radical mastectomy was the "established and standardized operation for cancer of the breast in all stages, early or late". New information about tumor biology and its behavior suggested that less radical surgery might be just as effective as the more extensive one. Eventually, with the use of adjuvant therapy likeradiation and systemic therapy, the extent of surgical resection in the breast and axilla got reduced further and led to an era of breast conservation. The radiation treatment of breast cancer has evolved from 2D to 3D Conformal and to accelarated partial breast irradiation, aiming to reduce normal tissue toxicity and overall treatment time. Systemic therapy in the form of hormone therapy, chemotherapy and biological agents is now a well-established modality in treatment of breast cancer. The current perspective of breast cancer management is based on the rapidly evolving and increasingly integrated study on the genetic, molecular , biochemical and cellular basis of disease. The challenge for the future is to take advantage of this knowledge for the prediction of therapeutic outcome and develop therapies and rapidly apply more novel biologic therapeutics.

  11. Transistor Level Circuit Experiments using Evolvable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Keymeulen, D.; Ferguson, M. I.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performs research in fault tolerant, long life, and space survivable electronics for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). With that focus, JPL has been involved in Evolvable Hardware (EHW) technology research for the past several years. We have advanced the technology not only by simulation and evolution experiments, but also by designing, fabricating, and evolving a variety of transistor-based analog and digital circuits at the chip level. EHW refers to self-configuration of electronic hardware by evolutionary/genetic search mechanisms, thereby maintaining existing functionality in the presence of degradations due to aging, temperature, and radiation. In addition, EHW has the capability to reconfigure itself for new functionality when required for mission changes or encountered opportunities. Evolution experiments are performed using a genetic algorithm running on a DSP as the reconfiguration mechanism and controlling the evolvable hardware mounted on a self-contained circuit board. Rapid reconfiguration allows convergence to circuit solutions in the order of seconds. The paper illustrates hardware evolution results of electronic circuits and their ability to perform under 230 C temperature as well as radiations of up to 250 kRad.

  12. An evolving view of epigenetic complexity in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2014-09-26

    Recent scientific advances have revolutionized our understanding of classical epigenetic mechanisms and the broader landscape of molecular interactions and cellular functions that are inextricably linked to these processes. Our current view of epigenetics includes an increasing appreciation for the dynamic nature of DNA methylation, active mechanisms for DNA demethylation, differential functions of 5-methylcytosine and its oxidized derivatives, the intricate regulatory logic of histone post-translational modifications, the incorporation of histone variants into chromatin, nucleosome occupancy and dynamics, and direct links between cellular signalling pathways and the actions of chromatin 'reader', 'writer' and 'eraser' molecules. We also have an increasing awareness of the seemingly ubiquitous roles played by diverse classes of selectively expressed non-coding RNAs in transcriptional, post-transcriptional, post-translational and local and higher order chromatin modulatory processes. These perspectives are still evolving with novel insights continuing to emerge rapidly (e.g. those related to epigenetic regulation of mobile genetic elements, epigenetic mechanisms in mitochondria, roles in nuclear architecture and 'RNA epigenetics'). The precise functions of these epigenetic factors/phenomena are largely unknown. However, it is unequivocal that they serve as key mediators of brain complexity and flexibility, including neural development and aging, cellular differentiation, homeostasis, stress responses, and synaptic and neural network connectivity and plasticity.

  13. The Evolving Forms of Risk Reporting Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ulrik; Thrane, Sof; Andersen, Torben Juul

    reporting system. The risk management frameworks generally assume that information is communicated in exact codified form, but little research has analyzed the construction of risk when the reporting trespasses organizational levels. The managers in the middle however are often depicted as mediators between...... shaped by systematic variation in reporting practices at different hierarchical levels. Here the tactical middle layer adheres to temporalizing form of risk reporting practices in attempts to create flexibility within a rigid management reporting system....

  14. Markov Chain-based Degree Distributions of Evolving Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xing KONG; Zhen Ting HOU; Ding Hua SHI; Quan Rong CHEN; Qing Gui ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study a class of stochastic processes,called evolving network Markov chains,in evolving networks. Our approach is to transform the degree distribution problem of an evolving network to a corresponding problem of evolving network Markov chains.We investigate the evolving network Markov chains,thereby obtaining some exact formulas as well as a precise criterion for determining whether the steady degree distribution of the evolving network is a power-law or not.With this new method,we finally obtain a rigorous,exact and unified solution of the steady degree distribution of the evolving network.

  15. Adaptive High Order Sliding Mode Controller Design for Hypersonic Vehicle with Flexible Body Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bailing Tian; Wenru Fan; Qun Zong; Jie Wang; Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a nonlinear robust adaptive controller for a flexible hypersonic vehicle model which is nonlinear, multivariable, and unstable, and includes uncertain parameters. Firstly, a control-oriented model is derived for controller design. Then, the model analysis is conducted for this model via input-output (I/O) linearized technique. Secondly, the sliding mode manifold is designed based on the homogeneity theory. Then, the adaptive high order sliding mode controlle...

  16. RNA Structural Analysis by Evolving SHAPE Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, Robert C.; Flynn, Ryan A.; Torre, Eduardo A.; Kool, Eric T.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2017-01-01

    RNA is central to the flow of biological information. From transcription to splicing, RNA localization, translation, and decay, RNA is intimately involved in regulating every step of the gene expression program, and is thus essential for health and understanding disease. RNA has the unique ability to base-pair with itself and other nucleic acids to form complex structures. Hence the information content in RNA is not simply its linear sequence of bases, but is also encoded in complex folding of RNA molecules. A general chemical functionality that all RNAs have is a 2’-hydroxyl group in the ribose ring, and the reactivity of the 2'-hydroxyl in RNA is gated by local nucleotide flexibility. In other words, the 2'-hydroxyl is reactive at single-stranded and conformationally flexible positions but is unreactive at nucleotides constrained by base pairing. Recent efforts have been focused on developing reagents that modify RNA as a function of RNA 2’ hydroxyl group flexibility. Such RNA structure probing techniques can be read out by primer extension in experiments termed RNA SHAPE (Selective 2’ Hydroxyl Acylation and Primer Extension). Herein we describe the efforts devoted to the design and utilization of SHAPE probes for characterizing RNA structure. We also describe current technological advances that are being used to utilize SHAPE chemistry with deep sequencing to probe many RNAs in parallel. The merger of chemistry with genomics is sure to open the door to genome-wide exploration of RNA structure and function. PMID:25132067

  17. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... varying cultural repertoires, in particularly heterogeneous flexible repertoires, influence offending and victimization patterns among young men in high-risk settings....... independently of the authors in neighbouring township areas of Cape Town, we offer insights into patterns of victimization among young men not involved in crime who live and attend school in the townships. Young men who perform decent cultural repertoires are highly exposed to victimization due to their moral...

  18. Conformational flexibility of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea

    2016-05-01

    L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016.

  19. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack—the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals. PMID:26307995

  20. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kun Tseng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP, with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack—the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals.

