WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonlinear electrical circuit

  1. Quantized amplitudes in a nonlinear resonant electrical circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Cretin, B

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple nonlinear resonant analog circuit which demonstrates quantization of resonating amplitudes, for a given excitation level. The system is a simple RLC resonator where C is an active capacitor whose value is related to the current in the circuit. This variation is energetically equivalent to a variation of the potential energy and the circuit acts as a pendulum in the gravitational field. The excitation voltage, synchronously switched at the current frequency, enables electrical supply and keeping the oscillation of the system. The excitation frequency has been set to high harmonic of the fundamental oscillation so that anisochronicity can keep constant the amplitude of the circuit voltage and current. The behavior of the circuit is unusual: different stable amplitudes have been measured depending on initial conditions and excitation frequency, for the same amplitude of the excitation. The excitation frequency is naturally divided by the circuit and the ratio is kept constant without external...

  2. Fundamental electric circuit elements based on the linear and nonlinear magnetoelectric effects (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Young; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Cao, Zexian; Lu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    From the viewpoint of electric circuit theory, the three fundamental two-terminal passive circuit elements, resistor R , capacitor C, and inductor L, are defined in terms of a relationship between two of the four basic circuit variables, charge q, current i, voltage v, and magnetic flux φ. From a symmetry concern, there should be a fourth fundamental element defined from the relationship between charge q and magnetic flux φ. Here we present both theoretical analysis and experimental evidences to demonstrate that a two-terminal passive device employing the magnetoelectric (ME) effects can exhibit a direct relationship between charge q and magnetic flux φ, and thus is able to act as the fourth fundamental circuit element. The ME effects refer to the induction of electric polarization by a magnetic field or magnetization by an electric field, and have attracted enormous interests due to their promise in many applications. However, no one has linked the ME effects with fundamental circuit theory. Both the linear and nonlinear-memory devices, termed transtor and memtranstor, respectively, have been experimentally realized using multiferroic materials showing strong ME effects. Based on our work, a full map of fundamental two-terminal circuit elements is constructed, which consists of four linear and four nonlinear-memory elements. This full map provides an invaluable guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future.

  3. Nonlinear Electrical Circuit Oscillator Control Based on Backstepping Method: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Khoeiniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated study of dynamics of nonlinear electrical circuit by means of modern nonlinear techniques and the control of a class of chaotic system by using backstepping method based on Lyapunov function. The behavior of such nonlinear system when they are under the influence of external sinusoidal disturbances with unknown amplitudes has been considered. The objective is to analyze the performance of this system at different amplitudes of disturbances. We illustrate the proposed approach for controlling duffing oscillator problem to stabilize this system at the equilibrium point. Also Genetic Algorithm method (GA for computing the parameters of controller has been used. GA can be successfully applied to achieve a better controller. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  5. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  6. CMOS Nonlinear Signal Processing Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The chapter describes various nonlinear signal processing CMOS circuits, including a high reliable WTA/LTA, simple MED cell, and low-voltage arbitrary order extractor. We focus the discussion on CMOS analog circuit design with reliable, programmable capability, and low voltage operation. It is a practical problem when the multiple identical cells are required to match and realized within a single chip using a conventional process. Thus, the design of high-reliable circuit is indeed needed. Th...

  7. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  8. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  9. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  10. Nonlinear oscillations in a unijunction transistor (UJT) circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, John

    2005-10-01

    Phenomena such as plasma wavesootnotetextT Tsuru, Nonlinear resonance phenomena of elect. plasma oscillations by beam modulation, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 40, 548, 1976. and oscillations in electric circuits which employ a plasma componentootnotetextM Wendt, I Axnas, S Torven, Amplitude collapse of nonlinear double-layer oscillations, Phys. Rev. E, 57, 4638, 1998. can be described by a differential equation with nonlinear dissipative and restoring force terms. The UJT oscillator circuit developed by Koepke and HartleyootnotetextME Koepke, DM Hartley, Experimental verification of periodic pulling in a nonlinear electronic oscillator, Phys. Rev. A, 44, 6877, 1991 is also described by a similar equation. During the past year efforts have been made to understand the following aspects of this circuit's operation: 1) Determining conditions which lead to oscillation onset and termination (amplitude collapse). 2) Analytic and numerical modeling. 3) Characterizing the capacitances associated with the emitter-base junctions. 4) Exploring the relationship between this circuit and astable multivibrators.

  11. Microtubule as nanobioelectronic nonlinear circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Dalibor L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biological molecules has offered exciting alternatives to conventional synthetic methods. Specific methods use various biological templates to direct the deposition and patterning of inorganic materials. Here we have established a new electrical model of microtubules as a biological nanoscale circuit based on polyelectrolyte features of cylindrical biopolymers. Our working hypothesis is that microtubules play an active role in sub-cellular computation and signaling via electronic and protonic conductivity and can thus be made useful in hybrid materials that offer novel electronic characteristics. We verify these hypotheses both computationally and analytically through a quantitative model based on the atomic resolution structures of the key functional proteins.

  12. Dichotomy of nonlinear systems: Application to chaos control of nonlinear electronic circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinzhi [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: jinzhiw@pku.edu.cn; Duan Zhisheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Lin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2006-02-27

    In this Letter a new method of chaos control for Chua's circuit and the modified canonical Chua's electrical circuit is proposed by using the results of dichotomy in nonlinear systems. A linear feedback control based on linear matrix inequality (LMI) is given such that chaos oscillation or hyperchaos phenomenon of circuit systems injected control signal disappear. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Special section on analysis, design and optimization of nonlinear circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kohshi

    Nonlinear theory plays an indispensable role in analysis, design and optimization of electric/electronic circuits because almost all circuits in the real world are modeled by nonlinear systems. Also, as the scale and complexity of circuits increase, more effective and systematic methods for the analysis, design and optimization are desired. The goal of this special section is to bring together research results from a variety of perspectives and academic disciplines related to nonlinear electric/electronic circuits.This special section includes three invited papers and six regular papers. The first invited paper by Kennedy entitled “Recent advances in the analysis, design and optimization of digital delta-sigma modulators” gives an overview of digital delta-sigma modulators and some techniques for improving their efficiency. The second invited paper by Trajkovic entitled “DC operating points of transistor circuits” surveys main theoretical results on the analysis of DC operating points of transistor circuits and discusses numerical methods for calculating them. The third invited paper by Nishi et al. entitled “Some properties of solution curves of a class of nonlinear equations and the number of solutions” gives several new theorems concerning solution curves of a class of nonlinear equations which is closely related to DC operating point analysis of nonlinear circuits. The six regular papers cover a wide range of areas such as memristors, chaos circuits, filters, sigma-delta modulators, energy harvesting systems and analog circuits for solving optimization problems.The guest editor would like to express his sincere thanks to the authors who submitted their papers to this special section. He also thanks the reviewers and the editorial committee members of this special section for their support during the review process. Last, but not least, he would also like to acknowledge the editorial staff of the NOLTA journal for their continuous support of this

  14. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  15. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  16. Fractional linear systems and electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    This monograph covers some selected problems of positive and fractional electrical circuits composed of resistors, coils, capacitors and voltage (current) sources. The book consists of 8 chapters, 4 appendices and a list of references. Chapter 1 is devoted to fractional standard and positive continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems without and with delays. In chapter 2 the standard and positive fractional electrical circuits are considered and the fractional electrical circuits in transient states are analyzed.  Descriptor linear electrical circuits and their properties are investigated in chapter 3,  while chapter 4 is devoted to the stability of fractional standard and positive linear electrical circuits. The reachability, observability and reconstructability of fractional positive electrical circuits and their decoupling zeros are analyzed in chapter 5. The fractional linear electrical circuits with feedbacks are considered in chapter 6. In chapter 7 solutions of minimum energy control for standa...

  17. Thermal rectification in nonlinear quantum circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruokola, T.; Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of radiative heat transport in nonlinear solid-state quantum circuits. We give a detailed account of heat rectification effects, i.e., the asymmetry of heat current with respect to a reversal of the thermal gradient, in a system consisting of two reservoirs at finite...

  18. Quantum Electric Circuits Analogous to Ballistic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The conductance steps in a constricted two-dimensional electron gas and the minimum conductivity in graphene are related to a new uncertainty relation between electric charge and conductance in a quantized electric circuit that mimics the electric transport in mesoscopic systems. This uncertainty relation makes specific use of the discreteness of electric charge. Quantum electric circuits analogous to both constricted two-dimensional electron gas and graphene are introduced. In the latter cas...

  19. MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION Nanoscience is a modern aspect of electronic engineering with significant projections for applications on new devices. This project allowed presenting an innovative language and a rigorous vision on aspects of nanoscience. The theory of quantum electrical circuits with discrete charge corresponds to the description (in simple terms) of some aspects of nanoscience. Our results gather aspects of quantum mechanics, electrical circuit...

  20. Design of Nonlinear Circuits: The Linear Time-Varying Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijstermans, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last years the ever-growing demand for higher performance has led to much interest in using nonlinear circuit concepts for electronic circuit design. For this we have to deal with analysis and synthesis of dynamic nonlinear circuits. This thesis proposes to handle the nonlinear design

  1. Design of Nonlinear Circuits: The Linear Time-Varying Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijstermans, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last years the ever-growing demand for higher performance has led to much interest in using nonlinear circuit concepts for electronic circuit design. For this we have to deal with analysis and synthesis of dynamic nonlinear circuits. This thesis proposes to handle the nonlinear design comp

  2. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  3. Electric Circuit Theory--Computer Illustrated Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer-illustrated text (CIT) with integrated software to teach electric circuit theory to college students. Examples of software use are given, including simple animation, graphical displays, and problem-solving programs. Issues affecting electric circuit theory instruction are also addressed, including mathematical…

  4. Entropy production by simple electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, E N

    2012-01-01

    The entropy production by simple electrical circuits (R, RC, RL) is analyzed. It comes out that the entropy production is minimal, in agreement with a well known theorem due to Prigogine. In this way, it is wrong a recent result by Zupanovic, Juretic and Botric (Physica Review E 70, 056198) who claimed that the entropy production in simple electrical circuits is a maximum

  5. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  6. Nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering with applications in Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bakr, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optimization in Electrical Engineering with Applications in MATLAB® provides an introductory course on nonlinear optimization in electrical engineering, with a focus on applications such as the design of electric, microwave, and photonic circuits, wireless communications, and digital filter design. Basic concepts are introduced using a step-by-step approach and illustrated with MATLAB® codes that the reader can use and adapt. Topics covered include: classical optimization methods; one dimensional optimization; unconstrained and constrained optimization; global optimization; space map

  7. Nonlinear Circuit Analysis via Perturbation Methods and Hardware Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Odame

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear signal processing is necessary in many emerging applications where form factor and power are at a premium. In order to make such complex computation feasible under these constraints, it is necessary to implement the signal processors as analog circuits. Since analog circuit design is largely based on a linear systems perspective, new tools are being introduced to circuit designers that allow them to understand and exploit circuit nonlinearity for useful processing. This paper discusses two such tools, which represent nonlinear circuit behavior in a graphical way, making it easy to develop a qualitative appreciation for the circuits under study.

  8. The Dynamical Topological Models of Lagrange’s and Hamiltonian Equations for Complex Nonlinear Electrical Circuit System%复杂非线性电路系统的动力学方程模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧松

    2012-01-01

    Lagrange和Hamilton运动方程是分析力学的基本原理之一和方法论.应用Lagrange和Hamilton原理建立复杂非线性电路保守动力学方程模型是一种形式化可行的方法.对非保守的动力学系统,定义描述电路系统的荷控支路和链控支路的微观结构概念,应用Hamilton结构的方法,可以得到与Lagrange结构等价的方程组;考虑大规模电路系统的复杂性,依据电路系统荷控支路和链控支路微观结构的概念,给出具有控制参量的Lagrange和Hamilton函数,以及具有相应关联矩阵和联接矩阵形式的Lagrange和Hamilton的动态方程;分析了保守和非保守复杂系统拓扑结构关系的描述和其动力学系统的建模,其建模过程具有规范性和方程具有对称性.虽然数学推导过程繁琐,但适合于计算机辅助形式化分析;基于Hamilton方法建立的电路模型为一阶微分动态方程组,特别适合进行理论分析和数值仿真计算.%The Lagrange's and Hamiltonian movement equation are one of the basic principles of analytical mechanics and methodology. The application of Lagrange's and Hamiltonian theory approach to modeling complex nonlinear conservation electrical circuits dynamics system is a practicable in formulation methodology. But for the non conservation electrical circuits dynamics system, a new micro structure conception of electric charge quantitative control branch and magnetic chain control branch in electrical circuit system has been put forward that have equality with the Lagrange's equations; Consideration of the topological complexity of large electrical circuit system, based on the micro structure conception of electric charge quantitative control branch and magnetic chain control branch in electrical circuit, and the Lagrange's and Hamiltonian function that have control parameters are given. ; as well as the Lagrange's and Hamiltonian equations that have incidence matrix and linked matrix; So the

  9. The global atmospheric electrical circuit and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, R G

    2004-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for physical links among clouds, global temperatures, the global atmospheric electrical circuit and cosmic ray ionisation. The global circuit extends throughout the atmosphere from the planetary surface to the lower layers of the ionosphere. Cosmic rays are the principal source of atmospheric ions away from the continental boundary layer: the ions formed permit a vertical conduction current to flow in the fair weather part of the global circuit. Through the (inverse) solar modulation of cosmic rays, the resulting columnar ionisation changes may allow the global circuit to convey a solar influence to meteorological phenomena of the lower atmosphere. Electrical effects on non-thunderstorm clouds have been proposed to occur via the ion-assisted formation of ultrafine aerosol, which can grow to sizes able to act as cloud condensation nuclei, or through the increased ice nucleation capability of charged aerosols. Even small atmospheric electrical modulations on the aerosol size distribution ca...

  10. A Global Electric Circuit on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    We describe conditions on the surface of Mars conducive to the formation of a martian global electric circuit, in a direct analogy to the terrestrial case where atmospheric currents and electric fields are generated worldwide through the charging in thunderstorms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters c...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.181 - Electrical circuits and distribution boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical circuits and distribution boards. 1915.181... Electrical Machinery § 1915.181 Electrical circuits and distribution boards. (a) The provisions of this... employee is permitted to work on an electrical circuit, except when the circuit must remain energized...

  13. Nonlinear electronic circuit with neuron like bursting and spiking dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Guillermo V; Formigli, Carlos M

    2009-07-01

    It is difficult to design electronic nonlinear devices capable of reproducing complex oscillations because of the lack of general constructive rules, and because of stability problems related to the dynamical robustness of the circuits. This is particularly true for current analog electronic circuits that implement mathematical models of bursting and spiking neurons. Here we describe a novel, four-dimensional and dynamically robust nonlinear analog electronic circuit that is intrinsic excitable, and that displays frequency adaptation bursting and spiking oscillations. Despite differences from the classical Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuron model, its bifurcation sequences and dynamical properties are preserved, validating the circuit as a neuron model. The circuit's performance is based on a nonlinear interaction of fast-slow circuit blocks that can be clearly dissected, elucidating burst's starting, sustaining and stopping mechanisms, which may also operate in real neurons. Our analog circuit unit is easily linked and may be useful in building networks that perform in real-time.

  14. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  15. Biologically closed electrical circuits in venus flytrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Markin, Vladislav S

    2009-04-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is a marvel of plant electrical, mechanical, and biochemical engineering. The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap upper leaf in about 0.1 s is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. We found earlier that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges and, when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Here, we investigated the electrical properties of the upper leaf of the Venus flytrap and proposed the equivalent electrical circuit in agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhaney, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept.

  17. Wavelet neural network based fault diagnosis in nonlinear analog circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Shirong; Chen Guangju; Xie Yongle

    2006-01-01

    The theories of diagnosing nonlinear analog circuits by means of the transient response testing are studied. Wavelet analysis is made to extract the transient response signature of nonlinear circuits and compress the signature dada. The best wavelet function is selected based on the between-category total scatter of signature. The fault dictionary of nonlinear circuits is constructed based on improved back-propagation(BP) neural network. Experimental results demonstrate that the method proposed has high diagnostic sensitivity and fast fault identification and deducibility.

  18. Electric Current Circuits in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijpers, Jan; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic magnetic structures have in common that they are anchored in a dynamo, that an external driver converts kinetic energy into internal magnetic energy, that this magnetic energy is transported as Poynting flux across the magnetically dominated structure, and that the magnetic energy is released in the form of particle acceleration, heating, bulk motion, MHD waves, and radiation. The investigation of the electric current system is particularly illuminating as to the course of events and the physics involved. We demonstrate this for the radio pulsar wind, the solar flare, and terrestrial magnetic storms.

  19. Design automation for integrated nonlinear logic circuits (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Pelc, Jason; Santori, Charles; Bose, Ranojoy; Kielpinski, Dave; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2016-05-01

    PCells (modules) which consist of primitive building-block PCells (components). To automatically produce layouts, we built on a construct provided by Luceda called a PlaceAndAutoRoute cell: we create a module component by supplying a list of child cells, and a list of the desired connections between the cells (e.g. the out0 port of a microring is connected to a grating coupler). This functionality allowed us to write algorithms to automatically lay out the components: for instance, by laying out the first component and walking through the list of connections to check to see if the next component is already placed or not. The placement and orientation of the new component is determined by minimizing the length of a connecting waveguide. Our photonic circuits also utilize electrical signals to tune the photonic elements (setting propagation phases or microring resonant frequencies via thermo-optical tuning): the algorithm also routes the contacts for the metal heaters to contact pads at the edge of the circuit being designed where it can be contacted by electrical probes. We are currently validating a test run fabricated over the summer, and will use detailed characterization results to prepare our final design cycle in which we aim to demonstrate complex operational logic circuits containing ~50-100 nonlinear resonators.

  20. 30 CFR 75.509 - Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuit and electric equipment...-General § 75.509 Electric power circuit and electric equipment; deenergization. All power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done on such circuits and equipment, except...

  1. Method for Measuring Small Nonlinearities of Electric Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom; Meyer, Niels I; Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    1965-01-01

    A method is described for measuring very small deviations from linearity in electric characteristics. The measurement is based on the harmonics generated by the nonlinear element when subjected to a sine wave signal. A special bridge circuit is used to balance out the undesired harmonics...... of the signal generator together with the first harmonic frequency. The set-up measures the small-signal value and the first and second derivative with respect to voltage. The detailed circuits are given for measuring nonlinearities in Ohmic and capacitive components. In the Ohmic case, a sensitivity...

  2. Stochastic Simulation of Integrated Circuits with Nonlinear Black-Box Components via Augmented Deterministic Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANFREDI, P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends recent literature results concerning the statistical simulation of circuits affected by random electrical parameters by means of the polynomial chaos framework. With respect to previous implementations, based on the generation and simulation of augmented and deterministic circuit equivalents, the modeling is extended to generic and ?black-box? multi-terminal nonlinear subcircuits describing complex devices, like those found in integrated circuits. Moreover, based on recently-published works in this field, a more effective approach to generate the deterministic circuit equivalents is implemented, thus yielding more compact and efficient models for nonlinear components. The approach is fully compatible with commercial (e.g., SPICE-type circuit simulators and is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of a realistic interconnect structure with a 16-bit memory chip. The accuracy and the comparison against previous approaches are also carefully established.

  3. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection....

  4. RF Circuit linearity optimization using a general weak nonlinearity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, W.; Oude Alink, M.S.; Annema, Anne J.; Croon, Jeroen A.; Nauta, Bram

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimizing the linearity in known RF circuits, by exploring the circuit design space that is usually available in today’s deep submicron CMOS technologies. Instead of using brute force numerical optimizers we apply a generalized weak nonlinearity model that only involves AC

  5. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the...

  6. 30 CFR 77.500 - Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power circuits and electric equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.500 Electric power circuits and electric equipment; deenergization. Power circuits and electric equipment shall be deenergized before work is done...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be...

