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Sample records for nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials

  1. Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.

  2. Nonlinear metamaterials for electromagnetic energy harvesting (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin Thibaut; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Surrounded by electromagnetic radiation coming from wireless power transfer to consumer devices such as mobile phones, computers and television, our society is facing the scientific and technological challenge to recover energy that is otherwise lost to the environment. Energy harvesting is an emerging field of research focused on this largely unsolved problem, especially in the microwave regime. Metamaterials provide a very promising platform to meet this purpose. These artificial materials are made from subwavelength building blocks, and can be designed by resonate at particular frequencies, depending on their shape, geometry, size, and orientation. In this work, we show that an efficient electromagnetic energy harvester can be design by inserting a nonlinear element directly within the metamaterial unit cell, leading to the conversion of RF input power to DC charge accumulation. The electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is built from a cut-wire metasurface, which operates as a quasistatic electric dipole resonator. Using the equivalent electrical circuit, we design the parameters to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency, and we compare these results with numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss the efficiency of our metamaterial energy harvesters. This work potentially offers a variety of applications, for example in the telecommunications industry to charge phones, in robotics to power microrobots, and also in medicine to advance pacemakers or health monitoring sensors.

  3. Theoretical models for ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuangchun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Dai, Xiaoyu; Tang, Zhixiang; Su, Wenhua; Fan, Dianyuan

    2007-01-01

    A metamaterial (MM) differs from an ordinary optical material mainly in that it has a dispersive magnetic permeability and offers greatly enhanced design freedom to alter the linear and nonlinear properties. This makes it possible for us to control the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we report on generic features of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation and demonstrate the controllability of both the linear and nonlinear parameters of models for pulse propagation in MMs. First, we derive a generalized system of coupled three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations (NLSEs) suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in a MM with both nonlinear electric polarization and nonlinear magnetization. The coupled equations recover previous models for pulse propagation in both ordinary material and a MM under the same conditions. Second, by using the coupled NLSEs in the Drude dispersive model as an example, we identify the respective roles of the dispersive electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in ultrashort pulse propagation and disclose some additional features of pulse propagation in MMs. It is shown that, for linear propagation, the sign and magnitude of space-time focusing can be controlled through adjusting the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability. For nonlinear propagation, the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability are incorporated into the nonlinear magnetization and nonlinear polarization, respectively, resulting in controllable magnetic and electric self-steepening effects and higher-order dispersively nonlinear terms in the propagation models

  4. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. (review article)

  5. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  6. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Theory and design of nonlinear metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alec Daniel

    If electronics are ever to be completely replaced by optics, a significant possibility in the wake of the fiber revolution, it is likely that nonlinear materials will play a central and enabling role. Indeed, nonlinear optics is the study of the mechanisms through which light can change the nature and properties of matter and, as a corollary, how one beam or color of light can manipulate another or even itself within such a material. However, of the many barriers preventing such a lofty goal, the narrow and limited range of properties supported by nonlinear materials, and natural materials in general, stands at the forefront. Many industries have turned instead to artificial and composite materials, with homogenizable metamaterials representing a recent extension of such composites into the electromagnetic domain. In particular, the inclusion of nonlinear elements has caused metamaterials research to spill over into the field of nonlinear optics. Through careful design of their constituent elements, nonlinear metamaterials are capable of supporting an unprecedented range of interactions, promising nonlinear devices of novel design and scale. In this context, I cast the basic properties of nonlinear metamaterials in the conventional formalism of nonlinear optics. Using alternately transfer matrices and coupled mode theory, I develop two complementary methods for characterizing and designing metamaterials with arbitrary nonlinear properties. Subsequently, I apply these methods in numerical studies of several canonical metamaterials, demonstrating enhanced electric and magnetic nonlinearities, as well as predicting the existence of nonlinear magnetoelectric and off-diagonal nonlinear tensors. I then introduce simultaneous design of the linear and nonlinear properties in the context of phase matching, outlining five different metamaterial phase matching methods, with special emphasis on the phase matching of counter propagating waves in mirrorless parametric amplifiers

  8. Electromagnetic ``black holes'' in hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that spatial variations of the dielectric tensor components in a hyperbolic metamaterial may lead to formation of electromagnetic ``black holes'' inside this metamaterial. Similar to real black holes, horizon area of the electromagnetic ``black holes'' is quantized in units of the effective ``Planck scale'' squared. Potential experimental realizations of such electromagnetic ``black holes'' will be considered. For example, this situation may be realized in a hyperbolic metamaterial in which the dielectric component exhibits critical opalescence.

  9. Design of Metamaterials for control of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschny, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificial effective media supporting propagating waves that derive their properties form the average response of deliberately designed and arranged, usually resonant scatterers with structural length-scales much smaller than the wavelength inside the material. Electromagnetic metamaterials are the most important implementation of metamaterials, which are made from deeply sub-wavelength electric, magnetic and chiral resonators and can be designed to work from radio frequencies all the way to visible light. Metamaterials have been major new development in physics and materials science over the last decade and are still attracting more interest as they enable us to create materials with unique properties like negative refraction, flat and super lenses, impedance matching eliminating reflection, perfect absorbers, deeply sub-wavelength sized wave guides and cavities, tunability, enhanced non-linearity and gain, chirality and huge optical activity, control of Casimir forces, and spontaneous emission, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the design, numerical simulation, and mathematical modeling of metamaterials. I will survey the current state of the art and discuss challenges, possible solutions and perspectives. In particular, the problem of dissipative loss and their possible compensation by incorporating spatially distributed gain in metamaterials. If the gain sub-system is strongly coupled to the sub-wavelength resonators of the metamaterial loss compensation and undamping of the resonant response of the metamaterials can occur. I will explore new, alternative dielectric low loss resonators for metamaterials as well as the potential of new conducting materials such as Graphene to replace metals as the conducting material in resonant metamaterials. Two dimensional metamaterials or metasurfaces, implementations of effective electromagnetic current sheets in which both electric and magnetic sheet conductivities are controlled by the average response

  10. Metamaterial Electromagnetic Superabsorber with Arbitrary Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic superabsorber that has larger absorption cross section than its real size may be a novel photothermal device with improved solar energy conversion rates. Based on a transformation optical approach, the material parameters for a two-dimensional (2D metamaterial-assisted electromagnetic superabsorber with arbitrary geometries are derived and validated by numerical simulation. We find that for the given geometry size, the absorption cross section of the superabsorber using nonlinear transformation is larger than that using linear transformation. These transformations can also be specialized to the designing the N-sided regular polygonal superabsorber just by changing the contour equation. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the 2D electromagnetic superabsorber we have developed.

  11. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  12. A programmable nonlinear acoustic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhi Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic metamaterials with specifically designed lattices can manipulate acoustic/elastic waves in unprecedented ways. Whereas there are many studies that focus on passive linear lattice, with non-reconfigurable structures. In this letter, we present the design, theory and experimental demonstration of an active nonlinear acoustic metamaterial, the dynamic properties of which can be modified instantaneously with reversibility. By incorporating active and nonlinear elements in a single unit cell, a real-time tunability and switchability of the band gap is achieved. In addition, we demonstrate a dynamic “editing” capability for shaping transmission spectra, which can be used to create the desired band gap and resonance. This feature is impossible to achieve in passive metamaterials. These advantages demonstrate the versatility of the proposed device, paving the way toward smart acoustic devices, such as logic elements, diode and transistor.

  13. Nonlinear left-handed transmission line metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyrev, A B; Weide, D W van der

    2008-01-01

    Metamaterials, exhibiting simultaneously negative permittivity ε and permeability μ, more commonly referred to as left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) and also known as negative-index materials, have received substantial attention in the scientific and engineering communities [1]. Most studies of LHMs (and electromagnetic metamaterials in general) have been in the linear regime of wave propagation and have already inspired new types of microwave circuits and devices. The results of these studies have already been the subject of numerous reviews and books. This review covers a less explored but rapidly developing area of investigation involving media that combine nonlinearity (dependence of the permittivity and permeability on the magnitude of the propagating field) with the anomalous dispersion exhibited by LHM. The nonlinear phenomena in such media will be considered on the example of a model system: the nonlinear left-handed transmission line. These nonlinear phenomena include parametric generation and amplification, harmonic and subharmonic generation as well as modulational instabilities and envelope solitons. (topical review)

  14. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  15. Transformation electromagnetics and metamaterials fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Douglas H

    2013-01-01

    Transformation electromagnetics is a systematic design technique for optical and electromagnetic devices that enables novel wave-material interaction properties. The associated metamaterials technology for designing and realizing optical and electromagnetic devices can control the behavior of light and electromagnetic waves in ways that have not been conventionally possible. The technique is credited with numerous novel device designs, most notably the invisibility cloaks, perfect lenses and a host of other remarkable devices.Transformation Electromagnetics and Metamaterials: Fundamental Princ

  16. Retrieval of high-order susceptibilities of nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Yu; Qiu Jin-Peng; Chen Hua; Mo Jiong-Jiong; Yu Fa-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Active metamaterials embedded with nonlinear elements are able to exhibit strong nonlinearity in microwave regime. However, existing S -parameter based parameter retrieval approaches developed for linear metamaterials do not apply in nonlinear cases. In this paper, a retrieval algorithm of high-order susceptibilities for nonlinear metamaterials is derived. Experimental demonstration shows that, by measuring the power level of each harmonic while sweeping the incident power, high-order susceptibilities of a thin-layer nonlinear metamaterial can be effectively retrieved. The proposedapproach can be widely used in the research of active metamaterials. (paper)

  17. Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying

    2012-07-30

    We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.

  18. Advances in active and nonlinear metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, A. D.; Mitchell-Thomas, R. C.; Rapoport, Y. G.

    2012-09-01

    Metamaterial research is an extremely important global activity that promises to change our lives in many different ways. These include making objects invisible and the dramatic impact of metamaterials upon the energy and medical sectors of society. Behind all of the applications, however, lies the business of creating metamaterials that are not going to be crippled by the kind of loss that is naturally heralded by use of resonant responses in their construction. Under the general heading of active and tunable metamaterials, an elegant route to the inclusion of nonlinearity and waveguide complexity coupled to soliton behavior suggested by forms of transformation dynamics is presented. In addition, various discussions will be framed within a magnetooptical environment that deploys externally applied magnetic field orientations. Light can then be directed to achieve energy control and be deployed for a variety of outcomes. Quite apart from the fact that the manufacture of metamaterials is attracting such a lot of global attention, the ability to control light, for example, in these materials is also immensely interesting and will lead to a new dawn of integrated circuits and computers. Recognizing the role of nonlinearity raises the possibility that dramatic manufacturing and applications are on the horizon.

  19. Nonlinearities in Periodic Structures and Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, Cornelia; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2010-01-01

    Optical information processing of the future is associated with a new generation of compact nanoscale optical devices operating entirely with light. Moreover, adaptive features such as self-guiding, reconfiguration and switching become more and more important. Nonlinear devices offer an enormous potential for these applications. Consequently, innovative concepts for all-optical communication and information technologies based on nonlinear effects in photonic-crystal physics and nanoscale devices as metamaterials are of high interest. This book focuses on nonlinear optical phenomena in periodic media, such as photonic crystals, optically-induced, adaptive lattices, atomic lattices or metamaterials. The main purpose is to describe and overview new physical phenomena that result from the interplay between nonlinearities and structural periodicities and is a guide to actual and future developments for the expert reader in optical information processing, as well as in the physics of cold atoms in optical lattices.

  20. Reflection-type electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chun-Feng; Zhang Ya-Ting; Yao Jian-Quan; Xu De-Gang; Zhang Gui-Zhong; Sun Chong-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A reflection-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) metamaterial is proposed, which is composed of a dielectric spacer sandwiched with metallic patterns and metallic plane. Experimental results of THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS) exhibit a typical reflection of EIT at 0.865 THz, which are in excellent agreement with the full-wave simulations. A multi-reflection theory is adopted to analyze the physical mechanism of the reflection-type EIT, showing that the reflection-type EIT is a superposition of multiple reflection of the transmission EIT. Such a reflection-type EIT provides many applications based on the EIT effect, such as slow light devices and nonlinear elements. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Metamaterial inspired electromagnetic applications role of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the role of soft-computing-based electromagnetic computational engines in design and optimization of a wide range of electromagnetic applications. In addition to the theoretical background of metamaterials and soft-computing techniques, the book discusses novel electromagnetic applications such as tensor analysis for invisibility cloaking, metamaterial structures for cloaking applications, broadband radar absorbers, and antennas. The book will prove to be a valuable resource for academics and professionals, as well as military researchers working in the area of metamaterials.

  2. Nonlinear surface waves at ferrite-metamaterial waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hissi, Nour El Houda; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Shabat, Mohammed Musa; Atangana, Jacques

    2016-09-01

    A new ferrite slab made of a metamaterial (MTM), surrounded by a nonlinear cover cladding and a ferrite substrate, was shown to support unusual types of electromagnetic surface waves. We impose the boundary conditions to derive the dispersion relation and others necessary to formulate the proposed structure. We analyse the dispersion properties of the nonlinear surface waves and we calculate the associated propagation index and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. In the calculation, several sets of the permeability of the MTM are considered. Results show that the waves behaviour depends on the values of the permeability of the MTM, the thickness of the waveguide and the film-cover interface nonlinearity. It is also shown that the use of the singular solutions to the electric field equation allows to identify several new properties of surface waves which do not exist in conventional waveguide.

  3. Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingnan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based

  4. A Broadband Ultrathin Nonlinear Switching Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarnousheh Farahani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ultrathin planar nonlinear metamaterial slab is designed and simulated. Nonlinearity is provided through placing diodes in each metamaterial unit cell. The diodes are auto-biased and activated by an incident wave. The proposed structure represents a broadband switching property between two transmission and reflection states depending on the intensity of the incident wave. High permittivity values are presented creating a near zero effective impedance at low power states, around the second resonant mode of the structure unit cell; as the result, the incident wave is reflected. Increasing the incident power to the level which can activate the loaded diodes in the structure results in elimination of the resonance and consequently a drop in the permittivity values near the permeability one as well as a switch to the transmission state. A full wave as well as a nonlinear simulations are performed. An optimization method based on weed colonization is applied to the unit cell of the metamaterial slab to achieve the maximum switching bandwidth. The structure represents a 24% switching bandwidth of a 10 dB reduction in the reflection coefficient.

  5. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  6. Vibrant times for mechanical metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Kadic, Muamer; Kraft, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are man-made designer matter that obtains its unusual effective properties by structure rather than chemistry. Building upon the success of electromagnetic and acoustic metamaterials, researchers working on mechanical metamaterials strive at obtaining extraordinary or extreme...... mass density, negative modulus, pentamode, anisotropic mass density, Origami, nonlinear, bistable, and reprogrammable mechanical metamaterials....

  7. Metamaterial-Enhanced Nonlinear Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate large nonlinear terahertz responses in the gaps of metamaterial split ring resonators in several materials and use nonlinear THz transmission and THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy to study the nonlinear responses and dynamics. We use the field enhancement in the SRR gaps to initiate high-field phenomena at lower incident fields. In vanadium dioxide, we drive the insulator-to-metal phase transition with high-field THz radiation. The film conductivity increases by over two orders of magnitude and the phase transition occurs on a several picosecond timescale. In gallium arsenide, we observe high-field transport phenomena, including mobility saturation and impact ionization. The carrier density increases by up to ten orders of magnitude at high fields. At the highest fields, we demonstrate THz-induced damage in both vanadium dioxide and gallium arsenide.

  8. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  9. Elastic metamaterials for tuning circular polarization of electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Yair; Babaee, Sahab; Kang, Sung H; Neshev, Dragomir N; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Bertoldi, Katia; Powell, David A

    2016-06-20

    Electromagnetic resonators are integrated with advanced elastic material to develop a new type of tunable metamaterial. An electromagnetic-elastic metamaterial able to switch on and off its electromagnetic chiral response is experimentally demonstrated. Such tunability is attained by harnessing the unique buckling properties of auxetic elastic materials (buckliballs) with embedded electromagnetic resonators. In these structures, simple uniaxial compression results in a complex but controlled pattern of deformation, resulting in a shift of its electromagnetic resonance, and in the structure transforming to a chiral state. The concept can be extended to the tuning of three-dimensional materials constructed from the meta-molecules, since all the components twist and deform into the same chiral configuration when compressed.

  10. Active control of chirality in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yu; Chai, Zhen; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    An all-optical tunabe chirality is realized in a photonic metamaterial, the metamolecule of which consists of a nonlinear nano-Au:polycrystalline indium-tin oxide layer sandwiched between two L-shaped gold nano-antennas twisted 90° with each other. The maximum circular dichroism reached 30%. Under excitation of a 40 kW/cm 2 weak pump light, the peak in the circular dichroism shifts 45 nm in the short-wavelength direction. An ultrafast response time of 35 ps is maintained. This work not only opens up the possibility for the realization of ultralow-power and ultrafast all-optical tunable chirality but also offers a way to construct ultrahigh-speed on-chip biochemical sensors

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Jeppesen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We employ a planar metamaterial structure composed of a splitring-resonator (SRR) and paired nano-rods to experimentally realize a spectral response at near-infrared frequencies resembling that of electromagnetically induced transparency. A narrow transparency window associated with low loss...

  12. Optical rogue waves generation in a nonlinear metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onana Essama, Bedel Giscard; Atangana, Jacques; Biya-Motto, Frederick; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Cherkaoui Eddeqaqi, Noureddine; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the behavior of electromagnetic wave which propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. The optical pulse propagation is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearities, second- and third-order dispersion effects. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for positive index regime. The characterization of electromagnetic wave uses some pulse parameters obtained analytically and called collective coordinates such as amplitude, temporal position, width, chirp, frequency shift and phase. Six frequency ranges have been pointed out where a numerical evolution of collective coordinates and their stability are studied under a typical example to verify our analysis. It appears that a robust soliton due to a perfect compensation process between second-order dispersion and cubic-nonlinearity is presented at each frequency range for both negative and positive index regimes. Thereafter, the stability of the soliton pulse and physical conditions leading to optical rogue waves generation are discussed at each frequency range for both regimes, when third-order dispersion and quintic-nonlinearity come into play. We have demonstrated that collective coordinates give much useful information on external and internal behavior of rogue events. Firstly, we determine at what distance begins the internal excitation leading to rogue waves. Secondly, what kind of internal modification and how it modifies the system in order to build-up rogue events. These results lead to a best comprehension of the mechanism of rogue waves generation. So, it clearly appears that the rogue wave behavior strongly depends on nonlinearity strength of distortion, frequency and regime considered.

  13. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Symmetric Planar Metamaterial at THz Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwaheb Ourir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation and the evidence of the analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT in a symmetric planar metamaterial. This effect has been obtained in the THz range thanks to a destructive Fano-interference between the two first modes of an array of multi-gap split ring resonators deposited on a silicon substrate. This structure is a planar thin film material with four-fold symmetry. Thanks to this property, a polarization-independent transmission has been achieved. The proposed metamaterial is well adapted to variety of slow-light applications in the infrared and optical range.

  14. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Duan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  15. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Lin

    2016-12-01

    A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS) for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  16. Investigations into homogenization of electromagnetic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau

    This dissertation encompasses homogenization methods, with a special interest into their applications to metamaterial homogenization. The first method studied is the Floquet-Bloch method, that is based on the assumption of a material being infinite periodic. Its field can then be expanded in term...

  17. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  18. Theoretical Modeling and Electromagnetic Response of Complex Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Controlling Sound with Acoustic Metamaterials,” Nature Reviews Materials, Vol. 1, No. 16001, February 16, 2016, (invited paper). DISTRIBUTION A...Khanikaev*, and A. Alù, “Floquet Topological Insulators for Sound ,” Nature Communications, Vol. 7, No. 11744 (11 pages), June 17, 2016, online at...topological insulators for photons and phonons, new concepts based on parity-time symmetric metasurfaces, and various advances in electromagnetic and acoustic

  19. Observation of asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles in chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamoto, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kei; Tomita, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally observe asymmetric electromagnetic field profiles along two-dimensional chiral metamaterials. The asymmetric field profiles depending on the chirality and the operation frequency have been reproduced well by the numerical simulation. Around a chiral meta-atom, distribution of a Poynting vector is found to be shifted asymmetrically. These results are explained in terms of an analogy with the side-jump mechanism in the electronic anomalous Hall systems.

  20. Electromagnetic Field Control and Optimization Using Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Popović, and K. Hingerl. “Imperfect cloak- ing devices based on metamaterials,” Acta Physica Polonica A , 112(5):1083– 1088, 2007. 148 44. Jiang, Wei X...f. Jcpq Date Accepted: ... M ( A T~ 󈧢 S’t’P 2 GCt:f M. U. Thomas Date Dean, Graduate School of Engineering and Management APIT/DEE/ENG/09-13...dictated by the theory are inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and, in some instances, singular at various locations. In order for a cloak to be practically

  1. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-09-10

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  2. Electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric terahertz metamaterials with triangle microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Yanping; Qian, Yunan; Lin, Xingyue; Tang, Yunhai; Cheng, Xinli; Qin, Changfa; Shen, Jiaoyan; Zang, Taocheng; Ma, Chunlan

    2018-05-01

    We investigate terahertz transmission properties and electromagnetic resonance modes in the asymmetric triangle structures with the change of asymmetric distance and the direction of electric field. When the THz electric field is perpendicular to the split gap of triangle, the electric field can better excite the THz absorption in the triangle structures. Importantly, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) characteristics are observed in the triangle structures due to the destructive interference of the different excited modes. The distributions of electric field and surface current density simulated by finite difference time domain indicate that the bright mode is excited by the side of triangle structures and dark mode is excited by the gap-side of triangle. The present study is helpful to understand the electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric triangular metamaterials.

  3. Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun

    2010-01-01

    We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.

  4. Nonlocal homogenization theory in metamaterials: Effective electromagnetic spatial dispersion and artificial chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    We develop, from first principles, a general and compact formalism for predicting the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial with nonmagnetic inclusions in the long-wavelength limit, including spatial dispersion up to the second order. Specifically, by resorting to a suitable multiscale technique, we show that the effective medium permittivity tensor and the first- and second-order tensors describing spatial dispersion can be evaluated by averaging suitable spatially rapidly varying fields, each satisfying electrostatic-like equations within the metamaterial unit cell. For metamaterials with negligible second-order spatial dispersion, we exploit the equivalence of first-order spatial dispersion and reciprocal bianisotropic electromagnetic response to deduce a simple expression for the metamaterial chirality tensor. Such an expression allows us to systematically analyze the effect of the composite spatial symmetry properties on electromagnetic chirality. We find that even if a metamaterial is geometrically achiral, i.e., it is indistinguishable from its mirror image, it shows pseudo-chiral-omega electromagnetic chirality if the rotation needed to restore the dielectric profile after the reflection is either a 0∘ or 90∘ rotation around an axis orthogonal to the reflection plane. These two symmetric situations encompass two-dimensional and one-dimensional metamaterials with chiral response. As an example admitting full analytical description, we discuss one-dimensional metamaterials whose single chirality parameter is shown to be directly related to the metamaterial dielectric profile by quadratures.

  5. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2016-07-12

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  6. Nonlinear classical theory of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisello, D.

    1977-01-01

    A topological theory of electric charge is given. Einstein's criteria for the completion of classical electromagnetic theory are summarized and their relation to quantum theory and the principle of complementarity is indicated. The inhibiting effect that this principle has had on the development of physical thought is discussed. Developments in the theory of functions on nonlinear spaces provide the conceptual framework required for the completion of electromagnetism. The theory is based on an underlying field which is a continuous mapping of space-time into points on the two-sphere. (author)

  7. Multi-peak electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission from bull's-eye-shaped metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter R

    2010-08-16

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of the concentric multi-ring, or the bull's eye, structure as an extension of the dual-ring metamaterial which exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission characteristics. Our results show that adding inner rings produces additional EIT-like peaks, and widens the metamaterial's spectral range of operation. Analyses of the dispersion characteristics and induced current distribution further confirmed the peak's EIT-like nature. Impacts of structural and dielectric parameters are also investigated.

  8. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloatti, L.; Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al 2 O 3 , B = TiO 2 , and C = HfO 2 . The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths

  9. Enhanced Nonlinear Effects in Metamaterials and Plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argyropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an overview of the anomalous and enhanced nonlinear effects available when optical nonlinear materials are combined inside plasmonic waveguide structures. Broad, bistable and all-optical switching responses are exhibited at the cut-off frequency of these waveguides, characterized by reduced Q-factor resonances. These phenomena are due to the large field enhancement obtained inside specific plasmonic gratings, which ensures a significant boosting of the nonlinear operation. Several exciting applications are proposed, which may potentially lead to new optical components and add to the optical nanocircuit paradigm.

  10. Bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouloyannis, V.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Veldes, G. P.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; DiMarzio, D.; Lan, X.; Radisic, V.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we examine a prototypical model for the formation of bright breathers in nonlinear left-handed metamaterial lattices. Utilizing the paradigm of nonlinear transmission lines, we build a relevant lattice and develop a quasi-continuum multiscale approximation that enables us to appreciate both the underlying linear dispersion relation and the potential for bifurcation of nonlinear states. We focus here, more specifically, on bright discrete breathers which bifurcate from the lower edge of the linear dispersion relation at wavenumber k=π . Guided by the multiscale analysis, we calculate numerically both the stable inter-site centered and the unstable site-centered members of the relevant family. We quantify the associated stability via Floquet analysis and the Peierls-Nabarro barrier of the energy difference between these branches. Finally, we explore the dynamical implications of these findings towards the potential mobility or lack thereof (pinning) of such breather solutions.

  11. Broadband tunable electromagnetically induced transparency analogue metamaterials based on graphene in terahertz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Leng, Yanbing; Wang, Li; Dong, Lianhe; Liu, Shunrui; Wang, Jun; Sun, Yanjun

    2018-06-01

    Most of the actively controlled electromagnetically induced transparency analogue (EIT-like) metamaterials were implemented with narrowband modulations. In this paper, a broadband tunable EIT-like metamaterial based on graphene in the terahertz band is presented. It consists of a cut wire as the bright resonator and two couples of H-shaped resonators in mirror symmetry as the dark resonators. A broadband tunable property of transmission amplitude is realized by changing the Fermi level of graphene. Furthermore, the geometries of the metamaterial structure are optimized to achieve the ideal curve through the simulation. Such EIT-like metamaterials proposed here are promising candidates for designing active wide-band slow-light devices, wide-band terahertz active filters, and wide-band terahertz modulators.

  12. Bianisotropic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2017-07-18

    The topology of the elements of a metamaterial can be engineered from its desired electromagnetic constitutive tensor using an inverse group theory method. Therefore, given a desired electromagnetic response and a generic metamaterial elemental design, group theory is applied to predict the various ways that the element can be arranged in three dimensions to produce the desired functionality. An optimizer can then be applied to an electromagnetic modeling tool to fine tune the values of the electromagnetic properties of the resulting metamaterial topology.

  13. Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2009-01-01

    Includes an introduction to optical transformation theory, revealing invisible cloaks, EM concentrators, beam splitters, and new-type antennas. This title offers a presentation of general theory on artificial metamaterials composed of periodic structures, and coverage of a rapid design method for inhomogeneous metamaterials.

  14. Experimental demonstration of superconducting critical temperature increase in electromagnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Yost, Bradley; Zander, Kathryn; Osofsky, M S; Kim, Heungsoo; Saha, Shanta; Greene, R L; Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2014-12-04

    A recent proposal that the metamaterial approach to dielectric response engineering may increase the critical temperature of a composite superconductor-dielectric metamaterial has been tested in experiments with compressed mixtures of tin and barium titanate nanoparticles of varying composition. An increase of the critical temperature of the order of ΔT ~ 0.15 K compared to bulk tin has been observed for 40% volume fraction of barium titanate nanoparticles. Similar results were also obtained with compressed mixtures of tin and strontium titanate nanoparticles.

  15. Experimental demonstration of superconducting critical temperature increase in electromagnetic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Yost, Bradley; Zander, Kathryn; Osofsky, M. S.; Kim, Heungsoo; Saha, Shanta; Greene, R. L.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2014-12-01

    A recent proposal that the metamaterial approach to dielectric response engineering may increase the critical temperature of a composite superconductor-dielectric metamaterial has been tested in experiments with compressed mixtures of tin and barium titanate nanoparticles of varying composition. An increase of the critical temperature of the order of ΔT ~ 0.15 K compared to bulk tin has been observed for 40% volume fraction of barium titanate nanoparticles. Similar results were also obtained with compressed mixtures of tin and strontium titanate nanoparticles.

  16. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties. PMID:26857034

  17. Water: Promising Opportunities For Tunable All-dielectric Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Kuznetsova, Svetlana M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We reveal an outstanding potential of water as an inexpensive, abundant and bio-friendly high-refractive-index material for creating tunable all-dielectric photonic structures and metamaterials. Specifically, we demonstrate thermal, mechanical and gravitational tunability of magnetic and electric...

  18. Nonlinear electromagnetic susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    Fully electromagnetic nonlinear susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas are analyzed in detail. Concrete expressions of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility are found in various forms in the literature, usually in connection with the discussions of various three-wave decay processes, but the third-order susceptibilities are rarely discussed. The second-order susceptibility is pertinent to nonlinear wave-wave interactions (i.e., the decay/coalescence), whereas the third-order susceptibilities affect nonlinear wave-particle interactions (i.e., the induced scattering). In the present article useful approximate analytical expressions of these nonlinear susceptibilities that can be readily utilized in various situations are derived

  19. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Omri; Ma, Xuedan; Brener, Igal; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Song, Alex Y.

    2015-01-01

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena

  20. Solitons and decoherence in left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Shukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart; Brodin, Gert

    2005-01-01

    We present exact electromagnetic solitary pulses that can be experimentally obtained within nonlinear left-handed metamaterials. The effect of pulse decoherence on the modulation instability of partially incoherent electromagnetic waves is also investigated. The results may contribute to a better understanding of nonlinear electromagnetic pulse propagation in media with negative index of refraction

  1. Finite-difference time-domain simulation of electromagnetic bandgap and bi-anisotropic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Matthew G.

    The term "Metamaterial" has been introduced into the electromagnetic lexicon in recent years to describe new artificial materials with electromagnetic properties that are not found in naturally occurring materials. Metamaterials exhibit electromagnetic properties that are not observed in its constituent materials, and/or not observed in nature. This thesis will analyze two different classes of metamaterials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The first class of metamaterials are artificial magnetic conductors (AMC) which approximate the behavior of a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) over a finite frequency range. The AMC metamaterials are created through the use of an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure. A periodic FDTD code is used to simulate a full-wave model of the metallodielectric EBG structures. The AMCs developed with the aid of the FDTD tool are then used to create low-profile antenna systems consisting of a dipole antenna in close proximity to an AMC surface. Through the use of this FDTD tool, several original contributions were made to the electromagnetic community. These include the first dual-band independently tunable EBG AMC ground plane and the first linearly polarized single-band and dual-band tunable antenna/EBG systems. The second class of materials analyzed are bi-anisotropic metamaterials. Bi-anisotropic media are the largest class of linear media which is able to describe the macroscopic material properties of artificial dielectrics, artificial magnetics, artificial chiral materials, left-handed materials, and other composite materials. The dispersive properties of these materials can be approximated by the oscillator model. This model assumes a Lorentzian frequency profile for the permittivity and permeability and a Condon model for chirality. A new FDTD formulation is introduced which can simulate this type of bi-anisotropic media. This FDTD method incorporates the dispersive material properties through

  2. BMFO-PVDF electrospun fiber based tunable metamaterial structures for electromagnetic interference shielding in microwave frequency region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Venkatachalam; Dinesh Kumar, Sakthivel; Subramanian, Venkatachalam; Chellamuthu, Muthamizhchelvan

    2015-11-01

    Metamaterial structures are artificial structures that are useful in controlling the flow of electromagnetic radiation. In this paper, composite fibers of sub-micron thickness of barium substituted magnesium ferrite (Ba0.2Mg0.8Fe2O4) - polyvinylidene fluoride obtained by electrospinning is used as a substrate to design electromagnetic interference shielding structures. While electrospinning improves the ferroelectric properties of the polyvinylidene fluoride, the presence of barium magnesium ferrite modifies the magnetic property of the composite fiber. The dielectric and magnetic properties at microwave frequency measured using microwave cavity perturbation technique are used to design the reflection as well as absorption based tunable metamaterial structures for electromagnetic interference shielding in microwave frequency region. For one of the structures, the simulation indicates that single negative metamaterial structure becomes a double negative metamaterial under the external magnetic field.

  3. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetic, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  4. Analog of electromagnetically induced transparency at terahertz frequency based on a bilayer-double-H-metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue'e.; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong

    2018-01-01

    We designed a bilayer-double-H-metamaterials (BDHM) composed of two layers of metal and two layers of dielectric to analog a spectral response of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) at terahertz frequency. By changing the incident angle, the BDHM exhibits an EIT-like spectral response. The tunable spectral performances and modulation mechanism of the transparent peak are theoretically investigated using full-wave electromagnetic simulation software. The physical mechanism of the EIT-like effect is based on the constructive and destructive interference between the induced electrical dipoles. Our work provides a new way to realize the EIT-like effect only by changing the incident angles of the metamaterials. The potential applications include tunable filters, sensors, attenuators, switches, and so on.

  5. An automated phase correction algorithm for retrieving permittivity and permeability of electromagnetic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To retrieve complex-valued effective permittivity and permeability of electromagnetic metamaterials (EMMs based on resonant effect from scattering parameters using a complex logarithmic function is not inevitable. When complex values are expressed in terms of magnitude and phase, an infinite number of permissible phase angles is permissible due to the multi-valued property of complex logarithmic functions. Special attention needs to be paid to ensure continuity of the effective permittivity and permeability of lossy metamaterials as frequency sweeps. In this paper, an automated phase correction (APC algorithm is proposed to properly trace and compensate phase angles of the complex logarithmic function which may experience abrupt phase jumps near the resonant frequency region of the concerned EMMs, and hence the continuity of the effective optical properties of lossy metamaterials is ensured. The algorithm is then verified to extract effective optical properties from the simulated scattering parameters of the four different types of metamaterial media: a cut-wire cell array, a split ring resonator (SRR cell array, an electric-LC (E-LC resonator cell array, and a combined SRR and wire cell array respectively. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate and effective.

  6. Observation of Fano resonance and classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in toroidal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Song; Yang, Helin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Cong, Lonqing; Singh, Ranjan [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    Toroidal multipoles have recently been explored in various scientific communities, ranging from atomic and molecular physics, electrodynamics, and solid-state physics to biology. Here we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a three-dimensional toroidal metamaterial where two different toroidal dipoles along orthogonal directions have been observed. The chosen toroidal metamaterial also simultaneously supports Fano resonance and the classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena in the transmission spectra that originate from the electric-toroidal dipole and electric-magnetic dipole destructive interference. The intriguing properties of the toroidal resonances may open up avenues for applications in toroidal moments generator, sensing and slow-light devices. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Subluminal and superluminal terahertz radiation in metamaterials with electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-07-29

    We propose a scheme to design a new type of optical metamaterial that can mimic the functionality of four-state atomic systems of N-type energy-level configuration with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that in such metamaterial a transition from a single EIT to a double EIT of terahertz radiation may be easily achieved by actively tuning the intensity of the infrared pump field or passively tuning the geometrical parameters of resonator structures. In addition, the group velocity of the terahertz radiation can be varied from subluminal to superluminal by changing the pump field intensity. The scheme suggested here may be used to construct chip-scale slow and fast light devices and to realize rapidly responded switching of terahertz radiation at room temperature.

