Intrinsic electromagnetic solitary vortices in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.; Horton, W.
1986-01-01
Several Rossby type vortex solutions constructed for electromagnetic perturbations in magnetized plasma encounter the difficulty that the perturbed magnetic field and the parallel current are not continuous on the boundary between two regions. We find that fourth order differential equations must be solved to remove this discontinuity. Special solutions for two types of boundary value problems for the fourth order partial differential equations are presented. By applying these solutions to different nonlinear equations in magnetized plasma, the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary drift-Alfven vortex (along with solitary Alfven vortex) and the intrinsic electromagnetic solitary electron vortex (along with short-wavelength drift vortex) are constructed. While still keeping a localized dipole structure, these new vortices have more complicated radial structures in the inner and outer regions than the usual Rossby wave vortex. The new type of vortices guarantees the continuity of the perturbed magnetic field deltaB/sub perpendicular/ and the parallel current j/sub parallel/ on the boundary between inner and outer regions of the vortex. The allowed regions of propagation speeds for these vortices are analyzed, and we find that the complementary relation between the vortex propagating speeds and the corresponding phase velocities of the linear modes no longer exists
Electromagnetic solitary waves in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Holm, D.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1985-03-01
A Hamiltonian formulation, in terms of noncanonical Poisson bracket, is presented for a nonlinear fluid system that includes reduced magnetohydrodynamics and the Hasegawa-Mima equation as limiting cases. The single-helicity and axisymmetric versions possess three nonlinear Casimir invariants, from which a generalized potential can be constructed. Variation of the generalized potential yields a description of exact nonlinear stationary states. The new equilibria, allowing for plasma flow as well as partial electron adiabaticity, are distinct from those found in conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. They differ from electrostatic stationary states in containing plasma current and magnetic field excitation. One class of steady-state solutions is shown to provide a simple electromagnetic generalization of drift-solitary waves
Electromagnetic solitary vortices in rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.; Horton, W.
1985-12-01
The nonlinear equations describing drift-Alfven solitary vortices in a low β, rotating plasma are derived. Two types of solitary vortex solutions along with their corresponding nonlinear dispersion relations are obtained. Both solutions have the localized coherent dilopar structure. The first type of solution belongs to the family of the usual Rossby or drift wave vortex, while the second type of solution is intrinsic to the electromagnetic perturbation in a magnetized plasma and is a complicated structure. While the first type of vortex is a solution to a second order differential equation the second one is the solution of a fourth order differential equation intrinsic to the electromagnetic problem. The fourth order vortex solution has two intrinsic space scales in contrast to the single space scale of the previous drift vortex solution. With the second short scale length the parallel current density at the vortex interface becomes continuous. As special cases the rotational electron drift vortex and the rotational ballooning vortex also are given. 10 refs
Nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tribeche, Mouloud; Aoutou, Kamel; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia
2009-01-01
The problem of nonlinear positron acoustic solitary waves involving the dynamics of mobile cold positrons is addressed. A theoretical work is presented to show their existence and possible realization in a simple four-component plasma model. The results should be useful for the understanding of the localized structures that may occur in space and laboratory plasmas as new sources of cold positrons are now well developed.
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1984-01-01
Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction betwe...... nonlinearity. The balance between dispersion and nonlinearity in the equation is investigated.......Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...
Controlling of the electromagnetic solitary waves generation in the wake of a two-color laser
Pan, K. Q.; Li, S. W.; Guo, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Z. C.; Zheng, C. Y.; Jiang, S. E.; Zhang, B. H.; He, X. T.
2018-05-01
Electromagnetic solitary waves generated by a two-color laser interaction with an underdense plasma are investigated. It is shown that, when the former wave packet of the two-color laser is intense enough, it will excite nonlinear wakefields and generate electron density cavities. The latter wave packets will beat with the nonlinear wakefield and generate both high-frequency and low-frequency components. When the peak density of the cavities exceeds the critical density of the low-frequency component, this part of the electromagnetic field will be trapped to generate electromagnetic solitary waves. By changing the laser and plasma parameters, we can control the wakefield generation, which will also control the generation of the solitary waves. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to prove the controlling of the solitary waves. The simulation results also show that solitary waves generated by higher laser intensities will become moving solitary waves. The two-dimensional particle-in-cell also shows the generation of the solitary waves. In the two-dimensional case, solitary waves are distributed in the transverse directions because of the filamentation instability.
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1987-01-01
In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results ar...... are compared with predictions of conservation theorems for energy and momentum....
The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.
2013-01-01
d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.
Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena
Ponath, H-E
1991-01-01
In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are
Is DNA a nonlinear dynamical system where solitary conformational ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
DNA is considered as a nonlinear dynamical system in which solitary conformational waves can be excited. The ... nonlinear differential equations and their soliton-like solu- .... structure and dynamics can be added till the most accurate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song
2011-01-01
Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.
Measurement of Ultra-Short Solitary Electromagnetic Pulses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Gescheidtova
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In connection with the events of the last few years and with the increased number of terrorist activities, the problem of identification and measurement of electromagnetic weapons or other systems impact occurred. Among these are also microwave sources, which can reach extensive peak power of up to Pmax = 100 MW. Solitary, in some cases several times repeated, impulses lasting from tp E <1, 60>ns, cause the destruction of semiconductor junctions. These days we can find scarcely no human activity, where semiconductor structures are not used. The problem of security support of the air traffic, transportation, computer nets, banks, national strategic data canter’s, and other applications crops up. Several types of system protection from the ultra-short electromagnetic pulses present itself, passive and active protection. The analysis of the possible measuring methods, convenient for the identification and measurement of the ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses in presented in this paper; some of the methods were chosen and used for practical measurement. This work is part of Research object MSM262200022 "Research of microelectronic systems".
Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with variable convection coefficients. BHARDWAJ S B SINGH RAM MEHAR SHARMA KUSHAL MISHRA S C. Regular Volume 86 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 1253-1258 ...
Nonlinear classical theory of electromagnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisello, D.
1977-01-01
A topological theory of electric charge is given. Einstein's criteria for the completion of classical electromagnetic theory are summarized and their relation to quantum theory and the principle of complementarity is indicated. The inhibiting effect that this principle has had on the development of physical thought is discussed. Developments in the theory of functions on nonlinear spaces provide the conceptual framework required for the completion of electromagnetism. The theory is based on an underlying field which is a continuous mapping of space-time into points on the two-sphere. (author)
Nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves in electron-positron plasmas
Lazarus, I. J.; Bharuthram, R.; Moolla, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.
2016-02-01
The generation of nonlinear electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) is explored in a magnetized four component two-temperature electron-positron plasma. Fluid theory is used to derive a set of nonlinear equations for the ESWs, which propagate obliquely to an external magnetic field. The electric field structures are examined for various plasma parameters and are shown to yield sinusoidal, sawtooth and bipolar waveforms. It is found that an increase in the densities of the electrons and positrons strengthen the nonlinearity while the periodicity and nonlinearity of the wave increases as the cool-to-hot temperature ratio increases. Our results could be useful in understanding nonlinear propagation of waves in astrophysical environments and related laboratory experiments.
Current structure of strongly nonlinear interfacial solitary waves
Semin, Sergey; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim; Churaev, Egor
2015-04-01
The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) in two-layer flow are computed within the fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with use of numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITgcm). The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments [Carr & Davies, 2006]. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the computations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model [Thiem et al, 2011]. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the interface and near the bottom are computed. The results demonstrated completely different trajectories at different depths of the model area. Thus, in the surface layer is observed the largest displacement of Lagrangian particles, which can be more than two and a half times larger than the characteristic width of the soliton. Located at the initial moment along the middle pycnocline fluid particles move along the elongated vertical loop at a distance of not more than one third of the width of the solitary wave. In the bottom layer of the fluid moves in the opposite direction of propagation of the internal wave, but under the influence of the reverse flow, when the bulk of the velocity field of the soliton ceases to influence the trajectory, it moves in the opposite direction. The magnitude of displacement of fluid particles in the bottom layer is not more than the half-width of the solitary wave. 1. Carr, M., and Davies, P.A. The motion of an internal solitary wave of depression over a fixed bottom boundary in a shallow, two-layer fluid. Phys. Fluids, 2006, vol. 18, No. 1, 1 - 10. 2. Thiem, O., Carr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arevalo, Edward, E-mail: arevalo@temf.tu-darmstadt.d [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie elektromagnetischer Felder, TEMF, Schlossgartenstr. 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2009-09-21
The effect of instability on the propagation of solitary waves along one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation with cubic nonlinearity is revisited. A self-contained quasicontinuum approximation is developed to derive closed-form expressions for small-amplitude solitary waves. The notion that the existence of nonlinear solitary waves in discrete systems is a signature of the modulation instability is used. With the help of this notion we conjecture that instability effects on moving solitons can be qualitative estimated from the analytical solutions. Results from numerical simulations are presented to support this conjecture.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Lixin; Yin Jiuli
2004-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equation C(m,n,p) and by using four direct ansatzs, we obtain abundant solutions: compactons (solutions with the absence of infinite wings), solitary patterns solutions having infinite slopes or cups, solitary waves and singular periodic wave solutions and obtain kink compacton solutions and nonsymmetry compacton solutions. We also study other forms of fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equation, and their compacton solutions are governed by linear equations
Nonlinear electromagnetic susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Peter H.
2005-01-01
Fully electromagnetic nonlinear susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas are analyzed in detail. Concrete expressions of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility are found in various forms in the literature, usually in connection with the discussions of various three-wave decay processes, but the third-order susceptibilities are rarely discussed. The second-order susceptibility is pertinent to nonlinear wave-wave interactions (i.e., the decay/coalescence), whereas the third-order susceptibilities affect nonlinear wave-particle interactions (i.e., the induced scattering). In the present article useful approximate analytical expressions of these nonlinear susceptibilities that can be readily utilized in various situations are derived
Exact solitary and periodic wave solutions for a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Chengfeng; Gao Hongjun
2009-01-01
The generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation (GNLS) iu t + u xx + β | u | 2 u + γ | u | 4 u + iα (| u | 2 u) x + iτ(| u | 2 ) x u = 0 is studied. Using the bifurcation of travelling waves of this equation, some exact solitary wave solutions were obtained in [Wang W, Sun J,Chen G, Bifurcation, Exact solutions and nonsmooth behavior of solitary waves in the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Int J Bifucat Chaos 2005:3295-305.]. In this paper, more explicit exact solitary wave solutions and some new smooth periodic wave solutions are obtained.
Weakly nonlinear electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzato, F.B.; Schneider, R.S.; Dillenburg, D.
1987-01-01
The modulation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave which is circulary polarized and propagates in a plasma made up of electrons, ions and positrons is investigated. The coefficient of the cubic nonlinear term in the Schroedinger equation may change sign as the relative particle concentrations vary, and consequently a marginal state of modulation instability may exist. To described the system in the neighbourhood of this state an appropriate equation is derived. Particular stationary solutions of this equation are envelope solitary waves, envelope Kinks and envelope hole solitary waves. The dependence of the amplitude of the solutions on the propagation velocity and the particle concentrations is discussed. (author) [pt
Nonlinear electromagnetic waves in a degenerate electron-positron plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Labany, S.K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta (Egypt); El-Taibany, W.F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); El-Samahy, A.E.; Hafez, A.M.; Atteya, A., E-mail: ahmedsamahy@yahoo.com, E-mail: am.hafez@sci.alex.edu.eg, E-mail: ahmed_ateya2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)
2015-08-15
Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), the nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic solitary waves in an ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron-positron (EP) plasma (containing ultracold, degenerate electron, and positron fluids) is investigated. The set of basic equations is reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest-order perturbed magnetic field and to a KdV type equation for the higher-order perturbed magnetic field. The solutions of these evolution equations are obtained. For better accuracy and searching on new features, the new solutions are analyzed numerically based on compact objects (white dwarf) parameters. It is found that including the higher-order corrections results as a reduction (increment) of the fast (slow) electromagnetic wave amplitude but the wave width is increased in both cases. The ranges where the RPT can describe adequately the total magnetic field including different conditions are discussed. (author)
Low-frequency electromagnetic solitary and shock waves in an inhomogeneous dusty magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
2003-01-01
It is shown that the nonlinear dynamics of one-dimensional Shukla mode [Phys. Lett. A 316, 238 (2003)] is governed by a modified Kortweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. The latter admits stationary solutions in the form of either a solitary wave or a monotonic/oscillatory shock. The present nonlinear waves may help to understand the salient features of localized density and magnetic field structures in molecular dusty clouds as well as in low-temperature laboratory dusty plasma discharges
On the interaction of small-scale linear waves with nonlinear solitary waves
Xu, Chengzhu; Stastna, Marek
2017-04-01
In the study of environmental and geophysical fluid flows, linear wave theory is well developed and its application has been considered for phenomena of various length and time scales. However, due to the nonlinear nature of fluid flows, in many cases results predicted by linear theory do not agree with observations. One of such cases is internal wave dynamics. While small-amplitude wave motion may be approximated by linear theory, large amplitude waves tend to be solitary-like. In some cases, when the wave is highly nonlinear, even weakly nonlinear theories fail to predict the wave properties correctly. We study the interaction of small-scale linear waves with nonlinear solitary waves using highly accurate pseudo spectral simulations that begin with a fully nonlinear solitary wave and a train of small-amplitude waves initialized from linear waves. The solitary wave then interacts with the linear waves through either an overtaking collision or a head-on collision. During the collision, there is a net energy transfer from the linear wave train to the solitary wave, resulting in an increase in the kinetic energy carried by the solitary wave and a phase shift of the solitary wave with respect to a freely propagating solitary wave. At the same time the linear waves are greatly reduced in amplitude. The percentage of energy transferred depends primarily on the wavelength of the linear waves. We found that after one full collision cycle, the longest waves may retain as much as 90% of the kinetic energy they had initially, while the shortest waves lose almost all of their initial energy. We also found that a head-on collision is more efficient in destroying the linear waves than an overtaking collision. On the other hand, the initial amplitude of the linear waves has very little impact on the percentage of energy that can be transferred to the solitary wave. Because of the nonlinearity of the solitary wave, these results provide us some insight into wave-mean flow
Nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with an electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.N.; Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.
1990-01-01
The nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with a plasma consisting of two groups of electrons and immobile ions has been studied. It is shown that the interaction is governed by a nonlinear equation for the electromagnetic wave envelope and a driven nonlinear equation for the low-frequency electron fluctuations. The driver for the latter depends explicitly on the spatio-temporal evolution of the electromagnetic wave flux. It is found that, depending on the cold-to-hot electron density ratio, the localized pulse can propagate with sub- as well as supersonic velocities accompanied by compressional or rarefactional density perturbations. The conditions of existence for the different types of solitary pulses are obtained. The present investigation may be relevant to the study of wave-plasma interaction devices such as inertial fusion confinement as well as to ionospheric modification experiments. (author)
Ma, Li-Yuan; Ji, Jia-Liang; Xu, Zong-Wei; Zhu, Zuo-Nong
2018-03-01
We study a nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (dNLS) equation with the term of nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction occurred in nonlinear optical waveguide arrays. By using discrete Fourier transformation, we obtain numerical approximations of stationary and travelling solitary wave solutions of the nonintegrable dNLS equation. The analysis of stability of stationary solitary waves is performed. It is shown that the nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction term has great influence on the form of solitary wave. The shape of solitary wave is important in the electric field propagating. If we neglect the nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction term, much important information in the electric field propagating may be missed. Our numerical simulation also demonstrates the difference of chaos phenomenon between the nonintegrable dNLS equation with nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction and another nonintegrable dNLS equation without the term. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11671255 and 11701510), the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain (Grant No. MTM2016-80276-P (AEI/FEDER, EU)), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2017M621964).
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu
2014-01-01
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete
SPARSE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING USING NONLINEAR LANDWEBER ITERATIONS
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-07-29
A scheme for efficiently solving the nonlinear electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on sparse investigation domains is described. The proposed scheme reconstructs the (complex) dielectric permittivity of an investigation domain from fields measured away from the domain itself. Least-squares data misfit between the computed scattered fields, which are expressed as a nonlinear function of the permittivity, and the measured fields is constrained by the L0/L1-norm of the solution. The resulting minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations, where at each iteration a thresholding function is applied to enforce the sparseness-promoting L0/L1-norm constraint. The thresholded nonlinear Landweber iterations are applied to several two-dimensional problems, where the ``measured\\'\\' fields are synthetically generated or obtained from actual experiments. These numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of the proposed scheme in reconstructing sparse profiles with high permittivity values.
Periodic and solitary wave solutions of cubic–quintic nonlinear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hence, most of the real nonlinear physical equations possess variable ... evolution of the system with time and second term represents the convective flux term. The ... Travelling wave solutions of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations are.
Combined solitary-wave solution for coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Jinping; Tian Huiping; Li Zhonghao; Zhou Guosheng
2004-01-01
Coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations model several interesting physical phenomena. We used a trigonometric function transform method based on a homogeneous balance to solve the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We obtained four pairs of exact solitary-wave solutions including a dark and a bright-soliton pair, a bright- and a dark-soliton pair, a bright- and a bright-soliton pair, and the last pair, a combined bright-dark-soliton pair
On solitary surface waves in cold plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.; Stenflo, L.
1993-01-01
A new type of nonlinear electromagnetic solitary surface waves propagating along the boundary of a cold plasma is discussed. These waves are described by a novel nonlinear evolution equation, obtained when the nonlinear surface currents at the boundary are taken into consideration. (Author)
Solitary wave solutions to nonlinear evolution equations in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1Computer Engineering Technique Department, Al-Rafidain University College, Baghdad, ... applied to extract solutions are tan–cot method and functional variable approaches. ... Consider the nonlinear partial differential equation in the form.
Nonlinear Wave Propagation and Solitary Wave Formation in Two-Dimensional Heterogeneous Media
Luna, Manuel
2011-05-01
Solitary wave formation is a well studied nonlinear phenomenon arising in propagation of dispersive nonlinear waves under suitable conditions. In non-homogeneous materials, dispersion may happen due to effective reflections between the material interfaces. This dispersion has been used along with nonlinearities to find solitary wave formation using the one-dimensional p-system. These solitary waves are called stegotons. The main goal in this work is to find two-dimensional stegoton formation. To do so we consider the nonlinear two-dimensional p-system with variable coefficients and solve it using finite volume methods. The second goal is to obtain effective equations that describe the macroscopic behavior of the variable coefficient system by a constant coefficient one. This is done through a homogenization process based on multiple-scale asymptotic expansions. We compare the solution of the effective equations with the finite volume results and find a good agreement. Finally, we study some stability properties of the homogenized equations and find they and one-dimensional versions of them are unstable in general.
Sparse Reconstruction Schemes for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2016-03-01
Electromagnetic imaging is the problem of determining material properties from scattered fields measured away from the domain under investigation. Solving this inverse problem is a challenging task because (i) it is ill-posed due to the presence of (smoothing) integral operators used in the representation of scattered fields in terms of material properties, and scattered fields are obtained at a finite set of points through noisy measurements; and (ii) it is nonlinear simply due the fact that scattered fields are nonlinear functions of the material properties. The work described in this thesis tackles the ill-posedness of the electromagnetic imaging problem using sparsity-based regularization techniques, which assume that the scatterer(s) occupy only a small fraction of the investigation domain. More specifically, four novel imaging methods are formulated and implemented. (i) Sparsity-regularized Born iterative method iteratively linearizes the nonlinear inverse scattering problem and each linear problem is regularized using an improved iterative shrinkage algorithm enforcing the sparsity constraint. (ii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear inexact Newton method calls for the solution of a linear system involving the Frechet derivative matrix of the forward scattering operator at every iteration step. For faster convergence, the solution of this matrix system is regularized under the sparsity constraint and preconditioned by leveling the matrix singular values. (iii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear Tikhonov method directly solves the nonlinear minimization problem using Landweber iterations, where a thresholding function is applied at every iteration step to enforce the sparsity constraint. (iv) This last scheme is accelerated using a projected steepest descent method when it is applied to three-dimensional investigation domains. Projection replaces the thresholding operation and enforces the sparsity constraint. Numerical experiments, which are carried out using
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emadi, E.; Zahed, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sahand University of Technology, 51335–1996 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-15
The behavior of linear and nonlinear dust ion acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in an unmagnetized quantum dusty plasma, including inertialess electrons and positrons, ions, and mobile negative dust grains, are studied. Reductive perturbation and Sagdeev pseudopotential methods are employed for small and large amplitude DIA solitary waves, respectively. A minimum value of the Mach number obtained for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential. It is observed that the variation on the values of the plasma parameters such as different values of Mach number M, ion to electron Fermi temperature ratio σ, and quantum diffraction parameter H can lead to the creation of compressive solitary waves.
Solitary waves under the competition of linear and nonlinear periodic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapti, Z; Kevrekidis, P G; Konotop, V V; Jones, C K R T
2007-01-01
In this paper, we study the competition of the linear and nonlinear lattices and its effects on the stability and dynamics of bright solitary waves. We consider both lattices in a perturbative framework, whereby the technique of Hamiltonian perturbation theory can be used to obtain information about the existence of solutions, and the same approach, as well as eigenvalue count considerations, can be used to obtain detailed conditions about their linear stability. We find that the analytical results are in very good agreement with our numerical findings and can also be used to predict features of the dynamical evolution of such solutions. A particularly interesting result of these considerations is the existence of a tunable cancellation effect between the linear and nonlinear lattices that allows for increased mobility of the solitary wave
Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Aly R Seadawy
2017-09-13
Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.
Identification and determination of solitary wave structures in nonlinear wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, W.I.; Campbell, D.K.; Hyman, J.M.
1991-01-01
Nonlinear wave phenomena are characterized by the appearance of ''solitary wave coherent structures'' traveling at speeds determined by their amplitudes and morphologies. Assuming that these structures are briefly noninteracting, we propose a method for the identification of the number of independent features and their respective speeds. Using data generated from an exact two-soliton solution to the Korteweg-de-Vries equation, we test the method and discuss its strengths and limitations. 41 refs., 2 figs
Rani, Monika; Bhatti, Harbax S.; Singh, Vikramjeet
2017-11-01
In optical communication, the behavior of the ultrashort pulses of optical solitons can be described through nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This partial differential equation is widely used to contemplate a number of physically important phenomena, including optical shock waves, laser and plasma physics, quantum mechanics, elastic media, etc. The exact analytical solution of (1+n)-dimensional higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation by He's variational iteration method has been presented. Our proposed solutions are very helpful in studying the solitary wave phenomena and ensure rapid convergent series and avoid round off errors. Different examples with graphical representations have been given to justify the capability of the method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Jiu-Ning, E-mail: hanjiuning@126.com; He, Yong-Lin; Luo, Jun-Hua; Nan, Ya-Gong; Han, Zhen-Hai; Dong, Guang-Xing [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Duan, Wen-Shan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Li, Jun-Xiu [College of Civil Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)
2014-01-15
With the consideration of the superthermal electron distribution, we present a theoretical investigation about the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar non-Maxwellian plasma comprised of cold electrons, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. The reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for nonlinear waves in this plasma. We discuss the effects of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision between planar solitary waves. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves and collision-induced nonlinear structure.
Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu
2010-01-01
We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.
Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, A.; Bacha, B. A.; Khan, A. A.; Abdul Jabar, M. S.
2017-12-01
Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) are theoretically investigated at the interface of a dielectric metal and gold. The output pulse from the dielectric is used as the input pulse for the generation of SPPs. The SPPs show soliton-like behavior at the interface. The solitary form of a SPP is maintained under the effects of Kerr nonlinearity, Doppler broadening and Fresnel dragging whereas its phase shift is significantly modified. A 0.3radian phase shift is calculated in the presence of both Kerr nonlinearity and Fresnel dragging in the absence of plasma motion. The phase shift is enhanced to 60radian due to the combined effect of Doppler broadening, Kerr nonlinearity and Fresnel dragging. The results may have significant applications in nano-photonics, optical tweezers, photovoltaic devices, plasmonster and sensing technology.
New method for rekindling the nonlinear solitary waves in Maxwellian complex space plasma
Das, G. C.; Sarma, Ridip
2018-04-01
Our interest is to study the nonlinear wave phenomena in complex plasma constituents with Maxwellian electrons and ions. The main reason for this consideration is to exhibit the effects of dust charge fluctuations on acoustic modes evaluated by the use of a new method. A special method (G'/G) has been developed to yield the coherent features of nonlinear waves augmented through the derivation of a Korteweg-de Vries equation and found successfully the different nature of solitons recognized in space plasmas. Evolutions have shown with the input of appropriate typical plasma parameters to support our theoretical observations in space plasmas. All conclusions are in good accordance with the actual occurrences and could be of interest to further the investigations in experiments and satellite observations in space. In this paper, we present not only the model that exhibited nonlinear solitary wave propagation but also a new mathematical method to the execution.
PLASMA EMISSION BY NONLINEAR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: laripetruzzellis@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)
2015-06-20
The plasma emission, or electromagnetic (EM) radiation at the plasma frequency and/or its harmonic(s), is generally accepted as the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and III radio bursts. Identification and characterization of these solar radio burst phenomena were done in the 1950s. Despite many decades of theoretical research since then, a rigorous demonstration of the plasma emission process based upon first principles was not available until recently, when, in a recent Letter, Ziebell et al. reported the first complete numerical solution of EM weak turbulence equations; thus, quantitatively analyzing the plasma emission process starting from the initial electron beam and the associated beam-plasma (or Langmuir wave) instability, as well as the subsequent nonlinear conversion of electrostatic Langmuir turbulence into EM radiation. In the present paper, the same problem is revisited in order to elucidate the detailed physical mechanisms that could not be reported in the brief Letter format. Findings from the present paper may be useful for interpreting observations and full-particle numerical simulations.
Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium
Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying
2015-01-01
A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066
Electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satorius, E.H.
1975-01-01
An investigation was made of the behavior of strong electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear, cold, collisionless, and uniform plasma. The nonlinearity considered here is due to the nonlinear terms in the fluid equation which is used to describe the plasma. Two cases are studied. First, the case where there is a voltage pulse applied across the plane boundary of a semi-infinite, nonlinear plasma. Two different voltage pulses are considered, i.e., a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. The resulting electromagnetic fields propagating in the nonlinear plasma are found in this case. In the second case, the reflection of incident E-polarized and H-polarized, electromagnetic pulses at various angles of incidence from a nonlinear, semi-infinite plasma are considered. Again, two forms of incident pulses are considered: a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. In case two, the reflected electromagnetic fields are found. In both cases, the method used for finding the fields is to first solve the fluid equation (which describes the plasma) for the nonlinear conduction current in terms of the electric field using a perturbation method (since the nonlinear effects are assumed to be small). Next, this current is substituted into Maxwell's equations, and finally the electromagnetic fields which satisfy the boundary conditions are found. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabry, R.; Shukla, P. K.; Moslem, W. M.
2009-01-01
Properties of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with positive-negative ions and nonthermal electrons are investigated. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the positive-negative ions, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the energy integral equation with a new Sagdeev potential. The latter is analyzed to examine the existence regions of the solitary pulses. It is found that the solitary excitations strongly depend on the mass and density ratios of the positive and negative ions as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Numerical solution of the energy integral equation clears that both positive and negative potentials exist together. It is found that faster solitary pulses are taller and narrower. Furthermore, increasing the electron nonthermality parameter (negative-to-positive ions density ratio) decreases (increases) the localized excitation amplitude but increases (decreases) the pulse width. The present model is used to investigate the solitary excitations in the (H + ,O 2 - ) and (H + ,H - ) plasmas, where they are presented in the D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. This investigation should be helpful in understanding the salient features of the fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in space and in laboratory plasmas where two distinct groups of ions and non-Boltzmann distributed electrons are present.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jin-Yuan; Fang Nian-Qiao; Yuan Xiao-Bo; Zhang Ji; Xue Yu-Long; Wang Xue-Mu
2016-01-01
In the past few decades, the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation had been derived for envelope Rossby solitary waves in a line by employing the perturbation expansion method. But, with the development of theory, we note that the (1+1)-dimensional model cannot reflect the evolution of envelope Rossby solitary waves in a plane. In this paper, by constructing a new (2+1)-dimensional multiscale transform, we derive the (2+1)-dimensional dissipation nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLS) to describe envelope Rossby solitary waves under the influence of dissipation which propagate in a plane. Especially, the previous researches about envelope Rossby solitary waves were established in the zonal area and could not be applied directly to the spherical earth, while we adopt the plane polar coordinate and overcome the problem. By theoretical analyses, the conservation laws of (2+1)-dimensional envelope Rossby solitary waves as well as their variation under the influence of dissipation are studied. Finally, the one-soliton and two-soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation are obtained with the Hirota method. Based on these solutions, by virtue of the chirp concept from fiber soliton communication, the chirp effect of envelope Rossby solitary waves is discussed, and the related impact factors of the chirp effect are given. (paper)
SPARSE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING USING NONLINEAR LANDWEBER ITERATIONS
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2015-01-01
minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations, where at each iteration a thresholding function is applied to enforce the sparseness-promoting L0/L1-norm constraint. The thresholded nonlinear Landweber iterations are applied to several two
Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials
Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin
2016-06-14
An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.
Sparse electromagnetic imaging using nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2015-01-01
A sparse nonlinear electromagnetic imaging scheme is proposed for reconstructing dielectric contrast of investigation domains from measured fields. The proposed approach constructs the optimization problem by introducing the sparsity constraint to the data misfit between the scattered fields expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast and the measured fields and solves it using the nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. The thresholding is applied to the result of every nonlinear Landweber iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in reconstructing sparse dielectric profiles.
Sparse electromagnetic imaging using nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-04-13
A sparse nonlinear electromagnetic imaging scheme is proposed for reconstructing dielectric contrast of investigation domains from measured fields. The proposed approach constructs the optimization problem by introducing the sparsity constraint to the data misfit between the scattered fields expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast and the measured fields and solves it using the nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. The thresholding is applied to the result of every nonlinear Landweber iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in reconstructing sparse dielectric profiles.
Sultana, S.; Schlickeiser, R.
2018-05-01
Fully nonlinear features of heavy ion-acoustic solitary waves (HIASWs) have been investigated in an astrophysical degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (ADRQP) containing relativistically degenerate electrons and non-relativistically degenerate light ion species, and non-degenerate heavy ion species. The pseudo-energy balance equation is derived from the fluid dynamical equations by adopting the well-known Sagdeev-potential approach, and the properties of arbitrary amplitude HIASWs are examined. The small amplitude limit for the propagation of HIASWs is also recovered. The basic features (width, amplitude, polarity, critical Mach number, speed, etc.) of HIASWs are found to be significantly modified by the relativistic effect of the electron species, and also by the variation of the number density of electron, light ion, and heavy ion species. The basic properties of HIASWs, that may propagated in some realistic astrophysical plasma systems (e.g., in white dwarfs), are briefly discussed.
Oblique non-neutral solitary Alfven modes in weakly nonlinear pair plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verheest, Frank; Lakhina, G S
2005-01-01
The equal charge-to-mass ratio for both species in pair plasmas induces a decoupling of the linear eigenmodes between waves that are charge neutral or non-neutral, also at oblique propagation with respect to a static magnetic field. While the charge-neutral linear modes have been studied in greater detail, including their weakly and strongly nonlinear counterparts, the non-neutral mode has received less attention. Here the nonlinear evolution of a solitary non-neutral mode at oblique propagation is investigated in an electron-positron plasma. Employing the framework of reductive perturbation analysis, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (with cubic nonlinearity) for the lowest-order wave magnetic field is obtained. In the linear approximation, the non-neutral mode has its magnetic component orthogonal to the plane spanned by the directions of wave propagation and of the static magnetic field. The linear polarization is not maintained at higher orders. The results may be relevant to the microstructure in pulsar radiation or to the subpulses
Nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic pulses in cold relativistic plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonatto, A.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Fisica, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)
2004-07-01
The propagation of intense electromagnetic pulses in plasmas is a subject of current interest particularly for particle acceleration and laser fusion.In the present analysis we study the self consistent propagation of nonlinear electromagnetic pulses in a one dimensional relativistic electron-ion plasma, from the perspective of nonlinear dynamics. We show how a series of Hamiltonian bifurcations give rise to the electric fields which are of relevance in the subject of particle acceleration. Connections between these bifurcated solutions and results of earlier analysis are made. (authors)
Non-linear electromagnetic interactions in thermal QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.
1994-08-01
The behavior of the non-linear interactions between electromagnetic fields at high temperature is examined. It is shown that, in general, the log(T) dependence on the temperature of the Green functions is simply related to their UV behavior at zero-temperature. It is argued that the effective action describing the nonlinear thermal electromagnetic interactions has a finite limit as T -> ∞. This thermal action approaches, in the long wavelength limit, the negative of the corresponding zero-temperature action. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig
Nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic pulses in cold relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonatto, A.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B.