  1. ECG Sensor Card with Evolving RBP Algorithms for Human Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Huang, Huang-Nan; Zeng, Fufu; Tu, Shu-Yi

    2015-08-21

    It is known that cardiac and respiratory rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs) are highly nonlinear and non-stationary. As a result, most traditional time-domain algorithms are inadequate for characterizing the complex dynamics of the ECG. This paper proposes a new ECG sensor card and a statistical-based ECG algorithm, with the aid of a reduced binary pattern (RBP), with the aim of achieving faster ECG human identity recognition with high accuracy. The proposed algorithm has one advantage that previous ECG algorithms lack-the waveform complex information and de-noising preprocessing can be bypassed; therefore, it is more suitable for non-stationary ECG signals. Experimental results tested on two public ECG databases (MIT-BIH) from MIT University confirm that the proposed scheme is feasible with excellent accuracy, low complexity, and speedy processing. To be more specific, the advanced RBP algorithm achieves high accuracy in human identity recognition and is executed at least nine times faster than previous algorithms. Moreover, based on the test results from a long-term ECG database, the evolving RBP algorithm also demonstrates superior capability in handling long-term and non-stationary ECG signals.

  2. eVolver: an optimization engine for evolving protein sequences to stabilize the respective structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylinski, Michal

    2013-07-31

    Many structural bioinformatics approaches employ sequence profile-based threading techniques. To improve fold recognition rates, homology searching may include artificially evolved amino acid sequences, which were demonstrated to enhance the sensitivity of protein threading in targeting midnight zone templates. We describe implementation details of eVolver, an optimization algorithm that evolves protein sequences to stabilize the respective structures by a variety of potentials, which are compatible with those commonly used in protein threading. In a case study focusing on LARG PDZ domain, we show that artificially evolved sequences have quite high capabilities to recognize the correct protein structures using standard sequence profile-based fold recognition. Computationally design protein sequences can be incorporated in existing sequence profile-based threading approaches to increase their sensitivity. They also provide a desired linkage between protein structure and function in in silico experiments that relate to e.g. the completeness of protein structure space, the origin of folds and protein universe. eVolver is freely available as a user-friendly webserver and a well-documented stand-alone software distribution at http://www.brylinski.org/evolver.

  3. Nonlinear programming extensions to rational function approximations of unsteady aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Sherwood H.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with approximating unsteady generalized aerodynamic forces in the equations of motion of a flexible aircraft. Two methods of formulating these approximations are extended to include both the same flexibility in constraining them and the same methodology in optimizing nonlinear parameters as another currently used 'extended least-squares' method. Optimal selection of 'nonlinear' parameters is made in each of the three methods by use of the same nonlinear (nongradient) optimizer. The objective of the nonlinear optimization is to obtain rational approximations to the unsteady aerodynamics whose state-space realization is of lower order than that required when no optimization of the nonlinear terms is performed. The free 'linear' parameters are determined using least-squares matrix techniques on a Lagrange multiplier formulation of an objective function which incorporates selected linear equality constraints. State-space mathematical models resulting from the different approaches are described, and results are presented which show comparative evaluations from application of each of the extended methods to a numerical example. The results obtained for the example problem show a significant (up to 63 percent) reduction in the number of differential equations used to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces in linear time-invariant equations of motion as compared to a conventional method in which nonlinear terms are not optimized.

  4. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  5. Investigation of the torsional stiffness of flexible disc coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryy, A.; Simonovsky, V.; Obolonik, V.

    2017-08-01

    Calculation of flexible coupling torsional stiffness is required when analyzing the torsional vibrations of the reciprocating machinery train. While having the lowest torsional stiffness of all the elements of the train, flexible coupling has a significant influence on the natural frequencies of torsional vibration. However, considering structural complexity of coupling, precise definition of its torsional stiffness is quite a difficult task. The paper presents a method for calculating the torsional stiffness of flexible disc coupling based on the study of its finite element model response under the action of torque. The analysis of the basic parameters that quantitatively and qualitatively affect the coupling torsional stiffness has been also provided. The results of the calculation as well as model adequacy, sufficient for practical application, have been confirmed at the experimental measurement of flexible disc coupling torsional stiffness. The obtained elastic characteristics (dependences of applied torque and torsional stiffness versus twist angle) are nonlinear in the initial stage of loading. This feature should be taken into account when creating reliable mathematical models of torsional vibrations of reciprocating machinery trains containing flexible disc couplings.

  6. A Study of Flexible Composites for Expandable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Payload volume for launch vehicles is a critical constraint that impacts spacecraft design. Deployment mechanisms, such as those used for solar arrays and antennas, are approaches that have successfully accommodated this constraint, however, providing pressurized volumes that can be packaged compactly at launch and expanded in space is still a challenge. One approach that has been under development for many years is to utilize softgoods - woven fabric for straps, cloth, and with appropriate coatings, bladders - to provide this expandable pressure vessel capability. The mechanics of woven structure is complicated by a response that is nonlinear and often nonrepeatable due to the discrete nature of the woven fiber architecture. This complexity reduces engineering confidence to reliably design and certify these structures, which increases costs due to increased requirements for system testing. The present study explores flexible composite materials systems as an alternative to the heritage softgoods approach. Materials were obtained from vendors who utilize flexible composites for non-aerospace products to determine some initial physical and mechanical properties of the materials. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed to obtain the stress-strain response of the flexible composites and the failure behavior. A failure criterion was developed from the data, and a space habitat application was used to provide an estimate of the relative performance of flexible composites compared to the heritage softgoods approach. Initial results are promising with a 25% mass savings estimated for the flexible composite solution.

  7. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Hankel operator are studied and yield promising results.

  8. Nonlinear functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Fouché

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss some aspects of nonlinear functional analysis. It included reviews of Banach’s contraction theorem, Schauder’s fixed point theorem, globalising techniques and applications of homotopy theory to nonlinear functional analysis. The author emphasises that fundamentally new ideas are required in order to achieve a better understanding of phenomena which contain both nonlinear and definite infinite dimensional features.

  9. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  10. A Generalized Model of Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration Coupled to an Evolving Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2012-01-01

    To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code (i.e., Ellison et al. 2012) to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum and space dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification (MFA); (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions, or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Ou...

  11. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  12. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  13. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  14. Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-12-08

    We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  15. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  16. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  17. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L; Gu, M

    2007-06-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  18. Image denoising using modified nonlinear diffusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Akhilesh R.; Talbar, Sanjay N.; Sontakke, Trimbak R.

    2006-01-01

    Partial Differential Equation (PDE) based, non-linear diffusion approaches are an effective way to denoise the images. In this paper, the work is extended to include anisotropic diffusion, where the diffusivity is a tensor valued function, which can be adapted to local edge orientation. This allows smoothing along the edges, but not perpendicular to it. The diffusion tensor is a function of differential structure of the evolving image itself. Such a feedback leads to nonlinear diffusion filters. It shows improved performance in the presence of noise. The original anisotropic diffusion algorithm updates each point based on four nearest-neighbor differences, the progress of diffusion results in improved edges. In the proposed method the edges are better preserved because diffusion is controlled by the gray level differences of diagonal neighbors in addition to 4 nearest neighbors using coupled PDF formulation. The proposed algorithm gives excellent results for MRI images, Biomedical images and Fingerprint images with noise.

  19. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quanti...

  20. Building Highly Flexible Polyelectrolyte Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Flexibility of polyelectrolyte nanotubes is necessary if they are to be exploited in applications such as developing photoelectric devices with strong mechanical properties. In a recent attempt, high flexibility has been observed from such nanotubes prepared by a research team headed by Prof. Li Junbai of the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS).

  1. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  2. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  3. Function Machines & Flexible Algebraic Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary E.; McGowen, Mercedes A.

    This paper explores how college students understand ideas of functions, and which representations are productive for them in promoting their ability to work flexibly across representations. The study used pre- and post-test scores, and triangulations via student self evaluations, to generate a hypothesis related to flexible thinking and success in…

  4. Sensor Technologies on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames has developed sensor technologies on flexible substrates integrated into textiles for personalized environment monitoring and human performance evaluation. Current technologies include chemical sensing for gas leak and event monitoring and biological sensors for human health and performance monitoring. Targeted integration include next generation EVA suits and flexible habitats.