  8. Multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: datorma1@upvnet.upv.es, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de IngenierIa Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n (Edificio 7F), ES-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials is presented. This approach is comprehensive and can lead to frequency-dependent effective parameters (scalar bulk modulus and tensorial mass density), as it is possible to have not only positive or negative ellipsoidal refractive index, but also positive or negative hyperbolic refractive index. The correction due to multiple scattering interactions is included in the theory and it is demonstrated that its contribution is important only for lattices with high filling fractions. Since the surface fields on the scatterers are mainly responsible for the anomalous behavior of the resulting effective medium, complex scatterers can be used to engineer the frequency response. Anisotropic effects are also discussed within this formulation and some numerical examples are reported. A homogenization theory is also extended to electromagnetic wave propagation in 2D lattices of dielectric structures, where Mie resonances are found to be responsible for the metamaterial behavior.

  9. Optically and thermally controlled terahertz metamaterial via transition between direct and indirect electromagnetically induced transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Sui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This passage presents a design of tunable terahertz metamaterials via transition between indirect and direct electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT effects by changing semiconductor InSb’s properties to terahertz wave under optical and thermal stimuli. Mechanical model and its electrical circuit model are utilized in analytically calculating maximum transmission of transparency window. Simulated results show consistency with the analytical expressions. The results show that the metamaterials hold 98.4% modulation depth at 189 GHz between 300 K, σInSb =256000 S/m, and 80 K, σInSb =0.0162 S/m conditions , 1360 ps recovery time of the excited electrons in InSb under optical stimulus at 300 K mainly considering the direct EIT effect, and minimum bandwidth 1 GHz.

  10. Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthoit, F.-X.; Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete

  11. SPARSE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING USING NONLINEAR LANDWEBER ITERATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2015-07-29

    A scheme for efficiently solving the nonlinear electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on sparse investigation domains is described. The proposed scheme reconstructs the (complex) dielectric permittivity of an investigation domain from fields measured away from the domain itself. Least-squares data misfit between the computed scattered fields, which are expressed as a nonlinear function of the permittivity, and the measured fields is constrained by the L0/L1-norm of the solution. The resulting minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations, where at each iteration a thresholding function is applied to enforce the sparseness-promoting L0/L1-norm constraint. The thresholded nonlinear Landweber iterations are applied to several two-dimensional problems, where the ``measured\\'\\' fields are synthetically generated or obtained from actual experiments. These numerical experiments demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of the proposed scheme in reconstructing sparse profiles with high permittivity values.

  12. An Electromagnetic Sensor with a Metamaterial Lens for Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Savin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the study and implementation of a sensor with a metamaterial (MM lens in electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation (eNDE. Thus, the use of a new type of MM, named Conical Swiss Rolls (CSR has been proposed. These structures can serve as electromagnetic flux concentrators in the radiofrequency range. As a direct application, plates of composite materials with carbon fibers woven as reinforcement and polyphenylene sulphide as matrix with delaminations due to low energy impacts were examined. The evaluation method is based on the appearance of evanescent modes in the space between carbon fibers when the sample is excited with a transversal magnetic along z axis (TMz polarized electromagnetic field. The MM lens allows the transmission and intensification of evanescent waves. The characteristics of carbon fibers woven structure became visible and delaminations are clearly emphasized. The flaws can be localized with spatial resolution better than λ/2000.

  13. An Electromagnetic Sensor with a Metamaterial Lens for Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Adriana; Steigmann, Rozina; Bruma, Alina; Šturm, Roman

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes the study and implementation of a sensor with a metamaterial (MM) lens in electromagnetic nondestructive evaluation (eNDE). Thus, the use of a new type of MM, named Conical Swiss Rolls (CSR) has been proposed. These structures can serve as electromagnetic flux concentrators in the radiofrequency range. As a direct application, plates of composite materials with carbon fibers woven as reinforcement and polyphenylene sulphide as matrix with delaminations due to low energy impacts were examined. The evaluation method is based on the appearance of evanescent modes in the space between carbon fibers when the sample is excited with a transversal magnetic along z axis (TMz) polarized electromagnetic field. The MM lens allows the transmission and intensification of evanescent waves. The characteristics of carbon fibers woven structure became visible and delaminations are clearly emphasized. The flaws can be localized with spatial resolution better than λ/2000.

  14. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  15. Ultra-high-frequency microwave response from flexible transparent Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingxin; Niu, Jiebin; Zhu, Haolin; Zhang, Jianyong

    2018-02-01

    Flexible transparent materials are a hot spot in current research but also a key technical difficulty in industry. They are playing an increasingly important role in flexible transparent display applications such as organic light-emitting diodes, transparent electrodes, and so on. On the other hand, the present research on nanopatterned antennas is mainly concentrated on the optical frequency but rarely on the microwave (such as 3G, 4G, and 5G) and terahertz frequency band communications, where nanopatterned antennas can have many novel applications. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that presents a method for preparing a flexible transparent Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna. We study its free-space performance at ultra-high frequency and its application in electronic products such as smartphones, tablets, personal computers, and wearable devices (such as smart watches) which have the function of mobile communication. The experimental results showed that the transparency of the antenna designed and fabricated in this work can be as high as 94%, and its efficiency can reach 74.5%-91.9% of antennas commonly seen at present in academia and industry. By adjusting the capacitive and inductive reactance of the nanopatterned antenna’s matching circuit, combined with its measured efficiency and 3D electromagnetic simulation results, we speculate on the mechanism of the Au electromagnetic metamaterial nanopatterned antenna with good performance.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency in planar metamaterials based on guided mode resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaru; Chen, Hang; Li, Xiangjun; Hong, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    We present and numerically demonstrate a novel, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar metamaterials (MMs) based on guided mode resonance (GMR). The unit cell of the MM consists of two metallic ring resonators. The GMR with high quality factor (Q) is achieved by changing the distance between the two rings of the MM. Narrow EIT-like spectral response is realized by coupling between a high Q GMR and a low Q dipolar resonance of the MM. Our work could provide another efficient way towards the realization of EIT with large group index using very simple structures.

  17. A Double-Negative Metamaterial-Inspired Mobile Wireless Antenna for Electromagnetic Absorption Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Touhidul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2015-07-29

    A double-negative metamaterial-inspired antenna is presented for mobile wireless applications. The antenna consists of a semi-circular radiating patch and a 3 × 4 hexagonal shaped metamaterial unit cell array in the ground plane. The antenna is fed with a 50 Ω microstrip feed line. The electric dimensions of the proposed antenna are 0.20λ × 0.26λ × 0.004λ, at the low-end frequency. The proposed antenna achieves a -10 dB impedance with a bandwidth of 2.29 GHz at the lower band and 1.28 GHz at the upper band and can operate for most of the mobile applications such as upper GSM bands, WiMAX, Bluetooth, and wireless local area network (WLAN) frequency bands. The focused novelties of the proposed antenna are its small size, multi-standard operating bands, and electromagnetic absorption reduction at all the operating frequencies using the double-negative metamaterial ground plane.

  18. Single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency-like metamaterials with coupled split ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2017-08-01

    We present a metamaterial configuration exhibiting single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like properties. The unit cell of the single band EIT-like metamaterial consists of a multi-split ring resonator surrounded by a split ring resonator. The multi-split ring resonator acts as a quasi-dark or dark resonator, depending on the polarization of the incident wave, and the split ring resonator serves as the bright resonator. Combination of these two resonators results in a single band EIT-like transmission inside the stop band. EIT-like transmission phenomenon is also clearly observed in the measured transmission spectrum at almost the same frequencies for vertical and horizontal polarized waves, and the numerical results are verified for normal incidence. Moreover, multi-band transmission windows are created within a wide band by combining the two slightly different single band EIT-like metamaterial unit cells that exhibit two different coupling strengths inside a supercell configuration. Group indices as high as 123 for single band and 488 for tri-band transmission, accompanying with high transmission rates (over 80%), are achieved, rendering the metamaterial very suitable for multi-band slow light applications. It is shown that the group delay of the propagating wave can be increased and dynamically controlled by changing the polarization angle. Multi-band EIT-like transmission is also verified experimentally, and a good agreement with simulations is obtained. The proposed novel methodology for obtaining multi-band EIT, which takes advantage of a supercell configuration by hosting slightly different configured unit cells, can be utilized for easily formation and manipulation of multi-band transmission windows inside a stop band.

  19. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pugno, Nicola M. [Laboratory of Bio-Inspired and Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations.

  20. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco; Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations

  1. Sparse Reconstruction Schemes for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2016-03-01

    Electromagnetic imaging is the problem of determining material properties from scattered fields measured away from the domain under investigation. Solving this inverse problem is a challenging task because (i) it is ill-posed due to the presence of (smoothing) integral operators used in the representation of scattered fields in terms of material properties, and scattered fields are obtained at a finite set of points through noisy measurements; and (ii) it is nonlinear simply due the fact that scattered fields are nonlinear functions of the material properties. The work described in this thesis tackles the ill-posedness of the electromagnetic imaging problem using sparsity-based regularization techniques, which assume that the scatterer(s) occupy only a small fraction of the investigation domain. More specifically, four novel imaging methods are formulated and implemented. (i) Sparsity-regularized Born iterative method iteratively linearizes the nonlinear inverse scattering problem and each linear problem is regularized using an improved iterative shrinkage algorithm enforcing the sparsity constraint. (ii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear inexact Newton method calls for the solution of a linear system involving the Frechet derivative matrix of the forward scattering operator at every iteration step. For faster convergence, the solution of this matrix system is regularized under the sparsity constraint and preconditioned by leveling the matrix singular values. (iii) Sparsity-regularized nonlinear Tikhonov method directly solves the nonlinear minimization problem using Landweber iterations, where a thresholding function is applied at every iteration step to enforce the sparsity constraint. (iv) This last scheme is accelerated using a projected steepest descent method when it is applied to three-dimensional investigation domains. Projection replaces the thresholding operation and enforces the sparsity constraint. Numerical experiments, which are carried out using

  2. Nonlinear Optics in Spatially Negatively Dispersive Metamaterials: Extraordinary and Counterintuitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    aerogel disk samples...They  are  designed  to  cover  most  of  the   aircraft  surface  to  sense  and  manipulate   the  electromagnetic...illness.  In  defense,  the  surface  of   ships  and   aircrafts  is  painted  with  electromagnetic  absorbing

  3. Spectro-spatial analysis of wave packet propagation in nonlinear acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W. J.; Li, X. P.; Wang, Y. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Huang, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze wave packet propagation in weakly nonlinear acoustic metamaterials and reveal the interior nonlinear wave mechanism through spectro-spatial analysis. The spectro-spatial analysis is based on full-scale transient analysis of the finite system, by which dispersion curves are generated from the transmitted waves and also verified by the perturbation method (the L-P method). We found that the spectro-spatial analysis can provide detailed information about the solitary wave in short-wavelength region which cannot be captured by the L-P method. It is also found that the optical wave modes in the nonlinear metamaterial are sensitive to the parameters of the nonlinear constitutive relation. Specifically, a significant frequency shift phenomenon is found in the middle-wavelength region of the optical wave branch, which makes this frequency region behave like a band gap for transient waves. This special frequency shift is then used to design a direction-biased waveguide device, and its efficiency is shown by numerical simulations.

  4. A polarization independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterial with large group delay and delay-bandwidth product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that is completely independent of the polarization direction of the incident waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The unit cell of the employed planar symmetric metamaterial structure consists of one square ring resonator and four split ring resonators (SRRs). Two different designs are implemented in order to achieve a narrow-band and wide-band EIT-like response. In the unit cell design, a square ring resonator is shown to serve as a bright resonator, whereas the SRRs behave as a quasi-dark resonator, for the narrow-band (0.55 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5 GHz) and wide-band (1.35 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5.7 GHz) EIT-like metamaterials. The observed EIT-like transmission phenomenon is theoretically explained by a coupled-oscillator model. Within the transmission window, steep changes of the phase result in high group delays and the delay-bandwidth products reach 0.45 for the wide-band EIT-like metamaterial. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the bandwidth and group delay of the EIT-like band can be controlled by changing the incidence angle of electromagnetic waves. These features enable the proposed metamaterials to achieve potential applications in filtering, switching, data storing, and sensing.

  5. PLASMA EMISSION BY NONLINEAR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: laripetruzzellis@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2015-06-20

    The plasma emission, or electromagnetic (EM) radiation at the plasma frequency and/or its harmonic(s), is generally accepted as the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and III radio bursts. Identification and characterization of these solar radio burst phenomena were done in the 1950s. Despite many decades of theoretical research since then, a rigorous demonstration of the plasma emission process based upon first principles was not available until recently, when, in a recent Letter, Ziebell et al. reported the first complete numerical solution of EM weak turbulence equations; thus, quantitatively analyzing the plasma emission process starting from the initial electron beam and the associated beam-plasma (or Langmuir wave) instability, as well as the subsequent nonlinear conversion of electrostatic Langmuir turbulence into EM radiation. In the present paper, the same problem is revisited in order to elucidate the detailed physical mechanisms that could not be reported in the brief Letter format. Findings from the present paper may be useful for interpreting observations and full-particle numerical simulations.

  6. Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066

  7. Electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satorius, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the behavior of strong electromagnetic pulses at the boundary of a nonlinear, cold, collisionless, and uniform plasma. The nonlinearity considered here is due to the nonlinear terms in the fluid equation which is used to describe the plasma. Two cases are studied. First, the case where there is a voltage pulse applied across the plane boundary of a semi-infinite, nonlinear plasma. Two different voltage pulses are considered, i.e., a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. The resulting electromagnetic fields propagating in the nonlinear plasma are found in this case. In the second case, the reflection of incident E-polarized and H-polarized, electromagnetic pulses at various angles of incidence from a nonlinear, semi-infinite plasma are considered. Again, two forms of incident pulses are considered: a delta function pulse and a suddenly turned-on sinusoidal pulse. In case two, the reflected electromagnetic fields are found. In both cases, the method used for finding the fields is to first solve the fluid equation (which describes the plasma) for the nonlinear conduction current in terms of the electric field using a perturbation method (since the nonlinear effects are assumed to be small). Next, this current is substituted into Maxwell's equations, and finally the electromagnetic fields which satisfy the boundary conditions are found. (U.S.)

  8. Wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide incident angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic energy and wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui-Teng; Yang, Xue-Xia; Song, Xing-Tang; Guo, Zhen-Yue; Yu, Fan

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we introduced the design, demonstration, and discussion of a wideband metamaterial array with polarization-independent and wide-angle for harvesting ambient electromagnetic (EM) energy and wireless power transfer. The array consists of unit cells with one square ring and four metal bars. In comparison to the published metamaterial arrays for harvesting EM energy or wireless transfer, this design had the wide operation bandwidth with the HPBW (Half Power Band Width) of 110% (6.2 GHz-21.4 GHz), which overcomes the narrow-band operation induced by the resonance characteristic of the metamaterial. On the normal incidence, the simulated maximum harvesting efficiency was 96% and the HPBW was 110% for the random polarization wave. As the incident angle increases to 45°, the maximum efficiency remained higher than 88% and the HPBW remained higher than 83% for the random polarization wave. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed metamaterial array was conducted, and the measured results were in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones.

  9. Steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate arises in a homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangwei; Dai, Yuyao; Yan, Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we shall demonstrate theoretically that steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate can arise in an infinite homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector, which is partly attributed to that, here, nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector is not involved with energy losses or gain. Altering value of real-part-of-impedance of the metamaterial, the bound electromagnetic eigenstate may become to be a progressive wave. Our work may be useful to further understand energy conversion and conservation properties of electromagnetic wave in the dispersive and absorptive medium and provides a feasible route to stop, store and release electromagnetic wave (light) conveniently by using metamaterial with near-zero-real-part-of-impedance.

  10. The properties of electromagnetic responses and optical modulation in terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shi, Yulei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Qingli; Zhang, Cunlin

    2016-11-01

    Metamaterials with subwavelength structural features show unique electromagnetic responses that are unattainable with natural materials. Recently, the research on these artificial materials has been pushed forward to the terahertz (THz) region because of potential applications in biological fingerprinting, security imaging, and high frequency magnetic and electric resonant devices. Furthermore, active control of their properties could further facilitate and open up new applications in terms of modulation and switching. In our work, we will first present our studies of dipole arrays at terahertz frequencies. Then in experimental and theoretical studies of terahertz subwavelength L-shaped structure, we proposed an unusual-mode current resonance responsible for low-frequency characteristic dip in transmission spectra. Comparing spectral properties of our designed simplified structures with that of split-ring resonators, we attribute this unusual mode to the resonance coupling and splitting under the broken symmetry of the structure. Finally, we use optical pump-terahertz probe method to investigate the spectral and dynamic behaviour of optical modulation in the split-ring resonators. We have observed the blue-shift and band broadening in the spectral changes of transmission under optical excitation at different delay times. The calculated surface currents using finite difference time domain simulation are presented to characterize these resonances, and the blue-shift can be explained by the changed refractive index and conductivity in the photoexcited semiconductor substrate.

  11. Broadband asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves based on chiral metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Lincy; Yogesh, N.; Subramanian, V.

    2018-01-01

    The giant optical activity of chiral metamaterials (CMMs) holds great potential for tailoring the polarization state of an electromagnetic (EM) wave. In controlling the polarization state, the aspect of asymmetric transmission (AT), where a medium allows the EM radiation to pass through in one direction while restricting it in the opposite direction, adds additional degrees of freedom such as one-way channelling functionality. In this work, a CMM formed by a pair of mutually twisted slanted complementary metal strips is realized for broadband AT accompanied with cross-polarization (CP) conversion for linearly polarized EM waves. Numerically, the proposed ultra-thin (˜λ/42) CMM shows broadband AT from 8.58 GHz to 9.73 GHz (bandwidth of 1.15 GHz) accompanied with CP transmission magnitude greater than 0.9. The transmission and reflection spectra reveal the origin of the asymmetric transmission as the direction sensitive cross polarization conversion and anisotropic electric coupling occurring in the structure which is then elaborated with the surface current analysis and electric field distribution within the structure. An experiment is carried out to verify the broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM at microwave frequencies, and a reliable agreement between numerical and experimental results is obtained. Being ultra-thin, the reported broadband AT based CP conversion of the proposed CMM is useful for controlling radiation patterns in non-reciprocal EM devices and communication networks.

  12. Large-aperture Tunable Plasma Meta-material to Interact with Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corke, Thomas; Matlis, Eric

    2016-11-01

    The formation of spatially periodic arrangements of glow discharge plasma resulting from charge instabilities were investigated as a tuneable plasma meta-material. The plasma was formed between two 2-D parallel dielectric covered electrodes: one consisting of an Indium-Tin-Oxide coated glass sheet, and the other consisting of a glass-covered circular electrode. The dielectric covered electrodes were separated by a gap that formed a 2-D channel. The gap spacing was adjustable. The electrodes were powered by a variable amplitude AC generator. The parallel electrode arrangement was placed in a variable pressure vacuum chamber. Various combinations of gap spacing, pressure and voltage resulted in the formation of spatially periodic arrangements (lattice) of glow discharge plasma. The lattice spacing perfectly followed 2-D packing theory, and was fully adjustable through the three governing parameters. Lattice arrangements were designed to interact with electromagnetic (EM) waves in the frequency range between 10GHz-80GHz. Its feasibility was investigate through an EM wave simulation that we adapted to allow for plasma permittivity. The results showed a clear suppression of the EM wave amplitude through the plasma gratings. Supported by AFOSR.

  13. Two-oscillator model of trapped-modes interaction in a nonlinear bilayer fish-scale metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Tuz, Vladimir R.; Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Kochetova, Lyudmila A.; Mladyonov, Pavel L.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the similarity between the nature of resonant oscillations in two nonlinear systems, namely, a chain of coupled Duffing oscillators and a bilayer fish-scale metamaterial. In such systems two different resonant states arise which differ in their spectral lines. The spectral line of the first resonant state has a Lorentzian form, while the second one has a Fano form. This difference leads to a specific nonlinear response of the systems which manifests itself in appearance of closed l...

  14. SPARSE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING USING NONLINEAR LANDWEBER ITERATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations, where at each iteration a thresholding function is applied to enforce the sparseness-promoting L0/L1-norm constraint. The thresholded nonlinear Landweber iterations are applied to several two

  15. Photonic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchinitser, N M; Shalaev, V M

    2008-01-01

    The invention of metamaterials prompts reconsideration of a number of fundamental physical phenomena and enables a variety of unique properties and functionalities. These include negative refractive index, magnetism at optical frequencies, sub-wavelength resolution, ''backward'' phase matching conditions for nonlinear optical processes, and even rendering objects invisible – cloaking. In this brief review, recent progress in basic theory, design, fabrication, characterization, and potential applications of optical metamaterials is discussed

  16. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Sparse electromagnetic imaging using nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    A sparse nonlinear electromagnetic imaging scheme is proposed for reconstructing dielectric contrast of investigation domains from measured fields. The proposed approach constructs the optimization problem by introducing the sparsity constraint to the data misfit between the scattered fields expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast and the measured fields and solves it using the nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. The thresholding is applied to the result of every nonlinear Landweber iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in reconstructing sparse dielectric profiles.

  18. Sparse electromagnetic imaging using nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2015-04-13

    A sparse nonlinear electromagnetic imaging scheme is proposed for reconstructing dielectric contrast of investigation domains from measured fields. The proposed approach constructs the optimization problem by introducing the sparsity constraint to the data misfit between the scattered fields expressed as a nonlinear function of the contrast and the measured fields and solves it using the nonlinear iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm. The thresholding is applied to the result of every nonlinear Landweber iteration to enforce the sparsity constraint. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in reconstructing sparse dielectric profiles.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic pulses in cold relativistic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Fisica, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The propagation of intense electromagnetic pulses in plasmas is a subject of current interest particularly for particle acceleration and laser fusion.In the present analysis we study the self consistent propagation of nonlinear electromagnetic pulses in a one dimensional relativistic electron-ion plasma, from the perspective of nonlinear dynamics. We show how a series of Hamiltonian bifurcations give rise to the electric fields which are of relevance in the subject of particle acceleration. Connections between these bifurcated solutions and results of earlier analysis are made. (authors)

  20. Non-linear electromagnetic interactions in thermal QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.

    1994-08-01

    The behavior of the non-linear interactions between electromagnetic fields at high temperature is examined. It is shown that, in general, the log(T) dependence on the temperature of the Green functions is simply related to their UV behavior at zero-temperature. It is argued that the effective action describing the nonlinear thermal electromagnetic interactions has a finite limit as T -> ∞. This thermal action approaches, in the long wavelength limit, the negative of the corresponding zero-temperature action. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic pulses in cold relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatto, A.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B.

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of intense electromagnetic pulses in plasmas is a subject of current interest particularly for particle acceleration and laser fusion.In the present analysis we study the self consistent propagation of nonlinear electromagnetic pulses in a one dimensional relativistic electron-ion plasma, from the perspective of nonlinear dynamics. We show how a series of Hamiltonian bifurcations give rise to the electric fields which are of relevance in the subject of particle acceleration. Connections between these bifurcated solutions and results of earlier analysis are made. (authors)

  2. Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)

  3. Comment on: Power loss and electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive metamaterial medium

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    By clarifying the approach of Luan (Phys. Rev. E, 2009), we can generalize the analysis of dispersive (meta)materials, and treat other material responses involving not only loss, but also gain and coherent response.

  4. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Stabilization of Plasma Microturbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, G. G.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.

    2018-04-01

    The physical causes for the strong stabilizing effect of finite plasma β on ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence, which far exceeds quasilinear estimates, are identified from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The primary contribution stems from a resonance of frequencies in the dominant nonlinear interaction between the unstable mode, the stable mode, and zonal flows, which maximizes the triplet correlation time and therefore the energy transfer efficiency. A modification to mixing-length transport estimates is constructed, which reproduces nonlinear heat fluxes throughout the examined β range.

  5. Optical programmable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Zhang, Nan; Dai, Zijie; Liu, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    We suggest and demonstrate the concept of optical programmable metamaterials which can configure the device's electromagnetic parameters by the programmable optical stimuli. In such metamaterials, the optical stimuli produced by a FPGA controlled light emitting diode array can switch or combine the resonance modes which are coupled in. As an example, an optical programmable metamaterial terahertz absorber is proposed. Each cell of the absorber integrates four meta-rings (asymmetric 1/4 rings) with photo-resistors connecting the critical gaps. The principle and design of the metamaterials are illustrated and the simulation results demonstrate the functionalities for programming the metamaterial absorber to change its bandwidth and resonance frequency.

  6. The effects of metamaterial on electromagnetic fields absorption characteristics of human eye tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Akram; Yunus, Jasmy

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a dipole antenna with a human eye model in the presence of a metamaterial is investigated in this paper. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method with convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) formulation have been used. A three-dimensional anatomical model of the human eye with resolution of 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm × 1.25 mm was used in this study. The dipole antenna was driven by modulated Gaussian pulse and the numerical study is performed with dipole operating at 900 MHz. The analysis has been done by varying the size and value of electric permittivity of the metamaterial. By normalizing the peak SAR (1 g and 10 g) to 1 W for all examined cases, we observed how the SAR values are not affected by the different permittivity values with the size of the metamaterial kept fixed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A simplified analytical approach to calculation of the electromagnetic behavior of left-handed metamaterials with a graded refractive index profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalarsson N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spectral properties of a new class of nanostructured artificial composite materials with tailored electromagnetic response, i.e. negative refractive index materials, also known as "left-handed" metamaterials. We analyzed structures incorporating both ordinary positive index media and negative refractive index metamaterials where the interface may be graded to an arbitrary degree. Utilizing a modified version of the Rosen-Morse function, we derived analytical expressions for the field intensity and spectral reflection and transmission through a graded interface between positive and negative index materials. We compared our results to numerical solutions obtained using the transfer matrix technique. .

  8. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  9. Electromagnetic forces in negative-refractive-index metamaterials: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannopapas, Vassilios; Galiatsatos, Pavlos G.

    2008-04-01

    According to the theory of Veselago, when a particle immersed within a metamaterial with negative refractive index is illuminated by plane wave, it experiences a reversed radiation force due to the antiparallel directions of the phase velocity and energy flow. By employing an ab initio method, we show that, in the limit of zero losses, the effect of reversed radiation pressure is generally true only for the specular beam. Waves generated by diffraction of the incident light at the surface of the slab of the metamaterial can produce a total force which is parallel to the radiation flow. However, when the actual losses of the materials are taken into account, the phenomenon of reversed radiation force is evident within the whole range of a negative refractive index band.

  10. Iterative Nonlinear Tikhonov Algorithm with Constraints for Electromagnetic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Deshpande, Manohar

    2012-01-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic tomography such as the capacitance tomography (ECT) has been proposed for monitoring and mass-gauging of gas-liquid two-phase system under microgravity condition in NASA's future long-term space missions. Due to the ill-posed inverse problem of ECT, images reconstructed using conventional linear algorithms often suffer from limitations such as low resolution and blurred edges. Hence, new efficient high resolution nonlinear imaging algorithms are needed for accurate two-phase imaging. The proposed Iterative Nonlinear Tikhonov Regularized Algorithm with Constraints (INTAC) is based on an efficient finite element method (FEM) forward model of quasi-static electromagnetic problem. It iteratively minimizes the discrepancy between FEM simulated and actual measured capacitances by adjusting the reconstructed image using the Tikhonov regularized method. More importantly, it enforces the known permittivity of two phases to the unknown pixels which exceed the reasonable range of permittivity in each iteration. This strategy does not only stabilize the converging process, but also produces sharper images. Simulations show that resolution improvement of over 2 times can be achieved by INTAC with respect to conventional approaches. Strategies to further improve spatial imaging resolution are suggested, as well as techniques to accelerate nonlinear forward model and thus increase the temporal resolution.

  11. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  12. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a graphene-coated thin cylinder of left-handed metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaeiadl, Hamid; Naserpour, Mahin; Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we explored the scattering behavior of thin cylinders made of LHM and coated by a monoatomic graphene layer. A spectral tunability of the resonance peaks is evidenced by altering the chemical potential of the graphene coating, a fact that occurs at any state of polarization of the incident plane wave in opposition to the case of scatterers of dielectric core. On the contrary, no invisibility condition can be satisfied for dielectric environments. A singular performance is also found for cylinders with permittivity and permeability near zero. Practical implementations of our results can be carried out in sensing and wave manipulation driven by metamaterials.

  13. Sparse Nonlinear Electromagnetic Imaging Accelerated With Projected Steepest Descent Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2017-04-03

    An efficient electromagnetic inversion scheme for imaging sparse 3-D domains is proposed. The scheme achieves its efficiency and accuracy by integrating two concepts. First, the nonlinear optimization problem is constrained using L₀ or L₁-norm of the solution as the penalty term to alleviate the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. The resulting Tikhonov minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations (NLW). Second, the efficiency of the NLW is significantly increased using a steepest descent algorithm. The algorithm uses a projection operator to enforce the sparsity constraint by thresholding the solution at every iteration. Thresholding level and iteration step are selected carefully to increase the efficiency without sacrificing the convergence of the algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed imaging scheme in reconstructing sparse 3-D dielectric profiles.

  14. Looking into meta-atoms of plasmonic nanowire metamaterial

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Kuntong

    2014-09-10

    Nanowire-based plasmonic metamaterials exhibit many intriguing properties related to the hyperbolic dispersion, negative refraction, epsilon-near-zero behavior, strong Purcell effect, and nonlinearities. We have experimentally and numerically studied the electromagnetic modes of individual nanowires (meta-atoms) forming the metamaterial. High-resolution, scattering-type near-field optical microscopy has been used to visualize the intensity and phase of the modes. Numerical and analytical modeling of the mode structure is in agreement with the experimental observations and indicates the presence of the nonlocal response associated with cylindrical surface plasmons of nanowires.

  15. Nonlinear electromagnetic waves in a degenerate electron-positron plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Labany, S.K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta (Egypt); El-Taibany, W.F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); El-Samahy, A.E.; Hafez, A.M.; Atteya, A., E-mail: ahmedsamahy@yahoo.com, E-mail: am.hafez@sci.alex.edu.eg, E-mail: ahmed_ateya2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), the nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic solitary waves in an ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron-positron (EP) plasma (containing ultracold, degenerate electron, and positron fluids) is investigated. The set of basic equations is reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest-order perturbed magnetic field and to a KdV type equation for the higher-order perturbed magnetic field. The solutions of these evolution equations are obtained. For better accuracy and searching on new features, the new solutions are analyzed numerically based on compact objects (white dwarf) parameters. It is found that including the higher-order corrections results as a reduction (increment) of the fast (slow) electromagnetic wave amplitude but the wave width is increased in both cases. The ranges where the RPT can describe adequately the total magnetic field including different conditions are discussed. (author)

  16. A sparse electromagnetic imaging scheme using nonlinear landweber iterations

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2015-10-26

    Development and use of electromagnetic inverse scattering techniques for imagining sparse domains have been on the rise following the recent advancements in solving sparse optimization problems. Existing techniques rely on iteratively converting the nonlinear forward scattering operator into a sequence of linear ill-posed operations (for example using the Born iterative method) and applying sparsity constraints to the linear minimization problem of each iteration through the use of L0/L1-norm penalty term (A. Desmal and H. Bagci, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag, 7, 3878–3884, 2014, and IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 3, 532–536, 2015). It has been shown that these techniques produce more accurate and sharper images than their counterparts which solve a minimization problem constrained with smoothness promoting L2-norm penalty term. But these existing techniques are only applicable to investigation domains involving weak scatterers because the linearization process breaks down for high values of dielectric permittivity.

  17. Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form

  18. Homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies with nonlinear electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollick, Dan N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I examine cosmological models that contain a stochastic background of nonlinear electromagnetic radiation. I show that for Born-Infeld electrodynamics the equation of state parameter, w=P/ρ, remains close to 1/3 throughout the evolution of the universe if E 2 =B 2 in the late universe to a high degree of accuracy. Theories with electromagnetic Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 +αF 4 have recently been studied in magnetic universes, where the electric field vanishes. It was shown that the F 4 term can produce a bounce in the early universe, avoiding an initial singularity. Here I show that the inclusion of an electric field, with E 2 ≅B 2 in the late universe, eliminates the bounce and the universe begins with an initial singularity. I also examine theories with Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 -μ 8 /F 2 , which have been shown to produce a period of late time accelerated expansion in magnetic universes. I show that, if an electric field is introduced, the accelerated phase will only occur if E 2 2 .

  19. Fully Electromagnetic Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Equations for Tokamak Edge Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Wang, Lu; Madsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high E x B shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie perturbation method ensures the preservation of the conservation laws of the underlying Vlasov-Maxwell system. Our generalized ordering takes ρ i θi ∼ L E ∼ L p i is the thermal ion Larmor radius and ρ θi = B/B θ ρ i ), as typically observed in the tokamak H-mode edge, with L E and L p being the radial electric field and pressure gradient lengths. We take k # perpendicular# ρ i ∼ 1 for generality, and keep the relative fluctuation amplitudes e(delta)φ/T i ∼ (delta)B/B up to the second order. Extending the electrostatic theory in the presence of high E x B shear [Hahm, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)], contributions of electromagnetic fluctuations to the particle charge density and current are explicitly evaluated via pull-back transformation from the gyrocenter distribution function in the gyrokinetic Maxwell's equation

  20. Electro-magnetostatic homogenization of bianisotropic metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Fietz, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We apply the method of asymptotic homogenization to metamaterials with microscopically bianisotropic inclusions to calculate a full set of constitutive parameters in the long wavelength limit. Two different implementations of electromagnetic asymptotic homogenization are presented. We test the homogenization procedure on two different metamaterial examples. Finally, the analytical solution for long wavelength homogenization of a one dimensional metamaterial with microscopically bi-isotropic i...

  1. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  2. A preconditioned inexact newton method for nonlinear sparse electromagnetic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2015-03-01

    A nonlinear inversion scheme for the electromagnetic microwave imaging of domains with sparse content is proposed. Scattering equations are constructed using a contrast-source (CS) formulation. The proposed method uses an inexact Newton (IN) scheme to tackle the nonlinearity of these equations. At every IN iteration, a system of equations, which involves the Frechet derivative (FD) matrix of the CS operator, is solved for the IN step. A sparsity constraint is enforced on the solution via thresholded Landweber iterations, and the convergence is significantly increased using a preconditioner that levels the FD matrix\\'s singular values associated with contrast and equivalent currents. To increase the accuracy, the weight of the regularization\\'s penalty term is reduced during the IN iterations consistently with the scheme\\'s quadratic convergence. At the end of each IN iteration, an additional thresholding, which removes small \\'ripples\\' that are produced by the IN step, is applied to maintain the solution\\'s sparsity. Numerical results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method in recovering sparse and discontinuous dielectric profiles with high contrast values.