2004-01-01
The propagation of intense electromagnetic pulses in plasmas is a subject of current interest particularly for particle acceleration and laser fusion.In the present analysis we study the self consistent propagation of nonlinear electromagnetic pulses in a one dimensional relativistic electron-ion plasma, from the perspective of nonlinear dynamics. We show how a series of Hamiltonian bifurcations give rise to the electric fields which are of relevance in the subject of particle acceleration. Connections between these bifurcated solutions and results of earlier analysis are made. (authors)
Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.
1998-01-01
The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)
Theoretical models for ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Shuangchun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Dai, Xiaoyu; Tang, Zhixiang; Su, Wenhua; Fan, Dianyuan
2007-01-01
A metamaterial (MM) differs from an ordinary optical material mainly in that it has a dispersive magnetic permeability and offers greatly enhanced design freedom to alter the linear and nonlinear properties. This makes it possible for us to control the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we report on generic features of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation and demonstrate the controllability of both the linear and nonlinear parameters of models for pulse propagation in MMs. First, we derive a generalized system of coupled three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations (NLSEs) suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in a MM with both nonlinear electric polarization and nonlinear magnetization. The coupled equations recover previous models for pulse propagation in both ordinary material and a MM under the same conditions. Second, by using the coupled NLSEs in the Drude dispersive model as an example, we identify the respective roles of the dispersive electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in ultrashort pulse propagation and disclose some additional features of pulse propagation in MMs. It is shown that, for linear propagation, the sign and magnitude of space-time focusing can be controlled through adjusting the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability. For nonlinear propagation, the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability are incorporated into the nonlinear magnetization and nonlinear polarization, respectively, resulting in controllable magnetic and electric self-steepening effects and higher-order dispersively nonlinear terms in the propagation models
Nonlinear Electromagnetic Stabilization of Plasma Microturbulence
Whelan, G. G.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.
2018-04-01
The physical causes for the strong stabilizing effect of finite plasma β on ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence, which far exceeds quasilinear estimates, are identified from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The primary contribution stems from a resonance of frequencies in the dominant nonlinear interaction between the unstable mode, the stable mode, and zonal flows, which maximizes the triplet correlation time and therefore the energy transfer efficiency. A modification to mixing-length transport estimates is constructed, which reproduces nonlinear heat fluxes throughout the examined β range.
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Ishibashi, Kazuya
2018-06-01
We study self-propelled particles by direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear Kramers equation for self-propelled particles. In our previous paper, we studied self-propelled particles with velocity variables in one dimension. In this paper, we consider another model in which each particle exhibits directional motion. The movement direction is expressed with a variable ϕ. We show that one-dimensional solitary wave states appear in direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear Kramers equation in one- and two-dimensional systems, which is a generalization of our previous result. Furthermore, we find two-dimensionally localized states in the case that each self-propelled particle exhibits rotational motion. The center of mass of the two-dimensionally localized state exhibits circular motion, which implies collective rotating motion. Finally, we consider a simple one-dimensional model equation to qualitatively understand the formation of the solitary wave state.
Fusion an annihilation of solitary waves for a (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiang, Ji-Ye [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China). Agronomy College; Lishui Univ., Zhejiang (China). College of Mathematics and Physics; Yunnan Agricultural Univ., Kunming (China). Tobacco College; Ma, Song-Hua; Ren, Qing-Bao [Lishui Univ., Zhejiang (China). College of Mathematics and Physics; Wang, Shao-Hua [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China). Agronomy College
2010-12-15
In this paper, a new projective equation is used to obtain the variable separation solutions with two arbitrary functions of the (2+1)-dimensional Broek-Kaup system (BKK). Based on the derived solitary wave solutions and by selecting appropriate functions, some novel localized excitations such as fusion and annihilation of solitary waves are investigated. (orig.)
Inc, Mustafa; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Baleanu, Dumitru
2018-01-01
This paper addresses the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CNLSE) in monomode step-index in optical fibers which describes the nonlinear modulations of two monochromatic waves, whose group velocities are almost equal. A class of dark, bright, dark-bright and dark-singular optical solitary wave solutions of the model are constructed using the complex envelope function ansatz. Singular solitary waves are also retrieved as bye products of the in integration scheme. This naturally lead to some constraint conditions placed on the solitary wave parameters which must hold for the solitary waves to exist. The modulation instability (MI) analysis of the model is studied based on the standard linear-stability analysis. Numerical simulation and physical interpretations of the obtained results are demonstrated. It is hoped that the results reported in this paper can enrich the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of the CNLSE.
Li, Nianqiang; Susanto, H; Cemlyn, B R; Henning, I D; Adams, M J
2018-02-19
We study the nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with a range of waveguide structures. The analysis is performed with a detailed direct numerical simulation, where high-resolution dynamic maps are generated to identify regions of dynamic instability in the parameter space of interest. Our combined one- and two-parameter bifurcation analysis uncovers globally diverse dynamical regimes (steady-state, oscillation, and chaos) in the solitary laser arrays, which are greatly influenced by static design waveguiding structures, the amplitude-phase coupling factor of the electric field, i.e. the linewidth-enhancement factor, as well as the control parameter, e.g. the pump rate. When external optical injection is introduced to one element of the arrays, we show that the whole system can be either injection-locked simultaneously or display rich, different dynamics outside the locking region. The effect of optical injection is to significantly modify the nature and the regions of nonlinear dynamics from those found in the solitary case. We also show similarities and differences (asymmetry) between the oscillation amplitude of the two elements of the array in specific well-defined regions, which hold for all the waveguiding structures considered. Our findings pave the way to a better understanding of dynamic instability in large arrays of lasers.
Iterative Nonlinear Tikhonov Algorithm with Constraints for Electromagnetic Tomography
Xu, Feng; Deshpande, Manohar
2012-01-01
Low frequency electromagnetic tomography such as the capacitance tomography (ECT) has been proposed for monitoring and mass-gauging of gas-liquid two-phase system under microgravity condition in NASA's future long-term space missions. Due to the ill-posed inverse problem of ECT, images reconstructed using conventional linear algorithms often suffer from limitations such as low resolution and blurred edges. Hence, new efficient high resolution nonlinear imaging algorithms are needed for accurate two-phase imaging. The proposed Iterative Nonlinear Tikhonov Regularized Algorithm with Constraints (INTAC) is based on an efficient finite element method (FEM) forward model of quasi-static electromagnetic problem. It iteratively minimizes the discrepancy between FEM simulated and actual measured capacitances by adjusting the reconstructed image using the Tikhonov regularized method. More importantly, it enforces the known permittivity of two phases to the unknown pixels which exceed the reasonable range of permittivity in each iteration. This strategy does not only stabilize the converging process, but also produces sharper images. Simulations show that resolution improvement of over 2 times can be achieved by INTAC with respect to conventional approaches. Strategies to further improve spatial imaging resolution are suggested, as well as techniques to accelerate nonlinear forward model and thus increase the temporal resolution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Yonggui; Lu Chao
2007-01-01
In this paper, the Boussinesq-like equations with fully nonlinear dispersion, B(2n, 2n) equations: u tt + (u 2n ) xx + (u 2n ) xxxx 0 which exhibit compactons: solitons with compact support, are studied. New exact solitary solutions with compact support are found. The special case B(2, 2) is chosen to illustrate the concrete scheme of the decomposition method in B(2n, 2n) equations. General formulas for the solutions of B(2n, 2n) equations are established
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.
2008-01-01
The nonlinear properties of solitary wave structures are reported in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma comprising of cold relativistic electron fluid, Maxwellian hot electrons, relativistic electron beam, and stationary ions. The Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using a reductive perturbation theory. As the wave amplitude increases, the width and velocity of the soliton deviate from the prediction of the KdV equation i.e. the breakdown of the KdV approximation. On the other hand, to overcome this weakness we extend our analysis to obtain the KdV equation with fifth-order dispersion term. The solution of the resulting equation has been obtained
Sparse Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging Accelerated With Projected Steepest Descent Algorithm
Desmal, Abdulla
2017-04-03
An efficient electromagnetic inversion scheme for imaging sparse 3-D domains is proposed. The scheme achieves its efficiency and accuracy by integrating two concepts. First, the nonlinear optimization problem is constrained using L₀ or L₁-norm of the solution as the penalty term to alleviate the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. The resulting Tikhonov minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations (NLW). Second, the efficiency of the NLW is significantly increased using a steepest descent algorithm. The algorithm uses a projection operator to enforce the sparsity constraint by thresholding the solution at every iteration. Thresholding level and iteration step are selected carefully to increase the efficiency without sacrificing the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed imaging scheme in reconstructing sparse 3-D dielectric profiles.
Nonlinear metamaterials for electromagnetic energy harvesting (Conference Presentation)
Oumbe Tekam, Gabin Thibaut; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan
2016-09-01
Surrounded by electromagnetic radiation coming from wireless power transfer to consumer devices such as mobile phones, computers and television, our society is facing the scientific and technological challenge to recover energy that is otherwise lost to the environment. Energy harvesting is an emerging field of research focused on this largely unsolved problem, especially in the microwave regime. Metamaterials provide a very promising platform to meet this purpose. These artificial materials are made from subwavelength building blocks, and can be designed by resonate at particular frequencies, depending on their shape, geometry, size, and orientation. In this work, we show that an efficient electromagnetic energy harvester can be design by inserting a nonlinear element directly within the metamaterial unit cell, leading to the conversion of RF input power to DC charge accumulation. The electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is built from a cut-wire metasurface, which operates as a quasistatic electric dipole resonator. Using the equivalent electrical circuit, we design the parameters to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency, and we compare these results with numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss the efficiency of our metamaterial energy harvesters. This work potentially offers a variety of applications, for example in the telecommunications industry to charge phones, in robotics to power microrobots, and also in medicine to advance pacemakers or health monitoring sensors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunlong Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We solve the so-called dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation by means of multiple scales analysis and perturbation method to describe envelope solitary Rossby waves with dissipation effect in stratified fluids. By analyzing the evolution of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves, it is found that the shear of basic flow, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and β effect are important factors to form the envelope solitary Rossby waves. By employing trial function method, the asymptotic solution of dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived. Based on the solution, the effect of dissipation on the evolution of envelope solitary Rossby wave is also discussed. The results show that the dissipation causes a slow decrease of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves and a slow increase of width, while it has no effect on the propagation velocity. That is quite different from the KdV-type solitary waves. It is notable that dissipation has certain influence on the carrier frequency.
Arqub, Omar Abu; El-Ajou, Ahmad; Momani, Shaher
2015-07-01
Building fractional mathematical models for specific phenomena and developing numerical or analytical solutions for these fractional mathematical models are crucial issues in mathematics, physics, and engineering. In this work, a new analytical technique for constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions of time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations is proposed based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. The new approach provides solutions in the form of a rapidly convergent series with easily computable components using symbolic computation software. For method evaluation and validation, the proposed technique was applied to three different models and compared with some of the well-known methods. The resultant simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority and potentiality of the proposed technique in terms of the quality performance and accuracy of substructure preservation in the construct, as well as the prediction of solitary pattern solutions for time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations.
A sparse electromagnetic imaging scheme using nonlinear landweber iterations
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-10-26
Development and use of electromagnetic inverse scattering techniques for imagining sparse domains have been on the rise following the recent advancements in solving sparse optimization problems. Existing techniques rely on iteratively converting the nonlinear forward scattering operator into a sequence of linear ill-posed operations (for example using the Born iterative method) and applying sparsity constraints to the linear minimization problem of each iteration through the use of L0/L1-norm penalty term (A. Desmal and H. Bagci, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag, 7, 3878–3884, 2014, and IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 3, 532–536, 2015). It has been shown that these techniques produce more accurate and sharper images than their counterparts which solve a minimization problem constrained with smoothness promoting L2-norm penalty term. But these existing techniques are only applicable to investigation domains involving weak scatterers because the linearization process breaks down for high values of dielectric permittivity.
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form
Homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies with nonlinear electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollick, Dan N.
2008-01-01
In this paper I examine cosmological models that contain a stochastic background of nonlinear electromagnetic radiation. I show that for Born-Infeld electrodynamics the equation of state parameter, w=P/ρ, remains close to 1/3 throughout the evolution of the universe if E 2 =B 2 in the late universe to a high degree of accuracy. Theories with electromagnetic Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 +αF 4 have recently been studied in magnetic universes, where the electric field vanishes. It was shown that the F 4 term can produce a bounce in the early universe, avoiding an initial singularity. Here I show that the inclusion of an electric field, with E 2 ≅B 2 in the late universe, eliminates the bounce and the universe begins with an initial singularity. I also examine theories with Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 -μ 8 /F 2 , which have been shown to produce a period of late time accelerated expansion in magnetic universes. I show that, if an electric field is introduced, the accelerated phase will only occur if E 2 2 .
Fully Electromagnetic Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Equations for Tokamak Edge Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Wang, Lu; Madsen, J.
2008-01-01
An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high E x B shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method ensures the preservation of the conservation laws of the underlying Vlasov-Maxwell system. Our generalized ordering takes ρ i θi ∼ L E ∼ L p i is the thermal ion Larmor radius and ρ θi = B/B θ ρ i ), as typically observed in the tokamak H-mode edge, with L E and L p being the radial electric field and pressure gradient lengths. We take k # perpendicular# ρ i ∼ 1 for generality, and keep the relative fluctuation amplitudes e(delta)φ/T i ∼ (delta)B/B up to the second order. Extending the electrostatic theory in the presence of high E x B shear [Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)], contributions of electromagnetic fluctuations to the particle charge density and current are explicitly evaluated via pull-back transformation from the gyrocenter distribution function in the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equation
Three-dimensional electromagnetic solitary waves in an underdense plasma in PIC simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, Sergei; Esirkepov, Timur; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Pegoraro, Francesco
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional sub-cycle relativistic electromagnetic soliton has been observed for the first time in a 3D Particle-in-Cell simulation of the propagation of an intense short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The structure of the 3D soliton is identified. It resembles an oscillating electric dipole and has a strong charge separation and toroidal magnetic field component. We call this structure a TM-soliton (transverse magnetic). The 3D TM-soliton resembles a 2D P-soliton in the plane of electric field polarization, and a 2D S-soliton in the perpendicular plane. The core of the soliton is positively charged on average in time, and this results in its Coulomb explosion and in ion heating. Then the soliton evolves into a post-soliton, which is a slowly expanding quasi-neutral cavity in the plasma
A preconditioned inexact newton method for nonlinear sparse electromagnetic imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2015-03-01
A nonlinear inversion scheme for the electromagnetic microwave imaging of domains with sparse content is proposed. Scattering equations are constructed using a contrast-source (CS) formulation. The proposed method uses an inexact Newton (IN) scheme to tackle the nonlinearity of these equations. At every IN iteration, a system of equations, which involves the Frechet derivative (FD) matrix of the CS operator, is solved for the IN step. A sparsity constraint is enforced on the solution via thresholded Landweber iterations, and the convergence is significantly increased using a preconditioner that levels the FD matrix\\'s singular values associated with contrast and equivalent currents. To increase the accuracy, the weight of the regularization\\'s penalty term is reduced during the IN iterations consistently with the scheme\\'s quadratic convergence. At the end of each IN iteration, an additional thresholding, which removes small \\'ripples\\' that are produced by the IN step, is applied to maintain the solution\\'s sparsity. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method in recovering sparse and discontinuous dielectric profiles with high contrast values.
Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.
1993-01-01
The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results
Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, A. R.; Arshad, M.; Wang, Jun
In this paper, new exact solitary wave, soliton and elliptic function solutions are constructed in various forms of three dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in mathematical physics by utilizing modified extended direct algebraic method. Soliton solutions in different forms such as bell and anti-bell periodic, dark soliton, bright soliton, bright and dark solitary wave in periodic form etc are obtained, which have large applications in different branches of physics and other areas of applied sciences. The obtained solutions are also presented graphically. Furthermore, many other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering can also be solved by this powerful, reliable and capable method. The nonlinear three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamica equation and (3 + 1)-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation are selected to show the reliability and effectiveness of the current method.
Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim
1996-01-01
in an exponentially decreasing width of the solution in the long-time limit. We also find that a sufficiently large noise variance may cause an initially localized distribution to spread instead of contracting, and that the critical variance necessary to cause dispersion will for small damping be the same......We study the effect of adding noise and nonlinear damping in the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS). Using a collective approach, we find that for initial conditions where total collapse occurs in the unperturbed NLS, the presence of the damping term will instead...
Traveling solitary wave solutions to evolution equations with nonlinear terms of any order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Zhaosheng
2003-01-01
Many physical phenomena in one- or higher-dimensional space can be described by nonlinear evolution equations, which can be reduced to ordinary differential equations such as the Lienard equation. Thus, to study those ordinary differential equations is of significance not only in mathematics itself, but also in physics. In this paper, a kind of explicit exact solutions to the Lienard equation is obtained. The applications of the solutions to the nonlinear RR-equation and the compound KdV-type equation are presented, which extend the results obtained in the previous literature
Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the properties of heat transfer are examined theoretically.
Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the prop- erties of heat transfer are examined ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.
1998-01-01
The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...
Exact solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations via Exp-function method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebaid, A.
2007-01-01
Based on the Exp-function method, exact solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations are obtained. The KdV equation, Burgers' equation and the combined KdV-mKdV equation are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method
Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panayotis Panayotaros
2010-08-01
Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inc, Mustafa
2007-01-01
In this paper, the nonlinear dispersive Zakharov-Kuznetsov ZK(m, n, k) equations are solved exactly by using the Adomian decomposition method. The two special cases, ZK(2, 2, 2) and ZK(3, 3, 3), are chosen to illustrate the concrete scheme of the decomposition method in ZK(m, n, k) equations. General formulas for the solutions of ZK(m, n, k) equations are established
On exact solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raju, T Solomon; Kumar, C Nagaraja; Panigrahi, Prasanta K
2005-01-01
We use a fractional transformation to connect the travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE), phase locked with a source, to the elliptic equations satisfying, f-Prime ± af ± λf 3 = 0. The solutions are necessarily of rational form, containing both trigonometric and hyperbolic types as special cases. Bright and dark solitons, as well as singular solitons, are obtained in a suitable range of parameter values. (letter to the editor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H.; Okuda, H.
1994-06-01
We study linear and nonlinear properties of a new computer simulation model developed to study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The model is constructed by combining a microscopic model used in the semi-classical approximation for the dielectric media and the particle model developed for the plasma simulations. It is shown that the model may be useful for studying linear and nonlinear wave propagation in the dielectric media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren He
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.
Knotted solutions for linear and nonlinear theories: Electromagnetism and fluid dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel W.F. Alves
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We examine knotted solutions, the most simple of which is the “Hopfion”, from the point of view of relations between electromagnetism and ideal fluid dynamics. A map between fluid dynamics and electromagnetism works for initial conditions or for linear perturbations, allowing us to find new knotted fluid solutions. Knotted solutions are also found to be solutions of nonlinear generalizations of electromagnetism, and of quantum-corrected actions for electromagnetism coupled to other modes. For null configurations, electromagnetism can be described as a null pressureless fluid, for which we can find solutions from the knotted solutions of electromagnetism. We also map them to solutions of Euler's equations, obtained from a type of nonrelativistic reduction of the relativistic fluid equations.
Grammatico, Sara; Scalzulli, Emilia; Petrucci, Maria Teresa
2017-01-01
Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease characterized by a localized proliferation of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells, without evidence of systemic disease. It can be subdivided into solitary bone plasmacytoma, if the lesion originates in bone, or solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma, if the lesion involves a soft tissue. Incidence of solitary bone plasmacytoma is higher than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Also prognosis is different: even if both forms respond well to treatment, ov...
A sparse electromagnetic imaging scheme using nonlinear landweber iterations
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2015-01-01
Development and use of electromagnetic inverse scattering techniques for imagining sparse domains have been on the rise following the recent advancements in solving sparse optimization problems. Existing techniques rely on iteratively converting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugaya, R.; Ue, A.; Maehara, T.; Sugawa, M.
1996-01-01
Acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam by cascading nonlinear Landau damping involving three or four intense electromagnetic waves in a plasma are studied theoretically based on kinetic wave equations and transport equations derived from relativistic Vlasov endash Maxwell equations. Three or four electromagnetic waves excite successively two or three nonresonant beat-wave-driven relativistic electron plasma waves with a phase velocity near the speed of light [v p =c(1-γ -2 p ) 1/2 , γ p =ω/ω pe ]. Three beat waves interact nonlinearly with the electron beam and accelerate it to a highly relativistic energy γ p m e c 2 more effectively than by the usual nonlinear Landau damping of two electromagnetic waves. It is proved that the electron beam can be accelerated to more highly relativistic energy in the plasma whose electron density decreases temporally with an appropriate rate because of the temporal increase of γ p . copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.
2007-01-01
We report observations of the dynamics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Λ system when the ground states are Stark shifted. Interactions of this type exhibit large optical nonlinearities called Kerr nonlinearities, and have numerous applications. The EIT Kerr nonlinearity is relatively slow, which is a limiting factor that may make many potential applications impossible. Using rubidium atoms, we observe the dynamics of the EIT Kerr nonlinearity using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure phase modulation of the EIT fields resulting from a pulsed signal beam Stark shifting the ground state energy levels. The rise times and transients agree well with theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Krivchenkov, I.V.; Denisov, I.P.
2002-01-01
The study on the electromagnetic waves propagation in the neutron star magnetic dipole and gravitation fields, taking place according to the vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics laws, is carried out. It is shown that depending on the polarization the electromagnetic signals in this field propagate by different beams and with various velocities. The law on these signals motion by beams is established. The calculation of differences in the times of the electromagnetic signals propagation, having the same source up to the detector, is presented. It is shown that this difference in some cases may reach enough measurable value of 1 μs [ru
Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)
2017-03-15
We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2015-02-01
An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) based time domain electric field volume integral equation (TDVIE) solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers with nonlinear material properties is proposed. Discretization of the unknown electric field intensity and flux density is carried out by half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson basis functions, respectively. Coupled system of spatially discretized TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between the field intensity and the flux density is integrated in time to compute the samples of the unknowns. An explicit PE(CE)m scheme is used for this purpose. Explicitness allows for \\'easy\\' incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function only to be evaluated on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. A numerical example that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed MOT scheme to analyzing electromagnetic interactions on Kerr-nonlinear scatterers is presented. © 2015 IEEE.
Diffractons: Solitary Waves Created by Diffraction in Periodic Media
Ketcheson, David I.; Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2015-01-01
A new class of solitary waves arises in the solution of nonlinear wave equations with constant impedance and no dispersive terms. These solitary waves depend on a balance between nonlinearity and a dispersion-like effect due to spatial variation
Application of the descriptive function on non-linear electromagnetic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, H.T.
1982-01-01
This paper presents the solution of the nonlinear plan wave equation in non-equilibrium dielectric medium. The descriptive function appears as a useful tool to describe the medium response when it is possible to consider intensive electromagnetic response. Despite it has been considered an ideal situation of a limitless nonlinear medium, the results constitute a solid basis to mold more complex processes, such as those which take place in the plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Jeong Sam
2010-01-01
In this paper, the design and nonlinear simulation of a multistable electromagnetic microactuator, which provides four stable equilibrium positions within its operating range, have been discussed. Quadstable actuator motion has been made possible by using both X- and Y-directional bistable structures with snapping curved beams. Two pairs of the curved beams are attached to an inner frame in both X- and Y-directions to realize independent bistable behavior in each direction. For the actuation of the actuator at the micrometer scale, an electromagnetic actuation method in which Lorentz force is taken into consideration was used. By using this method, micrometer-stroke quadstability in a plane parallel to a substrate was possible. The feasibility of designing an actuator that can realize quadstable motion by using the electromagnetic actuation method has been thoroughly clarified by performing nonlinear static and dynamic analyses and electrothermal coupled-field analysis of the multistable microactuator
Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in negative-refraction-index composite materials.
Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K
2005-07-01
We investigate the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in left-handed materials. For this purpose, we consider a set of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which govern the dynamics of coupled electric and magnetic field envelopes. The CNLS equations are used to obtain a nonlinear dispersion, which depicts the modulational stability profile of the coupled plane-wave solutions in left-handed materials. An exact (in)stability criterion for modulational interactions is derived, and analytical expressions for the instability growth rate are obtained.
Kuang-Leman; Wu Yong Shi
2003-01-01
We study linear and nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium interacting with two quantized laser fields in the adiabatic EIT case. We show that the EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion. Kerr and higher-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients are also calculated in a completely analytical form. It is indicated that the EIT medium exhibits giant resonantly enhanced nonlinearities. We discuss the response of the EIT medium to nonclassical light fields and find that the polarization vanishes when the probe laser is initially in a nonclassical state of no single-photon coherence.
A preconditioned inexact newton method for nonlinear sparse electromagnetic imaging
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2015-01-01
to tackle the nonlinearity of these equations. At every IN iteration, a system of equations, which involves the Frechet derivative (FD) matrix of the CS operator, is solved for the IN step. A sparsity constraint is enforced on the solution via thresholded
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Yin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits active control and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. However, the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension introduces a significant extra mass on the unsprung mass due to the inertia of the rotating components of the actuator. The magnitude of the introduced unsprung mass is studied based on a gearbox type actuator and a ball screw type actuator. The geometry of the suspension and the actuator also influence the equivalent unsprung mass significantly. The suspension performance simulation or control logic derived should take this equivalent unsprung mass into account. Besides, an extra force should be compensated due to the nonlinear features of the suspension structure and it is studied. The active force of the actuator should compensate this extra force. The discovery of this paper provides a fundamental for evaluating the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension performance and control strategy derived as well as controlling the electromagnetic actuated active suspension more precisely.
Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bugay А.N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.
Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H
2008-01-21
We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, N.N.
1998-01-01
A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.
1981-10-01
A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-05-04
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging
Desmal, Abdulla
2014-01-06
Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.
Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere
Wong, Alfred Y.
1999-09-01
The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.
Multi-component optical solitary waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.
2000-01-01
We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.
Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic disturbances in the equatorial F region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazonov, S.V.
1990-01-01
Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic dicturbances within equatorial ionosphere F-region resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instability, gradient-drift instability and recombination processes is investigated on the basis of two-liquid quasihydrodynamics equations. It is shown, that at positive linear increment the oscillations are developing in regime with aggregation and are terminated by increment the effect of threshold destabilization, when under certain initial conditions underlgoes oscillation nonlinear swinging, resulting, as well, in bubble formation in contrast to small damping oscillations, is detected
Some models of propagation of extremely short electromagnetic pulses in a nonlinear medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maimistov, Andrei I
2000-01-01
Some cases of model media considered in this paper allow analytical solutions to nonlinear wave equations to be found and the time dependence of the electric field strength to be determined in the explicit form for arbitrarily short electromagnetic pulses. Our analysis does not employ any assumptions concerning a harmonic carrier wave or the variation rate of the field in such pulses. The class of models considered includes two-level resonance and quasi-resonance systems. Nonresonance media are analysed in terms of models of anharmonic oscillators - the Duffing and Lorentz models. In most cases, only particular solutions describing the stationary propagation of a video pulse (a unipolar transient of the electric field or a pulse including a small number of oscillations of the electric field around zero) can be found. These solutions correspond to sufficiently strong electromagnetic fields when the dispersion inherent in the medium is suppressed by nonlinear processes. (invited paper)
Shoji, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Keika, Kunihiro; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kasahara, Satoshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu
2017-09-01
Electromagnetic plasma waves are thought to be responsible for energy exchange between charged particles in space plasmas. Such an energy exchange process is evidenced by phase space holes identified in the ion distribution function and measurements of the dot product of the plasma wave electric field and the ion velocity. We develop a method to identify ion hole formation, taking into consideration the phase differences between the gyromotion of ions and the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using this method, we identify ion holes in the distribution function and the resulting nonlinear EMIC wave evolution from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. These ion holes are key to wave growth and frequency drift by the ion currents through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which are identified by a computer simulation in this study.
Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, P.; Kuehl, H.H.
1983-01-01
Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are studied for both broad and narrow spectrum excitations. For broad spectrum excitation, the complex modified Korteweg--de Vries equation is modified by two additional terms due to the electromagnetic correction and inhomogeneity. Numerical solutions of this equation for typical tokamak parameters show that these terms suppress soliton formation. For narrow spectrum excitation, the electromagnetic correction produces an additional dispersive term in the differential equation governing the wave envelope. This term opposes thermal dispersion, resulting in significant self-modulation. Numerical solutions show constriction and splitting of the envelope as well as spreading of the Fourier spectrum
Harmonic balance finite element method applications in nonlinear electromagnetics and power systems
Lu, Junwei; Yamada, Sotoshi
2016-01-01
The first book applying HBFEM to practical electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems * Examines and solves wide aspects of practical electrical and electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems presented by HBFEM * Combines the latest research work with essential background knowledge, providing an all-encompassing reference for researchers, power engineers and students of applied electromagnetics analysis * There are very few books dealing with the solution of nonlinear electric- power-related problems * The contents are based on the authors' many years' research and industry experience; they approach the subject in a well-designed and logical way * It is expected that HBFEM will become a more useful and practical technique over the next 5 years due to the HVDC power system, renewable energy system and Smart Grid, HF magnetic used in DC/DC converter, and Multi-pulse transformer for HVDC power supply * HBFEM can provide effective and economic solutions to R&D product development * Includes Matlab e...
Nonlinear electromagnetic fields in 0.5 MHz inductively coupled plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Xu, S.
2003-01-01
Radial profiles of magnetic fields in the electrostatic (E) and electromagnetic (H) modes of low-frequency (similar to500 kHz) inductively coupled plasmas have been measured using miniature magnetic probes. In the low-power (similar to170 W) E-mode, the magnetic field pattern is purely linear......, with the fundamental frequency harmonics only. After transition to higher-power (similar to1130 W) H-mode, the second-harmonic nonlinear azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) that is in 4-6 times larger than the fundamental frequency component B-phi(omega), has been observed. A simplified plasma fluid model...... explaining the generation of the second harmonics of the azimuthal magnetic field in the plasma source is proposed. The nonlinear second harmonic poloidal (r-z) rf current generating the azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) is attributed to nonlinear interactions between the fundamental frequency radial...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Grammatico
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease characterized by a localized proliferation of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells, without evidence of systemic disease. It can be subdivided into solitary bone plasmacytoma, if the lesion originates in bone, or solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma, if the lesion involves a soft tissue. Incidence of solitary bone plasmacytoma is higher than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Also prognosis is different: even if both forms respond well to treatment, overall survival and progression free survival of solitary bone plasmacytoma is poorer than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma due to its higher rate of evolution in multiple myeloma. However, the recent advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma can better refine also the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. Flow cytometry studies and molecular analysis may reveal clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow; magnetic resonance imaging or 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography could better define osteolytic bone lesions. A more precise exclusion of eventual occult systemic involvement can avoid cases of misdiagnosed multiple myeloma patients, that were previously considered solitary plasmacytoma and less treated, with an unavoidable poor prognosis. Due to the rarity of the disease, there is no uniform consensus about prognostic factors and treatment. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice; however, some authors debates about the radiotherapy dose and the relationship with the response rate. Moreover, the role of surgery and chemotherapy is still under debate. Nevertheless, we must consider that the majority of studies include a small number of patients and analyze the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy; few cases are reported concerning the efficacy of novel agents. Keywords: solitary plasmacytoma; myeloma; radiotherapy; osteolytic lesions
Grammatico, Sara; Scalzulli, Emilia; Petrucci, Maria Teresa
2017-01-01
Solitary plasmacytoma is a rare disease characterized by a localized proliferation of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells, without evidence of systemic disease. It can be subdivided into solitary bone plasmacytoma if the lesion originates in bone, or solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma if the lesion involves a soft tissue. The incidence of solitary bone plasmacytoma is higher than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma. Also, the prognosis is different: even if both forms respond well to treatment, overall survival and progression-free survival of solitary bone plasmacytoma are poorer than solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma due to its higher rate of evolution in multiple myeloma. However, the recent advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma can better refine also the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. Flow cytometry studies and molecular analysis may reveal clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow; magnetic resonance imaging or 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography could better define osteolytic bone lesions. A more explicit exclusion of possible occult systemic involvement can avoid cases of misdiagnosed multiple myeloma patients, which were previously considered solitary plasmacytoma and less treated, with an unavoidable poor prognosis. Due to the rarity of the disease, there is no uniform consensus about prognostic factors and treatment. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice; however, some authors debate about the radiotherapy dose and the relationship with the response rate. Moreover, the role of surgery and chemotherapy is still under debate. Nevertheless, we must consider that the majority of studies include a small number of patients and analyze the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy; few cases are reported concerning the efficacy of novel agents.
Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.; Mithaiwala, M.
2014-12-01
Velocity ring instabilities are a common naturally occuring magnetospheric phenomenon that can also be generated by man made ionospheric experiments. These instabilities are known to generate lower-hybrid waves, which generally cannot propagte out of the source region. However, nonlinear wave physics can convert these linearly driven electrostatic lower-hybrid waves into electromagnetic waves that can escape the source region. These nonlinearly generated waves can be an important source of VLF turbulence that controls the trapped electron lifetime in the radiation belts. We develop numerical solutions to the wave-kinetic equation in a periodic box including the effects of nonlinear (NL) scattering (nonlinear Landau damping) of Lower-hybrid waves giving the evolution of the wave-spectra in wavenumber space. Simultaneously we solve the particle diffusion equation of both the background plasma particles and the ring ions, due to both linear and nonlinear Landau resonances. At initial times for cold ring ions, an electrostatic beam mode is excited, while the kinetic mode is stable. As the instability progresses the ring ions heat, the beam mode is stabilized, and the kinetic mode destabilizes. When the amplitude of the waves becomes sufficient the lower-hybrid waves are scattered (by either nearly unmagnetized ions or magnetized electrons) into electromagnetic magnetosonic waves [Ganguli et al 2010]. The effect of NL scattering is to limit the amplitude of the waves, slowing down the quasilinear relaxation time and ultimately allowing more energy from the ring to be liberated into waves [Mithaiwala et al. 2011]. The effects of convection out of the instability region are modeled, additionally limiting the amplitude of the waves, allowing further energy to be liberated from the ring [Scales et al., 2012]. Results are compared to recent 3D PIC simulations [Winske and Duaghton 2012].
Ulku, Huseyin Arda
2014-07-06
Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half
Khater, Mostafa M. A.; Seadawy, Aly R.; Lu, Dianchen
2018-06-01
In this research, we study new two techniques that called the extended simple equation method and the novel (G‧/G) -expansion method. The extended simple equation method depend on the auxiliary equation (dϕ/dξ = α + λϕ + μϕ2) which has three ways for solving depends on the specific condition on the parameters as follow: When (λ = 0) this auxiliary equation reduces to Riccati equation, when (α = 0) this auxiliary equation reduces to Bernoulli equation and when (α ≠ 0, λ ≠ 0, μ ≠ 0) we the general solutions of this auxiliary equation while the novel (G‧/G) -expansion method depends also on similar auxiliary equation (G‧/G)‧ = μ + λ(G‧/G) + (v - 1)(G‧/G) 2 which depend also on the value of (λ2 - 4 (v - 1) μ) and the specific condition on the parameters as follow: When (λ = 0) this auxiliary equation reduces to Riccati equation, when (μ = 0) this auxiliary equation reduces to Bernoulli equation and when (λ2 ≠ 4 (v - 1) μ) we the general solutions of this auxiliary equation. This show how both of these auxiliary equation are special cases of Riccati equation. We apply these methods on two dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Burgers equation in quantum plasma and three-dimensional nonlinear modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation of ion-acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma. We obtain the exact traveling wave solutions of these important models and under special condition on the parameters, we get solitary traveling wave solutions. All calculations in this study have been established and verified back with the aid of the Maple package program. The executed method is powerful, effective and straightforward for solving nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain more and new solutions.
Ambipolarons: Solitary wave solutions for the radial electric field in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hastings, D.E.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1986-01-01
The ambipolar radial electric field in a nonaxisymmetric plasma can be described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This equation is shown to possess solitary wave solutions. A model nonlinear diffusion equation with a cubic nonlinearity is studied. An explicit analytic step-like form for the solitary wave is found. It is shown that the solitary wave solutions are linearly stable against all but translational perturbations. Collisions of these solitary waves are studied and three possible final states are found: two diverging solitary waves, two stationary solitary waves, or two converging solitary waves leading to annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Liang; Huang Guoxiang
2010-01-01
We present a systematic theoretical study to deal with linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened three-level Λ system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with incoherent population exchange between two lower energy levels taken into account. Through a careful analysis of base state and linear excitation, we show that the EIT condition of the system is given by |Ω c | 2 γ 31 >>2γ 21 Δω D 2 , where Ω c is half the Rabi frequency of the control field, Δω D is the Doppler width, and γ jl is the decay rate of the coherence between states |j> and |l>. Under this condition, the effect of incoherent population exchange is insignificant, while dephasing dominates the decoherence of the system. This condition also ensures the validity of the weak nonlinear perturbation theory used in this work for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations with inhomogeneous broadening. We then investigate the nonlinear propagation of the probe field and show that it is possible to form temporal optical solitons in the Doppler-broadened medium. Such solitons have ultraslow propagating velocity and can be generated in very low light power. The possibility of realizing (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial optical solitons in the adiabatic regime of the system is also discussed.
Controlling the stability of nonlinear optical modes via electromagnetically induced transparency
Zhang, Kun; Liang, Yi-zeng; Lin, Ji; Li, Hui-jun
2018-02-01
We propose a scheme to generate and stabilize the high-dimensional spatial solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is a resonant atomic ensemble having Λ configuration. We illustrate that under EIT conditions the equation satisfied by the probe field envelope is reduced to a saturable nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the trapping potential, provided by a far-detuned laser field and a random magnetic field. We present high-dimensional soliton solutions exhibiting many interesting characteristics, including diversity (i.e., many different types of soliton solutions can be found, including bright, ring multipole bright, ring multipole defect mode, multiring bright, multiring defect mode, and vortices solitons), the phase transition between bright soliton and higher-order defect modes (i.e., the phase transition can be realized by controlling the nonlinear coefficient or the intensity of the trapping potential), and stability (i.e., various solitons can be stabilized by the Gaussian potential provided by the far detuned laser field, or the random potential provided by the magnetic field). We also find that some solitons are the extension of the linear eigenmode, whereas others entirely derive from the role of nonlinearity. Compared with previous studies, we not only show the diverse soliton solutions in the same system but also find the boundary of the phase transition for the type of solitons. In addition, we present the possibility of using the random potential to stabilize various solitons and vortices.
Exact solitary waves of the Fisher equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudryashov, Nikolai A.
2005-01-01
New method is presented to search exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations. This approach is used to look for exact solutions of the Fisher equation. New exact solitary waves of the Fisher equation are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Kh.I.; Das, G.C.
1993-01-01
Soliton propagations are studied in a relativistic multicomponent ion-beam plasma through the derivation of Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations. A generalization of the mK-dV equation involving higher order nonlinearities gives a transitive link between the K-dV and mK-dV equations for isothermal plasma, and the validity of this generalized equation throughout the whole range of negative ion concentrations is investigated through the derivation of Sagdeev potential. Parallel discussion of various K-dV solitons enlightening the experimental implications is also made. (author). 22 refs
Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Ahmedov, Bobomurat
2018-04-01
The electromagnetic (EM) perturbations of the black hole solutions in general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics (NED) are studied for both electrically and magnetically charged black holes, assuming that the EM perturbations do not alter the spacetime geometry. It is shown that the effective potentials of the electrically and magnetically charged black holes related to test perturbative NED EM fields are related to the effective metric governing the photon motion, contrary to the effective potential of the linear electrodynamic (Maxwell) field that is related to the spacetime metric. Consequently, corresponding quasinormal (QN) frequencies differ as well. As a special case, we study new family of the NED black hole solutions which tend in the weak field limit to the Maxwell field, giving the Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole solution. We compare the NED Maxwellian black hole QN spectra with the RN black hole QN spectra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Guangling; Hu Xiangming; Zhong Wenxue
2009-01-01
We show that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) light entanglement is obtainable via the resonant nonlinear interactions enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency. A three-level system is used as a unified model, where two metastable states are coupled to each other via microwave, or Raman, or two-photon transition, and the upper metastable state is coupled to the excited state. A pair of inner sidebands is amplified as optical cavity modes via the transition from the excited state to the other metastable state. The analysis is presented by using the dressed-atom squeezed-transformed-mode approach. For a proper ratio of the amplitudes of the applied fields, the sum of the variances for two EPR-like operators approaches zero, which corresponds to EPR entanglement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, B.A.
1987-01-01
Four levels of nonlinear hydrodynamic description are presented for a nondissipative multicondensate solution of superfluids with vorticity. First, the multivelocity superfluid (MVSF) theory is extended to the case of a multivelocity superfluid plasma (MVSP), in which some of the superfluid condensates (protons, say) are charged and coupled electromagnetically to an additional, normal, charged fluid (electrons). The resulting drag-current density is derived due to the electromagnetic coupling of the condensates with the normal fluids. For the case of one charged condensate, the MVSP equations simplify to what we call superfluid Hall magnetohydrodynamics (SHMHD) in the approximation that displacement current and electron inertia are negligible, and local charge neutrality is imposed. The contribution of the charged condensate to the Hall drift force is determined. In turn, neglecting the Hall effect in SHMHD gives the equations of superfluid magnetohydrodynamics (SMHD). Each set of equations (MVSF, MVSP, SHMHD, and SMHD) is shown to be Hamiltonian and to possess a Poisson bracket associated with the dual space of a corresponding semidirect-product Lie algebra with a generalized two-cocycle defined on it. Topological conservation laws (helicities) associated with the kernels of these Lie algebras are also discussed as well as those associated physically with generalized Kelvin theorems for conservation of superfluid circulation around closed loops moving with the normal fluid
A non-linear 3D printed electromagnetic vibration energy harvester
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantinou, P; Roy, S
2015-01-01
This paper describes a novel electromagnetic energy harvester that exploits the low flexural modulus of ABS and comprises of a nonlinear mechanism to enhance the generated power and bandwidth. The device is printed using desktop additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) that use thermoplastics. It has a ‘V’ spring topology and exhibits a softening spring non-linearity introduced through the magnetic arrangement, which introduces a monostable potential well. A model is presented and measurements correspond favourably. The produced prototype generates a peak power of approximately 2.5mW at a frame acceleration of 1g and has a power bandwidth of approximately 1.2→1.5Hz and 3.5→3.9Hz during up and down sweeps respectively. The device has a power density of 0.4mW/cm 3 at a frame acceleration of 1g and a density of 0.04mW/cm 3 from a generated power of 25μW at 0.1g. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Shulai; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiuchen; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong
2014-01-01
Hcp-cobalt particles were successfully prepared by a liquid phase reduction method, and the microstructure, static magnetic properties, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the cobalt particles with irregular shape were investigated in detail. The measured results indicate that the saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals, and the coercivity was larger than that of bulk cobalt crystal. The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance, which may result from the irregular shape containing parts of cutting angle of dodecahedron of cobalt particles. The real part of permeability decreases with the frequency, and the imaginary part has a wide resonant peak. The paraffin-based composite containing 70 wt% cobalt particles possessed strong absorption characteristics with a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz and an absorption band with RL under −10 dB from 8.72 to 13.26 GHz when the thickness is 1.8 mm, which exhibits excellent microwave absorption in middle and high frequency. The architectural design of material morphologies is important for improving microwave absorption properties toward future application. - Highlights: • Hcp-cobalt particles were prepared by a liquid phase reduction method. • The saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals. • The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance. • The real part of permeability decreases with frequency, and the imaginary part presents a wide resonant peak. • The paraffin-based composite possessed a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugaya, Reiji
1989-01-01
General expressions of the matrix elements for nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma are derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The kinetic wave equations obtained for electromagnetic waves are expressed by four-order tensors in the rotating and cartesian coordinates. No restrictions are imposed on the propagation angle to a uniform magnetic field, the Larmor radius, the frequencies, or the wave numbers. By electrostatic approximation of the dielectric tensor and the matrix elements the kinetic wave equations can be applied to the case in which two scattering waves are electrostatic or they are partially electrostatic. Further, the matrix elements in the limit of parallel or perpendicular propagation to the magnetic field are given. (author)
Ruuskanen, J.; Stenvall, A.; Lahtinen, V.; Pardo, E.
2017-02-01
Superconducting magnets are the most expensive series of components produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). When developing such magnets beyond state-of-the-art technology, one possible option is to use high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that are capable of tolerating much higher magnetic fields than low-temperature superconductors (LTS), carrying simultaneously high current densities. Significant cost reductions due to decreased prototype construction needs can be achieved by careful modelling of the magnets. Simulations are used, e.g. for designing magnets fulfilling the field quality requirements of the beampipe, and adequate protection by studying the losses occurring during charging and discharging. We model the hysteresis losses and the magnetic field nonlinearity in the beampipe as a function of the magnet’s current. These simulations rely on the minimum magnetic energy variation principle, with optimization algorithms provided by the open-source optimization library interior point optimizer. We utilize this methodology to investigate a research and development accelerator magnet prototype made of REBCO Roebel cable. The applicability of this approach, when the magnetic field dependence of the superconductor’s critical current density is considered, is discussed. We also scrutinize the influence of the necessary modelling decisions one needs to make with this approach. The results show that different decisions can lead to notably different results, and experiments are required to study the electromagnetic behaviour of such magnets further.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.
2006-01-01
We present a theory describing the transients and rise times of the refractive Kerr nonlinearity which is enhanced using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We restrict our analysis to the case of a pulsed signal field with continuous-wave EIT fields, and all fields are well below saturation. These restrictions enable the reduction of an EIT Kerr, four-level, density-matrix equation to a two-level Bloch-vector equation which has a simple and physically intuitive algebraic solution. The physically intuitive picture of a two-level Bloch vector provides insights that are easily generalized to more complex and experimentally realistic models. We consider generalization to the cases of Doppler broadening, many-level EIT systems (we consider the D1 line of 87 Rb), and optically thick media. For the case of optically thick media we find that the rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect is proportional to the optical thickness. The rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect sets important limitations for potential few-photon applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choubani, M., E-mail: mohsenchoubani3@yahoo.fr; Ben Mahrsia, R.; Bouzaiene, L.; Maaref, H.
2013-12-15
In this paper we explore the effects of the structural dimensions, applied electromagnetic fields, hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the nonlinear optical rectification (NOR) in Vertically Coupled InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots (VCQDs). The analytical expression of the NOR is analyzed by using the density matrix formalism, the effective mass and the Finite Difference Method (FDM). Obtained results show that the NOR obtained with this coupled system is not a monotonic function of the barrier width, electromagnetic fields, pressure and temperature. Also, calculated results reveal that the resonant peaks of the NOR can be blue-shifted or red-shifted energies depending on the energy of the lowest confined states in the VCQDs structure. In addition, this condition can be controlled by changes in the structural dimensions and the external proofs mentioned above. -- Highlights: • In this paper we explore the effects of the barrier width, applied electromagnetic fields, hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the nonlinear optical rectification (NOR) in Vertically Coupled InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots (VCQDs). • The calculated results reveal that the resonant peaks of the NOR can be blue-shifted to large photon energies or red-shifted to lower photon energies. • In this paper, all parameters: electromagnetic fields, pressure and temperature effects are introduced and investigated. • The resonant energy and the magnitude of the NOR are controlled and adjusted.
Grant, Ian S
1990-01-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient
Bakunov, M I; Maslov, A V; Bodrov, S B
2007-11-16
We show that the usual Fresnel formulas for a free-propagating pulse are not applicable for a forced terahertz electromagnetic pulse supported by an optical pulse at the end of a nonlinear crystal. The correct linear reflection and transmission coefficients that we derive show that such pulses can experience a gain or loss at the boundary. This energy change depends on linear dielectric constants only. We also predict a regime where a complete disappearance of the forced pulse under oblique incidence occurs, an effect that has no counterpart for free-propagating pulses.
Solitary drift waves in the presence of magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiss, J.D.; Horton, W.
1982-07-01
The two-component fluid equations describing electron drift and ion acoustic waves in a nonuniform magnetized plasma are shown to possess nonlinear two-dimensional solitary wave solutions. In the presence of magnetic shear, radiative shear damping is exponentially small in L/sub s//L/sub n/ for solitary drift waves, in contrast to linear waves
Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system
Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.
1979-01-01
Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)
Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-05-01
Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.
1982-03-01
NUMB9ER 00 AU THOR(s) 8. CON7RACT OR GRANT .%Uv3ERHj) Frederick Bloom AFOSR-81-0171 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PrOGRAK ELEMAE:NT...material coff -iceret which may be associated with a particular nonlinear dielectric substance. For most common nonlinear dielectric substance, e
Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.
2016-01-01
We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.
Two-color walking Peregrine solitary waves.
Baronio, Fabio; Chen, Shihua; Mihalache, Dumitru
2017-09-15
We study the extreme localization of light, evolving upon a non-zero background, in two-color parametric wave interaction in nonlinear quadratic media. We report the existence of quadratic Peregrine solitary waves, in the presence of significant group-velocity mismatch between the waves (or Poynting vector beam walk-off), in the regime of cascading second-harmonic generation. This finding opens a novel path for the experimental demonstration of extreme rogue waves in ultrafast quadratic nonlinear optics.
Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Bagci, Hakan
2014-01-01
solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidari, E; Aslaninejad, M; Eshraghi, H
2010-01-01
Using a set of relativistic equations for plasmas with warm electrons and cold ions, we have investigated the effects of trapped electrons in the propagation of an electrosound wave and discussed the possibility of the formation of electromagnetic solitons in a plasma. The effective potential energy and deviations of the electron and ion number densities in this relativistic model have been found. We have obtained the governing equations for the amplitude of the HF field with relativistic corrections. In order to show the destructive impact of the trapped electrons on the solitary wave, a relativistic effective potential and the governing equation have been found. It is shown that for certain values of the parameters the condition of localization of the HF amplitude is violated. In addition, it is shown that as the flow velocity of the plasma changes, the shape of the solitary wave shows two opposing behaviours, depending on whether the solitary wave velocity is larger than the flow velocity or smaller. Also, the existence of stationary solitary waves which are prohibited for nonrelativistic plasma has been predicted. Finally, we have obtained the Korteweg-de Vries equation showing the relativistic, trapping and nonlinearity effects.
Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Kawata, S.
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic field in the electron “bubble” regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption
Non-linear diffusion of charged particles due to stochastic electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, A.M.; Balescu, R.; Mendonca, J.T.
1989-01-01
It is well known that the energy confinement times observed in tokamak cannot be explained by the classical or neo-classical transport theory. The alternative explanations are based on the existence of various kinds of micro-instabilities, or on the stochastic destruction of the magnetic surfaces, due to the interaction of magnetic islands of different helicities. In the absence of a well established theory of anomalous transport it is perhaps important to study in some detail the diffusion coefficient of single charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuation, because it can provide the physical grounds for more complete and self-consistent calculations. In the present work we derive a general expression for the transverse diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions in a constant magnetic field and in the presence of space and time dependent electromagnetic fluctuation. We neglect macroscopic drifts due to inhomogeneity and field curvatures, but retain finite Larmor radius effects. (author) 3 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamedi, H R; Ruseckas, J; Juzeliūnas, G
2017-01-01
We consider propagation of a probe pulse in an atomic medium characterized by a combined tripod and Lambda (Λ) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by five light fields. It is demonstrated that dark states can be formed for such an atom-light coupling. This is essential for formation of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and slow light. In the limiting cases the scheme reduces to conventional Λ- or N -type atom-light couplings providing the EIT or absorption, respectively. Thus, the atomic system can experience a transition from the EIT to the absorption by changing the amplitudes or phases of control lasers. Subsequently the scheme is employed to analyze the nonlinear pulse propagation using the coupled Maxwell–Bloch equations. It is shown that a generation of stable slow light optical solitons is possible in such a five-level combined tripod and Λ atomic system. (paper)
Control of Nonlinear Coupled Electromagnetic Actuators for Active Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flow
Seidler, Florian; Trabert, Julius; Dück, Marcel; van Waasen, Stefan; Schiek, Michael; Abel, Dirk; Castelan, E. B.
2016-01-01
The research group FOR1779 “active drag reduction via wavy surface oscillations” develops robust methods for reduction of turbulent friction drag by flow control. The planned concentration on unsteady flow conditions requires a control of the electromagnetic actuator system for generation of transversal surface waves. The bars are positioned in parallel and coupled with an aluminum surface to generate a travelling wave perpendicular to the flow field. The actuator system can be approximately ...
Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas
Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.
1997-01-01
We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Casper Christian I
use as a proxy at four different scales (250, 500, 750 and 1000 m). In 2012, the effect of a four-fold larger area of organic arable fields in simple, homogeneous landscapes on bumblebees and solitary bees was investigated in eight circular landscapes (radius 1000 m). Bumblebees and solitary bees were......Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... assessed. In 2011, bumblebees and solitary bees were trapped in road verges bordering 14 organic (organic sites) and 14 conventional (conventional sites) winter wheat fields. The quantity and quality of local flower resources in the road verge and adjacent field headland were estimated as overall density...
Interaction dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. L. Krasovsky
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Interaction of nonlinear electrostatic pulses associated with electron phase density holes moving in a collisionless plasma is studied. An elementary event of the interaction is analyzed on the basis of the energy balance in the system consisting of two electrostatic solitary waves. It is established that an intrinsic property of the system is a specific irreversibility caused by a nonadiabatic modification of the internal structure of the holes and their effective heating in the process of the interaction. This dynamical irreversibility is closely connected with phase mixing of the trapped electrons comprising the holes and oscillating in the varying self-consistent potential wells. As a consequence of the irreversibility, the "collisions" of the solitary waves should be treated as "inelastic" ones. This explains the general tendency to the merging of the phase density holes frequently observed in numerical simulation and to corresponding coupling of the solitary waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.
1985-01-01
Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irwin Yousept
2010-07-01
Full Text Available An optimal control problem arising in the context of 3D electromagnetic induction heating is investigated. The state equation is given by a quasilinear stationary heat equation coupled with a semilinear time harmonic eddy current equation. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and the presence of pointwise inequality state-constraints represent the main challenge of the paper. In the first part of the paper, the existence and regularity of the state are addressed. The second part of the paper deals with the analysis of the corresponding linearized equation. Some suffcient conditions are presented which guarantee thesolvability of the linearized system. The final part of the paper is concerned with the optimal control. The aim of the optimization is to find the optimal voltage such that a desired temperature can be achieved optimally. The corresponding first-order necessary optimality condition is presented.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
between nonlinear and dispersion effects can result in the formation of symmetrical solitary waves. Also shock ... et al have studied the effect of nonadiabatic dust charge variation on the nonlinear dust acoustic wave with ..... Figure 5 presents the border between oscillatory- and monotonic-type shock waves as functions of ...
... Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule - front view chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology: noninvasive diagnostic imaging. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, ...
Grimshaw, RHJ
2007-01-01
After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...
Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2009-01-01
"Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...
A relativistic solitary wave in electron positron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezhiani, V.I.; Skarka, V.; Mahajan, S.
1993-09-01
The relativistic solitary wave propagation is studied in cold electron-positron plasma embedded in an external arbitrary strong magnetic field. The exact, analytical soliton-like solution corresponding to a localized, purely electromagnetic pulse with arbitrary big amplitude is found. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig
Diffractons: Solitary Waves Created by Diffraction in Periodic Media
Ketcheson, David I.
2015-03-31
A new class of solitary waves arises in the solution of nonlinear wave equations with constant impedance and no dispersive terms. These solitary waves depend on a balance between nonlinearity and a dispersion-like effect due to spatial variation in the sound speed of the medium. A high-order homogenized model confirms this effective dispersive behavior, and its solutions agree well with those obtained by direct simulation of the variable-coefficient system. These waves are observed to be long-time stable, globally attracting solutions that arise in general as solutions to nonlinear wave problems with periodically varying sound speed. They share some properties with known classes of solitary waves but possess important differences as well.
Microtubules: A network for solitary waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zdravković Slobodan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we deal with nonlinear dynamics of microtubules. The structure and role of microtubules in cells are explained as well as one of models explaining their dynamics. Solutions of the crucial nonlinear differential equation depend on used mathematical methods. Two commonly used procedures, continuum and semi-discrete approximations, are explained. These solutions are solitary waves usually called as kink solitons, breathers and bell-type solitons. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45010
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Wollenberg
2004-01-01
Full Text Available An interconnection system whose loads protected by a voltage suppressor and a low-pass filter against overvoltages caused by coupling pulse-shaped electromagnetic waves is analyzed. The external wave influencing the system is assumed as a plane wave with HPM form. The computation is provided by a full-wave PEEC model for the interconnection structure incorporated in the SPICE code. Thus, nonlinear elements of the protection circuit can be included in the calculation. The analysis shows intermodulation distortions and penetrations of low frequency interferences caused by intermodulations through the protection circuits. The example examined shows the necessity of using full-wave models for interconnections together with non-linear circuit solvers for simulation of noise immunity in systems protected by nonlinear devices.
Impact induced solitary wave propagation through a woodpile structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kore, R; Waychal, A; Yadav, P; Shelke, A; Agarwal, S; Sahoo, N; Uddin, Ahsan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate solitary wave propagation through a one-dimensional woodpile structure excited by low and high velocity impact. Woodpile structures are a sub-class of granular metamaterial, which supports propagation of nonlinear waves. Hertz contact law governs the behavior of the solitary wave propagation through the granular media. Towards an experimental study, a woodpile structure was fabricated by orthogonally stacking cylindrical rods. A shock tube facility has been developed to launch an impactor on the woodpile structure at a velocity of 30 m s −1 . Embedded granular chain sensors were fabricated to study the behavior of the solitary wave. The impact induced stress wave is studied to investigate solitary wave parameters, i.e. contact force, contact time, and solitary wave velocity. With the aid of the experimental setup, numerical simulations, and a theoretical solution based on the long wavelength approximation, formation of the solitary wave in the woodpile structure is validated to a reasonable degree of accuracy. The nondispersive and compact supported solitary waves traveling at sonic wave velocity offer unique properties that could be leveraged for application in nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring. (paper)
Analytical study of dissipative solitary waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dini, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamzadeh, Mehdi Molaie [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Sina [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bobin, Jean Louis [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Amrollahi, Reza [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sodagar, Majid [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnegar, Milad [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-02-15
In this paper, the analytical solution to a new class of nonlinear solitons is presented with cubic nonlinearity, subject to a dissipation term arising as a result of a first-order derivative with respect to time, in the weakly nonlinear regime. Exact solutions are found using the combination of the perturbation and Green's function methods up to the third order. We present an example and discuss the asymptotic behavior of the Green's function. The dissipative solitary equation is also studied in the phase space in the non-dissipative and dissipative forms. Bounded and unbounded solutions of this equation are characterized, yielding an energy conversation law for non-dissipative waves. Applications of the model include weakly nonlinear solutions of terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability.
De Conti, Alberto; Silveira, Fernando H.; Visacro, Silvério
2014-05-01
This paper investigates the influence of corona on currents and electromagnetic fields predicted by a return-stroke model that represents the lightning channel as a nonuniform transmission line with time-varying (nonlinear) resistance. The corona model used in this paper allows the calculation of corona currents as a function of the radial electric field in the vicinity of the channel. A parametric study is presented to investigate the influence of corona parameters, such as the breakdown electric field and the critical electric field for the stable propagation of streamers, on predicted currents and electromagnetic fields. The results show that, regardless of the assumed corona parameters, the incorporation of corona into the nonuniform and nonlinear transmission line model under investigation modifies the model predictions so that they consistently reproduce most of the typical features of experimentally observed lightning electromagnetic fields and return-stroke speed profiles. In particular, it is shown that the proposed model leads to close vertical electric fields presenting waveforms, amplitudes, and decay with distance in good agreement with dart leader electric field changes measured in triggered lightning experiments. A comparison with popular engineering return-stroke models further confirms the model's ability to predict consistent electric field waveforms in the close vicinity of the channel. Some differences observed in the field amplitudes calculated with the different models can be related to the fact that current distortion, while present in the proposed model, is ultimately neglected in the considered engineering return-stroke models.
Nonlinear propagation of ultra-low-frequency electronic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.
1999-07-01
A theoretical investigation has been made of nonlinear propagation of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a magnetized two fluid (negatively charged dust and positively charged ion fluids) dusty plasma. These are modified Alfven waves for small value of θ and are modified magnetosonic waves for large θ, where θ is the angle between the directions of the external magnetic field and the wave propagation. A nonlinear evolution equation for the wave magnetic field, which is known as Korteweg de Vries (K-dV) equation and which admits a stationary solitary wave solution, is derived by the reductive perturbation method. The effects of external magnetic field and dust characteristics on the amplitude and the width of these solitary structures are examined. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems, are briefly mentioned. (author)
Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids
Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.
2015-10-01
A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the
Solitary magnetohydrodynamic vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silaev, I.I.; Skvortsov, A.T.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on the analytical description of fluid flow by means of localized vortices which is traditional for hydrodynamics, oceanology, plasma physics. Recently it has been widely applied to different structure turbulence models. Considerable results involved have been presented where it was shown that in magnetohydrodynamics alongside with the well-known kinds of localized vortices (e.g. Hill's vortex), which are characterized by quite a weak decrease of disturbed velocity or magnetic field (as a power of the inverse distance from vortex center), the vortices with screening (or solitary vortices) may exist. All disturbed parameters either exponentially vanish or become identically zero in outer region in the latter case. (In a number of papers numerical simulations of such the vortices are presented). Solutions in a form of solitary vortices are of particular interest due to their uniformity and solitonlike behavior. On the basis of these properties one can believe for such structures to occur in real turbulent flows
Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-03-24
Mar 24, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the ...
Interaction of solitary pulses in single mode optical fibres | Usman ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Two solitary waves launched, by way of incidence, into an optical fibre from a single pulse if the pulses are in-phase as understood from results of inverse scattering transform method applied to the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations, (CNLSE\\'s). The single CNLSE is then understood to describe evolution of coupled ...
Exact solitary waves of the Korteveg - de Vries - Burgers equation
Kudryashov, N. A.
2004-01-01
New approach is presented to search exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations. This method is used to look for exact solutions of the Korteveg -- de Vries -- Burgers equation. New exact solitary waves of the Korteveg -- de Vries -- Burgers equation are found.
Localization and solitary waves in solid mechanics
Champneys, A R; Thompson, J M T
1999-01-01
This book is a collection of recent reprints and new material on fundamentally nonlinear problems in structural systems which demonstrate localized responses to continuous inputs. It has two intended audiences. For mathematicians and physicists it should provide useful new insights into a classical yet rapidly developing area of application of the rich subject of dynamical systems theory. For workers in structural and solid mechanics it introduces a new methodology for dealing with structural localization and the related topic of the generation of solitary waves. Applications range from classi
Relativistic solitary waves modulating long laser pulses in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Arriaga, G; Siminos, E; Lefebvre, E
2011-01-01
This paper discusses the existence of solitary electromagnetic waves trapped in a self-generated Langmuir wave and embedded in an infinitely long circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating through a plasma. From a mathematical point of view they are exact solutions of the one-dimensional relativistic cold fluid plasma model with nonvanishing boundary conditions. Under the assumption of travelling wave solutions with velocity V and vector potential frequency ω, the fluid model is reduced to a Hamiltonian system. The solitary waves are homoclinic (grey solitons) or heteroclinic (dark solitons) orbits to fixed points. Using a dynamical systems description of the Hamiltonian system and a spectral method, we identify a large variety of solitary waves, including asymmetric ones, discuss their disappearance for certain parameter values and classify them according to (i) grey or dark character, (ii) the number of humps of the vector potential envelope and (iii) their symmetries. The solutions come in continuous families in the parametric V-ω plane and extend up to velocities that approach the speed of light. The stability of certain types of grey solitary waves is investigated with the aid of particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate their propagation for a few tens of the inverse of the plasma frequency.
Statistical Thermodynamic Approach to Vibrational Solitary Waves in Acetanilide
Vasconcellos, Áurea R.; Mesquita, Marcus V.; Luzzi, Roberto
1998-03-01
We analyze the behavior of the macroscopic thermodynamic state of polymers, centering on acetanilide. The nonlinear equations of evolution for the populations and the statistically averaged field amplitudes of CO-stretching modes are derived. The existence of excitations of the solitary wave type is evidenced. The infrared spectrum is calculated and compared with the experimental data of Careri et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 104 (1983)], resulting in a good agreement. We also consider the situation of a nonthermally highly excited sample, predicting the occurrence of a large increase in the lifetime of the solitary wave excitation.
Rogue waves in nonlinear science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Zhenya
2012-01-01
Rogue waves, as a special type of solitary waves, play an important role in nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, ocean, atmosphere, and even finance. In this report, we mainly review on the history of the rogue wave phenomenon and recent development of rogue wave solutions in some nonlinear physical models arising in the fields of nonlinear science.