  5. Retirement Flexibility and Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Y.; Bonenkamp, J.; Meijdam, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between retirement flexibility and portfolio choice in an overlapping-generations model. We analyse this interaction both in a partial-equilibrium and general-equilibrium setting. Retirement flexibility is often seen as a hedge against capital-market risks which

  6. Flexible Coupling Corrects Shaft Misalinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed flexible coupling provides nearly error free measurements of shaft rotation in presence of misalinements between shaft and position sensing transducer. Intended to be used in situations in which input or output shaft is mounted on flexible joint. Its function is to insure equal input and output angular velocities by forcing input and output shafts to remain parallel.

  7. The tree length of an evolving coalescent

    CERN Document Server

    Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Weisshaupt, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A well-established model for the genealogy of a large population in equilibrium is Kingman's coalescent. For the population together with its genealogy evolving in time, this gives rise to a time-stationary tree-valued process. We study the sum of the branch lengths, briefly denoted as tree length, and prove that the (suitably compensated) sequence of tree length processes converges, as the population size tends to infinity, to a limit process with cadlag paths, infinite infinitesimal variance, and a Gumbel distribution as its equilibrium.

  8. Strength dynamics of weighted evolving networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jian-Jun; Gao Zi-You; Sun Hui-Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a simple model for the strength dynamics of weighted evolving networks is proposed to characterize the weighted networks. By considering the congestion effects, this approach can yield power law strength distribution appeared on the many real weighted networks, such as traffic networks, internet networks. Besides, the relationship between strength and degree is given. Numerical simulations indicate that the strength distribution is strongly related to the strength dynamics decline. The model also provides us with a better description of the real weighted networks.

  9. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  10. Mobile computing acceptance grows as applications evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, Louis M; Patrick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Handheld devices are becoming more cost-effective to own, and their use in healthcare environments is increasing. Handheld devices currently are being used for e-prescribing, charge capture, and accessing daily schedules and reference tools. Future applications may include education on medications, dictation, order entry, and test-results reporting. Selecting the right handheld device requires careful analysis of current and future applications, as well as vendor expertise. It is important to recognize the technology will continue to evolve over the next three years.

  11. SALT spectroscopy of evolved massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N

    2016-01-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fibre-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  12. Functional aspects of protein flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are dynamic entities, and they possess an inherent flexibility that allows them to function through molecular interactions within the cell, among cells and even between organisms. Appreciation of the non-static nature of proteins is emerging, but to describe and incorporate...... this into an intuitive perception of protein function is challenging. Flexibility is of overwhelming importance for protein function, and the changes in protein structure during interactions with binding partners can be dramatic. The present review addresses protein flexibility, focusing on protein-ligand interactions....... The thermodynamics involved are reviewed, and examples of structure-function studies involving experimentally determined flexibility descriptions are presented. While much remains to be understood about protein flexibility, it is clear that it is encoded within their amino acid sequence and should be viewed...

  13. An FPGA hardware/software co-design towards evolvable spiking neural networks for robotics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S P; Prasad, G; Maguire, L; McGinnity, T M

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an approach that permits the effective hardware realization of a novel Evolvable Spiking Neural Network (ESNN) paradigm on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The ESNN possesses a hybrid learning algorithm that consists of a Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) mechanism fused with a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The design and implementation direction utilizes the latest advancements in FPGA technology to provide a partitioned hardware/software co-design solution. The approach achieves the maximum FPGA flexibility obtainable for the ESNN paradigm. The algorithm was applied as an embedded intelligent system robotic controller to solve an autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance problem.

  14. Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-09-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species.

  15. OPEN PROBLEM: Some nonlinear challenges in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David

    2008-08-01

    Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'.

  16. MODEL OF CENTRIFUGAL EFFECT AND ATTITUDE MANEUVER STABILITY OF A COUPLED RIGID-FLEXIBLE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-bin; WANG Zhao-lin; WANG Tian-shu; LIU Ning

    2005-01-01

    The influences of nonlinear centrifugal force to large overall attitude motion of coupled rigid-flexible system was investigated. First the nonlinear model of the coupled rigidflexible system was deduced from the idea of "cenlrifugal potential field", and then the dynamic effects of the nonlinear centrifugal force to system attitude motion were analyzed by approximate calculation; At last, the Lyapunov function based on energy norm was selected,in the condition that only the measured values of attitude and attitude speed are available,and it is proved that the PD feedback control law can ensure the attitude stability during large angle maneuver.

  17. Adaptive Representations for Improving Evolvability, Parameter Control, and Parallelization of Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. A. Browne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene Expression Programming (GEP is a genetic algorithm that evolves linear chromosomes encoding nonlinear (tree-like structures. In the original GEP algorithm, the genome size is problem specific and is determined through trial and error. In this work, a method for adaptive control of the genome size is presented. The approach introduces mutation, transposition, and recombination operators that enable a population of heterogeneously structured chromosomes, something the original GEP algorithm does not support. This permits crossbreeding between normally incompatible individuals, speciation within a population, increases the evolvability of the representations, and enhances parallel GEP. To test our approach, an assortment of problems were used, including symbolic regression, classification, and parameter optimization. Our experimental results show that our approach provides a solution for the problem of self-adaptive control of the genome size of GEP's representation.

  18. Nonlinear transient analysis of joint dominated structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Shaw, F. H.; Russell, W. C.

    1987-01-01

    A residual force technique is presented that can perform the transient analyses of large, flexible, and joint dominated structures. The technique permits substantial size reduction in the number of degrees of freedom describing the nonlinear structural models and can account for such nonlinear joint phenomena as free-play and hysteresis. In general, joints can have arbitrary force-state map representations but these are used in the form of residual force maps. One essential feature of the technique is to replace the arbitrary force-state maps describing the nonlinear joints with residual force maps describing the truss links. The main advantage of this replacement is that the incrementally small relative displacements and velocities across a joint are not monitored directly thereby avoiding numerical difficulties. Instead, very small and 'soft' residual forces are defined giving a numerically attractive form for the equations of motion and thereby permitting numerically stable integration algorithms. The technique was successfully applied to the transient analyses of a large 58 bay, 60 meter truss having nonlinear joints. A method to perform link testing is also presented.

  19. Risk assessment of aggregated flexibility usage for optimal multi-market trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdougall, Pamela; Ran, Bob; Kok, Koen

    2016-01-01

    With the supply mix evolving to incorporate more and more uncontrollable renewable energy sources there is a need for more storage and demand response solutions. Aggregated demand response flexibility has been investigated in the past years as one of the potential solution this problem. This paper...