  9. Simulation of Chaos in Asymmetric Nonlinear Chua's Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-fei; QIAO Shu-tong; JIANG Jian-guo

    2008-01-01

    In order to describe practical chaotic systems exactly, we presented a simple modified Chua's circuit,which contains an asymmetric nonlinear resistive element. Mathematical analysis was made, and simulation study was performed by MATLAB. By varying the value of linear resistor in the circuit, rich variety dynamical behaviors were observed, such as DC equilibrium point, Hopf bifurcation, period-doubling bifurcation,single-scroll strange attractor, periodic windows, and asymmetric double-scroll strange attractor. The extreme sensitivity in the state trajectory with respect to the initial conditions was exhibited; the special characteristic of asymmetric nonlinear Chua's circuit was found also.

  10. Cycle slipping in nonlinear circuits under periodic nonlinearities and time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnova, Vera; Proskurnikov, Anton; Utina, Natalia V.

    2014-01-01

    Phase-locked loops (PLL), Costas loops and other synchronizing circuits are featured by the presence of a nonlinear phase detector, described by a periodic nonlinearity. In general, nonlinearities can cause complex behavior of the system such multi-stability and chaos. However, even phase locking ma

  11. Metodología de Diseño Optimo en Tiempo para Circuitos Electrónicos no Lineales Time-Optimal Design Methodology for Nonlinear Electronic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ríos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología para el diseño de sistemas no lineales en tiempo óptimo. Se emplea la teoría de control óptimo y un conjunto de funciones de control especiales para generalizar la metodología y producir varias estrategias de diseño dentro del mismo procedimiento de optimización. La combinación de algunas estrategias define la trayectoria de diseño óptima o cuasi-óptima en tiempo de computación. Para generar los resultados numéricos en un computador personal se escribió un programa en lenguaje C++. El diseño de algunos circuitos electrónicos no lineales muestra que esta metodología puede reducir sustancialmente el número total de operaciones y acelerar el proceso de diseño. Se concluye que la ganancia en tiempo de esta metodología de diseño aumenta con respecto a la metodología tradicional a medida que el tamaño y la complejidad del sistema crecen.A methodology is presented for the time-optimal design of non-linear systems. Optimal control theory and a set of special control functions are introduced in order to generalize the design methodology and to produce various different design strategies within the same optimization procedure. The combination of some of these strategies defines the optimal or quasi-optimal design trajectory based on computation time. The numerical results were obtained by personal computer using a C++ language program. The design of some nonlinear electronic circuits showed that this methodology can substantially reduce the total number of operations and accelerate the design process. It is concluded that the gain in time using this design methodology increases, in comparison with traditional methodology, as the complexity of the system grows.

  12. Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.

  13. How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauert, Esme Bridget

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

  14. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  15. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  16. Microwave RF antennas and circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a new concept for analyzing RF/microwave circuits, which includes RF/microwave antennas. The book is unique in its emphasis on practical and innovative microwave RF engineering applications. The analysis is based on nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and results. All conceptual RF microwave circuits and antennas are innovative and can be broadly implemented in engineering applications. Given the dynamics of RF microwave circuits and antennas, they are suitable for use in a broad range of applications. The book presents analytical methods for microwave RF antennas and circuit analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. The analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic differential equations and their bifurcations, and subsequently moving on to fixed point analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. Engineering applications include microwave RF circuits and antennas in a variety of topological structures, RFID ICs and antennas, micros...

  17. Quantum noise in large-scale coherent nonlinear photonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Santori, Charles; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Tezak, Nikolas; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A netlist-based circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important...

  18. Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two.

  19. Performance analysis of electrical circuits /PANE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Steinberg, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    Automated statistical and worst case computer program has been designed to perform dc and ac steady circuit analyses. The program determines the worst case circuit performance by solving circuit equations.

  20. Nonlinear Magnetic Circuit Analysis of SMART Control Rod Drive Actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Myounggyu; Gi, Myung Ju; Kim, Myounggon; Park, Youngwoo [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaeseon; Kim, Jongwook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we derive a nonlinear magnetic circuit model of an electromagnetic control-rod actuator in the SMART. The results of the nonlinear model are compared with those by linear circuit model and finite-element analyses. gnetic circuit modeling is a useful tool when designing an electromagnetic actuator, as it allows fast calculations and enables parametric studies. It is particularly essential when the actuator is to be used in a very complex system such as a nuclear reactor. Important design parameters must be identified at the early stage of the design process. Once the design space is narrowed down, more accurate methods such finite-element analyses (FEA) can be employed for detailed design. Magnetic circuit modeling is based on the assumption that a flux path consists of sections in each of which field quantities are constant with linear constitutive relations. This assumption fails to hold when portions of the flux path become saturated. The magnetic circuit must be modified in order to accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of saturation.

  1. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    of container ships. The purpose of the model is to describe the important dynamics of the system, such as nonlinearities, transport delays and closed circuit flow dynamics to enable the model to be used for control design and simulation. The control challenge is related to the highly non-standard type of step...

  2. Grobner Bases for Nonlinear DAE Systems of Analog Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke J. Spang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems of differential equations play an important role in modelling and analysis of many complex systems e.g. in electronics and mechanics. The following article is concerned with a symbolic analysis approach for reduction of the differential index of nonlinear differential algebraic equation (DAE systems, which occur in the modelling and simulation of analog circuits.

  3. Advance elements of optoisolation circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    This book on advanced optoisolation circuits for nonlinearity applications in engineering addresses two separate engineering and scientific areas, and presents advanced analysis methods for optoisolation circuits that cover a broad range of engineering applications. The book analyzes optoisolation circuits as linear and nonlinear dynamical systems and their limit cycles, bifurcation, and limit cycle stability by using Floquet theory. Further, it discusses a broad range of bifurcations related to optoisolation systems: cusp-catastrophe, Bautin bifurcation, Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcation, fold Hopf bifurcation, Hopf-Hopf bifurcation, Torus bifurcation (Neimark-Sacker bifurcation), and Saddle-loop or Homoclinic bifurcation. Floquet theory helps as to analyze advance optoisolation systems. Floquet theory is the study of the stability of linear periodic systems in continuous time. Another way to describe Floquet theory, it is the study of linear systems of differential equations with p...

  4. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements... minimum requirements for protection of electric circuits and equipment of the National Electric Code, 1968....

  5. The Elusive Memristor: Properties of Basic Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N.; Wolf, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge "q" and the magnetic flux [phi] in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of…

  6. A bistable microelectronic circuit for sensing extremely low electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Liu, Norman; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Palacios, Antonio; Bulsara, Adi R.

    2010-01-01

    Bistable systems are prevalently found in many sensor systems. Recently, we have explored (unidirectionally) coupled overdamped bistable systems that admit self-sustained oscillations when the coupling parameter is swept through the critical points of bifurcations [V. In et al., Phys. Rev. E 68, 045102-R (2003); A. R. Bulsara et al., Phys. Rev. E 70, 036103 (2004); V. In et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 045104-R (2005); Phys Rev. Lett. 91, 244101 (2003); A. Palacios et al., Phys. Rev. E 72, 026211 (2005); V. In et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 066121 (2006)]. Complex behaviors emerge, in addition, from these (relatively simple) coupled systems when an external signal (ac or dc) is applied uniformly to all the elements in the array. In particular, we have demonstrated this emergent behavior for a coupled system comprised of mean-field hysteretic elements describing a "single-domain" ferromagnetic sample. The results are being used to develop extremely sensitive magnetic sensors capable of resolving field changes as low as 150 pT by observing the changes in the oscillation characteristics of the coupled sensors. In this paper, we explore the underlying dynamics of a coupled bistable system realized by coupling microelectronic circuits, which belong to the same class of dynamics as the aforementioned (ferromagnetic) system, with the nonlinear features and coupling terms modeled by hyperbolic tangent nonlinearities; these nonlinearities stem from the operational transconductance amplifiers used in constructing the microcircuits. The emergent behavior is being applied to develop an extremely sensitive electric-field sensor.

  7. Device, system and method for a sensing electrical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a driven ground electrical circuit. A driven ground is a current-measuring ground termination to an electrical circuit with the current measured as a vector with amplification. The driven ground module may include an electric potential source V.sub.S driving an electric current through an impedance (load Z) to a driven ground. Voltage from the source V.sub.S excites the minus terminal of an operational amplifier inside the driven ground which, in turn, may react by generating an equal and opposite voltage to drive the net potential to approximately zero (effectively ground). A driven ground may also be a means of passing information via the current passing through one grounded circuit to another electronic circuit as input. It may ground one circuit, amplify the information carried in its current and pass this information on as input to the next circuit.

  8. Fabrication, electrical characterization, and detection application of graphene-sheet-based electrical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yitian; Lei, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of potential, electric field, and gradient of square of electric field was simulated via a finite element method for dielectrophoresis (DEP) assembly. Then reduced graphene oxide sheets (RGOS)- and graphene oxide sheets (GOS)-based electrical circuits were fabricated via DEP assembly. The mechanically exfoliated graphene sheets (MEGS)-based electrical circuit was also fabricated for comparison. The electrical transport properties of three types of graphene-based electrical circuits were measured. The MEGS-based electrical circuit possesses the best electrical conductivity, and the GOS-based electrical circuit has the poorest electrical conductivity among all three circuits. The three types of electrical circuits were applied for the detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)). The RGOS-based electrical circuit can detect the Cu(2+) when the concentration of Cu(2+) was as low as 10 nM in solution. The GOS-based electrical circuit can only detect Cu(2+) after chemical reduction. The possible mechanism of electron transfer was proposed for the detection. The facile fabrication method and excellent performance imply the RGOS-based electrical circuit has great potential to be applied to metal ion sensors.

  9. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Kocakülah, Sabri

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal secondary school students' misconceptions about simple electric circuits and to define whether specific misconceptions peculiar to Turkish students exist within those identified. Data were obtained with a conceptual understanding test for simple electric circuits and semi-structured interviews. Conceptual…

  10. Equivalent circuit simulation of HPEM-induced transient responses at nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotzev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the equivalent circuit modeling of a nonlinearly loaded loop antenna and its transient responses to HPEM field excitations are investigated. For the circuit modeling the general strategy to characterize the nonlinearly loaded antenna by a linear and a nonlinear circuit part is pursued. The linear circuit part can be determined by standard methods of antenna theory and numerical field computation. The modeling of the nonlinear circuit part requires realistic circuit models of the nonlinear loads that are given by Schottky diodes. Combining both parts, appropriate circuit models are obtained and analyzed by means of a standard SPICE circuit simulator. It is the main result that in this way full-wave simulation results can be reproduced. Furthermore it is clearly seen that the equivalent circuit modeling offers considerable advantages with respect to computation speed and also leads to improved physical insights regarding the coupling between HPEM field excitation and nonlinearly loaded loop antenna.

  11. Signal transduction in Mimosa pudica: biologically closed electrical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Foster, Justin C; Markin, Vladislav S

    2010-05-01

    Biologically closed electrical circuits operate over large distances in biological tissues. The activation of such circuits can lead to various physiological and biophysical responses. Here, we analyse the biologically closed electrical circuits of the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica Linn. using electrostimulation of a petiole or pulvinus by the charged capacitor method, and evaluate the equivalent electrical scheme of electrical signal transduction inside the plant. The discharge of a 100 microF capacitor in the pulvinus resulted in the downward fall of the petiole in a few seconds, if the capacitor was charged beforehand by a 1.5 V power supply. Upon disconnection of the capacitor from Ag/AgCl electrodes, the petiole slowly relaxed to the initial position. The electrical properties of the M. pudica were investigated, and an equivalent electrical circuit was proposed that explains the experimental data.

  12. 具有多分界面的非线性电路中的非光滑分岔%Non-smooth bifurcation in nonlinear electrical circuits with multiple switching boundaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银; 毕勤胜

    2011-01-01

    本文分析了具有多分界面的非线性电路在不同时间尺度下的快慢动力学行为.在一定的参数条件下,系统的周期解为簇发解,表现出明显的快慢效应.根据状态变量变化的快慢,把全系统划分为快子系统和慢子系统两组.根据快慢分析法将慢变量看作快子系统的控制参数,分析了快子系统的平衡点在向量场不同区域内的稳定性.非光滑系统的分岔与向量场的分界面密切相关,对于具有快慢效应的两时间尺度非光滑系统,快子系统的分岔则取决于分界面两侧平衡点的性质.通过在临界面引入广义Jacobi矩阵,讨论了快子系统非光滑分岔的类型,即多次穿越分岔(mul%The fast-slow dynamics of a nonlinear electrical circuit with muhiple switching boundaries is investigated in this paper. For suitable parameters, periodic bursting phenomenon can be observed. The full system can be divided into slow and fast subsystems because of the difference between variational speeds of state variables. According to the slow-fast analysis, the slow variable, which modulates the behavior of the system, can be treated as a quasi-static bifurcation parameter for the fast subsystem to analyze the stabilities of equilibrium points in different areas of vector field. The bifurcation is dependent on the switching boundary in the vector field. In particular, for the two-time scale non-smooth system with fast-slow effect, the bifurcation of fast subsystem is determined by the characteristics of equilibrium points on both sides of the switching boundary. Furthermore, the generalized Jacobian matrix at the non-smooth boundary is introduced to explore the type of non-smooth bifurcation (i. e. , multiple crossing bifurcation) in the fast subsystem, which can also be used to explain the mechanism for symmetric bursting phenomenon of the full system.

  13. Electric circuit model for strained-layer epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2016-11-01

    For the design and analysis of a strained-layer semiconductor device structure, the equilibrium strain profile may be determined numerically by energy minimization but this method is computationally intense and non-intuitive. Here we present an electric circuit model approach for the equilibrium analysis of an epitaxial stack, in which each sublayer may be represented by an analogous configuration involving a current source, a resistor, a voltage source, and an ideal diode. The resulting node voltages in the analogous electric circuit correspond to the equilibrium strains in the original epitaxial structure. This new approach enables analysis using widely accessible circuit simulators, and an intuitive understanding of electric circuits may be translated to the relaxation of strained-layer structures. In this paper, we describe the mathematical foundation of the electrical circuit model and demonstrate its application to epitaxial layers of Si1-x Ge x grown on a Si (001) substrate.

  14. A nonlinear equivalent circuit method for analysis of passive intermodulation of mesh reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Passive intermodulation (PIM has gradually become a serious electromagnetic interference due to the development of high-power and high-sensitivity RF/microwave communication systems, especially large deployable mesh reflector antennas. This paper proposes a field-circuit coupling method to analyze the PIM level of mesh reflectors. With the existence of many metal–metal (MM contacts in mesh reflectors, the contact nonlinearity becomes the main reason for PIM generation. To analyze these potential PIM sources, an equivalent circuit model including nonlinear components is constructed to model a single MM contact so that the transient current through the MM contact point induced by incident electromagnetic waves can be calculated. Taking the electric current as a new electromagnetic wave source, the far-field scattering can be obtained by the use of electromagnetic numerical methods or the communication link method. Finally, a comparison between simulation and experimental results is illustrated to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  15. A figure of merit for neural electrical stimulation circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbl, Florian; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulators are widely used in neuro-prostheses. Many different implementations exist. However, no quantitative ranking criterion is available to allow meaningful comparison of the various stimulation circuits and systems to aid the designer. This paper presents a novel Figure of Merit (FOM) dedicated to stimulation circuits and systems. The proposed optimization performance metric takes into account tissue safety conditions and energy efficiency which can be evaluated by measurement. The FOM is used to rank several stimulator circuits and systems.

  16. Shuttle Electrical Power Analysis Program (SEPAP) distribution circuit analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation was made of the operating parameters of the shuttle electrical power distribution circuit under load conditions encountered during a normal Sortie 2 Mission with emphasis on main periods of liftoff and landing.

  17. Note on homological modeling of the electric circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Based on a simple example, it is explained how the homological analysis may be applied for modeling of the electric circuits. The homological branch, mesh and nodal analyses are presented. Geometrical interpretations are given.

  18. Hamilton´s Principle and Electric Circuits Tudory

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In the theory of electrical or electromechanical circuits different methods are known for construction of mathematical model. In this paper another, alternative method is introduced that is based on Hamilton variational principle that is generally valid in physics.

  19. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Wolf, Stephen J [Department of Physics, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: yojoglek@iupui.edu

    2009-07-15

    We present an introduction to and a tutorial on the properties of the recently discovered ideal circuit element, a memristor. By definition, a memristor M relates the charge q and the magnetic flux {phi} in a circuit and complements a resistor R, a capacitor C and an inductor L as an ingredient of ideal electrical circuits. The properties of these three elements and their circuits are a part of the standard curricula. The existence of the memristor as the fourth ideal circuit element was predicted in 1971 based on symmetry arguments, but was clearly experimentally demonstrated just last year. We present the properties of a single memristor, memristors in series and parallel, as well as ideal memristor-capacitor (MC), memristor-inductor (ML) and memristor-capacitor-inductor (MCL) circuits. We find that the memristor has hysteretic current-voltage characteristics. We show that the ideal MC (ML) circuit undergoes non-exponential charge (current) decay with two time scales and that by switching the polarity of the capacitor, an ideal MCL circuit can be tuned from overdamped to underdamped. We present simple models which show that these unusual properties are closely related to the memristor's internal dynamics. This tutorial complements the pedagogy of ideal circuit elements (R, C and L) and the properties of their circuits, and is aimed at undergraduate physics and electrical engineering students.

  20. Model of Pulsed Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM using RL Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Erawan Bin Minhat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a model of pulsed Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM using RL circuit. There are several mathematical models have been successfully developed based on the initial, ignition and discharge phase of current and voltage gap. According to these models, the circuit schematic of transistor pulse power generator has been designed using electrical model in Matlab Simulink software to identify the profile of voltage and current during machining process. Then, the simulation results are compared with the experimental results.

  1. Enhancing student learning and conceptual understanding of electric circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has highlighted that students have many conceptual difficulties regarding electric circuits and that traditional teaching methods are not successful in overcoming these difficulties. In addressing this issue, this research project placed its primary focus on the development of research based and research validated curriculum which systematically promotes the development of a scientific model for electric circuits. Over the last four years, the project focussed on deve...

  2. Electrical circuits in biomedical engineering problems with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Keskin, Ali Ümit

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph presents a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of electrical circuit theory in biomedical engineering, ideally suited as textbook for a course program. The book contains methods and theory, but the topical focus is placed on practical applications of circuit theory, including problems, solutions and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in electrical engineering who intend to embark on biomedical applications. The book is also very well suited for graduate students in the field. .

  3. Nonlinear terahertz metamaterials with active electrical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, G. R.; Karl, N.; Liu, P. Q.; Tulloss, C.; Chen, H.-T.; Taylor, A. J.; Brener, I.; Reno, J. L.; Mittleman, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of an electrically modulated nonlinear metamaterial consisting of an array of split-ring resonators fabricated on n-type gallium arsenide. The resonant metamaterial nonlinearity appears as an intensity-dependent transmission minimum at terahertz frequencies and arises from the interaction between local electric fields in the split-ring resonator (SRR) capacitive gaps and charge carriers in the n-type substrate. We investigate the active tuning range of the metamaterial device as the incident terahertz field intensity is increased and conversely the effect of an applied DC bias on the terahertz field-induced nonlinear modulation of the metamaterial response. Applying a DC bias to the metamaterial sample alters the nonlinear response and reduces the net nonlinear modulation. Similarly, increasing the incident terahertz field intensity decreases the net modulation induced by an applied DC bias. We interpret these results in terms of DC and terahertz-field-assisted carrier acceleration, scattering, and multiplication processes, highlighting the unique nature of this DC-field modulated terahertz nonlinearity.

  4. Preschool children learn about electric circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Jarc, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my thesis, I first summarized what can be found in literature concerning electricity treatment (Labinowicz, Driver) and particularities of topics treatment in a preschool period, as well. I presented the concepts of electricity and electrical current, respectively, and several simple devices that operate on the basis of electricity, sources and the concept of electric energy. In the empirical part I first presented the questionnaire for identification of childr...

  5. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  6. Nonlinear noninteger order circuits and systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Arena, P; Fortuna, L; Porto, D

    2001-01-01

    In this book, the reader will find a theoretical introduction to noninteger order systems, as well as several applications showing their features and peculiarities. The main definitions and results of research on noninteger order systems and modelling of physical noninteger phenomena are reported together with problems of their approximation. Control applications, noninteger order CNNs and circuit realizations of noninteger order systems are also presented.The book is intended for students and researchers involved in the simulation and control of nonlinear noninteger order systems, with partic

  7. Power and heat fluctuation theorems for electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, R; Ciliberto, S; Cohen, E G D

    2004-04-02

    Using recent fluctuation theorems from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, we extend the theory for voltage fluctuations in electric circuits to power and heat fluctuations. They could be of particular relevance for the functioning of small circuits. This is done for a parallel resistor and capacitor with a constant current source for which we use the analogy with a Brownian particle dragged through a fluid by a moving harmonic potential, where circuit-specific analogs are needed on top of the Brownian-Nyquist analogy. The results may also hold for other circuits as another example shows.