  3. Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results

  4. Formation of the reflected and refracted s-polarized electromagnetic waves in the Fresnel problem for the boundary vacuum-metamaterial from the viewpoint of molecular optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2016-11-01

    The refraction of a plane s-polarized electromagnetic wave on the vacuum-metamaterial interface is considered. Point particles with electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities are scattering elements of a medium. The medium consists of plane-parallel monolayers of electric or magnetic dipoles or Huygens elements influencing one another. Dipole fields are completely taken into account. The fields inside the medium and the reflected fields are calculated. The extinction theorem is analyzed in detail. The mechanism of rotation of the magnetic field vector during refraction is elucidated. A reason for the absence of the fourth wave propagating from the medium toward the boundary in the conventionally employed boundary conditions is elucidated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, this medium can behave as possessing a unity refractive index or zero refractive index at a preset frequency. In the case of a metamaterial layer of finite thickness shows the output region of the existence of backward waves outside metamaterial layer. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  5. Micromachined tunable metamaterials: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A Q; Zhu, W M; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews micromachined tunable metamaterials, whereby the tuning capabilities are based on the mechanical reconfiguration of the lattice and/or the metamaterial element geometry. The primary focus of this review is the feasibility of the realization of micromachined tunable metamaterials via structure reconfiguration and the current state of the art in the fabrication technologies of structurally reconfigurable metamaterial elements. The micromachined reconfigurable microstructures not only offer a new tuning method for metamaterials without being limited by the nonlinearity of constituent materials, but also enable a new paradigm of reconfigurable metamaterial-based devices with mechanical actuations. With recent development in nanomachining technology, it is possible to develop structurally reconfigurable metamaterials with faster tuning speed, higher density of integration and more flexible choice of the working frequencies. (review article)

  6. Electromagnetic radiation and scattering from small canonical structures of double-negative metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel

    2007-01-01

    aspects associated with DNG materials, and was subsequently extended to investigations of the radiation and scattering from two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) MTM-based canonical problems in electromagnetic theory. As to the theoretical aspects of DNG materials, the sign, or more generally the branch......, cylindrical and spherical configurations to design electrically small, resonant structures such as cavities, waveguides, scatterers and radiators. These ideas are extended here to canonical antenna and scattering configurations which consist of electrically small resonant cylindrical and spherical MTM......-based structures excited by an arbitrarily located electric line source and an arbitrarily located and oriented electric Hertzian dipole, respectively. Exact analytical solutions, based on eigenfunction series, are derived and then numerically evaluated to study the radiation and scattering from these structures...

  7. Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out

  8. Numerical studies on the electromagnetic properties of the nonlinear Lorentz Computational model for the dielectric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, H.; Okuda, H.

    1994-06-01

    We study linear and nonlinear properties of a new computer simulation model developed to study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The model is constructed by combining a microscopic model used in the semi-classical approximation for the dielectric media and the particle model developed for the plasma simulations. It is shown that the model may be useful for studying linear and nonlinear wave propagation in the dielectric media

  9. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.

  10. Knotted solutions for linear and nonlinear theories: Electromagnetism and fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W.F. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine knotted solutions, the most simple of which is the “Hopfion”, from the point of view of relations between electromagnetism and ideal fluid dynamics. A map between fluid dynamics and electromagnetism works for initial conditions or for linear perturbations, allowing us to find new knotted fluid solutions. Knotted solutions are also found to be solutions of nonlinear generalizations of electromagnetism, and of quantum-corrected actions for electromagnetism coupled to other modes. For null configurations, electromagnetism can be described as a null pressureless fluid, for which we can find solutions from the knotted solutions of electromagnetism. We also map them to solutions of Euler's equations, obtained from a type of nonrelativistic reduction of the relativistic fluid equations.

  11. A sparse electromagnetic imaging scheme using nonlinear landweber iterations

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Development and use of electromagnetic inverse scattering techniques for imagining sparse domains have been on the rise following the recent advancements in solving sparse optimization problems. Existing techniques rely on iteratively converting

  12. Nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with an electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.; Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with a plasma consisting of two groups of electrons and immobile ions has been studied. It is shown that the interaction is governed by a nonlinear equation for the electromagnetic wave envelope and a driven nonlinear equation for the low-frequency electron fluctuations. The driver for the latter depends explicitly on the spatio-temporal evolution of the electromagnetic wave flux. It is found that, depending on the cold-to-hot electron density ratio, the localized pulse can propagate with sub- as well as supersonic velocities accompanied by compressional or rarefactional density perturbations. The conditions of existence for the different types of solitary pulses are obtained. The present investigation may be relevant to the study of wave-plasma interaction devices such as inertial fusion confinement as well as to ionospheric modification experiments. (author)

  13. Relativistic electron beam acceleration by cascading nonlinear Landau damping of electromagnetic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, R.; Ue, A.; Maehara, T.; Sugawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam by cascading nonlinear Landau damping involving three or four intense electromagnetic waves in a plasma are studied theoretically based on kinetic wave equations and transport equations derived from relativistic Vlasov endash Maxwell equations. Three or four electromagnetic waves excite successively two or three nonresonant beat-wave-driven relativistic electron plasma waves with a phase velocity near the speed of light [v p =c(1-γ -2 p ) 1/2 , γ p =ω/ω pe ]. Three beat waves interact nonlinearly with the electron beam and accelerate it to a highly relativistic energy γ p m e c 2 more effectively than by the usual nonlinear Landau damping of two electromagnetic waves. It is proved that the electron beam can be accelerated to more highly relativistic energy in the plasma whose electron density decreases temporally with an appropriate rate because of the temporal increase of γ p . copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report observations of the dynamics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Λ system when the ground states are Stark shifted. Interactions of this type exhibit large optical nonlinearities called Kerr nonlinearities, and have numerous applications. The EIT Kerr nonlinearity is relatively slow, which is a limiting factor that may make many potential applications impossible. Using rubidium atoms, we observe the dynamics of the EIT Kerr nonlinearity using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure phase modulation of the EIT fields resulting from a pulsed signal beam Stark shifting the ground state energy levels. The rise times and transients agree well with theory

  15. Nonlinear Effects in Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Shields for Counter Directed Energy Weapon Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    employs the in- variance of the Maxwell equations under coordinate transformations to convert the free- space wave solutions in a coordinate... ENERGY WEAPON DEFENSE by Jacob D. Thompson June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: James Luscombe Brett Borden Approved for public release; distribution is...2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN TRANSFORMATION OPTICS-BASED METAMATE- RIAL SHIELDS FOR COUNTER DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPON

  16. Effect of nonlinear-electrodynamic lagging of electromagnetic signals in the field of magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Krivchenkov, I.V.; Denisov, I.P.

    2002-01-01

    The study on the electromagnetic waves propagation in the neutron star magnetic dipole and gravitation fields, taking place according to the vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics laws, is carried out. It is shown that depending on the polarization the electromagnetic signals in this field propagate by different beams and with various velocities. The law on these signals motion by beams is established. The calculation of differences in the times of the electromagnetic signals propagation, having the same source up to the detector, is presented. It is shown that this difference in some cases may reach enough measurable value of 1 μs [ru

  17. Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)

    2017-03-15

    We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.

  18. Multifunctional metamaterial designs for antenna applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer González, Pere Josep

    2015-01-01

    Premi Extraordinari de Doctorat, promoció 2014-2015. Àmbit d'Enginyeria de les TIC Over the last decades, Metamaterials (MTMs) have caught the attention of the scientific community. Metamaterials are basically artificially engineered materials which can provide unusual electromagnetic properties not present in nature. Among other novel and special EM applications, such as the negative refraction index (NRI) application, Metamaterials allow the realisation of perfect magnetic conductors (PM...

  19. Critical opalescence in hyperbolic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2011-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials in which the dielectric component exhibits critical opalescence have been considered. It appears that fluctuations of the effective refractive index in these materials are strongly enhanced and so 'virtual electromagnetic black holes' may appear as a result of these fluctuations. Therefore, the behaviour of 'optical space' inside hyperbolic metamaterials looks somewhat similar to the behaviour of real physical space-time on the Planck scale

  20. Critical opalescence in hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2011-12-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials in which the dielectric component exhibits critical opalescence have been considered. It appears that fluctuations of the effective refractive index in these materials are strongly enhanced and so 'virtual electromagnetic black holes' may appear as a result of these fluctuations. Therefore, the behaviour of 'optical space' inside hyperbolic metamaterials looks somewhat similar to the behaviour of real physical space-time on the Planck scale.

  1. An explicit MOT-TDVIE scheme for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on nonlinear scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2015-02-01

    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) based time domain electric field volume integral equation (TDVIE) solver for characterizing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers with nonlinear material properties is proposed. Discretization of the unknown electric field intensity and flux density is carried out by half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson basis functions, respectively. Coupled system of spatially discretized TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between the field intensity and the flux density is integrated in time to compute the samples of the unknowns. An explicit PE(CE)m scheme is used for this purpose. Explicitness allows for \\'easy\\' incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function only to be evaluated on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. A numerical example that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed MOT scheme to analyzing electromagnetic interactions on Kerr-nonlinear scatterers is presented. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Application of the descriptive function on non-linear electromagnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the solution of the nonlinear plan wave equation in non-equilibrium dielectric medium. The descriptive function appears as a useful tool to describe the medium response when it is possible to consider intensive electromagnetic response. Despite it has been considered an ideal situation of a limitless nonlinear medium, the results constitute a solid basis to mold more complex processes, such as those which take place in the plasma physics

  3. Tunable microwave metamaterials based on ordinary water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Jacobsen, Rasmus Elkjær; Arslanagic, Samel

    2017-01-01

    All-dielectric metamaterials are the growing trend in optics and electromagnetics. They require materials with high permittivity, for example silicon in photonics. Aiming the microwaves range we present here water as a unique substance for employing in metamaterials design. Dependence of water...

  4. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  5. Multistable Microactuators Functioning on the Basis of Electromagnetic Lorentz Force: Nonlinear Structural and Electrothermal Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong Sam

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the design and nonlinear simulation of a multistable electromagnetic microactuator, which provides four stable equilibrium positions within its operating range, have been discussed. Quadstable actuator motion has been made possible by using both X- and Y-directional bistable structures with snapping curved beams. Two pairs of the curved beams are attached to an inner frame in both X- and Y-directions to realize independent bistable behavior in each direction. For the actuation of the actuator at the micrometer scale, an electromagnetic actuation method in which Lorentz force is taken into consideration was used. By using this method, micrometer-stroke quadstability in a plane parallel to a substrate was possible. The feasibility of designing an actuator that can realize quadstable motion by using the electromagnetic actuation method has been thoroughly clarified by performing nonlinear static and dynamic analyses and electrothermal coupled-field analysis of the multistable microactuator

  6. Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in negative-refraction-index composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in left-handed materials. For this purpose, we consider a set of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which govern the dynamics of coupled electric and magnetic field envelopes. The CNLS equations are used to obtain a nonlinear dispersion, which depicts the modulational stability profile of the coupled plane-wave solutions in left-handed materials. An exact (in)stability criterion for modulational interactions is derived, and analytical expressions for the instability growth rate are obtained.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency medium interacting with two quantized fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang-Leman; Wu Yong Shi

    2003-01-01

    We study linear and nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium interacting with two quantized laser fields in the adiabatic EIT case. We show that the EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion. Kerr and higher-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients are also calculated in a completely analytical form. It is indicated that the EIT medium exhibits giant resonantly enhanced nonlinearities. We discuss the response of the EIT medium to nonclassical light fields and find that the polarization vanishes when the probe laser is initially in a nonclassical state of no single-photon coherence.

  8. A preconditioned inexact newton method for nonlinear sparse electromagnetic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    to tackle the nonlinearity of these equations. At every IN iteration, a system of equations, which involves the Frechet derivative (FD) matrix of the CS operator, is solved for the IN step. A sparsity constraint is enforced on the solution via thresholded

  9. Investigation of Equivalent Unsprung Mass and Nonlinear Features of Electromagnetic Actuated Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic actuated active suspension benefits active control and energy harvesting from vibration at the same time. However, the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension introduces a significant extra mass on the unsprung mass due to the inertia of the rotating components of the actuator. The magnitude of the introduced unsprung mass is studied based on a gearbox type actuator and a ball screw type actuator. The geometry of the suspension and the actuator also influence the equivalent unsprung mass significantly. The suspension performance simulation or control logic derived should take this equivalent unsprung mass into account. Besides, an extra force should be compensated due to the nonlinear features of the suspension structure and it is studied. The active force of the actuator should compensate this extra force. The discovery of this paper provides a fundamental for evaluating the rotary type electromagnetic actuated active suspension performance and control strategy derived as well as controlling the electromagnetic actuated active suspension more precisely.

  10. Terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoineete J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the splitring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

  11. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified media with nonlinearity in both dielectric and magnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H

    2008-01-21

    We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.

  12. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  13. Integrable parameter regimes and stationary states of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  14. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, João T. [CST AG, Bad Nauheimer Strasse 19, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Costa, Jorge R. [Instituto de Telecomunicações and Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Carlos A. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, and Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  15. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.

    1981-10-01

    A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency

  16. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.

  17. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2014-05-04

    Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.

  18. Preconditioned Inexact Newton for Nonlinear Sparse Electromagnetic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla

    2014-01-06

    Newton-type algorithms have been extensively studied in nonlinear microwave imaging due to their quadratic convergence rate and ability to recover images with high contrast values. In the past, Newton methods have been implemented in conjunction with smoothness promoting optimization/regularization schemes. However, this type of regularization schemes are known to perform poorly when applied in imagining domains with sparse content or sharp variations. In this work, an inexact Newton algorithm is formulated and implemented in conjunction with a linear sparse optimization scheme. A novel preconditioning technique is proposed to increase the convergence rate of the optimization problem. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework produces sharper and more accurate images when applied in sparse/sparsified domains.

  19. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  20. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  1. Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic disturbances in the equatorial F region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonov, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic dicturbances within equatorial ionosphere F-region resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instability, gradient-drift instability and recombination processes is investigated on the basis of two-liquid quasihydrodynamics equations. It is shown, that at positive linear increment the oscillations are developing in regime with aggregation and are terminated by increment the effect of threshold destabilization, when under certain initial conditions underlgoes oscillation nonlinear swinging, resulting, as well, in bubble formation in contrast to small damping oscillations, is detected

  2. Some models of propagation of extremely short electromagnetic pulses in a nonlinear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimistov, Andrei I

    2000-01-01

    Some cases of model media considered in this paper allow analytical solutions to nonlinear wave equations to be found and the time dependence of the electric field strength to be determined in the explicit form for arbitrarily short electromagnetic pulses. Our analysis does not employ any assumptions concerning a harmonic carrier wave or the variation rate of the field in such pulses. The class of models considered includes two-level resonance and quasi-resonance systems. Nonresonance media are analysed in terms of models of anharmonic oscillators - the Duffing and Lorentz models. In most cases, only particular solutions describing the stationary propagation of a video pulse (a unipolar transient of the electric field or a pulse including a small number of oscillations of the electric field around zero) can be found. These solutions correspond to sufficiently strong electromagnetic fields when the dispersion inherent in the medium is suppressed by nonlinear processes. (invited paper)

  3. Ion hole formation and nonlinear generation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: THEMIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Keika, Kunihiro; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Kasahara, Satoshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Nakamura, Satoko; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-09-01

    Electromagnetic plasma waves are thought to be responsible for energy exchange between charged particles in space plasmas. Such an energy exchange process is evidenced by phase space holes identified in the ion distribution function and measurements of the dot product of the plasma wave electric field and the ion velocity. We develop a method to identify ion hole formation, taking into consideration the phase differences between the gyromotion of ions and the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. Using this method, we identify ion holes in the distribution function and the resulting nonlinear EMIC wave evolution from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. These ion holes are key to wave growth and frequency drift by the ion currents through nonlinear wave-particle interactions, which are identified by a computer simulation in this study.

  4. Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.; Kuehl, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic effects on the self-modulation of nonlinear lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are studied for both broad and narrow spectrum excitations. For broad spectrum excitation, the complex modified Korteweg--de Vries equation is modified by two additional terms due to the electromagnetic correction and inhomogeneity. Numerical solutions of this equation for typical tokamak parameters show that these terms suppress soliton formation. For narrow spectrum excitation, the electromagnetic correction produces an additional dispersive term in the differential equation governing the wave envelope. This term opposes thermal dispersion, resulting in significant self-modulation. Numerical solutions show constriction and splitting of the envelope as well as spreading of the Fourier spectrum

  5. Numerical methods for metamaterial design

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book describes a relatively new approach for the design of electromagnetic metamaterials.  Numerical optimization routines are combined with electromagnetic simulations to tailor the broadband optical properties of a metamaterial to have predetermined responses at predetermined wavelengths. After a review of both the major efforts within the field of metamaterials and the field of mathematical optimization, chapters covering both gradient-based and derivative-free design methods are considered.  Selected topics including surrogate-base optimization, adaptive mesh search, and genetic algorithms are shown to be effective, gradient-free optimization strategies.  Additionally, new techniques for representing dielectric distributions in two dimensions, including level sets, are demonstrated as effective methods for gradient-based optimization.  Each chapter begins with a rigorous review of the optimization strategy used, and is followed by numerous examples that combine the strategy with either electromag...

  6. Harmonic balance finite element method applications in nonlinear electromagnetics and power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Junwei; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2016-01-01

    The first book applying HBFEM to practical electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems * Examines and solves wide aspects of practical electrical and electronic nonlinear field and circuit problems presented by HBFEM * Combines the latest research work with essential background knowledge, providing an all-encompassing reference for researchers, power engineers and students of applied electromagnetics analysis * There are very few books dealing with the solution of nonlinear electric- power-related problems * The contents are based on the authors' many years' research and industry experience; they approach the subject in a well-designed and logical way * It is expected that HBFEM will become a more useful and practical technique over the next 5 years due to the HVDC power system, renewable energy system and Smart Grid, HF magnetic used in DC/DC converter, and Multi-pulse transformer for HVDC power supply * HBFEM can provide effective and economic solutions to R&D product development * Includes Matlab e...

  7. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields in 0.5 MHz inductively coupled plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Xu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radial profiles of magnetic fields in the electrostatic (E) and electromagnetic (H) modes of low-frequency (similar to500 kHz) inductively coupled plasmas have been measured using miniature magnetic probes. In the low-power (similar to170 W) E-mode, the magnetic field pattern is purely linear......, with the fundamental frequency harmonics only. After transition to higher-power (similar to1130 W) H-mode, the second-harmonic nonlinear azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) that is in 4-6 times larger than the fundamental frequency component B-phi(omega), has been observed. A simplified plasma fluid model...... explaining the generation of the second harmonics of the azimuthal magnetic field in the plasma source is proposed. The nonlinear second harmonic poloidal (r-z) rf current generating the azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) is attributed to nonlinear interactions between the fundamental frequency radial...

  8. A new metamaterial-based wideband rectangular invisibility cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Faruque, M. R. I.

    2018-02-01

    A new metamaterial-based wideband electromagnetic rectangular cloak is being introduced in this study. The metamaterial unit cell shows sharp transmittances in the C- and X-bands and displays wideband negative effective permittivity region there. The metamaterial unit cell was then applied in designing a rectangular-shaped electromagnetic cloak. The scattering reduction technique was adopted for the cloaking operation. The cloak operates in the certain portion of C-and X-bands that covers more than 4 GHz bandwidth region. The experimental results were provided as well for the metamaterial and the cloak.

  9. Quasi-superradiant soliton state of matter in quantum metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Savel'ev, Sergey E.; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.

    2018-02-01

    Strong interaction of a system of quantum emitters (e.g., two-level atoms) with electromagnetic field induces specific correlations in the system accompanied by a drastic increase of emitted radiation (superradiation or superfluorescence). Despite the fact that since its prediction this phenomenon was subject to a vigorous experimental and theoretical research, there remain open question, in particular, concerning the possibility of a first order phase transition to the superradiant state from the vacuum state. In systems of natural and charge-based artificial atom this transition is prohibited by "no-go" theorems. Here we demonstrate numerically and confirm analytically a similar transition in a one-dimensional quantum metamaterial - a chain of artificial atoms (qubits) strongly interacting with classical electromagnetic fields in a transmission line. The system switches from vacuum state to the quasi-superradiant (QS) phase with one or several magnetic solitons and finite average occupation of qubit excited states along the transmission line. A quantum metamaterial in the QS phase circumvents the "no-go" restrictions by considerably decreasing its total energy relative to the vacuum state by exciting nonlinear electromagnetic solitons.

  10. Water based fluidic radio frequency metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaobing; Zhao, Shaolin; Hu, Mingjun; Xiao, Junfeng; Zhang, Naibo; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials offer great flexibility for wave manipulation and enable exceptional functionality design, ranging from negative refraction, anomalous reflection, super-resolution imaging, transformation optics to cloaking, etc. However, demonstration of metamaterials with unprecedented functionalities is still challenging and costly due to the structural complexity or special material properties. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the versatile fluidic radio frequency metamaterials with negative refraction using a water-embedded and metal-coated 3D architecture. Effective medium analysis confirms that metallic frames create an evanescent environment while simultaneously water cylinders produce negative permeability under Mie resonance. The water-metal coupled 3D architectures and the accessory devices for measurement are fabricated by 3D printing with post electroless deposition. Our study also reveals the great potential of fluidic metamaterials and versatility of the 3D printing process in rapid prototyping of customized metamaterials.

  11. Wave-Kinetic Simulations of the Nonlinear Generation of Electromagnetic VLF Waves through Velocity Ring Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.; Mithaiwala, M.

    2014-12-01

    Velocity ring instabilities are a common naturally occuring magnetospheric phenomenon that can also be generated by man made ionospheric experiments. These instabilities are known to generate lower-hybrid waves, which generally cannot propagte out of the source region. However, nonlinear wave physics can convert these linearly driven electrostatic lower-hybrid waves into electromagnetic waves that can escape the source region. These nonlinearly generated waves can be an important source of VLF turbulence that controls the trapped electron lifetime in the radiation belts. We develop numerical solutions to the wave-kinetic equation in a periodic box including the effects of nonlinear (NL) scattering (nonlinear Landau damping) of Lower-hybrid waves giving the evolution of the wave-spectra in wavenumber space. Simultaneously we solve the particle diffusion equation of both the background plasma particles and the ring ions, due to both linear and nonlinear Landau resonances. At initial times for cold ring ions, an electrostatic beam mode is excited, while the kinetic mode is stable. As the instability progresses the ring ions heat, the beam mode is stabilized, and the kinetic mode destabilizes. When the amplitude of the waves becomes sufficient the lower-hybrid waves are scattered (by either nearly unmagnetized ions or magnetized electrons) into electromagnetic magnetosonic waves [Ganguli et al 2010]. The effect of NL scattering is to limit the amplitude of the waves, slowing down the quasilinear relaxation time and ultimately allowing more energy from the ring to be liberated into waves [Mithaiwala et al. 2011]. The effects of convection out of the instability region are modeled, additionally limiting the amplitude of the waves, allowing further energy to be liberated from the ring [Scales et al., 2012]. Results are compared to recent 3D PIC simulations [Winske and Duaghton 2012].

  12. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2014-07-06

    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  13. FDTD-SPICE for Characterizing Metamaterials Integrated with Electronic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful time-domain FDTD-SPICE simulator is implemented and applied to the broadband analysis of metamaterials integrated with active and tunable circuit elements. First, the FDTD-SPICE modeling theory is studied and details of interprocess communication and hybridization of the two techniques are discussed. To verify the model, some simple cases are simulated with results in both time domain and frequency domain. Then, simulation of a metamaterial structure constructed from periodic resonant loops integrated with lumped capacitor elements is studied, which demonstrates tuning resonance frequency of medium by changing the capacitance of the integrated elements. To increase the bandwidth of the metamaterial, non-Foster transistor configurations are integrated with the loops and FDTD-SPICE is applied to successfully bridge the physics of electromagnetic and circuit topologies and to model the whole composite structure. Our model is also applied to the design and simulation of a metasurface integrated with nonlinear varactors featuring tunable reflection phase characteristic.

  14. Weakly nonlinear electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, F.B.; Schneider, R.S.; Dillenburg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The modulation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave which is circulary polarized and propagates in a plasma made up of electrons, ions and positrons is investigated. The coefficient of the cubic nonlinear term in the Schroedinger equation may change sign as the relative particle concentrations vary, and consequently a marginal state of modulation instability may exist. To described the system in the neighbourhood of this state an appropriate equation is derived. Particular stationary solutions of this equation are envelope solitary waves, envelope Kinks and envelope hole solitary waves. The dependence of the amplitude of the solutions on the propagation velocity and the particle concentrations is discussed. (author) [pt

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Anomalous Field Enhancement in All-Dielectric Transition Magnetic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ji; Kudyshev, Zhaxylyk; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-11-04

    Anomalous field enhancement accompanied by resonant absorption phenomenon was originally discussed in the context of plasma physics and in applications related to radio-communications between the ground and spacecraft returning to Earth. Indeed, there is a critical period of time when all communications are lost due to the reflection/absorption of electromagnetic waves by the sheath of plasma created by a high speed vehicle re-entering the atmosphere. While detailed experimental studies of these phenomena in space are challenging, the emergence of electromagnetic metamaterials enables researchers exceptional flexibility to study them in the laboratory environment. Here, we experimentally demonstrated the strong localized field enhancement of magnetic field for an electromagnetic wave propagating in Mie-resonance-based inhomogeneous metamaterials with magnetic permeability gradually changing from positive to negative values. Although these experiments were performed in the microwave frequency range, the proposed all-dielectric approach to transition metamaterials can be extended to terahertz, infrared, and visible frequencies. We anticipate that these results, besides most basic science aspects, hold the potential for numerous applications, including low-intensity nonlinear transformation optics, topological photonics, and the broader area of surface and interface science.

  16. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

  17. Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors

  18. Graphene-enhanced metamaterials in THz applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Khromova, Irina

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is widely employed in a broad range of fields in biology, medicine, communication, security, chemistry, and spectroscopy. To expand the application of terahertz radiation new device designs and fabrication methods are needed. The ability of metamaterials to manipulate...... electromagnetic waves makes them natural candidates for THz optical components [1]. However, ranges of light manipulation can be strongly expanded by involving graphene as a structural component of metamaterials. The interplay between interband and intraband transitions in graphene allows converting a multilayer...... on hyperbolic-like dispersion [4]. We believe that graphene-enhanced metamaterials constitute a useful functional element for the THz-infrared integrated optics devices....

  19. Metamaterials for perfect absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young Pak; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theory and practical development of metamaterial-based perfect absorbers (MMPAs). It begins with a brief history of MMPAs which reviews the various theoretical and experimental milestones in their development. The theoretical background and fundamental working principles of MMPAs are then discussed, providing the necessary background on how MMPAs work and are constructed. There then follows a section describing how different MMPAs are designed and built according to the operating frequency of the electromagnetic wave, and how their behavior is changed. Methods of fabricating and characterizing MMPAs are then presented. The book elaborates on the performance and characteristics of MMPAs, including electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). It also covers recent advances in MMPAs and their applications, including multi-band, broadband, tunability, polarization independence and incidence independence. Suitable for graduate students in optical sciences and e...

  20. Linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened medium via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Huang Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study to deal with linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened three-level Λ system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with incoherent population exchange between two lower energy levels taken into account. Through a careful analysis of base state and linear excitation, we show that the EIT condition of the system is given by |Ω c | 2 γ 31 >>2γ 21 Δω D 2 , where Ω c is half the Rabi frequency of the control field, Δω D is the Doppler width, and γ jl is the decay rate of the coherence between states |j> and |l>. Under this condition, the effect of incoherent population exchange is insignificant, while dephasing dominates the decoherence of the system. This condition also ensures the validity of the weak nonlinear perturbation theory used in this work for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations with inhomogeneous broadening. We then investigate the nonlinear propagation of the probe field and show that it is possible to form temporal optical solitons in the Doppler-broadened medium. Such solitons have ultraslow propagating velocity and can be generated in very low light power. The possibility of realizing (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial optical solitons in the adiabatic regime of the system is also discussed.

  1. Controlling the stability of nonlinear optical modes via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Liang, Yi-zeng; Lin, Ji; Li, Hui-jun

    2018-02-01

    We propose a scheme to generate and stabilize the high-dimensional spatial solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is a resonant atomic ensemble having Λ configuration. We illustrate that under EIT conditions the equation satisfied by the probe field envelope is reduced to a saturable nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the trapping potential, provided by a far-detuned laser field and a random magnetic field. We present high-dimensional soliton solutions exhibiting many interesting characteristics, including diversity (i.e., many different types of soliton solutions can be found, including bright, ring multipole bright, ring multipole defect mode, multiring bright, multiring defect mode, and vortices solitons), the phase transition between bright soliton and higher-order defect modes (i.e., the phase transition can be realized by controlling the nonlinear coefficient or the intensity of the trapping potential), and stability (i.e., various solitons can be stabilized by the Gaussian potential provided by the far detuned laser field, or the random potential provided by the magnetic field). We also find that some solitons are the extension of the linear eigenmode, whereas others entirely derive from the role of nonlinearity. Compared with previous studies, we not only show the diverse soliton solutions in the same system but also find the boundary of the phase transition for the type of solitons. In addition, we present the possibility of using the random potential to stabilize various solitons and vortices.

  2. Coupled plasmon-exciton induced transparency and slow light in plexcitonic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panahpour, Ali; Silani, Yaser; Farrokhian, Marzieh

    2012-01-01

    Classical analogues of the well-known effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in quantum optics have been the subject of considerable research in recent years from microwave to optical frequencies, because of their potential applications in slow light devices, studying nonlinear...... effects in low-loss nanostructures, and development of low-loss metamaterials. A large variety of plasmonic structures has been proposed for producing classical EIT-like effects in different spectral ranges. The current approach for producing plasmon-induced transparency is usually based on precise design...... effects in metamaterials composed of such coupled NPs. To reveal more details of the wave-particle and particle-particle interactions, the electric field distribution and field lines of Poynting vector inside and around the NPs are calculated using the finite element method. Finally, using extended...

  3. All-optical photonic band control in a quantum metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felbacq, D.; Rousseau, E. [University of Montpellier, Laboratory Charles Coulomb UMR CNRS-UM 5221, Montpellier (France)

    2017-09-15

    Metamaterials made of periodic collections of dielectric nanorods are considered theoretically. When quantum resonators are embedded within the nanorods, one obtains a quantum metamaterial, whose electromagnetic properties depend upon the state of the quantum resonators. The theoretical model predicts that when the resonators are pumped and reach the inversion regime, the quantum metamaterial exhibits an all-optical switchable conduction band. The phenomenon can be described by considering the pole stucture of the scattering matrix of the metamaterial. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Controlled opacity in a class of nonlinear dielectric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, E.; Camargo, G. H. S.; De Lorenci, V. A.; Klippert, R.

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by new technologies for designing and tailoring metamaterials, we seek properties for certain classes of nonlinear optical materials that allow room for a reversibly controlled opacity-to-transparency phase transition through the application of external electromagnetic fields. We examine some mathematically simple models for the dielectric parameters of the medium and compute the relevant geometric quantities that describe the speed and polarization of light rays.

  5. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  6. Electromagnetic perturbations of black holes in general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2018-04-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) perturbations of the black hole solutions in general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics (NED) are studied for both electrically and magnetically charged black holes, assuming that the EM perturbations do not alter the spacetime geometry. It is shown that the effective potentials of the electrically and magnetically charged black holes related to test perturbative NED EM fields are related to the effective metric governing the photon motion, contrary to the effective potential of the linear electrodynamic (Maxwell) field that is related to the spacetime metric. Consequently, corresponding quasinormal (QN) frequencies differ as well. As a special case, we study new family of the NED black hole solutions which tend in the weak field limit to the Maxwell field, giving the Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole solution. We compare the NED Maxwellian black hole QN spectra with the RN black hole QN spectra.

  7. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via nonlinear processes enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guangling; Hu Xiangming; Zhong Wenxue

    2009-01-01

    We show that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) light entanglement is obtainable via the resonant nonlinear interactions enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency. A three-level system is used as a unified model, where two metastable states are coupled to each other via microwave, or Raman, or two-photon transition, and the upper metastable state is coupled to the excited state. A pair of inner sidebands is amplified as optical cavity modes via the transition from the excited state to the other metastable state. The analysis is presented by using the dressed-atom squeezed-transformed-mode approach. For a proper ratio of the amplitudes of the applied fields, the sum of the variances for two EPR-like operators approaches zero, which corresponds to EPR entanglement.

  8. Superfluid plasmas: Multivelocity nonlinear hydrodynamics of superfluid solutions with charged condensates coupled electromagnetically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four levels of nonlinear hydrodynamic description are presented for a nondissipative multicondensate solution of superfluids with vorticity. First, the multivelocity superfluid (MVSF) theory is extended to the case of a multivelocity superfluid plasma (MVSP), in which some of the superfluid condensates (protons, say) are charged and coupled electromagnetically to an additional, normal, charged fluid (electrons). The resulting drag-current density is derived due to the electromagnetic coupling of the condensates with the normal fluids. For the case of one charged condensate, the MVSP equations simplify to what we call superfluid Hall magnetohydrodynamics (SHMHD) in the approximation that displacement current and electron inertia are negligible, and local charge neutrality is imposed. The contribution of the charged condensate to the Hall drift force is determined. In turn, neglecting the Hall effect in SHMHD gives the equations of superfluid magnetohydrodynamics (SMHD). Each set of equations (MVSF, MVSP, SHMHD, and SMHD) is shown to be Hamiltonian and to possess a Poisson bracket associated with the dual space of a corresponding semidirect-product Lie algebra with a generalized two-cocycle defined on it. Topological conservation laws (helicities) associated with the kernels of these Lie algebras are also discussed as well as those associated physically with generalized Kelvin theorems for conservation of superfluid circulation around closed loops moving with the normal fluid

  9. Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites for Ultrasensitive Photoactive Switching in Terahertz Metamaterial Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Solanki, Ankur; Kumar, Abhishek; Sum, Tze Chien; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-08-01

    The recent meteoric rise in the field of photovoltaics with the discovery of highly efficient solar-cell devices is inspired by solution-processed organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites that exhibit unprecedented light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies. The stunning performance of perovskites is attributed to their strong photoresponsive properties that are thoroughly utilized in designing excellent perovskite solar cells, light-emitting diodes, infrared lasers, and ultrafast photodetectors. However, optoelectronic application of halide perovskites in realizing highly efficient subwavelength photonic devices has remained a challenge. Here, the remarkable photoconductivity of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites is exploited to demonstrate a hybrid perovskite-metamaterial device that shows extremely low power photoswitching of the metamaterial resonances in the terahertz part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, a signature of a coupled phonon-metamaterial resonance is observed at higher pump powers, where the Fano resonance amplitude is extremely weak. In addition, a low threshold, dynamic control of the highly confined electric field intensity is also observed in the system, which could tremendously benefit the new generation of subwavelength photonic devices as active sensors, low threshold optically controlled lasers, and active nonlinear devices with enhanced functionalities in the infrared, optical, and the terahertz parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A non-linear 3D printed electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, P; Roy, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel electromagnetic energy harvester that exploits the low flexural modulus of ABS and comprises of a nonlinear mechanism to enhance the generated power and bandwidth. The device is printed using desktop additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) that use thermoplastics. It has a ‘V’ spring topology and exhibits a softening spring non-linearity introduced through the magnetic arrangement, which introduces a monostable potential well. A model is presented and measurements correspond favourably. The produced prototype generates a peak power of approximately 2.5mW at a frame acceleration of 1g and has a power bandwidth of approximately 1.2→1.5Hz and 3.5→3.9Hz during up and down sweeps respectively. The device has a power density of 0.4mW/cm 3 at a frame acceleration of 1g and a density of 0.04mW/cm 3 from a generated power of 25μW at 0.1g. (paper)

  11. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  12. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to

  13. Disordered Plamonics and Complex Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-05-01

    Complex systems are ensembles of interconnected elements where mutual interaction and an optimized amount of disorder produce advanced functionalities. These systems are abundant in our daily experience: typical examples are the brain, biological ecosystems, society, and finance. In the last century, researchers have investigated the fundamental properties of disordered systems, unveiling fascinating and counterintuitive dynamics. The main aim of this Dissertation is the study of a new platform of disorder-enhanced photonics systems, denoted as Complex Metamaterials. Due to its ultrafast time scale nanophotonics represents an ideal framework to investigate and harness complex dynamics. Starting from the theoretical modeling of disordered plasmonic systems, I discuss advanced real-life applications, including the generation of highly-resistant structural colors from porous metal surfaces and the realization of early-stage cancer detectors based on surface roughness and self-similarity. In addition to the effects of structural disorder on plasmonic systems I also investigate the complex emission dynamics from non-conventional nanolasers. Lasers represent the quintessential example of a complex photonic system due to the simultaneous presence of strong nonlinearities and multi-mode interactions. At the same time, the integration of nanolasers with silicon-based electronic circuitry represents one of the greatest technological challenges in the field of nanophotonics. By combining ab-initio simulations and analytical modeling, I characterize the nonlinear emission from three-dimensional plasmonic nanolasers known as SPASERs. My results show for the first time the occurrence of a spontaneous rotational emission in spherical SPASERs, which originates from the nonlinear interaction of several lasing modes. I further discuss how rotating nanolasers can be employed as a fundamental building block for integrated quantum simulators, random information sources, and brain

  14. Anisotropic metamaterial for efficiency enhancement of mid-range wireless power transfer under coil misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, A L A K; Moscoso, Carlos Arriola; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    In a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils is one of the key factors affecting efficiency. Recently, metamaterials have shown great potential to enhance electromagnetic propagation in various environments. In this work, we apply a metamaterial to enhance the WPT in a more general environment where misalignment is considered. Using an anisotropic metamaterial, we obtain a significant efficiency enhancement. Therefore, we propose that the metamaterial is an effective means to mitigate the decreased efficiency caused by misalignment. In addition, we investigate the effect of coil misalignment on the threshold distance beyond which the metamaterial enhances the performance of WPT. (paper)

  15. Waves in metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials is a young subject born in the 21st century. It is concerned with artificial materials which can have electrical and magnetic properties difficult or impossible to find in nature. The building blocks in most cases are resonant elements much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of research in this field at a level that should appeal to final year undergraduates in physics or in electrical and electronic engineering. The mathematics is kept at a minimum; the aim is to explain the physics in simple terms and enumerate the major advances. It can be profitably read by graduate and post-graduate students in order to find out what has been done in the field outside their speciality, and by experts who may gain new insight about the inter-relationship of the physical phenomena involved.