Solitary Play: Some Functional Reconsiderations
Moore, Nancy V.; And Others
1974-01-01
Solitary play in six kindergarten children was observed and coded for frequency and type in order to resolve iscrepancies in a Sex Birth Order interaction. Several facts concerning solitary play as indicative of independence and maturity are noted. (Author/ED)
Solitary wave dynamics in time-dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou Salem, Walid K.
2008-01-01
The long time dynamics of solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in time-dependent external potentials is rigorously studied. To set the stage, the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for a generalized nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equation with time-dependent nonlinearities and potential is established. Afterward, the dynamics of NLS solitary waves in time-dependent potentials is studied. It is shown that in the space-adiabatic regime where the external potential varies slowly in space compared to the size of the soliton, the dynamics of the center of the soliton is described by Hamilton's equations, plus terms due to radiation damping. Finally, two physical applications are discussed: the first is adiabatic transportation of solitons and the second is the Mathieu instability of trapped solitons due to time-periodic perturbations
Numerical Simulation of Cylindrical Solitary Waves in Periodic Media
Quezada de Luna, Manuel; Ketcheson, David I.
2013-01-01
We study the behavior of nonlinear waves in a two-dimensional medium with density and stress relation that vary periodically in space. Efficient approximate Riemann solvers are developed for the corresponding variable-coefficient first-order hyperbolic system. We present direct numerical simulations of this multiscale problem, focused on the propagation of a single localized perturbation in media with strongly varying impedance. For the conditions studied, we find little evidence of shock formation. Instead, solutions consist primarily of solitary waves. These solitary waves are observed to be stable over long times and to interact in a manner approximately like solitons. The system considered has no dispersive terms; these solitary waves arise due to the material heterogeneity, which leads to strong reflections and effective dispersion.
Numerical Simulation of Cylindrical Solitary Waves in Periodic Media
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2013-07-14
We study the behavior of nonlinear waves in a two-dimensional medium with density and stress relation that vary periodically in space. Efficient approximate Riemann solvers are developed for the corresponding variable-coefficient first-order hyperbolic system. We present direct numerical simulations of this multiscale problem, focused on the propagation of a single localized perturbation in media with strongly varying impedance. For the conditions studied, we find little evidence of shock formation. Instead, solutions consist primarily of solitary waves. These solitary waves are observed to be stable over long times and to interact in a manner approximately like solitons. The system considered has no dispersive terms; these solitary waves arise due to the material heterogeneity, which leads to strong reflections and effective dispersion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Ghosh
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.
Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Calabuig, Isabel
2000-01-01
Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renu M Magdum
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Schwannomas are rare benign tumors arising from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves that form the neural sheath. While there have been reports of such tumors in the orbit, solitary schwannomas arising from the eyelids are very rare. There are reports of schwannomas being erroneously diagnosed as chalazion, inclusion cysts or even eyelid malignancy. We are reporting a case of a 20-year-old female who presented with a painless, non-tender, slow-growing mass in the upper eyelid of the right eye. The external appearance of the mass was suggestive of an implantation cyst of the eyelid and it could be completely excised as it had a well-defined capsule. Histopathological examination showed characteristic hypercellular and hypocellular areas with fusiform nuclei that tended to form palisades. The purpose of reporting this case of schwannoma in a young female is to recommend the inclusion of this entity as a differential diagnosis of well-defined lid tumors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Yi-Rong; Qi, Xin; Sun, Jian-An; Duan, Wen-Shan; Yang, Lei
2013-01-01
Dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electron, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions) and extremely massive charge fluctuating dust grains are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affect the height and the thickness of the nonlinear solitary wave are given. It is noted that the characteristic of the solitary waves are different with the different dust size distribution. The magnitude of the external magnetic field also affects the solitary wave form
Compact solitary waves in linearly elastic chains with non-smooth on-site potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaeta, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Milano, Via Saldini 50, 20133 Milan (Italy); Gramchev, Todor [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Walcher, Sebastian [Lehrstuhl A Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)
2007-04-27
It was recently observed by Saccomandi and Sgura that one-dimensional chains with nonlinear elastic interaction and regular on-site potential can support compact solitary waves, i.e. travelling solitary waves with strictly compact support. In this paper, we show that the same applies to chains with linear elastic interaction and an on-site potential which is continuous but non-smooth at minima. Some different features arise; in particular, the speed of compact solitary waves is not uniquely fixed by the equation. We also discuss several generalizations of our findings.
Numerical simulation of solitary waves on deep water with constant vorticity
Dosaev, A. S.; Shishina, M. I.; Troitskaya, Yu I.
2018-01-01
Characteristics of solitary deep water waves on a flow with constant vorticity are investigated by numerical simulation within the framework of fully nonlinear equations of motion (Euler equations) using the method of surface-tracking conformal coordinates. To ensure that solutions observed are stable, soliton formation as a result of disintegration of an initial pulse-like disturbance is modeled. Evidence is obtained that solitary waves with height above a certain threshold are unstable.
Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
2012-09-26
The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.
Effect of finite ion-temperature on ion-acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivamoggi, B.K.
1981-01-01
The propagation of weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma is studied taking into account the effect of finite ion temperature. It is found that, whereas both the amplitude and the velocity of propagation decrease as the ion-acoustic solitary wave propagates into regions of higher density, the effect of a finite ion temperature is to reduce the amplitude but enhance the velocity of propagation of the solitary wave. (author)
Topological soliton solutions for some nonlinear evolution equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet Bekir
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the topological soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations are obtained by the solitary wave ansatz method. Under some parameter conditions, exact solitary wave solutions are obtained. Note that it is always useful and desirable to construct exact solutions especially soliton-type (dark, bright, kink, anti-kink, etc. envelope for the understanding of most nonlinear physical phenomena.
Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases
Antonelli, Paolo; Sparber, Christof
2011-01-01
We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases
Antonelli, Paolo
2011-02-01
We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The lifecycle of axisymmetric internal solitary waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. McMillan
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The generation and evolution of solitary waves by intrusive gravity currents in an approximate two-layer fluid with equal upper- and lower-layer depths is examined in a cylindrical geometry by way of theory and numerical simulations. The study is limited to vertically symmetric cases in which the density of the intruding fluid is equal to the average density of the ambient. We show that even though the head height of the intrusion decreases, it propagates at a constant speed well beyond 3 lock radii. This is because the strong stratification at the interface supports the formation of a mode-2 solitary wave that surrounds the intrusion head and carries it outwards at a constant speed. The wave and intrusion propagate faster than a linear long wave; therefore, there is strong supporting evidence that the wave is indeed nonlinear. Rectilinear Korteweg-de Vries theory is extended to allow the wave amplitude to decay as r^{-p} with p=½ and the theory is compared to the observed waves to demonstrate that the width of the wave scales with its amplitude. After propagating beyond 7 lock radii the intrusion runs out of fluid. Thereafter, the wave continues to spread radially at a constant speed, however, the amplitude decreases sufficiently so that linear dispersion dominates and the amplitude decays with distance as r^{-1}.
Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.
2011-01-01
Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.
2012-01-01
In this present work, we have investigated theoretically the effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a GaAs/Al x Ga 1−x As inverse parabolic quantum well for different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The energy levels and wave functions are calculated within the effective mass approximation and the envelope function approach. The analytical expressions of optical properties are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption and refractive index changes depending on the Al concentration at the well center are investigated as a function of the incident photon energy for the different values of the applied electric and magnetic fields. The results show that the applied electric and magnetic fields have a great effect on these optical quantities. - Highlights: ► The x c concentration has a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. ► The EM fields have a great effect on the optical properties of these structures. ► The total absorption coefficients increased as the electric and magnetic field increases. ► The RICs reduced as the electric and magnetic field increases.
Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...
Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Y.; Klimko, V. K.; Shipeev, O. V.
2012-04-01
Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is influenced on different scales by natural and man-made impacts, which change the medium state and lead as a result to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is the subject of geo synergetics. Paradigm of physical mesomechanics, which was advanced by academician Panin V.E. and his scientific school, which includes the synergetic approach is a constructive method for research and changing the state of heterogenic materials [1]. That result had been obtained on specimens of different materials. In our results of research of no stationary geological medium in a frame of natural experiments in real rock massifs, which are under high man-made influence it was shown, that the state dynamics can be revealed with use synergetics in hierarchic medium. Active and passive geophysical monitoring plays a very important role for research of the state of dynamical geological systems. It can be achieved by use electromagnetic and seismic fields. Our experience of that research showed the changing of the system state reveals on the space scales and times in the parameters, which are linked with the peculiarities of the medium of the second or higher ranks [2-5]. Results of seismological and electromagnetic information showed the mutual additional information on different space-time levels of rock massive state, which are energetic influenced by explosions, used in mining technology. It is revealed a change of nonlinearity degree in time of the massive state by active influence on it. The description of massive movement in a frame of linear dynamical system does not satisfy the practical situation. The received results are of great significance because for the first time we could find the coincidences with the mathematical theory of open systems and experimental natural results with very complicated structure. On that base we developed a new processing method for the seismological information which can be used in
Self-similarity of solitary waves on inertia-dominated falling liquid films.
Denner, Fabian; Pradas, Marc; Charogiannis, Alexandros; Markides, Christos N; van Wachem, Berend G M; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-03-01
We propose consistent scaling of solitary waves on inertia-dominated falling liquid films, which accurately accounts for the driving physical mechanisms and leads to a self-similar characterization of solitary waves. Direct numerical simulations of the entire two-phase system are conducted using a state-of-the-art finite volume framework for interfacial flows in an open domain that was previously validated against experimental film-flow data with excellent agreement. We present a detailed analysis of the wave shape and the dispersion of solitary waves on 34 different water films with Reynolds numbers Re=20-120 and surface tension coefficients σ=0.0512-0.072 N m(-1) on substrates with inclination angles β=19°-90°. Following a detailed analysis of these cases we formulate a consistent characterization of the shape and dispersion of solitary waves, based on a newly proposed scaling derived from the Nusselt flat film solution, that unveils a self-similarity as well as the driving mechanism of solitary waves on gravity-driven liquid films. Our results demonstrate that the shape of solitary waves, i.e., height and asymmetry of the wave, is predominantly influenced by the balance of inertia and surface tension. Furthermore, we find that the dispersion of solitary waves on the inertia-dominated falling liquid films considered in this study is governed by nonlinear effects and only driven by inertia, with surface tension and gravity having a negligible influence.
Aging and body size in solitary bees
Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...
Electromagnetic Gowdy universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charach, C.
1979-01-01
Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed
Compressive and rarefactive solitary waves in nonthermal two-component plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.
2010-01-01
Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism where nonlinear structures are stationary in a comoving frame, large ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers have been studied in plasmas with positive ions and nonthermal electrons. The velocity range of positive, compressive solitary waves is limited by the ion density reaching infinite compression, whereas negative, rarefactive solitary waves and double layers can exist when the electron nonthermality exceeds a certain minimum. There are even regions of coexistence, the limits of which can be elucidated by considering the properties of the special Sagdeev pseudopotential at the acoustic speed. In particular, when the compositional parameters and Mach numbers admit only compressive or rarefactive solitary structures, these have to be superacoustic, their amplitude vanishing at the acoustic speed. When both compressive and rarefactive modes can occur, one of them is Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like, the other having a non-KdV character, with a finite amplitude at the acoustic speed.
Nonlinear interaction of photons and phonons in electron-positron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Taniuti, T.
1990-03-01
Nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves and acoustic modes in an electron-positron plasma is investigated. The plasma of electrons and positrons is quite plastic so that the imposition of electromagnetic (EM) waves causes depression of the plasma and other structural imprints on it through either the nonresonant or resonant interaction. Our theory shows that the nonresonant interaction can lead to the coalescence of photons and collapse of plasma cavity in higher (≥ 2) dimensions. The resonant interaction, in which the group velocity of EM waves is equal to the phase velocity of acoustic waves, is analyzed and a set of basic equations of the system is derived via the reductive perturbation theory. We find new solutions of solitary types: bright solitons, kink solitons, and dark solitons as the solutions to these equations. Our computation hints their stability. An impact of the present theory on astrophysical plasma settings is expected, including the cosmological relativistically hot electron-positron plasma. 20 refs., 9 figs
Solitary waves and homoclinic orbits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balmforth, N.J.
1994-03-01
The notion that fluid motion often organizes itself into coherent structures has increasingly permeated modern fluid dynamics. Such localized objects appear in laminar flows and persist in turbulent states; from the water on windows on rainy days, to the circulations in planetary atmospheres. This review concerns solitary waves in fluids. More specifically, it centres around the mathematical description of solitary waves in a single spatial dimension. Moreover, it concentrates on strongly dissipative dynamics, rather than integrable systems like the KdV equation. One-dimensional solitary waves, or pulses and fronts as they are also called, are the simplest kinds of coherent structure (at least from a geometrical point of view). Nevertheless, their dynamics can be rich and complicated. In some circumstances this leads to the formation of spatio-temporal chaos in the systems giving birth to the solitary waves, and understanding that phenomenon is one of the major goals in the theory outlined in this review. Unfortunately, such a goal is far from achieved to date, and the author assess its current status and incompleteness
Spatial Dynamics Methods for Solitary Waves on a Ferrofluid Jet
Groves, M. D.; Nilsson, D. V.
2018-04-01
This paper presents existence theories for several families of axisymmetric solitary waves on the surface of an otherwise cylindrical ferrofluid jet surrounding a stationary metal rod. The ferrofluid, which is governed by a general (nonlinear) magnetisation law, is subject to an azimuthal magnetic field generated by an electric current flowing along the rod. The ferrohydrodynamic problem for axisymmetric travelling waves is formulated as an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system in which the axial direction is the time-like variable. A centre-manifold reduction technique is employed to reduce the system to a locally equivalent Hamiltonian system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, and homoclinic solutions to the reduced system, which correspond to solitary waves, are detected by dynamical-systems methods.
Stability properties of solitary waves for fractional KdV and BBM equations
Angulo Pava, Jaime
2018-03-01
This paper sheds new light on the stability properties of solitary wave solutions associated with Korteweg-de Vries-type models when the dispersion is very low. Using a compact, analytic approach and asymptotic perturbation theory, we establish sufficient conditions for the existence of exponentially growing solutions to the linearized problem and so a criterium of spectral instability of solitary waves is obtained for both models. Moreover, the nonlinear stability and spectral instability of the ground state solutions for both models is obtained for some specific regimen of parameters. Via a Lyapunov strategy and a variational analysis, we obtain the stability of the blow-up of solitary waves for the critical fractional KdV equation. The arguments presented in this investigation show promise for use in the study of the instability of traveling wave solutions of other nonlinear evolution equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Jiu-Ning; Luo, Jun-Hua; Sun, Gui-Hua; Liu, Zhen-Lai; Ge, Su-Hong; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Jun-Xiu
2014-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) electron-acoustic solitary wave structures in an unmagnetized, collisionless plasma composed of stationary ions, cold fluid electrons and hot q-nonextensive distributed electrons are theoretically studied. We discuss the effects of the nonplanar geometry, nonextensivity of hot electrons and ‘hot’ to ‘cold’ electron number density ratio on the time evolution characters of cylindrical and spherical solitary waves. Moreover, the effects of plasma parameters on the nonlinear structure induced by the interaction between two planar solitary waves are also investigated. It is found that these plasma parameters have significant influences on the properties of the above-mentioned nonlinear structures. Our theoretical study may be useful to understand the nonlinear features of electron-acoustic wave structures in astrophysical plasma systems. (paper)
Exact Solutions for Nonlinear Differential Difference Equations in Mathematical Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khaled A. Gepreel
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We modified the truncated expansion method to construct the exact solutions for some nonlinear differential difference equations in mathematical physics via the general lattice equation, the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger with a saturable nonlinearity, the quintic discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and the relativistic Toda lattice system. Also, we put a rational solitary wave function method to find the rational solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear differential difference equations. The proposed methods are more effective and powerful to obtain the exact solutions for nonlinear difference differential equations.
Nonlinear Coherent Structures, Microbursts and Turbulence
Lakhina, G. S.
2015-12-01
Nonlinear waves are found everywhere, in fluids, atmosphere, laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. The interplay of nonlinear effects, dispersion and dissipation in the medium can lead to a variety of nonlinear waves and turbulence. Two cases of coherent nonlinear waves: chorus and electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and their impact on modifying the plasma medium are discussed. Chorus is a right-hand, circularly-polarized electromagnetic plane wave. Dayside chorus is a bursty emission composed of rising frequency "elements" with duration of ~0.1 to 1.0 s. Each element is composed of coherent subelements with durations of ~1 to 100 ms or more. The cyclotron resonant interaction between energetic electrons and the coherent chorus waves is studied. An expression for the pitch angle transport due to this interaction is derived considering a Gaussian distribution for the time duration of the chorus elements. The rapid pitch scattering can provide an explanation for the ionospheric microbursts of ~0.1 to 0.5 s in bremsstrahlung x-rays formed by ~10-100 keV precipitating electrons. On the other hand, the ESWs are observed in the electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field, and are usually bipolar or tripolar. Generation of coherent ESWs has been explained in terms of nonlinear fluid models of ion- and electron-acoustic solitons and double layers (DLs) based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. Fast Fourier transform of electron- and ion-acoustic solitons/DLs produces broadband wave spectra which can explain the properties of the electrostatic turbulence observed in the magnetosheath and plasma sheet boundary layer, and in the solar wind, respectively.
Peakons, solitary patterns and periodic solutions for generalized Camassa-Holm equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yin; Lai Shaoyong
2008-01-01
This Letter deals with a generalized Camassa-Holm equation and a nonlinear dispersive equation by making use of a mathematical technique based on using integral factors for solving differential equations. The peakons, solitary patterns and periodic solutions are expressed analytically under various circumstances. The conditions that cause the qualitative change in the physical structures of the solutions are highlighted
[Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].
Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I
2011-08-01
Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.
Surf similarity and solitary wave runup
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.
2008-01-01
The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...
Laboratory Measurements of Electrostatic Solitary Structures Generated by Beam Injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lefebvre, Bertrand; Chen, Li-Jen; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Vincena, Stephen; Kintner, Paul; Pickett, Jolene; Chiang, Franklin; Judy, Jack
2010-01-01
Electrostatic solitary structures are generated by injection of a suprathermal electron beam parallel to the magnetic field in a laboratory plasma. Electric microprobes with tips smaller than the Debye length (λ De ) enabled the measurement of positive potential pulses with half-widths 4 to 25λ De and velocities 1 to 3 times the background electron thermal speed. Nonlinear wave packets of similar velocities and scales are also observed, indicating that the two descend from the same mode which is consistent with the electrostatic whistler mode and result from an instability likely to be driven by field-aligned currents.
On the propagation of solitary pulses in microstructured materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilison, O.; Salupere, A.
2006-01-01
KdV-type evolution equation, including the third- and the fifth-order dispersive and the fourth-order nonlinear terms, is used for modelling the wave propagation in microstructured solids like martensitic-austenitic alloys. The character of the dispersion depends on the signs of the third- and the fifth-order dispersion parameters. In the present paper the model equation is solved numerically under localised initial conditions in the case of mixed dispersion, i.e., the character of dispersion is normal for some wavenumbers and anomalous for others. Two types of solution are defined and discussed. Relatively small solitary waves result in irregular solution. However, if the amplitude exceeds a certain threshold a solution having regular time-space behaviour emerges. The latter has tree sub-types: 'plaited' solitons, two solitary waves and single solitary wave. Depending on the value of the amplitude of the initial pulse these sub-types can appear alone or in a certain sequence
The effect of shear stress on solitary waves in arteries.
Demiray, H
1997-09-01
In the present work, we study the propagation of solitary waves in a prestressed thick walled elastic tube filled with an incompressible inviscid fluid. In order to include the geometric dispersion in the analysis the wall inertia and shear deformation effects are taken into account for the inner pressure-cross-sectional area relation. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the propagation of weakly non-linear waves in the long-wave approximation is examined. It is shown that, contrary to thin tube theories, the present approach makes it possible to have solitary waves even for a Mooney-Rivlin (M-R) material. Due to dependence of the coefficients of the governing Korteweg-deVries equation on initial deformation, the solution profile changes with inner pressure and the axial stretch. The variation of wave profiles for a class of elastic materials are depicted in graphic forms. As might be seen from these illustrations, with increasing thickness ratio, the profile of solitary wave is steepened for a M-R material but it is broadened for biological tissue.
Nonlinear waves in solar plasmas - a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballai, I
2006-01-01
Nonlinearity is a direct consequence of large scale dynamics in the solar plasmas. When nonlinear steepening of waves is balanced by dispersion, solitary waves are generated. In the vicinity of resonances, waves can steepen into nonlinear waves influencing the efficiency of energy deposition. Here we review recent theoretical breakthroughs that have lead to a greater understanding of many aspects of nonlinear waves arising in homogeneous and inhomogeneous solar plasmas
Modulated Langmuir waves and nonlinear Landau damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajima, Nobuo; Oikawa, Masayuki; Satsuma, Junkichi; Namba, Chusei.
1975-01-01
The nonlinear Schroedinger euqation with an integral term, iusub(t)+P/2.usub(xx)+Q/u/ 2 u+RP∫sub(-infinity)sup(infinity)[/u(x',t)/ 2 /(x-x')]dx'u=0, which describes modulated Langmuir waves with the nonlinear Landau damping effect, is solved by numerical calculations. Especially, the effects of nonlinear Landau damping on solitary wave solutions are studied. For both cases, PQ>0 and PQ<0, the results show that the solitary waves deform in an asymmetric way changing its velocity. (auth.)
Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for the thermally forced gravity waves in atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ziliang
2008-01-01
By introducing a new transformation, a new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system, which extends Fan's direct algebraic method to the case when r > 4. The solutions of a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a higher degree nonlinear term and Fan's direct algebraic method of obtaining exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations are applied to the combined KdV-mKdV-GKdV equation, which is derived from a simple incompressible non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equation with the influence of thermal forcing and is applied to investigate internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. As a result, by taking advantage of the new first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a fifth-degree nonlinear term and an eighth-degree nonlinear term, periodic wave solutions associated with the Jacobin elliptic function and the bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions are obtained under the effect of thermal forcing. Most importantly, the mechanism of propagation and generation of the periodic waves and the solitary waves is analysed in detail according to the values of the heating parameter, which show that the effect of heating in atmosphere helps to excite westerly or easterly propagating periodic internal gravity waves and internal solitary waves in atmosphere, which are affected by the local excitation structures in atmosphere. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the solitary wave solution and Jacobin periodic solution are shown by some figures under the consideration of heating interaction
Self-trapping of scalar and vector dipole solitary waves in Kerr media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Weiping; Belic, Milivoj R.; Assanto, Gaetano; Malomed, Boris A.; Huang Tingwen
2011-01-01
We report solutions for expanding dipole-type optical solitary waves in two-dimensional Kerr media with the self-focusing nonlinearity, using exact analytical (Hirota) and numerical methods. Such localized beams carry intrinsic vorticity and exhibit symmetric shapes for both scalar and vector solitary modes. When vector beams are close to the scalar limit, simulations demonstrate their stability over propagation distances exceeding 50 diffraction lengths. In fact, the continuous expansion helps the vortical beams avoid the instability against the splitting, collapse, or decay, making them 'convectively stable' patterns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Se Yun
2009-01-01
This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.
Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis
1998-01-01
We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...
Solitary circumscribed neurofibroma of the vulva
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lau Serrano, Dalgis; Millan Vega, Maria Margarita; Fajardo Tornes, Yarine Leonell
2012-01-01
Neurofibroma is a benign tumor that originates from cells of peripheral nerve sheath. It may occur as solitary or multiple lesions as part of Von Recklinghausen disease or neurofibromatosis. The solitary lesions are rare and usually they are not associated with systemic symptoms
Envelope compact and solitary pattern structures for the GNLS(m,n,p,q) equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Zhenya
2006-01-01
In this Letter, to further understand the role of nonlinear dispersion in the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation, we introduce and study the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with nonlinear dispersion (called GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation): iu t +a(u vertical bar u vertical bar n-1 ) xx +bu vertical bar u vertical bar m-1 +ic(u vertical bar u vertical bar p-1 ) xxx +id(u vertical bar u vertical bar q-1 ) x =0. Some new envelope compacton solutions and solitary pattern solutions of GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation are obtained via the gauge transformation and some direct ansatze. In particular, it is shown that GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation with linear dispersion gives rise to envelope compactons and solitary patterns, which implies that nonlinear dispersion is not necessary condition for GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation to admit envelope compactons and solitary patterns. Moreover, some unusually local conservation laws are presented for GNLS + (n,n,n,n) equation and GNLS - (n,n,n,n) equation, respectively
Hossen, Md. Belal; Roshid, Harun-Or; Ali, M. Zulfikar
2018-05-01
Under inquisition in this paper is a (2 + 1)-dimensional Breaking Soliton equation, which can describe various nonlinear scenarios in fluid dynamics. Using the Bell polynomials, some proficient auxiliary functions are offered to apparently construct its bilinear form and corresponding soliton solutions which are different from the previous literatures. Moreover, a direct method is used to construct its rogue wave and solitary wave solutions using particular auxiliary function with the assist of bilinear formalism. Finally, the interactions between solitary waves and rogue waves are offered with a complete derivation. These results enhance the variety of the dynamics of higher dimensional nonlinear wave fields related to mathematical physics and engineering.
Scattering of quantized solitary waves in the cubic Schrodinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, L.
1976-01-01
The quantum mechanics for N particles interacting via a delta-function potential in one space dimension and one time dimension is known. The second-quantized description of this system has for its Euler-Lagrange equations of motion the cubic Schrodinger equation. This nonlinear differential equation supports solitary wave solutions. A quantization of these solitons reproduces the weak-coupling limit to the known quantum mechanics. The phase shift for two-body scattering and the energy of the N-body bound state is derived in this approximation. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is contrasted with the sine-Gordon theory in respect to the ideas which the classical solutions play in the description of the quantum states
Ion acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma obliquely propagating to an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Cheong Rim; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Lee, Nam C.; Lee, D.-Y.
2005-01-01
The nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave in a magnetized dusty plasma, obliquely propagating to the embedding external magnetic field, is revisited. It is found that when the charge density of dust particles is high, the Sagdeev potential needs to be expanded up to δn 4 near n=1. In this case, it is shown that there could exist rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves as well as the kink-type double layer solutions, in addition to the conventional hump-type ones found in the δn 3 expansion. The amplitude variations of ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma are also examined with respect to the change of the dust charge density and the wave directional angle
Arbitrary amplitude dust-acoustic solitary structures in a three-component dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.
1999-07-01
A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of arbitrary amplitude dust-acoustic solitary structures in an unmagnetized three-component dusty plasma whose constituents are an inertial charged dust fluid and Boltzmann distributed ions and electrons. The pseudo-potential approach and the reductive perturbation technique are employed for this study. It is found from both weakly and highly nonlinear analyses that the dusty plasma model can support solitary waves only with negative potential but not with positive potential. The effects of equilibrium free electron density and its temperature on these solitary structures are discussed. The implications of these results to some astrophysical and space plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)
Influence of ionization on reflection of solitary waves in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jyoti,; Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Ravinder; Dahiya, Raj P.
2013-01-01
The reflection of nonlinear solitary waves is studied in a nonuniform, magnetized plasma diffusing from an ionization source along the magnetic field lines. Contribution of the ionization term is included in the continuity equation. The behavior of solitary waves is governed by modified form of Korteweg–de Vries equation (called mKdV equation). In order to investigate the reflection of solitary waves, the mKdV equations for the right and left going waves are derived, and solved by finding new transformations coupled at the point of reflection, for obtaining the expression of reflection coefficient. Contrary to the case of usual inhomogeneous plasma, the present analysis shows that a combination of usual sech 2 structure and tanh structure (called the tail of soliton) arises due to the influence of ionization term. Interestingly, this tailing structure disappears after the reflection of the soliton and hence, the soliton is downshifted prominently
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zaiyun; Liu Zhenhai; Miao Xiujin; Chen Yuezhong
2011-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law nonlinearity. All explicit expressions of the bounded traveling wave solutions for the equation are obtained by using the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. These solutions contain bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions and Jacobi elliptic function periodic solutions. Moreover, we point out the region which these periodic wave solutions lie in. We present the relation between the bounded traveling wave solution and the energy level h. We find that these periodic wave solutions tend to the corresponding solitary wave solutions as h increases or decreases. Finally, for some special selections of the energy level h, it is shown that the exact periodic solutions evolute into solitary wave solution.
Management of a solitary thyroid nodule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, R.S.
1999-01-01
Solitary nodule in the thyroid is a common clinical entity. A careful clinical assessment is the crucial first step in deciding the modality of treatment. The only worthwhile investigation is FNAC. Other investigations are done merely for the sake of a complete academic work up and can usually be dispensed with in most of the cases. Not every solitary nodule requires surgery. The optimum surgery for a solitary nodule is a total lobectomy. The specimen should be subjected to histological examination before recommending further treatment
Nonlinear surface Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, N.F.
1991-01-01
The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)
Akbar, M Ali; Hj Mohd Ali, Norhashidah
2014-01-01
The exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is an ascending method for obtaining exact and solitary wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. In this article, we implement the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method to build solitary wave solutions to the fourth order Boussinesq equation. The procedure is simple, direct and useful with the help of computer algebra. By using this method, we obtain solitary wave solutions in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and elementary functions. The results show that the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is straightforward and effective mathematical tool for the treatment of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.
2011-01-01
A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth’s angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.
Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Uterus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Po-Wei Chu
2006-12-01
Conclusion: The behavior of solitary fibrous tumors arising from the uterus is difficult to evaluate; therefore, complete surgical excision featuring clear margins and comprehensive follow-up is recommended.
Perforated Solitary Diverticulitis of the Ascending Colon
2005-06-01
postoperative day 6. DISCUSSION Diverticuli of the right colon exist in approximately 1% to 5% of patients with diverticular disease .1-3 They are...ORIGINAL REPORTS Perforated Solitary Diverticulitis of the Ascending Colon CPT David S. Kauvar, MC, USA, MAJ, Jayson Aydelotte, MC, USA, and MAJ...Michael Harnisch, MC, USA Department of Surgery, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas KEY WORDS: solitary colon diverticulum
Conservative numerical methods for solitary wave interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duran, A; Lopez-Marcos, M A [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2003-07-18
The purpose of this paper is to show the advantages that represent the use of numerical methods that preserve invariant quantities in the study of solitary wave interactions for the regularized long wave equation. It is shown that the so-called conservative methods are more appropriate to study the phenomenon and provide a dynamic point of view that allows us to estimate the changes in the parameters of the solitary waves after the collision.
Inelastic collision of two solitons for generalized BBM equation with cubic nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingdong Wei
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We study the inelastic collision of two solitary waves of different velocities for the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM equation with cubic nonlinearity. It shows that one solitary wave is smaller than the other one in the H^1(R energy space. We explore the sharp estimates of the nonzero residue due to the collision, and prove the inelastic collision of two solitary waves and nonexistence of a pure 2-soliton solution.
Propagation of sech2-type solitary waves in higher-order KdV-type systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilison, O.; Salupere, A.
2005-01-01
Wave propagation in microstructured media is essentially influenced by nonlinear and dispersive effects. The simplest model governing these effects results in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. In the present paper a KdV-type evolution equation, including the third- and fifth-order dispersive and the fourth-order nonlinear terms, is used for modelling the wave propagation in microstructured solids like martensitic-austenitic alloys. The model equation is solved numerically under localised initial conditions. Possible solution types are defined and discussed. The existence of a threshold is established. Below the threshold, the relatively small solitary waves decay in time. However, if the amplitude exceeds a certain threshold, i.e., the critical value, then such a solitary wave can propagate with nearly a constant speed and amplitude and consequently conserve the energy
New theory of the Great Red Spot from solitary waves in the Jovian atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L.G.
1976-01-01
It is stated that the nature of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter is a persistent problem. It is considered here that 'solitary' waves on a horizontally sheared zonal flow in a rotating stratified atmosphere would explain many of the known GRS characteristics and also other features that have been observed on Jupiter. 'Solitary' waves are isolated permanent waves in which non-linear steepening balances dispersive spreading effects, and they can arise from arbitrary distrurbances and interact non-linearly without changing their shape. The only memory of such an interaction is a finite spatial phase shift between the fast- and the pre-interaction trajectories; the interaction looks like a rapid acceleration of one wave through another. The matter is here treated mathematically. A number of examples similar to Jupiter's GRS are mentioned in the discussion. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yusufoglu, E.; Bekir, A.; Alp, M.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we establish exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. The sine-cosine method is used to construct periodic and solitary wave solutions of the Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations. These solutions may be important of significance for the explanation of some practical physical problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qi; Li Biao; Zhang Hongqing; Chen Yong
2005-01-01
Taking the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system as a simple example, some families of rational form solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions, and rational wave solutions are constructed by using the Riccati equation rational expansion method presented by us. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear partial differential equation or equations.