  8. Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Sagawa, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

  9. Using Hydraulic Network Models to Teach Electric Circuit Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Irvin; EERC (Engineering Education Research Center) Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Unlike other engineering disciplines, teaching electric circuit principles is difficult for some students because there isn't a visual context to rely on. So concepts such as electric potential, current, resistance, capacitance, and inductance have little meaning outside of their definition and the derived mathematical relationships. As a work in progress, we are developing a tool to support teaching, learning, and research of electric circuits. The tool will allow the user to design, build, and operate electric circuits in the form of hydraulic networks. We believe that this system will promote greater learning of electric circuit principles by visually realizing the conceptual and abstract concepts of electric circuits. Furthermore, as a teaching and learning tool, the hydraulic network system can be used to teach and improve comprehension of electrical principles in K through 12 classrooms and in cross-disciplinary environments such as Bioengineering, Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering, and Aeronautical Engineering. As a research tool, the hydraulic network can model and simulate micro/nano bio-electro-chemical systems. Organization within the Swanson School of Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh.

  10. 30 CFR 75.518-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 75.518-1 Section 75.518-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.518-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload...

  11. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  12. Stochastic Resonance Induced by Dichotomous Resistor in an Electric Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia

    2007-01-01

    An electric circuit with dichotomous resistor is investigated.It is shown that the amplitude of the average electric current washing the resistor represents the phenomenon of stochastic resonance,which is the response as a function of the correlation time of the dichotomous resistor.

  13. Experimental mastering of nonlinear dynamics in circuits by sporadic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria IFCA (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain); Gutierrez, J.M. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)], E-mail: gutierjm@unican.es; Gueemez, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Universidad de Cantabria (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    We present some experimental evidence of mastering chaos (control and anticontrol) in nonlinear circuits using a simple impulsive method which does not require any knowledge about the system's dynamics. The method works by introducing instantaneous pulses in some system variables-in this paper the pulses are applied to a capacitor voltage-and, hence, is an additional plug-in that does not modify the system itself. When varying the mastering parameters (amplitude and frequency of pulses) we obtain a bifurcation structure similar to the one obtained when varying some system's parameters. Therefore, this device allows us investigating the dynamics of a given circuit providing us with a versatile component for performing both control or anticontrol of chaos. In particular, we show how a double-scroll chaotic system is stabilized in period three, single-scroll, period-4, period-2, period-1, fixed point, following an inverse bifurcation route as a function of the pulses amplitude (chaos control). It is also shown how a periodic Chua's circuit is driven to chaotic behavior (chaos anticontrol)

  14. Introduction to Biosensors From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors discusses underlying circuitry of sensors for biomedical and biological engineers as well as biomedical sensing modalities for electrical engineers while providing an applications-based approach to the study of biosensors with over 13 extensive, hands-on labs. The material is presented using a building-block approach, beginning with the fundamentals of sensor design and temperature sensors and ending with more complicated biosensors. This book also: Provides electrical engineers with the specific knowledge they need to understand biological sensing modalities Provides biomedical engineers with a solid background in circuits and systems Includes complete coverage of temperature sensors, electrochemical sensors, DNA and immunosensors, piezoelectric sensors and immunosensing in a micofluidic device Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors aims to provide an interdisciplinary approach to biosensors that will be apprecia...

  15. An Unsolved Electric Circuit: A Common Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, N. R. Sree; Sreedevi, A.; Prakash, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Despite a number of theories in circuit analysis, little is known about the behaviour of ideal equal voltage sources in parallel, connected across a resistive load. We neither have any theory that can predict the voltage source that provides the load current, nor is there any method to test it experimentally. In a series of experiments performed…

  16. An Unsolved Electric Circuit: A Common Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, N. R. Sree; Sreedevi, A.; Prakash, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Despite a number of theories in circuit analysis, little is known about the behaviour of ideal equal voltage sources in parallel, connected across a resistive load. We neither have any theory that can predict the voltage source that provides the load current, nor is there any method to test it experimentally. In a series of experiments performed…

  17. 49 CFR 236.308 - Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits; requisites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; requisites. Mechanical or electric locking or electric circuits shall be installed to prevent signals from... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical or electric locking or electric... GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS,...

  18. Frequency Response and Gap Tuning for Nonlinear Electrical Oscillator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Harish S.; Vaz, Garnet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study nonlinear electrical oscillator networks, the smallest example of which consists of a voltage-dependent capacitor, an inductor, and a resistor driven by a pure tone source. By allowing the network topology to be that of any connected graph, such circuits generalize spatially discrete nonlinear transmission lines/lattices that have proven useful in high-frequency analog devices. For such networks, we develop two algorithms to compute the steady-state response when a subset of nodes are driven at the same fixed frequency. The algorithms we devise are orders of magnitude more accurate and efficient than stepping towards the steady-state using a standard numerical integrator. We seek to enhance a given network's nonlinear behavior by altering the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian, i.e., the resonances of the linearized system. We develop a Newton-type method that solves for the network inductances such that the graph Laplacian achieves a desired set of eigenvalues; this method enables one to move the eigenvalues while keeping the network topology fixed. Running numerical experiments using three different random graph models, we show that shrinking the gap between the graph Laplacian's first two eigenvalues dramatically improves a network's ability to (i) transfer energy to higher harmonics, and (ii) generate large-amplitude signals. Our results shed light on the relationship between a network's structure, encoded by the graph Laplacian, and its function, defined in this case by the presence of strongly nonlinear effects in the frequency response. PMID:24223751

  19. Circadian rhythms in electrical circuits of Clivia miniata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Wooten, Joseph D; Waite, Astian J; Brown, Corydon R; Markin, Vladislav S

    2011-10-15

    The biological clock regulates a wide range of physiological processes in plants. Here we show circadian variation of the Clivia miniata responses to electrical stimulation. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of C. miniata (Kaffir lily), which regulate its physiology, were analyzed in vivo using the charge stimulation method. The electrostimulation was provided with different voltages and electrical charges. Resistance between Ag/AgCl electrodes in the leaf of C. miniata was higher at night than during the day or the following day in the darkness. The biologically closed electrical circuits with voltage gated ion channels in C. miniata are activated the next day, even in the darkness. C. miniata memorizes daytime and nighttime. At continuous light, C. miniata recognizes nighttime and increases the input resistance to the nighttime value even under light. These results show that the circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate voltage gated ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. The activation of voltage gated channels depends on the applied voltage, electrical charge and speed of transmission of electrical energy from the electrostimulator to the C. miniata leaves. We present the equivalent electrical circuits in C. miniata and its circadian variation to explain the experimental data.

  20. 30 CFR 77.501 - Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric distribution circuits and equipment... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.501 Electric distribution circuits and equipment; repair. No electrical work shall be performed on electric distribution circuits or...

  1. Estimating π using an electrical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.

    2017-01-01

    The constant pi, or π, is one of the oldest and most recognizable irrational constants. It was known from the earliest days of mathematics and the sciences. Over the ages, many methods of varying complexity have been used to estimate π. This article presents a novel experimental method to estimate π using direct, digital voltmeter measurements on a simple precision full-wave rectifier circuit. We discuss the method in the context of error encroachment, and suggest the possibility to estimate total harmonic distortion simply. The experiment is repeatable and of value to the undergraduate physics and electronics laboratory, while adding to a celebration of π.

  2. Electrical overstress (EOS) devices, circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Overstress (EOS) continues to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics.  This bookteaches the fundamentals of electrical overstress  and how to minimize and mitigate EOS failures. The text provides a clear picture of EOS phenomena, EOS origins, EOS sources, EOS physics, EOS failure mechanisms, and EOS on-chip and system design.  It provides an illuminating insight into the sources of EOS in manufacturing, integration of on-chip, and system level EOS protection networks, followed by examples in spe

  3. Biologically Closed Electrical Circuits in Venus Flytrap[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G.; Carrell, Holly; Markin, Vladislav S.

    2009-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is a marvel of plant electrical, mechanical, and biochemical engineering. The rapid closure of the Venus flytrap upper leaf in about 0.1 s is one of the fastest movements in the plant kingdom. We found earlier that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges and, when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Here, we investigated the electrical properties of the upper leaf of the Venus flytrap and proposed the equivalent electrical circuit in agreement with the experimental data. PMID:19211696

  4. An Improved Nonlinear Circuit Model for GaAs Gunn Diode in W-Band Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Yonghong

    An improved nonlinear circuit model for a GaAs Gunn diode in an oscillator is proposed based on the physical mechanism of the diode. This model interprets the nonlinear harmonic character on the Gunn diode. Its equivalent nonlinear circuit of which can assist in the design of the Gunn oscillator and help in the analysis of the fundamental and harmonic characteristics of the GaAs Gunn diode. The simulation prediction and the experiment of the Gunn oscillator show the feasibility of the nonlinear circuit model for the GaAs Gunn oscillator.

  5. First order devices, hybrid memristors, and the frontiers of nonlinear circuit theory

    CERN Document Server

    Riaza, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Several devices exhibiting memory effects have shown up in nonlinear circuit theory in recent years. Among others, these circuit elements include Chua's memristors, as well as memcapacitors and meminductors. These and other related devices seem to be beyond the, say, classical scope of circuit theory, which is formulated in terms of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and voltage and current sources. We explore in this paper the potential extent of nonlinear circuit theory by classifying such mem-devices in terms of the variables involved in their constitutive relations and the notions of the differential- and the state-order of a device. Within this framework, the frontier of first order circuit theory is defined by so-called hybrid memristors, which are proposed here to accommodate a characteristic relating all four fundamental circuit variables. Devices with differential order two and mem-systems are discussed in less detail. We allow for fully nonlinear characteristics in all circuit elements, arriving at a...

  6. The atmospheric electric global circuit. [thunderstorm activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemir, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The hypothesis that world thunderstorm activity represents the generator for the atmospheric electric current flow in the earth atmosphere between ground and the ionosphere is based on a close correlation between the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the supply current (thunderstorm generator current) and the load current (fair weather air-earth current density integrated over the earth surface). The advantages of using lightning survey satellites to furnish a base for accepting or rejecting the thunderstorm generator hypothesis are discussed.

  7. Quantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Woolley, M J; Milburn, G J; Taylor, J M

    2011-01-01

    We show how to bridge the divide between atomic systems and electronic devices by engineering a coupling between the motion of a single ion and the quantized electric field of a resonant circuit. Our method can be used to couple the internal state of an ion to the quantized circuit with the same speed as the internal-state coupling between two ions. All the well-known quantum information protocols linking ion internal and motional states can be converted to protocols between circuit photons and ion internal states. Our results enable quantum interfaces between solid state qubits, atomic qubits, and light, and lay the groundwork for a direct quantum connection between electrical and atomic metrology standards.

  8. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration ...... as examples. Finally, it is concluded that the VIP-2 process is suitable technology for creating circuits for 100 Gb/s communication networks. Keywords: Indium Phosphide (InP), DHBT, VCO, Colpitt, Static Divider, CDR, PLL, Transceiver...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  9. Circadian rhythms in biologically closed electrical circuits of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander; Waite, Astian J; Wooten, Joseph D; Markin, Vladislav S

    2012-02-01

    The circadian clock regulates a wide range of electrophysiological and developmental processes in plants. Here, we discuss the direct influence of a circadian clock on biologically closed electrochemical circuits in vivo. The biologically closed electrochemical circuits in the leaves of C. miniata (Kaffir lily), Aloe vera and Mimosa pudica, which regulate their physiology, were analyzed using the charge stimulation method. Plants are able to memorize daytime and nighttime. Even at continuous light or darkness, plants recognize nighttime or daytime and change the input resistance. The circadian clock can be maintained endogenously and has electrochemical oscillators, which can activate ion channels in biologically closed electrochemical circuits. The activation of voltage gated channels depends on the applied voltage, electrical charge, and the speed of transmission of electrical energy from the electrostimulator to plants.

  10. On the Possibility of the Jerk Derivative in Electrical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Gómez-Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A subclass of dynamical systems with a time rate of change of acceleration are called Newtonian jerky dynamics. Some mechanical and acoustic systems can be interpreted as jerky dynamics. In this paper we show that the jerk dynamics are naturally obtained for electrical circuits using the fractional calculus approach with order γ. We consider fractional LC and RL electrical circuits with 1⩽γ<2 for different source terms. The LC circuit has a frequency ω dependent on the order of the fractional differential equation γ, since it is defined as ω(γ=ω0γγ1-γ, where ω0 is the fundamental frequency. For γ=3/2, the system is described by a third-order differential equation with frequency ω~ω03/2, and assuming γ=2 the dynamics are described by a fourth differential equation for jerk dynamics with frequency ω~ω02.

  11. Web-Based Trainer for Electrical Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyten, L.; Rombouts, P.; De Maeyer, J.

    2009-01-01

    A Web-based system for training electric circuit analysis is presented in this paper. It is centered on symbolic analysis techniques and it not only verifies the student's final answer, but it also tracks and coaches him/her through all steps of his/her reasoning path. The system mimics homework assignments, enhanced by immediate personalized…

  12. Simulating Harmonic Oscillator and Electrical Circuits: A Didactical Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Giovannina; D'Apice, Ciro; Tomasiello, Stefania

    2002-01-01

    A Mathematica[TM] package is described that uses simulations and animations to illustrate key concepts in harmonic oscillation and electric circuits for students not majoring in physics or mathematics. Students are not required to know the Mathematica[TM] environment: a user-friendly interface with buttons functionalities and on-line help allows…

  13. Hamilton´s Principle and Electric Circuits Tudory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of electrical or electromechanical circuits different methods are known for construction of mathematical model. In this paper another, alternative method is introduced that is based on Hamilton variational principle that is generally valid in physics.

  14. Turkish Students' Conceptions about the Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepni, Salih; Keles, Esra

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the Turkish students' understanding level of electric circuits consisting of two bulbs and one battery was investigated by using open-ended questions. Two-hundred fifty students, whose ages range from 11 to 22, were chosen from five different groups at primary, secondary and university levels in Trabzon in Turkey. In analyzing…

  15. Teaching an Electrical Circuits Course Using a Virtual Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Zahidur

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes designing and implementing a scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) study in a basic electrical circuits course at LaGuardia Community College. Inspired by my understanding of Shulman's (2005) concept of "signature pedagogy" and Mazur's (2009) emphasis on student-centered approaches, and aware that our…

  16. Teaching an Electrical Circuits Course Using a Virtual Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Zahidur

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes designing and implementing a scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) study in a basic electrical circuits course at LaGuardia Community College. Inspired by my understanding of Shulman's (2005) concept of "signature pedagogy" and Mazur's (2009) emphasis on student-centered approaches, and aware that our students…

  17. Physical proof of the occurrence of the Braess Paradox in electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagurney, Ladimer S.; Nagurney, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The Braess Paradox is the counterintuitive phenomenon that can occur in a user-optimized network system, such as a transportation network, where adding an additional link to the network increases the cost (travel time) for every user. In electrical circuits, electrons, analogous to drivers in a transportation network, traverse the network so that no electron can unilaterally change its cost (voltage drop) from an origin to a destination. In this paper, we show that the Braess Paradox can occur in electrical circuits consisting of diodes and resistors. We report measurements confirming the occurrence of the Braess Paradox in two different circuits, one with highly nonlinear link cost functions (I\\text-V characteristics). These measurements show that the voltage increases, rather than decreases, when a link is added to the circuit under constant demand (current). This discovery identifies novel circuits in which the voltage and current can be independently adjusted. It also yields insights into the Braess Paradox and transportation networks through a new computational mechanism.

  18. Modelling a river catchment using an electrical circuit analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Collier

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrical circuit analogue of a river catchment is described from which is derived an hydrological model of river flow called the River Electrical Water Analogue Research and Development (REWARD model. The model is based upon an analytic solution to the equation governing the flow of electricity in an inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR circuit. An interpretation of L, C and R in terms of catchment parameters and physical processes is proposed, and tested for the River Irwell catchment in northwest England. Hydrograph characteristics evaluated using the model are compared with observed hydrographs, confirming that the modelling approach does provide a reliable framework within which to investigate the impact of variations in model input data.

  19. Adaptation of an Evolutionary Algorithm in Modeling Electric Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hájek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of setting control parameters of a differential evolutionary algorithm (DE and the influence of adapting these parameters on the simulation of electric circuits and their components. Various DE algorithm strategies are investigated, and also the influence of adapting the controlling parameters (Cr, F during simulation and the effect of sample size. Optimizing an equivalent circuit diagram is chosen as a test task. Several strategies and settings of a DE algorithm are evaluated according to their convergence to the right solution. 

  20. The Role of Anomalous Data in Restructuring Fourth Graders' Frameworks for Understanding Electric Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Moje, Elizabeth B.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on students' understanding of electric circuits. Findings suggest that children's interpretive frameworks of electric circuits are reflected in the specificity of the details, consistency, and coherence of their understanding. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  1. Teaching Electric Circuits: Teachers' Perceptions and Learners' Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Kimera; Gaigher, Estelle

    2017-06-01

    An exploratory case study involving six grade 9 science teachers was undertaken to probe how teachers' understanding of learners' misconceptions relate to their perceptions about teaching simple circuits. The participants' understanding of documented misconceptions in electricity were explored by means of a questionnaire, while their perceptions about teaching electric circuits were also explored in the questionnaire, followed by a semi-structured interview. Results were analysed using content analysis and interpreted using pedagogical content knowledge as a theoretical lens. The results indicated that understanding learners' misconceptions did not always correlate with conceptual perceptions about teaching electric circuits. While fair understanding of misconceptions was demonstrated by teachers who studied Physics at undergraduate level, only those who also held qualifications in Education showed conceptual perceptions about teaching electricity. Teachers who did not study Science Education revealed technical perceptions, focused on facts, demonstrations and calculations. From these results, a developmental model for pedagogical content knowledge was proposed. It was recommended that teacher education programs should involve misconceptions and also facilitate the development of conceptual perceptions about teaching.

  2. Using graph theory for automated electric circuit solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, L.; Stella, S.; Milotti, E.

    2015-05-01

    Graph theory plays many important roles in modern physics and in many different contexts, spanning diverse topics such as the description of scale-free networks and the structure of the universe as a complex directed graph in causal set theory. Graph theory is also ideally suited to describe many concepts in computer science. Therefore it is increasingly important for physics students to master the basic concepts of graph theory. Here we describe a student project where we develop a computational approach to electric circuit solving which is based on graph theoretic concepts. This highly multidisciplinary approach combines abstract mathematics, linear algebra, the physics of circuits, and computer programming to reach the ambitious goal of implementing automated circuit solving.

  3. 49 CFR 236.16 - Electric lock, main track releasing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. 236... Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.16 Electric lock, main track releasing circuit. When an electric lock releasing circuit is provided on the main track to permit a train or an engine...

  4. Exploring the roles of standard rectifying circuits on the performance of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lihua; Han, Yue; Hand, James; Harne, Ryan L.

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the energy conversion performance of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters, such structures have been recently designed to leverage bandwidth-enhancing nonlinear dynamics. While key findings have been made, the majority of researchers have evaluated the opportunities when the harvesters are connected to pure resistive loads (AC interface). The alternating voltage generated by such energy harvesting systems cannot be directly utilized to power conventional electronics. Rectifying circuits are required to interface the device and electronic load but few efforts have considered how a standard rectifying DC interface circuit (DC interface) connected to a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester influences the system performance. The aim of this research is to begin exploring this critical feature of the nonlinear energy harvesting system. A nonlinear, monostable piezoelectric energy harvester (MPEH) is fabricated and evaluated to determine the generated power and useful operating bandwidth when connected to a DC interface. The nonlinearity is introduced into the harvester design by tuneable magnetic force. An equivalent circuit model of the MPEH is implemented with a user-defined nonlinear behavioral voltage source representative of the magnetic interaction. The model is validated comparing the open circuit voltage from circuit simulation and experiment. The practical energy harvesting capability of the MPEH connected to the AC and DC interface circuits are then investigated and compared, focusing on the influence of the varying load on the nonlinear dynamics and subsequent bandwidth and harvested power.