  16. Synthesis, multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance and electromagnetic absorption properties of hcp-cobalt particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shulai; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiuchen; Cheng, Jingwei; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hcp-cobalt particles were successfully prepared by a liquid phase reduction method, and the microstructure, static magnetic properties, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the cobalt particles with irregular shape were investigated in detail. The measured results indicate that the saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals, and the coercivity was larger than that of bulk cobalt crystal. The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance, which may result from the irregular shape containing parts of cutting angle of dodecahedron of cobalt particles. The real part of permeability decreases with the frequency, and the imaginary part has a wide resonant peak. The paraffin-based composite containing 70 wt% cobalt particles possessed strong absorption characteristics with a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz and an absorption band with RL under −10 dB from 8.72 to 13.26 GHz when the thickness is 1.8 mm, which exhibits excellent microwave absorption in middle and high frequency. The architectural design of material morphologies is important for improving microwave absorption properties toward future application. - Highlights: • Hcp-cobalt particles were prepared by a liquid phase reduction method. • The saturation magnetization was less than that of hcp-Co single crystals. • The permittivity presents multi-nonlinear dielectric resonance. • The real part of permeability decreases with frequency, and the imaginary part presents a wide resonant peak. • The paraffin-based composite possessed a minimum RL of −38.97 dB at 10.81 GHz

  17. Induced scattering due to nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Reiji

    1989-01-01

    General expressions of the matrix elements for nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma are derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The kinetic wave equations obtained for electromagnetic waves are expressed by four-order tensors in the rotating and cartesian coordinates. No restrictions are imposed on the propagation angle to a uniform magnetic field, the Larmor radius, the frequencies, or the wave numbers. By electrostatic approximation of the dielectric tensor and the matrix elements the kinetic wave equations can be applied to the case in which two scattering waves are electrostatic or they are partially electrostatic. Further, the matrix elements in the limit of parallel or perpendicular propagation to the magnetic field are given. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic nonlinearities in a Roebel-cable-based accelerator magnet prototype: variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, J.; Stenvall, A.; Lahtinen, V.; Pardo, E.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting magnets are the most expensive series of components produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). When developing such magnets beyond state-of-the-art technology, one possible option is to use high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that are capable of tolerating much higher magnetic fields than low-temperature superconductors (LTS), carrying simultaneously high current densities. Significant cost reductions due to decreased prototype construction needs can be achieved by careful modelling of the magnets. Simulations are used, e.g. for designing magnets fulfilling the field quality requirements of the beampipe, and adequate protection by studying the losses occurring during charging and discharging. We model the hysteresis losses and the magnetic field nonlinearity in the beampipe as a function of the magnet’s current. These simulations rely on the minimum magnetic energy variation principle, with optimization algorithms provided by the open-source optimization library interior point optimizer. We utilize this methodology to investigate a research and development accelerator magnet prototype made of REBCO Roebel cable. The applicability of this approach, when the magnetic field dependence of the superconductor’s critical current density is considered, is discussed. We also scrutinize the influence of the necessary modelling decisions one needs to make with this approach. The results show that different decisions can lead to notably different results, and experiments are required to study the electromagnetic behaviour of such magnets further.

  19. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory describing the transients and rise times of the refractive Kerr nonlinearity which is enhanced using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We restrict our analysis to the case of a pulsed signal field with continuous-wave EIT fields, and all fields are well below saturation. These restrictions enable the reduction of an EIT Kerr, four-level, density-matrix equation to a two-level Bloch-vector equation which has a simple and physically intuitive algebraic solution. The physically intuitive picture of a two-level Bloch vector provides insights that are easily generalized to more complex and experimentally realistic models. We consider generalization to the cases of Doppler broadening, many-level EIT systems (we consider the D1 line of 87 Rb), and optically thick media. For the case of optically thick media we find that the rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect is proportional to the optical thickness. The rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect sets important limitations for potential few-photon applications

  20. Monlinear fish-scale metamaterial via coupled duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Kochetov, Bogdan; Tuz, Vladimir; Mladyonov, Pavel; Prosvirnin, Sergey; Kochetova, Lyudmila

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic system of two coupled Duffing oscillators is considered in order to predict the optical response of the nonlinear planar fish-scale metamaterial. The direct numerical calculation of meta material response confirms the correctness of the proposed model

  1. Nonlinear optical rectification in vertically coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under electromagnetic fields, pressure and temperature effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubani, M., E-mail: mohsenchoubani3@yahoo.fr; Ben Mahrsia, R.; Bouzaiene, L.; Maaref, H.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper we explore the effects of the structural dimensions, applied electromagnetic fields, hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the nonlinear optical rectification (NOR) in Vertically Coupled InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots (VCQDs). The analytical expression of the NOR is analyzed by using the density matrix formalism, the effective mass and the Finite Difference Method (FDM). Obtained results show that the NOR obtained with this coupled system is not a monotonic function of the barrier width, electromagnetic fields, pressure and temperature. Also, calculated results reveal that the resonant peaks of the NOR can be blue-shifted or red-shifted energies depending on the energy of the lowest confined states in the VCQDs structure. In addition, this condition can be controlled by changes in the structural dimensions and the external proofs mentioned above. -- Highlights: • In this paper we explore the effects of the barrier width, applied electromagnetic fields, hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the nonlinear optical rectification (NOR) in Vertically Coupled InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots (VCQDs). • The calculated results reveal that the resonant peaks of the NOR can be blue-shifted to large photon energies or red-shifted to lower photon energies. • In this paper, all parameters: electromagnetic fields, pressure and temperature effects are introduced and investigated. • The resonant energy and the magnitude of the NOR are controlled and adjusted.

  2. Waves in hyperbolic and double negative metamaterials including rogues and solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, A. D.; Alberucci, A.; Assanto, G.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Kibler, B.; McNiff, J.; Nefedov, I. S.; Rapoport, Yu G.; Valagiannopoulos, C. A.

    2017-11-01

    The topics here deal with some current progress in electromagnetic wave propagation in a family of substances known as metamaterials. To begin with, it is discussed how a pulse can develop a leading edge that steepens and it is emphasised that such self-steepening is an important inclusion within a metamaterial environment together with Raman scattering and third-order dispersion whenever very short pulses are being investigated. It is emphasised that the self-steepening parameter is highly metamaterial-driven compared to Raman scattering, which is associated with a coefficient of the same form whether a normal positive phase, or a metamaterial waveguide is the vehicle for any soliton propagation. It is also shown that the influence of magnetooptics provides a beautiful and important control mechanism for metamaterial devices and that, in the future, this feature will have a significant impact upon the design of data control systems for optical computing. A major objective is fulfiled by the investigations of the fascinating properties of hyperbolic media that exhibit asymmetry of supported modes due to the tilt of optical axes. This is a topic that really merits elaboration because structural and optical asymmetry in optical components that end up manipulating electromagnetic waves is now the foundation of how to operate some of the most successful devices in photonics and electronics. It is pointed out, in this context, that graphene is one of the most famous plasmonic media with very low losses. It is a two-dimensional material that makes the implementation of an effective-medium approximation more feasible. Nonlinear non-stationary diffraction in active planar anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterials is discussed in detail and two approaches are compared. One of them is based on the averaging over a unit cell, while the other one does not include sort of averaging. The formation and propagation of optical spatial solitons in hyperbolic metamaterials is also

  3. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  5. A two-component NZRI metamaterial based rectangular cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Sunbeam Islam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new two-component, near zero refractive index (NZRI metamaterial is presented for electromagnetic rectangular cloaking operation in the microwave range. In the basic design a pi-shaped, metamaterial was developed and its characteristics were investigated for the two major axes (x and z-axis wave propagation through the material. For the z-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth and for the x-axis wave propagation; it exhibits more than 1 GHz bandwidth of NZRI property. The metamaterial was then utilized in designing a rectangular cloak where a metal cylinder was cloaked perfectly in the C-band area of microwave regime. The experimental result was provided for the metamaterial and the cloak and these results were compared with the simulated results. This is a novel and promising design for its two-component NZRI characteristics and rectangular cloaking operation in the electromagnetic paradigm.

  6. Generalized field-transforming metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A; Nefedov, Igor S; Alitalo, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

  7. Metamaterial antennas: the most successful metamaterial technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    The Thomson Reuters Web of Science™ lists more than 1500 journal articles related to metamaterial antennas from 2001 to 2015; this paper overviews some major objectives of such antennas.......The Thomson Reuters Web of Science™ lists more than 1500 journal articles related to metamaterial antennas from 2001 to 2015; this paper overviews some major objectives of such antennas....

  8. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  9. Active terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  10. Simulation of Zitterbewegung by modelling the Dirac equation in Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrens, Sven; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Yong; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    We develop a dynamic description of an effective Dirac theory in metamaterials, in which the wavefunction is modeled by the corresponding electric and magnetic field in the metamaterial. This electro-magnetic field can be probed in the experimental setup, which means that the wavefunction of the effective theory is directly accessible by measurement. Our model is based on a plane wave expansion, which ravels the identification of Dirac spinors with single-frequency excitations of the electro-...

  11. Properties of Sub-wavelength Resonances in Metamaterial Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Clausen, N.C.J.; Pedersen, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    The analytical solution for the canonical configuration with electric line source illumination of concentric metamaterial cylinders is employed to study the properties of the observed sub-wavelength resonances. The near- and far-field distributions, the frequency and geometry bandwidths, and the ......, and the line source impedance are investigated for varying electromagnetic and geometrical parameters. The results of this study are of importance for metamaterial-based miniaturization of antennas....

  12. Permanent magnetic ferrite based power-tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Lan, Chuwen; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Ji

    2017-08-01

    Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated in this research. Scattering parameter measurements confirm a shift in resonant frequency in correlation to changes in incident electromagnetic power within microwave frequency band. The tunable phenomenon represented by a blue-shift in transmission spectra in the metamaterials array can be attributed to a decrease in saturation magnetization resulting from FMR-induced temperature elevation upon resonant conditions. This power-dependent behavior offers a simple and practical route towards dynamically fine-tunable ferrite metamaterials.

  13. Fresnel formulas for the forced electromagnetic pulses and their application for optical-to-terahertz conversion in nonlinear crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunov, M I; Maslov, A V; Bodrov, S B

    2007-11-16

    We show that the usual Fresnel formulas for a free-propagating pulse are not applicable for a forced terahertz electromagnetic pulse supported by an optical pulse at the end of a nonlinear crystal. The correct linear reflection and transmission coefficients that we derive show that such pulses can experience a gain or loss at the boundary. This energy change depends on linear dielectric constants only. We also predict a regime where a complete disappearance of the forced pulse under oblique incidence occurs, an effect that has no counterpart for free-propagating pulses.

  14. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.

  16. Nonlinear self-precession and wavenumber shift of electromagnetic waves under resonance and of Alfven waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.

    1979-01-01

    Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)

  17. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  18. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted

  19. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  20. Graphene-Enhanced Metamaterials for THz Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Khromova, Irina; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is gaining momentum in biology, medicine, communication, security, chemistry, and spectroscopy applications. To expand the usability of terahertz radiation the man-made metal-dielectric composite metamaterials are typically considered owing to their ability to effectively...... manipulate electromagnetic waves. The possibilities of light manipulation can be extended even more by involving new active materials as a structural component – such as, for example, graphene. Its prominent conductivity tunability through the electrochemical potential change allows converting a multilayer...

  1. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London N6G 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  2. Nonexistence of Smooth Electromagnetic Fields in Nonlinear Dielectrics. II. Shock Development in a Half-Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    NUMB9ER 00 AU THOR(s) 8. CON7RACT OR GRANT .%Uv3ERHj) Frederick Bloom AFOSR-81-0171 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PrOGRAK ELEMAE:NT...material coff -iceret which may be associated with a particular nonlinear dielectric substance. For most common nonlinear dielectric substance, e

  3. Harnessing the metal-insulator transition for tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charipar, Nicholas A.; Charipar, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Suess, Ryan J.; Mathews, Scott A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    The control of light-matter interaction through the use of subwavelength structures known as metamaterials has facilitated the ability to control electromagnetic radiation in ways not previously achievable. A plethora of passive metamaterials as well as examples of active or tunable metamaterials have been realized in recent years. However, the development of tunable metamaterials is still met with challenges due to lack of materials choices. To this end, materials that exhibit a metal-insulator transition are being explored as the active element for future metamaterials because of their characteristic abrupt change in electrical conductivity across their phase transition. The fast switching times (▵t < 100 fs) and a change in resistivity of four orders or more make vanadium dioxide (VO2) an ideal candidate for active metamaterials. It is known that the properties associated with thin film metal-insulator transition materials are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. For this work, we have studied how growth conditions (such as gas partial pressure) influence the metalinsulator transition in VO2 thin films made by pulsed laser deposition. In addition, strain engineering during the growth process has been investigated as a method to tune the metal-insulator transition temperature. Examples of both the optical and electrical transient dynamics facilitating the metal-insulator transition will be presented together with specific examples of thin film metamaterial devices.

  4. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.

  5. Investigation of graphene-integrated tunable metamaterials in THz regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, S. Mahircan; Yüksek, Yahya; Sabah, Cumali

    2018-05-01

    A metallic fishnet metamaterial structure in sub-THz region is presented. The proposed structure is based on hexagonal resonators. Simulations have been performed by a 3D full-wave electromagnetic simulator and a negative refractive index has been observed at the frequency range between 0.55 and 0.70 THz with the help of the graphene layer. In order to observe the effect of the graphene layer, the metamaterial structure has been simulated and examined before and after graphene integration. Significant modification in the propagation properties has been observed after the graphene integration. Change in S-parameters with the size variation of hexagonal resonators and alteration in graphene thickness are also presented as a parametric study to show the tunability of the structure. Suitability of the metamaterial for sensor applications has been investigated. The proposed metamaterial structure is promising to be effectively used for tunability and sensor applications.

  6. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation

  7. Passive THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present our activities in the fabrication and characterization of passive THz metamaterials. We use two fabrication processes to develop metamaterials either as free-standing metallic membranes or patterned metallic multi-layers on the substrates to achieve different functionalities...

  8. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  9. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  10. Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Kawata, S.

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field in the electron “bubble” regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption

  11. Non-linear diffusion of charged particles due to stochastic electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, A.M.; Balescu, R.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the energy confinement times observed in tokamak cannot be explained by the classical or neo-classical transport theory. The alternative explanations are based on the existence of various kinds of micro-instabilities, or on the stochastic destruction of the magnetic surfaces, due to the interaction of magnetic islands of different helicities. In the absence of a well established theory of anomalous transport it is perhaps important to study in some detail the diffusion coefficient of single charged particles in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuation, because it can provide the physical grounds for more complete and self-consistent calculations. In the present work we derive a general expression for the transverse diffusion coefficient of electrons and ions in a constant magnetic field and in the presence of space and time dependent electromagnetic fluctuation. We neglect macroscopic drifts due to inhomogeneity and field curvatures, but retain finite Larmor radius effects. (author) 3 refs

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency and nonlinear pulse propagation in a combined tripod and Λ atom-light coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedi, H R; Ruseckas, J; Juzeliūnas, G

    2017-01-01

    We consider propagation of a probe pulse in an atomic medium characterized by a combined tripod and Lambda (Λ) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by five light fields. It is demonstrated that dark states can be formed for such an atom-light coupling. This is essential for formation of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and slow light. In the limiting cases the scheme reduces to conventional Λ- or N -type atom-light couplings providing the EIT or absorption, respectively. Thus, the atomic system can experience a transition from the EIT to the absorption by changing the amplitudes or phases of control lasers. Subsequently the scheme is employed to analyze the nonlinear pulse propagation using the coupled Maxwell–Bloch equations. It is shown that a generation of stable slow light optical solitons is possible in such a five-level combined tripod and Λ atomic system. (paper)

  13. Control of Nonlinear Coupled Electromagnetic Actuators for Active Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Florian; Trabert, Julius; Dück, Marcel; van Waasen, Stefan; Schiek, Michael; Abel, Dirk; Castelan, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The research group FOR1779 “active drag reduction via wavy surface oscillations” develops robust methods for reduction of turbulent friction drag by flow control. The planned concentration on unsteady flow conditions requires a control of the electromagnetic actuator system for generation of transversal surface waves. The bars are positioned in parallel and coupled with an aluminum surface to generate a travelling wave perpendicular to the flow field. The actuator system can be approximately ...

  14. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, (var e psilon). So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  15. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Anan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  16. New foundations for applied electromagnetics the spatial structure of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mikki, Said

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive new resource focuses on applied electromagnetics and takes readers beyond the conventional theory with the use of contemporary mathematics to improve the practical use of electromagnetics in emerging areas of field communications, wireless power transfer, metamaterials, MIMO and direction-of-arrival systems. The book explores the existing and novel theories and principles of electromagnetics in order to help engineers analyze and design devices for todays applications in wireless power transfers, NFC, and metamaterials.

  17. Homogenization of metamaterials: Parameters retrieval methods and intrinsic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Metamaterials (MTMs) claim a lot of attention worldwide. Description of the MTMs in terms of effective parameters is a simple and useful tool for characterisation of their electromagnetic properties. So a reliable effective parameters restoration method is on demand. In this paper we report about...

  18. Ultrasensitive Terahertz Waveguide Modulators Using Multilayer Graphene Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz-infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene- dielectric metamaterial and present novel waveguide-based devices: modulators with high mod- ulation depth ( > 38 dB at 0 : 07 eV graphene’s Fermi energy change) or extreme sensitivity (mod- ulation depth of > 13 : 2 d...

  19. Wave propagation in metamaterials and effective parameters retrieving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, S.; Sukhorukov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials, as a class of artificial materials with extraordinary electromagnetic properties, require reliable methods of their properties determination. The vast majority of researchers and engineers apply the simple S-parameters based method [1]. Its disadvantage is the ambiguity of the dete...

  20. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  1. Metamaterials and wave control

    CERN Document Server

    Lheurette, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Since the concept was first proposed at the end of the 20th Century, metamaterials have been the subject of much research and discussion throughout the wave community. More than 10 years later, the number of related published articles is increasing significantly. Onthe one hand, this success can be attributed to dreams of new physical objects which are the consequences of the singular properties of metamaterials. Among them, we can consider the examples of perfect lensing and invisibility cloaking. On other hand,metamaterials also provide new tools for the design of well-known wave functions s

  2. Metamaterial Model of Tachyonic Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dark energy with negative pressure and positive energy density is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Quite a few theoretical models of dark energy are based on tachyonic fields interacting with itself and normal (bradyonic matter. Here, we propose an experimental model of tachyonic dark energy based on hyperbolic metamaterials. Wave equation describing propagation of extraordinary light inside hyperbolic metamaterials exhibits 2 + 1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective 3D Minkowski spacetime is played by the spatial coordinate aligned with the optical axis of the metamaterial. Nonlinear optical Kerr effect bends this spacetime resulting in effective gravitational force between extraordinary photons. We demonstrate that this model has a self-interacting tachyonic sector having negative effective pressure and positive effective energy density. Moreover, a composite multilayer SiC-Si hyperbolic metamaterial exhibits closely separated tachyonic and bradyonic sectors in the long wavelength infrared range. This system may be used as a laboratory model of inflation and late time acceleration of the universe.

  3. Effective material parameter retrieval of anisotropic elastic metamaterials with inherent nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Heung Son; Ma, Pyung Sik; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the scattering (S-) parameter retrieval method is presented specifically for anisotropic elastic metamaterials; so far, no retrieval has been accomplished when elastic metamaterials exhibit fully anisotropic behavior. Complex constitutive property and intrinsic scattering behavior of elastic metamaterials make their characterization far more complicated than that for acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials. In particular, elastic metamaterials generally exhibit anisotropic scattering behavior due to higher scattering modes associated with shear deformation. They also exhibit nonlocal responses to some degrees, which originate from strong multiple scattering interactions even in the long wavelength limit. Accordingly, the conventional S-parameter retrieval methods cannot be directly used for elastic metamaterials, because they determine only the diagonal components in effective tensor property. Also, the conventional methods simply use the analytic inversion formulae for the material characterization so that inherent nonlocality cannot be taken into account. To establish a retrieval method applicable to anisotropic elastic metamaterials, we propose an alternative S-parameter method to deal with full anisotropy of elastic metamaterials. To retrieve the whole effective anisotropic parameter, we utilize not only normal but also oblique wave incidences. For the retrieval, we first retrieve the ratio of the effective stiffness tensor to effective density and then determine the effective density. The proposed retrieval method is validated by characterizing the effective material parameters of various types of non-resonant anisotropic metamaterials. It is found that the whole effective parameters are retrieved consistently regardless of used retrieval conditions in spite of inherent nonlocality.

  4. Effect of magnetic field on nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic and surface waves in a plasma layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)

  5. Metamaterials mimicking dynamic spacetime, D-brane and noncommutativity in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Rongxin; Zheng Rui; Li Miao

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to mimic the expanding cosmos in 1+2 dimensions in laboratory. Furthermore, we develop a general procedure to use nonlinear metamaterials to mimic D-brane and noncommutativity in string theory.

  6. Casimir effect in the presence of metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Pinheiro, F.A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Farina, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, F.S.S. [Universite Paris-Sud (France). Lab. Charles Fabry

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Casimir effect was theoretically predicted in 1948 by H. G. B. Casimir. In its original form, it is the attraction between two parallel plates made of perfectly conductors in vacuum. The novelty in the Casimir result was the method used and not the fact that two neutral bodies attract each other, since the force between two neutral, but polarizable, atoms was previously treated by London in 1930. Casimir demonstrated that the force between the plates could be calculated from the variation in the zero-point energy of the quantized electromagnetic field caused by the presence of the plates. Nowadays there is no doubt about the existence of this effect, which has been observed in the last decade in experiments of great precision. Casimir forces play an important role in nanotechnology, in particular in the study of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, because these forces become dominant in the nanoscopic scale. Casimir forces are responsible for an attraction of individual parts of these devices, making them eventually to stick together. As a result, attractive Casimir forces constitute a nuisance for practical applications. Therefore the investigation of a repulsive Casimir force is of great current interest. It has been recently argued that Casimir repulsion could be obtained by an adequate choice of artificial materials, the so-called metamaterials, with engineered electromagnetic properties [R. Zhao et al, PRL 103, 103602 (2009)]. In this work we investigate the interaction between an atom and a chiral metamaterial plate. Using realistic parameters, obtained from recent experiments and computer simulations, we show that state-of-the-art chiral metamaterials are not able generate Casimir repulsive forces. We also investigate the possibility of magneto-optical metamaterials to exhibit a repulsive Casimir force. To accomplish this, we discuss the dispersive interaction between a magneto-optical sphere and a chiral surface or a magneto

  7. Blackbody metamaterial lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate both theoretically and experimentally a new type of laser, which exploits a broadband light "condensation" process sustained by the stimulated amplification of an optical blackbody metamaterial. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  8. MEMS for Tunable Photonic Metamaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Thomas

    Photonic metamaterials are materials whose optical properties are derived from artificially-structured sub-wavelength unit cells, rather than from the bulk properties of the constituent materials. Examples of metamaterials include plasmonic materials, negative index materials, and electromagnetic cloaks. While advances in simulation tools and nanofabrication methods have allowed this field to grow over the past several decades, many challenges still exist. This thesis addresses two of these challenges: fabrication of photonic metamaterials with tunable responses and high-throughput nanofabrication methods for these materials. The design, fabrication, and optical characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable plasmonic spectrometer are presented. An array of holes in a gold film, with plasmon resonance in the mid-infrared, is suspended above a gold reflector, forming a Fabry-Perot interferometer of tunable length. The spectra exhibit the convolution of extraordinary optical transmission through the holes and Fabry-Perot resonances. Using MEMS, the interferometer length is modulated from 1.7 mum to 21.67 mum , thereby tuning the free spectral range from about 2900 wavenumbers to 230.7 wavenumbers and shifting the reflection minima and maxima across the infrared. Due to its broad spectral tunability in the fingerprint region of the mid-infrared, this device shows promise as a tunable biological sensing device. To address the issue of high-throughput, high-resolution fabrication of optical metamaterials, atomic calligraphy, a MEMS-based dynamic stencil lithography technique for resist-free fabrication of photonic metamaterials on unconventional substrates, has been developed. The MEMS consists of a moveable stencil, which can be actuated with nanometer precision using electrostatic comb drive actuators. A fabrication method and flip chip method have been developed, enabling evaporation of metals through the device handle for fabrication on an

  9. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A NONLINEAR COUPLED ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION HEATING SYSTEM WITH POINTWISE STATE CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Yousept

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An optimal control problem arising in the context of 3D electromagnetic induction heating is investigated. The state equation is given by a quasilinear stationary heat equation coupled with a semilinear time harmonic eddy current equation. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity and the presence of pointwise inequality state-constraints represent the main challenge of the paper. In the first part of the paper, the existence and regularity of the state are addressed. The second part of the paper deals with the analysis of the corresponding linearized equation. Some suffcient conditions are presented which guarantee thesolvability of the linearized system. The final part of the paper is concerned with the optimal control. The aim of the optimization is to find the optimal voltage such that a desired temperature can be achieved optimally. The corresponding first-order necessary optimality condition is presented.

  10. Acoustic Metamaterials in Aeronautics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Palma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. Despite the tremendous growth in research on acoustic metamaterials during the last decade, the potential of metamaterial-based technologies in aeronautics has still not been fully explored, and its utilization is still in its infancy. Thus, the principal concepts mentioned above could very well provide a means to develop devices that allow the mitigation of the impact of civil aviation noise on the community. This paper gives a review of the most relevant works on acoustic metamaterials, analyzing them for their potential applicability in aeronautics, and, in this process, identifying possible implementation areas and interesting metabehaviors. It also identifies some technical challenges and possible future directions for research with the goal of unveiling the potential of metamaterials technology in aeronautics.

  11. Dispersion engineering in metamaterials and metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Guo, Yinghui; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-02-01

    Dispersion engineering is essential for spectral utilization in electromagnetic systems. However, it is difficult to manage the dispersions in both natural materials and traditional electromagnetic waveguides since they are tightly related to fine structures of atoms, molecules and causality. The emergence of metamaterials and metasurfaces, which are made of subwavelength inclusions offers tremendous freedom to manipulate the electromagnetic parameters of materials and modes. Here, we review the basic principles, practical applications and recent advancements of the dispersion engineering in metadevices. The contributions of dispersion management in metadevice-based super-resolution imaging/nanolithography systems, planar functional devices, as well as the broadband perfect absorbers/polarization converters are discussed in depth. The challenges faced by this field as well as future developing trends are also presented in the conclusions.

  12. Josephson Metamaterial with a Widely Tunable Positive or Negative Kerr Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyuan; Huang, W.; Gershenson, M. E.; Bell, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the microwave characterization of a novel one-dimensional Josephson metamaterial composed of a chain of asymmetric superconducting quantum interference devices with nearest-neighbor coupling through common Josephson junctions. This metamaterial demonstrates a strong Kerr nonlinearity, with a Kerr constant tunable over a wide range, from positive to negative values, by a magnetic flux threading the superconducting quantum interference devices. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theory of nonlinear effects in Josephson chains. The metamaterial is very promising as an active medium for Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifiers; its use facilitates phase matching in a four-wave-mixing process for efficient parametric gain.

  13. Scheme for achieving coherent perfect absorption by anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2017-02-22

    We propose a unified scheme to achieve coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves by anisotropic metamaterials. The scheme describes the condition on perfect absorption and offers an inverse design route based on effective medium theory in conjunction with retrieval method to determine practical metamaterial absorbers. The scheme is scalable to frequencies and applicable to various incident angles. Numerical simulations show that perfect absorption is achieved in the designed absorbers over a wide range of incident angles, verifying the scheme. By integrating these absorbers, we further propose an absorber to absorb energy from two coherent point sources.

  14. Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, F; Lopetegi, T; Laso, M A G; Baena, J D; Bonache, J; Beruete, M; Marqués, R; Martín, F; Sorolla, M

    2004-11-05

    The electromagnetic theory of diffraction and the Babinet principle are applied to the design of artificial metasurfaces and metamaterials. A new particle, the complementary split rings resonator, is proposed for the design of metasurfaces with high frequency selectivity and planar metamaterials with a negative dielectric permittivity. Applications in the fields of frequency selective surfaces and polarizers, as well as in microwave antennas and filter design, can be envisaged. The tunability of all these devices by an applied dc voltage is also achievable if these particles are etched on the appropriate substrate.

  15. Low-profile natural and metamaterial antennas analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Hisamatsu

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the full range of low-profile antennas that use novel elements and take advantage of new concepts in antenna implementation, including metamaterials. Typically formed by constructing lattices of simple elements, metamaterials possess electromagnetic properties not found in naturally occurring materials, and show great promise in a number of low-profile antenna implementations. Introductory chapters define various natural and metamaterial-based antennas and provide the fundamentals of writing computer programs based on the method of moments (MoM) and the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTDM). Chapters then discuss low-profile natural antennas classified into base station antennas, mobile card antennas, beam-forming antennas, and satellite-satellite and earth-satellite communications antennas. Final chapters look at various properties of low-profile metamaterial-based ant nnas, revealing the strengths and limitations of the metamaterial-based straight line antenna (metaline antenna), m...

  16. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  17. Terahertz metamaterials and systems based on rolled-up 3D elements: designs, technological approaches, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Victor Ya.; Naumova, Elena V.; Golod, Sergey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir A.; Bocharov, Andrey A.; Kubarev, Vitaliy V.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials opened the way to extraordinary manipulation of radiation. Terahertz (THz) and optical metamaterials are usually fabricated by traditional planar-patterning approaches, while the majority of practical applications require metamaterials with 3D resonators. Making arrays of precise 3D micro- and nanoresonators is still a challenging problem. Here we present a versatile set of approaches to fabrication of metamaterials with 3D resonators rolled-up from strained films, demonstrate novel THz metamaterials/systems, and show giant polarization rotation by several chiral metamaterials/systems. The polarization spectra of chiral metamaterials on semiconductor substrates exhibit ultrasharp quasiperiodic peaks. Application of 3D printing allowed assembling more complex systems, including the bianisotropic system with optimal microhelices, which showed an extreme polarization azimuth rotation of 85° with drop by 150° at a frequency shift of 0.4%. We refer the quasiperiodic peaks in the polarization spectra of metamaterial systems to the interplay of different resonances, including peculiar chiral waveguide resonance. Formed metamaterials cannot be made by any other presently available technology. All steps of presented fabrication approaches are parallel, IC-compatible and allow mass fabrication with scaling of rolled-up resonators up to visible frequencies. We anticipate that the rolled-up meta-atoms will be ideal building blocks for future generations of commercial metamaterials, devices and systems on their basis. PMID:28256587

  18. E-Textile Embroidered Metamaterial Transmission Line for Signal Propagation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Moradi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the utilization of common fabrics for the manufacturing of e-textile metamaterial transmission lines is investigated. In order to filter and control the signal propagation in the ultra-high frequency (UHF range along the e-textile, a conventional metamaterial transmission line was compared with embroidered metamaterial particles. The proposed design was based on a transmission line loaded with one or several split-ring resonators (SRR on a felt substrate. To explore the relations between physical parameters and filter performance characteristics, theoretical models based on transmission matrices’ description of the filter constituent components were proposed. Excellent agreement between theoretical prediction, electromagnetic simulations, and measurement were found. Experimental results showed stop-band levels higher than −30 dB for compact embroidered metamaterial e-textiles. The validated results confirmed embroidery as a useful technique to obtain customized electromagnetic properties, such as filtering, on wearable applications.

  19. E-Textile Embroidered Metamaterial Transmission Line for Signal Propagation Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bahareh; Fernández-García, Raul; Gil, Ignacio

    2018-06-05

    In this paper, the utilization of common fabrics for the manufacturing of e-textile metamaterial transmission lines is investigated. In order to filter and control the signal propagation in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) range along the e-textile, a conventional metamaterial transmission line was compared with embroidered metamaterial particles. The proposed design was based on a transmission line loaded with one or several split-ring resonators (SRR) on a felt substrate. To explore the relations between physical parameters and filter performance characteristics, theoretical models based on transmission matrices' description of the filter constituent components were proposed. Excellent agreement between theoretical prediction, electromagnetic simulations, and measurement were found. Experimental results showed stop-band levels higher than -30 dB for compact embroidered metamaterial e-textiles. The validated results confirmed embroidery as a useful technique to obtain customized electromagnetic properties, such as filtering, on wearable applications.

  20. Low-loss negative index metamaterials for X, Ku, and K microwave bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-loss, negative-index of refraction metamaterials were designed and tested for X, Ku, and K microwave frequency bands. An S-shaped, split-ring resonator was used as a unit cell to design homogeneous slabs of negative-index metamaterials. Then, the slabs of metamaterials were cut unto prisms to measure experimentally the negative index of refraction of a plane electromagnetic wave. Theoretical simulations using High-Frequency Structural Simulator, a finite element equation solver, were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The negative index of refraction was retrieved from the angle- and frequency-dependence of the transmitted intensity of the microwave beam through the metamaterial prism and compared well to simulations; in addition, near-field electromagnetic intensity mapping was conducted with an infrared camera, and there was also a good match with the simulations for expected frequency ranges for the negative index of refraction.

  1. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-27

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies.

  2. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity ε and permeability μ are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide

  3. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin ( 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  4. Regression Methods for Ophthalmic Glucose Sensing Using Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Rapp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel concept for in vivo sensing of glucose using metamaterials in combination with automatic learning systems. In detail, we use the plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT as sensor and evaluate the acquired data with support vector machines. The metamaterial can be integrated into a contact lens. This sensor changes its optical properties such as reflectivity upon the ambient glucose concentration, which allows for in situ measurements in the eye. We demonstrate that estimation errors below 2% at physiological concentrations are possible using simulations of the optical properties of the metamaterial in combination with an appropriate electrical circuitry and signal processing scheme. In the future, functionalization of our sensor with hydrogel will allow for a glucose-specific detection which is insensitive to other tear liquid substances providing both excellent selectivity and sensitivity.