Forced solitary Rossby waves under the influence of slowly varying topography with time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Hong-Wei; Yin Bao-Shu; Yang De-Zhou; Xu Zhen-Hua
2011-01-01
By using a weakly nonlinear and perturbation method, the generalized inhomogeneous Korteweg—de Vries (KdV)—Burgers equation is derived, which governs the evolution of the amplitude of Rossby waves under the influence of dissipation and slowly varying topography with time. The analysis indicates that dissipation and slowly varying topography with time are important factors in causing variation in the mass and energy of solitary waves. (general)
Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.
2018-03-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and modified KP equations are two of the most universal models in nonlinear wave theory, which arises as a reduction of system with quadratic nonlinearity which admit weakly dispersive waves. The generalized extended tanh method and the F-expansion method are used to derive exact solitary waves solutions of KP and modified KP equations. The region of solutions are displayed graphically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baojun Zhao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Envelope gravity solitary waves are an important research hot spot in the field of solitary wave. And the weakly nonlinear model equations system is a part of the research of envelope gravity solitary waves. Because of the lack of technology and theory, previous studies tried hard to reduce the variable numbers and constructed the two-dimensional model in barotropic atmosphere and could only describe the propagation feature in a direction. But for the propagation of envelope gravity solitary waves in real ocean ridges and atmospheric mountains, the three-dimensional model is more appropriate. Meanwhile, the baroclinic problem of atmosphere is also an inevitable topic. In the paper, the three-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS equations are presented to describe the evolution of envelope gravity solitary waves in baroclinic atmosphere, which are derived from the basic dynamic equations by employing perturbation and multiscale methods. The model overcomes two disadvantages: (1 baroclinic problem and (2 propagation path problem. Then, based on trial function method, we deduce the solution of the CNLS equations. Finally, modulational instability of wave trains is also discussed.
Solitary wave solutions of selective nonlinear diffusion-reaction ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An auto-Bäcklund transformation derived in the homogeneous balance method is employed to obtain several new exact solutions of certain kinds of nonlin- ear diffusion-reaction (D-R) equations. These equations arise in a variety of problems in physical, chemical, biological, social and ecological sciences. Keywords.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T; Masuda, A; Sanada, T
2015-01-01
This paper presents an experimental verification of a self-excitation control of a resonance- type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinearity which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency range. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency and the bandwidth of the resonance peak are trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. It has been experimentally validated that this control law imparts the self-excitation capability to the oscillator to show an entrainment into the highest-energy solution. (paper)
Soliton Steering by Longitudinal Modulation of the Nonlinearity in Waveguide Arrays
Assanto, Gaetano; Cisneros, Luis A.; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Skuse, Benjamin D.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.
2010-01-01
We show how discrete solitary waves in one and two-dimensional waveguide arrays can be steered across the lattice via the introduction of a longitudinal periodic modulation of the nonlinear response. Through parametric energy transfer from the modulation to the solitary wave, the latter can increase its width and overcome the Peierls-Nabarro potential to propagate freely.
Landau damping of dust acoustic solitary waves in nonthermal plasmas
Ghai, Yashika; Saini, N. S.; Eliasson, B.
2018-01-01
Dust acoustic (DA) solitary and shock structures have been investigated under the influence of Landau damping in a dusty plasma containing two temperature nonthermal ions. Motivated by the observations of Geotail spacecraft that reported two-temperature ion population in the Earth's magnetosphere, we have investigated the effect of resonant wave-particle interactions on DA nonlinear structures. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an additional Landau damping term is derived and its analytical solution is presented. The solution has the form of a soliton whose amplitude decreases with time. Further, we have illustrated the influence of Landau damping and nonthermality of the ions on DA shock structures by a numerical solution of the Landau damping modified KdV equation. The study of the time evolution of shock waves suggests that an initial shock-like pulse forms an oscillatory shock at later times due to the balance of nonlinearity, dispersion, and dissipation due to Landau damping. The findings of the present investigation may be useful in understanding the properties of nonlinear structures in the presence of Landau damping in dusty plasmas containing two temperature ions obeying nonthermal distribution such as in the Earth's magnetotail.
Effect of Different Size Dust Grains on the Properties of Solitary Waves in Space Environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.
2009-01-01
Propagation of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized collisionless dusty plasma consisting of dust grains obey power law dust size distribution and nonthermal ions are investigated. For nonlinear DA waves, a reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the first-order potential. The effects of a dust size distribution, dust radius and the non-thermal distribution of ions on the soliton amplitude, width and energy of electrostatic solitary structures are presented
Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taisei Sako
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.
Solitary wave evolution in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma under the effect of ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jyoti; Malik, Hitendra K.
2011-01-01
A modified form of Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation appropriate to nonlinear ion acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma is derived in the presence of an external magnetic field and constant ionization in the plasma. This equation differs from usual version of the KdV equation because of the inclusion of two terms arising due to ionization and density gradient present in the plasma. In this plasma, only the compressive solitary waves are found to propagate corresponding to the fast and slow modes. The amplitude of the solitary wave increases with an enhancement in the ionization for the fast mode as well as for the slow mode. The effect of magnetic field is to enhance the width of the solitary structure. The amplitude is found to increase (decrease) with an enhancement in charge number of the ions for the fast (slow) mode. The tailing structure becomes more (less) prominent with the rise in ion drift velocity for the case of fast (slow) mode.
Solitary Wave Interactions in Granular Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Zhen-Ying; WANG Shun-Jin; ZHANG Xiu-Ming; LI Lei
2007-01-01
We numerically study the interactions of solitary waves in granular media, by considering a chain of beads, which repel upon contact via the Hertz-type potential, V ∝δn, with 5/2 ≤n≤3 and δ≥0,δbeing the bead-bead overlap. There are two collision types of solitary waves, overtaking collision and head-on collision, in the chain of beads. Our quantitative results show that after collision the large solitary wave gains energy and the small one loses energy for overtaking type while the large one loses energy, and the small one gains energy for head-on type. The scattering effects decrease with n for overtaking collision whereas increase with n for head-on collision.
Exact solutions for nonlinear variants of Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (n ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Studying compactons, solitons, solitary patterns and periodic solutions is important in nonlinear phenomena. In this paper we study nonlinear variants of the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) and the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equations with positive and negative exponents. The functional variable method is used to establish ...
Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.B.
1976-01-01
The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)
Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode
Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2010-01-01
An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...
[Etiologic spectrum of solitary constitutional syndrome].
Hernández Hernández, J L; Matorras Galán, P; Riancho Moral, J A; González-Macías, J
2002-07-01
To know the spectrum of diseases responsible for the solitary constitutional syndrome in our setting. This syndrome was defined as a clinical picture characterized by the presence of asthenia, anorexia, and weight loss of at least 5% of body weight in the last six months, not associated with any other symptom or sign suggesting the diagnosis of an organ or system disease. All patients diagnosed of the solitary constitutional syndrome (328) in a tertiary-care level teaching hospital between January 1991 and December 1996. Fifty-two (170) percent of patients with solitary constitutional syndrome were males and 48% (158) females. The mean age was 65.4%, ranging from 15 to 97 years. The average of the monthly estimated weight loss was 3 to 4 kilograms. A total of 115 (35%) malignant neoplasms and 5 (1.5%) benign tumors were diagnosed. The most common malignant tumors corresponded to the digestive tract (51.3% of the total malignant tumors). The second cause in frequency of the solitary constitutional syndrome corresponded to psychiatric diseases, with a total of 80 patients (24.3%). A total of 116 non-neoplastic organic diseases were detected, with digestive tract diseases --mainly peptic disease-- being the most common cause in this group. After follow-up, only in twenty cases were we unable to detect the underlying disease responsible for the syndrome. In nine of these, the solitary constitutional syndrome was self-limited. Forty-four percent of patients had at least another concomitant disease and in 24% of patients more than one associated condition was found. The most common diseases responsible for the solitary constitutional syndrome were, by decreasing frequency, malignant tumors, psychiatric disorders, and non-malignant organic diseases located in the digestive tract. A better knowledge of the etiological spectrum of this syndrome might be useful for a more efficient management of these patients.
Nonlinear scalar field equations. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berestycki, H.; Lions, P.L.
1983-01-01
This paper as well as a subsequent one is concerned with the existence of nontrivial solutions for some semi-linear elliptic equations in Rsup(N). Such problems are motivated in particular by the search for certain kinds of solitary waves (stationary states) in nonlinear equations of the Klein-Gordon or Schroedinger type. (orig./HSI)
Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.
1988-09-01
Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the sinonasal region.
Hazarika, Produl; Balakrishnan, R; Singh, Rohit; Pujary, Kailesh; Aziz, Benazim
2011-07-01
Less than 10% of the patients with plasma cell neoplasms present with a solitary plasmacytoma. Though the nasal cavity is a common extramedullary site, the occurrence is extremely rare. Two cases of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the sinonasal region are reported. The first of which is sinonasal plasmacytoma with concomitant HIV, an association that has been reported rarely in literature to date and is matter of much debate. In the second case report, we present an instance of surgical excision of the tumor using KTP 532 laser. The diagnosis was established using immunohistochemical techniques and multiple myeloma workups were negative in all cases.
A radiographic study of solitary bone cysts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyung Rak; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1994-02-15
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features of 23 cases of solitary bone cyst by means of the analysis of radiographs and biopsy specimens in 23 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chunbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows; 1. The incidence of solitary bone cyst was almost equal in males (52.2%) and in females(42.8%) and the prevalent age of the solitary bone cyst were the second decade (47.8%) and the third decade (21.7%). 2. In the signs and symptoms of solitary bone cyst, pain or tenderness revealed in 17.4%, swelling revealed in 13.0%, pain and swelling revealed in 21.7%, paresthesia revealed in 4.4% and 43.5% were a symptom and the tooth vitality involved in the solitary bone cyst, 76.5% were posterior and 23.5% were either positive or negative. 3. In the location of the solitary bone cyst, 47.8% present posterior region, 21.7% present anterior region, 21.6% present anterior and posterior region, 4.4% present condylar process area. 4. In the hyperostotic border of the solitary bone cyst, 47.8% were seen entirely, 21.8% were seen partially, and 30.4% were not seen. 5. In the change of tooth, 59.1% were loss of the alveolar lamina dura, 13.6% were root resorption 4.55% were tooth displacement, 4.55% were root resorption and tooth displacement. 6. In the change of cortical bone of the solitary bone cyst, 39.1% were intact and 60.9% were thinning and expansion of cortical bone. 7. In the histopathologic findings of 9 cases, 33.3% were thin connective tissue wall, 11.1% were thickened myxo-fibromatous wall, 55.6% were thickened myxofibromatous wall with dysplastic bone formation.
A radiographic study of solitary bone cysts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyung Rak; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae
1994-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features of 23 cases of solitary bone cyst by means of the analysis of radiographs and biopsy specimens in 23 persons visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University and Chunbuk National University. The obtained results were as follows; 1. The incidence of solitary bone cyst was almost equal in males (52.2%) and in females(42.8%) and the prevalent age of the solitary bone cyst were the second decade (47.8%) and the third decade (21.7%). 2. In the signs and symptoms of solitary bone cyst, pain or tenderness revealed in 17.4%, swelling revealed in 13.0%, pain and swelling revealed in 21.7%, paresthesia revealed in 4.4% and 43.5% were a symptom and the tooth vitality involved in the solitary bone cyst, 76.5% were posterior and 23.5% were either positive or negative. 3. In the location of the solitary bone cyst, 47.8% present posterior region, 21.7% present anterior region, 21.6% present anterior and posterior region, 4.4% present condylar process area. 4. In the hyperostotic border of the solitary bone cyst, 47.8% were seen entirely, 21.8% were seen partially, and 30.4% were not seen. 5. In the change of tooth, 59.1% were loss of the alveolar lamina dura, 13.6% were root resorption 4.55% were tooth displacement, 4.55% were root resorption and tooth displacement. 6. In the change of cortical bone of the solitary bone cyst, 39.1% were intact and 60.9% were thinning and expansion of cortical bone. 7. In the histopathologic findings of 9 cases, 33.3% were thin connective tissue wall, 11.1% were thickened myxo-fibromatous wall, 55.6% were thickened myxofibromatous wall with dysplastic bone formation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Yafeng; Xue Haili; Zhang Hongqing
2011-01-01
Based on Jacobi elliptic function and the Lame equation, the perturbation method is applied to get the multi-order envelope periodic solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation. These multi-order envelope periodic solutions can degenerate into the different envelope solitary solutions. (authors)
Compacton-like solutions for modified KdV and nonlinear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
]; it was shown by linear stability analysis as well as by Lyapunov stability criterion that, these solutions are stable for arbitrary values of nonlinear parameters. Recently, in [8], envelope compacton and solitary pattern solutions of a generalized ...
Nonlinear acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas with negative and positive dust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verheest, Frank
2009-01-01
Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism where nonlinear structures are stationary in a co-moving frame, large dust-acoustic solitary waves and double layers have been studied in plasmas with negative and positive cold dust, in the presence of nonthermal electrons and ions. This has been done in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which such modes can be found. The existence domain of negative/positive solitary waves is limited by infinite compression of the negative/positive dust or by the occurrence of negative/positive double layers. These double layers require a sufficient nonthermality of the electrons/ions and the presence of enough positive/negative dust. There are parameter ranges where both negative and positive solitary structures coexist, sometimes both of the solitary wave type, sometimes one a solitary wave and the other a double layer. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2014-07-15
The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A.; Ali, S.
2014-01-01
The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.
2002-07-01
These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.
2002-01-01
These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosanac, Slobodan Danko
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.
Danehkar, A.
2018-06-01
Suprathermal electrons and inertial drifting electrons, so called electron beam, are crucial to the nonlinear dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves observed in several astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, the propagation of electron-acoustic solitary waves (EAWs) is investigated in a collisionless, unmagnetized plasma consisting of cool inertial background electrons, hot suprathermal electrons (modeled by a κ-type distribution), and stationary ions. The plasma is penetrated by a cool electron beam component. A linear dispersion relation is derived to describe small-amplitude wave structures that shows a weak dependence of the phase speed on the electron beam velocity and density. A (Sagdeev-type) pseudopotential approach is employed to obtain the existence domain of large-amplitude solitary waves, and investigate how their nonlinear structures depend on the kinematic and physical properties of the electron beam and the suprathermality (described by κ) of the hot electrons. The results indicate that the electron beam can largely alter the EAWs, but can only produce negative polarity solitary waves in this model. While the electron beam co-propagates with the solitary waves, the soliton existence domain (Mach number range) becomes narrower (nearly down to nil) with increasing the beam speed and the beam-to-hot electron temperature ratio, and decreasing the beam-to-cool electron density ratio in high suprathermality (low κ). It is found that the electric potential amplitude largely declines with increasing the beam speed and the beam-to-cool electron density ratio for co-propagating solitary waves, but is slightly decreased by raising the beam-to-hot electron temperature ratio.
Formation and Coalescence of Electron Solitary Holes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saeki, K.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H. L.
1979-01-01
Electron solitary holes were observed in a magnetized collisionless plasma. These holes were identified as Bernstein-Green-Kruskal equilibria, thus being purely kinetic phenomena. The electron hole does not damp even though its velocity is close to the electron thermal velocity. Two holes attract...
Histoplasmosis presenting with solitary pulmonary nodule: Two ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Pulmonary histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, whose diagnosis is not always easy, as it may simulate metastatic lesions due to similar radiographic findings. We herein report two cases of histoplasmosis with solitary pulmonary nodule in asymptomatic patients with histories of cancer surgeries, whose diagnoses ...
Is percutaneous nephrolithotomy in solitary kidneys safe?
Wong, Kathie Alexina; Sahai, Arun; Patel, Amit; Thomas, Kay; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan
2013-11-01
To review our experience from a high volume stone center with a focus on efficacy, safety, and renal function. Stones requiring percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with solitary kidneys can pose significant anxiety to the urologist. Limited data are available in published reports in this setting. A comprehensive retrospective review of medical records was performed on patients who underwent PCNL and had a solitary kidney or a single functioning renal unit. Data were collected on patient demographics, stone burden, outcomes, complications, and renal function. Of 378 PCNLs performed between January 2003 and September 2011, 22 were performed in 17 patients with a single functioning kidney. Three procedures were performed in a transplanted kidney. In those with solitary calculus, the longest mean length and stone surface area were 37 mm and 825 mm(2), respectively. Stone-free rate was 59%. Auxiliary procedures were required in 6 cases, resulting in a stone-free rate of 77%. Median inpatient stay was 4 days. Serum creatinine values improved from 144 to 126 umol/L before and after the procedure and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate improved similarly from 51 to 59 mls/minute, respectively. Blood transfusion was required in 1 patient, sepsis developed in 3, and 2 patients required a stent for obstruction. PCNL in solitary kidneys is safe with an acceptable complication rate if performed in a high volume center. Outcomes are good, although auxiliary procedures may be necessary. Renal function remains stable or improves after procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.
2007-01-01
In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)
On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas
2008-01-01
Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...
CFD Analysis of Water Solitary Wave Reflection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Smida
2011-12-01
Full Text Available A new numerical wave generation method is used to investigate the head-on collision of two solitary waves. The reflection at vertical wall of a solitary wave is also presented. The originality of this model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is the specification of an internal inlet velocity, defined as a source line within the computational domain for the generation of these non linear waves. This model was successfully implemented in the PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series code. The collision of two counter-propagating solitary waves is similar to the interaction of a soliton with a vertical wall. This wave generation method allows the saving of considerable time for this collision process since the counter-propagating wave is generated directly without reflection at vertical wall. For the collision of two solitary waves, numerical results show that the run-up phenomenon can be well explained, the solution of the maximum wave run-up is almost equal to experimental measurement. The simulated wave profiles during the collision are in good agreement with experimental results. For the reflection at vertical wall, the spatial profiles of the wave at fixed instants show that this problem is equivalent to the collision process.
The radiology in the solitary bone lesions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veloso, G.A.; Cardoso, V.M.
1985-01-01
Three methods of radiologic analysis of the solitary bone lesions are reviewed. 1. Radiological analysis of the lesions with the objective to suppose the histologic type; 2. To appreciate the velocity of growth and aggressiveness of the lesions. 3. To appreciate the biological behaviour of the bone lesions, making the diagnosis necessary for the treatment. (M.A.C.) [pt
Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David V. Svintradze
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy Choudhury, S.
2007-01-01
The Ostrovsky equation is an important canonical model for the unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear long surface and internal waves in a rotating, inviscid and incompressible fluid. Limited functional analytic results exist for the occurrence of one family of solitary-wave solutions of this equation, as well as their approach to the well-known solitons of the famous Korteweg-de Vries equation in the limit as the rotation becomes vanishingly small. Since solitary-wave solutions often play a central role in the long-time evolution of an initial disturbance, we consider such solutions here (via the normal form approach) within the framework of reversible systems theory. Besides confirming the existence of the known family of solitary waves and its reduction to the KdV limit, we find a second family of multihumped (or N-pulse) solutions, as well as a continuum of delocalized solitary waves (or homoclinics to small-amplitude periodic orbits). On isolated curves in the relevant parameter region, the delocalized waves reduce to genuine embedded solitons. The second and third families of solutions occur in regions of parameter space distinct from the known solitary-wave solutions and are thus entirely new. Directions for future work are also mentioned
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa); Devanandhan, S., E-mail: devanandhan@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa)
2016-08-15
A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves having nonthermal hot electrons, cold and beam electrons, and ions in a magnetized plasma. We have employed reductive perturbation theory to derive the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing the nonlinear evolution of these waves. The two-dimensional plane wave solution of KdV-ZK equation is analyzed to study the effects of nonthermal and beam electrons on the characteristics of the solitons. Theoretical results predict negative potential solitary structures. We emphasize that the inclusion of finite temperature effects reduces the soliton amplitudes and the width of the solitons increases by an increase in the obliquity of the wave propagation. The numerical analysis is presented for the parameters corresponding to the observations of “burst a” event by Viking satellite on the auroral field lines.
Solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynov, J.-P.
1980-08-01
Investigations of two different types of nonlinear, solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide are presented. One of the wavetypes is a localized, compressional pulse identified as a Trivelpiece-Gould soliton. The modification of this soliton by the resonant electrons is studied theoretically, by direct numerical solution of the model equation, experimentally, and by numerical simulation of the experiment. The other wave is a localized, rarefactive pulse called an electron hole. It is a positive pulse consisting of a large number of trapped electrons and is a purely kinetic phenomenon. A simple waterbag model for the electron hole is derived and compared with the results from the experiment and the numerical simulation. Finally, interactions between the solitary waves are investigated. (Auth.)
Observation of large-amplitude ion acoustic solitary waves in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yoshiharu
1987-01-01
Propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic waves in a multi-component plasma with negative ions is investigated in a double-plasma device. When the density of negative ions is larger than a critical value, a broad negative pulse evolves to rarefactive solitons, and a positive pulse whose amplitude is less than a certain threshold value becomes a subsonic wave train. In the same plasma, a positive pulse whose amplitude is larger than the threshold develops into a solitary wave. The critical amplitude is measured as a function of the density of negative ions and compared with predictions of the pseudo-potential method. The energy distribution of electrons in the solitary wave is also measured. (author)
Electro-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamun, A.A.; Sayed, F.
2005-10-01
present a rigorous theoretical investigation of electro- acoustic [particularly, dust-ion acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] solitary waves in dusty plasmas. We employ the reductive perturbation method for small but finite amplitude solitary waves as well as the pseudo-potential approach for arbitrary amplitude ones. We also analyze the effects of non-planar geometry and dust charge fluctuations on both DIA and DA solitary waves, the effect of finite ion-temperature on DIA solitary waves, and the effects of dust-fluid temperature and non-isothermal ion distributions on DA solitary waves. It has been reported that these effects do not only significantly modify the basic features of DIA or DA solitary waves, but also introduce some important new features. The basic features and the underlying physics of DIA and DA solitary waves, which are relevant to space and laboratory dusty plasmas, are briefly discussed. (author)
Collinear light scattering using electromagnetically induced transparency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, S.E.; Sokolov, A.V.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.
2001-01-01
The paper describes two types of nonlinear optical processes which are based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These are: (1) Collinear generation of FM-like Raman sidebands and (2) a type of pondermotive light scattering which is inherent to the interaction of slow light with cold atoms. Connections to other areas of EIT-based nonlinear optics are also described
Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I
2011-01-01
An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, J.S.
1987-01-01
An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced
Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
1973-01-01
The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse
2015-01-01
Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....
Dynamical barrier for the formation of solitary waves in discrete lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kevrekidis, P.G.; Espinola-Rocha, J.A.; Drossinos, Y.; Stefanov, A.
2008-01-01
We consider the problem of the existence of a dynamical barrier of 'mass' that needs to be excited on a lattice site to lead to the formation and subsequent persistence of localized modes for a nonlinear Schroedinger lattice. We contrast the existence of a dynamical barrier with its absence in the static theory of localized modes in one spatial dimension. We suggest an energetic criterion that provides a sufficient, but not necessary, condition on the amplitude of a single-site initial condition required to form a solitary wave. We show that this effect is not one-dimensional by considering its two-dimensional analog. The existence of a sufficient condition for the excitation of localized modes in the non-integrable, discrete, nonlinear Schroedinger equation is compared to the dynamics of excitations in the integrable, both discrete and continuum, version of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation
Dynamical barrier for the formation of solitary waves in discrete lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: kevrekid@math.umass.edu; Espinola-Rocha, J.A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Stefanov, A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Kansas, 1460 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66045-7523 (United States)
2008-03-24
We consider the problem of the existence of a dynamical barrier of 'mass' that needs to be excited on a lattice site to lead to the formation and subsequent persistence of localized modes for a nonlinear Schroedinger lattice. We contrast the existence of a dynamical barrier with its absence in the static theory of localized modes in one spatial dimension. We suggest an energetic criterion that provides a sufficient, but not necessary, condition on the amplitude of a single-site initial condition required to form a solitary wave. We show that this effect is not one-dimensional by considering its two-dimensional analog. The existence of a sufficient condition for the excitation of localized modes in the non-integrable, discrete, nonlinear Schroedinger equation is compared to the dynamics of excitations in the integrable, both discrete and continuum, version of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation.
Batool, Fiza; Akram, Ghazala
2018-05-01
An improved (G'/G)-expansion method is proposed for extracting more general solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear fractional Cahn-Allen equation. The temporal fractional derivative is taken in the sense of Jumarie's fractional derivative. The results of this article are generalized and extended version of previously reported solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taheri M.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Background: Drug resistance is widely believed to be an increasingly serious threat to global public health. We have previously reported that short term exposure of microorganisms to diagnostic ultrasound waves could significantly alter their sensitivity to antibiotics. In our previous studies, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed major differences in the sensitivity to antibiotics in exposed and non-exposed samples. This study was aimed at investigating the alteration of antibiotic resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia, after exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, three replicate agar plates were used for each test. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar plates and the inhibition zones in both control and exposed groups were measured. A common Wi-Fi router was used in this study as the radiofrequency exposure source. Irradiated samples were exposed to Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation for 3, 4.5 and 8 hours. Results: Statistically significant variations of sensitivity to antibiotics were found for all studied antibiotics after 4.5 hours of RF exposure, compared to non-exposed bacteria. Interestingly, the mean diameters of the inhibition zones after 3 hours of exposure were less than those exposed for 4.5 hours. Following this rise in the sensitivity to antibiotics, a fall was observed in the bacteria exposed for 8 hours for all studied antibiotics. Conclusion: The findings of this study show a statistically significant rise in the sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after 4.5 hours of exposure to 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, followed by a fall after 8 hours of exposure. These observations can be interpreted by the concept of non-linearity in the responses of Klebsiella pneumoniae to different antibiotics after exposure to electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation. As in this study a minimum level of
Radiotherapy in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma.
Jyothirmayi, R; Gangadharan, V P; Nair, M K; Rajan, B
1997-05-01
Solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) are rare. High local control rates are reported with radiotherapy, although the optimal dose and extent of radiotherapy portals remains controversial. Between 1983 and 1993, 30 patients with solitary plasmacytoma were seen at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India. 23 patients had SPB and seven EMP. The mean age was 52 years and the male to female ratio 3.2:1. Diagnosis of SPB was confirmed by biopsy in 16 patients and tumour excision in seven. 20 patients received megavoltage radiotherapy to the bone lesion with limited margins, and one received chemotherapy. Two patients who underwent complete tumour excision received no further treatment. All seven patients with EMP received megavoltage radiotherapy, four following biopsy and three after tumour excision. Local control was achieved in all patients with SPB. Nine progressed to multiple myeloma and one developed a solitary plasmacytoma in another bone. Six patients with EMP achieved local control. Three later progressed to multiple myeloma and one had local relapse. Median time to relapse was 28 months in SPB and 30 months in EMP. 5-year overall survival rates were 82% and 57% for patients with SPB and EMP, respectively. The corresponding progression free survival rates were 55% and 50%, respectively. Age, sex, site of tumour, serum M protein and haemoglobin levels did not significantly influence progression free survival. The extent of surgery, radiotherapy dose or time to relapse were not significant prognostic factors. Radiotherapy appears to be an effective modality of treatment of solitary plasmacytoma. No dose-response relationship is observed, and high local control rates are achieved with limited portals. Progression to multiple myeloma is the commonest pattern of failure, although no prognostic factors for progression are identified. The role of chemotherapy in preventing disease progression needs further evaluation.
Negative ion sound solitary waves revisited
Cairns, R. A.; Cairns
2013-12-01
Some years ago, a group including the present author and Padma Shukla showed that a suitable non-thermal electron distribution allows the formation of ion sound solitary waves with either positive or negative density perturbations, whereas with Maxwellian electrons only a positive density perturbation is possible. The present paper discusses the qualitative features of this distribution allowing the negative waves and shared with suitable two-temperature distributions.
Frustrated Brownian Motion of Nonlocal Solitary Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Folli, V.; Conti, C.
2010-01-01
We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of nonparaxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equations.
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Shaun eGallagher; Shaun eGallagher; Shaun eGallagher
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we ...
Some new exact solitary wave solutions of the van der Waals model arising in nature
Bibi, Sadaf; Ahmed, Naveed; Khan, Umar; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef
2018-06-01
This work proposes two well-known methods, namely, Exponential rational function method (ERFM) and Generalized Kudryashov method (GKM) to seek new exact solutions of the van der Waals normal form for the fluidized granular matter, linked with natural phenomena and industrial applications. New soliton solutions such as kink, periodic and solitary wave solutions are established coupled with 2D and 3D graphical patterns for clarity of physical features. Our comparison reveals that the said methods excel several existing methods. The worked-out solutions show that the suggested methods are simple and reliable as compared to many other approaches which tackle nonlinear equations stemming from applied sciences.
Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel [Plasma Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences-Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz
2009-09-15
A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.
Semi-analytic variable charge solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tribeche, Mouloud; Younsi, Smain; Amour, Rabia; Aoutou, Kamel
2009-01-01
A semi-analytic model for highly nonlinear solitary waves involving dust phase-space vortices (holes) is outlined. The variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function and we take advantage of this transcendental function to investigate the localized structures that may occur in a dusty plasma with variable charge trapped dust particles. Our results which complement the previously published work on this problem (Schamel et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 671) should be of basic interest for experiments that involve the trapping of dust particles in ultra-low-frequency dust acoustic modes.
Algebraic method for constructing singular steady solitary waves: a case study
Clamond, Didier; Dutykh, Denys; Galligo, André
2016-07-01
This article describes the use of algebraic methods in a phase plane analysis of ordinary differential equations. The method is illustrated by the study of capillary-gravity steady surface waves propagating in shallow water. We consider the (fully nonlinear, weakly dispersive) Serre-Green-Naghdi equation with surface tension, because it provides a tractable model that, at the same time, is not too simple, so interest in the method can be emphasized. In particular, we analyse a special class of solutions, the solitary waves, which play an important role in many fields of physics. In capillary-gravity regime, there are two kinds of localized infinitely smooth travelling wave solutions-solitary waves of elevation and of depression. However, if we allow the solitary waves to have an angular point, then the `zoology' of solutions becomes much richer, and the main goal of this study is to provide a complete classification of such singular localized solutions using the methods of the effective algebraic geometry.
Dust acoustic solitary waves and double layers in a dusty plasma with two-temperature trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Labany, S.K.; El-Taibany, W.F.; Mamun, A.A.; Moslem, Waleed M.
2004-01-01
The combined effects of trapped ion distribution, two-ion-temperature, dust charge fluctuation, and dust fluid temperature are incorporated in the study of nonlinear dust acoustic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. It is found that, owing to the departure from the Boltzmann ion distribution to the trapped ion distribution, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust acoustic waves is governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The latter admits a stationary dust acoustic solitary wave solution, which has stronger nonlinearity, smaller amplitude, wider width, and higher propagation velocity than that involving adiabatic ions. The effect of two-ion-temperature is found to provide the possibility for the coexistence of rarefactive and compressive dust acoustic solitary structures and double layers. Although the dust fluid temperature increases the amplitude of the small but finite amplitude solitary waves, the dust charge fluctuation does the opposite effect. The present investigation should help us to understand the salient features of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves that have been observed in a recent numerical simulation study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi
1998-01-01
The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)
From Photons to Atoms - The Electromagnetic Nature of Matter
Funaro, Daniele
2012-01-01
Motivated by a revision of the classical equations of electromagnetism that allow for the inclusion of solitary waves in the solution space, the material collected in these notes examine the consequences of adopting the modified model in the description of atomic structures. The possibility of handling "photons" in a deterministic way opens indeed a chance for reviewing the foundations of quantum physics. Atoms and molecules are described as aggregations of nuclei and electrons joined through...
Force-free electromagnetic pulses in a laboratory plasma
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
1990-01-01
A short, intense current pulse is drawn from an electrode immersed in a magnetized afterglow plasma. The induced magnetic field B(r,t) assumes the shape of a helical double vortex which propagates along B(0) through the uniform plasma as a whistler mode. The observations support a prediction of force-free (J x B + neE = 0) electromagnetic fields and solitary waves. Energy and helicity are approximately conserved.
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement.
Gallagher, Shaun
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a "cruel and unusual punishment," there is no consensus on the definition of the term "cruel" in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of "cruelty" by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaun eGallagher
2014-06-01
Full Text Available What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a cruel and unusual punishment, there is no consensus on the definition of the term ‘cruel’ in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we can find a moral consensus on the meaning of ‘cruelty’ by looking specifically at the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement.