  5. Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Electrical Circuits and Semiconductor Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Merten, K; Bulirsch, R

    1990-01-01

    Numerical simulation and modelling of electric circuits and semiconductor devices are of primal interest in today's high technology industries. At the Oberwolfach Conference more than forty scientists from around the world, in­ cluding applied mathematicians and electrical engineers from industry and universities, presented new results in this area of growing importance. The contributions to this conference are presented in these proceedings. They include contributions on special topics of current interest in circuit and device simulation, as well as contributions that present an overview of the field. In the semiconductor area special lectures were given on mixed finite element methods and iterative procedures for the solution of large linear systems. For three dimensional models new discretization procedures including software packages were presented. Con­ nections between semiconductor equations and the Boltzmann equation were shown as well as relations to the quantum transport equation. Other issues dis...

  6. A Nonlinear Size-Dependent Equivalent Circuit Model for Single-Cell Electroporation on Microfluidic Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoshtasbi, Hooman; Deng, Peigang; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2015-08-01

    Electroporation (EP) is a process of applying a pulsed intense electric field on the cell membrane to temporarily induce nanoscale electropores on the plasma membrane of biological cells. A nonlinear size-dependent equivalent circuit model of a single-cell electroporation system is proposed to investigate dynamic electromechanical behavior of cells on microfluidic chips during EP. This model consists of size-dependent electromechanical components of a cell, electrical components of poration media, and a microfluidic chip. A single-cell microfluidic EP chip with 3D microelectrode arrays along a microchannel is designed and fabricated to experimentally analyze the permeabilization of a cell. Predicted electrical current responses of the model are in good agreement (average error of 6%) with that of single-cell EP. The proposed model can successfully predict the time responses of transmembrane voltage, pore diameter, and pore density at four different stages of permeabilization. These stages are categorized based on electromechanical changes of the lipid membrane. The current-voltage characteristic curve of the cell membrane during EP is also investigated at different EP stages in detail. The model can precisely predict the electric breakdown of different cell lines at a specific critical cell membrane voltage of the target cell lines.

  7. Transformer Winding Deformation Profile using Modified Electrical Equivalent Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arul Sathya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a generalized methodology to predict the transformer winding deformation profile through Sweep Frequency Response Analysis using Finite Element Method based Magneto Structural Analysis and proposed modified equivalent circuit. Monitoring and diagnosis of fault in any power apparatus is necessary to increase the quality life of the apparatus. In general all the power transformers are designed to withstand the mechanical forces due to short circuit faults. However, mechanical forces may exceed the specified limits during severe incidents leading to winding deformation. Winding deformation is one of the causes for the power transformer outages. In the present work, deformation profile of the winding for different short circuit currents are computed using Finite Element Method based Magneto-structural analysis. The change in circuit parameters of the deformed windings are computed using Finite Element Method based field analyses and the corresponding Sweep Frequency Responses are obtained using the modified electrical equivalent circuit. From the change in resonance frequencies, the displacement profile of the winding can be predicted which will be useful for design engineers to check the withstand capability of transformer.

  8. Competitive Learning in Electric Circuit Theory Using MOODLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Ramón J. Durán; Bahillo, Alfonso; Fernández, Patricia; Merayo, Noemí; de Miguel, Ignacio; Aguado, Juan Carlos; Lorenzo, Rubén M.; Domi, Evaristo J. Abril

    We have recently introduced an activity based on competitive learning in the subject of "Electric Circuit Theory", which is taught in the first year of the 3-year degree of Technical Telecommunication Engineering at the University of Valladolid. Students are divided into groups and compete in a tournament through a series of knockout rounds. In each of these rounds, a contending group solves an electric circuit problem, and proposes an update on it, which must then be solved by the other contending team, and so on until one of them fails. In order to facilitate the management of the game, the open-source MOODLE platform has been employed. This paper describes the experience and the learning benefits that it brings, as well as how the method has been implemented using the MOODLE platform. Moreover, the satisfaction of the students and the time required by the students and by the teacher when using this technique are also analyzed. While the experience focuses on the subject of "Electric Circuit Theory", it is worthy to note that it may be easily extended to other subjects.

  9. Justification of equivalent substitution circuits used to optimize the dissipative properties of electroelastic bodies with external electric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Matvienko, V. P.; Oshmarin, D. A.; Sevodina, N. V.; Yurlov, M. A.; Yurlova, N. A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider elastoplastic systems which are piecewise homogeneous bodies composed of piezoelectric elements some of which have piezoelectrical properties. Electric series circuits consisting of resistors, capacitors, and inductance coils are applied to piezoelectric elements through the electrode coating on the body surface. The goal of the study is to develop efficient methods of mathematical modelling for determining the parameters of elements of the external electric circuit, which ensure, at prescribed resonance frequencies, the maximum damping properties of electroelastic bodies with external electric circuits. To choose effective circuits for solving the problem posed above, we suggest to pose the problem of natural vibrations of elastic bodies whose elements exhibit piezoeffect and have external electric circuits.As the most efficient approaches for calculating the electric circuit parameters necessary for the maximal damping, we propose some versions of equivalent circuits, which can be used to substitute elastic systems with piezoelectric elements. The most reliable equivalent substitution circuits are justified on the basis of the proposed problem of natural vibrations. Numerical results are obtained for a cantilever plate with a piezoelement connected through the electrode coated surface with a series electric circuit consisting of resistors, capacitors and inductance coils.

  10. Electric characterization of a nonlinear dispersive transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.S.; Ricotta, R.M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), SP (Brazil)], Emails: ferreira@fatecsp.br, regina@fatecsp.br

    2009-07-01

    A preliminary study of electrical soliton propagation in a nonlinear dispersion electrical line is presented. This is probably the simplest system that allows the observation of such waves whose main characteristic is the perfect balance of nonlinear and dispersive aspects. (author)

  11. Approximation for Transient of Nonlinear Circuits Using RHPM and BPES Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vazquez-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microelectronics area constantly demands better and improved circuit simulation tools. Therefore, in this paper, rational homotopy perturbation method and Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme are applied to a differential equation from a nonlinear circuit. Comparing the results obtained by both techniques revealed that they are effective and convenient.

  12. Proportional Plus Integral Control for Set-Point Regulation of a Class of Nonlinear RLC Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castanos, Fernando; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Ortega, Romeo; Garcia-Ganseco, Eloisa; García-Canseco, Eloísa

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we identify graph-theoretic conditions which allow us to write a nonlinear RLC circuit as port-Hamiltonian with constant input matrices. We show that under additional monotonicity conditions on the network's components, the circuit enjoys the property of relative passivity, an extended

  13. Frequency and Phase Noise in Non-Linear Microwave Oscillator Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, C.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new methodology and a time-domain software package for the estimation of the oscillation frequency and the phase noise spectrum of non-linear noisy microwave circuits based on the direct integration of the system of stochastic differential equations representing the circuit. Our theoretical evaluations can be used in order to make detailed comparisons with the experimental measurements of phase noise spectra in selected oscillating circuits.

  14. Integrated bistable generator for wideband energy harvesting with optimized synchronous electric charge extraction circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqun; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien; Wu, Yipeng; Agbossou, Amen

    2013-12-01

    Bistable generators have been proposed as potential solutions to the challenge of variable vibration frequencies. In the authors' previous works, a specific BSM (Buckled-Spring-Mass) harvester architecture has been suggested. It presents some properties of interests: simplicity, compactness and wide bandwidth. Using a normalized model of the BSM generator for design and optimization at different scales, this paper presents a new integrated BSM bistable generator design with the OSECE (Optimized Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction) technique which is used for broadband energy harvesting. The experimental results obtained from an initial prototype device show that the BSM generator with the OSECE circuit exhibits better performance for low coupling cases or reverse sweep excitations. This is also confirmed by simulations for the proposed integrated generator. Good applications prospective is expected for the bistable generator with the nonlinear OSECE circuit.

  15. Nonlinear Reactive Circuits Driven by Magnetic Flux Compression Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Ferrite cartridge Last MCG stage equivalent inductor Switching spark gap Capacitor energy storage Fig. 5 Photograph of the experimental stand used to study the two-tank circuit shown in Fig. 1 1089 ...consists of two tank circuits having different resonant frequencies, with their in- ductances 1 L and 2 L coupled by a ferrite core. When the...elements of each circuit, but also the MCG parameters, which vary during its operation. This results in multiple sharp changes in the ferrite

  16. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  17. ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF BIOLOGICAL OBJECTS OF VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Golev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.The results of measurements of complex biological tissues electrical resistance of vegetable origin are presented. The measurements were performed at T=296 K in the frequency range from 5 to 500 kHz. As the electrodes were covered with tin (purity of 99.9% copper plates.. Experimentally investigated the following objects: samples parenchymal tissue of Apple in the form of cylinders with a diameter of 20 mm and a length of 20 mm; Apple juice, obtained by mechanical destruction of cells; pressed Apple pulp (juice content of not more than 20%obtained by the centrifugal separation, which destroyed the system of cells. For plant tissue with a holistic system of cells in the field 103 - 105 Hz is observed pronounced minimum angle of phase shift. In the absence of cells and its value is greatly reduced .The equivalent electrical circuit fabrics are considered. The calculation of all its elements is made. The equivalent capacitance of the electrical double layer at the interface of metal measuring electrode and extracellular fluid is element of C1 . The electrical resistance of this layer alternating current is characterized by the element R1 . Chain parallel connected resistance and capacitance describes the system of plant cells. The capacitance C2 is due to the electrical capacity of the cell membranes, and the resistance R2 is the electrical resistance of the membranes and intracellular space.The coincidence of experimental and calculated data in a frequency range of more than 103 Hz satisfactory. In the region of lower frequencies is observed differences. This may be due to the specific behavior of the electrical double layer. However, in the frequency region where the electrical properties of the cell structure of the investigated tissue match good, which proves the validity of the considered equivalent circuit. It is shown that the value of the complex electrical impedance of vegetable tissue in the frequency range from 103 Hz to 105

  18. System identification of the nonlinear dynamics in the thalamocortical circuit in response to patterned thalamic microstimulation in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Daniel C; Wang, Qi; Gollnick, Clare A; Stanley, Garrett B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nonlinear system identification approaches were used to develop a dynamical model of the network level response to patterns of microstimulation in-vivo. Approach The thalamocortical circuit of the rodent vibrissa pathway was the model system, with voltage sensitive dye imaging capturing the cortical response to patterns of stimulation delivered from a single electrode in the ventral posteromedial thalamus. The results of simple paired stimulus experiments formed the basis for the development of a phenomenological model explicitly containing nonlinear elements observed experimentally. The phenomenological model was fit using datasets obtained with impulse train inputs, Poisson-distributed in time and uniformly varying in amplitude. Main Results The phenomenological model explained 58% of the variance in the cortical response to out of sample patterns of thalamic microstimulation. Furthermore, while fit on trial averaged data, the phenomenological model reproduced single trial response properties when simulated with noise added into the system during stimulus presentation. The simulations indicate that the single trial response properties were dependent on the relative sensitivity of the static nonlinearities in the two stages of the model, and ultimately suggest that electrical stimulation activates local circuitry through linear recruitment, but that this activity propagates in a highly nonlinear fashion to downstream targets. Significance The development of nonlinear dynamical models of neural circuitry will guide information delivery for sensory prosthesis applications, and more generally reveal properties of population coding within neural circuits. PMID:24162186

  19. System identification of the nonlinear dynamics in the thalamocortical circuit in response to patterned thalamic microstimulation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Daniel C.; Wang, Qi; Gollnick, Clare A.; Stanley, Garrett B.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Nonlinear system identification approaches were used to develop a dynamical model of the network level response to patterns of microstimulation in vivo. Approach. The thalamocortical circuit of the rodent vibrissa pathway was the model system, with voltage sensitive dye imaging capturing the cortical response to patterns of stimulation delivered from a single electrode in the ventral posteromedial thalamus. The results of simple paired stimulus experiments formed the basis for the development of a phenomenological model explicitly containing nonlinear elements observed experimentally. The phenomenological model was fit using datasets obtained with impulse train inputs, Poisson-distributed in time and uniformly varying in amplitude. Main results. The phenomenological model explained 58% of the variance in the cortical response to out of sample patterns of thalamic microstimulation. Furthermore, while fit on trial-averaged data, the phenomenological model reproduced single trial response properties when simulated with noise added into the system during stimulus presentation. The simulations indicate that the single trial response properties were dependent on the relative sensitivity of the static nonlinearities in the two stages of the model, and ultimately suggest that electrical stimulation activates local circuitry through linear recruitment, but that this activity propagates in a highly nonlinear fashion to downstream targets. Significance. The development of nonlinear dynamical models of neural circuitry will guide information delivery for sensory prosthesis applications, and more generally reveal properties of population coding within neural circuits.

  20. Pupils' understanding of simple electrical circuits. Some implications for instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstone, David

    1988-03-01

    There have been many studies worldwide of children's understanding of basic electrical concepts so that there is now quite a clear picture of many of their difficulties. By contrast, work on remediation is in its infancy. The article describes research findings concerning children's difficulties with the concepts of circuit, current and electrical energy and discusses some possible approaches to instruction which arise in the light of these findings. Much of the research carried out has been within the paradigm of constructivist psychology which views all human beings as prototypical scientists, constructing hypotheses and testing these against experience as their way of understanding the world around them. In seeking to understand electrical phenomena children construct a variety of explanatory conceptual models, some of which they then hold very tenaciously.

  1. Oscillatory localization of quantum walks analyzed by classical electric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambainis, Andris; PrÅ«sis, Krišjānis; Vihrovs, JevgÄ`nijs; Wong, Thomas G.

    2016-12-01

    We examine an unexplored quantum phenomenon we call oscillatory localization, where a discrete-time quantum walk with Grover's diffusion coin jumps back and forth between two vertices. We then connect it to the power dissipation of a related electric network. Namely, we show that there are only two kinds of oscillating states, called uniform states and flip states, and that the projection of an arbitrary state onto a flip state is bounded by the power dissipation of an electric circuit. By applying this framework to states along a single edge of a graph, we show that low effective resistance implies oscillatory localization of the quantum walk. This reveals that oscillatory localization occurs on a large variety of regular graphs, including edge-transitive, expander, and high-degree graphs. As a corollary, high edge connectivity also implies localization of these states, since it is closely related to electric resistance.

  2. Characterizing Inductive and Capacitive Nonlinear RLC Circuits : A Passivity Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Canseco, Eloísa; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Ortega, Romeo; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Linear time-invariant RLC circuits are said to be inductive (capacitive) if the current waveform in sinusoidal steady-state has a negative (resp., positive) phase shift with respect to the voltage. Furthermore, it is known that the circuit is inductive (capacitive) if and only if the magnetic energy

  3. Basic electric circuit theory a one-semester text

    CERN Document Server

    Mayergoyz, Isaak D

    1996-01-01

    This is the only book on the market that has been conceived and deliberately written as a one-semester text on basic electric circuit theory. As such, this book employs a novel approach to the exposition of the material in which phasors and ac steady-state analysis are introduced at the beginning. This allows one to use phasors in the discussion of transients excited by ac sources, which makes the presentation of transients more comprehensive and meaningful. Furthermore, the machinery of phasors paves the road to the introduction of transfer functions, which are then used in the analysis of tr

  4. Interplay between electrical and mechanical domains in a high performance nonlinear energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Dhiman; Amann, Andreas; Roy, Saibal

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive experimental characterization and modeling of a compact nonlinear energy harvester for low frequency applications. By exploiting the interaction between the electrical circuitry and the mechanical motion of the device, we are able to improve the power output over a large frequency range. This improvement is quantified using a new figure of merit based on a suitably defined ‘power integral (P f)’ for nonlinear vibrational energy harvesters. The developed device consists of beams with fixed-guided configuration which produce cubic monostable nonlinearity due to stretching strain. Using a high efficiency magnetic circuit a maximum output power of 488.47 μW across a resistive load of 4000 Ω under 0.5g input acceleration at 77 Hz frequency with 9.55 Hz of bandwidth is obtained. The dynamical characteristics of the device are theoretically reproduced and explained by a modified nonlinear Duffing oscillator model.

  5. Fast Simulation of Nonlinear Circuits with an Algorithm of Partial Matrix Elimination (PME)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xingjian; MAO Junfa; YANG Xiaoping; LI Zhengfan

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a theorem is proven thatthe contribution of any linear circuit elements to theadmittance matrix [Y] in the modified nodal admit-tance (MNA) equation of circuit analysis is invariantwith time.Based on this theorem a fast time-domainalgorithm of partial matrix elimination (PME) is de-veloped for simulation of high-speed nonlinear circuitswith interconnects.In PME the matrix [Y] is ar-ranged to consist of two submatrices.The lower sub-matrix that contains entries from only linear circuit el-ements is partially triangulated by Gauss eliminationfor the first-time-step transient analysis.At the fol-lowing time steps of transient analysis,Gauss elimina-tion is needed only for the upper submatrix containingcontributions of nonlinear circuit devices.Efficiencyanalysis of PME is given in detail,showing that it canaccelerate circuit simulation by a factor of at least 2.5for linear or lightly nonlinear circuits without employ-ing any numerical approximation.Moreover,PME isuseful for circuits debugging.

  6. 30 CFR 18.51 - Electrical protection of circuits and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical protection of circuits and equipment... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.51 Electrical protection of circuits and equipment. (a) An...

  7. An investigation of algebraic quantum dynamics for mesoscopic coupled electric circuits with mutual inductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahlavani, H., E-mail: h-pahlavani@qom.ac.ir; Kolur, E. Rahmanpour

    2016-08-15

    Based on the electrical charge discreteness, the Hamiltonian operator for the mutual inductance coupled quantum mesoscopic LC circuits has been found. The persistent current on two driven coupled mesoscopic electric pure L circuits (two quantum loops) has been obtained by using algebraic quantum dynamic approach. The influence of the mutual inductance on energy spectrum and quantum fluctuations of the charge and current for two coupled quantum electric mesoscopic LC circuits have been investigated.

  8. Nonlinear interface between the piezoelectric harvesting structure and the modulating circuit of an energy harvester with a real storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuantai; Xue, Huan; Hu, Ting; Hu, Hongping

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of an energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph (PB) and a real electrochemical battery (ECB), both are connected as an integrated system through a rectified dc-dc converter (DDC). A vibrating PB can scavenge energy from the operating environment by the electromechanical coupling. A DDC can effectively match the optimal output voltage of the harvesting structure to the battery voltage. To raise the output power density of PB, a synchronized switch harvesting inductor (SSHI) is used in parallel with the harvesting structure to reverse the voltage through charge transfer between the output electrodes at the transition moments from closed-to open-circuit. Voltage reversal results in earlier arrival of rectifier conduction because the output voltage phases of any two adjacent closed-circuit states are just opposite each other. In principle, a PB is with a smaller, flexural stiffness under closed-circuit condition than under open-circuit condition. Thus, the PB subjected to longer closed-circuit condition will be easier to be accelerated. A larger flexural velocity makes the PB to deflect with larger amplitude, which implies that more mechanical energy will be converted into an electric one. Nonlinear interface between the vibrating PB and the modulating circuit is analyzed in detail, and the effects of SSHI and DDC on the charging efficiency of the storage battery are researched numerically. It was found that the introduction of a DDC in the modulating circuit and an SSHI in the harvesting structure can raise the charging efficiency by several times.

  9. Platforms for integrated nonlinear optics compatible with silicon integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, David J

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic chips are capable of generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. We review recent progress in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on Hydex glass and silicon nitride and briefly discuss the promising new platform of amorphous silicon. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation, ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement. We highlight their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications.

  10. Nonlinear electrical properties of Si three-terminal junction devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantao, Meng; Jie, Sun; Graczyk, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on the realization and characterization of silicon three-terminal junction devices made in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Room temperature electrical measurements show that the fabricated devices exhibit pronounced nonlinear electrical properties inherent to ballistic electron ...