  20. Nonlinear physics of shear Alfvén waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, Fulvio [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Italy and Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 31007 (China); Chen, Liu [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 31007, P.R.C. and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Shear Alfvén waves (SAW) play fundamental roles in thermonuclear plasmas of fusion interest, since they are readily excited by energetic particles in the MeV range as well as by the thermal plasma components. Thus, understanding fluctuation induced transport in burning plasmas requires understanding nonlinear SAW physics. There exist two possible routes to nonlinear SAW physics: (i) wave-wave interactions and the resultant spectral energy transfer; (ii) nonlinear wave-particle interactions of SAW instabilities with energetic particles. Within the first route, it is advantageous to understand and describe nonlinear processes in term of proximity of the system to the Alfvénic state, where wave-wave interactions are minimized due to the cancellation of Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. Here, various wave-wave nonlinear dynamics are elucidated in terms of how they break the Alfvénic state. In particular, we discuss the qualitative and quantitative modification of the SAW parametric decay process due to finite ion compressibility and finite ion Larmor radius. We also show that toroidal geometry plays a crucial role in the nonlinear excitation of zonal structures by Alfvén eigenmodes. Within the second route, the coherent nonlinear dynamics of structures in the energetic particle phase space, by which secular resonant particle transport can occur on meso- and macro-scales, must be addressed and understood. These 'nonlinear equilibria' or 'phase-space zonal structures' dynamically evolve on characteristic (fluctuation induced) turbulent transport time scales, which are generally of the same order of the nonlinear time scale of the underlying fluctuations. In this work, we introduce the general structure of nonlinear Schrödinger equations with complex integro-differential nonlinear terms, which govern these physical processes. To elucidate all these aspects, theoretical analyses are presented together with numerical simulation results.

  1. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  2. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, K.; Wüster, S.; Rost, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali-metal atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable nonadiabatic effects. A joint exciton-motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of nonadiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K. Leonhardt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 223001 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.223001]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterize the switch, and derive our isotropic interaction model from a realistic anisotropic one with the addition of a magnetic bias field.

  3. Orthogonal flexible Rydberg aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J M

    2015-01-01

    We study the link between atomic motion and exciton transport in flexible Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light alkali atoms, for which motion due to dipole-dipole interaction becomes relevant. In two one-dimensional atom chains crossing at a right angle adiabatic exciton transport is affected by a conical intersection of excitonic energy surfaces, which induces controllable non-adiabatic effects. A joint exciton/motion pulse that is initially governed by a single energy surface is coherently split into two modes after crossing the intersection. The modes induce strongly different atomic motion, leading to clear signatures of non-adiabatic effects in atomic density profiles. We have shown how this scenario can be exploited as an exciton switch, controlling direction and coherence properties of the joint pulse on the second of the chains [K.~Leonhardt {\\it et al.}, Phys.~Rev.~Lett. {\\bf 113} 223001 (2014)]. In this article we discuss the underlying complex dynamics in detail, characterise the ...

  4. Neuro-Sliding-Mode Control of Flexible-Link Manipulators Based on Singularly Perturbed Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; YANG Tangwen; SUN Zengqi

    2009-01-01

    A neuro-sliding-mode control (NSMC) strategy was developed to handle the complex nonlinear dynamics and model uncertainties of flexible-link manipulators. A composite controller was designed based on a singularly perturbed model of flexible-link manipulators when the rigid motion and flexible motion are decoupled. The NSMC is employed to control the slow subsystem to track a desired trajectory with a traditional sliding mode controller to stabilize the fast subsystem which represents the link vibrations. A stability analysis of the flexible modes is also given. Simulations confirm that the NSMC performs better than the tra-ditional sliding-mode control for controlling flexible-link manipulators. The control strategy not only gives good tracking performance for the joint angle, but also effectively suppresses endpoint vibrations. The simulations also show that the control strategy has a strong self-adaptive ability for controlling manipulators with different parameters.

  5. Modeling and Analysis of an Air-Breathing Flexible Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-bin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using light-weighted material in hypersonic vehicle, the vehicle body can be easily deformed. The mutual couplings in aerodynamics, flexible structure, and propulsion system will bring great challenges for vehicle modeling. In this work, engineering estimated method is used to calculate the aerodynamic forces, moments, and flexible modes to get the physics-based model of an air-breathing flexible hypersonic vehicle. The model, which contains flexible effects and viscous effects, can capture the physical characteristics of high-speed flight. To overcome the analytical intractability of the model, a simplified control-oriented model of the hypersonic vehicle is presented with curve fitting approximations. The control-oriented model can not only reduce the complexity of the model, but also retain aero-flexible structure-propulsion interactions of the physics-based model and can be applied for nonlinear control.

  6. Nonlinear physics with Maple for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enns, Richard H

    1997-01-01

    Philosophy of the Text This text has been designed to be an introductory survey of the basic concepts and applied mathematical methods of nonlinear science. Students in engineer­ ing, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computing science, and biology should be able to successfully use this text. In an effort to provide the students with a cutting edge approach to one of the most dynamic, often subtle, complex, and still rapidly evolving, areas of modern research-nonlinear physics-we have made extensive use of the symbolic, numeric, and plotting capabilities of Maple V Release 4 applied to examples from these disciplines. No prior knowledge of Maple or computer programming is assumed, the reader being gently introduced to Maple as an auxiliary tool as the concepts of nonlinear science are developed. The diskette which accompanies the text gives a wide variety of illustrative nonlinear examples solved with Maple. An accompanying laboratory manual of experimental activities keyed to the text allows the student the...

  7. Flexible human collective wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z; Eckstein, Miguel P

    2015-12-01

    Group decisions typically outperform individual decisions. But how do groups combine their individual decisions to reach their collective decisions? Previous studies conceptualize collective decision making using static combination rules, be it a majority-voting rule or a weighted-averaging rule. Unknown is whether groups adapt their combination rules to changing information environments. We implemented a novel paradigm for which information obeyed a mixture of distributions, such that the optimal Bayesian rule is nonlinear and often follows minority opinions, while the majority rule leads to suboptimal but above chance performance. Using perceptual (Experiment 1) and cognitive (Experiment 2) signal-detection tasks, we switched the information environment halfway through the experiments to a mixture of distributions without informing participants. Groups gradually abandoned the majority rule to follow any minority opinion advocating signal presence with high confidence. Furthermore, groups with greater ability to abandon the majority rule achieved higher collective-decision accuracies. It is important to note that this abandonment was not triggered by performance loss for the majority rule relative to the first half of the experiment. Our results propose a new theory of human collective decision making: Humans make inferences about how information is distributed across individuals and time, and dynamically alter their joint decision algorithms to enhance the benefits of collective wisdom.

  8. The evolving role of the transfusion practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristy; Akers, Christine; Davis, Amanda K; Wood, Erica; Hennessy, Clare; Bielby, Linley

    2015-04-01

    Much of the recent work in transfusion practice has shifted to focus on the patient, after efforts over previous decades to ensure the quality and safety of blood products. After the commencement of hemovigilance and transfusion practice improvement programs, the introduction of transfusion practitioners (TP) into health care services and blood centers has continued to increase worldwide. Since this relatively new role was introduced, much work of the TP has focused on patient and staff education, adverse events, transfusion governance, and monitoring of transfusion practices within organizations. The complex nature of the transfusion process makes the TP an integral link in the transfusion chain. Together with hospital transfusion teams and committees, the TP works collaboratively to facilitate the transfusion change management programs and initiatives. Recently, the TP role has evolved to include an emphasis on patient blood management and, to some extent, is shaped by national standards and regulations. These established roles of the TP, together with the ever-changing field of transfusion medicine, provide new opportunities and challenges for a role that is continuing to evolve worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Mall

    Full Text Available Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  11. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-09

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  13. Novel cooperation experimentally evolved between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcombe, William

    2010-07-01

    Cooperation violates the view of "nature red in tooth and claw" that prevails in our understanding of evolution, yet examples of cooperation abound. Most work has focused on maintenance of cooperation within a single species through mechanisms such as kin selection. The factors necessary for the evolutionary origin of aiding unrelated individuals such as members of another species have not been experimentally tested. Here, I demonstrate that cooperation between species can be evolved in the laboratory if (1) there is preexisting reciprocation or feedback for cooperation, and (2) reciprocation is preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. I used a two species system involving Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and an Escherichia coli mutant unable to synthesize an essential amino acid. In lactose media Salmonella consumes metabolic waste from E. coli, thus creating a mechanism of reciprocation for cooperation. Growth in a spatially structured environment assured that the benefits of cooperation were preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. Salmonella evolved to aid E. coli by excreting a costly amino acid, however this novel cooperation disappeared if the waste consumption or spatial structure were removed. This study builds on previous work to demonstrate an experimental origin of interspecific cooperation, and to test the factors necessary for such interactions to arise.