Interaction for solitary waves in coasting charged particle beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Shi-Wei; Hong, Xue-Ren; Shi, Yu-Ren; Duan, Wen-shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic an Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han, Jiu-Ning [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)
2014-03-15
By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, the collision of solitary waves in a coasting charged particle beams is studied. The results show that the system admits a solution with two solitary waves, which move in opposite directions and can be described by two Korteweg-deVries equation in small-amplitude limit. The collision of two solitary waves is elastic, and after the interaction they preserve their original properties. Then the weak phase shift in traveling direction of collision between two solitary waves is derived explicitly.
Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings
Park, Sung Hee; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang
2007-01-01
Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was seen during abdominal computed tomography. A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach, although rare, could be considered as a diagnostic possibility for gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:18159603
Arshad, Muhammad; Seadawy, Aly R.; Lu, Dianchen
2017-12-01
In optical fibers, the higher order non-linear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with cubic quintic nonlinearity describes the propagation of extremely short pulses. We constructed bright and dark solitons, solitary wave and periodic solitary wave solutions of generalized higher order NLSE in cubic quintic non Kerr medium by applying proposed modified extended mapping method. These obtained solutions have key applications in physics and mathematics. Moreover, we have also presented the formation conditions on solitary wave parameters in which dark and bright solitons can exist for this media. We also gave graphically the movement of constructed solitary wave and soliton solutions, that helps to realize the physical phenomena's of this model. The stability of the model in normal dispersion and anomalous regime is discussed by using the modulation instability analysis, which confirms that all constructed solutions are exact and stable. Many other such types of models arising in applied sciences can also be solved by this reliable, powerful and effective method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.
2012-01-01
Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.
Nonlinear temporal modulation of pulsar radioemission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.-L.
1984-01-01
A nonlinear theory is discussed for self-modulation of pulsar radio pulses. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived for strong electromagnetic waves propagating in an electron-positron plasma. The nonlinearities arising from wave intensity induced relativistic particle mass variation may excite the modulational instability of circularly and linearly polarized pulsar radiation. The resulting wave envelopes can take the form of periodic wave trains or solitons. These nonlinear stationary wave forms may account for the formation of pulsar microstructures. (Author) [pt
On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea
Guo, Daquan
2015-04-01
Satellite observations recently revealed the existence of trains of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea between 16.0°N and 16.5°N, propagating from the centre of the domain toward the continental shelf [Da silva et al., 2012]. Given the relatively weak tidal velocity in this area and their generation in the central of the domain, Da Silva suggested three possible mechanisms behind the generation of the waves, namely Resonance and disintegration of interfacial tides, Generation of interfacial tides by impinging, remotely generated internal tidal beams and for geometrically focused and amplified internal tidal beams. Tide analysis based on tide stations data and barotropic tide model in the Red Sea shows that tide is indeed very weak in the centre part of the Red Sea, but it is relatively strong in the northern and southern parts (reaching up to 66 cm/s). Together with extreme steep slopes along the deep trench, it provides favourable conditions for the generation of internal solitary in the southern Red Sea. To investigate the generation mechanisms and study the evolution of the internal waves in the off-shelf region of the southern Red Sea we have implemented a 2-D, high-resolution and non-hydrostatic configuration of the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Our simulations reproduce well that the generation process of the internal solitary waves. Analysis of the model\\'s output suggests that the interaction between the topography and tidal flow with the nonlinear effect is the main mechanism behind the generation of the internal solitary waves. Sensitivity experiments suggest that neither tidal beam nor the resonance effect of the topography is important factor in this process.
Shoaling internal solitary waves of depression over gentle slopes
Rivera, Gustavo; Diamessis, Peter
2017-11-01
The shoaling of an internal solitary wave (ISW) of depression over gentle slopes is explored through fully nonlinear and non-hydrostatic simulations using a high resolution/accuracy deformed spectral multidomain penalty method. During shoaling, the wave does not disintegrate as in the case of steeper slope but, instead, maintains its symmetric shape. At the core of the wave, an unstable region forms, characterized by the entrapment of heavier-over-light fluid. The formation of this convective instability is attributed to the vertical stretching by the ISW of the near-surface vorticity layer associated with the baroclinic background current. According to recent field observations in the South China Sea, the unstable region drives localized turbulent mixing within the wave, estimated to be up to four times larger than that in the open ocean, in the form of a recirculating trapped core. In this talk, emphasis is placed on the structure of the unstable region and the persistence of a possible recirculating core using simulations which capture 2D wave propagation combined with 3D representation of the transition to turbulence. As such, a preliminary understanding of the underlying fluid mechanics and the potential broader oceanic significance of ISWs with trapped cores is offered. Financial support gratefully acknowledged to NSF OCE Grant 1634257.
Solitary Langmuir waves in two-electron temperature plasma
Prudkikh, V. V.; Prudkikh
2014-06-01
Nonlinear interaction of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in two-electron temperature plasma is investigated. New integrable wave interaction regime was discovered, this regime corresponds to the Langmuir soliton with three-hump amplitude, propagating with a speed close to the ion-sound speed in the conditions of strong non-isothermality of electronic components. It was discovered that besides the known analytical solution in the form of one- and two-hump waves, there exists a range of solutions in the form of solitary waves, which in the form of envelope has multi-peak structure and differs from the standard profiles described by hyperbolic functions. In case of fixed plasma parameters, different group velocities correspond to the waves with different number of peaks. It is found that the Langmuir wave package contains both even and uneven numbers of oscillations. Low-frequency potential here has uneven number of peaks. Interrelation of obtained and known earlier results are also discussed.
Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Verheest
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...
Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components
Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.
2018-01-01
There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Shamy, E.F., E-mail: emadel_shamy@hotmail.co [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta 34517, Damietta (Egypt); Moslem, W.M., E-mail: wmmosle@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science-Port Said, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Shukla, P.K., E-mail: ps@tp4.rub.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2009-12-28
Head-on collision between two ion acoustic solitary waves in a Thomas-Fermi plasma containing degenerate electrons and positrons is investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) method. The results show that the phase shifts due to the collision are strongly dependent on the positron-to-electron number density ratio, the electron-to-positron Fermi temperature ratio and the ion-to-electron Fermi temperature ratio. The present study might be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a degenerate plasma such as in superdense white dwarfs.
Social interactions in a solitary carnivore
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L.Mark ELBROCH; Howard QUIGLEY
2017-01-01
In total,177 of 245 terrestrial carnivores are described as solitary,and much of carnivore ecology is built on the assumptions that interactions between adult solitary carnivores are rare.We employed Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and motion-triggered cameras to test predictions of land-tenure territoriality and the resource dispersion hypothesis in a territorial carnivore,the puma Puma concolor.We documented 89 independent GPS interactions,60％ of which occurred at puma kills (n=53),59 camera interactions,11 (17％) of which captured courtship behaviors,and 5 other interactions (1 F-F,3 M-F,and 1 M-M).Mean minimum weekly contact rates were 5.5 times higher in winter,the season when elk Cervus elaphus were aggregated at lower elevations and during which puma courtship primarily occurred.In winter,contacts rates were 0.6± 0.3 (standard deviation (SD)) interactions/week vs.0.1 ± 0.1 (SD) interactions/week during summer.The preponderance of interactions at food sources supported the resource dispersion hypothesis,which predicts that resource fluxes can explain temporary social behaviors that do not result in any apparent benefits for the individuals involved.Conspecific tolerance is logical when a prey is so large that the predator that killed it cannot consume it entirely,and thus,the costs of tolerating a conspecific sharing the kill are less than the potential costs associated with defending it and being injured.Puma aggregations at kills numbered as high as 9,emphasizing the need for future research on what explains tolerance among solitary carnivores.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qicheng Meng
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A third-order KdV solution to the internal solitary wave is derived by a new method based on the weakly nonlinear assumptions in a rigid-lid two-layer system. The solution corrects an error by Mirie and Su (1984. A two-dimensional numerical wave tank has been established with the help of the open source CFD library OpenFOAM and the third-party software waves2Foam. Various analytical solutions, including the first-order to third-order KdV solutions, the eKdV solution and the MCC solution, have been used to initialise the flow fields in the CFD simulations of internal solitary waves. Two groups including 11 numerical cases have been carried out. In the same group, the initial wave amplitudes are the same but the implemented analytical solutions are different. The simulated wave profiles at different moments have been presented. The relative errors in terms of the wave amplitude between the last time step and the initial input have been analysed quantitatively. It is found that the third-order KdV solution results in the most stable internal solitary wave in the numerical wave tank for both small-amplitude and finite-amplitude cases. The finding is significant for the further simulations involving internal solitary waves.
Radiotherapy for solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmaus, M.C.; Neuhof, D.
2014-01-01
Solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma require a differentiated radiotherapy. The irradiation for plasmacytoma with an adequate total dose (medullary 40-50 Gy or extramedullary 50-60 Gy) leads to a high degree of local control with a low rate of side effects. In cases of multiple myeloma radiotherapy will achieve effective palliation, both in terms of recalcification as well as reduction of neurological symptoms and analgesia. In terms of analgesia the rule is the higher the single dose fraction the faster the reduction of pain. As part of a conditioning treatment prior to stem cell transplantation radiotherapy contributes to the establishment of a graft versus myeloma effect (GVM). (orig.) [de
Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.
1988-10-01
We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.
Gravitational bags and solitary cosmological evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, A.; Guendelman, E.I.
1989-01-01
The role played by the sophisticated scalar potential, dictated by spontaneous compactification, is analyzed. A fine-tuning is mandatory for achieving asymptotic flatness. Two main aspects are studied. 1. The three-fold spherically symmetric case exhibits localized four-dimensional objects, to be referred to as ''gravitational bags''. These are cores of scalar fields confined by means of a cosmic domain wall, whose size only slightly exceeds equal-mass black holes. 2. The cosmological case introduces a novel scenario of ''solitary evolution''. Triggered by the collapse of the extra dimensions, the universe undergoes an inflationary stage before settling in an oscillating fashion, in its ground state. (orig.)
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wang, E.; Bell, R.E.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
Niessen, E.M.J.; Niessen, E.M.J.; Zandbergen, P.J.
1993-01-01
Analytical results are presented concerning the electromagnetic response of a composite superconducting wire in fields parallel to the wire axis, using the Maxwell equations supplemented with constitutive equations. The problem is nonlinear due to the nonlinearity in the constitutive equation
Solitary Plasmacytoma: A Review Of Clinical, Ocular, Neurological ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Solitary plasmacytomas are defined as proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells without evidence of significant bone-marrow plasma-cell infiltration. They are classified according to location into solitary plasmacytoma of bone if they occur in bone, and extramedullary plasmacytoma if they arise in soft tissues. They are more ...
Ion-acoustic solitary waves near double layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehl, H.H.; Imen, K.
1985-01-01
The possibility of ion-acoustic solitary-wave solutions in the uniform plasma on the high-potential side of double layer is investigated. Based on a fluid model of the double layer, it is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitary waves are allowed. Curves are presented which show the regions in parameter space in which these solutions exist
Nonlinear electrodynamics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breton, Nora
2010-01-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) generalizes Maxwell's theory for strong fields. When coupled to general relativity NLED presents interesting features like the non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor that leads to the possibility of violation of some energy conditions and of acting as a repulsive contribution in the Raychaudhuri equation. This theory is worth to study in cosmological and astrophysical situations characterized by strong electromagnetic and gravitational fields.
CT findings of solitary intracranial metastasis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chang, Kee Hyun
1987-01-01
The authors retrospectively reviewed and analyzed CT scans of fifty patients with solitary intracranial lesion selected from 118 patients who had been confirmed to have intracranial metastasis from 1979 to 1985. The results were as follows: 1. The most common primary tumors with solitary metastasis, in order of frequency, were lung cancer, breast cancer, choriocarcinoma, colon cancer, lymphoma and others. 2. Precontrast scans obtained in 35 cases showed cystic very low density in 20%, slightly low density in 9%, isodensity in 20%, high density in 51% when he densities of the lesions were compared with that of the normal brain tissue. 3. After contrast enhancement 43 out of 50 showed one of 4 patterns of enhancement. Homogeneous enhancement without necrosis were found in 26%, homogeneous enhancement with necrosis in 18%, ring-enhancement in 26% and irregular enhancement in 16%. No enhancement was found in 14%. 4. The locations of the metastatic lesions were intra axial in 45 and extra axial in 5. Among the intra axial lesions, the parietal lobe was the most common location. Extra axial metastases were epidural, calvarial and leptomeningeal. 5. Degrees of surrounding edema were mild in 32%, moderate in 19% and severe in 49%
Radiation therapy for the solitary plasmacytoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esengül Koçak
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Plasma-cell neoplasms are classically categorized into four groups as: multiple myeloma (MM, plasma-cell leukemias, solitary plasmacytomas (SP of the bone (SPB, and extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMP. These tumors may be described as localized or diffuse in presentation. Localized plasma-cell neoplasms are rare, and include SP of the skeletal system, accounting for 2-5% of all plasma-cell neoplasms, and EMP of soft tissue, accounting for approximately 3% of all such neoplasms. SP is defined as a solitary mass of neoplastic plasma cells either in the bone marrow or in various soft tissue sites. There appears to be a continuum in which SP often progresses to MM. The main treatment modality for SP is radiation therapy (RT. However, there are no conclusive data in the literature on the optimal RT dose for SP. This review describes the interrelationship of plasma-cell neoplasms, and attempts to determine the minimal RT dose required to obtain local control.
Electron acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized two electron population dense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmood, S.; Masood, W.
2008-01-01
The electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in unmagnetized two population electron quantum plasmas. The quantum hydrodynamic model is employed with the Sagdeev potential approach to describe the arbitrary amplitude electron acoustic waves in a two electron population dense Fermi plasma. It is found that hot electron density hump structures are formed in the subsonic region in such type of quantum plasmas. The wave amplitude as well as the width of the soliton are increased with the increase of percentage presence of cold (thinly populated) electrons in a multicomponent quantum plasma. It is found that an increase in quantum diffraction parameter broadens the nonlinear structure. Furthermore, the amplitude of the nonlinear electron acoustic wave is found to increase with the decrease in Mach number. The numerical results are also presented to understand the formation of solitons in two electron population Fermi plasmas.
Soliton wave-speed management: Slowing, stopping, or reversing a solitary wave
Baines, Luke W. S.; Van Gorder, Robert A.
2018-06-01
While dispersion management is a well-known tool to control soliton properties such as shape or amplitude, far less effort has been directed toward the theoretical control of the soliton wave speed. However, recent experiments concerning the stopping or slowing of light demonstrate that the control of the soliton wave speed is of experimental interest. Motivated by these and other studies, we propose a management approach for modifying the wave speed of a soliton (or of other nonlinear wave solutions, such as periodic cnoidal waves) under the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Making use of this approach, we are able to slow, stop, or even reverse a solitary wave, and we give several examples to bright solitons, dark solitons, and periodic wave trains, to demonstrate the method. An extension of the approach to spatially heterogeneous media, for which the wave may propagate differently at different spatial locations, is also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzeng, Wen-Shian V.
1991-01-01
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are well known in the art in forms such as gaskets, caulking compounds, adhesives, coatings and the like for a variety of EMI shielding purposes. In the past, where high shielding performance is necessary, EMI shielding has tended to use silver particles or silver coated copper particles dispersed in a resin binder. More recently, aluminum core silver coated particles have been used to reduce costs while maintaining good electrical and physical properties. (author). 8 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldridge, David F.
2014-11-01
A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories
Exact bright and dark spatial soliton solutions in saturable nonlinear media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calvo, Gabriel F.; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2009-01-01
We present exact analytical bright and dark (black and grey) solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation describing the propagation of spatial beams in media exhibiting a saturable nonlinearity (such as centrosymmetric photorefractive materials). A qualitative study of the stationary equation is carried out together with a discussion of the stability of the solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palacios, Sergio L.
2004-01-01
We propose two simple ansaetze that allow us to obtain different analytical solutions of the high dispersive cubic and cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equations. Among these solutions we can find solitary wave and periodic wave solutions representing the propagation of different waveforms in nonlinear media
Ida, Nathan
2015-01-01
This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems and summaries. The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...
Exact solutions for the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jiamin; Ma Zhengyi
2007-01-01
In this paper, the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equation is solved through the extended elliptic sub-equation method. As a consequence, many types of exact travelling wave solutions are obtained which including bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions and singular solutions
Exact solutions of certain nonlinear chemotaxis diffusion reaction ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
constructed coupled differential equations. The results obtained ... Nonlinear diffusion reaction equation; chemotaxis; auxiliary equation method; solitary wave solutions. ..... fact limits the scope of applications of the derived results. ... Research Fellowship and AP acknowledges DU and DST for PURSE grant for financial.
Soliton solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations with time ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, we obtain exact soliton solutions of the modified KdV equation, inho- mogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation and G(m, n) equation with variable coefficients using solitary wave ansatz. The constraint conditions among the time-dependent coefficients turn out as necessary conditions for the ...
Nonlinear localized dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tribeche, Mouloud; Amour, Rabia
2007-01-01
A numerical investigation is presented to show the existence, formation, and possible realization of large-amplitude dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions. These nonlinear localized structures are self-consistent solutions of the collisionless Vlasov equation with a population of fast particles. The spatial patterns of the variable charge DA solitary wave are significantly modified by the nonthermal effects. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem
Nonlinear Klein-Gordon soliton mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinisch, G.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear Klein-Gordon solitary waves - or solitons in a loose sense - in n+1 dimensions, driven by very general external fields which must only satisfy continuity - together with regularity conditions at the boundaries of the system, obey a quite simple equation of motion. This equation is the exact generalization to this dynamical system of infinite number of degrees of freedom - which may be conservative or not - of the second Newton's law setting the basis of material point mechanics. In the restricted case of conservative nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems, where the external driving force is derivable from a potential energy, we recover the generalized Ehrenfest theorem which was itself the extension to such systems of the well-known Ehrenfest theorem in quantum mechanics. This review paper first displays a few (of one-dimensional sine-Gordon type) typical examples of the basic difficulties related to the trial construction of solitary-waves is proved and the derivation of the previous sine-Gordon examples from this theorem is displayed. Two-dimensional nonlinear solitary-wave patterns are considered, as well as a special emphasis is put on the applications to space-time complexity of 1-dim. sine-Gordon systems
Selected Problems in Nonlinear Dynamics and Sociophysics
Westley, Alexandra Renee
This Ph.D. dissertation focuses on a collection of problems on the dynamical behavior of nonlinear many-body systems, drawn from two substantially different areas. First, the dynamical behavior seen in strongly nonlinear lattices such as in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) system (part I) and second, time evolution behavior of interacting living objects which can be broadly considered as sociophysics systems (part II). The studies on FPUT-like systems will comprise of five chapters, dedicated to the properties of solitary and anti-solitary waves in the system, how localized nonlinear excitations decay and spread throughout these lattices, how two colliding solitary waves can precipitate highly localized and stable excitations, a possible alternative way to view these localized excitations through Duffing oscillators, and finally an exploration of parametric resonance in an FPUT-like lattice. Part II consists of two problems in the context of sociophysics. I use molecular dynamics inspired simulations to study the size and the stability of social groups of chimpanzees (such as those seen in central Africa) and compare the results with existing observations on the stability of chimpanzee societies. Secondly, I use an agent-based model to simulate land battles between an intelligent army and an insurgency when both have access to equally powerful weaponry. The study considers genetic algorithm based adaptive strategies to infer the strategies needed for the intelligent army to win the battles.
Nonlinear physical systems spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations
Kirillov, Oleg N
2013-01-01
Bringing together 18 chapters written by leading experts in dynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations, and solid and fluid mechanics, this book presents state-of-the-art approaches to a wide spectrum of new and challenging stability problems.Nonlinear Physical Systems: Spectral Analysis, Stability and Bifurcations focuses on problems of spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations arising in the nonlinear partial differential equations of modern physics. Bifurcations and stability of solitary waves, geometrical optics stability analysis in hydro- and magnetohydrodynam
Nonlinear laser dynamics from quantum dots to cryptography
Lüdge, Kathy
2012-01-01
A distinctive discussion of the nonlinear dynamical phenomena of semiconductor lasers. The book combines recent results of quantum dot laser modeling with mathematical details and an analytic understanding of nonlinear phenomena in semiconductor lasers and points out possible applications of lasers in cryptography and chaos control. This interdisciplinary approach makes it a unique and powerful source of knowledge for anyone intending to contribute to this field of research.By presenting both experimental and theoretical results, the distinguished authors consider solitary lase
Solitary plasmacytoma of bone and soft tissue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolek, Timothy W.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price
1996-01-01
Purpose: This retrospective review evaluates the results of radiotherapy used for curative intent in the management of solitary plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Between August 1963 and January 1993, 37 patients with a solitary plasmacytoma were treated with curative intent at the University of Florida. Criteria for inclusion in the study were (a) a biopsy-proven plasmacytoma, (b) no tumor in the bone marrow on biopsy, and (c) no evidence of disseminated disease on skeletal survey. The primary site was osseous in 27 patients and extramedullary in 10 patients; 9 of the 10 extramedullary lesions were located in the upper respiratory passages. Treatment consisted of primary radio-therapy. in all but one patient, who received surgical resection alone. Two patients also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The median radiation dose was 43.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Absolute survival, progression to myeloma, and local control rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate analysis was performed for prognostic factors predictive of absolute survival. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed tumor type (osseous vs. extramedullary) to be predictive of absolute survival (p = 0.12). Factors not predictive of survival were age, sex, use of chemotherapy, immunoglobulin level, and type of immunoglobulin elevated. Patients with osseous tumors had a lower survival rate than those with extramedullary tumors (55% vs. 80% at 10 years, p = 0.06). Multiple myeloma was more likely to develop in patients with osseous tumors (54% vs. 11% at 10 years, 100% vs. 33% at 15 years, p = 0.03). Of patients in whom multiple myeloma developed, those with osseous tumors had a poorer survival rate after development of myeloma (32% vs. 100% at 5 years, p = 0.11). Local relapse developed in 1 patient with an osseous tumor 10 months after treatment with 28.3 Gy in 14 fractions; this was controlled with an additional 28.3 Gy in 10 fractions. Local failure did not develop in any patient
Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui-yun SUN
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Objective To report the diagnosis and treatment of one case of solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis and investigate the clinicopathological features combined with literatures. Methods and Results The patient was a 46-year-old woman. She suffered from weakness of both lower limbs, unsteady gait and numbness of toes for 20 d. MRI examination revealed an irregular mass behind the spinal cord at T5-7 level and T6-7 vertebral body accessory. The enhanced MRI showed obvious heterogeneous enhancement. The border was clear and spinal dura mater was compressed to shift forward. During operation, T5-7 processus spinosus and vertebral laminae were eroded, and the cortex of bone showed "moth-eaten" erosion. The intraspinal and extradural lesion had rich blood supply, loose bone structure and intact spinal dura mater. Histologically, tumor cells were composed of intensive small cells, and focal plasmacytoid cells were seen. Flake pink staining substance was among them. Artificial cracks were common and multinuclear giant tumor cells were scatteredly distributed. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the cytoplasm of tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD138, CD38 and vimentin (Vim,scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA, and negative for immune globulin κ light chain(IgGκ and λ light chain (IgGλ, CD99, S-100 protein (S-100, pan cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, HMB45 and CD34. The Ki-67 labeling index was 1.25%. Congo red staining showed the pink staining substance was brownish red. Hybridization in situ examination showed the DNA content of IgGκ was more than that of IgGλ. The final pathological diagnosis was solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis. The patient was treated with postoperative chemotherapy, and there was no recurrence or metastasis during 18-month follow-up period. Conclusions Solitary plasmacytoma of spine with amyloidosis is a rare tumor. The imaging features can offer a few
Bridges, Thomas J.; Donaldson, Neil M.
2007-07-01
A geometric view of criticality for two-layer flows is presented. Uniform flows are classified by diagrams in the momentum-massflux space for fixed Bernoulli energy, and cuspoidal curves on these diagrams correspond to critical uniform flows. Restriction of these surfaces to critical flow leads to new subsurfaces in energy-massflux space. While the connection between criticality and the generation of solitary waves is well known, we find that the nonlinear properties of these bifurcating solitary waves are also determined by the properties of the criticality surfaces. To be specific, the case of two layers with a rigid lid is considered, and application of the theory to other multilayer flows is sketched.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burch, Aidan
2004-01-01
Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems
Clinical analysis of bone scanning in solitary lesion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jun; Zhu Ruisen; Zhu Jifang
2002-01-01
A rational analysis procedure for solitary lesions on whole bone scanning was offered. This study was undertaken to analyze retrospectively solitary lesions which obtained final diagnose through the following aspects: (1) diagnosis of bone metastasis, (2) the incidence of bone metastasis in different tumor, (3) the most possible lesion sites indicating bone metastasis, (4) morphological analysis of solitary lesions. The results are: (1) The incidence of solitary lesions in 2465 cases on whole bone scanning is 15.3%. (2) The rate of bone metastasis is 24.8% in 282 patients with primary malignancy. The rate of bone metastasis of 6.3% in 64 patients without primary malignancy, and the total diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is 21.4% in 346 patients. (3) In patients with primary malignancy, the incidence of bone metastasis of solitary lesions is as follows respectively; bronchi cancer 36.1%(22/61); breast cancer 23.8%(20/84); prostate gland 17.2%(5/29); other urinary system cancer 22.2%(4/18); G.I. system cancer 16.9%(10/59); others 29.0%(9/31). There is no significant difference in different cancer. (4) In patients without primary malignancy, 93.7%(60/64) of solitary lesions are benign. (5) From anatomical point of view, the authors found the diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is as follow: 30% in spine; 34.2% in pelvis; 36.4% in skull; 10.8% in other bones. There are significant differences in four groups. It is concluded that: (1) The diagnostic rate of bone metastasis in solitary lesions is 21.4%. (2) The most possible solitary lesions indicating osseous tumor spread are at spine, pelvic and skull. (3) Special attention to 'cold' and streak like lesions should be paid. (4) A clinical analysis procedure for diagnosis of solitary lesions has been summarized out here
A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anuruddha M Abeygunasekera
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility.
Diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules.
Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kwon, O Jung
2008-12-01
The advent of computed tomography (CT) screening with or without the help of computer-aided detection systems has increased the detection rate of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), including that of early peripheral lung cancer. Helical dynamic (HD)CT, providing the information on morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics with high specificity and reasonably high accuracy, can be used for the initial assessment of SPNs. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is more sensitive at detecting malignancy than HDCT. Therefore, PET/CT may be selectively performed to characterize SPNs when HDCT gives an inconclusive diagnosis. Serial volume measurements are currently the most reliable methods for the tissue characterization of subcentimeter nodules. When malignant nodule is highly suspected for subcentimeter nodules, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery nodule removal after nodule localization using the pulmonary nodule-marker system may be performed for diagnosis and treatment.
Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: A Biopsychosocial Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamed Daghaghzadeh
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and its etiology is not well understood. There is no specific treatment for this syndrome and patients with SRUS may, for years, experience many complications. The aim of the present research was the biopsychosocial study of patients with SRUS.Methods: The study participants consisted of 16 patients with SRUS (7 men and 9 women. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the clinical spectrum of the patients along with the endoscopic and histological findings. Moreover, psychiatric and personality disorders [based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR], psychosocial stressors, early life traumas, and coping mechanisms were assessed through structured interviews.Results: At presentation, mean age of the patients was 39 years (16 to 70. Common symptoms reported included rectal bleeding (93.8%, rectal self-digitations (81.2%, passage of mucous (75%, anal pain (75%, and straining (75%. Endoscopically, solitary and multiple lesions were present in 9 (60% and 4 (26.7% patients, respectively, and 87% of lesions were ulcerative and 13.3% polypoidal. The most common histological findings were superficial ulceration (92.85% and intercryptic fibromuscular obliteration (87.71%. Common psychosocial findings included anxiety disorders (50%, depression (37.5%, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD or traits (62.5%, interpersonal problems (43.75%, marital conflicts (43.75%, occupational stress (37.5%, early life traumas, physical abuse (31.25%, sexual abuse (31.25%, dysfunctional coping mechanisms, emotional inhibition (50%, and non-assertiveness (37.5%.Conclusion: Given the evidence in this study, we cannot ignore the psychosocial problems of patients with SRUS and biopsychosocial assessment of SRUS is more appropriate than biomedical evaluation alone.
Methods for Free-Space Ultra-Short Solitary EMP Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Drexler
2006-01-01
Full Text Available There are some suitable methods for ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses (EMP measurement. The EMPs are generated by high power microwave generators. The characteristic of EMPs is high power level (Pmax = 250 MW and very short time duration (tp Î <1, 60> ns. Special requirements for measurement methods are placed because of the specific EMPs properties.Two suitable methods for this application are presented in the paper. The first – calorimetric method, utilizes the thermal impacts of microwave absorption. The second method presented – magneto-optic method, use the Faraday’s magneto-optic effect as a sensor principle. It was realized combined calorimetric sensor and there were made some experimental EMP measurements with good results. The sensor utilizing magneto-optic method is in development.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmit, P.F.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2011-01-01
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size Δ during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches Δ. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement
Gallagher, Shaun
2014-01-01
What happens when subjects are deprived of intersubjective contact? This paper looks closely at the phenomenology and psychology of one example of that deprivation: solitary confinement. It also puts the phenomenology and psychology of solitary confinement to use in the legal context. Not only is there no consensus on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment,” there is no consensus on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of that legal phrase. I argue that we ca...
Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings
Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang
2007-01-01
Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was see...
Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.
Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C
2014-10-01
Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Yue
Full Text Available The propagation of hydrodynamic wave packets and media with negative refractive index is studied in a quintic derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS equation. The quintic DNLS equation describe the wave propagation on a discrete electrical transmission line. We obtain a Lagrangian and the invariant variational principle for quintic DNLS equation. By using a class of ordinary differential equation, we found four types of exact solutions of the quintic DNLS equation, which are kink-type solitary wave solution, antikink-type solitary wave solution, sinusoidal solitary wave solution, bell-type solitary wave solution. By applying the modulation instability to discuss stability analysis of the obtained solutions. Modulation instabilities of continuous waves and localized solutions on a zero background have been investigated. Keywords: Quintic derivative NLS equation, Solitary wave solutions, Mathematical physics methods, 2000 MR Subject Classification: 35G20, 35Q53, 37K10, 49S05, 76A60
Second-order nonlinearity induced transparency.
Zhou, Y H; Zhang, S S; Shen, H Z; Yi, X X
2017-04-01
In analogy to electromagnetically induced transparency, optomechanically induced transparency was proposed recently in [Science330, 1520 (2010)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1195596]. In this Letter, we demonstrate another form of induced transparency enabled by second-order nonlinearity. A practical application of the second-order nonlinearity induced transparency is to measure the second-order nonlinear coefficient. Our scheme might find applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing.
Classical mechanics and electromagnetism in accelerator physics
Stupakov, Gennady
2018-01-01
This self-contained textbook with exercises discusses a broad range of selected topics from classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory that inform key issues related to modern accelerators. Part I presents fundamentals of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for mechanical systems, canonical transformations, action-angle variables, and then linear and nonlinear oscillators. The Hamiltonian for a circular accelerator is used to evaluate the equations of motion, the action, and betatron oscillations in an accelerator. From this base, we explore the impact of field errors and nonlinear resonances. This part ends with the concept of the distribution function and an introduction to the kinetic equation to describe large ensembles of charged particles and to supplement the previous single-particle analysis of beam dynamics. Part II focuses on classical electromagnetism and begins with an analysis of the electromagnetic field from relativistic beams, both in vacuum and in a resistive pipe. Plane electromagne...
Rotating solitary wave at the wall of a cylindrical container
Amaouche, Mustapha; Ait Abderrahmane, Hamid; Vatistas, Georgios H.
2013-01-01
This paper deals with the theoretical modeling of a rotating solitary surface wave that was observed during water drainage from a cylindrical reservoir, when shallow water conditions were reached. It represents an improvement of our previous study
Ion acoustic waves in pair-ion plasma: Linear and nonlinear analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saeed, R.; Mushtaq, A.
2009-01-01
Linear and nonlinear properties of low frequency ion acoustic wave (IAW) in pair-ion plasma in the presence of electrons are investigated. The dispersion relation and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for linear/nonlinear IAW are derived from sets of hydrodynamic equations where the ion pairs are inertial while electrons are Boltzmannian. The dispersion curves for various concentrations of electrons are discussed and compared with experimental results. The predicted linear IAW propagates at the same frequencies as those of the experimentally observed IAW if n e0 ∼10 4 cm -3 . It is found that nonlinear profile of the ion acoustic solitary waves is significantly affected by the percentage ratio of electron number density and temperature. It is also determined that rarefactive solitary waves can propagate in this system. It is hoped that the results presented in this study would be helpful in understanding the salient features of the finite amplitude localized ion acoustic solitary pulses in a laboratory fullerene plasma.
Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas: Imaging Findings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Heon Ju; Byun, Jae Ho; Kang, Jun; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Moon Gyu
2008-01-01
We report here a case of a pathologically proven solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas. A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a pancreatic mass that was found incidentally. CT, MR imaging, and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a well-defined, enhancing mass with cystic portions of the pancreas body. MR cholangiopancreatography showed no pancreatic duct dilatation. A solitary fibrous tumor of the pancreas is a very rare lesion
Nonlinear diffuse scattering of the random-phased wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Yoshiaki; Arinaga, Shinji; Mima, Kunioki.
1983-01-01
First experimental observation of the nonlinear diffuse scattering is reported. This new effect was observed in the propagation of the random-phased wave through a nonlinear dielectric medium. This effect is ascribed to the diffusion of the wavevector of the electro-magnetic wave to the lateral direction due to the randomly distributed nonlinear increase in the refractive index. (author)
Solitary mammals provide an animal model for autism spectrum disorders.
Reser, Jared Edward
2014-02-01
Species of solitary mammals are known to exhibit specialized, neurological adaptations that prepare them to focus working memory on food procurement and survival rather than on social interaction. Solitary and nonmonogamous mammals, which do not form strong social bonds, have been documented to exhibit behaviors and biomarkers that are similar to endophenotypes in autism. Both individuals on the autism spectrum and certain solitary mammals have been reported to be low on measures of affiliative need, bodily expressiveness, bonding and attachment, direct and shared gazing, emotional engagement, conspecific recognition, partner preference, separation distress, and social approach behavior. Solitary mammals also exhibit certain biomarkers that are characteristic of autism, including diminished oxytocin and vasopressin signaling, dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system, increased Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity to social encounters, and reduced HPA activity to separation and isolation. The extent of these similarities suggests that solitary mammals may offer a useful model of autism spectrum disorders and an opportunity for investigating genetic and epigenetic etiological factors. If the brain in autism can be shown to exhibit distinct homologous or homoplastic similarities to the brains of solitary animals, it will reveal that they may be central to the phenotype and should be targeted for further investigation. Research of the neurological, cellular, and molecular basis of these specializations in other mammals may provide insight for behavioral analysis, communication intervention, and psychopharmacology for autism.
Seadawy, Aly R.
2017-12-01
In this study, we presented the problem formulations of models for internal solitary waves in a stratified shear flow with a free surface. The nonlinear higher order of extended KdV equations for the free surface displacement is generated. We derived the coefficients of the nonlinear higher-order extended KdV equation in terms of integrals of the modal function for the linear long-wave theory. The wave amplitude potential and the fluid pressure of the extended KdV equation in the form of solitary-wave solutions are deduced. We discussed and analyzed the stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making graphs of the exact solutions.
Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling
Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.
1991-01-01
The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.
Numerical Simulations of Upstream Propagating Solitary Waves and Wave Breaking In A Stratified Fjord
Stastna, M.; Peltier, W. R.
In this talk we will discuss ongoing numerical modeling of the flow of a stratified fluid over large scale topography motivated by observations in Knight Inlet, a fjord in British Columbia, Canada. After briefly surveying the work done on the topic in the past we will discuss our latest set of simulations in which we have observed the gener- ation and breaking of three different types of nonlinear internal waves in the lee of the sill topography. The first type of wave observed is a large lee wave in the weakly strat- ified main portion of the water column, The second is an upward propagating internal wave forced by topography that breaks in the strong, near-surface pycnocline. The third is a train of upstream propagating solitary waves that, in certain circumstances, form as breaking waves consisting of a nearly solitary wave envelope and a highly unsteady core near the surface. Time premitting, we will comment on the implications of these results for our long term goal of quantifying tidally driven mixing in Knight Inlet.
Electromagnetically shielded building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.
1992-01-01
This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs
Electromagnetically shielded building
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; Yabana, Y; Ishikawa, T; Nagata, K
1992-04-21
This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs.
Symbolic computation of exact solutions for a nonlinear evolution equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yinping; Li Zhibin; Wang Kuncheng
2007-01-01
In this paper, by means of the Jacobi elliptic function method, exact double periodic wave solutions and solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation are presented. It can be shown that not only the obtained solitary wave solutions have the property of loop-shaped, cusp-shaped and hump-shaped for different values of parameters, but also different types of double periodic wave solutions are possible, namely periodic loop-shaped wave solutions, periodic hump-shaped wave solutions or periodic cusp-shaped wave solutions. Furthermore, periodic loop-shaped wave solutions will be degenerated to loop-shaped solitary wave solutions for the same values of parameters. So do cusp-shaped solutions and hump-shaped solutions. All these solutions are new and first reported here
Solid solitary hamartoma of the spleen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grubor Nikica
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Hamartoma of the spleen is a rare, sometimes asymptomatic similar to hemangioma benign tumor of the spleen, which, owing to the new diagnostic imaging methods, is discovered with increasing frequency. It appears as solitary or multiple tumorous lesions. Case Outline. We present a 48-year-old woman in whom, during the investigation for Helicobacter pylori gastric infection and rectal bleeding, with ultrasonography, a mass 6.5×6.5 cm in diameter was discovered by chance within the spleen. Splenectomy was performed due to suspected lymphoma of the spleen. On histology, tumor showed to be of mixed cellular structure, with areas without white pulp, at places with marked dilatation of sinusoids and capillaries to the formation of „blood lakes“ between which broad hypercellular Billroth’s zones were present. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was found focally. The cells that covered vascular spaces were CD34+ and CD31+ and CD8- and CD21-. Conclusion. Hamartoma has to be taken into consideration always when well circumscribed hypervascular tumor within the spleen is found, particularly in children. Although the diagnosis of hamartoma may be suspected preoperatively, the exact diagnosis is established based on histological and immunohystochemistry examinations. Treatment is most often splenectomy and rarely a partial splenectomy is possible, which is recommended particularly in children.
Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki
2003-01-01
The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)
Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor: Imaging findings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clarencon, Frederic, E-mail: fredclare5@msn.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Bonneville, Fabrice [Department of Neuroradiology, Hopital Rangueil, Toulouse University Hospital, 31000 Toulouse (France); Rousseau, Audrey [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Galanaud, Damien [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France); Kujas, Michele [Department of Neuropathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Naggara, Olivier [Department of Neuroradiology, St Anne Hospital, 75014 Paris (France); Cornu, Philippe [Department of Neurosurgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital (France); Chiras, Jacques [Department of Neuroradiology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, 75013 Paris (France)
2011-11-15
Objective: To study the neuroimaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFTs). Materials and methods: Retrospective study of neuroimaging features of 9 consecutive histopathologically proven ISFT cases. Location, size, shape, density, signal intensity and gadolinium uptake were studied at CT and MRI. Data collected from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (3 patients), perfusion imaging and MR spectroscopy (2 patients), and DSA (4 patients) were also analyzed. Results: The tumors most frequently arose from the intracranial meninges (7/9), while the other lesions were intraventricular. Tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean = 6.6 cm). They presented multilobular shape in 6/9 patients. Most ISFTs were heterogeneous (7/9) with areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhanced after gadolinium administration (6/8). Erosion of the skull was present in about half of the cases (4/9). Components with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient were seen in 2/3 ISFTs on DWI. Spectroscopy revealed elevated peaks of choline and myo-inositol. MR perfusion showed features of hyperperfusion. Conclusion: ISFT should be considered in cases of extra-axial, supratentorial, heterogeneous, hypervascular tumor. Areas of low T2 signal intensity that strongly enhance after gadolinium injection are suggestive of this diagnosis. Restricted diffusion and elevated peak of myo-inositol may be additional valuable features.
Weak nonlinear matter waves in a trapped two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yong Wenmei; Xue Jukui
2008-01-01
The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) with cigar-shaped external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. In the small amplitude limit, the two-components can be decoupled and the dynamics of solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the KdV equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in two-component BEC. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton, emitted radiation profiles and soliton oscillation frequency are also obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K.P.
2002-01-01
The evolution equations describing both kinetic Alfven wave and ion-acoustic wave in a nonthermal magnetized plasma with warm ions including weak nonlinearity and weak dispersion with the effect of Landau damping have been derived. These equations reduce to two coupled equations constituting the KdV-ZK (Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation for both kinetic Alfven wave and ion-acoustic wave, including an extra term accounting for the effect of Landau damping. When the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the evolution equation for ion-acoustic wave vanishes, the nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic wave, including the effect of Landau damping, is described by two coupled equations constituting the modified KdV-ZK (MKdV-ZK) equation, including an extra term accounting for the effect of Landau damping. It is found that there is no effect of Landau damping on the solitary structures of the kinetic Alfven wave. Both the macroscopic evolution equations for the ion-acoustic wave admits solitary wave solutions, the former having a sech 2 profile and the latter having a sech profile. In either case, it is found that the amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitary wave decreases slowly with time
Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System
Shun-Chang Chang
2012-01-01
In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simula...
Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.
1980-09-01
Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.
Continuum mechanics of electromagnetic solids
Maugin, GA
1988-01-01
This volume is a rigorous cross-disciplinary theoretical treatment of electromechanical and magnetomechanical interactions in elastic solids. Using the modern style of continuum thermomechanics (but without excessive formalism) it starts from basic principles of mechanics and electromagnetism, and goes on to unify these two fields in a common framework. It treats linear and nonlinear static and dynamic problems in a variety of elastic solids such as piezoelectrics, electricity conductors, ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, ionic crystals and ceramics. Chapters 1-3 are introductory, describing the e
Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)
2012-10-15
The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism
Barrett, Terrence W
2008-01-01
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field
Electron acoustic nonlinear structures in planetary magnetospheres
Shah, K. H.; Qureshi, M. N. S.; Masood, W.; Shah, H. A.
2018-04-01
In this paper, we have studied linear and nonlinear propagation of electron acoustic waves (EAWs) comprising cold and hot populations in which the ions form the neutralizing background. The hot electrons have been assumed to follow the generalized ( r , q ) distribution which has the advantage that it mimics most of the distribution functions observed in space plasmas. Interestingly, it has been found that unlike Maxwellian and kappa distributions, the electron acoustic waves admit not only rarefactive structures but also allow the formation of compressive solitary structures for generalized ( r , q ) distribution. It has been found that the flatness parameter r , tail parameter q , and the nonlinear propagation velocity u affect the propagation characteristics of nonlinear EAWs. Using the plasmas parameters, typically found in Saturn's magnetosphere and the Earth's auroral region, where two populations of electrons and electron acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) have been observed, we have given an estimate of the scale lengths over which these nonlinear waves are expected to form and how the size of these structures would vary with the change in the shape of the distribution function and with the change of the plasma parameters.
CT findings of solitary tuberculoma with a cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goo, Dong Erk; Goo, Hyun Woo; Song, Koun Sik; Lim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Won Dong [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1994-09-15
Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule with cavity includes lung abscess, tuberculoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, metastasis and trauma, etc. We analyzed the CT appearance of tuberculoma presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule with cavity and describe the findings which suggest tuberculoma in the differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule with cavity. 25 patients with solitary pulmonary nodule(diameter less than 4 cm) without surrounding parenchymal consolidation on chest radiograph, who had a cavity within the nodule on CT, were included in our study. Density of the nodule, maximal wall thickness, the character of inner and outer wall margin, location of cavity within nodule, location of the nodule, presence or absence of satellite lesions and calcification were analyzed. Solitary tuberculoma with cavity showed maximal wall thickness more than 15 m in 40%(10/25) and 5-14 mm in 56%(14/25), eccentric cavitation in 84%(21/25) and concentric cavitation in 16%(4/25), spiculated outer wall margin in 56%(14/15) and lobulated margin in 32%(8/25), smooth inner wall margin in 60%(15/25) and nodular margin in 40%(10/25). CT density of the cavity wall compared wth the chest wall muscle was low in 84%(21/25) and isodense in 16%(4/25). Accompanying satellite lesions were seen in 84%(21/25) and calcification was visible in 28%(7/25). The CT findings of solitary tuberculoma with cavity are relative peripheral location, eccentric cavitation, finely spiculated outer wall margin, and mean maximal wall thickness of 13.2 mm, which are also the common features of malignant nodule. However, relative low density of the nodule compared to the chest wall muscle and surrounding satellite lesions can be additional clues favouring solitary tuberculoma with cavity on CT.
A new variable transformation technique for the nonlinear drift vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orito, Kohtaro
1996-02-01
The dipole vortex solution of the Hasegawa-Mima equation describing the nonlinear drift wave is a stable solitary wave which is called the modon. The profile of the modon depends on the nonlinearity of the ExB drift. In order to investigate the nonlinear drift wave more accurately, the effect of the polarization drift needs to be considered. In case of containing the effect of the polarization drift the profile of the electrostatic potential is distorted in the direction perpendicular to the ExB drift. (author)
Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parnell, Kevin E.; Soomere, Tarmo; Zaggia, Luca; Rodin, Artem; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Rapaglia, John; Scarpa, Gian Marco
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope
Abundant general solitary wave solutions to the family of KdV type equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Md. Azmol Huda
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This work explores the construction of more general exact traveling wave solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs through the application of the (G′/G, 1/G-expansion method. This method is allied to the widely used (G′/G-method initiated by Wang et al. and can be considered as an extension of the (G′/G-expansion method. For effectiveness, the method is applied to the family of KdV type equations. Abundant general form solitary wave solutions as well as periodic solutions are successfully obtained through this method. Moreover, in the obtained wider set of solutions, if we set special values of the parameters, some previously known solutions are revived. The approach of this method is simple and elegantly standard. Having been computerized it is also powerful, reliable and effective.
Solitary Waves in Space Dusty Plasma with Dust of Opposite Polarity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.
2009-01-01
The nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated. The fluid model is a generalize to the model of Mamun and Shukla to a more realistic space dusty plasma in different regions of space viz.., cometary tails, mesosphere, Jupiter s magnetosphere, etc., by considering a four component dusty plasma consists of charged dusty plasma of opposite polarity, isothermal electrons and vortex like ion distributions in the ambient plasma. A reductive perturbation method were employed to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation for the first-order potential and a stationary solution is obtained. The effect of the presence of positively charged dust fluid, the specific charge ratioμ, temperature of the positively charged dust fluid, the ratio of constant temperature of free hot ions and the constant temperature of trapped ions and ion temperature are also discussed.
Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parnell, Kevin E. [College of Marine and Environmental Sciences and Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia); Zaggia, Luca [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rodin, Artem [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lorenzetti, Giuliano [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rapaglia, John [Sacred Heart University Department of Biology, 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT 06825 (United States); Scarpa, Gian Marco [Università Ca' Foscari, Dorsoduro 3246, 30123 Venice (Italy)
2015-03-06
We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope.
Propagation of Ion Solitary Pulses in Dense Astrophysical Electron-Positron-Ion Magnetoplasmas
Ata-Ur-Rahman; A. Khan, S.; Qamar, A.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we theoretically investigate the existence and propagation of low amplitude nonlinear ion waves in a dense plasma under the influence of a strong magnetic field. The plasma consists of ultra-relativistic and degenerate electrons and positrons and non-degenerate cold ions. Firstly, the appearance of two distinct linear modes and their evolution is studied by deriving a dispersion equation with the aid of Fourier analysis. Secondly, the dynamics of low amplitude ion solitary structures is investigated via a Korteweg-de Vries equation derived by employing a reductive perturbation method. The effects of various plasma parameters like positron concentration, strength of magnetic field, obliqueness of field, etc., are discussed in detail. At the end, analytical results are supplemented through numerical analysis by using typical representative parameters consistent with degenerate and ultra-relativistic magnetoplasmas of astrophysical regimes.
Solitary pancreas retransplant: Study of 22 cases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tércio Genzini
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Objective: To present our experience with pancreas retransplantin patients previously submitted to simultaneous pancreas-kidneytransplant, pancreas after kidney transplant and pancreastransplant alone. Methods: Between January/1996 and December/2005, 330 pancreas transplants were performed: 308 primarytransplants and 22 (6% retransplants of solitary pancreas. Thefollowing variables were analyzed: patient age; time elapsedbetween the first and the second transplant; causes of loss of thefirst graft; technical characteristics of the transplant andretransplant and the criteria for selecting donors for retransplant.These clinical data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results:The mean age of patients was 34.3 years and the mean elapsedtime between the first and second transplant was 19.3 months.The causes of the first graft loss were venous (8; 35% and arterial(5; 23% thrombosis, chronic rejection (4; 18%, ischemia/reperfusion injury (2, reflux pancreatitis (1, primary non-function(1 and sepsis (1. A second transplant was performed in thesame iliac fossa in 16 patients (72%. Venous drainage wasperformed in the iliac vein in 16 patients (72%, in the inferior venacava in 5 patients (22% and in the portal vein in one patient. 6 allbladder drainage was the technique used in 18 (82% cases andenteric drainage, in 4 patients (18%. Immunosuppressive regimenapplied to all cases was quadruple therapy with antilymphocyteinduction, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Therewas one early death due to sepsis. One-year patient and pancreasgraft survival rates for retransplants were, respectively, 95% and85%. There was no additional risk for removing the pancreas graftat retransplant. Conclusion: Pancreas retransplant was technicallyfeasible in all cases and results similar to those described in theliterature were found for primary pancreas transplant.
Acute solitary localized pneumonia: CT diagnosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Tieyi
1999-01-01
Objective: To evaluate CT in the differential diagnosis of solitary localized pneumonia. Method: Only plain CT without contrast study was done because of different types of CT scanners weed. There were 25 cases with localized pneumonia with initial diagnosis as suspected peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma. All patients were over forty years of age, 84% 50-80 years, 13(52%) patients were asymptomatic, 5(20%) patients had bloody sputum. Results: The CT features were divided into three patterns: (1) irregular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, ground-glass opacity and a few punctuate high densities. (2) irregular nodule with sharply circumscribed, spiculate border and homogeneous density. (3) regular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, and homogeneous density. The third type was most frequent (60%) with predilection for the dorsal segments of the lower lobes, or the posterior basal segments. Of the 25 patients 3 had operation, the remaining cases were treated as pneumonia, the lesions were resolved in 18(82%) patients in 2-3 weeks. Conclusions: Sometimes it is very difficult to differentiate localized pneumonia from peripheral lung cancer on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging. The spiculate margins of irregular nodule shown on CT could be indeterminate on chest radiography, and as a result chest radiograph is helpful in differential diagnosis of localized pneumonia. Change in size of the lesion as observed at the same cross-section scan, smaller at mediastinal window than at lung window is in favor of localized pneumonia, however, with the exception of alveolar carcinoma, treatment with antibiotic therapy for a period of 2-3 weeks, helps differentiate these diseases
Imaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Shuilian; Man Yuping; Ma Longbai; Liu Ying; Wei Qiang; Zhu Youkai
2012-01-01
Objective: To summarize the imaging features of intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (ISFT). Methods: Ten patients with ISFT proven histopathologically were collected. Four cases had CT data and all cases had MR data. The imaging features and pathological results were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All cases were misdiagnosed as meningioma at pre-operation. All lesions arose from intracranial meninges including 5 lesions above the tentorium, 4 lesions beneath the tentorium and 1 lesion growing around the tentorium. The margins of all the masses were well defined, and 8 lesions presented multilobular shape. CT demonstrated hyerattenuated masses in all 4 lesions, smooth erosion of the basicranial skull in 1 lesion, and punctiform calcification of the capsule in 1 lesion. T 1 WI showed most lesions with isointense or slight hyperintense signals including homogeneous in 4 lesions and heterogeneous in 6 lesions. T 2 WI demonstrated isointense or slight hyperintense in 2 lesions, mixed hypointense and hyperintense signals in 4, cystic portion in 2, and two distinct portion of hyperintense and hypointense signal, so called 'yin-yang' pattern, in 2. Strong enhanced was found in all lesions, especially in 8 lesion with heterogeneous with the low T 2 signal. 'Dural tail' was found in 4 lesions. Conclusions: ISFI has some specific CT and MR features including heterogeneous signal intensity on T 2 WI, strong enhancement of areas with low T 2 signal intensity, slight or no 'dural tail', without skull thickening, and the typical 'yin-yang' pattern. (authors)
Orbital stability of solitary waves for Kundu equation
Zhang, Weiguo; Qin, Yinghao; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Boling
In this paper, we consider the Kundu equation which is not a standard Hamiltonian system. The abstract orbital stability theory proposed by Grillakis et al. (1987, 1990) cannot be applied directly to study orbital stability of solitary waves for this equation. Motivated by the idea of Guo and Wu (1995), we construct three invariants of motion and use detailed spectral analysis to obtain orbital stability of solitary waves for Kundu equation. Since Kundu equation is more complex than the derivative Schrödinger equation, we utilize some techniques to overcome some difficulties in this paper. It should be pointed out that the results obtained in this paper are more general than those obtained by Guo and Wu (1995). We present a sufficient condition under which solitary waves are orbitally stable for 2c+sυ1995) only considered the case 2c+sυ>0. We obtain the results on orbital stability of solitary waves for the derivative Schrödinger equation given by Colin and Ohta (2006) as a corollary in this paper. Furthermore, we obtain orbital stability of solitary waves for Chen-Lee-Lin equation and Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, R.W.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics
Electromagnetic wave collapse in a radiation background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert; Stenflo, Lennart
2003-01-01
The nonlinear interaction, due to quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects between an electromagnetic pulse and a radiation background, is investigated by combining the methods of radiation hydrodynamics with the QED theory for photon-photon scattering. For the case of a single coherent electromagnetic pulse, we obtain a Zakharov-like system, where the radiation pressure of the pulse acts as a driver of acoustic waves in the photon gas. For a sufficiently intense pulse and/or background energy density, there is focusing and the subsequent collapse of the pulse. The relevance of our results for various astrophysical applications are discussed
Progress of electromagnetic analysis for fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takagi, T.; Ruatto, P.; Boccaccini, L.V.
1998-01-01
This paper describes the recent progress of electromagnetic analysis research for fusion reactors including methods, codes, verification tests and some applications. Due to the necessity of the research effort for the structural design of large tokamak devices since the 1970's with the help of the introduction of new numerical methods and the advancement of computer technologies, three-dimensional analysis methods have become as practical as shell approximation methods. The electromagnetic analysis is now applied to the structural design of new fusion reactors. Some more modeling and verification tests are necessary when the codes are applied to new materials with nonlinear material properties. (orig.)
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium
Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi
2018-03-01
Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.
Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pickett, Jolene S.
2012-10-31
The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers
Nonlinear coupled Alfven and gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaellberg, Andreas; Brodin, Gert; Bradley, Michael
2004-01-01
In this paper we consider nonlinear interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in a strongly magnetized plasma. More specifically, we investigate the propagation of gravitational waves with the direction of propagation perpendicular to a background magnetic field and the coupling to compressional Alfven waves. The gravitational waves are considered in the high-frequency limit and the plasma is modeled by a multifluid description. We make a self-consistent, weakly nonlinear analysis of the Einstein-Maxwell system and derive a wave equation for the coupled gravitational and electromagnetic wave modes. A WKB-approximation is then applied and as a result we obtain the nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the slowly varying wave amplitudes. The analysis is extended to 3D wave pulses, and we discuss the applications to radiation generated from pulsar binary mergers. It turns out that the electromagnetic radiation from a binary merger should experience a focusing effect, that in principle could be detected
Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction
Wegener, Martin
2005-01-01
Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...
Bloembergen, Nicolaas
1996-01-01
Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe
Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.
Cloud, David H; Drucker, Ernest; Browne, Angela; Parsons, Jim
2015-01-01
The history of solitary confinement in the United States stretches from the silent prisons of 200 years ago to today's supermax prisons, mechanized panopticons that isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades. We examined the living conditions and characteristics of the populations in solitary confinement. As part of the growing movement for reform, public health agencies have an ethical obligation to help address the excessive use of solitary confinement in jails and prisons in accordance with established public health functions (e.g., violence prevention, health equity, surveillance, and minimizing of occupational and psychological hazards for correctional staff). Public health professionals should lead efforts to replace reliance on this overly punitive correctional policy with models based on rehabilitation and restorative justice.
Ulcerative giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp: a rare presentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sundeep Chowdhry
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a trichogenic tumor which arises from the inferior segment of hair follicle epithelium as hamartoma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST has been defined as a solitary trichoepithelioma with a diameter greater than 2 cm. A 49-year-old female presented with a slow growing skin coloured swelling on the scalp of 8 years duration with recent history of ulceration and occasional bleeding. The local examination revealed a single well defined nodular swelling which was irregular in shape measuring approximately 2 × 2.5 cm. Histopathology from biopsy specimen revealed dark basaloid cells with scanty cytoplasm and darkly stained nucleus arranged in nests with horn cysts lacking high-grade atypia and mitosis, which was consistent with features of trichoepithelioma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp is itself a rare entity and the present case is being reported with the additional component of ulceration in the lesion.
Solitary plasmacytoma of the mandible - a rare entity.
Baad, Rajendra; Kapse, Sonam C; Rathod, Nanita; Sonawane, Kishor; Thete, Sanjay Gangadhar; Kumar, M Naveen
2013-06-01
Plasma cell dyscrasias (multiple myeloma, solitary plasmocytoma of bone and extra medullary plasmocytoma) are cha¬racterized by a monoclonal neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells of which Solitary plasmocytoma of bone (SPB) is a localized form. SPB is most frequently seen in vertebrae and secondarily in long bones. Its presence in jaws is extremely rare. The malignant plasma cells express monotypic cytoplasmic immunoglobulins and plasma cell-associated antigens, with an absence of immature B-cell antigens. Here we report a unique case of plasmacytoma in the right side of mandible, a chronology for diagnosis of the lesion is also reviewed along with clinical, radiographic, histopathological and immunohistochemical evidence. How to cite this article: Baad R, Kapse S C, Rathod N, Sonawane K, Thete S G, Naveen M K. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Mandible - A Rare Entity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):97-101.
Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States
Drucker, Ernest; Browne, Angela; Parsons, Jim
2015-01-01
The history of solitary confinement in the United States stretches from the silent prisons of 200 years ago to today’s supermax prisons, mechanized panopticons that isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades. We examined the living conditions and characteristics of the populations in solitary confinement. As part of the growing movement for reform, public health agencies have an ethical obligation to help address the excessive use of solitary confinement in jails and prisons in accordance with established public health functions (e.g., violence prevention, health equity, surveillance, and minimizing of occupational and psychological hazards for correctional staff). Public health professionals should lead efforts to replace reliance on this overly punitive correctional policy with models based on rehabilitation and restorative justice. PMID:25393185
Reconstructive surgery in eight children with solitary kidneys
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorup, Jørgen Mogens
1989-01-01
Within a 10-year period reconstructive urinary tract surgery has been carried out in eight children with solitary kidneys. The children were 0-5 years old. Six had unilateral renal agenesis and two had unilateral multicystic kidney. In five children ureteroneocystostomy was performed, in two of t...... months of age. Postoperatively, the renal function was subnormal (although improved) in two children; in six it was normal. The most important prognostic factors in solitary kidneys with urinary tract obstruction are infection and developmental injury.......Within a 10-year period reconstructive urinary tract surgery has been carried out in eight children with solitary kidneys. The children were 0-5 years old. Six had unilateral renal agenesis and two had unilateral multicystic kidney. In five children ureteroneocystostomy was performed, in two...
Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.L.; Rizzato, F.B.
1993-01-01
Nonlinear generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by intense Langmuir waves in the vicinity of the fundamental plasma frequency f p is of current interest in space and laboratory plasmas. In a pioneer work, Lashmore-Davies demonstrated that an efficient process for converting intense Langmuir waves into f p electromagnetic radiation can be achieved by two counterstreaming Langmuir pump waves through an electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability. Recently Chian and Alves, Akimoto and Rizzato and Chian extended the formalism of Lashmore-Davies in order to include mixed processes with induced modes which are purely electrostatic or electromagnetic. In this paper we extend our previous analysis, in order to study the nonlinear interaction involving travelling electromagnetic pumps, low-frequency density fluctuations and high-frequency f p modes which can be electrostatic-electromagnetic hybrids. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs
Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Retromolar Pad; a Rare Challenging Case
Lotfi, Ali; Mokhtari, Sepideh; Moshref, Mohammad; Shahla, Maryam; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede
2017-01-01
Solitary fibrous tumor has a wide spectrum of histopathologic features and many tumors show similar microscopic features. This similarity poses diagnostic challenges to the pathologists and immunohistochemical analysis is required in many cases. Moreover, it is a rare entity in orofacial region which consequently would make its diagnosis more challenging in oral cavity. The knowledge of various microscopic patterns of this tumor contributes to a proper diagnosis and prevents unnecessary treatment. This study reports a case of solitary fibrous tumor in the retromolar pad area and discusses its various histological features and differential diagnoses. PMID:28620640
CT-guided percutaneous treatment of solitary pyogenic splenic abscesses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pombo, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Suarez, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Marini, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Arrojo, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain); Echaniz, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna (Spain)
1991-08-01
Six patients with solitary pyogenic splenic abscesses treated by CT-guided percutaneous drainage (by catheter or needle), are presented. There were 3 unilocular, purely intrasplenic abscesses and 3 complex lesions with loculations and perisplenic involvement. Percutaneous drainage and intravenous antibiotics were curative in 4 patients. In the other 2, who had multiloculated abscesses, despite initially successful drainage, splenectomy was performed because of intractable left upper quadrant pain in one case and persistent fever and drainage of pus after 30 days in the other. These patients also developed large, sterile left pleural effusions. Solitary pyogenic splenic abscesses - particularly if uniloculated - can be effectively treated by CT-guided percutaneous drainage. (orig.)
A Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura Revealed by Hiccups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Chafik
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are rare and benign primary localized tumors; they possess a malignant potential and thus should be excised. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman, who had suffered for 5 years from right basithoracic pain associated with progressive dyspnea and persistent hiccups during the last 6 months. We have not found any similar case in the literature. Further testing after excision by thoracotomy revealed a solitary fibrous pleural tumor. A brief discussion of the clinical presentation and incidence of these tumors is included.
Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.
2010-01-01
This study continues the investigation of wave boundary layers reported by Carstensen, Sumer & Fredsøe (J. Fluid Mech., 2010, part 1 of this paper). The present paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation of turbulent solitary wave boundary layers, simulated by solitary motion...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...
A case of congenital solitary Langerhans cell histiocytoma.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Ricciardo, Bernadette
2012-02-01
A newborn baby boy was referred to the Paediatric Dermatology Unit with a solitary asymptomatic nodule overlying his right nasolabial fold. Complete physical examination, full blood count, serum chemistry, liver function tests and baseline imaging were unremarkable. Histopathological examination showed an atypical dermal infiltrate of mononuclear cells that stained positive with CD1a and S100. A diagnosis of congenital solitary Langerhans cell histiocytoma was made. The lesion completely resolved by 4 months of age. The baby is now 15 months old and repeat systemic evaluation has remained normal.
Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.
1986-01-01
Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH
Large amplitude parallel propagating electromagnetic oscillitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cattaert, Tom; Verheest, Frank
2005-01-01
Earlier systematic nonlinear treatments of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves have been given within a fluid dynamic approach, in a frame where the nonlinear structures are stationary and various constraining first integrals can be obtained. This has lead to the concept of oscillitons that has found application in various space plasmas. The present paper differs in three main aspects from the previous studies: first, the invariants are derived in the plasma frame, as customary in the Sagdeev method, thus retaining in Maxwell's equations all possible effects. Second, a single differential equation is obtained for the parallel fluid velocity, in a form reminiscent of the Sagdeev integrals, hence allowing a fully nonlinear discussion of the oscilliton properties, at such amplitudes as the underlying Mach number restrictions allow. Third, the transition to weakly nonlinear whistler oscillitons is done in an analytical rather than a numerical fashion
Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcon, M.
1994-11-01
Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)
Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcon, M.
1994-11-01
Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).
Electromagnetic wave matching device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.
1997-01-01
The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)
Probing nonlinear electrodynamics in slowly rotating spacetimes through neutrino astrophysics
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, Gaetano; Pereira, Jonas P.
2017-01-01
Huge electromagnetic fields are known to be present during the late stages of the dynamics of supernovae. Thus, when dealing with electrodynamics in this context, the possibility may arise to probe nonlinear theories (generalizations of the Maxwellian electromagnetism). We firstly solve Einstein field equations minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) nonlinear Lagrangian of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime $a\\ll M$ (black hole's mass), up to first order in $a/M$. We...