  11. Investigating Mesoscopic Non-linear Series Circuit with the Coherent Thermo State Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2017-03-01

    For the first time we considered the quantum effects of mesoscopic non-linear series circuit with the coherent thermo state representation | τ rangle . After introducing the representation |τ rangle , we derived the expression of the density matrix ρ and find that | ρ rangle T presents Gauss type with the representation | τ rangle . In addition, we derived the Wigner function and calculated the quantum fluctuation in the thermo vacuum state |0( β)>. It is shown that the circuit has the zero current fluctuation because the diode has the reverse saturation current, and the temperature affects the Wigner function of the circuit in thermo vacuum state deeply.

  12. Comment on 'Current Budget of the Atmospheric Electric Global Circuit'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kevin T.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, three major issues relevant to Kasemir's new model will be addressed. The first concerns Kasemir's assertion that there are significant differences between the potentials associated with the new model and the conventional model. A recalculation of these potentials reveals that both models provide equivalent results for the potential difference between the Earth and ionosphere. The second issue to be addressed is Kasemir's assertion that discrepancies in the electric potentials associated with both models can be attributed to modeling the Earth as a sphere, instead of as a planar surface. A simple analytical comparison will demonstrate that differences in the equations for the potentials of the atmosphere derived with a spherical and a planar Earth are negligible for applications to global current flow. Finally, the third issue to be discussed is Kasemir's claim that numerous aspects of the conventional model are incorrect, including the role of the ionosphere in global current flow as well as the significance of cloud-to-ground lightning in supplying charge to the global circuit. In order to refute these misconceptions, it will be shown that these aspects related to the flow of charge in the atmosphere are accurately described by the conventional model of the global circuit.

  13. On Parameterization of the Global Electric Circuit Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyunyaev, N. N.; Zhidkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of generator parameterization in the global electric circuit (GEC) models. The relationship between the charge density and external current density distributions inside a thundercloud is studied using a one-dimensional description and a three-dimensional GEC model. It is shown that drastic conductivity variations in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries have a significant impact on the structure of the charge distribution inside the cloud. Certain restrictions on the charge density distribution in a realistic thunderstorm are found. The possibility to allow for conductivity inhomogeneities in the thunderstorm regions by introducing an effective external current density is demonstrated. Replacement of realistic thunderstorms with equivalent current dipoles in the GEC models is substantiated, an equation for the equivalent current is obtained, and the applicability range of this equation is analyzed. Relationships between the main GEC characteristics under variable parameterization of GEC generators are discussed.

  14. Analogue Electrical Circuit for Simulation of the Duffing-Holmes Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaseviciute, E.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.

    2008-01-01

    An extremely simple second order analogue electrical circuit for simulating the two-well Duffing-Holmes mathematical oscillator is described. Numerical results and analogue electrical simulations are illustrated with the snapshots of chaotic waveforms, phase portraits (Lissajous figures...

  15. Method of boundary testing of the electric circuits and its application for calculating electric tolerances. [electric equipment tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkina, N. P.

    1974-01-01

    Boundary testing of electric circuits includes preliminary and limiting tests. Preliminary tests permit determination of the critical parameters causing the greatest deviation of the output parameter of the system. The boundary tests offer the possibility of determining the limits of the fitness of the system with simultaneous variation of its critical parameters.

  16. Investigating the role of model-based reasoning while troubleshooting an electric circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R; Stetzer, MacKenzie R; Lewandowski, H J

    2016-01-01

    We explore the overlap of two nationally-recognized learning outcomes for physics lab courses, namely, the ability to model experimental systems and the ability to troubleshoot a malfunctioning apparatus. Modeling and troubleshooting are both nonlinear, recursive processes that involve using models to inform revisions to an apparatus. To probe the overlap of modeling and troubleshooting, we collected audiovisual data from think-aloud activities in which eight pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning electrical circuit. We characterize the cognitive tasks and model-based reasoning that students employed during this activity. In doing so, we demonstrate that troubleshooting engages students in the core scientific practice of modeling.

  17. An improved switching control law for the optimized synchronous electric charge extraction circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqun; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien; Liu, Congzhi; Hu, Guangdi

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear switching interface circuits are considered as an efficient way to improve the performance of vibration energy harvesters. Among the various approaches, OSECE (Optimized Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction) exhibits satisfying properties: simple switching strategy, good performance in low coupling cases and low load dependency. However, the overdamping induced by the voltage inversion at maximal points leads to performance degeneration in high coupling cases. This paper presents an improved switching control law for the OSECE technique. The new OSECE_PT (OSECE with switching Phase Tuning) technique presented here is to let the switches act ahead or after the maximal point with a phase tuning. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the OSECE_PT technique can improve the power performance effectively and preserves desired load independence properties.

  18. Investigating the role of model-based reasoning while troubleshooting an electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the overlap of two nationally recognized learning outcomes for physics lab courses, namely, the ability to model experimental systems and the ability to troubleshoot a malfunctioning apparatus. Modeling and troubleshooting are both nonlinear, recursive processes that involve using models to inform revisions to an apparatus. To probe the overlap of modeling and troubleshooting, we collected audiovisual data from think-aloud activities in which eight pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning electrical circuit. We characterize the cognitive tasks and model-based reasoning that students employed during this activity. In doing so, we demonstrate that troubleshooting engages students in the core scientific practice of modeling.

  19. Nonlinearity characterization of temperature sensing systems for integrated circuit testing by intermodulation products monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altet, J; Mateo, D; Perpiñà, X; Grauby, S; Dilhaire, S; Jordà, X

    2011-09-01

    This work presents an alternative characterization strategy to quantify the nonlinear behavior of temperature sensing systems. The proposed approach relies on measuring the temperature under thermal sinusoidal steady state and observing the intermodulation products that are generated within the sensing system itself due to its nonlinear temperature-output voltage characteristics. From such intermodulation products, second-order interception points can be calculated as a figure of merit of the measuring system nonlinear behavior. In this scenario, the present work first shows a theoretical analysis. Second, it reports the experimental results obtained with three thermal sensing techniques used in integrated circuits.

  20. Nonlinear Companding Circuits With Thermal Compensation to Enhance Input Dynamic Range in Analog Optical Fiber Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez-Rodriguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring systems based on a pair of optical fiber transmitter-receivers are used in medium-voltage testinglaboratories wherein the environment of high electromagnetic interference (EMI is a limitation for using conventionalcabling. Nonlinear compensation techniques have been used to limit the voltage range at the input of optical fiberlinks. However, nonlinear compensation introduces gain and linearity errors caused by thermal drift. This paperpresents a method of thermal compensation for the nonlinear circuit used to improve transient signal handlingcapabilities in measuring system while maintaining low errors in gain and linearity caused by thermal drift.

  1. The Electron Runaround: Understanding Electric Circuit Basics through a Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana

    2010-01-01

    Several misconceptions abound among college students taking their first general physics course, and to some extent pre-engineering physics students, regarding the physics and applications of electric circuits. Analogies used in textbooks, such as those that liken an electric circuit to a piped closed loop of water driven by a water pump, do not…

  2. Factors Mediating the Effect of Gender on Ninth-Grade Turkish Students' Misconceptions Concerning Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencar, Selen; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to identify and analyze possible factors that mediate the effect of gender on ninth-grade Turkish students' misconceptions concerning electric circuits. A Simple Electric Circuit Concept Test (SECCT), including items with both practical and theoretical contexts, and an Interest-Experience Questionnaire about Electricity…

  3. Pre-Service and In-Service Physics Teachers' Ideas about Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukozer, Huseyin; Demirci, Neset

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine pre-service and high school physics teachers' ideas about simple electric circuits. In this study, a test containing eight questions related to simple electric circuits was given to the pre-service physics teachers (32 subjects) that had graduated from Balikesir University, Necatibey Faculty of Education, the…

  4. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vazquez-Leal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.

  5. Nonlinear Analysis of Ring Oscillator and Cross-Coupled Oscillator Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-12-01

    Hassan Khalil’s research results and beautifully written textbook on nonlinear systems have influenced generations of researchers, including the authors of this paper. Using nonlinear systems techniques, this paper analyzes ring oscillator and cross-coupled oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. The paper first investigates local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator by making use of its cyclic structure. It next studies global stability properties of a class of cross-coupled oscillators which admit the representation of a dynamic system in feedback with a static nonlinearity, and presents su cient conditions for almost global convergence of the solutions to a limit cycle when the feedback gain is in the vicinity of a bifurcation point. The result are also extended to the synchronization of interconnected identical oscillator circuits.

  6. Research progress in nonlinear analysis of heart electric activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear science research is a hot point in the world. It has deepened our cognition of determinism and randomicity, simplicity and complexity, noise and order and it will profoundly influence the progress of the study of natural science, including life science.Life is the most complex nonlinear system and heart is the core of lifecycle system. In the late more than 20 years, nonlinear research on heart electric activities has made much headway. The commonly used parameters are based on chaos and fractal theory, such as correlation dimension, Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy and multifractal singularity spectrum. This paper summarizes the commonly used methods in the nonlinear study of heart electric signal. Then, considering the shortages of the above traditional nonlinear parameters, we mainly introduce the results on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) signal (500 R-R intervals) and HFECG signal (1-2s). Finally, we point out it is worthwhile to put emphasis on the study of the sensitive nonlinearity parameters of short-term heart electric signal and their dynamic character and clinical effectivity.

  7. Nonlinear Optical Response of Conjugated Polymer to Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-fang; ZHUANG De-xin; CUI Bin

    2005-01-01

    The organic π-conjugated polymers are of major interest materials for the use in electro-optical and nonlinear optical devices. In this work, for a selected polyacetylene chain, the optical absorption spectra in UV/Vis regime as well as the linear polarizabilitiy and nonlinear hyperpolarizability are calculated by using quantum chemical ab initio and semiempirical methods. The relationship of its optical property to electric field is obtained. Some physical mechanism of electric field effect on molecular optical property is discussed by means of electron distribution and intramolecular charge transfer.

  8. New equivalent lumped electrical circuit for piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnard, Paul; Schmitt, P M; Brissaud, Michel

    2006-04-01

    A new equivalent circuit is proposed for a contour-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer (PT). It is shown that the usual lumped equivalent circuit derived from the conventional Mason approach is not accurate. The proposed circuit, built on experimental measurements, makes an explicit difference between the elastic energies stored respectively on the primary and secondary parts. The experimental and theoretical resonance frequencies with the secondary in open or short circuit are in good agreement as well as the output "voltage-current" characteristic and the optimum efficiency working point. This circuit can be extended to various PT configurations and appears to be a useful tool for modeling electronic devices that integrate piezoelectric transformers.

  9. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  10. On a fractal LC-electric circuit modeled by local fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Cattani, Carlo; Gao, Feng

    2017-06-01

    A non-differentiable model of the LC-electric circuit described by a local fractional differential equation of fractal dimensional order is addressed in this article. From the fractal electrodynamics point of view, the relaxation oscillator, defined on Cantor sets in LC-electric circuit, and its exact solution using the local fractional Laplace transform are obtained. Comparative results among local fractional derivative, Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative and conventional derivative are discussed. Local fractional calculus is proposed as a new tool suitable for the study of a large class of electric circuits.

  11. Using Electrical Simulation Software to Understand Electrical Quantities in Resistive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Schwantes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and application of a workshop presented for high school physics teachers, in order to apply the use of electrical simulation software for teaching the basics of resistive circuits. The workshop was developed aiming at the use of active learning strategies and the concepts of David Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning theory. These activities workshops were developed in a practical way, using the electrical simulation software to illustrate a scenario where students are encouraged to engage more actively in their learning. As a result of this workshop, an increase in the importance of the use of new technologies in the classroom was evidenced when used in accordance with the teaching-learning methodologies that promote a more active participation of students.

  12. Circuits and systems based on delta modulation linear, nonlinear and mixed mode processing

    CERN Document Server

    Zrilic, Djuro G

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended for students and professionals who are interested in the field of digital signal processing of delta-sigma modulated sequences. The overall focus is on the development of algorithms and circuits for linear, non-linear, and mixed mode processing of delta-sigma modulated pulse streams. The material presented here is directly relevant to applications in digital communication, DSP, instrumentation, and control.

  13. Saturable Nonlinearity in Photovoltaic-Photorefractive Crystals Under Open-circuit Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ru; LING Zhen-Fang; CHEN Xiao-Hu; ZHANG Guo-Quan; ZHANG Xin-Zheng; WEN Hai-Dong; JIANG Ying; LIU Si-Min

    2000-01-01

    We show that the refractive index change induced by a focused incident beam with an additional incoherent uniform illumination in photovoltaic-photorefractive crystals under open-circuit condition has a saturable nonlinearity form. The incoherent uniform background illumination can be used to increase the effective dark irradiance. The formation time of the photovoltaic soliton can be decreased by keeping the intensity of the soliton at a higher value without over-saturation by use of the background illumination.

  14. Study on the Sensitivity of Landmine Electrical Fuse Circuit Under the Interference of Natural Electromagnetic Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dechun

    Landmine electrical fuse circuits on the battlefield will be interfered by natural electromagnetic pulse such as electrostatic discharge and lightning, which will undermine the circuit performance and trigger the early burst or mistaken burst of the landmines. In this paper, numerically simulation analysis is conducted on the electrostatic and lightning effects received by the landmine fuse circuit by means of building simulation model of the fuse circuit and analyzing the electric and magnetic field changes of the observation The mechanism of the influence of electrostatic discharge and lightning on the sensitivity of the fuse circuit is explored. The conclusion is that electrostatic effect cause the mistaken burst of the landmines by enabling the interference voltage to reach the components turn-on threshold and cause the circuit malfunction, and lighting effect by long period accumulation of energy.

  15. Analysis of a Piezo Electric Driver Circuit for Use in a Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithya J. Mutuku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of piezo electric driver circuit is presented and analysed. The output voltage which is a triangular wave voltage and frequency of the driver circuit were measured and set at 80 V peak to peak and an output frequency of 1 KHz. A photo detector circuit which receives the output beam from the confocal Fabry- perot interferometer (CFPI through the photodiode is as well presented

  16. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  17. Students' Reasoning When Tackling Electric Field and Potential in Explanation of DC Resistive Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leniz, Ane; Zuza, Kristina; Guiasola, Jenaro

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the causal reasoning that university students use to explain how dc circuits work. We analyze how students use the concepts of electric field and potential difference in their explanatory models of dc circuits, and what kinds of reasoning they use at the macroscopic and microscopic levels in their explanations. This knowledge…

  18. QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS IN MESOSCOPIC RESISTANCE INDUCTANCE-CAPACITANCE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AT FINITE TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG XIAN-TING; FAN HONG-YI

    2001-01-01

    By using the charge and current in a quantization resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) electric circuit, we construct a pair of canonical variables. Using this pair of variables and the thermal field dynamics, we obtain the fluctuations of charge and current in the RLC electric circuit at finite temperatures. It is shown that the fluctuations increase with increasing temperature and decrease with prolonging of time.

  19. Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits through mixed integer non-linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits.

  20. THE RATE OF CURRENT CHANGE DURING A SHORT CIRCUIT IN THE POWER CIRCUITS OF THE ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK WITH REGARD TO EDDY CURRENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Dubinets

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue of influence of vortical currents on rate of change of short circuit current is considered, a mathematical model for the calculation of short circuit currents in the traction mode in the power circuits of DC electric rolling stock is presented, and the research results are given.

  1. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  2. Manipulating the quantum state of an electrical circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vion, D; Aassime, A; Cottet, A; Joyez, P; Pothier, H; Urbina, C; Esteve, D; Devoret, M H

    2002-05-03

    We have designed and operated a superconducting tunnel junction circuit that behaves as a two-level atom: the "quantronium." An arbitrary evolution of its quantum state can be programmed with a series of microwave pulses, and a projective measurement of the state can be performed by a pulsed readout subcircuit. The measured quality factor of quantum coherence Qphi approximately 25,000 is sufficiently high that a solid-state quantum processor based on this type of circuit can be envisioned.

  3. Selected topics in nonlinear dynamics and theoretical electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyamakya, Kyandoghere; Chedjou, Jean Camberlain [Kalgenfurt Univ. (Austria); Halang, Wolfgang A.; Li, Zhong [Hagen Fernuniv. (Germany); Mathis, Wolfgang (eds.) [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Elektrotechnik

    2013-02-01

    Post proceedings of Joint Conference INDS 2011 and ISTET 2011. Recent advances in nonlinear Dynamics and Synchronization as well as in Theoretical Electrical Engineering. Written by leading experts in the field. This book contains a collection of recent advanced contributions in the field of nonlinear dynamics and synchronization, including selected applications in the area of theoretical electrical engineering. The present book is divided into twenty-one chapters grouped in five parts. The first part focuses on theoretical issues related to chaos and synchronization and their potential applications in mechanics, transportation, communication and security. The second part handles dynamic systems modelling and simulation with special applications to real physical systems and phenomena. The third part discusses some fundamentals of electromagnetics (EM) and addresses the modelling and simulation in some real physical electromagnetic scenarios. The fourth part mainly addresses stability concerns. Finally, the last part assembles some sample applications in the area of optimization, data mining, pattern recognition and image processing.

  4. Nonlinear electrical properties of Si three-terminal junction devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantao, Meng; Jie, Sun; Graczyk, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on the realization and characterization of silicon three-terminal junction devices made in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Room temperature electrical measurements show that the fabricated devices exhibit pronounced nonlinear electrical properties inherent to ballistic electron...... transport in a three-terminal ballistic junction (TBJ) device. The results show that room temperature functional TBJ devices can be realized in a semiconductor material other than high-mobility III-V semiconductor heterostructures and provide a simple design principle for compact silicon devices...

  5. Analysis of electrical circuits with variable load regime parameters projective geometry method

    CERN Document Server

    Penin, A

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces electric circuits with variable loads and voltage regulators. It allows to define invariant relationships for various parameters of regime and circuit sections and to prove the concepts characterizing these circuits. Generalized equivalent circuits are introduced. Projective geometry is used for the interpretation of changes of operating regime parameters. Expressions of normalized regime parameters and their changes are presented. Convenient formulas for the calculation of currents are given. Parallel voltage sources and the cascade connection of multi-port networks are d

  6. Enhanced interaction between a mechanical oscillator and two coupled resonant electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, A V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports result of calculation and experimental realization of an electromechanical system that consists of a high-Q mechanical oscillator parametrically coupled in the manner of a capacitive transducer with a RF circuit, which is in turn inductively coupled with another RF circuit. The system operates in the resolved sideband regime when the mechanical oscillator's frequency is larger than the electrical circuits' bandwidths. Using two coupled RF circuits allowed one to enhance the interaction between them and the mechanical oscillator which is one of flexural vibrational modes of a free-edge circular silicon wafer. Such a coupled electromechanical system can be used as a high-sensitive capacitive vibration sensor.

  7. Analysis and calculation of lightning-induced voltages in aircraft electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques to calculate the transfer functions relating lightning-induced voltages in aircraft electrical circuits to aircraft physical characteristics and lightning current parameters are discussed. The analytical work was carried out concurrently with an experimental program of measurements of lightning-induced voltages in the electrical circuits of an F89-J aircraft. A computer program, ETCAL, developed earlier to calculate resistive and inductive transfer functions is refined to account for skin effect, providing results more valid over a wider range of lightning waveshapes than formerly possible. A computer program, WING, is derived to calculate the resistive and inductive transfer functions between a basic aircraft wing and a circuit conductor inside it. Good agreement is obtained between transfer inductances calculated by WING and those reduced from measured data by ETCAL. This computer program shows promise of expansion to permit eventual calculation of potential lightning-induced voltages in electrical circuits of complete aircraft in the design stage.

  8. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  9. Teaching electric circuits with multiple batteries: A qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Smith*

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated preservice science teachers’ qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use reasoning based on current and resistance where reasoning based on voltage is a necessity. We also found that problems such as thinking of the battery as a source of constant current resurfaced in this new context, and that answers given were inconsistent with current conservation. We describe the curriculum we developed that enables students to model circuits with multiple batteries qualitatively. Post-test results show that the majority of students were able to apply their newly developed model to make accurate predictions for complex circuits.

  10. The Use of Enhanced Guided Notes in an Electric Circuit Class: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate students' (n=70) learning performance after their participation in lectures using enhanced guided notes (EGN) in an electric circuits course for non-electrical engineering students. Unlike traditional guided notes, EGN include questions that prompt students to evaluate their metacognitive knowledge. The results…

  11. Early twentieth century response of the global atmospheric electric circuit to ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G.; Joshi, M.