  5. Quantum metamaterials in the microwave and optical ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoskin, Alexandre M. [Loughborough University, Department of Physics, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Moscow Institute for Steel and Alloys, Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Felbacq, Didier; Rousseau, Emmanuel [University of Montpellier, Laboratory Charles Coulomb UMR CNRS-UM 5221, Montpellier (France)

    2016-12-15

    Quantum metamaterials generalize the concept of metamaterials (artificial optical media) to the case when their optical properties are determined by the interplay of quantum effects in the constituent 'artificial atoms' with the electromagnetic field modes in the system. The theoretical investigation of these structures demonstrated that a number of new effects (such as quantum birefringence, strongly nonclassical states of light, etc.) are to be expected, prompting the efforts on their fabrication and experimental investigation. Here we provide a summary of the principal features of quantum metamaterials and review the current state of research in this quickly developing field, which bridges quantum optics, quantum condensed matter theory and quantum information processing. (orig.)

  6. An effective medium description of 'Swiss Rolls', a magnetic metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Williams, W; Hajnal, J V

    2007-01-01

    The 'Swiss Roll' metamaterial medium is well suited to operation in the radio frequency (RF) range, because it has a low resonant frequency and a strong magnetic response. Two prisms of this material, one hexagonal and one square, have been constructed and characterized both at the metamaterial's resonant frequency of 21.5 MHz and above it, where the effective permeability is strongly negative. A series of spatial resonances is observed in the field patterns on the surfaces of the prisms. Using an effective medium description, we have carried out both analytical and numerical modelling of the electromagnetic behaviour of the metamaterial, and find, within certain obvious limitations, extremely good agreement between the measured and modelled results

  7. Tunable Multilayer Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz/Infrared Waveguide Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, Irina; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    regimes of multilayer graphene-dielectric artificial metamaterials. The interplay between interband and intraband transitions in graphene allows converting the structure into a transparent and/or electromagnetically dense artificial medium. The gate voltage can be used to electrically control...... the concentration of carriers in the graphene sheets and, thus, efficiently change the dispersion of the whole structure. Placed inside a hollow waveguide, a multilayer graphene/dielectric metamaterial provides high-speed modulation and tunable bandpass filtering. The absence of scattered radiation enables dense...... the latter to shift its central frequency by 1:25% per every meV graphene Fermi energy change. We believe that graphene-dielectric multilayer metamaterials will constitute the functional platform for THz-IR waveguide-integrated devices....

  8. Permanent magnetic ferrite based power-tunable metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Lan, Chuwen [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao, Rui [High Temperature Thermochemistry Laboratory, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C5 (Canada); Zhou, Ji, E-mail: zhouji@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated. • It is observed that resonant frequency of the array shifts upon altering the output power. • This kind of power-tunable behavior is due to the temperature rise as a result of FMR-induced heat buildup. • This work offers a practical idea to tune ferrite metamaterials besides magneto-tunability and thermal-tunability. - Abstract: Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated in this research. Scattering parameter measurements confirm a shift in resonant frequency in correlation to changes in incident electromagnetic power within microwave frequency band. The tunable phenomenon represented by a blue-shift in transmission spectra in the metamaterials array can be attributed to a decrease in saturation magnetization resulting from FMR-induced temperature elevation upon resonant conditions. This power-dependent behavior offers a simple and practical route towards dynamically fine-tunable ferrite metamaterials.

  9. Ultra-thin infrared metamaterial detector for multicolor imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, John A; Tian, Zhao-Bing; Krishna, Sanjay; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-09-18

    The next generation of infrared imaging systems requires control of fundamental electromagnetic processes - absorption, polarization, spectral bandwidth - at the pixel level to acquire desirable information about the environment with low system latency. Metamaterial absorbers have sparked interest in the infrared imaging community for their ability to enhance absorption of incoming radiation with color, polarization and/or phase information. However, most metamaterial-based sensors fail to focus incoming radiation into the active region of a ultra-thin detecting element, thus achieving poor detection metrics. Here our multifunctional metamaterial absorber is directly integrated with a novel mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) detector with an ultra-thin (~λ/15) InAs/GaSb Type-II superlattice (T2SL) interband cascade detector. The deep sub-wavelength metamaterial detector architecture proposed and demonstrated here, thus significantly improves the detection quantum efficiency (QE) and absorption of incoming radiation in a regime typically dominated by Fabry-Perot etalons. Our work evinces the ability of multifunctional metamaterials to realize efficient wavelength selective detection across the infrared spectrum for enhanced multispectral infrared imaging applications.

  10. New Physics of Metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong-Yue, E-mail: zhongyuewang@ymail.com

    2014-06-15

    Einstein utilized Lorentz invariance from Maxwell's equations to modify mechanical laws and establish the special theory of relativity. Similarly, we may have a different theory if there exists another covariance of Maxwell's equations. In this paper, we find such a new transformation where Maxwell's equations are still unchanged. Consequently, Veselago's metamaterial and other systems have negative phase velocities without double negative permittivity and permeability can be described by a unified theory. People are interested in the application of metamaterials and negative phase velocities but do not appreciate the magnitude and significance to the spacetime conception of modern physics and philosophy.

  11. Homogenized description and retrieval method of nonlinear metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Larouche, Stéphane; Smith, David R.

    2018-03-01

    A patterned, plasmonic metasurface can strongly scatter incident light, functioning as an extremely low-profile lens, filter, reflector or other optical device. When the metasurface is patterned uniformly, its linear optical properties can be expressed using effective surface electric and magnetic polarizabilities obtained through a homogenization procedure. The homogenized description of a nonlinear metasurface, however, presents challenges both because of the inherent anisotropy of the medium as well as the much larger set of potential wave interactions available, making it challenging to assign effective nonlinear parameters to the otherwise inhomogeneous layer of metamaterial elements. Here we show that a homogenization procedure can be developed to describe nonlinear metasurfaces, which derive their nonlinear response from the enhanced local fields arising within the structured plasmonic elements. With the proposed homogenization procedure, we are able to assign effective nonlinear surface polarization densities to a nonlinear metasurface, and link these densities to the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities and averaged macroscopic pumping fields across the metasurface. These effective nonlinear surface polarization densities are further linked to macroscopic nonlinear fields through the generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs). By inverting the GSTCs, the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities of the metasurfaces can be solved for, leading to a generalized retrieval method for nonlinear metasurfaces. The application of the homogenization procedure and the GSTCs are demonstrated by retrieving the nonlinear susceptibilities of a SiO2 nonlinear slab. As an example, we investigate a nonlinear metasurface which presents nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in near infrared regime. The method is expected to apply to any patterned metasurface whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelengths of operation, with inclusions of arbitrary geometry

  12. Coupling electromagnetic pulse-shaped waves into wire-like interconnection structures with a non-linear protection – Time domain calculations by the PEEC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wollenberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An interconnection system whose loads protected by a voltage suppressor and a low-pass filter against overvoltages caused by coupling pulse-shaped electromagnetic waves is analyzed. The external wave influencing the system is assumed as a plane wave with HPM form. The computation is provided by a full-wave PEEC model for the interconnection structure incorporated in the SPICE code. Thus, nonlinear elements of the protection circuit can be included in the calculation. The analysis shows intermodulation distortions and penetrations of low frequency interferences caused by intermodulations through the protection circuits. The example examined shows the necessity of using full-wave models for interconnections together with non-linear circuit solvers for simulation of noise immunity in systems protected by nonlinear devices.

  13. Electromagnetic Properties of Materials and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    argon and nitrogen. For the BaTiO" a 50/50 mixture of oxygen and argon was used. The dielectrics were deposited over the center conductor of two...Rx) o .. .. Figure .311: The rcd curve is the co- polariz ~ltion and the blue curve is the cross-polarization of SRR-wire-post wedge at 13.5GHz and a

  14. Auxetic metamaterials from disordered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel R.; Pashine, Nidhi; Wozniak, Justin M.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Liu, Andrea J.; Nagel, Sidney R.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2018-02-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that systematic pruning of disordered networks consisting of nodes connected by springs can lead to materials that exhibit a host of unusual mechanical properties. In particular, global properties such as Poisson’s ratio or local responses related to deformation can be precisely altered. Tunable mechanical responses would be useful in areas ranging from impact mitigation to robotics and, more generally, for creation of metamaterials with engineered properties. However, experimental attempts to create auxetic materials based on pruning-based theoretical ideas have not been successful. Here we introduce a more realistic model of the networks, which incorporates angle-bending forces and the appropriate experimental boundary conditions. A sequential pruning strategy of select bonds in this model is then devised and implemented that enables engineering of specific mechanical behaviors upon deformation, both in the linear and in the nonlinear regimes. In particular, it is shown that Poisson’s ratio can be tuned to arbitrary values. The model and concepts discussed here are validated by preparing physical realizations of the networks designed in this manner, which are produced by laser cutting 2D sheets and are found to behave as predicted. Furthermore, by relying on optimization algorithms, we exploit the networks’ susceptibility to tuning to design networks that possess a distribution of stiffer and more compliant bonds and whose auxetic behavior is even greater than that of homogeneous networks. Taken together, the findings reported here serve to establish that pruned networks represent a promising platform for the creation of unique mechanical metamaterials.

  15. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    metamaterials show material properties closely matching those predicted by full-wave simulations. Due to the high losses associated with resonant metamaterials, I shift my focus to non-resonant metamaterials. I discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of non-resonant metamaterials for fabrication on multilayer LCP printed circuit boards (PCBs). I then use these non-resonant metamaterials in a W-band planar metamaterial GRIN lens. Radiation pattern measurements show that this lens functions as a strong collimating element. Using similar lens design methods, I design a metamaterial GRIN lens from polytetrafluoroethylene-based (PTFE-based) non-resonant metamaterials. This GRIN lens is designed to match a target dielectric lens's radiation characteristics across a +/-6° field of view. Measurements at automotive radar frequencies show that this lens has approximately the same radiation characteristics as the target lens across the desired field of view. Finally, I describe the development of electrically reconfigurable metamaterials using thin-film silicon semiconductors. These silicon-based reconfigurable metamaterials were developed in close collaboration with several other researchers. My major contribution to the development of these reconfigurable metamaterials consisted of the initial metamaterial design. The Jokerst research group fabricated this initial design while TRI-NA characterized the fabricated metamaterial experimentally. Measurements showed approximately 8% variation in transmission under a 5 Volt DC bias. This variation in transmission closely matched the variation in transmission predicted by coupled electronic-electromagnetic simulation run by Yaroslav Urzhumov, one of other contributors to the development of the reconfigurable metamaterial.

  16. Dielectric optical antenna thermal emitters and metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Jonathan Aaron

    Optical antennas are critical components in nanophotonics research due to their unparalleled ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into nanoscale volumes. Researchers typically construct such antennas from wavelength-size metallic structures. However, recent research has begun to exploit the scattering resonances of high-permittivity particles to realize all-dielectric optical antennas, emitters, and metamaterials. In this thesis, we experimentally and theoretically characterize the resonant modes of subwavelength rod-shaped dielectric particles and demonstrate their use in negative index metamaterials and novel infrared light emitters. At mid-infrared frequencies, Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an ideal system for studying the behavior of dielectric optical antennas. At frequencies below the TO phonon resonance, SiC behaves like a dielectric with very large refractive index. Using infrared spectroscopy and analytical Mie calculations we show that individual rod-shaped SiC particles exhibit a multitude of resonant modes. Detailed investigations of these SiC optical antennas reveal a wealth of new physics and applications. We discuss the distinct electromagnetic field profile for each mode, and demonstrate that two of the dielectric-type Mie resonances can be combined in a particle array to form a negative index metamaterial. We further show that these particles can serve as "broadcasting" antennas. Using a custom-built thermal emission microscope we collect emissivity spectra from single SiC particles at elevated temperatures, highlighting their use as subwavelength resonant light emitters. Finally, we derive and verify a variety of general analytical results applicable to all cylindrical dielectric antennas.

  17. Dielectric Optical Antenna Emitters and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Jon

    2009-03-01

    Optical antennas are critical components in nanophotonics research due to their unparalleled ability to concentrate electromagnetic energy into nanoscale volumes. Researchers typically construct such antennas from wavelength-size metallic structures. However, recent research has begun to exploit the scattering resonances of high-permittivity particles to realize all-dielectric optical antennas, emitters, and metamaterials. In this talk, we experimentally and theoretically characterize the resonant modes of subwavelength rod-shaped dielectric particles and demonstrate their use in negative index metamaterials and novel infrared light emitters. At mid-infrared frequencies, Silicon Carbide (SiC) is an ideal system for studying the behavior of dielectric optical antennas. At frequencies below the TO phonon resonance, SiC behaves like a dielectric with very large refractive index. Using infrared spectroscopy and analytical Mie calculations we show that individual rod-shaped SiC particles exhibit a multitude of resonant modes. Detailed investigations of these SiC optical antennas reveal a wealth of new physics and applications. We discuss the distinct electromagnetic field profile for each mode, and demonstrate that two of the dielectric-type Mie resonances can be combined in a particle array to form a negative index metamaterial [1]. We further show that these particles can serve as ``broadcasting'' antennas. Using a custom-built thermal emission microscope we collect emissivity spectra from single SiC particles at elevated temperatures, highlighting their use as subwavelength resonant light emitters. Finally, we derive and verify a variety of general analytical results applicable to all cylindrical dielectric antennas and discuss extensions of the demonstrated concepts to different materials systems and frequency regimes. [1] J.A. Schuller, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 107401 (2007)

  18. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  19. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  20. Mechanical meta-materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The emerging concept of mechanical meta-materials has received increasing attention during the last few years partially due to the advances in additive manufacturing techniques that have enabled fabricating materials with arbitrarily complex micro/nano-architectures. The rationally designed

  1. Unravelling Origami Metamaterial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidini, Maryam; Paulino, Glaucio

    2015-03-01

    Origami has shown to be a substantial source of inspiration for innovative design of mechanical metamaterials for which the material properties arise from their geometry and structural layout. Most research on origami-inspired materials relies on known patterns, especially on classic Miura-ori pattern. In the present research, we have created origami-inspired metamaterials and we have shown that the folded materials possess properties as remarkable as those of Miura-ori on which there is a lot of recent research. We have also introduced and placed emphasis on several important concepts that are confused or overlooked in the literature, e.g. concept of planar Poisson's ratio for folded materials from different conceptual viewpoints, and we have clarified the importance of such concepts by applying them to the folded sheet metamaterials introduced in our research. The new patterns are appropriate for a broad range of applications, from mechanical metamaterials to deployable and kinetic structures, at both small and large scales.

  2. A study on the influence of corona on currents and electromagnetic fields predicted by a nonlinear lightning return-stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conti, Alberto; Silveira, Fernando H.; Visacro, Silvério

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the influence of corona on currents and electromagnetic fields predicted by a return-stroke model that represents the lightning channel as a nonuniform transmission line with time-varying (nonlinear) resistance. The corona model used in this paper allows the calculation of corona currents as a function of the radial electric field in the vicinity of the channel. A parametric study is presented to investigate the influence of corona parameters, such as the breakdown electric field and the critical electric field for the stable propagation of streamers, on predicted currents and electromagnetic fields. The results show that, regardless of the assumed corona parameters, the incorporation of corona into the nonuniform and nonlinear transmission line model under investigation modifies the model predictions so that they consistently reproduce most of the typical features of experimentally observed lightning electromagnetic fields and return-stroke speed profiles. In particular, it is shown that the proposed model leads to close vertical electric fields presenting waveforms, amplitudes, and decay with distance in good agreement with dart leader electric field changes measured in triggered lightning experiments. A comparison with popular engineering return-stroke models further confirms the model's ability to predict consistent electric field waveforms in the close vicinity of the channel. Some differences observed in the field amplitudes calculated with the different models can be related to the fact that current distortion, while present in the proposed model, is ultimately neglected in the considered engineering return-stroke models.

  3. Electrically driven hybrid photonic metamaterials for multifunctional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Liu, Liu; Campbell, Sawyer D.; Yue, Taiwei; Ren, Qiang; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2017-08-01

    The unique light-matter interaction in metamaterials, a type of artificial medium in which the geometrical features of subunits dominate their optical responses, have been utilized to achieve exotic material properties that are rare or nonexistent in natural materials. Furthermore, to extend their behaviors, active materials have been introduced into metamaterial systems to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. Nevertheless, practical examples of versatile photonic metamaterials remain exceedingly rare for two main reasons. On the one hand, in sharp contrast to the broad material options available at lower frequencies, it is less common to find active media in the optical regime that can provide pronounced dielectric property changes under external stimuli, such as electric and magnetic fields. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), offering a large refractive index variation over a broad frequency range due to its near room temperature insulator-to-metal transition (IMT), has been favored in recent studies on tunable metamaterials. On the other hand, it turns out that regulating responses of hybrid metamaterials to external forces in an integrated manner is not a straightforward task. Recently, metamaterial-enabled devices (i.e., metadevices) with `self-sufficient' or `self-contained' electrical and optical properties have enabled complex functionalities. Here, we present a design methodology along with the associated experimental validation of a VO2 thin film integrated optical metamaterial absorber as a hybrid photonic platform for electrically driven multifunctional control, including reflectance switching, a rewritable memory process and manageable localized camouflage. The nanoengineered topologically continuous metal structure simultaneously supports the optical resonance and electrical functionality that actuates the phase transition in VO2 through the process of Joule heating. This work provides a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly

  4. Aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The periodic-metamaterial-based perfect absorber has been studied broadly. Conversely, if the unit cell in the metamaterial-based absorber is arranged aperiodically (aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber, how does it perform? Inspired by this, here we present a systematic study of the aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber. By investigating the response of metamaterial absorbers based on periodic, Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and quasicrystal lattices, we found that aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorbers could display similar absorption behaviors as the periodic one in one hand. However, their absorption behaviors show different tendency depending on the thicknesses of the spacer. Further studies on the angle and polarization dependence of the absorption behavior are also presented.

  5. Symmetric metamaterials based on flower-shaped structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuong, P.V.; Park, J.W.; Rhee, J.Y.; Kim, K.W.; Cheong, H.; Jang, W.H.; Lee, Y.P.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed new models of metamaterials (MMs) based on a flower-shaped structure (FSS), whose “meta-atoms” consist of two flower-shaped metallic parts separated by a dielectric layer. Like the non-symmetric MMs based on cut-wire-pairs or electric ring resonators, the symmetrical FSS demonstrates the negative permeability at GHz frequencies. Employing the results, we designed a symmetric negative-refractive-index MM [a symmetric combined structure (SCS)], which is composed of FSSs and cross continuous wires. The MM properties of the FSS and the SCS are presented numerically and experimentally. - Highlights: • A new designed of sub-wavelength metamaterial, flower-shaped structure was proposed. • Flower-shaped meta-atom illustrated effective negative permeability. • Based on the meta-atom, negative refractive index was conventionally gained. • Negative refractive index was demonstrated with symmetric properties for electromagnetic wave. • Dimensional parameters were studied under normal electromagnetic wave

  6. Back to basics: history of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2018-04-01

    We will review the history of photonic crystals and overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic bandgap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic (EM) waves are forbidden, is presented. Many experimental groups all over the world still employ this woodpile structure to fabricate PCs at optical wavelengths, waveguides, enhance nanocavities, and produce nanolasers with a low threshold limit. We have been focused on a new class of materials, the so-called metamaterials (MMs) or negative-index materials, which exhibit highly unusual electromagnetic properties and hold promise for new device applications. Metamaterials can be designed to exhibit both electric and magnetic resonances that can be separately tuned to occur in frequency bands from megahertz to terahertz frequencies, and hope-fully to the visible region of the EM spectrum.

  7. Advanced computational electromagnetic methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenxing; Elsherbeni, Atef; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    This new resource covers the latest developments in computational electromagnetic methods, with emphasis on cutting-edge applications. This book is designed to extend existing literature to the latest development in computational electromagnetic methods, which are of interest to readers in both academic and industrial areas. The topics include advanced techniques in MoM, FEM and FDTD, spectral domain method, GPU and Phi hardware acceleration, metamaterials, frequency and time domain integral equations, and statistics methods in bio-electromagnetics.

  8. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as, e.g., propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size...... an analytical criterion for performing the homogenization and a tool to predict the homogenization limit. We show that strong coupling between meta-atoms of chiral metamaterials may prevent their homogenization at all....

  9. Advanced Numerical and Theoretical Methods for Photonic Crystals and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbacq, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This book provides a set of theoretical and numerical tools useful for the study of wave propagation in metamaterials and photonic crystals. While concentrating on electromagnetic waves, most of the material can be used for acoustic (or quantum) waves. For each presented numerical method, numerical code written in MATLAB® is presented. The codes are limited to 2D problems and can be easily translated in Python or Scilab, and used directly with Octave as well.

  10. Research Advance in Smart Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Xiang-long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made materials, enable us to design our own "atoms", and thereby to create materials with unprecedented effective properties that have not yet been found in nature. Smart metamaterial is one of those that is an intelligent perceptive to the changes from external environments and simultaneously having the capability to respond to thermal and mechanical stimuli. This paper can provide a review on these smart metamaterials in perspective of science, engineering and industrial products. We divide smart metamaterials according to what they are tuning into: optical, mechanical, thermal and coupled smart metamaterials. The rest of two techniques we addressed are modelling/simulation and fabrication/gene engineering. All of these types smart materials presented here are associated with at least five fundamental research: coupled mechanism of multi-physics fields, man-made design for atom/molecular, metamaterials coupled with natural materials, tunability of metamaterials, and mechanism of sensing metamaterials. Therefore, we give a systematic overview of various potential smart metamaterials together with the upcoming challenges in the intriguing and promising research field.

  11. Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research is to develop lightweight, flexible, compact metamaterials with tunable resonance frequencies for effective optical and communication tools...

  12. Active Metamaterials for Terahertz Communication and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj

    In recent years there has been significant interest in terahertz (THz) systems mostly due to their unique applications in communication and imaging. One of the primary reason for this resurgence is the use of metamaterials to design THz devices due to lack of natural materials that can respond to this electromagnetic spectrum, the so-called ''THz gap''. Even after years of intense research, THz systems are complex and expensive, unsuitable for mainstream applications. This work focuses on bridging this gap by building all solid-state THz devices for imaging and communication applications in a commercial integrated circuit (IC) technology. One such canonical device is a THz wave modulator that can be used in THz wireless communication devices and as spatial light modulator (SLM) for THz imaging systems. The key contribution of this thesis is a metamaterial based THz wave modulator fabricated in a commercial gallium arsenide (GaAs) process resonant at 0.46 THz using a novel approach of embedding pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) in metamaterial and demonstrate modulation values over 30%, and THz modulation at frequencies up to 10 MHz. Using the THz wave modulator, we fabricated and experimentally demonstrated an all solid-state metamaterial based THz spatial light modulator (SLM) as a 2x2 pixel array operating around 0.46 THz, by raster scanning an occluded metal object in polystyrene using a single-pixel imaging setup. This was an important step towards building an low-voltage (1V), low power, on-chip integrable THz imaging device. Using the characterization result from the THz SLM, we computationally demonstrated a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using spatial light modulation instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. We show two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in

  13. Parameter retrieval of chiral metamaterials based on the state-space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifi, Davoud; Soleimani, Mohammad; Abdolali, Ali

    2013-08-01

    This paper deals with the introduction of an approach for the electromagnetic characterization of homogeneous chiral layers. The proposed method is based on the state-space approach and properties of a 4×4 state transition matrix. Based on this, first, the forward problem analysis through the state-space method is reviewed and properties of the state transition matrix of a chiral layer are presented and proved as two theorems. The formulation of a proposed electromagnetic characterization method is then presented. In this method, scattering data for a linearly polarized plane wave incident normally on a homogeneous chiral slab are combined with properties of a state transition matrix and provide a powerful characterization method. The main difference with respect to other well-established retrieval procedures based on the use of the scattering parameters relies on the direct computation of the transfer matrix of the slab as opposed to the conventional calculation of the propagation constant and impedance of the modes supported by the medium. The proposed approach allows avoiding nonlinearity of the problem but requires getting enough equations to fulfill the task which was provided by considering some properties of the state transition matrix. To demonstrate the applicability and validity of the method, the constitutive parameters of two well-known dispersive chiral metamaterial structures at microwave frequencies are retrieved. The results show that the proposed method is robust and reliable.

  14. Sensitive Metamaterial Sensor for Distinction of Authentic and Inauthentic Fuel Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümkaya, Mehmet Ali; Dinçer, Furkan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Sabah, Cumali

    2017-08-01

    A metamaterial-based sensor has been realized to distinguish authentic and inauthentic fuel samples in the microwave frequency regime. Unlike the many studies in literature on metamaterial-based sensor applications, this study focuses on a compact metamaterial-based sensor operating in the X-band frequency range. Firstly, electromagnetic properties of authentic and inauthentic fuel samples were obtained experimentally in a laboratory environment. Secondly, these experimental results were used to design and create a highly efficient metamaterial-based sensor with easy fabrication characteristics and simple design structure. The experimental results for the sensor were in good agreement with the numerical ones. The proposed sensor offers a more efficient design and can be used to detect fuel and multiple other liquids in various application fields from medical to military areas in several frequency regimes.

  15. Permanently reconfigured metamaterials due to terahertz induced mass transfer of gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for permanent metamaterial reconfiguration via optically induced mass transfer of gold. This mass transfer, which can be explained by field-emission induced electromigration, causes a geometric change in the metamaterial sample. Since a metamaterial's electromagnetic...... response is dictated by its geometry, this structural change massively alters the metamaterial's behavior. We show this by optically forming a conducting pathway between two closely spaced dipole antennas, thereby changing the resonance frequency by a factor of two. After discussing the physics...... of the process, we conclude by presenting an optical fuse that can be used as a sacrificial element to protect sensitive components, demonstrating the applicability of optically induced mass transfer for device design. (C)2015 Optical Society of America...

  16. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  17. Transformation optics and metamaterials at infrared wavelength: engineering of permittivity and permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Rasta; Degiron, Aloyse; Leroux, Xavier; Lupu, Anatole; de Lustrac, André

    2013-05-01

    The transformation optics was introduced by J. Pendry and U. Leonhardt in 2006 [1,2]. In this method an initial space is transformed into a new space and this transformed space can be materialized by a material, which the electromagnetic parameters can be deduced from the metric of the transformed space. In the general case the electromagnetic parameters are anisotropic tensors. At microwave frequencies these materials can be realized using classical metamaterials like SRR form J. Pendry or ELC from D. Smith [3]. At infrared wavelengths this realization is a challenge because the dimensions of the metamaterials are much smaller than the wavelength and become nanometric. Then the design of these metamaterials must be simplified and original methods must be developed to allow the realization of these metamaterials with controlled electromagnetic properties. In this paper we describe the realization of a multilayer metamaterial working at infrared wavelength, which the permittivity and the permeability can be adjusted separately. We give some examples of realized multilayer materials operating around 150THz, with a comparison between the results of full wave simulations of these materials and their characterizations using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer.

  18. Magnetoactive Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunhao; Fang, Nicholas X; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Qiming

    2018-04-11

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative constitutive parameters (modulus and/or mass density) have shown great potential in diverse applications ranging from sonic cloaking, abnormal refraction and superlensing, to noise canceling. In conventional acoustic metamaterials, the negative constitutive parameters are engineered via tailored structures with fixed geometries; therefore, the relationships between constitutive parameters and acoustic frequencies are typically fixed to form a 2D phase space once the structures are fabricated. Here, by means of a model system of magnetoactive lattice structures, stimuli-responsive acoustic metamaterials are demonstrated to be able to extend the 2D phase space to 3D through rapidly and repeatedly switching signs of constitutive parameters with remote magnetic fields. It is shown for the first time that effective modulus can be reversibly switched between positive and negative within controlled frequency regimes through lattice buckling modulated by theoretically predicted magnetic fields. The magnetically triggered negative-modulus and cavity-induced negative density are integrated to achieve flexible switching between single-negative and double-negative. This strategy opens promising avenues for remote, rapid, and reversible modulation of acoustic transportation, refraction, imaging, and focusing in subwavelength regimes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Modeling of causality with metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials may be used to model a 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space–time in which the role of time is played by one of the spatial coordinates. When a metamaterial is built and illuminated with a coherent extraordinary laser beam, the stationary pattern of light propagation inside the metamaterial may be treated as a collection of particle world lines, which represents a complete ‘history’ of this 2 + 1-dimensional space–time. While this model may be used to build interesting space–time analogs, such as metamaterial ‘black holes’ and a metamaterial ‘big bang’, it lacks causality: since light inside the metamaterial may propagate back and forth along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate, events in the ‘future’ may affect events in the ‘past’. Here we demonstrate that a more sophisticated metamaterial model may fix this deficiency via breaking the mirror and temporal (PT) symmetries of the original model and producing one-way propagation along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate. The resulting 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space–time appears to be causal. This scenario may be considered as a metamaterial model of the Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory of causality. (paper)

  20. Light propagation in multilayer metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially constructed materials composed of sub-wavelength building blocks that are designed to interact with light in ways that cannot be achieved with natural materials. Over the last years, improvements in nanoscale fabrication and in metamaterial design have led to the

  1. Spatial gradient tuning in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Tom; Goldflam, Michael; Jokerst, Nan; Basov, Dimitri; Smith, David

    2011-03-01

    Gradient Index (GRIN) metamaterials have been used to create devices inspired by, but often surpassing the potential of, conventional GRIN optics. The unit-cell nature of metamaterials presents the opportunity to exert much greater control over spatial gradients than is possible in natural materials. This is true not only during the design phase but also offers the potential for real-time reconfiguration of the metamaterial gradient. This ability fits nicely into the picture of transformation-optics, in which spatial gradients can enable an impressive suite of innovative devices. We discuss methods to exert control over metamaterial response, focusing on our recent demonstrations using Vanadium Dioxide. We give special attention to role of memristance and mem-capacitance observed in Vanadium Dioxide, which simplify the demands of stimuli and addressing, as well as intersecting metamaterials with the field of memory-materials.

  2. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  3. TiO{sub 2} microsphere-based metamaterials exhibiting effective magnetic response in the terahertz regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Mounaix, P. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5798, LOMA, Talence (France); Nemec, H.; Kadlec, C.; Kadlec, F.; Kuzel, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chung, U.C. [Universite Bordeaux, CNRS - UPR 9048, ICMCB, Pessac (France); CRPP, CNRS - UPR 8641, Pessac (France); Elissalde, C.; Maglione, M. [Universite Bordeaux, CNRS - UPR 9048, ICMCB, Pessac (France)

    2012-12-15

    Thin layers of all-dielectric metamaterials based on TiO{sub 2} spherical particle resonators are investigated. A new method based on spray drying of dissolved nanoparticles is used in the fabrication process. Spectral footprints of electric and magnetic dipoles are reported numerically and through experimental tests. It is a promising step for the construction of novel three-dimensional isotropic metamaterials exhibiting desired electromagnetic properties for terahertz applications. (orig.)

  4. Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Tan, Siyu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States); Key Lab of All Optical Network and Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yahiaoui, Riad [XLIM, Limoges University, CNRS, UMR 7252, 7 rue Jules Vallès, F-19100 Brive (France); Yan, Fengping [Key Lab of All Optical Network and Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Planar metasurfaces and plasmonic resonators have shown great promise for sensing applications across the electromagnetic domain ranging from the microwaves to the optical frequencies. However, these sensors suffer from lower figure of merit and sensitivity due to the radiative and the non-radiative loss channels in the plasmonic metamaterial systems. We demonstrate a metamaterial absorber based ultrasensitive sensing scheme at the terahertz frequencies with significantly enhanced sensitivity and an order of magnitude higher figure of merit compared to planar metasurfaces. Magnetic and electric resonant field enhancement in the impedance matched absorber cavity enables stronger interaction with the dielectric analyte. This finding opens up opportunities for perfect metamaterial absorbers to be applied as efficient sensors in the finger print region of the electromagnetic spectrum with several organic, explosive, and bio-molecules that have unique spectral signature at the terahertz frequencies.

  5. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2015-01-20

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  6. Manipulating the loss in electromagnetic cloaks for perfect wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Kallos, Efthymios; Zhao, Yan; Hao, Yang

    2009-05-11

    We examine several ways to manipulate the loss in electro-magnetic cloaks, based on transformation electromagnetics. It is found that, by utilizing inherent electric and magnetic losses of metamaterials, perfect wave absorption can be achieved based on several popular designs of electromagnetic cloaks. A practical implementation of the absorber, consisting of ten discrete layers of metamaterials, is proposed. The new devices demonstrate super-absorptivity over a moderate wideband range, suitable for both microwave and optical applications. It is corroborated that the device is functional with a subwavelength thickness and, hence, advantageous compared to the conventional absorbers.

  7. Nonlinear Acoustic Metamaterials for Sound Attenuation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    elastic guides, which are discretized into Bernoulli -Euler beam elements [29]. We first describe the equations of particles’ motion in the DE model...to 613 N in the curved one [see Fig. 15(b)]. Overall, the area under the force-time curve, which corresponds to the amount of momentum transferred

  8. Ultrasmooth Patterned Metals for Plasmonics and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Prashant; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2009-07-01

    Surface plasmons are electromagnetic waves that can exist at metal interfaces because of coupling between light and free electrons. Restricted to travel along the interface, these waves can be channeled, concentrated, or otherwise manipulated by surface patterning. However, because surface roughness and other inhomogeneities have so far limited surface-plasmon propagation in real plasmonic devices, simple high-throughput methods are needed to fabricate high-quality patterned metals. We combined template stripping with precisely patterned silicon substrates to obtain ultrasmooth pure metal films with grooves, bumps, pyramids, ridges, and holes. Measured surface-plasmon-propagation lengths on the resulting surfaces approach theoretical values for perfectly flat films. With the use of our method, we demonstrated structures that exhibit Raman scattering enhancements above 107 for sensing applications and multilayer films for optical metamaterials.

  9. Ultrathin microwave metamaterial absorber utilizing embedded resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Ji Sub; Yoo, Young Joon; Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Rhee, Joo Yull; Chen, Xianfeng; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-10-01

    We numerically and experimentally studied an ultrathin and broadband perfect absorber by enhancing the bandwidth with embedded resistors into the metamaterial structure, which is easy to fabricate in order to lower the Q-factor and by using multiple resonances with the patches of different sizes. We analyze the absorption mechanism in terms of the impedance matching with the free space and through the distribution of surface current at each resonance frequency. The magnetic field, induced by the antiparallel surface currents, is formed strongly in the direction opposite to the incident electromagnetic wave, to cancel the incident wave, leading to the perfect absorption. The corresponding experimental absorption was found to be higher than 97% in 0.88-3.15 GHz. The agreement between measurement and simulation was good. The aspects of our proposed structure can be applied to future electronic devices, for example, advanced noise-suppression sheets in the microwave regime.

  10. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2017-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  11. "Slow" light in metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that propagation of microwave pulses can be significantly affected by the presence of a planar fish-scale metamaterial, which is at least 30 times thinner than the wavelength. In the resonant band of the fish-scale structure, a spectrally narrow pulse (18 ns) can be significantly delayed (by 5.6 ns) as if propagating through an 84 cm thick dielectric (epsilon=3.77), while a short pulse (220 ps) will split in two roughly equal pulses propagating with subluminal and superluminal ...

  12. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our...... advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which...