  14. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M D; Ash, Richard D; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J; Rumble, Douglas; McDonough, William F; Walker, Richard J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2009-01-08

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52 +/- 0.06 Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System.

  15. RNA structural analysis by evolving SHAPE chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, Robert C; Flynn, Ryan A; Torre, Eduardo A; Kool, Eric T; Chang, Howard Y

    2014-01-01

    RNA is central to the flow of biological information. From transcription to splicing, RNA localization, translation, and decay, RNA is intimately involved in regulating every step of the gene expression program, and is thus essential for health and understanding disease. RNA has the unique ability to base-pair with itself and other nucleic acids to form complex structures. Hence the information content in RNA is not simply its linear sequence of bases, but is also encoded in complex folding of RNA molecules. A general chemical functionality that all RNAs have is a 2'-hydroxyl group in the ribose ring, and the reactivity of the 2'-hydroxyl in RNA is gated by local nucleotide flexibility. In other words, the 2'-hydroxyl is reactive at single-stranded and conformationally flexible positions but is unreactive at nucleotides constrained by base-pairing. Recent efforts have been focused on developing reagents that modify RNA as a function of RNA 2' hydroxyl group reactivity. Such RNA structure probing techniques can be read out by primer extension in experiments termed RNA SHAPE (selective 2'- hydroxyl acylation and primer extension). Herein, we describe the efforts devoted to the design and utilization of SHAPE probes for characterizing RNA structure. We also describe current technological advances that are being applied to utilize SHAPE chemistry with deep sequencing to probe many RNAs in parallel. The merging of chemistry with genomics is sure to open the door to genome-wide exploration of RNA structure and function.

  16. Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models for Repairable Systems Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Fu-rong; JIANG Zhi-bin; KUO Way; Suk Joo BAE

    2007-01-01

    Mixed-effects models, also called random-effects models, are a regression type of analysis which enables the analyst to not only describe the trend over time within each subject, but also to describe the variation among different subjects. Nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a powerful and flexible tool for handling the unbalanced count data. In this paper, nonlinear mixed-effects models are used to analyze the failure data from a repairable system with multiple copies. By using this type of models, statistical inferences about the population and all copies can be made when accounting for copy-to-copy variance. Results of fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models to nine failure-data sets show that the nonlinear mixed-effects models provide a useful tool for analyzing the failure data from multi-copy repairable systems.

  17. Dynamic computer-generated nonlinear-optical holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haigang; Li, Jun; Fang, Xiangling; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-08-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate dynamic nonlinear optical holograms by introducing the concept of computer-generated holograms for second-harmonic generation of a structured fundamental wave with a specially designed wave front. The generation of Laguerre-Gaussian second-harmonic beams is investigated in our experiment. Such a method, which only dynamically controls the wave front of the fundamental wave by a spatial light modulator, does not need domain inversion in nonlinear crystals and hence is a more flexible way to achieve the off-axis nonlinear second-harmonic beams. It can also be adopted in other schemes and has potential applications in nonlinear frequency conversion, optical signal processing, and real-time hologram, etc.

  18. Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zakery, A

    2007-01-01

    Photonics, which uses photons for information and image processing, has been labeled the technology of the 21st century, for which non-linear optical processes provide the key functions of frequency conversion and optical switching. Chalcogenide glass fiber is one of the most promising candidates for use as a non-linear optical medium because of its high optical nonlinearity and long interaction length. Since the chalcogenide glass fibers transmit into the IR, there are numerous potential applications in the civil, medical and military areas. One of the most exciting developments in the future is going to be in the area of rare-earth ion doping of chalcogenide fibers for IR fluorescence emission. The IR light sources, lasers and amplifiers developed using this phenomena will be very useful in civil, medical and military applications. Remote IR spectroscopy and imaging using flexible fibers will be realized for applications. Other future research areas which will inevitably be explored includes non-linear opti...

  19. Combining in silico evolution and nonlinear dimensionality reduction to redesign responses of signaling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-12-01

    The rational design of network behavior is a central goal of synthetic biology. Here, we combine in silico evolution with nonlinear dimensionality reduction to redesign the responses of fixed-topology signaling networks and to characterize sets of kinetic parameters that underlie various input-output relations. We first consider the earliest part of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling network and demonstrate that it can produce a variety of input-output relations (quantified as the level of TCR phosphorylation as a function of the characteristic TCR binding time). We utilize an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to identify sets of kinetic parameters that give rise to: (i) sigmoidal responses with the activation threshold varied over 6 orders of magnitude, (ii) a graded response, and (iii) an inverted response in which short TCR binding times lead to activation. We also consider a network with both positive and negative feedback and use the EA to evolve oscillatory responses with different periods in response to a change in input. For each targeted input-output relation, we conduct many independent runs of the EA and use nonlinear dimensionality reduction to embed the resulting data for each network in two dimensions. We then partition the results into groups and characterize constraints placed on the parameters by the different targeted response curves. Our approach provides a way (i) to guide the design of kinetic parameters of fixed-topology networks to generate novel input-output relations and (ii) to constrain ranges of biological parameters using experimental data. In the cases considered, the network topologies exhibit significant flexibility in generating alternative responses, with distinct patterns of kinetic rates emerging for different targeted responses.

  20. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  1. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  2. Estimating nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S. A.

    1988-03-01

    Time and frequency domain identification methods for nonlinear systems are reviewed. Parametric methods, prediction error methods, structure detection, model validation, and experiment design are discussed. Identification of a liquid level system, a heat exchanger, and a turbocharge automotive diesel engine are illustrated. Rational models are introduced. Spectral analysis for nonlinear systems is treated. Recursive estimation is mentioned.

  3. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Korytowski, A; Malanowski, K; Mitkowski, W; Szymkat, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain

  4. Engineered nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.

    1999-01-01

    We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...

  5. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  6. Nonlinear Maneuver Autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.

  7. Comprehending the Evolving Leadership Role of the Consultant Designer in the New Product Development Process in Mature Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Maciver, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Seismic shifts in 21st century market conditions – globalisation, immediate digital communications, rapidly developing technologies, an ever more sophisticated, knowledgeable consumer – create a new landscape for organisations seeking to create products of greater value, which better meet evolving needs and desires. While the marketing-led approach, dominant in the past half-century, focused on persuasion, design, with its specialised tools, is suggested to be more adept and flexible than mar...