    2012-04-01

    The global atmospheric electric circuit links charge separation in disturbed weather regions with current flow in the fair weather regions elsewhere. Variations in disturbed weather, such as the changes in lightning associated with Pacific ocean temperature anomalies, can be expected in turn to modify currents flowing in the global atmospheric electric circuit. Strengthening and weakening of the global circuit current has been observed* to follow El Niño and La Niña respectively, from northern hemisphere atmospheric electricity data obtained during the 1970s. Extending this relationship quantitatively into the first half of the twentieth century is pursued here, using surface data from multiple atmospheric electricity observatories including measurements from the southern hemisphere. The independent atmospheric electricity time series from the observatories show similar variations, which is a pre-requisite for inferring global circuit variations from surface measurement. Combining the measurements allows the global circuit sensitivity to ENSO sea surface temperature anomalies to be derived during the earlier part of the twentieth century. * R.G. Harrison, M. Joshi, K. Pascoe, Inferring convective responses to El Niño with atmospheric electricity measurements at Shetland Environ Res Lett 6 (2011) 044028 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/6/4/044028/

  12. Transient and Steady-State Analysis of Nonlinear RF and Microwave Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Lei(Lana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of simulation methods currently available for the transient and steady-state analysis of nonlinear RF and microwave circuits. The most general method continues to be the time-marching approach used in Spice, but more recent methods based on multiple time dimensions are particularly effective for RF and microwave circuits. We derive nodal formulations for the most widely used multiple time dimension methods. We put special emphasis on methods for the analysis of oscillators based in the warped multitime partial differential equations (WaMPDE approach. Case studies of a Colpitts oscillator and a voltage controlled Clapp-Gouriet oscillator are presented and discussed. The accuracy of the amplitude and phase of these methods is investigated. It is shown that the exploitation of frequency-domain latency reduces the computational effort.

  13. Teaching Electric Circuits with Multiple Batteries: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David P.; van Kampen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated preservice science teachers' qualitative understanding of circuits consisting of multiple batteries in single and multiple loops using a pretest and post-test method and classroom observations. We found that most students were unable to explain the effects of adding batteries in single and multiple loops, as they tended to use…

  14. Conceptual understanding of electrical circuits in secondary vocational engineering education: combining traditional instruction with inquiry learning in a virtual lab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollöffel, B.; Jong, de T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, engineering curricula about electrical circuits use textbook instruction and hands-on lessons, which are effective approaches for teaching terms and definitions, the procedural use of formulas, and how to build circuits. Nonetheless, students often lack conceptual understa

  15. Design of pressure-driven microfluidic networks using electric circuit analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang W; Lee, Kangsun; Ahn, Byungwook; Furlani, Edward P

    2012-02-07

    This article reviews the application of electric circuit methods for the analysis of pressure-driven microfluidic networks with an emphasis on concentration- and flow-dependent systems. The application of circuit methods to microfluidics is based on the analogous behaviour of hydraulic and electric circuits with correlations of pressure to voltage, volumetric flow rate to current, and hydraulic to electric resistance. Circuit analysis enables rapid predictions of pressure-driven laminar flow in microchannels and is very useful for designing complex microfluidic networks in advance of fabrication. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the physics of pressure-driven laminar flow, the formal analogy between electric and hydraulic circuits, applications of circuit theory to microfluidic network-based devices, recent development and applications of concentration- and flow-dependent microfluidic networks, and promising future applications. The lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and microfluidics community will gain insightful ideas and practical design strategies for developing unique microfluidic network-based devices to address a broad range of biological, chemical, pharmaceutical, and other scientific and technical challenges.

  16. Electromagnetic noise in electric circuits: Ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kitora

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that electromagnetic noise originates from the coupling of electric signals in a circuit with electric signals in surrounding materials in the environment. However, the noise phenomenon had not been quantified until now. In order to study the phenomenon of noise, we considered a standard circuit (two transmission lines, to which an additional transmission line was introduced in order to explicitly take into account the effect of conductors in the environment. We performed calculations using a newly developed multiconductor transmission-line theory for the resulting three-line circuit in order to determine the magnitude of the coupling between the circuit and the conductors in the environment under various conditions. We observed ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode, which influenced the performance of the normal mode as electromagnetic noise. Our findings were confirmed by recent experiments in which conductor lines were arranged in various ways using a printed circuit board (PCB. The ordinary usage of electricity in the standard electric circuit was found to be worst in exciting the common mode noise.

  17. Non-linear classical dynamics in a superconducting circuit containing a cavity and a Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, Selina; Kubala, Bjoern; Gramich, Vera; Mecklenburg, Michael; Stockburger, Juergen T.; Ankerhold, Joachim [Institute for Complex Quantum Systems, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments a superconducting hybrid circuit consisting of a voltage biased Josephson junction in series with a resonator is studied. For strong driving the dynamics of the system can be very complex, even in the classical regime. Studying the dissipative dynamics within a Langevin-type description, we obtain well-defined dynamical steady states. In contrast to the well-known case of anharmonic potentials, like the Duffing or parametric oscillator, in our case the non-linearity stems from the peculiar way the external drive couples to the system [2]. We investigate the resonance behaviour of this non-linear hybrid system, in particular when driving at higher- or subharmonics. The resulting down- and up-conversions can be observed both, as resonances in the I-V curve, and in the emitted microwave radiation, which yields additional spectral information.

  18. [About optimized designs and circuits of autonomous electric stimulators for the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchuk, S F

    2004-01-01

    Described in the paper are the key principles of designing of autonomous electrodes for the gastrointestinal tract (AE GT) as well as circuits of stimulating-pulse generators. A shape for the electric-stimulator frame, its geometric dimensions and choice of a material for electrodes are substantiated. The electric- and trauma-safety of AE GT is discussed. The main stimulating current parameters, as well as the flowchart and design of the electric stimulator are presented.

  19. Control of terahertz nonlinear transmission with electrically gated graphene metadevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Oh, Sang Soon; Hamm, Joachim M.; Pusch, Andreas; Park, Jagang; Lee, Kanghee; Son, Jaehyeon; Jeong, Young U. K.; Hess, Ortwin; Rotermund, Fabian; Min, Bumki

    2017-02-01

    Graphene, which is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has attracted a great amount of attention due to its outstanding mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. Moreover, graphene shows an exceptionally strong tunable light-matter interaction that depends on the Fermi level - a function of chemical doping and external gate voltage - and the electromagnetic resonance provided by intentionally engineered structures. In the optical regime, the nonlinearities of graphene originated from the Pauli blocking have already been exploited for mode-locking device applications in ultrafast laser technology, whereas nonlinearities in the terahertz regime, which arise from a reduction in conductivity due to carrier heating, have only recently been confirmed experimentally. Here, we investigated two key factors for controlling nonlinear interactions of graphene with an intense terahertz field. The induced transparencies of graphene can be controlled effectively by engineering meta-atoms and/or changing the number of charge carriers through electrical gating. Additionally, nonlinear phase changes of the transmitted terahertz field can be observed by introducing the resonances of the meta-atoms.

  20. Control of terahertz nonlinear transmission with electrically gated graphene metadevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Oh, Sang Soon; Hamm, Joachim M.; Pusch, Andreas; Park, Jagang; Lee, Kanghee; Son, Jaehyeon; Jeong, Young U. k.; Hess, Ortwin; Rotermund, Fabian; Min, Bumki

    2017-01-01

    Graphene, which is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has attracted a great amount of attention due to its outstanding mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. Moreover, graphene shows an exceptionally strong tunable light-matter interaction that depends on the Fermi level - a function of chemical doping and external gate voltage - and the electromagnetic resonance provided by intentionally engineered structures. In the optical regime, the nonlinearities of graphene originated from the Pauli blocking have already been exploited for mode-locking device applications in ultrafast laser technology, whereas nonlinearities in the terahertz regime, which arise from a reduction in conductivity due to carrier heating, have only recently been confirmed experimentally. Here, we investigated two key factors for controlling nonlinear interactions of graphene with an intense terahertz field. The induced transparencies of graphene can be controlled effectively by engineering meta-atoms and/or changing the number of charge carriers through electrical gating. Additionally, nonlinear phase changes of the transmitted terahertz field can be observed by introducing the resonances of the meta-atoms. PMID:28216677

  1. Measuring user similarity using electric circuit analysis: application to collaborative filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joonhyuk; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Young Hwan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new technique of measuring user similarity in collaborative filtering using electric circuit analysis. Electric circuit analysis is used to measure the potential differences between nodes on an electric circuit. In this paper, by applying this method to transaction networks comprising users and items, i.e., user-item matrix, and by using the full information about the relationship structure of users in the perspective of item adoption, we overcome the limitations of one-to-one similarity calculation approach, such as the Pearson correlation, Tanimoto coefficient, and Hamming distance, in collaborative filtering. We found that electric circuit analysis can be successfully incorporated into recommender systems and has the potential to significantly enhance predictability, especially when combined with user-based collaborative filtering. We also propose four types of hybrid algorithms that combine the Pearson correlation method and electric circuit analysis. One of the algorithms exceeds the performance of the traditional collaborative filtering by 37.5% at most. This work opens new opportunities for interdisciplinary research between physics and computer science and the development of new recommendation systems.

  2. A Bistable Microelectronic Circuit for Sensing Extremely Low Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    schematic of a single element is shown in Fig. 2. It consists of two differential pairs that employ negative- positive-negative NPN transistors with...been transformed into a current Isig that is then amplified by the NPN transistor . In fact, the circuit responds to very small on the order of pico...one of them being cross coupled, two positive channel metal oxide semiconduc- tor PMOS transistors , and a pair of resistors. In each dif- ferential

  3. Nonlinear relaxation field in charged systems under high electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawetz, K

    2000-07-01

    The influence of an external electric field on the current in charged systems is investigated. The results from the classical hierarchy of density matrices are compared with the results from the quantum kinetic theory. The kinetic theory yields a systematic treatment of the nonlinear current beyond linear response. To this end the dynamically screened and field-dependent Lenard-Balescu equation is integrated analytically and the nonlinear relaxation field is calculated. The classical linear response result known as Debye - On-Sager relaxation effect is only obtained if asymmetric screening is assumed. Considering the kinetic equation of one specie the other species have to be screened dynamically while the screening with the same specie itself has to be performed statically. Different other approximations are discussed and compared. (author)

  4. New equivalent-electrical circuit model and a practical measurement method for human body impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Koyu; Kinjo, Ichiko; Zamami, Aki; Irei, Kotoyo; Nagayama, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Human body impedance analysis is an effective tool to extract electrical information from tissues in the human body. This paper presents a new measurement method of impedance using armpit electrode and a new equivalent circuit model for the human body. The lowest impedance was measured by using an LCR meter and six electrodes including armpit electrodes. The electrical equivalent circuit model for the cell consists of resistance R and capacitance C. The R represents electrical resistance of the liquid of the inside and outside of the cell, and the C represents high frequency conductance of the cell membrane. We propose an equivalent circuit model which consists of five parallel high frequency-passing CR circuits. The proposed equivalent circuit represents alpha distribution in the impedance measured at a lower frequency range due to ion current of the outside of the cell, and beta distribution at a high frequency range due to the cell membrane and the liquid inside cell. The calculated values by using the proposed equivalent circuit model were consistent with the measured values for the human body impedance.

  5. Electrical and thermal analyses for the radio-frequency circuit of ITER NBI ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamengo, A. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.zamengo@igi.cnr.it; Recchia, M. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Padua, Via Gradenigo 6/A, 35131 Padova (Italy); Kraus, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bigi, M. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Martens, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Toigo, V. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    This paper covers specific electrical and thermal aspects of the radio-frequency (RF) circuit which supplies the ion source of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Neutral Beam Injector (NBI). Firstly, a matching circuit for the RF Antennas is presented and a possible solution for the matching components discussed, in relation to the anticipated equivalent circuit parameters of the RF driven plasma. Secondly, the thermal behaviour of the RF transmission line is analyzed, utilising finite element tools, to evaluate the RF line overtemperature under the heaviest foreseen operating conditions.

  6. Development of 3-D Mechanical Models of Electric Circuits and Their Effect on Students' Understanding of Electric Potential Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing physical concepts through models is an essential method in many sciences. While students are mostly proficient in handling mathematical aspects of problems, they frequently lack the ability to visualize and interpret abstract physical concepts in a meaningful way. In this paper, initially the electric circuits and related concepts were…

  7. Nonlinear Conductivity of a Holographic Superconductor Under Constant Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hua-Bi; Fan, Zheyong; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a two-dimensional superconductor under a constant electric field $E$ is studied by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. The pair breaking current induced by $E$ first increases to a peak value and then decreases to a constant value at late time, where the superconducting gap goes to zero, corresponding to a normal conducting phase. The peak value of the current is found to increase linearly with respect to the electric field. Moreover, the nonlinear conductivity, defined as an average of the conductivity in the superconducting phase, scales as $\\sim E^{-2/3}$ for large $E$ when the system is close to the critical temperature, which agrees with predictions from solving the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  8. The study of hybrid model identification,computation analysis and fault location for nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hong; HE Yi-gang; ZENG Guan-da

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the hybrid model identification for a class of nonlinear circuits and systems via a combination of the block-pulse function transform with the Volterra series.After discussing the method to establish the hybrid model and introducing the hybrid model identification,a set of relative formulas are derived for calculating the hybrid model and computing the Volterra series solution of nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems.In order to significantly reduce the computation cost for fault location,the paper presents a new fault diagnosis method based on multiple preset models that can be realized online.An example of identification simulation and fault diagnosis are given.Results show that the method has high accuracy and efficiency for fault location of nonlinear dynamic circuits and systems.

  9. Restoring heart function and electrical integrity: closing the circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Miguel; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Ferreira, Lino; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua; Nascimento, Diana Santos

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the world and are often associated with the occurrence of arrhythmias due to disruption of myocardial electrical integrity. Pathologies involving dysfunction of the specialized cardiac excitatory/conductive tissue are also common and constitute an added source of morbidity and mortality since current standard therapies withstand a great number of limitations. As electrical integrity is essential for a well-functioning heart, innovative strategies have been bioengineered to improve heart conduction and/or promote myocardial repair, based on: (1) gene and/or cell delivery; or (2) conductive biomaterials as tools for cardiac tissue engineering. Herein we aim to review the state-of-art in the area, while briefly describing the biological principles underlying the heart electrical/conduction system and how this system can be disrupted in heart disease. Suggestions regarding targets for future studies are also presented.

  10. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  11. Successfully Mapping the U-Tank to an Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-In

    2010-01-01

    Water-flow analogies are helpful in understanding electricity. For example, in the Lodge model, the constant DC voltage source (a battery) is represented by a U-tank with two water columns of the same cross-sectional area connected by a horizontal duct in which a pump is installed. The pump maintains the difference of the levels of the two water…

  12. Model of Three-Limb Three-Phase Transformer Based on Nonlinear Open Circuit Characteristic with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the realization of a three-phase transformer model based on a non-linear open-circuit characteristic. The proposed model is based on the fact that in case of a star connection with a neutral wire on the primary windings for all three phases, the applied voltage presents phase voltage and line (phase currents are magnetization currents. These variables are available for measuring and it is easy to obtain three non-linear open circuit characteristics. The results of simulations and a comparison with references and experimental results verified this approach.

  13. Wireless Electrical Device Using Open-Circuit Elements Having No Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless electrical device includes an electrically unconnected electrical conductor and at least one electrically unconnected electrode spaced apart from the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor is shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Each electrode is at a location lying within the magnetic field response so-generated and is constructed such that a linear movement of electric charges is generated in each electrode due to the magnetic field response so-generated.

  14. In situ measurements of contributions to the global electrical circuit by a thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.N.; Holzworth, R.H.; McCarthy, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The global electrical circuit, which maintains a potential of about 280??kV between the earth and the ionosphere, is thought to be driven mainly by thunderstorms and lightning. However, very few in situ measurements of electrical current above thunderstorms have been successfully obtained. In this paper, we present dc to very low frequency electric fields and atmospheric conductivity measured in the stratosphere (30-35??km altitude) above an active thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil. From these measurements, we estimate the mean quasi-static conduction current during the storm period to be 2.5 ?? 1.25??A. Additionally, we examine the transient conduction currents following a large positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) lightning flash and typical - CG flashes. We find that the majority of the total current is attributed to the quasi-static thundercloud charge, rather than lightning, which supports the classical Wilson model for the global electrical circuit.

  15. Wireless Sensing System Using Open-circuit, Electrically-conductive Spiral-trace Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically-conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

  16. Electromechanical power flowcharts in systems of electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Jose M Diaz

    2016-01-01

    We present an original undergraduate level compilation for the physics of electromechanical systems with special consideration of power flow. An approach based on energy considerations is presented that is specially suited to compute the mechanical and electrical actions of electromagnetic fields and to draw power flowcharts that clarify the path taken by energy in typical devices. The procedure guarantees energy conservation and provides a consistent way for auditing the power flow.

  17. Equivalent circuit and characteristic simulation of a brushless electrically excited synchronous wind power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Fengge; Guan, Tao; Yu, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    A brushless electrically excited synchronous generator (BEESG) with a hybrid rotor is a novel electrically excited synchronous generator. The BEESG proposed in this paper is composed of a conventional stator with two different sets of windings with different pole numbers, and a hybrid rotor with powerful coupling capacity. The pole number of the rotor is different from those of the stator windings. Thus, an analysis method different from that applied to conventional generators should be applied to the BEESG. In view of this problem, the equivalent circuit and electromagnetic torque expression of the BEESG are derived on the basis of electromagnetic relation of the proposed generator. The generator is simulated and tested experimentally using the established equivalent circuit model. The experimental and simulation data are then analyzed and compared. Results show the validity of the equivalent circuit model.

  18. Encountering the Expertise Reversal Effect with a Computer-Based Environment on Electrical Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Atkinson, Robert K.; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a computer-based environment employing three example-based instructional procedures (example-problem, problem-example, and fading) to teach series and parallel electrical circuit analysis to learners classified by two levels of prior knowledge (low and high). Although no differences between the…

  19. An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

  20. Brief communication: Earthquake–cloud coupling through the global atmospheric electric circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Harrison

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate how coupling could occur between surface air and clouds via the global electric circuit – through Atmospheric Lithosphere–Ionosphere Charge Exchange (ALICE processes – in an attempt to develop physical understanding of possible relationships between earthquakes and clouds.

  1. Development of a Three-Tier Test to Assess Misconceptions about Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesman, Haki; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to propose a valid and reliable diagnostic instrument by developing a three-tier test on simple electric circuits. Based on findings from the interviews, open-ended questions, and the related literature, the test was developed and administered to 124 high school students. In addition to some qualitative techniques for…

  2. Non-Contact Circuit for Real-Time Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    primary purposes: 1) SPI communication: 3 pins for serial clock (SLCK), master output to salve input ( MOSI ) (which we use to program each output DAC...emitting diode LF low-frequency MISO master input to slave output MOSI master output to salve input PCB printed circuit board q , Q electric

  3. Student Learning in an Electric Circuit Theory Course: Critical Aspects and Task Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Anna-Karin; Bernhard, Jonte

    2009-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent responses, such as transients, is important in electric circuit theory and other branches of engineering. However, transient response is considered difficult to learn since familiarity with advanced mathematical tools such as Laplace transforms is required. Here, we analyse and describe a novel learning environment…

  4. Effect of Simple Electric Circuits Teaching on Conceptual Change in Grade 9 Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Hüseyin; Kocakülah, Sabri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of teaching designed to consider grade 9 students' misconceptions about simple electric circuits on conceptual change. Students' misconceptions were determined by using a conceptual understanding test consisting of eight open-ended questions and semi-structured interview technique. Conceptual…

  5. Current as the Key Concept of Taiwanese Students' Understandings of Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Chen, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Ching-Yang; Lain, Kuen-Der

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the results of a nationwide survey of Taiwanese high schools students' understandings about electric circuits. The study involved two stratified random samples consisting of 7,145 students in Grades 8 and 9, and 2,857 students in Grade 11, accounting for about 2.3% of the total enrolment in the corresponding…

  6. Step-Wise Evolution of Mental Models of Electric Circuits: A "Learning-Aloud" Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, John J.; Steinberg, Melvin S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching complex models in science that uses a model construction cycle of generation, evaluation, and modification. Reports on a case study of a student in a tutoring experiment in the study of electric circuits. Focuses on the role of analogies, discrepant events, and the student's moments of surprise as motivators of…

  7. Lessons Learned in the Use of WIRIS Quizzes to Upgrade Moodle to Solve Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogarra Rodriguez, S.; Corbalan Fuertes, M.; Font Piera, A.; Plaza Garcia, I.; Solsona, F. J. A.