  13. Induced transparencies in metamaterial waveguides doped with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R; Brzozowski, Marek; Racknor, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The light-mater interaction in quantum dots doped artificial electromagnetic materials such as metamaterial waveguides has been studied. The effect of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the absorption coefficient of quantum dots in metamaterial waveguides is investigated. The waveguides are made by sandwiching a metamaterial slab between two dielectric material layers. An ensemble of quantum dots are deposited near the waveguide interfaces. The transfer matrix method is used to calculate the SSPs in the waveguide and the density matrix method and Schrödinger equation method are used to calculate the absorption spectrum. It is found that when the thickness of the metamaterial slab is greater than the SPP wavelength the SPP energy is degenerate. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength the degeneracy of SPP state splits into odd and even SPP modes due the surface mode interaction (SMI) of the waveguide. We also found that the absorption spectrum has a minima (transparent state) which is due to strong coupling between excitons in quantum dots and SPPs in the waveguide. This transparent state is called the SPP induced transparency. However when the thickness of the slab is smaller than that of the SPP wavelength one transparent state in the absorption spectrum split into two transparent states due to the surface mode interaction. This type of transparency is called the SMI induced transparency. Transparent states can be achieved by applying pulse stress field or an intense laser pulse field. Hence present findings can be used to fabricate the metamaterial optical sensors and switches. (paper)

  14. Transformation Laplacian metamaterials: recent advances in manipulating thermal and dc fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The full control of single or even multiple physical fields has attracted intensive research attention in the past decade, thanks to the development of metamaterials and transformation optics. Significant progress has been made in vector fields (e.g., optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics), leading to a host of strikingly functional metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks, illusion devices, concentrators, and rotators. However, metamaterials in vector fields, designed through coordinate transformation of Maxwell’s equations, usually require extreme parameters and impose challenges on the actual realization. In this context, metamaterials in scalar fields (e.g., thermal and dc fields), which are mostly governed by the Laplace equation, lead to more plausible and facile implementations, since there are native insulators and excellent conductors (serving as two extreme cases). This paper therefore is particularly dedicated to reviewing the most recent advances in Laplacian metamaterials in manipulating thermal (both transient and steady states) and dc fields, separately and (or) simultaneously. We focus on the theory, design, and realization of thermal/dc functional metamaterials that can be used to control heat flux and electric current at will. We also provide an outlook toward the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area. (review)

  15. Transformation Laplacian metamaterials: recent advances in manipulating thermal and dc fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The full control of single or even multiple physical fields has attracted intensive research attention in the past decade, thanks to the development of metamaterials and transformation optics. Significant progress has been made in vector fields (e.g., optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics), leading to a host of strikingly functional metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks, illusion devices, concentrators, and rotators. However, metamaterials in vector fields, designed through coordinate transformation of Maxwell’s equations, usually require extreme parameters and impose challenges on the actual realization. In this context, metamaterials in scalar fields (e.g., thermal and dc fields), which are mostly governed by the Laplace equation, lead to more plausible and facile implementations, since there are native insulators and excellent conductors (serving as two extreme cases). This paper therefore is particularly dedicated to reviewing the most recent advances in Laplacian metamaterials in manipulating thermal (both transient and steady states) and dc fields, separately and (or) simultaneously. We focus on the theory, design, and realization of thermal/dc functional metamaterials that can be used to control heat flux and electric current at will. We also provide an outlook toward the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area.

  16. Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Strikwerda, Andrew C; Fan, Kebin; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-02

    We have wrapped metallic cylinders with strongly absorbing metamaterials. These resonant structures, which are patterned on flexible substrates, smoothly coat the cylinder and give it an electromagnetic response designed to minimize its radar cross section. We compare the normal-incidence, small-beam reflection coefficient with the measurement of the far-field bistatic radar cross section of the sample, using a quasi-planar THz wave with a beam diameter significantly larger than the sample dimensions. In this geometry we demonstrate a near-400-fold reduction of the radar cross section at the design frequency of 0.87 THz. In addition we discuss the effect of finite sample dimensions and the spatial dependence of the reflection spectrum of the metamaterial.

  17. Fine tuning and MOND in a metamaterial "multiverse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I; Smolyaninova, Vera N

    2017-08-14

    We consider the recently suggested model of a multiverse based on a ferrofluid. When the ferrofluid is subjected to a modest external magnetic field, the nanoparticles inside the ferrofluid form small hyperbolic metamaterial domains, which from the electromagnetic standpoint behave as individual "Minkowski universes" exhibiting different "laws of physics", such as different strength of effective gravity, different versions of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) and different radiation lifetimes. When the ferrofluid "multiverse" is populated with atomic or molecular species, and these species are excited using an external laser source, the radiation lifetimes of atoms and molecules in these "universes" depend strongly on the individual physical properties of each "universe" via the Purcell effect. Some "universes" are better fine-tuned than others to sustain the excited states of these species. Thus, the ferrofluid-based metamaterial "multiverse" may be used to study models of MOND and to illustrate the fine-tuning mechanism in cosmology.

  18. Babinet's principle for optical frequency metamaterials and nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, T.; Meyrath, T. P.; Seidel, A.; Kaiser, S.; Giessen, H.; Rockstuhl, C.; Lederer, F.

    2007-07-01

    We consider Babinet’s principle for metamaterials at optical frequencies and include realistic conditions which deviate from the theoretical assumptions of the classic principle such as an infinitely thin and perfectly conducting metal layer. It is shown that Babinet’s principle associates not only transmission and reflection between a structure and its complement but also the field modal profiles of the electromagnetic resonances as well as effective material parameters—a critical concept for metamaterials. Also playing an important role in antenna design, Babinet’s principle is particularly interesting to consider in this case where the metasurfaces and their complements can be regarded as variations on a folded dipole antenna array and patch antenna array, respectively.

  19. Ferrite Film Loaded Frequency Selective Metamaterials for Sub-GHz Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic metamaterials are constructed with sub-wavelength structures that exhibit particular electromagnetic properties under a certain frequency range. Because the form-factor of the substructures has to be comparable to the wavelength of the operating frequency, few papers have discussed the metamaterials under GHz frequency. In this paper, we developed an innovative method to reduce the resonant frequency of metamaterals. By integrating the meta-structures with ferrite materials of higher permeability, the cell size of the meta-structure can be scaled down. This paper describes the methodology, design, and development of low-profile GHz ferrite loaded metamaterials. A ferrite film with a permeability of 20 could reduce the resonant frequency of metamaterials by up to 50%. A prototype has been fabricated and the measurement data align well with the simulation results. Because of the lowered operational frequency, the proposed ferrite loaded metamaterials offer more flexibility for various sub-GHz microwave applications, such as cloaks, absorbers, and frequency selective surfaces.

  20. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Complex Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate new geometries of hyperbolic metamaterialssuch as highly corrugated structures, nanoparticle monolayer assemblies, super-structured or vertically arranged multilayersand nanopillars. All structures retain basic propertiesof hyperbolic metamaterials, but have functionality improved...

  1. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Yang, Min; Sheng, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles

  2. Shape morphing Kirigami mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Robin M; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Pirrera, Alberto

    2016-08-05

    Mechanical metamaterials exhibit unusual properties through the shape and movement of their engineered subunits. This work presents a new investigation of the Poisson's ratios of a family of cellular metamaterials based on Kirigami design principles. Kirigami is the art of cutting and folding paper to obtain 3D shapes. This technique allows us to create cellular structures with engineered cuts and folds that produce large shape and volume changes, and with extremely directional, tuneable mechanical properties. We demonstrate how to produce these structures from flat sheets of composite materials. By a combination of analytical models and numerical simulations we show how these Kirigami cellular metamaterials can change their deformation characteristics. We also demonstrate the potential of using these classes of mechanical metamaterials for shape change applications like morphing structures.

  3. Topological mechanics: from metamaterials to active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures with unusual properties, such as negative Poisson ratio, bistability or tunable acoustic response, which originate in the geometry of their unit cell. At the heart of such unusual behavior is often a mechanism: a motion that does not significantly stretch or compress the links between constituent elements. When activated by motors or external fields, these soft motions become the building blocks of robots and smart materials. In this talk, we discuss topological mechanisms that possess two key properties: (i) their existence cannot be traced to a local imbalance between degrees of freedom and constraints (ii) they are robust against a wide range of structural deformations or changes in material parameters. The continuum elasticity of these mechanical structures is captured by non-linear field theories with a topological boundary term similar to topological insulators and quantum Hall systems. We present several applications of these concepts to the design and experimental realization of 2D and 3D topological structures based on linkages, origami, buckling meta-materials and lastly active media that break time-reversal symmetry.

  4. Is it possible to create a quantum electromagnetic "black hole" at the Large Hadron Collider?

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2012-01-01

    As demonstrated by Chernodub, strong magnetic field forces vacuum to develop real condensates of electrically charged rho mesons, which form an anisotropic inhomogeneous superconducting state similar to Abrikosov vortex lattice. As far as electromagnetic field behaviour is concerned, this state of vacuum constitutes a hyperbolic metamaterial [1]. Here we demonstrate that spatial variations of magnetic field may lead to formation of electromagnetic "black holes" inside this metamaterial. Simil...

  5. Homogenization of resonant chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Malureanu, Radu; Lederer, Falk; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is a crucial issue as it allows to describe their optical response in terms of effective wave parameters as e.g. propagation constants. In this paper we consider the possible homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for meta-atoms of a certain size a critical density exists above which increasing coupling between neighboring meta-atoms prevails a reasonable homogenization. On the contrary, a dilution in excess will induce features reminiscent to pho...

  6. Science meets magic: photonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    2012-05-01

    The word "magic" is usually associated with movies, fiction, children stories, etc. but seldom with the natural sciences. Recent advances in metamaterials have changed this notion, in which we can now speak of "almost magical" properties that scientists could only dream about only a decade ago. In this article, we review some of the recent "almost magical" progress in the field of meta-materials.

  7. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaali Mazandarani, M.; Janbaz, S.; Strano, M.; Vergani, L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional

  8. Deformable wire array: fiber drawn tunable metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated.......By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated....

  9. Fractal THz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Xiao, S.

    2010-01-01

    applications. THz radiation can be employed for various purposes, among them the study of vibrations in biological molecules, motion of electrons in semiconductors and propagation of acoustic shock waves in crystals. We propose here a new THz fractal MTM design that shows very high transmission in the desired...... frequency range as well as a clear differentiation between one polarisation and another. Based on theoretical predictions we fabricated and measured a fractal based THz metamaterial that shows more than 60% field transmission at around 1THz for TE polarized light while the TM waves have almost 80% field...... transmission peak at 0.6THz. One of the main characteristics of this design is its tunability by design: by simply changing the length of the fractal elements one can choose the operating frequency window. The modelling, fabrication and characterisation results will be presented in this paper. Due to the long...

  10. Microwave metamaterials made by fused deposition 3D printing of a highly conductive copper-based filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbo; Ye, Shengrong; Reyes, Christopher; Sithikong, Pariya; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2017-05-01

    This work reports a method for fabricating three-dimensional microwave metamaterials by fused deposition modeling 3D printing of a highly conductive polymer composite filament. The conductivity of such a filament is shown to be nearly equivalent to that of a perfect conductor for microwave metamaterial applications. The expanded degrees-of-freedom made available by 3D metamaterial designs are demonstrated by designing, fabricating, and testing a 3D-printed unit cell with a broadband permittivity as high as 14.4. The measured and simulated S-parameters agree well with a mean squared error smaller than 0.1. The presented method not only allows reliable and convenient fabrication of microwave metamaterials with high conductivity but also opens the door to exploiting the third dimension of the unit cell design space to achieve enhanced electromagnetic properties.

  11. Improvement in ultraviolet based decontamination rate using meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaki, Nicolae A.; Bazgan, Sergiu; Ciobanu, Nellu; Turcan, Marina; Paslari, Tatiana; Ristoscu, Carmen; Vaseashta, Ashok; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method of decontamination using photon-crystals consisting of microspheres and fiber optics structures with various geometries. The efficient decontamination using the surface of the evanescent zone of meta-materials opens a new perspective in the decontamination procedures. We propose different topological structures of meta-materials to increase the contact surface of UV radiation with contaminated liquid. Recent observation of the trapping of dielectric particles along the fibers help us propose a new perspective on the new possibilities to trap the viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms from liquids, in this special zone, where the effective UV coherent Raman decontamination becomes possible. The nonlinear theory of the excitation of vibration modes of bio-molecule of viruses and bacteria is revised, taking into consideration the bimodal coherent states in coherent Raman excitation of biomolecules.

  12. Wave dynamics and composite mechanics for microstructured materials and metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume deals with topical problems concerning technology and design in construction of modern metamaterials. The authors construct the models of mechanical, electromechanical and acoustical behavior of the metamaterials, which are founded upon mechanisms existing on micro-level in interaction of elementary structures of the material. The empiric observations on the phenomenological level are used to test the created models. The book provides solutions, based on fundamental methods and models using the theory of wave propagation, nonlinear theories and composite mechanics for media with micro- and nanostructure. They include the models containing arrays of cracks, defects, with presence of micro- and nanosize piezoelectric elements and coupled physical-mechanical fields of different nature. The investigations show that the analytical, numerical and experimental methods permit evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative properties of the materials of this sort, with diagnosis of their effective characte...

  13. A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qiye; Zhang Huaiwu; Yang Qinghui; Long Yang; Jing Yulan; Lin Yuan; Chen Zhi; Zhang Peixin

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber (MA) in the microwave band was designed, fabricated and characterized. The hybrid MA was realized by incorporating a VO 2 film into the conventional resonant MA. By thermally triggering the insulator-metal phase transition of the VO 2 film, the impedance match condition was broken and a deep amplitude modulation of about 63.3% to the electromagnetic wave absorption was achieved. A moderate blue-shift of the resonance frequency was observed which is promising for practical applications. This VO 2 -based MA exhibits many advantages such as strong tunability, frequency agility, simple fabrication and ease of scaling to the terahertz band. (paper)

  14. Flexible metamaterial absorbers for stealth applications at terahertz frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Strikwerda, Andrew; Fan, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have wrapped metallic cylinders with strongly absorbing metamaterials. These resonant structures, which are patterned on flexible substrates, smoothly coat the cylinder and give it an electromagnetic response designed to minimize its radar cross section. We compare the normal-incidence, small......-beam reflection coefficient with the measurement of the far-field bistatic radar cross section of the sample, using a quasi-planar THz wave with a beam diameter significantly larger than the sample dimensions. In this geometry we demonstrate a near-400-fold reduction of the radar cross section at the design...

  15. Equal-potential interpretation of electrically induced resonances in metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Liang; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    We propose a general description of electrically induced resonances (EIR) in metamaterials (MMs) comprising subwavelength unit cells. Based on classical electrodynamics, we found that EIR is governed by an equal-potential effect. Our theory accounts for the EIR phenomena and can give a renewed...... definition of the effective electric field and hence effective permittivity for MMs made of either dielectrics or metals as well as combinations thereof. The EIR, inherent to the periodic structures, may be the unifying origin of recently observed anomalous electromagnetic phenomena, e.g. the enhanced...

  16. Mode coupling in terahertz metamaterials using sub-radiative and super-radiative resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Shen; Zhang, Yaxin; Zhao, Yuncheng; Xu, Gaiqi; Sun, Han; Yang, Ziqiang; Liang, Shixiong

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally explored the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) mode-coupling in terahertz (THz) metamaterial resonators, in which a dipole resonator with a super-radiative mode is coupled to an inductance-capacitance resonator with a sub-radiative mode. The interference between these two resonators depends on the relative spacing between them, resulting in a tunable transparency window in the absorption spectrum. Mode coupling was experimentally demonstrated for three spacing dependent EIT metamaterials. Transmittance of the transparency windows could be either enhanced or suppressed, producing different spectral linewidths. These spacing dependent mode-coupling metamaterials provide alternative ways to create THz devices, such as filters, absorbers, modulators, sensors, and slow-light devices

  17. Quantum optical effective-medium theory and transformation quantum optics for metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Amooghorban, Ehsan; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    electrodynamics of media with both loss and gain. In the second part of this paper, we present a new application of transformation optics whereby local spontaneous-emission rates of quantum emitters can be designed. This follows from an analysis how electromagnetic Green functions transform under coordinate......While typically designed to manipulate classical light, metamaterials have many potential applications for quantum optics as well. We argue why a quantum optical effective-medium theory is needed. We present such a theory for layered metamaterials that is valid for light propagation in all spatial...... directions, thereby generalizing earlier work for one-dimensional propagation. In contrast to classical effective-medium theory there is an additional effective parameter that describes quantum noise. Our results for metamaterials are based on a rather general Lagrangian theory for the quantum...

  18. All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-01-01

    The newly introduced metamaterial-based optical circuit, an analogue of electronic circuit, is becoming a forefront topic in the fields of electronics, optics, plasmonics, and metamaterials. However, metals, as the commonly used plasmonic elements in an optical circuit, suffer from large losses at the visible and infrared wavelengths. We propose here a low-loss, all-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale by using interleaved intrinsic GaAs and doped GaAs, and present the detailed design process for various lumped optical circuit elements, including lumped optical inductors, optical capacitors, optical conductors, and optical insulators. By properly combining these optical circuit elements and arranging anisotropic optical connectors, we obtain a subwavelength optical filter, which can always hold band-stop filtering function for various polarization states of the incident electromagnetic wave. All-semiconductor optical circuits may provide a new opportunity in developing low-power and ultrafast components and devices for optical information processing

  19. Role of shape of hole in transmission and negative refractive index of sandwiched metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Min; Ye Yong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Transmission and negative refractive index (NRI) of metal—dielectric—metal (MDM) sandwiched metamaterial perforated with four kinds of shapes of holes are numerically studied. Results indicate that positions of all transmission peaks of these kinds of holes are sensitive to the shape of the hole. Under the same conditions, the circular hole can obtain the maximum NRI and the rectangular hole can obtain the maximum frequency bandwidth of NRI. Moreover, the figure of merit (FOM) of the circular hole is the maximum too. As a result, we can obtain a higher NRI and FOM metamaterial by drilling circular hole arrays on MDM metamaterial. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Asymmetric transmission in planar chiral split-ring metamaterials: Microscopic Lorentz-theory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Galynsky, Vladimir M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The electronic Lorentz theory is employed to explain the optical properties of planar split-ring metamaterials. Starting from the dynamics of individual free carriers, the electromagnetic response of an individual split-ring meta-atom is determined, and the effective permittivity tensor...... of the metamaterial is calculated for normal incidence of light. Whenever the split ring lacks in-plane mirror symmetry, the corresponding permittivity tensor has a crystallographic structure of an elliptically dichroic medium, and the metamaterial exhibits optical properties of planar chiral structures. Its...... transmission spectra are different for right-handed versus left-handed circular polarization of the incident wave, so the structure changes its transmittance when the direction of incidence is reversed. The magnitude of this change is shown to be related to the geometric parameters of the split ring...

  1. Conical Refraction of Elastic Waves by Anisotropic Metamaterials and Application for Parallel Translation of Elastic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-08-30

    Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.

  2. Plasmonic Dimer Metamaterials and Metasurfaces for Polarization Control of Terahertz and Optical Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We explore the capabilities of planar metamaterials and metasurfaces to control and transform the polarization of electromagnetic radiation, and present a detailed covariant multipole theory of dimer-based metamaterials. We show that various optical properties, such as optical activity, elliptical...... dichroism or polarization conversion can be achieved in metamaterials made of simple shapes, such as nanorods, just by varying their geometrical arrangement. By virtue of the Babinet principle, the proposed theory is extended to inverted structures (membranes) where rods are replaced by slots. Such free......-standing “metasurface membranes” can act as thin-film spectrally sensitive polarization shapers for THz radiation. Proof-of-principle devices (a linear polarizer and a structure with giant optical activity) are fabricated and characterized. Experimental results coincide with those of full-wave numerical simulations...

  3. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  4. Effects of applied electromagnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in an inverse parabolic quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this present work, we have investigated theoretically the effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a GaAs/Al x Ga 1−x As inverse parabolic quantum well for different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The energy levels and wave functions are calculated within the effective mass approximation and the envelope function approach. The analytical expressions of optical properties are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption and refractive index changes depending on the Al concentration at the well center are investigated as a function of the incident photon energy for the different values of the applied electric and magnetic fields. The results show that the applied electric and magnetic fields have a great effect on these optical quantities. - Highlights: ► The x c concentration has a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. ► The EM fields have a great effect on the optical properties of these structures. ► The total absorption coefficients increased as the electric and magnetic field increases. ► The RICs reduced as the electric and magnetic field increases.

  5. Design of Fano Resonators for Novel Metamaterial Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    The term “metamaterials” refers to engineered structures that interact with electromagnetic fields in an unusual but controllable way that cannot be observed with natural materials. Metamaterial design at optical frequencies oftentimes makes of controllable plasmonic interactions. Light can excite collective oscillations of conduction band electrons on a metallic nanostructure. These oscillations result in localized surface plasmon modes which can provide high confinement of fields at metal-dielectric interfaces at nanoscale. Additionally scattering and absorption characteristics of plasmon modes can be controlled by geometrical features of the metallic nanostructures. This ease of controllability has lead to the development of new concepts in light manipulation and enhancement of light-material interactions. Fano resonance and plasmonic induced transparency (PIT) are among the most promising of those. The interference between different plasmon modes induced on nanostructures generates PIT/Fano resonance at optical frequencies. The unusual dispersion characteristics observed within the PIT window can be used for designing optical metamaterials to be used in various applications including bio-chemical sensing, slow light, modulation, perfect absorption, and all-optical switching. This thesis focuses on design of novel plasmonic devices to be used in these applications. The fundamental idea behind these designs is the generation of higher-order plasmon modes, which leads to PIT/Fano resonance-like output characteristics. These are then exploited together with dynamic tunability supported by graphene and field enhancement provided by nonlinear materials to prototype novel plasmonic devices. More specifically, this thesis proposes the following plasmonic device designs. I.\\tNano-disk Fano resonator: Open disk-like plasmonic nanostructures are preferred for bio-chemical sensing because of their higher capacity to be in contact with greater volumes of analyte. High

  6. Topological Gyroscopic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Lisa Michelle

    Topological materials are generally insulating in their bulk, with protected conducting states on their boundaries that are robust against disorder and perturbation of material property. The existence of these conducting edge states is characterized by an integer topological invariant. Though the phenomenon was first discovered in electronic systems, recent years have shown that topological states exist in classical systems as well. In this thesis we are primarily concerned with the topological properties of gyroscopic materials, which are created by coupling networks of fast-spinning objects. Through a series of simulations, numerical calculations, and experiments, we show that these materials can support topological edge states. We find that edge states in these gyroscopic metamaterials bear the hallmarks of topology related to broken time reversal symmetry: they transmit excitations unidirectionally and are extremely robust against experimental disorder. We also explore requirements for topology by studying several lattice configurations and find that topology emerges naturally in gyroscopic systems.A simple prescription can be used to create many gyroscopic lattices. Though many of our gyroscopic networks are periodic, we explore amorphous point-sets and find that topology also emerges in these networks.

  7. Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...

  8. Controlling the emission and propagation of light with nano-plasmonic metamaterials and metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xingjie

    Metamaterials---artificially structured materials with engineered electromagnetic properties---have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities. Metasurfaces are subwavelength thin metamaterial layers to introduce unusual properties do not exist in nature. They can play a fundamental role in generating synthetic scattering diagrams of macroscopic objects. Optical metamaterials and metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating light waves and producing new functionalities. We have studied various topics in this field, from designs to potential applications. We experimentally demonstrated the world's first optical metasurface which is capable of precisely manipulating light in arbitrary ways over a broad range of near-infrared light, which could make possible of many optical innovations such as more powerful microscopes, telecommunications and computers. We proposed the first hyperbolic metasurface, which consist of a highly anisotropic material layer and an isotropic material layer can support Dyakonov surface waves that have hyperbolic dispersion. This type of metasurfaces support a broadband singularity in the photonic density of states, which opens up another possibility to engineer the spontaneous emission efficiency. We also developed a set of parallel simulation tools which can handle a variety of problems in nanophotonics and plasmonics. Especially, we established an on-line research environment for the research community with six tools, which deliver a cloud computing service with no demand for either any powerful computational hardware or any additional software installations and cover a range of tasks including the design and simulation of complex transformation optics devices and optical metamaterials.

  9. Investigation of Non-Linear Dynamics of the Rock Massive,Using Seismological Catalogue data and Induction Electromagnetic Monitoring Data in a Rock Burst Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Y.; Klimko, V. K.; Shipeev, O. V.

    2012-04-01

    Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is influenced on different scales by natural and man-made impacts, which change the medium state and lead as a result to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is the subject of geo synergetics. Paradigm of physical mesomechanics, which was advanced by academician Panin V.E. and his scientific school, which includes the synergetic approach is a constructive method for research and changing the state of heterogenic materials [1]. That result had been obtained on specimens of different materials. In our results of research of no stationary geological medium in a frame of natural experiments in real rock massifs, which are under high man-made influence it was shown, that the state dynamics can be revealed with use synergetics in hierarchic medium. Active and passive geophysical monitoring plays a very important role for research of the state of dynamical geological systems. It can be achieved by use electromagnetic and seismic fields. Our experience of that research showed the changing of the system state reveals on the space scales and times in the parameters, which are linked with the peculiarities of the medium of the second or higher ranks [2-5]. Results of seismological and electromagnetic information showed the mutual additional information on different space-time levels of rock massive state, which are energetic influenced by explosions, used in mining technology. It is revealed a change of nonlinearity degree in time of the massive state by active influence on it. The description of massive movement in a frame of linear dynamical system does not satisfy the practical situation. The received results are of great significance because for the first time we could find the coincidences with the mathematical theory of open systems and experimental natural results with very complicated structure. On that base we developed a new processing method for the seismological information which can be used in

  10. Cavity quantum electrodynamics in application to plasmonics and metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ginzburg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Frontier quantum engineering tasks require reliable control over light-matter interaction dynamics, which could be obtained by introducing electromagnetic structuring. Initiated by the Purcell's discovery of spontaneous emission acceleration in a cavity, the concept of electromagnetic modes' design have gained a considerable amount of attention due to development of photonic crystals, micro-resonators, plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. Those approaches, however, offer qualitatively different strategies for tailoring light-matter interactions and are based on either high quality factor modes shaping, near field control, or both. Remarkably, rigorous quantum mechanical description might address those processes in a different fashion. While traditional cavity quantum electrodynamics tools are commonly based on mode decomposition approach, few challenges rise once dispersive and lossy nanostructures, such as noble metals (plasmonic antennas or metamaterials, are involved. The primary objective of this review is to introduce key methods and techniques while aiming to obtain comprehensive quantum mechanical description of spontaneous, stimulated and higher order emission and interaction processes, tailored by nanostructured material environment. The main challenge and the complexity here are set by the level of rigorousity, up to which materials should be treated. While relatively big nanostructured features (10nm and larger could be addressed by applying fluctuation–dissipation theorem and corresponding Green functions' analysis, smaller objects will require individual approach. Effects of material granularity, spatial dispersion, tunneling over small gaps, material memory and others will be reviewed. Quantum phenomena, inspired and tailored by nanostructured environment, plays a key role in development of quantum information devices and related technologies. Rigorous analysis is required for both examination of experimental observations

  11. Origami-Based Reconfigurable Metamaterials for Tunable Chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuojia; Jing, Liqiao; Yao, Kan; Yang, Yihao; Zheng, Bin; Soukoulis, Costas M; Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Yongmin

    2017-07-01

    Origami is the art of folding two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as a flat sheet of paper, into complex and elaborate three-dimensional (3D) objects. This study reports origami-based metamaterials whose electromagnetic responses are dynamically controllable via switching the folding state of Miura-ori split-ring resonators. The deformation of the Miura-ori unit along the third dimension induces net electric and magnetic dipoles of split-ring resonators parallel or anti-parallel to each other, leading to the strong chiral responses. Circular dichroism as high as 0.6 is experimentally observed while the chirality switching is realized by controlling the deformation direction and kinematics. In addition, the relative density of the origami metamaterials can be dramatically reduced to only 2% of that of the unfolded structure. These results open a new avenue toward lightweight, reconfigurable, and deployable metadevices with simultaneously customized electromagnetic and mechanical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  13. Multiscale mechanics of dynamical metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, M.G.D.; Kouznetsova, V.; Sridhar, A.; Krushynska, A.; Kleiber, M.; Burczynski, T.; Wilde, K.; Gorski, J.; Winkelmann, K.; Smakosz, L.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the computational multi-scale solution of wave propagation phenomena in dynamic metamaterials. Taking the Bloch-Floquet solution for the standard elastic case as a point of departure, an extended scheme is presented to solve for heterogeneous visco-elastic materials. The

  14. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  15. Tunable band gaps in acoustic metamaterials with periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng-Bing; Wen Ji-Hong; Wang Gang; Wen Xi-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezoelectric patches are employed to control the wave propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterial. The performance is characterized by the finite element method. More importantly, we propose an approach to solving the conventional issue of the nonlinear eigenvalue problem, and give a convenient solution to the dispersion properties of 2D metamaterials with periodic arrays of resonant shunts in this article. Based on this modeling method, the dispersion relations of a 2D metamaterial with periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos are calculated. The results show that the internal resonances of the shunting system split the dispersion curves, thereby forming a locally resonant band gap. However, unlike the conventional locally resonant gap, the vibrations in this locally resonant gap are unable to be completely localized in oscillators consisting of shunting inductors and piezo-patches

  16. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  17. Controlling THz and far-IR waves with chiral and bianisotropic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenanakis George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral and bianisotropic metamaterials, where coupling of magnetic and electric phenomena plays an important role, offer advanced possibilities for the control and manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Such a control is particularly useful in the THz and far-IR region where natural materials do not show strong response and thus they are not offered as components for a direct realization of electromagnetic wave manipulation. Among the most useful and important capabilities of chiral and bianisotropic metamaterials is the advanced control of the wave polarization that they offer, including giant polarization rotation, conversion, filtering, absorption, etc. In this paper we review our recent work demonstrating some of those capabilities, in a variety of structures, both planar and 3D-bulk ones. The structures presented show, among others, large optical activity, tunable/switchable wave ellipticity, and polarization-dependent asymmetric transmission.

  18. The design of wideband metamaterial absorber at E band based on defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. S.; Xia, D. Y.; Ding, X. Y.; Wang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    A kind of wideband metamaterial absorber at E band is designed in this paper; it is composed of round metal cells with defect, dielectric substrate and metal film. The electromagnetic parameters of unit cell are calculated by using the finite element method. The results show that the wideband metamaterial absorber presents nearly perfect absorption above 90% with absorption ranging from 65.38GHz to 67.86GHz; the reason of wideband absorption is the overlap of different absorption frequency which is caused by electromagnetic resonance; the size parameters and position of defect has important effect on its absorption property. It has many advantages, such as simply, easy to preparation and so on. It has potential application on aerospace measurement and control, remote data communication, LTE wideband mobile communication and other fields.

  19. Realization of low-scattering metamaterial shell based on cylindrical wave expanding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Chenggang; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate the design of a low-scattering metamaterial shell with strong backward scattering reduction and a wide bandwidth at microwave frequencies. Low echo is achieved through cylindrical wave expanding theory, and such shell only contains one metamaterial layer with simultaneous low permittivity and permeability. Cut-wire structure is selected to realize the low electromagnetic (EM) parameters and low loss on the resonance brim region. The full-model simulations show good agreement with theoretical calculations, and illustrate that near -20dB reduction is achieved and the -10 dB bandwidth can reach up to 0.6 GHz. Compared with the cloak based on transformation electromagnetics, the design possesses advantage of simpler requirement of EM parameters and is much easier to be implemented when only backward scattering field is cared.

  20. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  1. Engineering modes in optical fibers with metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Min; Mortensen, Asger; Qiu, Min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report a preliminary theoretical study on optical fibers with fine material inclusions whose geometrical inhomogeneity is almost indistinguishable by the operating wavelength.We refer to such fibers as metamaterial optical fibers, which can conceptually be considered...... as an extension from the previously much publicized microstructured optical fibers. Metamaterials can have optical properties not obtainable in naturally existing materials, including artificial anisotropy as well as graded material properties. Therefore, incorporation of metamaterial in optical fiber designs can...

  2. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  3. Metamaterials for light rays: ray optics without wave-optical analog in the ray-optics limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Volumes of sub-wavelength electromagnetic elements can act like homogeneous materials: metamaterials. In analogy, sheets of optical elements such as prisms can act ray-optically like homogeneous sheet materials. In this sense, such sheets can be considered to be metamaterials for light rays (METATOYs). METATOYs realize new and unusual transformations of the directions of transmitted light rays. We study here, in the ray-optics and scalar-wave limits, the wave-optical analog of such transformations, and we show that such an analog does not always exist. Perhaps, this is the reason why many of the ray-optical possibilities offered by METATOYs have never before been considered.

  4. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2017-12-15

    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles that guide the structure design rules as well as provide the basis for wave functionalities. Recent examples include resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces that offer flexible control of acoustic wave propagation such as focusing and re-direction; parity-time (PT)-symmetric acoustics that utilizes the general concept of pairing loss and gain to achieve perfect absorption at a single frequency; and topological phononics that can provide one-way edge state propagation. However, such novel functionalities are not without constraints. Metasurface elements rely on resonances to enhance their coupling to the incident wave; hence, its functionality is limited to a narrow frequency band. Topological phononics is the result of the special lattice symmetry that must be fixed at the fabrication stage. Overcoming such constraints naturally forms the basis for further developments. We identify two emergent directions: Integration of acoustic metamaterial elements for achieving broadband characteristics as well as acoustic wave manipulation tasks more complex than the single demonstrative functionality; and active acoustic metamaterials that can adapt to environment as well as to go beyond the constraints on the passive acoustic metamaterials. Examples of a successful recent integration of multi-resonators in achieving broadband sound absorption can be found in optimal sound-absorbing structures, which utilize causality constraint as a design tool in realizing the target-set absorption spectrum with a minimal sample thickness. Active acoustic metamaterials have also demonstrated the capability to tune bandgaps as well as to alter property of resonances in real time through stiffening of the spring constants, in addition to the PT symmetric

  5. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  6. Acoustic metamaterials with synergetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Huang, Meng; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a general design concept for acoustic metamaterials that introduces a ubiquitous synergetic behavior into the design procedure, in which the structure of the design is driven by its functional requirements. Since the physical properties of the widely used, resonant-type metamaterials are mainly determined by the eigenmodes of the structure, we first introduce the design concept through the modal displacement distributions on two typical plate-type structures. Next, by employing broadband sound attenuations that involve both the insulation and absorption as the typical targets, two synergetic coupling behaviors are systematically revealed among the dense resonant modes and multi-cell. Furthermore, through plate-type multiple-cell structures assembled from nine oscillators, the design is shown to realize strong broadband attenuations with either the average sound transmission loss (STL) below 2000 Hz higher than 40 dB or the absorption approximately 0.99 in the range of 400-700 Hz wherein the average absorption below 800 Hz remains higher than 0.8. Finally, two multi-cell plate-type samples are fabricated and then used experimentally to measure the STLs in support of the proposed synergetic coupling design method. Both the computational and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed synergetic design concept could effectively initiate a design for metamaterials that offer a new degree of freedom for broadband sound attenuations.

  7. Tunable metamaterials fabricated by fiber drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a practical scalable approach to the fabrication of tunable metamaterials. Designed for terahertz (THz) wavelengths, the metamaterial is comprised of polyurethane filled with an array of indium wires using the well-established fiber drawing technique. Modification of the dimensions...

  8. Beyond local effective material properties for metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnasri, K.; Khrabustovskyi, A.; Stohrer, C.; Plum, M.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2018-02-01

    To discuss the properties of metamaterials on physical grounds and to consider them in applications, effective material parameters are usually introduced and assigned to a given metamaterial. In most cases, only weak spatial dispersion is considered. It allows to assign local material properties, e.g., a permittivity and a permeability. However, this turned out to be insufficient. To solve this problem, we study here the effective properties of metamaterials with constitutive relations beyond a local response and take strong spatial dispersion into account. This research requires two contributions. First, bulk properties in terms of eigenmodes need to be studied. We particularly investigate the isofrequency surfaces of their dispersion relation are investigated and compared to those of an actual metamaterial. The significant improvement to effectively describe it provides evidence for the necessity to use nonlocal material laws in the effective description of metamaterials. Second, to be able to capitalize on such constitutive relations, also interface conditions need to be known. They are derived in this contribution for our form of the nonlocality using a generalized (weak) formulation of Maxwell's equations. Based on such interface conditions, Fresnel expressions are obtained that predict the amplitude of the reflected and transmitted plane wave upon illuminating a slab of such a nonlocal metamaterial. This all together offers the necessary means for the in-depth analysis of metamaterials characterized by strong spatial dispersion. The general formulation we choose here renders our approach applicable to a wide class of metamaterials.