  8. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  9. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  10. Flexible Blades for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Madeline Carlisle; Macphee, David; Harris, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown that windmills with flexible blades are more efficient than those with rigid blades. Flexibility offers passive pitch control, preferable to active pitch control which is costly and requires maintenance. Flexible blades morph such that the blade more closely resembles its design point at part load and over load. The lift-to-drag ratios on individual blades was investigated. A mold was designed and machined from an acrylic slab for the casting of blades with a NACA 0012 cross section. A flexible blade was cast from silicone and a rigid blade was cast from polyurethane. Each of these blades was tested in a wind tunnel, cantilever mounted, spanning the whole test section. The angle of attack was varied by rotating the mount. All tests were performed at the same wind speed. A load cell within the mount measured forces on the blade, from which the lift and drag forces were calculated. The stall point for the flexible blade occurred later than for the rigid blade, which agrees with previous research. Lift-to-drag ratios were larger for the flexible blade at all angles of attack tested. Flexible blades seem to be a viable option for passive pitch control. Future research will include different airfoil cross sections, wind speeds, and blade materials. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  11. Swarming: flexible roaming plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan D; Harshey, Rasika M

    2013-03-01

    Movement over an agar surface via swarming motility is subject to formidable challenges not encountered during swimming. Bacteria display a great deal of flexibility in coping with these challenges, which include attracting water to the surface, overcoming frictional forces, and reducing surface tension. Bacteria that swarm on "hard" agar surfaces (robust swarmers) display a hyperflagellated and hyperelongated morphology. Bacteria requiring a "softer" agar surface (temperate swarmers) do not exhibit such a dramatic morphology. For polarly flagellated robust swarmers, there is good evidence that restriction of flagellar rotation somehow signals the induction of a large number of lateral flagella, but this scenario is apparently not relevant to temperate swarmers. Swarming bacteria can be further subdivided by their requirement for multiple stators (Mot proteins) or a stator-associated protein (FliL), secretion of essential polysaccharides, cell density-dependent gene regulation including surfactant synthesis, a functional chemotaxis signaling pathway, appropriate cyclic (c)-di-GMP levels, induction of virulence determinants, and various nutritional requirements such as iron limitation or nitrate availability. Swarming strategies are as diverse as the bacteria that utilize them. The strength of these numerous designs stems from the vantage point they offer for understanding mechanisms for effective colonization of surface niches, acquisition of pathogenic potential, and identification of environmental signals that regulate swarming. The signature swirling and streaming motion within a swarm is an interesting phenomenon in and of itself, an emergent behavior with properties similar to flocking behavior in diverse systems, including birds and fish, providing a convenient new avenue for modeling such behavior.

  12. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.

    1978-05-01

    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  13. A linearized input-output representation of flexible multibody systems for control synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jan B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; van Dijk, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a linearized input–output representation of flexible multibody systems is proposed in which an arbitrary combination of positions, velocities, accelerations, and forces can be taken as input variables and as output variables. The formulation is based on a nonlinear finite element

  14. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  15. PyEvolve: a toolkit for statistical modelling of molecular evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Matthew J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Examining the distribution of variation has proven an extremely profitable technique in the effort to identify sequences of biological significance. Most approaches in the field, however, evaluate only the conserved portions of sequences – ignoring the biological significance of sequence differences. A suite of sophisticated likelihood based statistical models from the field of molecular evolution provides the basis for extracting the information from the full distribution of sequence variation. The number of different problems to which phylogeny-based maximum likelihood calculations can be applied is extensive. Available software packages that can perform likelihood calculations suffer from a lack of flexibility and scalability, or employ error-prone approaches to model parameterisation. Results Here we describe the implementation of PyEvolve, a toolkit for the application of existing, and development of new, statistical methods for molecular evolution. We present the object architecture and design schema of PyEvolve, which includes an adaptable multi-level parallelisation schema. The approach for defining new methods is illustrated by implementing a novel dinucleotide model of substitution that includes a parameter for mutation of methylated CpG's, which required 8 lines of standard Python code to define. Benchmarking was performed using either a dinucleotide or codon substitution model applied to an alignment of BRCA1 sequences from 20 mammals, or a 10 species subset. Up to five-fold parallel performance gains over serial were recorded. Compared to leading alternative software, PyEvolve exhibited significantly better real world performance for parameter rich models with a large data set, reducing the time required for optimisation from ~10 days to ~6 hours. Conclusion PyEvolve provides flexible functionality that can be used either for statistical modelling of molecular evolution, or the development of new methods in the

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of cardiovascular ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiogai, Y. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Stefanovska, A. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); McClintock, P.V.E. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.v.e.mcclintock@lancaster.ac.uk

    2010-03-15

    The application of methods drawn from nonlinear and stochastic dynamics to the analysis of cardiovascular time series is reviewed, with particular reference to the identification of changes associated with ageing. The natural variability of the heart rate (HRV) is considered in detail, including the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) corresponding to modulation of the instantaneous cardiac frequency by the rhythm of respiration. HRV has been intensively studied using traditional spectral analyses, e.g. by Fourier transform or autoregressive methods, and, because of its complexity, has been used as a paradigm for testing several proposed new methods of complexity analysis. These methods are reviewed. The application of time-frequency methods to HRV is considered, including in particular the wavelet transform which can resolve the time-dependent spectral content of HRV. Attention is focused on the cardio-respiratory interaction by introduction of the respiratory frequency variability signal (RFV), which can be acquired simultaneously with HRV by use of a respiratory effort transducer. Current methods for the analysis of interacting oscillators are reviewed and applied to cardio-respiratory data, including those for the quantification of synchronization and direction of coupling. These reveal the effect of ageing on the cardio-respiratory interaction through changes in the mutual modulation of the instantaneous cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Analyses of blood flow signals recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry are reviewed and related to the current understanding of how endothelial-dependent oscillations evolve with age: the inner lining of the vessels (the endothelium) is shown to be of crucial importance to the emerging picture. It is concluded that analyses of the complex and nonlinear dynamics of the cardiovascular system can illuminate the mechanisms of blood circulation, and that the heart, the lungs and the vascular system function as a single entity in

  17. Flexible Learning in a Digital World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Moonen, Jef

    2002-01-01

    Defines flexible learning and describes components of flexible learning in higher education, including technology, pedagogy or instructional approach, implementation strategies, and institutional framework. Considers factors constraining learning flexibility; changing student characteristics; and the need for lifelong learning, particularly in the…

  18. Evolved Mechanisms Versus Underlying Conditional Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astorga Miguel López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The social contracts theory claims that, in social exchange circumstances, human reasoning is not necessarily led by logic, but by certain evolved mental mechanisms that are useful for catching offenders. An emblematic experiment carried out with the intention to prove this thesis is the first experiment described by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby in their paper of 2000. Lopez Astorga has questioned that experiment claiming that its results depend on an underlying conditional logical form not taken into account by Fiddick, Cosmides, and Tooby. In this paper, I propose an explanation alternative to that of Lopez Astorga, which does not depend on logical forms and is based on the mental models theory. Thus, I conclude that this other alternative explanation is one more proof that the experiment in question does not demonstrate the fundamental thesis of the social contracts theory.

  19. Evolving Classifiers: Methods for Incremental Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Hulley, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a classifier to take on new information and classes by evolving the classifier without it having to be fully retrained is known as incremental learning. Incremental learning has been successfully applied to many classification problems, where the data is changing and is not all available at once. In this paper there is a comparison between Learn++, which is one of the most recent incremental learning algorithms, and the new proposed method of Incremental Learning Using Genetic Algorithm (ILUGA). Learn++ has shown good incremental learning capabilities on benchmark datasets on which the new ILUGA method has been tested. ILUGA has also shown good incremental learning ability using only a few classifiers and does not suffer from catastrophic forgetting. The results obtained for ILUGA on the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Wine datasets are good, with an overall accuracy of 93% and 94% respectively showing a 4% improvement over Learn++.MT for the difficult multi-class OCR dataset.