    2012-01-01

    WIRIS quizzes are an online mathematics tool for educational purposes that upgrade Moodle quizzes and allow the development of personalized quizzes using random data and conditional instructions. WIRIS quizzes can be used in any mathematics or science degree; their complex operators allow it to be used to solve electrical circuits. This tool…

  8. The Effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method on Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Nurulazam Md Zain, Ahmad; Salmiza, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method over conventional teaching method on eight graders in their understanding of simple electric circuits in Jordan. Participants (N = 273 students; M = 139, F = 134) were randomly selected from Bani Kenanah region-North of Jordan and randomly assigned to…

  9. Identifying and Investigating Difficult Concepts in Engineering Mechanics and Electric Circuits. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streveler, Ruth; Geist, Monica; Ammerman, Ravel; Sulzbach, Candace; Miller, Ronald; Olds, Barbara; Nelson, Mary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends ongoing work to identify difficult concepts in thermal and transport science and measure students' understanding of those concepts via a concept inventory. Two research questions provided the focal point: "What important concepts in electric circuits and engineering mechanics do students find difficult to learn?" and…

  10. Laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a LC electrical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. M.; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Marcus, Charles Masamed

    2011-01-01

    We explore a method for laser cooling and optical detection of excitations in a room temperature LC electrical circuit. Our approach uses a nanomechanical oscillator as a transducer between optical and electronic excitations. An experimentally feasible system with the oscillator capacitively...

  11. Approximating electrical distribution networks via mixed-integer nonlinear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhera, Sanyogita [Citibank, New York City, NY (United States); Shanbhag, Uday V. [Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 117 Transportation Building, 104 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McInerney, Michael K. [Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Given urban data derived from a geographical information system (GIS), we consider the problem of constructing an estimate of the electrical distribution system of an urban area. We employ the image data to obtain an approximate electrical load distribution over a network of a prespecificed discretization. Together with partial information about existing substations, we determine the optimal placement of electrical substations to sustain such a load that minimizes the cost of capital and losses. This requires solving large-scale quadratic programs with discrete variables for which we present a novel penalization-smoothing scheme. The choice of locations allows one to determine the optimal flows in this network, as required by physical requirements which provide us with an approximation of the distribution network. Furthermore, the scheme allows for approximating systems in the presence of no-go areas, such as lakes and fields. We examine the performance of our algorithm on the solution of a set of location problems and observe that the scheme is capable of solving large-scale instances, well beyond the realm of existing mixed-integer nonlinear programming solvers. We conclude with a case study in which a stage-wise extension of this scheme is developed to reflect the temporal evolution of load. (author)

  12. Synchronization transitions in coupled time-delay electronic circuits with a threshold nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Senthilkumar, D V; Murali, K; Lakshmanan, M; Kurths, J

    2011-06-01

    Experimental observations of typical kinds of synchronization transitions are reported in unidirectionally coupled time-delay electronic circuits with a threshold nonlinearity and two time delays, namely feedback delay τ(1) and coupling delay τ(2). We have observed transitions from anticipatory to lag via complete synchronization and their inverse counterparts with excitatory and inhibitory couplings, respectively, as a function of the coupling delay τ(2). The anticipating and lag times depend on the difference between the feedback and the coupling delays. A single stability condition for all the different types of synchronization is found to be valid as the stability condition is independent of both the delays. Further, the existence of different kinds of synchronizations observed experimentally is corroborated by numerical simulations and from the changes in the Lyapunov exponents of the coupled time-delay systems.

  13. A Comparison of Experienced and Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge about Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differences between Taiwanese experienced and preservice elementary school science teachers' content knowledge (CK) about electric circuits and their ability to predict students' preconceptions about electric circuits as an indicator of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). An innovative web-based recruitment and…

  14. A Comparison of Experienced and Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge about Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differences between Taiwanese experienced and preservice elementary school science teachers' content knowledge (CK) about electric circuits and their ability to predict students' preconceptions about electric circuits as an indicator of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). An innovative web-based recruitment and…

  15. Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, P J; Tan, K Y; Möttönen, M

    2011-01-01

    We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

  16. An electrical model of VCSEL as optical transmitter for optical printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyoon; Yoon, Young-Seol; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Min; Choi, Young-Wan; Lee, Seok

    2005-03-01

    Optical interconnection is recent issue for high-speed data transmission. The limitation of high-speed electrical data transmission is caused by impedance mismatching, electric field coupling, microwave loss, and different length of the electrical signal lines. To overcome these limitations, the electrical signal in the current electrical system has to be changed by the optical signal. The most suitable optical source in the OPCB (Optical Printed Circuit Board) is VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers) that is low-priced and has the characteristic of vertical surface emitting. In this paper, we propose an electrical model of the VCSEL as E/O converting devices for the OPCB. The equivalent circuit of the VCSEL based on the rate equations includes carrier dynamics and material properties. The rate equation parameters are obtained by full analysis based on rate equation and experiment results. The electrical model of the VCSEL has the series resistance determined by I-V characteristic curve, and the parallel capacitance by the parasitic response of the VCSEL chip. The bandwidth of the optical interconnection is analyzed considering those parameters. We design and fabricate the optical transmitter for OPCB considering proposed electrical model of VCSEL.

  17. Selected Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics and Theoretical Electrical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Halang, Wolfgang; Mathis, Wolfgang; Chedjou, Jean; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    This book contains a collection of recent advanced contributions in the field of nonlinear dynamics and synchronization, including selected applications in the area of theoretical electrical engineering. The present book is divided into twenty-one chapters grouped in five parts. The first part focuses on theoretical issues related to chaos and synchronization and their potential applications in mechanics, transportation, communication and security. The second part handles dynamic systems modelling and simulation with special applications to real physical systems and phenomena. The third part discusses some fundamentals of electromagnetics (EM) and addresses the modelling and simulation in some real physical electromagnetic scenarios. The fourth part mainly addresses stability concerns. Finally, the last part assembles some sample applications in the area of optimization, data mining, pattern recognition and image processing.

  18. Selected topics in nonlinear dynamics and theoretical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Halang, Wolfgang; Mathis, Wolfgang; Chedjou, Jean; Li, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    This book contains a collection of recent advanced contributions in the field of nonlinear dynamics and synchronization, including selected applications in the area of theoretical electrical engineering. The present book is divided into twenty-one chapters grouped in five parts. The first part focuses on theoretical issues related to chaos and synchronization and their potential applications in mechanics, transportation, communication and security. The second part handles dynamic systems modelling and simulation with special applications to real physical systems and phenomena. The third part discusses some fundamentals of electromagnetics (EM) and addresses the modelling and simulation in some real physical electromagnetic scenarios. The fourth part mainly addresses stability concerns. Finally, the last part assembles some sample applications in the area of optimization, data mining, pattern recognition and image processing.

  19. Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majdoub, K; Giri, F; Ouadi, H; Chaoui, F Z

    2014-01-01

    The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.

  20. Nonlinear circuit analysis of harmonic currents in a floating Langmuir probe with a capacitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-02-01

    Plasma diagnostics using the floating harmonic technique were first used to obtain the electron temperature in a tokamak plasma. In this technique, the electron temperature depends on the ratio of the harmonic currents in a resistive sheath. Because these harmonic currents are determined by a modulated sheath voltage, calculation of the exact modulated voltage across the sheath is important; in general, the voltage is calculated using a phase of the first harmonic current. However, when a series load capacitance is present, the second harmonic currents are abnormally reduced compared to those expected by the conventional floating harmonic model, resulting in an unreliable measurement of the electron temperature. To describe this phenomenon, we used a modified floating harmonic model by applying the harmonic balance technique, a method that analyzes nonlinear circuits. Theoretical prediction of the harmonic current obtained from the modified model was compared with the experimental results, and they are in good agreement. In addition, the degrees of sheath nonlinearity, defined as the ratio of the second harmonic current (or voltage) to the fundamental current (or voltage), are discussed.

  1. Circuit models of the passive electrical properties of frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiosera, R; Clausen, C; Eisenberg, R S

    1974-04-01

    The relation between the fine structure, electric field equations, and electric circuit models of skeletal muscle fibers is discussed. Experimental evidence illustrates the profound variation of potential with circumferential position, even at low frequencies (100 Hz). Since one-dimensional cable theory cannot account for such variation, three-dimensional cable theory must be used. Several circuit models of a sarcomere are presented and plots are made of the predicted phase angle between sinusoidal applied current and potential. The circuit models are described by equations involving normalized variables, since they affect the phase plot in a relatively simple way. A method is presented for estimating the values of the circuit elements and the standard deviation of the estimates. The reliability of the estimates is discussed. An objective measure of fit, Hamilton's R test, is used to test the significance of different fits to data. Finally, it is concluded that none of the proposed circuit models provides an adequate description of the observed variation of phase angle with circumferential location. It is not clear whether the source of disagreement is inadequate measurements or inadequate theory.

  2. Creating a simple electric circuit with children between the ages of five and six

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Kada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of how preschool-aged children go about creating and operating a simple electric circuit (wires, light bulb, and battery, and how they view the elements that comprise it, particularly how they view the role of the battery. The research involved 108 children aged between five and six, who were individually interviewed. The results of the study show that the children have already begun to form representations which link the battery, the light bulb and the wires to electrical functions, and that the majority of children are able, with or without help, to successfully create a simple electric circuit. Moreover, their involvement in the process of creating and operating such a circuit leads many children not only to a comprehensive viewing of the circuit, but also to the creation of a pre-energy thought-form in which the battery is acknowledged as the distribution source of an entity which is responsible for the luminescence of the light bulb.

  3. Background voltage distortion influence on power electric systems in the presence of the Steinmetz circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Luis; Pedra, Joaquin [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Caro, Manuel [IDOM Ingenieria y Arquitectura, C. Barcas 2, 46002 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    In traction systems, it is usual to connect reactances in delta configuration with single-phase loads to reduce voltage unbalances and avoid electric system operation problems. This set is known as Steinmetz circuit. Parallel and series resonances can occur due to the capacitive reactance of the Steinmetz circuit and affect power quality. In this paper, the series resonance ''observed'' from the supply system is numerically located. The study of this resonance is important to avoid problems due to background voltage distortion. Experimental measurements are also presented to validate the obtained numerical results. (author)

  4. Electrically Small Resonators for Planar Metamaterial, Microwave Circuit and Antenna Design: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán-Sindreu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Planar metamaterials and many microwave circuits and antennas are designed by means of resonators with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength at their resonance frequency. There are many types of such electrically small resonators, and the main purpose of this paper is to compare them as building blocks for the implementation of microwave components. Aspects such as resonator size, bandwidth, their circuit models when they are coupled to transmission lines (as is usually required, as well as key applications, will be considered.

  5. Nonlinear behavior analysis of split-winding dry-type transformer using a new star model and a coupled field-circuit approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizian Davood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of short circuit and inrush current simulations in the split-winding transformer, a novel nonlinear equivalent circuit is introduced in this paper for nonlinear simulation of this transformer. The equivalent circuit is extended using the nonlinear inductances. Employing a numerical method, leakage and magnetizing inductances in the split-winding transformer are extracted and the nonlinear model inductances are estimated using these inductances. The introduced model is validated and using this nonlinear model, inrush and short-circuit currents are calculated. It has been seen that the introduced model is valid and suitable for simulations of the split-winding transformer due to various loading conditions. Finally, the effects of nonlinearity of the model inductances are discussed in the following.

  6. Wireless Open-Circuit In-Plane Strain and Displacement Sensor Requiring No Electrical Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless in-plane strain and displacement sensor includes an electrical conductor fixedly coupled to a substrate subject to strain conditions. The electrical conductor is shaped between its ends for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field, and remains electrically unconnected to define an unconnected open-circuit having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the electrical conductor so-shaped resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. The sensor also includes at least one electrically unconnected electrode having an end and a free portion extending from the end thereof. The end of each electrode is fixedly coupled to the substrate and the free portion thereof remains unencumbered and spaced apart from a portion of the electrical conductor so-shaped. More specifically, at least some of the free portion is disposed at a location lying within the magnetic field response generated by the electrical conductor. A motion guidance structure is slidingly engaged with each electrode's free portion in order to maintain each free portion parallel to the electrical conductor so-shaped.

  7. Silicon photonic integrated circuits with electrically programmable non-volatile memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J-F; Lim, A E-J; Luo, X-S; Fang, Q; Li, C; Jia, L X; Tu, X-G; Huang, Y; Zhou, H-F; Liow, T-Y; Lo, G-Q

    2016-09-19

    Conventional silicon photonic integrated circuits do not normally possess memory functions, which require on-chip power in order to maintain circuit states in tuned or field-configured switching routes. In this context, we present an electrically programmable add/drop microring resonator with a wavelength shift of 426 pm between the ON/OFF states. Electrical pulses are used to control the choice of the state. Our experimental results show a wavelength shift of 2.8 pm/ms and a light intensity variation of ~0.12 dB/ms for a fixed wavelength in the OFF state. Theoretically, our device can accommodate up to 65 states of multi-level memory functions. Such memory functions can be integrated into wavelength division mutiplexing (WDM) filters and applied to optical routers and computing architectures fulfilling large data downloading demands.

  8. Thermal radiation effect on the extinction properties of electric arcs in HV circuit breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziani Abderrahmane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of the electric arc at the opening of a high voltage circuit breaker, the generated plasma will be the seat of a very important thermal exchange. Models founded only on conduction and convection thermal transfers don't reproduce the whole thermal exchanges that are governing the extinction process. This paper is devoted to the development of a model of the electric arc extinction in a high voltage circuit breaker taking in account the thermal radiation of the plasma, in addition to the conduction and convection phenomena. The Stefan-Boltzman equation is coupled with the heat equation, and both equations are solved simultaneously in order to follow the evolution of the arc voltage and the conductance of the thermal plasma. The obtained results are found in good agreement with experimental recordings.

  9. Simulation of Higher-Order Electrical Circuits with Stochastic Parameters via SDEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANCIK, L.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a technique for the simulation of higher-order electrical circuits with parameters varying randomly. The principle consists in the utilization of the theory of stochastic differential equations (SDE, namely the vector form of the ordinary SDEs. Random changes of both excitation voltage and some parameters of passive circuit elements are considered, and circuit responses are analyzed. The voltage and/or current responses are computed and represented in the form of the sample means accompanied by their confidence intervals to provide reliable estimates. The method is applied to analyze responses of the circuit models of optional orders, specially those consisting of a cascade connection of the RLGC networks. To develop the model equations the state-variable method is used, afterwards a corresponding vector SDE is formulated and a stochastic Euler numerical method applied. To verify the results the deterministic responses are also computed by the help of the PSpice simulator or the numerical inverse Laplace transforms (NILT procedure in MATLAB, while removing random terms from the circuit model.

  10. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  11. Electrical circuit analysis and technical english: articulation in a project-based learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, José Manuel; Branco, Denise; Oliveira, João Pedro Estima de

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of Electrical Circuit Analysis and Technical English in the same curricular module, in the context of a Project Based Learning (PBL) environment. The idea consists in taking advantage of the PBL setting to provide a context for the learning of the two different subjects in an articulated manner. The results of the evaluation of the first iteration of this experiment will also be discussed.

  12. Soft Anisotropic Conductors as Electric Vias for Ga-Based Liquid Metal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tong; Wissman, James; Ruthika; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-12-09

    We introduce a method for sealing liquid metal (LM) circuits with soft anisotropic conductors that prevent leaking, while simultaneously allowing for electrical contact with skin and surface mounted electronics. These films are composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) embedded with vertically aligned columns of ferromagnetic Ag-Ni microparticles. The microparticles are magnetically aligned and support electrical conductivity only through the thickness (z-axis) of the elastomer film. Measurements on 10-40% (by wt) composites show moderate volumetric resistivity (as low as ρ = 0.03 Ω/m) through the thickness and no conductivity between adjacent traces. Functionality is demonstrated with several illustrative applications related to tactile sensing and electronics hardware integration.

  13. Parameterization of electrical equivalent circuits for pem fuel cells; Parametrierung elektrischer Aequivalentschaltbilder von PEM Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubrock, J.

    2007-12-13

    Fuel cells are a very promising technology for energy conversion. For optimization purpose, useful simulation tools are needs. Simulation tools should simulate the static and dynamic electrical behaviour and the models should parameterized by measurment results which should be done easily. In this dissertation, a useful model for simulating a pem fuel cell is developed. the model should parametrizes by V-I curve measurment and by current step respond. The model based on electrical equivalent circuits and it is shown, that it is possible to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a pem fuel cell stack. The simulation results are compared by measurment results. (orig.)

  14. An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. Also, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB). The rare polycrystalline structure seen in the FIB cross section was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size to determine that the tin plating on the card guides had a bright finish.

  15. Full wave analysis of non-radiative dielectric waveguide modulator for the determination of electrical equivalent circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N P Pathak; A Basu; S K Koul

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the determination of electrical equivalent circuit of ON/OFF modulator in non-radiative dielectric (NRD) guide configurations at Ka-band. Schottky barrier mixer diode is used to realize this modulator and its characteristics are determined experimentally using vector network analyzer. Full wave FEM simulator HFSS is used to determine an equivalent circuit for the mounted diode and modulator in ON and OFF states. This equivalent circuit is used to qualitatively explain the experimental characteristics of modulator.

  16. The Effects on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives Within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre–post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics

  17. The Effects on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives Within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Jong, de Ton

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre–post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics

  18. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P., E-mail: GusevYP@mpei.ru; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun [National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed.

  19. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Combined Aircraft Storm Electric Current Measurements and Satellite-Based Diurnal Lightning Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2011-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds (ESCs) spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean thunderstorms is 1.7 A while the mean current for land thunderstorms is 1.0 A. The mean current for ocean ESCs 0.41 A and the mean current for land ESCs is 0.13 A. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal flash rate statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean) from thunderstorms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from ESCs, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Mean storm counts are 1100 for land

  20. Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites with Highly Enhanced Strength and Conductivity for Flexible Electric Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Han-Sem; Kim, Jeong Hun; Shin, Ueon Sang; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-07-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an important role in nanotechnology due to their unique properties, retaining the inherent material flexibility, superior strength, and electrical conductivity, unless the bottleneck of CNTs persists and the aggregated structure is overcome. Here, we report on the highly enhanced mechanical and electrical properties of the CNT-chitosan nanocomposites through homogeneous dispersion of CNTs into chitosan solution using a high-pressure homogenizer. The optimal condition is a 50% (w/w) chitosan-CNT film, providing about 7 nm thickness of homogeneous chitosan layer on CNTs, a good tensile strength of 51 MPa, high electrical conductivity under 16 Ω/sq, and a stable bending and folding performance. This CNT-chitosan nanocomposite with highly enhanced properties is an amenable material to fabricate structures of various shapes such as films, sensors, and circuits and also enables a simple and cost-effective approach to improve the performance of a device that presents the first flexible and soft electric circuits yet reported using only CNT-chitosan as the conductor.

  1. Complicated Electric Circuit P-T Calculus Model Based on VHDL%基于VHDL的复杂电路的P-T算法模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹非; 李曼义; 郭金怀

    2003-01-01

    When we design electric circuit with the hardware describe language VHDL,if the control of the electriccircuit is more than to calculate,we can design electric circuit as a controller which is based on multiplexer and is di-vided into the space part and the time part. Electric circuit is synthesized and form CPLD or FPGA circuit by adjustingthe P- T arithmetic model. We explain this method by designing the controller of CPU as a example.

  2. Reconfigurable anisotropy and functional transformations with VO$_{2}$-based metamaterial electric circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Savo, Salvatore; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Moccia, Massimo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Ramanathan, Shriram; Sato, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an innovative multifunctional artificial material that combines exotic metamaterial properties and the environmentally responsive nature of phase change media. The tunable metamaterial is designed with the aid of two interwoven coordinate-transformation equations and implemented with a network of thin film resistors and vanadium dioxide ($VO_{2}$). The strong temperature dependence of $VO_{2}$ electrical conductivity results in a relevant modification of the resistor network behavior, and we provide experimental evidence for a reconfigurable metamaterial electric circuit (MMEC) that not only mimics a continuous medium but is also capable of responding to thermal stimulation through dynamic variation of its spatial anisotropy. Upon external temperature change the overall effective functionality of the material switches between a "truncated-cloak" and "concentrator" for electric currents. Possible applications may include adaptive matching resistor networks, multifunctional electronic devices, an...