  9. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided

  10. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  11. Anomalous acoustic dispersion in architected microlattice metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    KröDel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara

    The ability to control dispersion in acoustic metamaterials is crucial to realize acoustic filtering and rectification devices as well as perfect imaging using negative refractive index materials. Architected microlattice metamaterials immersed in fluid constitute a versatile platform for achieving such control. We investigate architected microlattice materials able to exploit locally resonant modes of their fundamental building blocks that couple with propagating acoustic waves. Using analytical, numerical and experimental methods we find that such lattice materials show a hybrid dispersion behavior governed by Biot's theory for long wavelengths and multiple scattering theory when wave frequency is close to the resonances of the building block. We identify the relevant geometric parameters to alter and control the group and phase velocities in this class of acoustic metamaterials. Furthermore, we fabricate small-scale acoustic metamaterial samples using high precision SLA additive manufacturing and test the resulting materials experimentally using a customized ultrasonic setup. This work paves the way for new acoustic devices based on microlattice metamaterials.

  12. Optical properties of nanowire metamaterials with gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidio de Lima, Joaquim Junior; Adam, Jost; Rego, Davi

    2016-01-01

    The transmittance, reflectance and absorption of a nanowire metamaterial with optical gain are numerically simulated and investigated. It is assumed that the metamaterial is represented by aligned silver nanowires embedded into a semiconductor matrix, made of either silicon or gallium phosphide....... The gain in the matrix is modeled by adding a negative imaginary part to the dielectric function of the semiconductor. It is found that the optical coefficients of the metamaterial depend on the gain magnitude in a non-trivial way: they can both increase and decrease with gain depending on the lattice...... constant of the metamaterial. This peculiar behavior is explained by the field redistribution between the lossy metal nanowires and the amplifying matrix material. These findings are significant for a proper design of nanowire metamaterials with low optical losses for diverse applications....

  13. Intrinsic rippling enhances static non-reciprocity in a graphene metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Duc Tam; Park, Harold S; Kim, Sung Youb

    2018-01-18

    In mechanical systems, Maxwell-Betti reciprocity means that the displacement at point B in response to a force at point A is the same as the displacement at point A in response to the same force applied at point B. Because the notion of reciprocity is general, fundamental, and is operant for other physical systems like electromagnetics, acoustics, and optics, there is significant interest in understanding systems that are not reciprocal, or exhibit non-reciprocity. However, most studies on non-reciprocity have occurred in bulk-scale structures for dynamic problems involving time reversal symmetry. As a result, little is known about the mechanisms governing static non-reciprocal responses, particularly in atomically-thin two-dimensional materials like graphene. Here, we use classical atomistic simulations to demonstrate that out-of-plane ripples, which are intrinsic to graphene, enable significant, multiple orders of magnitude enhancements in the statically non-reciprocal response of graphene metamaterials. Specifically, we find that a striking interplay between the ripples and the stress fields that are induced in the metamaterials due to their geometry impacts the displacements that are transmitted by the metamaterial, thus leading to a significantly enhanced static non-reciprocal response. This study thus demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional mechanical metamaterials for symmetry-breaking applications.

  14. Novel frontier in quantum metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K.

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with exotic physical, chemical and optical properties not found in natural materials. In the past decade they have attracted monumental attention from the scientific community owing to their applications ranging from physics to engineering. However, the conventional solid-state metamaterial platforms suffer from inevitable optical loss, defects which severely curtain their application at few-photon level. The quest for quantum optical applications with metamaterial-based technologies has stimulated researchers to engineer novel lossless materials and construct new platforms. Recently, by integrating two important and timely realms of science - trapped atom physics and metamaterials -, we proposed and theoretically demonstrated a topologically reconfigurable and lossless quantum metamaterial. The atomic lattice quantum metamaterial is immune to aforementioned critical challenges and can be employed at a single-photon level. Moreover, in stark contrast to conventional solid-state platforms, optical lattices provide the necessary freedom to precisely localize (within few nanometer of uncertainty) a probe atom, inside the atomic lattice quantum metamaterial to harness its exotic optical properties. In addition to its aforementioned novel characteristics, our atomic lattice quantum metamaterial offers a unique degree of freedom, namely all-optical control on ultrafast time scales over the photonic topological transition of isofrequency contours using weak fields, not possible with previous solid-state platforms. In this work, we leverage the tools, techniques, scientific advances in the field of atomic, molecular and optical physics, integrated with the concepts used in metamaterials to propose and theoretically demonstrate a novel platform towards quantum metamaterial with novel functionalities by bringing together the best of two worlds.

  15. Structuring Light to Manipulate Multipolar Resonances for Metamaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanya

    Multipolar electromagnetic phenomena in sub-wavelength resonators are at the heart of metamaterial science and technology. Typically, researchers engineer multipolar light-matter interactions by modifying the size, shape, and composition of the resonators. Here, we instead engineer multipolar interactions by modifying properties of the incident radiation. In this dissertation, we propose a new framework for determining the scattering response of resonators based on properties of the local excitation field. First, we derive an analytical theory to determine the scattering response of spherical nanoparticles under any type of illumination. Using this theory, we demonstrate the ability to drastically manipulate the scattering properties of a spherical nanoparticle by varying the illumination and demonstrate excitation of a longitudinal quadrupole mode that cannot be accessed with conventional illumination. Next, we investigate the response of dielectric dimer structures illuminated by cylindrical vector beams. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations, we demonstrate significant modification of the scattering spectra of dimer antennas and reveal how the illumination condition gives rise to these spectra through manipulation of electric and magnetic mode hybridization. Finally, we present a simple and efficient numerical simulation based on local field principles for extracting the multipolar response of any resonator under illumination by structured light. This dissertation enhances the understanding of fundamental light-matter interactions in metamaterials and lays the foundation for researchers to identify, quantify, and manipulate multipolar light-matter interactions through optical beam engineering.

  16. Graphene metamaterial spatial light modulator for infrared single pixel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kebin; Suen, Jonathan Y; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-10-16

    High-resolution and hyperspectral imaging has long been a goal for multi-dimensional data fusion sensing applications - of interest for autonomous vehicles and environmental monitoring. In the long wave infrared regime this quest has been impeded by size, weight, power, and cost issues, especially as focal-plane array detector sizes increase. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrated a new approach based on a metamaterial graphene spatial light modulator (GSLM) for infrared single pixel imaging. A frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) imaging technique is designed and implemented, and relies entirely on the electronic reconfigurability of the GSLM. We compare our approach to the more common raster-scan method and directly show FDM image frame rates can be 64 times faster with no degradation of image quality. Our device and related imaging architecture are not restricted to the infrared regime, and may be scaled to other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The study presented here opens a new approach for fast and efficient single pixel imaging utilizing graphene metamaterials with novel acquisition strategies.

  17. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  18. Calculations of a wideband metamaterial absorber using equivalent medium theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin; Wang, Danqi; Yu, Shengqing; Lou, Yanchao; Guo, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) have drawn increasing attention in many areas due to the fact that they can achieve electromagnetic (EM) waves with unity absorptivity. We demonstrate the design, simulation, experiment and calculation of a wideband MMA based on a loaded double-square-loop (DSL) array of chip resisters. For a normal incidence EM wave, the simulated results show that the absorption of the full width at half maximum is about 9.1 GHz, and the relative bandwidth is 87.1%. Experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. More importantly, equivalent medium theory (EMT) is utilized to calculate the absorptions of the DSL MMA, and the calculated absorptions based on EMT agree with the simulated and measured results. The method based on EMT provides a new way to analysis the mechanism of MMAs.

  19. Two-dimensional QR-coded metamaterial absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Sai; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of metamaterial absorbers is proposed based on QR coding and topology optimization. Such absorbers look like QR codes and can be recognized by decoding softwares as well as mobile phones. To verify the design, two lightweight wideband absorbers are designed, which can achieve wideband absorption above 90 % in 6.68-19.30 and 7.00-19.70 GHz, respectively. More importantly, polarization-independent absorption over 90 % can be maintained under incident angle within 55°. The QR code absorber not only can achieve wideband absorption, but also can carry information such as texts and Web sites. They are of important values in applications such identification and electromagnetic protection.

  20. Antimagnets: controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Prat-Camps, Jordi; Chen Duxing

    2011-01-01

    Magnetism is very important in various areas of science and technology, ranging from magnetic recording through energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism-to create and manipulate magnetic fields-almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property that has been elusive until now: how to 'switch off' the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design that conceals the magnetic response of a given volume from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields, in some respects analogous to recent theoretical proposals for cloaking electromagnetic waves with metamaterials. However, unlike these devices, which require extreme material properties, our device is feasible and needs only two kinds of available materials: superconductors and isotropic magnetic materials. Antimagnets may have applications in magnetic-based medical techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or in reducing the magnetic signature of vessels or planes.

  1. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  2. Magneto-optical response in bimetallic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Fedotov, Vassili; Vienne, Guillaume; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate resonant Faraday polarization rotation in plasmonic arrays of bimetallic nano-ring resonators consisting of Au and Ni sections. This metamaterial design allows the optimization of the trade-off between the enhancement of magneto-optical effects and plasmonic dissipation. Nickel sections corresponding to as little as 6% of the total surface of the metamaterial result in magneto-optically induced polarization rotation equal to that of a continuous nickel film. Such bimetallic metamaterials can be used in compact magnetic sensors, active plasmonic components, and integrated photonic circuits.

  3. Toward high throughput optical metamaterial assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jake; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2015-11-01

    Optical metamaterials have unique engineered optical properties. These properties arise from the careful organization of plasmonic elements. Transitioning these properties from laboratory experiments to functional materials may lead to disruptive technologies for controlling light. A significant issue impeding the realization of optical metamaterial devices is the need for robust and efficient assembly strategies to govern the order of the nanometer-sized elements while enabling macroscopic throughput. This mini-review critically highlights recent approaches and challenges in creating these artificial materials. As the ability to assemble optical metamaterials improves, new unforeseen opportunities may arise for revolutionary optical devices.

  4. One-Dimensional Chirality: Strong Optical Activity in Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Carlo; Di Falco, Andrea; Scalora, Michael; Ciattoni, Alessandro

    2015-07-31

    We suggest that electromagnetic chirality, generally displayed by 3D or 2D complex chiral structures, can occur in 1D patterned composites whose components are achiral. This feature is highly unexpected in a 1D system which is geometrically achiral since its mirror image can always be superposed onto it by a 180 deg rotation. We analytically evaluate from first principles the bianisotropic response of multilayered metamaterials and we show that the chiral tensor is not vanishing if the system is geometrically one-dimensional chiral; i.e., its mirror image cannot be superposed onto it by using translations without resorting to rotations. As a signature of 1D chirality, we show that 1D chiral metamaterials support optical activity and we prove that this phenomenon undergoes a dramatic nonresonant enhancement in the epsilon-near-zero regime where the magnetoelectric coupling can become dominant in the constitutive relations.

  5. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  6. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, M.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a novel electrically tunable hybrid graphene-gold Fano resonator. The proposed metamaterial consists of a square graphene patch and a square gold frame. The destructive interference between the narrow- and broadband dipolar surface plasmons, which are induced respectively on the surfaces of the graphene patch and the gold frame, leads to the plasmonic equivalent of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The response of the metamaterial is polarization independent due to the symmetry of the structure and its spectral features are shown to be highly controllable by changing a gate voltage applied to the graphene patch. Additionally, effective group index of the device is retrieved and is found to be very high within the EIT window suggesting its potential use in slow light applications. Potential outcomes such as high sensing ability and switching at terahertz frequencies are demonstrated through numerical simulations with realistic parameters.

  7. Broadband enhancement of local density of states using silicon-compatible hyperbolic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Inampudi, Sandeep; Capretti, Antonio [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Light emitting silicon quantum dots by colloidal synthesis were uniformly spin-coated into a 20 nm-thick film and deposited atop a hyperbolic metamaterial of alternating TiN and SiO{sub 2} sub-wavelength layers. Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as a function of the emission wavelength in partnership with rigorous electromagnetic modeling of dipolar emission, we demonstrate enhanced Local Density of States and coupling to high-k modes in a broad spectral range. These findings provide an alternative approach for the engineering of novel Si-compatible broadband sources that leverage the control of radiative transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials and the flexibility of the widespread Si platform.

  8. Near-field imaging of interacting nano objects with metal and metamaterial superlenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkarainen, T; Setälä, T; Friberg, A T

    2012-01-01

    Employing rigorous electromagnetic theory we investigate optical the near-field imaging of two interacting dipole-like objects with metal and slightly lossy metamaterial nanoslab superlenses. Our analysis indicates that the dipole emission is suppressed by near-field interactions when the objects are close to the lens or each other. This strongly influences the image quality, in particular with objects of small size and high polarizability. The interference from two nearby objects also affects the resolution and subwavelength definition can only be obtained for objects with dipole moments predominantly orthogonal to the slab. Such an optimal imaging condition is achieved with excitation by total internal reflection. With simulations we show that in these circumstances, subwavelength resolutions of about λ/5 for silver superlens and λ/10 for metamaterial slab are reached. (paper)

  9. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in engineered optical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchinitser, Natalia

    In this talk, we consider fundamental optical phenomena at the interface of nonlinear and singular optics in artificial media, including theoretical and experimental studies of linear and nonlinear light-matter interactions of vector and singular optical beams in metamaterials. We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to ``engineer'' light itself. Thanks to their ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, metamaterials open new degrees of freedom for tailoring complex polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. We will discuss several approaches to structured light manipulation on the nanoscale using metal-dielectric, all-dielectric and hyperbolic metamaterials. These new functionalities, including polarization and OAM conversion, beam magnification and de-magnification, and sub-wavelength imaging using novel non-resonant hyperlens are likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. The emergence of metamaterials also has a strong potential to enable a plethora of novel nonlinear light-matter interactions and even new nonlinear materials. In particular, nonlinear focusing and defocusing effects are of paramount importance for manipulation of the minimum focusing spot size of structured light beams necessary for nanoscale trapping, manipulation, and fundamental spectroscopic studies. Colloidal suspensions offer as a promising platform for engineering polarizibilities and realization of large and tunable nonlinearities. We will present our recent studies of the phenomenon of spatial modulational instability leading to laser beam filamentation in an engineered soft-matter nonlinear medium. Finally, we introduce so-called virtual hyperbolic metamaterials formed by an array of plasma channels in air as a result of self-focusing of an intense laser pulse, and show that such structure can be used to manipulate microwave beams in a free space. This

  10. Quantum mechanics of hyperbolic metamaterials: Modeling of quantum time and Everett's “universal wavefunction”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I., E-mail: smoly@umd.edu

    2014-11-15

    Modern advances in transformation optics and electromagnetic metamaterials made possible experimental demonstrations of highly unusual curvilinear “optical spaces”, such as various geometries necessary for electromagnetic cloaking. Recently we demonstrated that mapping light intensity in a hyperbolic metamaterial may also model the flow of time in an effective (2+1) dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Curving such an effective spacetime creates experimental model of a toy “big bang”. Here we demonstrate that at low light levels this model may be used to emulate a fully covariant version of quantum mechanics in a (2+1) dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When quantum mechanical description is applied near the toy “big bang”, the Everett's “universal wave function” formalism arises naturally, in which the wave function of the model “universe” appears to be a quantum superposition of mutually orthogonal “parallel universe” states.

  11. Studies on the resonant properties in the asymmetric dipole-array terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Qingli; Li, Chenyu; Shi, Lan; Liu, Changxiang; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Artificial metamaterials with appropriate design can exhibit unique electromagnetic phenomena which do not exist in natural materials. Some studies have shown that the method of breaking the geometric symmetry is capable to modify the electromagnetic response, such as the metamaterial induced transparency in the Fano resonators. In this work, by using the finite-difference time-domain method, we firstly simulate the process that terahertz wave interacts with double-bar structures, in which one bar length is fixed at 36 μm and the other bar length is set to be 12, 24, 36, 48, and 56 μm, respectively. The incident terahertz polarization is along the bar direction. Simulated results show when the variable bar length is less than 36 μm, there is only one obvious resonant dip in transmission spectrum. Meanwhile, with the decreased bar length, this dip frequency presents a slight blueshift. Additionally, by tuning the spacing vertical to bar direction between these two bars, it still exhibits one dip. This result indicates the short bar less than 36 μm does not play important role and the coupling between vertical bars is weak. However, when the variable bar length is larger than 36 μm there are two obvious Fano-shaped resonant dips. With the increased bar length, the low-frequency dip shows a remarkable redshift, while the high-frequency one is almost unchanged. By further tuning the bar spacing vertical to the bar direction, two dips always exist. This phenomenon implies that the coupling between horizontal bars is dominated in this process. Moreover, the metamaterial induced transparency window is found between two resonant dips. The appearance of the resonances is attributed to the excitation of trapped mode. Our obtained results indicate that such metamaterials with very simple configuration could also provide the potential application in the field of terahertz slow-light devices, amplitude and phase modulators.

  12. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  13. Metamaterials and Metasurfaces in THz Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    We present a set of terahertz optical components, such as linear and circular polarizers, absorbers, devices with enhanced transmittance, and single layer chiral systems based on metamaterials. Discussion covers design rules, fabrication and characterization....

  14. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua; Yang, Xu; Gu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Jun; Yue, Weisheng; Tian, Zhen; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena

  15. Topological sound in active-liquid metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souslov, Anton; van Zuiden, Benjamin C.; Bartolo, Denis; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    Liquids composed of self-propelled particles have been experimentally realized using molecular, colloidal or macroscopic constituents. These active liquids can flow spontaneously even in the absence of an external drive. Unlike spontaneous active flow, the propagation of density waves in confined active liquids is not well explored. Here, we exploit a mapping between density waves on top of a chiral flow and electrons in a synthetic gauge field to lay out design principles for artificial structures termed topological active metamaterials. We design metamaterials that break time-reversal symmetry using lattices composed of annular channels filled with a spontaneously flowing active liquid. Such active metamaterials support topologically protected sound modes that propagate unidirectionally, without backscattering, along either sample edges or domain walls and despite overdamped particle dynamics. Our work illustrates how parity-symmetry breaking in metamaterial structure combined with microscopic irreversibility of active matter leads to novel functionalities that cannot be achieved using only passive materials.

  16. Deployable Thermoelectric Metamaterial Energy Harvesting Monitoring System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will combine a novel asynchronous monitoring system with the first-of-its-kind thermoelectric metamaterial.  The thermoelectric prototype is constructed...

  17. Interferometric direction finding with a metamaterial detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David, E-mail: david.schurig@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Shrekenhamer, David; Padilla, Willie [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Xu, Wangren; Sonkusale, Sameer [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    We present measurements and analysis demonstrating useful direction finding of sources in the S band (2–4 GHz) using a metamaterial detector. An augmented metamaterial absorber that supports magnitude and phase measurement of the incident electric field, within each unit cell, is described. The metamaterial is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process with off-board back-end electronics. We also discuss on-board back-end implementation strategies. Direction finding performance is analyzed for the fabricated metamaterial detector using simulated data and the standard algorithm, MUtiple SIgnal Classification. The performance of this complete system is characterized by its angular resolution as a function of radiation density at the detector. Sources with power outputs typical of mobile communication devices can be resolved at kilometer distances with sub-degree resolution and high frame rates.

  18. Metamaterial polarization converter analysis: limits of performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitry L.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    and a single layer with a ground plane can have 100 % polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching the designated limits of efficiency using a simple metamaterial design. Our general analysis provides useful guidelines for the metamaterial polarization converter design......In this paper, we analyze the theoretical limits of a metamaterial-based converter with orthogonal linear eigenpolarizations that allow linear-to-elliptical polarization transformation with any desired ellipticity and ellipse orientation. We employ the transmission line approach providing a needed...... level of the design generalization. Our analysis reveals that the maximal conversion efficiency for transmission through a single metamaterial layer is 50 %, while the realistic reflection configuration can give the conversion efficiency up to 90 %. We show that a double layer transmission converter...

  19. Active metamaterial: Gain and stability, and microfluidic chip for THz cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi

    Metamaterials are artificially designed composite materials which can exhibit unique and unusual properties such as the negative refractive index, negative phase velocity, etc. The concept of metamaterials becomes prevalent in the electromagnetic society since the first experimental implementation in the early 2000s. Many fascinated potential applications, e.g. super lens, invisibility cloaking, and novel antennas that are electrically small, have been proposed based on metamaterials. However, most of the applications still remain in theory and are not suitable for practical applications mainly due to the intrinsic loss and narrow bandwidth (large dispersion) determined by the fundamental physics of metamaterials. In this dissertation, we incorporate active gain devices into conventional passive metamaterials to overcome loss and even provide gain. Two types of active gain negative refractive index metamaterials are proposed, designed and experimentally demonstrated, including an active composite left-/right-handed transmission line and an active volumetric metamaterial. In addition, we investigate the non-Foster circuits for broadband matching of electrically small antennas. A rigorous way of analyzing the stability of non-Foster circuits by normalized determinant function is proposed. We study the practical factors that may affect the stability of non-Foster circuits, including the device parasitics, DC biasing, layouts and load impedance. A stable floating negative capacitor is designed, fabricated and tested. Moreover, it is important to resolve the sign of refractive index for active gain media which can be quite challenging. We investigate the analytical solution of a gain slab system, and apply the Nyquist criterion to analyze the stability of a causal gain medium. We then emphasize that the result of frequency domain simulation has to be treated with care. Lastly, this dissertation discusses another interesting topic about THz spectroscopy of live cells

  20. Design, Modeling, and Measurement of a Metamaterial Electromagnetic Field Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    74 CPML convolution perfectly matched layer ........................................................ 75 TE transverse electric...However, unlike COMSOL®, the PML employed by CST MWS® is actually a convolution PML (CPML) [1]. This method boasts a number of benefits over...Figure 82 shows the end result of the manufacturing process. Each PCB is first laminated with a photoresist and then exposed to an ultraviolet light

  1. Microwave metamaterials—from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-08-01

    Since 2004, my group at Southeast University has been carrying out research into microwave metamaterials, which are classified into three catagories: metamaterials based on the effective medium model, plasmonic metamaterials for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), and coding and programmable metamaterials. For effective-medium metamaterials, we have developed a general theory to accurately describe effective permittivity and permeability in semi-analytical forms, from which we have designed and realized a three dimensional (3D) wideband ground-plane invisibility cloak, a free-space electrostatic invisibility cloak, an electromagnetic black hole, optical/radar illusions, and radially anisotropic zero-index metamaterial for omni-directional radiation and a nearly perfect power combination of source array, etc. We have also considered the engineering applications of microwave metamaterials, such as a broadband and low-loss 3D transformation-optics lens for wide-angle scanning, a 3D planar gradient-index lens for high-gain radiations, and a random metasurface for reducing radar cross sections. In the area of plasmonic metamaterials, we proposed an ultrathin, narrow, and flexible corrugated metallic strip to guide SPPs with a small bending loss and radiation loss, from which we designed and realized a series of SPP passive devices (e.g. power divider, coupler, filter, and resonator) and active devices (e.g. amplifier and duplexer). We also showed a significant feature of the ultrathin SPP waveguide in overcoming the challenge of signal integrity in traditional integrated circuits, which will help build a high-performance SPP wireless communication system. In the area of coding and programmable metamaterials, we proposed a new measure to describe a metamaterial from the viewpoint of information theory. We have illustrated theoretically and experimentally that coding metamaterials composed of digital units can be controlled by coding sequences, leading to different

  2. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture

  3. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R. [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 27708 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  4. Levitated crystals and quasicrystals of metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goree, John A [Dept Phys and Astron., University of Iowa

    2012-07-25

    New scientific and technological opportunities exist by marrying dusty plasma research with metamaterials. Specifically, by balancing control and self-assembly, certain laboratory plasmas can become a generic levitation platform for novel structure formation and nanomaterial synthesis. We propose to experimentally investigate two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) levitated structures of metamaterials and their properties. Such structures can self assemble in laboratory plasmas, similar to levitated dust crystals which were discovered in the mid 1990's. Laboratory plasma platform for metamaterial formation eliminates substrates upon which most metamaterials have to be supported. Three types of experiments, with similar setups, are discussed here. Levitated crystal structures of metamaterials using anisotropic microparticles are the most basic of the three. The second experiment examines whether quasicrystals of metamaterials are possible. Quasicrystals, discovered in the 1980's, possess so-called forbidden symmetries according to the conventional crystallography. The proposed experiment could answer many fundamental questions about structural, thermal and dynamical properties of quasicrystals. And finally, how to use nanoparticle coated microparticles to synthesize very long carbon nanotubes is also described. All of the experiments can fit inside a standard International Space Station locker with dimensions of 8-inch x 17-inch X 18-inch. Microgravity environment is deemed essential in particular for large 3D structures and very long carbon nanotube synthesis.

  5. Multilayer-WS2:ferroelectric composite for ultrafast tunable metamaterial-induced transparency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jinghuan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-08-01

    An ultrafast and low-power all-optical tunable metamaterial-induced transparency is realized, using polycrystalline barium titanate doped gold nanoparticles and multilayer tungsten disulfide microsheets as nonlinear optical materials. Large nonlinearity enhancement is obtained associated with quantum confinement effect, local-field effect, and reinforced interaction between light and multilayer tungsten disulfide. Low threshold pump intensity of 20 MW/cm2 is achieved. An ultrafast response time of 85 ps is maintained because of fast carrier relaxation dynamics in nanoscale crystal grains of polycrystalline barium titanate. This may be useful for the study of integrated photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials.

  6. Multilayer-WS2:ferroelectric composite for ultrafast tunable metamaterial-induced transparency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jinghuan; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    An ultrafast and low-power all-optical tunable metamaterial-induced transparency is realized, using polycrystalline barium titanate doped gold nanoparticles and multilayer tungsten disulfide microsheets as nonlinear optical materials. Large nonlinearity enhancement is obtained associated with quantum confinement effect, local-field effect, and reinforced interaction between light and multilayer tungsten disulfide. Low threshold pump intensity of 20 MW/cm 2 is achieved. An ultrafast response time of 85 ps is maintained because of fast carrier relaxation dynamics in nanoscale crystal grains of polycrystalline barium titanate. This may be useful for the study of integrated photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials

  7. Transmission and reflection properties of terahertz fractal metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Cooke, David

    2010-01-01

    We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial.......We use THz time-domain spectroscopy to investigate transmission and reflection properties of metallic fractal metamaterial structures. We observe loss of free-space energy at certain resonance frequencies, indicating excitation of surface modes of the metamaterial....

  8. Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.

  9. Is it possible to homogenize resonant chiral metamaterials ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Homogenization of metamaterials is very important as it makes possible description in terms of effective parameters. In this contribution we consider the homogenization of chiral metamaterials. We show that for some metamaterials there is an optimal meta-atom size which depends on the coupling...

  10. Contribution of the magnetic resonance to the third harmonic generation from a fishnet metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, J.; Shcherbakov, M. R.; Chipouline, A.; Panov, V. I.; Helgert, C.; Paul, T.; Rockstuhl, C.; Lederer, F.; Kley, E.-B.; Tünnermann, A.; Fedyanin, A. A.; Pertsch, T.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the third harmonic generated by a double-layer fishnet metamaterial. To unambiguously disclose most notably the influence of the magnetic resonance, the generated third harmonic was measured as a function of the angle of incidence. It is shown experimentally and numerically that when the magnetic resonance is excited by a pump beam, the angular dependence of the third harmonic signal has a local maximum at an incidence angle of θ≃20∘. This maximum is shown to be a fingerprint of the antisymmetric distribution of currents in the gold layers. An analytical model based on the nonlinear dynamics of the electrons inside the gold shows excellent agreement with experimental and numerical results. This clearly indicates the difference in the third harmonic angular pattern at electric and magnetic resonances of the metamaterial.

  11. Computational electromagnetics recent advances and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Emerging Topics in Computational Electromagnetics in Computational Electromagnetics presents advances in Computational Electromagnetics. This book is designed to fill the existing gap in current CEM literature that only cover the conventional numerical techniques for solving traditional EM problems. The book examines new algorithms, and applications of these algorithms for solving problems of current interest that are not readily amenable to efficient treatment by using the existing techniques. The authors discuss solution techniques for problems arising in nanotechnology, bioEM, metamaterials, as well as multiscale problems. They present techniques that utilize recent advances in computer technology, such as parallel architectures, and the increasing need to solve large and complex problems in a time efficient manner by using highly scalable algorithms.

  12. Reversed Cherenkov emission of terahertz waves from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core and left-handed cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunov, M I; Mikhaylovskiy, R V; Bodrov, S B; Luk'yanchuk, B S

    2010-01-18

    We propose a scheme for an experimental verification of the reversed Cherenkov effect in left-handed media. The scheme uses optical-to-terahertz conversion in a planar sandwichlike structure that consists of a nonlinear core cladded with a material that exhibits left-handedness at terahertz frequencies. The focused into a line femtosecond laser pulse propagates in the core and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum, and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The proposed structure can be a useful tool for characterization of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials in the terahertz frequency range.

  13. Effects of Metamaterial Slabs Applied to Wireless Power Transfer at 13.56 MHz

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gunyoung; Oh, Taek-Kyu; Lee, Bomson

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of a metamaterial slab (or a practical “perfect lens”) with negative permeability applied to a two loop magnetically coupled wireless power transfer (WPT) system at 13.56 MHz, based on theory, full-wave electromagnetic- (EM-) simulations, and measurements. When using lossless slabs with ideal negative permeability in EM-simulations, the WPT efficiencies have been found to be enhanced close to 100% due to the magnetic field focusing. For the case of using a real...

  14. Wideband absorption in one dimensional photonic crystal with graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongqiang; Liu, Hongmei

    2018-02-01

    A broadband absorber which was proposed by one dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) containing graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterials (GHMM) is theoretically investigated. For TM mode, it was demonstrated to absorb roughly 90% of all available electromagnetic waves at a 14 THz absorption bandwidth at normal incidence. The absorption bandwidth was affected by Fermi energy and thickness of dielectric layer. When the incident angle was increased, the absorption value decreased, and the absorption band had a gradual blue shift. These findings have potential applications for designing broadband optoelectronic devices at mid-infrared and THz frequency range.

  15. Programmable Self-Locking Origami Mechanical Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Chu, Shih-Cheng A; Xia, Yutong; Wang, Kon-Well

    2018-04-01

    Developing mechanical metamaterials with programmable properties is an emerging topic receiving wide attention. While the programmability mainly originates from structural multistability in previously designed metamaterials, here it is shown that nonflat-foldable origami provides a new platform to achieve programmability via its intrinsic self-locking and reconfiguration capabilities. Working with the single-collinear degree-4 vertex origami tessellation, it is found that each unit cell can self-lock at a nonflat configuration and, therefore, possesses wide design space to program its foldability and relative density. Experiments and numerical analyses are combined to demonstrate that by switching the deformation modes of the constituent cell from prelocking folding to postlocking pressing, its stiffness experiences a sudden jump, implying a limiting-stopper effect. Such a stiffness jump is generalized to a multisegment piecewise stiffness profile in a multilayer model. Furthermore, it is revealed that via strategically switching the constituent cells' deformation modes through passive or active means, the n-layer metamaterial's stiffness is controllable among 2 n target stiffness values. Additionally, the piecewise stiffness can also trigger bistable responses dynamically under harmonic excitations, highlighting the metamaterial's rich dynamic performance. These unique characteristics of self-locking origami present new paths for creating programmable mechanical metamaterials with in situ controllable mechanical properties. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Analysis of cutoff frequency in a one-dimensional superconductor-metamaterial photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H; Aghajamali, Alireza; Elsayed, Hussein A.; Mobarak, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our results show that the appearance of the cutoff frequency, below which the incident electromagnetic waves cannot propagate in the structure. We demonstrate that the cutoff frequency shows an upward trend as the thickness of the superconductor layer as well as the thickness of the metamaterial increase. • The cutoff frequency can be tuned by the operating temperature. Our structures are good candidates for many optical devices such as optical filters, switches, temperature controlled optical shutter, and among photoelectronic applications in gigahertz. - Abstract: In this paper, using the two-fluid model and the characteristic matrix method, we investigate the transmission characteristics of the one-dimensional photonic crystal. Our structure composed of the layers of low-temperature superconductor material (NbN) and double-negative metamaterial. We target studying the effect of many parameters such as the thickness of the superconductor material, the thickness of the metamaterial layer, and the operating temperature. We show that the cut-off frequency can be tuned efficiently by the operating temperature as well as the thicknesses of the constituent materials.

  17. Scattering Fields Control by Metamaterial Device Based on Ultra-Broadband Polarization Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jia Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a novel ultra-broadband meta¬material screen with controlling the electromagnetic scat¬tering fields based on the three layers wideband polariza¬tion converter (TLW-PC. The unit cell of TLW-PC was composed of a three layers substrate loaded with double metallic split-rings structure and a metal ground plane. We observed that the polarization converter primarily per¬formed ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion from 5.71 GHz to 14.91 GHz. Furthermore, a metamaterial screen, which contributed to the low scattering charac¬teristics, had been exploited with the orthogonal array based on TLW-PC. The near scattering electronic fields are controlled due to the change of phase and amplitude for incident wave. The metamaterial screen significantly exhibited low scattering characteristics from 5.81 GHz to 15.06 GHz. To demonstrate design, a metamaterial device easily implemented by the common printed circuit board method has been fabricated and measured. Experimental results agreed well with the simulated results.

  18. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don

    2016-01-01

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  19. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Albuquerque, New Mexico 871117 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  20. A single-layer wide-angle negative-index metamaterial at visible frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Stanley P; de Waele, Rene; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry A

    2010-05-01

    Metamaterials are materials with artificial electromagnetic properties defined by their sub-wavelength structure rather than their chemical composition. Negative-index materials (NIMs) are a special class of metamaterials characterized by an effective negative index that gives rise to such unusual wave behaviour as backwards phase propagation and negative refraction. These extraordinary properties lead to many interesting functions such as sub-diffraction imaging and invisibility cloaking. So far, NIMs have been realized through layering of resonant structures, such as split-ring resonators, and have been demonstrated at microwave to infrared frequencies over a narrow range of angles-of-incidence and polarization. However, resonant-element NIM designs suffer from the limitations of not being scalable to operate at visible frequencies because of intrinsic fabrication limitations, require multiple functional layers to achieve strong scattering and have refractive indices that are highly dependent on angle of incidence and polarization. Here we report a metamaterial composed of a single layer of coupled plasmonic coaxial waveguides that exhibits an effective refractive index of -2 in the blue spectral region with a figure-of-merit larger than 8. The resulting NIM refractive index is insensitive to both polarization and angle-of-incidence over a +/-50 degree angular range, yielding a wide-angle NIM at visible frequencies.

  1. Storage and retrieval of electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum via plasmon-induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Xu, Datang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2017-01-23

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of high-dimensional electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum (OAM) via plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metamaterial, which consists of an array of meta-atoms constructed by a metallic structure loaded with two varactors. We show that due to PIT effect the system allows the existence of shape-preserving dark-mode plasmonic polaritons, which are mixture of electromagnetic-wave modes and dark oscillatory modes of the meta-atoms and may carry various OAMs. We demonstrate that the slowdown, storage and retrieval of multi-mode electromagnetic waves with OAMs can be achieved through the active manipulation of a control field. Our work raises the possibility for realizing PIT-based spatial multi-mode memory of electromagnetic waves and is promising for practical application of information processing with large capacity by using room-temperature metamaterials.