  20. Quantum mechanics in an evolving Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Artacho, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Many basis sets for electronic structure calculations evolve with varying external parameters, such as moving atoms in dynamic simulations, giving rise to extra derivative terms in the dynamical equations. Here we revisit these derivatives in the context of differential geometry, thereby obtaining a more transparent formalisation, and a geometrical perspective for better understanding the resulting equations. The effect of the evolution of the basis set within the spanned Hilbert space separates explicitly from the effect of the turning of the space itself when moving in parameter space, as the tangent space turns when moving in a curved space. New insights are obtained using familiar concepts in that context such as the Riemann curvature. The differential geometry is not strictly that for curved spaces as in general relativity, a more adequate mathematical framework being provided by fibre bundles. The language used here, however, will be restricted to tensors and basic quantum mechanics. The local gauge imp...

  1. THE J STRUCTURE IN ECONOMIC EVOLVING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fukang; CHEN Qinghua

    2003-01-01

    The economic evolution exhibits complexity. Behind the variable and fiuctuant economic data there exists basic characters and rules. One basic structure in economic evolving process called as "J" structure is studied by us. This kind of structure exists in a wide area, such as economic growth, technology innovation, international trade, education, human capital, ecology and environment etc. From the view of economic evolution, J structure has the character that system should suffer the pressure of initial investment with profit decreasing but get larger return afterwards. It is a kind of adaptation in complex economic systems; it reflects the adaptive and reformative ability of the system under the surrounding change. We illustrate the J structure by discussing economic growth. Based on a two-dimension dynamic system the geometric character and mechanism of J structure are studied, also the phase graphs with its condition are given. Also some further works are discussed.

  2. Design of Evolvable Hardware for Robotic Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated on-line learning system toevolve programmabl e logic array (PLA) controllers for navigating an autonomous robot in a two-dime n sional environment. The integrated on-line learning system consists of two lear n ing modules: one is the module of reinforcement learning based on temporal-diff e rence learning based on genetic algorithms, and the other is the module of evolu tionary learning based on genetic algorithms. The control rules extracted from t he module of reinforcement learning can be used as input to the module of evolut ionary learning, and quickly implemented by the PLA through on-line evolution. T he on-line evolution has shown promise as a method of learning systems in compl e x environment. The evolved PLA controllers can successfully navigate the robot t o a target in the two-dimensional environment while avoiding collisions with ra ndomly positioned obstacles.

  3. Production and decay of evolving horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M; Nielsen, Alex; Visser, Matt

    2006-01-01

    We consider a simple physical model for an evolving horizon that is strongly interacting with its environment, exchanging arbitrarily large quantities of matter with its environment in the form of both infalling material and outgoing Hawking radiation. We permit fluxes of both lightlike and timelike particles to cross the horizon, and ask how the horizon grows and shrinks in response to such flows. We place a premium on providing a clear and straightforward exposition with simple formulae. To be able to handle such a highly dynamical situation in a simple manner we make one significant physical restriction, that of spherical symmetry, and two technical mathematical restrictions: (1) We choose to slice the spacetime in such a way that the space-time foliations (and hence the horizons) are always spherically symmetric. (2) Furthermore we adopt Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates (which are well suited to the problem because they are nonsingular at the horizon) in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We find...

  4. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedian, M; Jafari, G R; Kertesz, J

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences peoples willingness to contact others: A friendly contact may be turned to unfriendly to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected (SI) disease spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heiders theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte-Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find loc...

  5. Resiliently evolving supply-demand networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubido, Nicolás; Baptista, Murilo S

    2013-01-01

    The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for nowadays distribution systems. In this Letter, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralisation of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of suppliers/consumers characteristics. We analyse these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current UK power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.

  6. Resiliently evolving supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for distribution systems nowadays. In this work, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations, i.e., without overloading. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralization of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of supplier and consumer characteristics. We analyze these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current United Kingdom power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.

  7. The Evolving Structure of Galactic Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, H; McGee, S; Gibson, B; Kawata, D; Martel, Hugo; Brook, Chris; Gee, Sean Mc; Gibson, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Observations suggest that the structural parameters of disk galaxies have not changed greatly since redshift 1. We examine whether these observations are consistent with a cosmology in which structures form hierarchically. We use SPH/N-body galaxy-scale simulations to simulate the formation and evolution of Milky-Way-like disk galaxies by fragmentation, followed by hierarchical merging. The simulated galaxies have a thick disk, that forms in a period of chaotic merging at high redshift, during which a large amount of alpha-elements are produced, and a thin disk, that forms later and has a higher metallicity. Our simulated disks settle down quickly and do not evolve much since redshift z~1, mostly because no major mergers take place between z=1 and z=0. During this period, the disk radius increases (inside-out growth) while its thickness remains constant. These results are consistent with observations of disk galaxies at low and high redshift.

  8. Ensuring Query Compatibility with Evolving XML Schemas

    CERN Document Server

    Genevès, Pierre; Quint, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    During the life cycle of an XML application, both schemas and queries may change from one version to another. Schema evolutions may affect query results and potentially the validity of produced data. Nowadays, a challenge is to assess and accommodate the impact of theses changes in rapidly evolving XML applications. This article proposes a logical framework and tool for verifying forward/backward compatibility issues involving schemas and queries. First, it allows analyzing relations between schemas. Second, it allows XML designers to identify queries that must be reformulated in order to produce the expected results across successive schema versions. Third, it allows examining more precisely the impact of schema changes over queries, therefore facilitating their reformulation.

  9. Properties of evolving e-mail networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; de Wilde, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    Computer viruses spread by attaching to an e-mail message and sending themselves to users whose addresses are in the e-mail address book of the recipients. Here we investigate a simple model of an evolving e-mail network, with nodes as e-mail address books of users and links as the records of e-mail addresses in the address books. Within specific periods, some new links are generated and some old links are deleted. We study the statistical properties of this e-mail network and observe the effect of the evolution on the structure of the network. We also find that the balance between the generation procedure and deletion procedure is dependent on different parameters of the model.

  10. Regulatory mechanisms link phenotypic plasticity to evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have a remarkable capacity to respond to environmental change. They can either respond directly, by means of phenotypic plasticity, or they can slowly adapt through evolution. Yet, how phenotypic plasticity links to evolutionary adaptability is largely unknown. Current studies of plasticity tend to adopt a phenomenological reaction norm (RN) approach, which neglects the mechanisms underlying plasticity. Focusing on a concrete question - the optimal timing of bacterial sporulation - we here also consider a mechanistic approach, the evolution of a gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying plasticity. Using individual-based simulations, we compare the RN and GRN approach and find a number of striking differences. Most importantly, the GRN model results in a much higher diversity of responsive strategies than the RN model. We show that each of the evolved strategies is pre-adapted to a unique set of unseen environmental conditions. The regulatory mechanisms that control plasticity therefore critically link phenotypic plasticity to the adaptive potential of biological populations.

  11. Language as a coordination tool evolves slowly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Social living ultimately depends on coordination between group members, and communication is necessary to make this possible. We suggest that this might have been the key selection pressure acting on the evolution of language in humans and use a behavioural coordination model to explore the impact of communication efficiency on social group coordination. We show that when language production is expensive but there is an individual benefit to the efficiency with which individuals coordinate their behaviour, the evolution of efficient communication is selected for. Contrary to some views of language evolution, the speed of evolution is necessarily slow because there is no advantage in some individuals evolving communication abilities that much exceed those of the community at large. However, once a threshold competence has been achieved, evolution of higher order language skills may indeed be precipitate. PMID:28083091

  12. A local-world evolving hypernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Complex hypernetworks are ubiquitous in the real system. It is very important to investigate the evolution mechanisms. In this paper, we present a local-world evolving hypernetwork model by taking into account the hyperedge growth and local-world hyperedge preferential attachment mechanisms. At each time step, a newly added hyperedge encircles a new coming node and a number of nodes from a randomly selected local world. The number of the selected nodes from the local world obeys the uniform distribution and its mean value is m. The analytical and simulation results show that the hyperdegree approximately obeys the power-law form and the exponent of hyperdegree distribution is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we numerically investigate the node degree, hyperedge degree, clustering coefficient, as well as the average distance, and find that the hypernetwork model shares the scale-free and small-world properties, which shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the real systems.