Solitary Secondary Malignant Melanoma of Clavicle Two Years after Enuclation for Ocular Melanoma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halil Tozum
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Solitary metastasis of uveal melanoma to bone is extremely rare and usually associated with other organ involvement. We present a rare case of an ocular melanoma patient presenting with solitary metastasis to the clavicle two years after enucleation, without any other organ involvement. In this report, we tried to present our treatment strategy for the solitary metastasis of bone.
Roshid, Harun-Or; Kabir, Md Rashed; Bhowmik, Rajandra Chadra; Datta, Bimal Kumar
2014-01-01
In this paper, we have described two dreadfully important methods to solve nonlinear partial differential equations which are known as exp-function and the exp(-ϕ(ξ)) -expansion method. Recently, there are several methods to use for finding analytical solutions of the nonlinear partial differential equations. The methods are diverse and useful for solving the nonlinear evolution equations. With the help of these methods, we are investigated the exact travelling wave solutions of the Vakhnenko- Parkes equation. The obtaining soliton solutions of this equation are described many physical phenomena for weakly nonlinear surface and internal waves in a rotating ocean. Further, three-dimensional plots of the solutions such as solitons, singular solitons, bell type solitary wave i.e. non-topological solitons solutions and periodic solutions are also given to visualize the dynamics of the equation.
Electromagnetic Education in India
Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan
2016-01-01
Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…
2017-12-01
AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Melissa J Suter, PhD 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND...single flexible catheter. The catheter was designed to be compatible with a custom peripheral transbronchial aspiration needle to enable both imaging...the first clinically viable flexible transbronchial OCT needle catheter, and the first clinically viable flexible EM-OCT needle catheter. Figure
Electronic circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Koji.
1991-01-01
The present invention provides a discharging circuit for control rod attracting electromagnet used for a reactor which is highly reliable and has high performance. The resistor of the circuit comprises a non-linear resistor element and a blocking rectification element connected in series. The discharging circuit can be prevented from short-circuit by selecting a resistor having a resistance value about ten times as great as the coil resistance, even in a case where the blocking rectification element and the non-linear resistor element are failed. Accordingly, reduction of attracting force and the increase of scream releasing time can be minimized. (I.S.)
Electromagnetic fields with vanishing quantum corrections
Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravda, Vojtěch
2018-04-01
We show that a large class of null electromagnetic fields are immune to any modifications of Maxwell's equations in the form of arbitrary powers and derivatives of the field strength. These are thus exact solutions to virtually any generalized classical electrodynamics containing both non-linear terms and higher derivatives, including, e.g., non-linear electrodynamics as well as QED- and string-motivated effective theories. This result holds not only in a flat or (anti-)de Sitter background, but also in a larger subset of Kundt spacetimes, which allow for the presence of aligned gravitational waves and pure radiation.
Metamaterial Electromagnetic Superabsorber with Arbitrary Geometries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingjing Yang
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The electromagnetic superabsorber that has larger absorption cross section than its real size may be a novel photothermal device with improved solar energy conversion rates. Based on a transformation optical approach, the material parameters for a two-dimensional (2D metamaterial-assisted electromagnetic superabsorber with arbitrary geometries are derived and validated by numerical simulation. We find that for the given geometry size, the absorption cross section of the superabsorber using nonlinear transformation is larger than that using linear transformation. These transformations can also be specialized to the designing the N-sided regular polygonal superabsorber just by changing the contour equation. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the 2D electromagnetic superabsorber we have developed.
Large time asymptotics of solutions to the anharmonic oscillator model from nonlinear optics
Jochmann, Frank
2005-01-01
The anharmonic oscillator model describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in an exterior domain containing a nonlinear dielectric medium is investigated. The system under consideration consists of a generally nonlinear second order differential equation for the dielectrical polarization coupled with Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field. Local decay of the electromagnetic field for t to infinity in the charge free case is shown for a large class of potentials. (This pape...
Yoshida, Zensho
2010-01-01
This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Seven common errors in finding exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations
Kudryashov, Nikolai A.
2009-01-01
We analyze the common errors of the recent papers in which the solitary wave solutions of nonlinear differential equations are presented. Seven common errors are formulated and classified. These errors are illustrated by using multiple examples of the common errors from the recent publications. We
Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Zegadło, Krzysztof B; Karpierz, Miroslaw A; Assanto, Gaetano
2014-11-15
We demonstrate the evolution of higher order one-dimensional guided modes into two-dimensional solitary waves in a reorientational medium. The observations, carried out at two different wavelengths in chiral nematic liquid crystals, are in good agreement with a simple nonlocal nonlinear model.
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the colon, rectum and anus ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells that occur outside of the bone and bone marrow. It is rare, commonly occurring in the head and neck region, followed by the gastrointestinal tract. The aetiology, risk factors, natural history and consequent treatment are ...
Solitary ionizing surface waves on low-temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Yu, M.Y.
1993-01-01
It is demonstrated that at the boundary of semi-infinite low-temperature plasma new types of localized ionizing surface wave structures can propagate. The solitary waves are described by an evolution equation similar to the KdV equation, but the solutions differ considerably from that of the latter
Juvenile Solitary Confinement as a Form of Child Abuse.
Clark, Andrew B
2017-09-01
Placing incarcerated juveniles into solitary confinement continues to occur in certain states of the United States, despite the accumulating evidence that it may cause substantial psychological damage to the teenagers who must endure it. The practice has been widely condemned by professional and human rights organizations, amid a growing appreciation of the immaturity and vulnerability of the adolescent brain. Although several states and the federal government have been successful in abolishing or dramatically reducing the use of juvenile solitary confinement, it remains common practice in many facilities. Clinicians working in correctional facilities where juvenile solitary confinement is employed are therefore faced with difficult questions of ethics, as to how best to balance their competing duties, and how to respond to such state-sanctioned ill treatment of their patients. Given the emerging consensus around the psychological damage wrought by sustained solitary confinement, clinicians may well reach the difficult conclusion that they are both legally mandated and ethically bound to file a report of suspected child abuse. Such a report would be unlikely to be investigated for administrative reasons, but it would allow clinicians to communicate the gravity of their concern effectively. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Electron-acoustic solitary waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere
Dillard, C. S.; Vasko, I. Y.; Mozer, F. S.; Agapitov, O. V.; Bonnell, J. W.
2018-02-01
The broadband electrostatic turbulence observed in the inner magnetosphere is produced by large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves of generally two types. The solitary waves with symmetric bipolar parallel (magnetic field-aligned) electric field are electron phase space holes. The solitary waves with highly asymmetric bipolar parallel electric field have been recently shown to correspond to the electron-acoustic plasma mode (existing due to two-temperature electron population). Through theoretical and numerical analysis of hydrodynamic and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations, we demonstrate that the asymmetric solitary waves appear due to the steepening of initially quasi-monochromatic electron-acoustic perturbation arrested at some moment by collisionless dissipation (Landau damping). The typical steepening time is found to be from a few to tens of milliseconds. The steepening of the electron-acoustic waves has not been reproduced in self-consistent kinetic simulations yet, and factors controlling the formation of steepened electron-acoustic waves, rather than electron phase space holes, remain unclear.
Cross Sectional Imaging of Solitary Lesions of the Neurocranium.
Schäfer, Max-Ludwig; Koch, Arend; Streitparth, Florian; Wiener, Edzard
2017-12-01
Background Although a wide range of processes along the neurocranium are of a benign nature, there are often difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Method In the review CT/MRI scans of the head were evaluated retrospectively regarding solitary lesions along the neurocranium. The majority of the lesions were histologically proven. Results The purpose of the review is to present typical pathologies of the neurocranium and provide a systematic overview based on 12 entities, their locations, prevalence and radiological characteristics. Conclusion Processes, which primarily originate from the neurocranium have to be differentiated from secondary processes infiltrating the neurocranium. For this important diagnostic feature, MRI is typically essential, while the definitive diagnosis is often made on the basis of the medical history and the typical appearance on computer tomography. Key Points · There are often difficulties in the precise differential diagnosis of solitary lesions along the neurocranium. Typical solitary pathologies of the neurocranium based on 12 entities were presented. Both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are often essential for an exact differential diagnosis.. Citation Format · Schäfer M, Koch A, Streitparth F et al. Cross Sectional Diagnosis of Solitary Lesions of the Neurocranium. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 1135 - 1144. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Giant solitary fibrous tumor of the lung: A case report
Xiao, Ping; Sun, Linlin; Zhong, Diansheng; Lian, Linjuan; Xu, Dongbo
2014-01-01
A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the lung parenchyma is rarely described. Here, we present the clinical, imaging, and histological features of a case of a 54-year-old woman with an incidental lung mass of the right lower lobe on a chest radiograph.
Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized two- species relativistic quantum plasma system, comprised of electrons and ions. The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) is used to obtain a deformed Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive ...
Phase-Space Models of Solitary Electron Hoies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans
1985-01-01
Two different phase-space models of solitary electron holes are investigated and compared with results from computer simulations of an actual laboratory experiment, carried out in a strongly magnetized, cylindrical plasma column. In the two models, the velocity distribution of the electrons...
Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan
2009-01-01
The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman
Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)
2009-03-15
The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman
Exact solitary ion acoustic waves in a magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, D.
1979-01-01
Solitary ion acoustic waves in a magnetoplasma have been studied by Shukla and Yu [J. Math. Phys. 19, 2506 (1978)]. A more rigorous study confirms the conditions that Shukla and Yu said would be necessary for humps. However, it is shown that a density cavity is also possible in the limiting case
Solitary pulmonary nodule: radiologic features and diagnostic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Cambronero, Luis Enrique
2012-01-01
A literature review is conducted on the solitary pulmonary nodule, to determine the diagnostic methods and specific characteristics. The diagnostic methods used have been: chest radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiological features are defined: location, size, definition of contours or edges (margins), densitometric and attenuation characteristics, cavitation, air bronchogram, growth, doubling time, satellite nodules, nutrient vessels [es
Flow and sediment transport induced by a plunging solitary wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sumer, B. Mutlu; Sen, M.Berke; Karagali, Ioanna
2011-01-01
Two parallel experiments involving the evolution and runup of plunging solitary waves on a sloping bed were conducted: (1) a rigid-bed experiment, allowing direct (hot film) measurements of bed shear stresses, and (2) a sediment-bed experiment, allowing for the measurement of pore-water pressures...
The frequency of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules and in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam was made to determine the frequency of malignancy in patients with solitary non-toxic thyroid nodule (STN) and in those with multinodular goitre (MNG). There were 60 cases of STN and. 178 with MNG. Nodular goitre was found to be predominantly a disease of females with sex.
Solitary wave exchange potential and nucleon-nucleon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prema, K.; Raghavan, S.S.; Sekhar Raghavan
1986-11-01
Nucleon-nucleon interaction is studied using a phenomenological potential model called solitary wave exchange potential model. It is shown that this simple model reproduces the singlet and triplet scattering data and the deuteron parameters reasonably well. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
Novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of solitary bees
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čeřovský, Václav; Cvačka, Josef; Voburka, Zdeněk; Hovorka, Oldřich; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Bednárová, Lucie
2008-01-01
Roč. 14, č. 8 (2008), s. 92-92 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /30./. 31.08.2008-05.09.2008, Helsinki] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * solitary bees * melectin * isolation and characterization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Ultrasonographic Localization of Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Pleura: Case Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kyoung Tae; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Kwang Ho; Lee, Kyung Hee [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-03-15
Plain radiography and computed tomography are widely used in the field of chest disease. Yet ultrasonography has a limitation as a diagnostic tool, except in the case of pleural effusion and chest wall lesion. We experienced a case of solitary fibrous tumor of the diaphragmatic pleura, and the origin of this tumor could be exactly localized by ultrasonography, but not by other imaging modalities
Ultrasonographic Localization of Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Pleura: Case Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyoung Tae; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Kwang Ho; Lee, Kyung Hee
2010-01-01
Plain radiography and computed tomography are widely used in the field of chest disease. Yet ultrasonography has a limitation as a diagnostic tool, except in the case of pleural effusion and chest wall lesion. We experienced a case of solitary fibrous tumor of the diaphragmatic pleura, and the origin of this tumor could be exactly localized by ultrasonography, but not by other imaging modalities
Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher, Huxley and combined forms of these equations by the (′/)-expansion method. Jalil Manafian Mehrdad Lakestani. Volume 85 Issue 1 July 2015 pp 31-52 ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.
1986-01-01
Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.
1986-01-01
Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with a solitary kidney
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tufan Süelözgen
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Material and method: The results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy applied to 716 patients in our clinic between January 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Age, gender, urinary calculi size (mm2, urinary calculi localization, ESWL history, operation duration (min, fluoroscopy duration (sec, access type, reason of solitary kidney, hemoglobin drawdown (g/dl and operation success of the patients with a solitary kidney were recorded. The patients having no preoperative and postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography were excluded from the study. Results: Fifteen of nineteen patients (79% were men and 4 of them (21% were women. The average age of the patients was 42.52 ± 16.72 (14-72. Ten patients had anatomical solitary kidney and nine patients had physiological solitary kidney. In fact counter kidney was non functional in 9 patients (47% whereas there was agenesis in 2 (11% and outcome of nephrectomy in 8 (42% patients. In our study, presence of residual stone less than 4 mm at 1st month postoperative non contrast abdominal tomography was accepted as a successful result and accordingly our success rate was detected as 84%. Mean urinary calculi size was 405 ± 252.9 mm2; urinary calculi localization was pelvic, lower pole, upper-middle pole, middle-lower pole and staghorn in 11 (58%, 4 (21%, 1 (5%, 1 (5% and 1 (5% patients, respectively; previous ESWL history was 16%; operation duration was 55.47-± 28.1 min and fluoroscopy duration 131.10 ± 87.6 sec; access type was subcostal in 79%, supracostal in 10.5% and multiple in 10.5%; hemoglobin drawdown was 1.75 ± 0.97 mg/dl. Conclusions: PNL can be effectively and safely administered for the treatment of solitary kidney. In the treatment of large urinary calculi in patients with a solitary kidney, PNL has some advantages such as short surgery duration, less complication, acceptable hemoglobin drawdown and high success rates. According to our study, PNL operation in patients with a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mostafa M.A. Khater
Full Text Available In this article and for the first time, we introduce and describe Khater method which is a new technique for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs.. We apply this method for each of the following models Bogoyavlenskii equation, couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system and Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation. Khater method is very powerful, Effective, felicitous and fabulous method to get exact and solitary wave solution of (PDEs.. Not only just like that but it considers too one of the general methods for solving that kind of equations since it involves some methods as we will see in our discuss of the results. We make a comparison between the results of this new method and another method. Keywords: Bogoyavlenskii equations system, Couple Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations system, Time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation, Khater method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions
Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave.
Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei
2016-06-01
Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Kojima
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We present the characteristics of the Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESW observed by the Geotail spacecraft in the plasma sheet boundary layer based on the statistical analyses. We also discuss the results referring to a model of ESW generation due to electron beams, which is proposed by computer simulations. In this generation model, the nonlinear evolution of Langmuir waves excited by electron bump-on-tail instabilities leads to formation of isolated electrostatic potential structures corresponding to "electron hole" in the phase space. The statistical analyses of the Geotail data, which we conducted under the assumption that polarity of ESW potentials is positive, show that most of ESW propagate in the same direction of electron beams, which are observed by the plasma instrument, simultaneously. Further, we also find that the ESW potential energy is much smaller than the background electron thermal energy and that the ESW potential widths are typically shorter than 60 times of local electron Debye length when we assume that the ESW potentials travel in the same velocity of electron beams. These results are very consistent with the ESW generation model that the nonlinear evolution of electron bump-on-tail instability leads to the formation of electron holes in the phase space.
A Solitary Wave-Based Sensor to Monitor the Setting of Fresh Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piervincenzo Rizzo
2014-07-01
Full Text Available We present a proof-of-principle study about the use of a sensor for the nondestructive monitoring of strength development in hydrating concrete. The nondestructive evaluation technique is based on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs, which are non-dispersive mechanical waves that can form and travel in highly nonlinear systems, such as one-dimensional particle chains. A built-in transducer is adopted to excite and detect the HNSWs. The waves are partially reflected at the transducer/concrete interface and partially transmitted into the concrete. The time-of-flight and the amplitude of the waves reflected at the interface are measured and analyzed with respect to the hydration time, and correlated to the initial and final set times established by the penetration test (ASTM C 403. The results show that certain features of the HNSWs change as the concrete curing progresses indicating that it has the potential of being an efficient, cost-effective tool for monitoring strengths/stiffness development.
Exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations using Exp-function method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekir, Ahmet; Boz, Ahmet
2008-01-01
In this Letter, the Exp-function method is used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The Klein-Gordon, Burger-Fisher and Sharma-Tasso-Olver equations are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. The Exp-function method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations
Application of Exp-function method for (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekir, Ahmet; Boz, Ahmet
2009-01-01
In this paper, the Exp-function method is used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations. (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton (Calogero) equation, modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky equations are chosen to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. The Exp-function method presents a wider applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.
On nonlinear differential equation with exact solutions having various pole orders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudryashov, N.A.
2015-01-01
We consider a nonlinear ordinary differential equation having solutions with various movable pole order on the complex plane. We show that the pole order of exact solution is determined by values of parameters of the equation. Exact solutions in the form of the solitary waves for the second order nonlinear differential equation are found taking into account the method of the logistic function. Exact solutions of differential equations are discussed and analyzed
Acoustic solitary waves in dusty and/or multi-ion plasmas with cold, adiabatic, and hot constituents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Kourakis, Ioannis
2008-01-01
Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a four-component plasma, made up of two superhot isothermal species, and two species with lower thermal velocities, being, respectively, adiabatic and cold. First a model is considered in which the isothermal species are electrons and ions, while the cooler species are positive and/or negative dust. Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism, large dust-acoustic structures have been studied in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which they can be found, without restrictions on the charges and masses of the dust species and their charge signs. Solitary waves can only occur for nonlinear structure velocities smaller than the adiabatic dust thermal velocity, leading to a novel dust-acoustic-like mode based on the interplay between the two dust species. If the cold and adiabatic dust are oppositely charged, only solitary waves exist, having the polarity of the cold dust, their parameter range being limited by infinite compression of the cold dust. However, when the charges of the cold and adiabatic species have the same sign, solitary structures are limited for increasing Mach numbers successively by infinite cold dust compression, by encountering the adiabatic dust sonic point, and by the occurrence of double layers. The latter have, for smaller Mach numbers, the same polarity as the charged dust, but switch at the high Mach number end to the opposite polarity. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented. Finally, the analysis has nowhere used the assumption that the dust would be much more massive than the ions and hence, one or both dust species can easily be replaced by positive and/or negative ions and the conclusions will apply to that plasma model equally well. This would cover a number of different scenarios, such as, for example, very hot electrons and ions, together with a mix of adiabatic ions and dust (of either polarity) or a very hot electron
Electromagnetic signatures of far-field gravitational radiation in the 1 + 3 approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chua, Alvin J K; Cañizares, Priscilla; Gair, Jonathan R
2015-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources can interact with background electromagnetic fields, giving rise to distinctive and potentially detectable electromagnetic signatures. In this paper, we study such interactions for far-field gravitational radiation using the 1 + 3 approach to relativity. Linearized equations for the electromagnetic field on perturbed Minkowski space are derived and solved analytically. The inverse Gertsenshteĭn conversion of GWs in a static electromagnetic field is rederived, and the resultant electromagnetic radiation is shown to be significant for highly magnetized pulsars in compact binary systems. We also obtain a variety of nonlinear interference effects for interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves, although wave–wave resonances previously described in the literature are absent when the electric–magnetic self-interaction is taken into account. The fluctuation and amplification of electromagnetic energy flux as the GW strength increases towards the gravitational–electromagnetic frequency ratio is a possible signature of gravitational radiation from extended astrophysical sources. (paper)
Lynch, K. A.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Schuck, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Coffey, V.
In this paper we present a review of sounding rocket observations of the ion acceleration seen in nightside auroral zone lower hybrid solitary structures. Observations from Topaz3, Amicist, and Phaze2 are presented on various spatial scales, including the two-point measurements of the Amicist mission. From this collection of observations we will demonstrate the following characteristics of transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) in lower hybrid solitary structures (LHSS). The ion acceleration process is narrowly confined to 90° pitch angle, in spatially confined regions of up to a few hundred meters across B. The acceleration process does not affect the thermal core of the ambient distribution and does not directly create a measurable effect on the ambient ion population outside the LHSS themselves. This precludes observation with these data of any nonlinear feedback between the ion acceleration and the existence or evolution of the density irregularities on which these LHSS events grow. Within the LHSS region the acceleration process creates a high-energy tail beginning at a few times the thermal ion speed. The ion acceleration events are closely associated with localized wave events. Accelerated ions bursts are also seen without a concurrent observation of a localized wave event, for two possible reasons. In some cases, the pitch angles of the accelerated tail ions are elevated above perpendicular; that is, the acceleration occurred below the observer and the mirror force has begun to act upon the distribution, moving it upward from the source. In other cases, the accelerated ion structure is spatially larger than the wave event structure, and the observation catches only the ion event. The occurrence rate of these ion acceleration events is related to the ambient environment in two ways: its altitude dependence can be modeled with the parameter B2/ne, and it is highest in regions of intense VLF activity. The cumulative ion outflow from these LHSS TAI is
Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko
2008-01-01
The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed
Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús
2018-01-01
This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...
Nonlinear theory of the free-electron laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.-L.; Padua Brito Serbeto, A. de.
1984-01-01
A theory of Raman free-electron laser using a circularly polarized electromagnetic pump is investigated. Coupled wave equations that describe both linear and nonlinear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering are derived. The dispersion relation and the growth rate for the parametric instability are obtained. Nonlinear processes that may lead to saturation of the free-electron laser are discussed. (Author) [pt
Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Sun, Wen-Rong; Liu, De-Yin
2017-04-01
Effects of quantic nonlinearity on the propagation of the ultrashort optical pulses in a non-Kerr medium, like an optical fiber, can be described by a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the power law nonlinearity, which is studied in this paper from a planar-dynamic-system view point. We obtain the equivalent two-dimensional planar dynamic system of such an equation, for which, according to the bifurcation theory and qualitative theory, phase portraits are given. Through the analysis of those phase portraits, we present the relations among the Hamiltonian, orbits of the dynamic system and types of the analytic solutions. Analytic expressions of the periodic-wave solutions, kink- and bell-shaped solitary-wave solutions are derived, and we find that the periodic-wave solutions can be reduced to the kink- and bell-shaped solitary-wave solutions.
Three-dimensional sparse electromagnetic imaging accelerated by projected steepest descent
Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan
2016-01-01
An efficient and accurate scheme for solving the nonlinear electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on three-dimensional sparse investigation domains is proposed. The minimization problem is constructed in such a way that the data misfit between
Variation principle for nonlinear wave propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, T.; Lee, Y.C.; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Hojo, H.; Yoshida, Y.
1976-01-01
Variation principle is derived which determines stationary nonlinear propagation of electrostatic waves in the self-consistent density profile. Example is given for lower-hybrid waves and the relation to the variation principle for the Lagrangian density of electromagnetic fluids is discussed
Spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic nonlinear media
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Optical solitons are localized electromagnetic waves that propagate stably in .... conversion generates a nonlinear phase shift ∆ΦNL at the FH frequency. ... to incidence on the SHG crystal (lithium iodate or barium borate, cut for type-I interac-.
Electromagnetic wave matching device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.
1997-01-01
The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)
Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves
Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing
2016-01-01
This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.
Basic Electromagnetism and Materials
Moliton, André
2007-01-01
Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...
On a new series of integrable nonlinear evolution equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Y.H.; Wadati, Miki; Konno, Kimiaki; Shimizu, Tohru.
1980-10-01
Recent results of our research are surveyed in this report. The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the circular polarized Alfven wave admits the spiky soliton solutions for the plane wave boundary condition. The nonlinear equation for complex amplitude associated with the carrier wave is shown to be a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation, having the ordinary cubic nonlinear term and the derivative of cubic nonlinear term. A generalized scheme of the inverse scattering transformation has confirmed that superposition of the A-K-N-S scheme and the K-N scheme for the component equations valids for the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Then, two types of new integrable nonlinear evolution equation have been derived from our scheme of the inverse scattering transformation. One is the type of nonlinear Schroedinger equation, while the other is the type of Korteweg-de Vries equation. Brief discussions are presented for physical phenomena, which could be accounted by the second type of the new integrable nonlinear evolution equation. Lastly, the stationary solitary wave solutions have been constructed for the integrable nonlinear evolution equation of the second type. These solutions have peculiar structure that they are singular and discrete. It is a new challenge to construct singular potentials by the inverse scattering transformation. (author)
Boyd, Robert W
2013-01-01
Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q
Review on Computational Electromagnetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Sumithra
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Computational electromagnetics (CEM is applied to model the interaction of electromagnetic fields with the objects like antenna, waveguides, aircraft and their environment using Maxwell equations. In this paper the strength and weakness of various computational electromagnetic techniques are discussed. Performance of various techniques in terms accuracy, memory and computational time for application specific tasks such as modeling RCS (Radar cross section, space applications, thin wires, antenna arrays are presented in this paper.
Static electromagnetic frequency changers
Rozhanskii, L L
1963-01-01
Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work
Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage
Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming
2013-01-01
Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...
Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...
The modulational and filamentational instabilities of two coupled electromagnetic waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.
1992-01-01
The modulational and filamentational instabilities of two coupled electromagnetic waves have been investigated, taking into account the combined effect of relativistic electron mass variations and nonresonant density fluctuations that are driven by the ponderomotive force. The relevance of our investigation to phenomena related with nonlinear mixing of electromagnetic waves is pointed out. (orig.)
On the self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Pichkhadze, Sh.D.
1987-06-01
The possibility of relativistic self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that in the case of propagation of fast wave packet of electromagnetic wave in plasma, self-trapping is possible due to the effect of relativistic non-linearity, which is effective even for small amplitudes of the pumping wave. (author). 7 refs
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Drazin, P. G
1992-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...
Gasinski, Leszek
2005-01-01
Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.
Solitary myofibroma of the lumbar vertebra: adult case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konishi, E.; Yanagisawa, A.; Mazaki, T.; Urata, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Kanoe, H.; Ikenaga, M.; Hayakawa, K.
2007-01-01
We present the first known adult case of solitary myofibroma of bone, which affected a lumbar vertebra in a 33-year-old male. Radiography identified a purely lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim in the right pedicle of L1. CT showed an expansile lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim. MRI of the lesion revealed an isointense signal on T1-weighted images, an inhomogeneously hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, and marked enhancement with gadolinium. Pathological study showed a mixed picture of nodular proliferation of spindle-shaped myoid cells and hemangiopericytomatous proliferation of short spindle/small round cells. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin and immunonegative for desmin. This case of solitary myofibroma of bone is exceptionally rare because of its occurrence in an adult older than 20 years of age and its location at an extra-craniofacial site. (orig.)
Solitary myofibroma of the lumbar vertebra: adult case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konishi, E.; Yanagisawa, A. [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicne, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Mazaki, T.; Urata, Y. [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Kanoe, H.; Ikenaga, M. [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kyoto (Japan); Hayakawa, K. [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan)
2007-06-15
We present the first known adult case of solitary myofibroma of bone, which affected a lumbar vertebra in a 33-year-old male. Radiography identified a purely lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim in the right pedicle of L1. CT showed an expansile lytic lesion with a sclerotic rim. MRI of the lesion revealed an isointense signal on T1-weighted images, an inhomogeneously hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, and marked enhancement with gadolinium. Pathological study showed a mixed picture of nodular proliferation of spindle-shaped myoid cells and hemangiopericytomatous proliferation of short spindle/small round cells. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin and immunonegative for desmin. This case of solitary myofibroma of bone is exceptionally rare because of its occurrence in an adult older than 20 years of age and its location at an extra-craniofacial site. (orig.)
Solitary Cystic Metastasis Of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: Two Cases Reports
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozgur Tarkan
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The appearance of a solitary lateral cervical cystic mass as the only initial presenting symptom of occult thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Its presence is often related with the more frequently branchial cyst in young adults, but also rarely related with thyroid carcinomas. In most of these cases all such lesions may initially be considered as metastatic foci from a primary thyroid lesion. However, an alternative explanation by means of which ectopic thyroid tissue is associated with a branchial cyst has to be considered, especially if no primary tumour is observed in the histological examination of the thyroid gland. We present two case of solitary cystic lymph node metastasis of occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 29-33
Solitary Cystic Metastasis Of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: Two Cases Reports
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozgur Tarkan
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The appearance of a solitary lateral cervical cystic mass as the only initial presenting symptom of occult thyroid carcinoma is uncommon. Its presence is often related with the more frequently branchial cyst in young adults, but also rarely related with thyroid carcinomas. In most of these cases all such lesions may initially be considered as metastatic foci from a primary thyroid lesion. However, an alternative explanation by means of which ectopic thyroid tissue is associated with a branchial cyst has to be considered, especially if no primary tumour is observed in the histological examination of the thyroid gland. We present two case of solitary cystic lymph node metastasis of occult papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1: 29-33
Single-peak solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ear dispersive waves in shallow water. This equation has attracted a lot of attention ... which is a model for water waves (a = 0), where u(x, t) is the velocity, H(x, t) is the total depth and the subscripts denote partial ... cusped solitary wave solutions of the osmosis K(2, 2) equation. Zhang and Chen [6] obtained new types of ...
Radiologic features of the solitary rectal ulcer syndrome
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castagnone, D.; Ranzi, T.; Velio, P.; Polli, E.E.; Bianchi, P.
1984-05-01
A radiologic study of 4 biopsy-proven cases of the solitary rectal ulcer (S.R.U.) syndrome was undertaken. The radiologic findings of S.R.U. were rectal stenosis (one with ulcer), polypoid rectal mass, and multiple sub-mucosal defects with shallow ulcers. The S.R.U., which is benign and requires only dietetic treatment, must be differentiated from other more serious entities such as neoplastic and inflammatory bowel disease.
Solitary Model of the Charge Particle Transport in Collisionless Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonchik, L.V.; Trukhachev, F.M.
2006-01-01
The one-dimensional MHD solitary model of charged particle transport in plasma is developed. It is shown that self-consistent electric field of ion-acoustic solitons can displace charged particles in space, which can be a reason of local electric current generation. The displacement amount is order of a few Debye lengths. It is shown that the current associated with soliton cascade has pulsating nature with DC component. Methods of built theory verification in dusty plasma are proposed
Obliquely Incident Solitary Wave onto a Vertical Wall
Yeh, Harry
2012-10-01
When a solitary wave impinges obliquely onto a reflective vertical wall, it can take the formation of a Mach reflection (a geometrically similar reflection from acoustics). The mathematical theory predicts that the wave at the reflection can amplify not twice, but as high as four times the incident wave amplitude. Nevertheless, this theoretical four-fold amplification has not been verified by numerical or laboratory experiments. We discuss the discrepancies between the theory and the experiments; then, improve the theory with higher-order corrections. The modified theory results in substantial improvement and is now in good agreement with the numerical as well as our laboratory results. Our laboratory experiments indicate that the wave amplitude along the reflective wall can reach 0.91 times the quiescent water depth, which is higher than the maximum of a freely propagating solitary wave. Hence, this maximum runup 0.91 h would be possible even if the amplitude of the incident solitary wave were as small as 0.24 h. This wave behavior could provide an explanation for local variability of tsunami runup as well as for sneaker waves.
Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krunal Bharat Patel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present.
Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Regarding solitary tumor on radiologic examinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Sumi, Minako; Kagami, Yashikazu; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Imai, Atsushi; Ando, Kou; Ikeda, Hiroshi
1997-01-01
To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that appears as a solitary nodule on radiologic studies. We irradiated 17 patients with solitary HCC lesions (25-150 mm in diameter) with approximately 60 Gy (range 50-70 Gy). Patients underwent dynamic CT and/or ultrasound imaging at 3-month intervals after treatment. Patients were classified based on lesion size, degree of cirrhosis (Child A. 6; Child B, 6; Child C, 5), and whether they had received other therapy such as transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). The responses were classified as complete, partial, no change, or progression. The median survival was 12.8 months for all 17 patients, with 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative survival rates of 59%, 35% and 24%, respectively. Patients classified as Child A showed significantly longer survival than those classified as either Child B (p<0.04) or C (p<0.01). Four of the five Child C patients died of liver failure within 6 months after RT despite the absence of tumor recurrence. The initial tumor diameter, concurrent treatment with TACE, and radiation dose showed no significant effect on survival. Survival in patients with solitary HCC lesions appears to be affected mainly by the degree of liver dysfunction, and not the initial tumor diameter, radiation dose, or concurrent use of TACE. (author)