  2. Illusion optics: Optically transforming the nature and the location of electromagnetic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jianjia; Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André

    2015-02-01

    Complex electromagnetic structures can be designed by using the powerful concept of transformation electromagnetics. In this study, we define a spatial coordinate transformation that shows the possibility of designing a device capable of producing an illusion on an antenna radiation pattern. Indeed, by compressing the space containing a radiating element, we show that it is able to change the radiation pattern and to make the radiation location appear outside the latter space. Both continuous and discretized models with calculated electromagnetic parameter values are presented. A reduction of the electromagnetic material parameters is also proposed for a possible physical fabrication of the device with achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained from existing well-known metamaterials. Following that, the design of the proposed antenna using a layered metamaterial is presented. Full wave numerical simulations using Finite Element Method are performed to demonstrate the performances of such a device.

  3. Illusion optics: Optically transforming the nature and the location of electromagnetic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Lustrac, André de

    2015-01-01

    Complex electromagnetic structures can be designed by using the powerful concept of transformation electromagnetics. In this study, we define a spatial coordinate transformation that shows the possibility of designing a device capable of producing an illusion on an antenna radiation pattern. Indeed, by compressing the space containing a radiating element, we show that it is able to change the radiation pattern and to make the radiation location appear outside the latter space. Both continuous and discretized models with calculated electromagnetic parameter values are presented. A reduction of the electromagnetic material parameters is also proposed for a possible physical fabrication of the device with achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained from existing well-known metamaterials. Following that, the design of the proposed antenna using a layered metamaterial is presented. Full wave numerical simulations using Finite Element Method are performed to demonstrate the performances of such a device

  4. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature. PMID:26933692

  5. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping

    2016-02-01

    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature.

  6. Experimental verificatio of load resistance switching for global stabilization of high-energy response of a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T; Masuda, A; Sanada, T

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a self-excitation control of a resonance- type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinearity which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency range. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency and the bandwidth of the resonance peak are trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. It has been experimentally validated that this control law imparts the self-excitation capability to the oscillator to show an entrainment into the highest-energy solution. (paper)

  7. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaali, M J; Janbaz, S; Strano, M; Vergani, L; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-01-17

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional unit cells is designed so as to achieve a pre-defined shape upon deformation. We used computational models to forward-map the space of planar shapes to the space of geometrical designs. The validity of the underlying computational models was first demonstrated by comparing their predictions with experimental observations on specimens fabricated with indirect additive manufacturing. The forward-maps were then used to devise the geometry of cellular structures that approximate the arbitrary shapes described by random Fourier's series. Finally, we show that the presented metamaterials could match the contours of three real objects including a scapula model, a pumpkin, and a Delft Blue pottery piece. Shape-matching materials have potential applications in soft robotics and wearable (medical) devices.

  8. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens.

  9. Highly dispersive transparency in coupled metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, V T T; Park, J W; Lee, Y P; Tung, N T; Lam, V D; Rhee, J Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the coupling between bright and quasi-dark eigenmodes in a planar metamaterial supporting highly dispersive transparency. The specific design of such a metamaterial consists of a cut wire (CW) and a single-gap split-ring resonator (SRR). Through the numerical simulation and the equivalent-circuit analysis, we demonstrate that the response of the SRR, which is weakly excited by external electric field, plays the role of a quasi-dark eigenmode in the presence of a strongly radiative CW. Furthermore, by extending and relating our study to the trapped mode resonances and the coupling between dark and bright modes, a more comprehensive perspective for the metamaterial realization of highly dispersive transmission and slow-light applications is provided

  10. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  11. The Talbot effect in a metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, H.; Hasan, M.; Hall, T. J.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of anisotropy and spatial dispersion of a metamaterial on the Talbot effect may be engineered in principle. This has profound implications for applications of the Talbot effect such as the design of a multimode interference coupler (MMI). The paper describes how a metamaterial can suppress the modal phase error which otherwise limits the scaling of MMI port dimension. A binary multilayer dielectric material described by the Kronig-Penney model is shown to provide a close approximation to the required dispersion relation. Results of simulations of a multi-slotted waveguide MMI engineered to provide a polarising beam splitter function are given as an example of the method.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles for tunable microwave metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Noginova, Natalia; Williams, Quincy Leon; Dallas, Panagiotis; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, metamaterials are electrically engineered systems with optimized spatial arrangement of subwavelength sized metal and dielectric components. We explore alternative methods based on use of magnetic inclusions, such as magnetic nanoparticles, which can allow permeability of a composite to be tuned from negative to positive at the range of magnetic resonance. To better understand effects of particle size and magnetization dynamics, we performed electron magnetic resonance study on several varieties of magnetic nanoparticles and determined potential of nanoparticle use as building blocks for tunable microwave metamaterials. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  14. Trampoline metamaterial: Local resonance enhancement by springboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Osama R.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the dispersion characteristics of locally resonant elastic metamaterials formed by the erection of pillars on the solid regions in a plate patterned by a periodic array of holes. We show that these solid regions effectively act as springboards leading to an enhanced resonance behavior by the pillars when compared to the nominal case of pillars with no holes. This local resonance amplification phenomenon, which we define as the trampoline effect, is shown to cause subwavelength bandgaps to increase in size by up to a factor of 4. This outcome facilitates the utilization of subwavelength metamaterial properties over exceedingly broad frequency ranges.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticles for tunable microwave metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Noginova, Natalia

    2012-09-24

    Commonly, metamaterials are electrically engineered systems with optimized spatial arrangement of subwavelength sized metal and dielectric components. We explore alternative methods based on use of magnetic inclusions, such as magnetic nanoparticles, which can allow permeability of a composite to be tuned from negative to positive at the range of magnetic resonance. To better understand effects of particle size and magnetization dynamics, we performed electron magnetic resonance study on several varieties of magnetic nanoparticles and determined potential of nanoparticle use as building blocks for tunable microwave metamaterials. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  16. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  17. Hyperbolic metamaterials: Nonlocal response regularizes broadband supersingularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We study metamaterials known as hyperbolic media that in the usual local-response approximation exhibit hyperbolic dispersion and an associated broadband singularity in the density of states. Instead, from the more microscopic hydrodynamic Drude theory we derive qualitatively different optical...... properties of these metamaterials, due to the free-electron nonlocal optical response of their metal constituents. We demonstrate that nonlocal response gives rise to a large-wavevector cutoff in the dispersion that is inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity of the electron gas, but also for small...

  18. Large scale phononic metamaterials for seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine structures that could be characterized as large scale phononic metamaterials. These novel structures could have band gaps in the frequency spectrum of seismic waves when their dimensions are chosen appropriately, thus raising the belief that they could be serious candidates for seismic isolation structures. Different and easy to fabricate structures were examined made from construction materials such as concrete and steel. The well-known finite difference time domain method is used in our calculations in order to calculate the band structures of the proposed metamaterials

  19. Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Esfandyarpour, Majid

    2014-06-22

    The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror († = €) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror († = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  20. Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Esfandyarpour, Majid; Garnett, Erik C.; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Michael D.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The phase reversal that occurs when light is reflected from a metallic mirror produces a standing wave with reduced intensity near the reflective surface. This effect is highly undesirable in optoelectronic devices that use metal films as both electrical contacts and optical mirrors, because it dictates a minimum spacing between the metal and the underlying active semiconductor layers, therefore posing a fundamental limit to the overall thickness of the device. Here, we show that this challenge can be circumvented by using a metamaterial mirror whose reflection phase is tunable from that of a perfect electric mirror († = €) to that of a perfect magnetic mirror († = 0). This tunability in reflection phase can also be exploited to optimize the standing wave profile in planar devices to maximize light-matter interaction. Specifically, we show that light absorption and photocurrent generation in a sub-100 nm active semiconductor layer of a model solar cell can be enhanced by ∼20% over a broad spectral band. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  1. Thermodynamics of superconducting quantum metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallaire-Demers, Pierre-Luc; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank [Universitaet des Saarlandes (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Left-handed matematerials are capacitively coupled layers of inductive pieces of conductors. These systems are well studied in the context of microwave metamaterials but their full quantum description or their embedding in highly correlated materials like superconductors are still an open problem. Notably, they are known to have a Van Hove singularity in the density of states at low energy and high pseudo-momentum that could effectively couple and condense Cooper pairs. The goal of this research is to analyze the thermodynamical properties of the order parameter of stacked layers of superconductors with a small repulsive Coulomb interaction. A 3D toy model of such a material is mapped to a Fermi-Hubbard lattice. The temperature dependent anomalous correlation functions are computed variationally from a self-energy functional of a small cluster where inter-cluster tunneling is treated perturbatively. The effect of the repulsive interaction on the Cooper pairs binding can then be seen from the momentum distribution of the condensation amplitude. Such a material could potentially be realized with optical lattices or nanoscaled superconductors.

  2. Broadband terahertz generation of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liang; Wang, Jigang; Koschny, Thomas; Wegener, Martin; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2017-06-20

    Provided are systems and methods to generate single-cycle THz pulses from a few tens of nanometers thin layer of split ring resonators (SRRs) via optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses. The emitted THz radiation, with a spectrum ranging from about 0.1 to 4 THz, arises exclusively from pumping the magnetic-dipole resonance of SRRs around 200 THz. This resonant enhancement, together with pump polarization dependence and power scaling of the THz emission, underpins the nonlinearity from optically induced circulating currents in SRRs, with a huge effective nonlinear susceptibility of 0.8.times.10.sup.-16 m.sup.2/V that far exceeds surface nonlinearities of both thin films and bulk organic/inorganic crystals and sheet nonlinearities of non-centrosymmetric materials such as ZnTe.

  3. Dependence of transmittance and group index on the coupling strength between constituents of a metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy Vu, Tran Thanh; Lee, Young Pak; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Rhee, Joo Yull; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on the coupling effects between constituent elements of metamaterials have opened up a new gateway to many fascinating electromagnetic properties and functionalities that cannot be explained by the uncoupled point of view. In this work, we numerically investigated, in a THz regime, the coupling between a cut wire and a split-ring resonator, which gives rise to an interesting phenomenon—the so-called electromagnetically induced transparency-like effect. The trade-off between the maximum transmittance of the transmission window and the group index, which depends on the coupling strength between constituent elements, was systematically studied. Furthermore, by characterizing this trade-off by the transmittance-delay product (figure of merit), a criterion for slow-light applications was provided

  4. Selective buckling via states of self-stress in topological metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jayson; Meeussen, Anne S; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2015-06-23

    States of self-stress--tensions and compressions of structural elements that result in zero net forces--play an important role in determining the load-bearing ability of structures ranging from bridges to metamaterials with tunable mechanical properties. We exploit a class of recently introduced states of self-stress analogous to topological quantum states to sculpt localized buckling regions in the interior of periodic cellular metamaterials. Although the topological states of self-stress arise in the linear response of an idealized mechanical frame of harmonic springs connected by freely hinged joints, they leave a distinct signature in the nonlinear buckling behavior of a cellular material built out of elastic beams with rigid joints. The salient feature of these localized buckling regions is that they are indistinguishable from their surroundings as far as material parameters or connectivity of their constituent elements are concerned. Furthermore, they are robust against a wide range of structural perturbations. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this topological design through analytical and numerical calculations as well as buckling experiments performed on two- and three-dimensional metamaterials built out of stacked kagome lattices.

  5. Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)

  6. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  7. Active terahertz metamaterials based on liquid-crystal induced transparency and absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Fei; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Xuanzhou; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    An active terahertz (THz) liquid crystal (LC) metamaterial has been experimentally investigated for THz wave modulation. Some interesting phenomena of resonance shifting, tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) have been observed in the same device structure under different DC bias directions and different incident wave polarization directions by the THz time domain spectroscopy. Further theoretical studies indicate that these effects originate from interference and coupling between bright and dark mode components of elliptically polarized modes in the LC metamaterial, which are induced by the optical activity of LC alignment controllable by the electric field as well as the changes of LC refractive index. The LC layer is indeed a phase retarder and polarization converter that is controlled by the DC bias. The THz modulation depth of the analogs of EIT and EIA effects are 18.3 dB and 10.5 dB in their frequency band, respectively. Electrical control, large modulation depth and feasible integration of this LC device make it an ideal candidate for THz tunable filter, intensity modulator and spatial light modulator.

  8. Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...

  9. Characterization of nanodiamonds for metamaterial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaginov, Mikhail; Naik, Gururaj; Ishii, Satoshi; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Smolyaninov, A N; Kochman, E; Shalaev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Several different types of nanodiamonds were characterized in order to find the best sample to be used in further experiments with metamaterials. In this work we present the results of optical analysis of aqueous suspensions containing nanodiamonds, SEM analysis of diamond particles dispersed on silicon substrates and measurements of photoluminescence from defects in nanodiamonds.

  10. Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Furlani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.

  11. Magnetization of left-handed metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    We propose a possible mechanism for the generation of magnetic fields in negative refraction index composite metamaterials. Considering the propagation of a high-frequency modulated amplitude electric field in a left-handed material (LHM), we show that the ponderomotive interaction between the field and low-frequency potential distributions leads to spontaneous generation of magnetic fields, whose form and properties are discussed

  12. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    predictions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Birefringence, Terahertz Waves, Metamaterials 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...opaque objects by using the principles of strain-induced birefringence. 4 III. CONCEPT To overcome the inability of visual light to penetrate ...opaque objects, terahertz radiation was investigated. Longer wavelength EM waves, such as radio waves, have excellent penetration ability but low image

  13. Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbons, S.M. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)]. E-mail: sorbons@ph.unimelb.edu.au; Freeman, D. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems, Laser Physics Centre, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Luther-Davies, B. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems, Laser Physics Centre, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Gibson, B.C. [Quantum Communications Victoria, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Huntington, S.T. [Quantum Communications Victoria, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Jamieson, D.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Roberts, A. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    We present a computational and experimental study investigating the optical properties of nanoscale silver composite metamaterials fabricated by ion beam lithography. Both simulations and experimental results demonstrate high transmission efficiencies in the near infra-red through these devices. Implications for experimentally verifying the calculated near-field distributions of these materials are also discussed.

  14. Metamaterials modelling, fabrication, and characterisation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially designed media that show averaged properties not yet encountered in nature. Among such properties, the possibility of obtaining optical magnetism and negative refraction are the ones mainly exploited but epsilon-near-zero and sub-unitary refraction index are also...

  15. Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalvit, Diego A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milonni, Peter W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.

  16. Local field in finite-size metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    The theory of the optical response of a metamaterial slab which is represented by metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix is developed. It is demonstrated that the account of the reflections from the slab boundaries essentially modifies the local field in the slab and leads...

  17. Optical magnetism in planar metamaterial heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgia T; Fleischman, Dagny; Davoyan, Artur; Yeh, Pochi; Atwater, Harry A

    2018-01-18

    Harnessing artificial optical magnetism has previously required complex two- and three-dimensional structures, such as nanoparticle arrays and split-ring metamaterials. By contrast, planar structures, and in particular dielectric/metal multilayer metamaterials, have been generally considered non-magnetic. Although the hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of these systems have been extensively investigated, their assumed non-magnetic response limits their performance to transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. We propose and experimentally validate a mechanism for artificial magnetism in planar multilayer metamaterials. We also demonstrate that the magnetic properties of high-index dielectric/metal hyperbolic metamaterials can be anisotropic, leading to magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in certain frequency regimes. We show that such systems can support transverse electric polarized interface-bound waves, analogous to their TM counterparts, surface plasmon polaritons. Our results open a route for tailoring optical artificial magnetism in lithography-free layered systems and enable us to generalize the plasmonic and hyperbolic properties to encompass both linear polarizations.

  18. Super Talbot effect in indefinite metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wangshi; Huang, Xiaoyue; Lu, Zhaolin

    2011-08-01

    The Talbot effect (or the self-imaging effect) can be observed for a periodic object with a pitch larger than the diffraction limit of an imaging system, where the paraxial approximation is applied. In this paper, we show that the super Talbot effect can be achieved in an indefinite metamaterial even when the period is much smaller than the diffraction limit in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations, where the paraxial approximation is not applied. This is attributed to the evanescent waves, which carry the information about subwavelength features of the object, can be converted into propagating waves and then conveyed to far field by the metamaterial, where the permittivity in the propagation direction is negative while the transverse ones are positive. The indefinite metamaterial can be approximated by a system of thin, alternating multilayer metal and insulator (MMI) stack. As long as the loss of the metamaterial is small enough, deep subwavelength image size can be obtained in the super Talbot effect.

  19. Negative extensibility metamaterials: Occurrence and design-space topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Eduard G.; Danso, Larry A.; Klein, John T.

    2017-08-01

    A negative extensibility material structure pulls back and contracts when the external tensile load reaches a certain critical level. In this paper, we reveal basic mathematical features of the nonlinear strain energy function responsible for this unusual mechanical property. A systematic discussion leads to a comprehensive phase diagram in terms of design parameters for a simple unit cell structure that provides a panoramic view of all possible nonlinear mechanical behaviors. A negative extensibility region clearly is identified in the diagram. The sought property is seen to be rare, occurring only for a very narrow range of the design parameters. Nonetheless, due to the simplicity of the studied structure we suggest that the negative extensibility should be a more common phenomenon than previously thought. It can appear in simple bistable cells made of only several linearly elastic links, although at some peculiar combinations of their properties. These bistable unit cells can be used to design periodic mechanical metamaterials whose examples are shown as well as innovative architectural metastructures.

  20. Surface Waves on Metamaterials Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2016-01-01

    We analyze surface electromagnetic waves supported at the interface between isotropic medium and effective anisotropic material that can be realized by alternating conductive and dielectrics layers. This configuration can host various types of surface waves and therefore can serve as a rich...... platform for applications of surface photonics. Most of these surface waves are directional and as such their propagation can be effectively controlled by changing wavelength or material parameters tuning....

  1. Taming the Electromagnetic Boundaries via Metasurfaces: From Theory and Fabrication to Functional Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As two-dimensional metamaterials, metasurfaces have received rapidly increasing attention from researchers all over the world. Unlike three-dimensional metamaterials, metasurfaces can be utilized to control the electromagnetic waves within one infinitely thin layer, permitting substantial advantages, such as easy fabrication, low cost, and high degree of integration. This paper reviews the history and recent development of metasurfaces, with particular emphasis on the theory and applications relating to the frequency response, phase shift, and polarization state control. Based on the current status of various applications, the challenges and future trends of metasurfaces are discussed.

  2. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  3. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  4. Hybrid antiresonant metamaterial waveguides for THz and IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard; Argyros, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel waveguide concept which combines antiresonant and metamaterial guidance. The guidance is achieved in the hollow core and loss as low as 2.3 dB/km are theoretically achievable in the THz frequency range. Both purely antiresonant and antiresonant metamaterial fibers have been f...... fabricated and characterized. The realized metamaterial fiber has been simulated to have 0.3 dB/m loss at 0.3 THz....

  5. Recent Advances and Current Trends in Metamaterial-by-Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, N.; Gottardi, G.

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to their potential applications in several engineering areas, metamaterials gained much of attentions among different research communities, leading to the development of several analysis and synthesis tools. In this context, the metamaterial-by-design (MbD) paradigm has been recently introduced as a powerful tool for the design of complex metamaterials-based structures. In this work a review of the state-of-art, as well as the recent advancements of MbD-based methods are presented.

  6. What is a good conductor for metamaterials or plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soukoulis Costas M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We review conducting materials like metals, conducting oxides and graphene for nanophotonic applications. We emphasize that metamaterials and plasmonic systems benefit from different conducting materials. Resonant metamaterials need conductors with small resistivity, since dissipative loss in resonant metamaterials is proportional to the real part of the resistivity of the conducting medium it contains. For plasmonic systems, one must determine the propagation length at a desired level of confinement to estimate the dissipative loss.

  7. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  8. Subwavelength resonant antennas enhancing electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is designed based on a cut- wire metasurface. This metamaterial is known to contain a quasistatic electric dipole resonator leading to a strong resonant electric response when illuminated by electromagnetic fields.1 Starting from an equivalent electrical circuit, we analytically design the parameters of the system to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency band. Subsequently, we compare these results with numerical simulations, which have been obtained using finite elements numerical simulations. Finally, we optimize the design by investigating the best arrangement for energy harvesting by coupling in parallel and in series many single layers of cut-wire metasurfaces. We also discuss the implementation of different geometries and sizes of the cut-wire metasurface for achieving different center frequencies and bandwidths.

  9. Pulse generation scheme for flying electromagnetic doughnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Tsai, Din Ping; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-05-01

    Transverse electromagnetic plane waves are fundamental solutions of Maxwells equations. It is less known that a radically different type of solutions has been described theoretically, but has never been realized experimentally, that exist only in the form of short bursts of electromagnetic energy propagating in free space at the speed of light. They are distinguished from transverse waves by a doughnutlike configuration of electric and magnetic fields with a strong field component along the propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate numerically that such flying doughnuts can be generated from conventional pulses using a singular metamaterial converter designed to manipulate both the spatial and spectral structure of the input pulse. The ability to generate flying doughnuts is of fundamental interest, as they shall interact with matter in unique ways, including nontrivial field transformations upon reflection from interfaces and the excitation of toroidal response and anapole modes in matter, hence offering opportunities for telecommunications, sensing, and spectroscopy.

  10. Acoustic metamaterials capable of both sound insulation and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Huang, Guoliang; Hu, Gengkai

    2016-04-01

    Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials are well known for low-frequency sound insulation. In this work, by introducing a flexible piezoelectric patch, we propose sound-insulation metamaterials with the ability of energy harvesting from sound waves. The dual functionality of the metamaterial device has been verified by experimental results, which show an over 20 dB sound transmission loss and a maximum energy conversion efficiency up to 15.3% simultaneously. This novel property makes the metamaterial device more suitable for noise control applications.

  11. Acoustic metamaterials capable of both sound insulation and energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junfei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai; Huang, Guoliang

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials are well known for low-frequency sound insulation. In this work, by introducing a flexible piezoelectric patch, we propose sound-insulation metamaterials with the ability of energy harvesting from sound waves. The dual functionality of the metamaterial device has been verified by experimental results, which show an over 20 dB sound transmission loss and a maximum energy conversion efficiency up to 15.3% simultaneously. This novel property makes the metamaterial device more suitable for noise control applications. (paper)

  12. Local field effects and metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvatkina, O V; Tishchenko, A A; Strikhanov, M N

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are composite structures that exhibit interesting and unusual properties, e.g. negative refractive index. In this article we consider metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). We investigate these structures taking into account the local field effects and theoretically analyze expressions for permittivity and permeability of metamaterials based on CdSe CQDs. We obtain inequality describing the conditions when material with definite concentration of CQDs is metamaterial. Also we investigate how the values of dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability of CQDs depend on the dots radius and properties the material the quantum dots are made of. (paper)

  13. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  14. Tuning subwavelength-structured focus in the hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Tang, Zhixiang; Pan, Jin; Peng, Runwu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we have systematically investigated light propagating in the hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) covered by a subwavelength grating. Based on the equal-frequency contour analyses, light in the HMM is predicted to propagate along a defined direction because of its hyperbolic dispersion, which is similar to the self-collimating effects in photonic crystals. By using the finite-difference time-domain, numerical simulations demonstrate a subwavelength bright spot at the intersection of the adjacent directional beams. Different from the images in homogeneous media, the magnetic fields and electric fields at the spot are layered, especially for the electric fields Ez that is polarized to the propagating direction, i.e., the layer normal direction. Moreover, the Ez is hollow in the layer plane and is stronger than the other electric field component Ex. Therefore, the whole electric field is structured and its pattern can be tuned by the HMM's effective anisotropic electromagnetic parameters. Our results may be useful for generating subwavelength structured light.

  15. Metamaterials and plasmonics: From nanoparticles to nanoantenna arrays, metasurfaces, and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone Francesco; Alù Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The rise of plasmonic metamaterials in recent years has unveiled the possibility of revolutionizing the entire field of optics and photonics, challenging well-established technological limitations and paving the way to innovations at an unprecedented level. To capitalize the disruptive potential of this rising field of science and technology, it is important to be able to combine the richness of optical phenomena enabled by nanoplasmonics in order to realize metamaterial components, devices, and systems of increasing complexity. Here, we review a few recent research directions in the field of plasmonic metamaterials, which may foster further advancements in this research area. We will discuss the anomalous scattering features enabled by plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoclusters, and show how they may represent the fundamental building blocks of complex nanophotonic architectures. Building on these concepts, advanced components can be designed and operated, such as optical nanoantennas and nanoantenna arrays, which, in turn, may be at the basis of metasurface devices and complex systems. Following this path, from basic phenomena to advanced functionalities, the field of plasmonic metamaterials offers the promise of an important scientific and technological impact, with applications spanning from medical diagnostics to clean energy and information processing. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  16. Collinear light scattering using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Sokolov, A.V.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes two types of nonlinear optical processes which are based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These are: (1) Collinear generation of FM-like Raman sidebands and (2) a type of pondermotive light scattering which is inherent to the interaction of slow light with cold atoms. Connections to other areas of EIT-based nonlinear optics are also described

  17. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  18. Manipulation of wavefront using helical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhaokun; Tao, Huan; Zhao, Ming

    2016-08-08

    Helical metamaterials, a kind of 3-dimensional structure, has relatively strong coupling effect among the helical nano-wires. Therefore, it is expected to be a good candidate for generating phase shift and controlling wavefront with high efficiency. In this paper, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we studied the phase shift properties in the helical metamaterials. It is found that the phase shift occurs for both transmitted and reflected light waves. And the maximum of reflection coefficients can reach over 60%. In addition, the phase shift (φ) is dispersionless in the range of 600 nm to 860 nm, that is, it is only dominated by the initial angle (θ) of the helix. The relationship between them is φ = ± 2θ. Using Jones calculus we give a further explanation for these properties. Finally, by arranging the helixes in an array with a constant phase gradient, the phenomenon of anomalous refraction was also observed in a broad wavelength range.

  19. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves...... of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens...... in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we...

  20. Bianisotropic metamaterials based on twisted asymmetric crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Avendaño, J A; Sampedro, M P; Juárez-Ruiz, E; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The effective bianisotropic response of 3D periodic metal-dielectric structures, composed of crosses with asymmetrically-cut wires, is investigated within a general homogenization theory using the Fourier formalism and the form-factor division approach. It is found that the frequency dependence of the effective permittivity for a system of periodically-repeated layers of metal crosses exhibits two strong resonances, whose separation is due to the cross asymmetry. Besides, bianisotropic metamaterials, having a base of four twisted asymmetric crosses, are proposed. The designed metamaterials possess negative refractive index at frequencies determined by the cross asymmetry, the gap between the arms of adjacent crosses lying on the same plane, and the type of Bravais lattice. (papers)

  1. Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Z.; Kim, J.Y.; Naik, G.V.

    2010-01-01

    The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device such as a......The photonic density of states (PDOS), like its electronic counterpart, is one of the key physical quantities governing a variety of phenomena and hence PDOS manipulation is the route to new photonic devices. The PDOS is conventionally altered by exploiting the resonance within a device...... such as a microcavity or a bandgap structure like a photonic crystal. Here we show that nanostructured metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion can dramatically enhance the photonic density of states paving the way for metamaterial-based PDOS engineering....

  2. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  3. Metamaterial Embedded Wearable Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indigenous low-cost metamaterial embedded wearable rectangular microstrip patch antenna using polyester substrate for IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.10 GHz with a bandwidth and gain of 97 MHz and 4.92 dBi, respectively. The electrical size of this antenna is 0.254λ×0.5λ. The slots are cut in rectangular patch to reduce the bending effect. This leads to mismatch the impedance at WLAN frequency band; hence, a metamaterial square SRR is embedded inside the slot. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and tested, and the measured results are presented in this paper. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna are found to be in good agreement. The bending effect on the performance of this antenna is experimentally verified.

  4. Terahertz broadband polarization converter based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Zhao, Guozhong

    2018-01-01

    Based on the metamaterial composed of symmetrical split resonant ring, a broadband reflective terahertz polarization converter is proposed. The numerical simulation shows that it can rotate the polarization direction of linear polarized wave 90° in the range of 0.7-1.8THz and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90%. The reflection coefficient of the two electric field components in the diagonal direction is the same and the phase difference is 180° ,which leads to the cross-polarization rotation.In order to further study the physical mechanism of high polarization conversion, we analyze the surface current distribution of the resonant ring. The polarization converter has potential applications in terahertz wave plate and metamaterial antenna design.

  5. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  6. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  7. Enhancement of Spatial Resolution Using a Metamaterial Sensor in Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Savin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current stage of non-destructive evaluation techniques imposes the development of new electromagnetic methods that are based on high spatial resolution and increased sensitivity. Printed circuit boards, integrated circuit boards, composite materials with polymeric matrix containing conductive fibers, as well as some types of biosensors are devices of interest in using such evaluation methods. In order to achieve high performance, the work frequencies must be either radiofrequencies or microwaves. At these frequencies, at the dielectric/conductor interface, plasmon polaritons can appear, propagating between conductive regions as evanescent waves. Detection of these waves, containing required information, can be done using sensors with metamaterial lenses. We propose in this paper the enhancement of the spatial resolution using electromagnetic methods, which can be accomplished in this case using evanescent waves that appear in the current study in slits of materials such as the spaces between carbon fibers in Carbon Fibers Reinforced Plastics or in materials of interest in the nondestructive evaluation field with industrial applications, where microscopic cracks are present. We propose herein a unique design of the metamaterials for use in nondestructive evaluation based on Conical Swiss Rolls configurations, which assure the robust concentration/focusing of the incident electromagnetic waves (practically impossible to be focused using classical materials, as well as the robust manipulation of evanescent waves. Applying this testing method, spatial resolution of approximately λ/2000 can be achieved. This testing method can be successfully applied in a variety of applications of paramount importance such as defect/damage detection in materials used in a variety of industrial applications, such as automotive and aviation technologies.

  8. Hybrid Metamaterials for Solar Biofuel Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    transfer. The designed charge separation domain will be benignly expressed in bacteria as a chimera with naturally occurring protein domains which...form useful to humankind. Biosolar energy research has begun to modify photosynthetic bacteria , algae, or plants to carry out more efficient...commercial applications. Figure 7 shows four oriented metamaterial polarizers/ lenses without light illuminating the backside (Fig. 7A) and with light

  9. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion cu...

  10. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  11. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  12. Elastic metamaterials and dynamic homogenization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. We begin with presenting arguments from discrete systems which support the case for the existence of unusual material properties such as tensorial and/or negative density. The arguments are then extended to elastic continuums through coherent averaging principles. The resulting coupled and nonlocal homogenized relations, called the Willis relations, are presented as the natural description of inhomogeneous elastodynamics. They are specialized to Bloch waves propagating in periodic composites and we show that the Willis properties display the unusual behavior which is often required in metamaterial applications such as the Veselago lens. We finally present the recent advances in the area of transformation elastodynamics, charting its inspirations from transformation optics, clarifying its particular challenges, and identifying its connection with the constitutive relations of the Willis and the Cosserat types.

  13. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon. These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented.

  14. Perforated membrane-type acoustic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Kemsies, H.; Gleine, W.; Estorff, O. von

    2017-01-01

    This letter introduces a modified design of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) with a ring mass and a perforation so that an airflow through the membrane is enabled. Simplified analytical investigations of the perforated MAM (PMAM) indicate that the perforation introduces a second anti-resonance, where the effective surface mass density of the PMAM is much higher than the static value. The theoretical results are validated using impedance tube measurements, indicating good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measured data. The anti-resonances yield high low-frequency sound transmission loss values with peak values over 25 dB higher than the corresponding mass-law. - Highlights: • A new membrane-type acoustic metamaterial exhibiting negative density is presented. • The metamaterial design contains a ring mass with a perforation through the membrane. • The sound transmission loss exhibits narrow-band peaks much higher than the mass-law. • The emergence of the peaks is explained using a simple theoretical model. • Impedance tube measurements are used to validate the theoretical predictions.

  15. Perforated membrane-type acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeldt, F., E-mail: Felix.Langfeldt@haw-hamburg.de [Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 9, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany); Kemsies, H., E-mail: Hannes.Kemsies@haw-hamburg.de [Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 9, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany); Gleine, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Gleine@haw-hamburg.de [Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Berliner Tor 9, D-20099 Hamburg (Germany); Estorff, O. von, E-mail: estorff@tu-harburg.de [Institute of Modelling and Computation, Hamburg University of Technology, Denickestr. 17, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-25

    This letter introduces a modified design of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) with a ring mass and a perforation so that an airflow through the membrane is enabled. Simplified analytical investigations of the perforated MAM (PMAM) indicate that the perforation introduces a second anti-resonance, where the effective surface mass density of the PMAM is much higher than the static value. The theoretical results are validated using impedance tube measurements, indicating good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measured data. The anti-resonances yield high low-frequency sound transmission loss values with peak values over 25 dB higher than the corresponding mass-law. - Highlights: • A new membrane-type acoustic metamaterial exhibiting negative density is presented. • The metamaterial design contains a ring mass with a perforation through the membrane. • The sound transmission loss exhibits narrow-band peaks much higher than the mass-law. • The emergence of the peaks is explained using a simple theoretical model. • Impedance tube measurements are used to validate the theoretical predictions.

  16. Review of Recent Metamaterial Microfluidic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ahmed; Lim, Sungjoon

    2018-01-15

    Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter-nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological) sensing systems. Inkjet-printed flexible sensors find their utilization in rapidly growing wearable electronics and health-monitoring flexible devices. Adequate sensitivity and repeatability of these low profile microfluidic sensors make them a potential candidate for point-of-care testing which novice patients can use reliably. Aside from degraded sensitivity and lack of selectivity in all practical microwave chemical sensors, they require an instrument, such as vector network analyzer for measurements and not readily available as a self-sustained portable sensor. This review article presents state-of-the-art metamaterial inspired microfluidic bio/chemical sensors (passive devices ranging from gigahertz to terahertz range) with an emphasis on metamaterial sensing circuit and microfluidic detection. We also highlight challenges and strategies to cope these issues which set future directions.

  17. Review of Recent Metamaterial Microfluidic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter–nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological sensing systems. Inkjet-printed flexible sensors find their utilization in rapidly growing wearable electronics and health-monitoring flexible devices. Adequate sensitivity and repeatability of these low profile microfluidic sensors make them a potential candidate for point-of-care testing which novice patients can use reliably. Aside from degraded sensitivity and lack of selectivity in all practical microwave chemical sensors, they require an instrument, such as vector network analyzer for measurements and not readily available as a self-sustained portable sensor. This review article presents state-of-the-art metamaterial inspired microfluidic bio/chemical sensors (passive devices ranging from gigahertz to terahertz range with an emphasis on metamaterial sensing circuit and microfluidic detection. We also highlight challenges and strategies to cope these issues which set future directions.

  18. Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S

    2014-04-04

    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.

  19. Magnetic response of split-ring resonator metamaterials: From ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    finally becomes comparable to the size of the unit cell of the metamaterial. In the intermediate stages ... metamaterials has been explained using an LC-circuit paradigm [4]. SRR, or its vari- ..... becomes truly problematic here. The second gap ...

  20. Theoretical modeling of critical temperature increase in metamaterial superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor; Smolyaninova, Vera

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that the metamaterial approach is capable of drastic increase of the critical temperature Tc of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial superconductors. For example, tripling of the critical temperature has been observed in Al-Al2O3 ENZ core-shell metamaterials. Here, we perform theoretical modelling of Tc increase in metamaterial superconductors based on the Maxwell-Garnett approximation of their dielectric response function. Good agreement is demonstrated between theoretical modelling and experimental results in both aluminum and tin-based metamaterials. Taking advantage of the demonstrated success of this model, the critical temperature of hypothetic niobium, MgB2 and H2S-based metamaterial superconductors is evaluated. The MgB2-based metamaterial superconductors are projected to reach the liquid nitrogen temperature range. In the case of an H2S-based metamaterial Tc appears to reach 250 K. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1104676 and the School of Emerging Technologies at Towson University.