  13. Evolving roles of highly successful mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    This article was written groom mentors, old and new, by identifying the evolving roles that highly successful mentors in order to share wisdom with their protégés. First aspiring mentors need to become subject matter experts in their profession by achieving the relevant benchmarks of mastery in their career fields. Next, they must win the coveted role of respected leader by being trustworthy and putting the development of others first. The mastery of knowledge and earning of respect must also be balanced by genuine humility if the mentor is to be effective in sharing what he or she knows. Highly successful mentors are teachers, plain and simple, and they are most effective in this role when they have a deep passion for teaching. By properly using reflection, adroit mentors look back upon their many adventures and carefully select critical stories to share with their protégés. While outstanding mentors have a lot to say, they need to spend most of their time listening to those they mentor to ensure that they understand their protégés' individualized needs and goals. To help protégés through the setbacks and disappointments that can accompany an Army career, high-speed mentors need to don the role of optimistic cheerleaders, encouraging those they mentor and restoring hope. Once a striving mentor has finally reached the summit of mentoring and is a trusted counselor, he or she must continue to nurture and protect this fragile, but most influential role. Lastly, great mentors need to be consummate students of both their profession and mentoring so that they remain vital and responsive to those they mentor. In closing, it is hoped that by considering and embracing these evolving roles, dedicated students of mentoring will derive a deeper satisfaction and have greater success in this critically important leadership responsibility.

  14. EEVEE: the Empathy-Enhancing Virtual Evolving Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Jackson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a multifaceted emotional and mental faculty that is often found to be affected in a great number of psychopathologies, including schizophrenia, yet it remains very difficult to measure in an ecological context. The challenge stems partly from the complexity and fluidity of this social process, but also from its covert nature. A powerful tool to enhance experimental control over such dynamic social interactions is the use of avatars in virtual reality (VR, and one way to collect information about an individual in an interaction is through the analysis of his or her neurophysiological and behavioural responses. We have developed a unique platform, the Empathy-Enhancing Virtual Evolving Environment (EEVEE, which is built around three main components: 1 different avatars capable of expressing feelings and emotions at various levels based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS; 2 systems for measuring the physiological responses of the observer (heart and respiration rate, skin conductance, gaze and eye movements, facial expression; and 3 a multimodal interface linking the avatar’s behaviour to the observer’s neurophysiological response. In this article, we provide a detailed description of the components of this innovative platform and validation data from the first phases of development. Our data show that healthy adults can discriminate different negative emotions, including pain, expressed by avatars at varying intensities. We also provide evidence that masking part of an avatar’s face (top or bottom half does not prevent the detection of different levels of pain. Overall, this innovative and flexible platform provides a unique tool to study and even modulate empathy in a comprehensive and ecological manner in number of populations suffering from neurological or psychiatric disorders.

  15. Evolving circuits in seconds: experiments with a stand-alone board-level evolvable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, A.; Zebulum, R. S.; Ferguson, M. I.; Keymeulen, D.; Duong, V.; Guo, X.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to illustrate a stand-alone board-level evolvable system (SABLES) and its performance, and second to illustrate some problems that occur during evolution with real hardware in the loop, or when the intention of the user is not completely reflected in the fitness function.

  16. Development of Flexible Software Process Lines with Variability Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Joachim; Dohrmann, Patrick; Kuhrmann, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Software processes evolve over time and several approaches were proposed to support the required flexibility. Yet, little is known whether these approaches sufficiently support the development of large software processes. A software process line helps to systematically develop and manage...... families of processes and, as part of this, variability operations provide means to modify and reuse pre-defined process assets. Objective: Our goal is to evaluate the feasibility of variability operations to support the development of flexible software process lines. Method: We conducted a longitudinal...... study in which we studied 5 variants of the V-Modell XT process line for 2 years. Results: Our results show the variability operation instrument feasible in practice. We analyzed 616 operation exemplars addressing various customization scenarios, and we found 87 different operation types contributed...

  17. Pyvolve: A Flexible Python Module for Simulating Sequences along Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Stephanie J; Wilke, Claus O

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Pyvolve, a flexible Python module for simulating genetic data along a phylogeny using continuous-time Markov models of sequence evolution. Easily incorporated into Python bioinformatics pipelines, Pyvolve can simulate sequences according to most standard models of nucleotide, amino-acid, and codon sequence evolution. All model parameters are fully customizable. Users can additionally specify custom evolutionary models, with custom rate matrices and/or states to evolve. This flexibility makes Pyvolve a convenient framework not only for simulating sequences under a wide variety of conditions, but also for developing and testing new evolutionary models. Pyvolve is an open-source project under a FreeBSD license, and it is available for download, along with a detailed user-manual and example scripts, from http://github.com/sjspielman/pyvolve.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF MATERIAL FLOW IN FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V.S. BHASKAR,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible manufacturing systems have evolved as a solution to efficient mid-volume production of a variety of part types with low setup time, low work-in-process, low inventory, short manufacturing lead time, high machine utilization and high quality. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS is a computer controlled manufacturing system composed of separate workstations that are inter-connected by automatic material handling system. FMS can produce a number of different parts concurrently. Each part requires different operations in a certain sequence and workstations can typically perform a variety of operations. In this work, a material and information flow analysis as well as an analysis of the department and machines layout is made using genetic algorithm and Tabu search. This method reduces the manufacturing lead-time to produce the components and in-turn gives monetary benefits to the industry.

  19. A positive mood, a flexible brain

    OpenAIRE

    Betzel, Richard F.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Gold, Joshua I.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible reconfiguration of human brain networks supports cognitive flexibility and learning. However, modulating flexibility to enhance learning requires an understanding of the relationship between flexibility and brain state. In an unprecedented longitudinal data set, we investigate the relationship between flexibility and mood, demonstrating that flexibility is positively correlated with emotional state. Our results inform the modulation of brain state to enhance response to training in h...

  20. The Life-Changing Magic of Nonlinearity in Network Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Sean

    The proper functioning and reliability of many man-made and natural systems is fundamentally tied to our ability to control them. Indeed, applications as diverse as ecosystem management, emergency response and cell reprogramming all, at their heart, require us to drive a system to--or keep it in--a desired state. This process is complicated by the nonlinear dynamics inherent to most real systems, which has traditionally been viewed as the principle obstacle to their control. In this talk, I will discuss two ways in which nonlinearity turns this view on its head, in fact representing an asset to the control of complex systems. First, I will show how nonlinearity in the form of multistability allows one to systematically design control interventions that can deliberately induce ``reverse cascading failures'', in which a network spontaneously evolves to a desirable (rather than a failed) state. Second, I will show that nonlinearity in the form of time-varying dynamics unexpectedly makes temporal networks easier to control than their static counterparts, with the former enjoying dramatic and simultaneous reductions in all costs of control. This is true despite the fact that temporality tends to fragment a network's structure, disrupting the paths that allow the directly-controlled or ``driver'' nodes to communicate with the rest of the network. Taken together, these studies shed new light on the crucial role of nonlinearity in network control, and provide support to the idea we can control nonlinearity, rather than letting nonlinearity control us.