  3. The global atmospheric electric circuit and its effects on cloud microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    2008-06-01

    This review is an overview of progress in understanding the theory and observation of the global atmospheric electric circuit, with the focus on its dc aspects, and its short and long term variability. The effects of the downward ionosphere-earth current density, Jz, on cloud microphysics, with its variability as an explanation for small observed changes in weather and climate, will also be reviewed. The global circuit shows responses to external as well as internal forcing. External forcing arises from changes in the distribution of conductivity due to changes in the cosmic ray flux and other energetic space particle fluxes, and at high magnetic latitudes from solar wind electric fields. Internal forcing arises from changes in the generators and changes in volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols in the troposphere and stratosphere. All these result in spatial and temporal variation in Jz. Variations in Jz affect the production of space charge in layer clouds, with the charges being transferred to droplets and aerosol particles. New observations and new analyses are consistent with non-negligible effects of the charges on the microphysics of such clouds. Observed effects are small, but of high statistical significance for cloud cover and precipitation changes, with resulting atmospheric temperature, pressure and dynamics changes. These effects are detectable on the day-to-day timescale for repeated Jz changes of order 10%, and are thus second order electrical effects. The implicit first order effects have not, as yet, been incorporated into basic cloud and aerosol physics. Long term (multidecadal through millennial) global circuit changes, due to solar activity modulating the galactic cosmic ray flux, are an order of magnitude greater at high latitudes and in the stratosphere, as can be inferred from geological cosmogenic isotope records. Proxies for climate change in the same stratified depositories show strong correlations of climate with the inferred global circuit

  4. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Total Current Measurements over Electrified Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined total conduction (Wilson) currents and flash rates for 850 overflights of electrified clouds spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative Wilson currents. We combined these individual storm overflight statistics with global diurnal lightning variation data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to estimate the thunderstorm and electrified shower cloud contributions to the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. The contributions to the global electric circuit from lightning producing clouds are estimated by taking the mean current per flash derived from the overflight data for land and ocean overflights and combining it with the global lightning rates (for land and ocean) and their diurnal variation derived from the LIS/OTD data. We estimate the contribution of non-lightning producing electrified clouds by assuming several different diurnal variations and total non-electrified storm counts to produce estimates of the total storm currents (lightning and non-lightning producing storms). The storm counts and diurnal variations are constrained so that the resultant total current diurnal variation equals the diurnal variation in the fair weather electric field (+/-15%). These assumptions, combined with the airborne and satellite data, suggest that the total mean current in the global electric circuit ranges from 2.0 to 2.7 kA, which is greater than estimates made by others using other methods.

  5. Global Electric Circuit Implications of Total Current Measurements over Electrified Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2009-01-01

    We determined total conduction (Wilson) currents and flash rates for 850 overflights of electrified clouds spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative Wilson currents. We combined these individual storm overflight statistics with global diurnal lightning variation data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to estimate the thunderstorm and electrified shower cloud contributions to the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. The contributions to the global electric circuit from lightning producing clouds are estimated by taking the mean current per flash derived from the overflight data for land and ocean overflights and combining it with the global lightning rates (for land and ocean) and their diurnal variation derived from the LIS/OTD data. We estimate the contribution of non-lightning producing electrified clouds by assuming several different diurnal variations and total non-electrified storm counts to produce estimates of the total storm currents (lightning and non-lightning producing storms). The storm counts and diurnal variations are constrained so that the resultant total current diurnal variation equals the diurnal variation in the fair weather electric field (+/-15%). These assumptions, combined with the airborne and satellite data, suggest that the total mean current in the global electric circuit ranges from 2.0 to 2.7 kA, which is greater than estimates made by others using other methods.

  6. Effective Response of Nonlinear Composite under External AC and DC Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ye; LIANG Fang-Chu; SHEN Hong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method is used to study effective response of nonlinear Kerr composites, which are subject to the constitutive relation of electric displacement and electric field, Dα = εαE + xα|E|2E. Under the external AC and DC electric field Eapp = Eα(1 + sinwt), the effective nonlinear responses and local potentials are induced by the cubic nonlinearity of Kerr materials at all harmonics. As an example in three dimensions, we have investigated this kind of nonlinear composites with spherical inclusions embedded in a host. At all harmonic frequencies, the potentials in inclusion and host regions are derived. Furthermore, the formulae of the effective linear and nonlinear responses are given in the dilute limit.

  7. Numerical Electric Field Analysis of Power Status Sensor Observing Power Distribution System Taking into Account Voltage Divider Measurement Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Itoh, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Hisao; Wakuya, Hiroshi; Ohchi, Masashi

    We have proposed and preproducted the voltage-current waveform sensor of resin molded type for measuring the power factor and harmonics in power distribution systems. We have executed numerical electromagnetic analyses using the finite element method to estimate the characteristics and behaviours of the sensor. Although the magnetic field analyses for the current sensor have involved the measurement circuit, the electric field analyses have not included the measurement circuit for measuring voltage waveforms of power lines. In this paper, we describe the electric field analyses with the measurement circuit and prove the insulating strength of the proposed sensor permissible to the use in 22kV power distribution systems.

  8. An Equivalent Electrical Circuit Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Mathematical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh An Nguyen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC models proposed in the literature consist of mathematical equations. However, they are not adequately practical for simulating power systems. The proposed model takes into account phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization, double layer capacitance and mass transport effects present in a PEM fuel cell. Using electrical analogies and a mathematical modeling of PEMFC, the circuit model is established. To evaluate the effectiveness of the circuit model, its static and dynamic performances under load step changes are simulated and compared to the numerical results obtained by solving the mathematical model. Finally, the applicability of our model is demonstrated by simulating a practical system.

  9. Study of switching electric circuits with DC hybrid breaker, one stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, T.; Marcu, M.; Popescu, F. G.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a method of extinguishing the electric arc that occurs between the contacts of direct current breakers. The method consists of using an LC type extinguishing group to be optimally sized. From this point of view is presented a theoretical approach to the phenomena that occurs immediately after disconnecting the load and the specific diagrams are drawn. Using these, the elements extinguishing group we can choose. At the second part of the paper there is presented an analyses of the circuit switching process by decomposing the process in particular time sequences. For every time interval there was conceived a numerical simulation model in MATLAB-SIMULINK medium which integrates the characteristic differential equation and plots the capacitor voltage variation diagram and the circuit dumping current diagram.

  10. Novel passive element circuits for microdosimetry of nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merla, C; Denzi, A; Paffi, A; Casciola, M; d'Inzeo, G; Apollonio, F; Liberti, M

    2012-08-01

    Microdosimetric models for biological cells have assumed increasing significance in the development of nanosecond pulsed electric field technology for medical applications. In this paper, novel passive element circuits, able to take into account the dielectric dispersion of the cell, are provided. The circuital analyses are performed on a set of input pulses classified in accordance with the current literature. Accurate data in terms of transmembrane potential are obtained in both time and frequency domains for different cell models. In addition, a sensitivity study of the transfer function for the cell geometrical and dielectric parameters has been carried out. This analysis offers a new, simple, and efficient tool to characterize the nsPEFs' action at the cellular level.

  11. Fully integrated quantum photonic circuit with an electrically driven light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasminskaya, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Felix; Słowik, Karolina; Ferrari, Simone; Kahl, Oliver; Kovalyuk, Vadim; Rath, Patrik; Vetter, Andreas; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred M.; Gol'Tsman, G.; Korneev, A.; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Krupke, Ralph; Pernice, Wolfram H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Photonic quantum technologies allow quantum phenomena to be exploited in applications such as quantum cryptography, quantum simulation and quantum computation. A key requirement for practical devices is the scalable integration of single-photon sources, detectors and linear optical elements on a common platform. Nanophotonic circuits enable the realization of complex linear optical systems, while non-classical light can be measured with waveguide-integrated detectors. However, reproducible single-photon sources with high brightness and compatibility with photonic devices remain elusive for fully integrated systems. Here, we report the observation of antibunching in the light emitted from an electrically driven carbon nanotube embedded within a photonic quantum circuit. Non-classical light generated on chip is recorded under cryogenic conditions with waveguide-integrated superconducting single-photon detectors, without requiring optical filtering. Because exclusively scalable fabrication and deposition methods are used, our results establish carbon nanotubes as promising nanoscale single-photon emitters for hybrid quantum photonic devices.

  12. Nonlinear phenomena of generation of longitudinal electric current by transversal electromagnetic field in plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of nonlinear interaction of transversal electromagnetic field with collisionless plasma is carried out. Formulas for calculation electric current in collisionless plasma with arbitrary degree of degeneration of electronic gas are deduced. It has appeared, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This second current is orthogonal to the known transversal current, received at the classical linear analysis.

  13. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kyu Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. Methods: In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Results: Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. Conclusion: This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings.

  14. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bong Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings.

  15. Short-term solar wind modulation of the global electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engfer, Daniel William

    Five separate key day sets are used to determine correlations between two candidate solar wind mechanisms and changes in atmospheric parameters at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii and Colaba Observatory in India. We evaluate responses of these parameters to external modulation of the global electric circuit by the solar wind using the superposed epoch method of analysis. The results are interpreted in terms of a simplified global electric circuit model with two parallel return paths, one at low to middle geomagnetic latitudes and the other at middle to high geomagnetic latitudes. We find responses similar to those expected from external modulation, but of marginal statistical significance. The Mauna Loa set contains current density, potential gradient and positive and negative conductivity data for the 1976-1984 period, while the Colaba set contains potential gradient data through the 1936-1966 period. A data reduction technique is devised to increase the signal to noise ratio of our results by removing noisy data and periodic variations from these ground-based data sets. Throughout this process diurnal and annual variations of these parameters at both sites are evaluated and compared with available observations by other researchers. Using two separate key day sets and data from the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite for the August 1981 to February 1983 time period, we endeavor to determine correlations between changes in ionospheric horizontal potential gradients and solar wind related physical inputs using superposed epoch analysis. In this manner, responses to external inputs are revealed for potential gradients of various latitudinal extents 5md ranges of local time. The local time variation is evaluated and subtracted from all potential gradients to increase the signal to noise ratio of the results. We also consider the possible effects of solar wind-modulated ionospheric potential gradients on the global electric circuit.

  16. Highly stretchable electric circuits from a composite material of silver nanoparticles and elastomeric fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minwoo; Im, Jungkyun; Shin, Minkwan; Min, Yuho; Park, Jaeyoon; Cho, Heesook; Park, Soojin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Jeon, Sanghun; Chung, Dae-Young; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Kinam

    2012-12-01

    Conductive electrodes and electric circuits that can remain active and electrically stable under large mechanical deformations are highly desirable for applications such as flexible displays, field-effect transistors, energy-related devices, smart clothing and actuators. However, high conductivity and stretchability seem to be mutually exclusive parameters. The most promising solution to this problem has been to use one-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and metal nanowires coated on a stretchable fabric, metal stripes with a wavy geometry, composite elastomers embedding conductive fillers and interpenetrating networks of a liquid metal and rubber. At present, the conductivity values at large strains remain too low to satisfy requirements for practical applications. Moreover, the ability to make arbitrary patterns over large areas is also desirable. Here, we introduce a conductive composite mat of silver nanoparticles and rubber fibres that allows the formation of highly stretchable circuits through a fabrication process that is compatible with any substrate and scalable for large-area applications. A silver nanoparticle precursor is absorbed in electrospun poly (styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) (SBS) rubber fibres and then converted into silver nanoparticles directly in the fibre mat. Percolation of the silver nanoparticles inside the fibres leads to a high bulk conductivity, which is preserved at large deformations (σ ≈ 2,200 S cm(-1) at 100% strain for a 150-µm-thick mat). We design electric circuits directly on the electrospun fibre mat by nozzle printing, inkjet printing and spray printing of the precursor solution and fabricate a highly stretchable antenna, a strain sensor and a highly stretchable light-emitting diode as examples of applications.

  17. Highly stretchable electric circuits from a composite material of silver nanoparticles and elastomeric fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minwoo; Im, Jungkyun; Shin, Minkwan; Min, Yuho; Park, Jaeyoon; Cho, Heesook; Park, Soojin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Jeon, Sanghun; Chung, Dae-Young; Bae, Jihyun; Park, Jongjin; Jeong, Unyong; Kim, Kinam

    2012-12-01

    Conductive electrodes and electric circuits that can remain active and electrically stable under large mechanical deformations are highly desirable for applications such as flexible displays, field-effect transistors, energy-related devices, smart clothing and actuators. However, high conductivity and stretchability seem to be mutually exclusive parameters. The most promising solution to this problem has been to use one-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and metal nanowires coated on a stretchable fabric, metal stripes with a wavy geometry, composite elastomers embedding conductive fillers and interpenetrating networks of a liquid metal and rubber. At present, the conductivity values at large strains remain too low to satisfy requirements for practical applications. Moreover, the ability to make arbitrary patterns over large areas is also desirable. Here, we introduce a conductive composite mat of silver nanoparticles and rubber fibres that allows the formation of highly stretchable circuits through a fabrication process that is compatible with any substrate and scalable for large-area applications. A silver nanoparticle precursor is absorbed in electrospun poly (styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) (SBS) rubber fibres and then converted into silver nanoparticles directly in the fibre mat. Percolation of the silver nanoparticles inside the fibres leads to a high bulk conductivity, which is preserved at large deformations (σ ~ 2,200 S cm-1 at 100% strain for a 150-µm-thick mat). We design electric circuits directly on the electrospun fibre mat by nozzle printing, inkjet printing and spray printing of the precursor solution and fabricate a highly stretchable antenna, a strain sensor and a highly stretchable light-emitting diode as examples of applications.

  18. Design of Strain-Compensated Epitaxial Layers Using an Electrical Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2017-08-01

    The design of heterostructures that exhibit desired strain characteristics is critical for the realization of semiconductor devices with improved performance and reliability. The control of strain and dislocation dynamics requires an understanding of the relaxation processes associated with mismatched epitaxy, and the starting point for this analysis is the equilibrium strain profile, because the difference between the actual strain and the equilibrium value determines the driving force for dislocation glide and relaxation. Previously, we developed an electrical circuit model approach for the equilibrium analysis of semiconductor heterostructures, in which an epitaxial layer may be represented by a stack of subcircuits, each of which involves an independent current source, a resistor, an independent voltage source, and an ideal diode. In this work, we have applied the electrical circuit model to study the strain compensation mechanism and show that, for a given compositionally uniform device layer with fixed mismatch and layer thickness, a buffer layer may be designed (in terms of thickness and mismatch) to tailor the strain in the device layer. A special case is that in which the device layer will exhibit zero residual strain in equilibrium (complete strain compensation). In addition, the application of the electrical circuit analogy enables the determination of exact expressions for the residual strain characteristics of both the buffer and device layers in the general case where the device layer may exhibit partial strain compensation. On the basis of this framework, it is possible to develop design equations for the tailoring of the strain in a device layer grown on a uniform composition buffer.

  19. A test technique for measuring lightning-induced voltages on aircraft electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a test technique used for the measurement of lightning-induced voltages in the electrical circuits of a complete aircraft is described. The resultant technique utilizes a portable device known as a transient analyzer capable of generating unidirectional current impulses similar to lightning current surges, but at a lower current level. A linear relationship between the magnitude of lightning current and the magnitude of induced voltage permitted the scaling up of measured induced values to full threat levels. The test technique was found to be practical when used on a complete aircraft.

  20. Chip- and board-level optical interconnections using rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Lee, W-J; Lim, J W; Jung, K Y; Cha, K S; Rho, B S

    2008-05-26

    A new optical interconnection scheme based on a rigid flexible optical electrical printed circuit board (RFOE-PCB) is suggested. The easily installed RFOE-PCB can be universally applied for both chip- and board-level optical interconnections. This letter describes the detailed fabrication process, optical properties, and heat-resisting property of the RFOE-PCB. The fabricated RFOE-PCB was also successfully demonstrated with a 2.5-Gb/s data transmission through a 45 degrees-ended optical waveguide embedded in the RFOE-PCB.

  1. Homogeneous solutions for elliptically polarized light in a cavity containing materials with electric and magnetic nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, D A

    2015-01-01

    We study evolution equations and stationary homogeneous solutions for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with flat mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative refraction index material with third order Kerr-like electric nonlinearities and also magnetic nonlinearities, which can be relevant in metamaterials. We consider the degree of freedom of polarization in the incident beam. It is found that considering a magnetic nonlinearity increases the variety of possible qualitatively different solutions. A classification of solutions is proposed in terms of the number of bifurcations. The analysis can be useful for the implementation of optical switching or memory storage using ring cavities with non linear materials.

  2. Indications of nonlinear structures in brain electrical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautama, Temujin; Mandic, Danilo P.; van Hulle, Marc M.

    2003-04-01

    The dynamical properties of electroencephalogram (EEG) segments have recently been analyzed by Andrzejak and co-workers for different recording regions and for different brain states, using the nonlinear prediction error and an estimate of the correlation dimension. In this paper, we further investigate the nonlinear properties of the EEG signals using two established nonlinear analysis methods, and introduce a “delay vector variance” (DVV) method for better characterizing a time series. The proposed DVV method is shown to enable a comprehensive characterization of the time series, allowing for a much improved classification of signal modes. This way, the analysis of Andrzejak and co-workers can be extended toward classification of different brain states. The obtained results comply with those described by Andrzejak et al., and provide complementary indications of nonlinearity in the signals.

  3. Note: Printed circuit board based electrically triggered compact rail gap switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Kaushik, T C; Goswami, M P; Gupta, Satish C

    2010-05-01

    An electrically triggered rail gap switch has been designed over a commercially available copper clad fiberglass sheet commonly used in making printed circuit boards for applications requiring compact design and direct integration to parallel plate transmission lines. Switch performance has been investigated in terms of its inductance, jitter, and gap closing time. With an electrode separation of 9.0 mm, it has been found to have an inductance of 6 nH, gap closing time of 5 ns, and jitter of about 4-10 ns measured at 95% of self-breakdown voltage. An application of this switch has been demonstrated as an electrically exploding foil accelerator developed over the same board and velocities up to 1.6 km/s have been achieved on Kapton flyers with diameter of 3.0 mm and thickness of 125 microm using a compact 1 microF capacitor bank.

  4. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie

  5. Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2016-03-01

    Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells are studied theoretically. Both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification depend dramatically on the direction and the strength of the electric field. Numerical results show that both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification are always weakened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is along the growth direction of the quantum wells, which is in contrast to the conventional case. However, the second-harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened, but the nonlinear optical rectification is strengthened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is against the growth direction of the quantum wells. Also it is the blue (or red) shift of the resonance that is induced by increasing of the electric field when the direction of the electric field is along (or against) the growth direction of the quantum wells. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.

  6. Students' reasoning when tackling electric field and potential in explanation of dc resistive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leniz, Ane; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the causal reasoning that university students use to explain how dc circuits work. We analyze how students use the concepts of electric field and potential difference in their explanatory models of dc circuits, and what kinds of reasoning they use at the macroscopic and microscopic levels in their explanations. This knowledge is essential to help instructors design and implement new teaching approaches that encourage students to articulate the macroscopic and microscopic levels of description. A questionnaire with an emphasis on explanations was used to analyze students' reasoning. In this analysis of students' reasoning in the microscopic and macroscopic modeling processes in a dc circuit, we refer to epistemological studies of scientific explanations. We conclude that the student explanations fall into three main categories of reasoning. The vast majority of students employ an explanatory model based on simple or linear causality and on relational reasoning. Moreover, around a third of students use a relational reasoning that relates two magnitudes current and resistance or conductivity of the material, which is included in a macroscopic explanatory model based on Ohm's law and the conservation of the current. In addition, few students situate the explanations at the microscopic level (charges or electrons) with unidirectional cause-effect reasoning. This study looks at a number of aspects that have been little mentioned in previous research at the university level, about the reasoning types students use when establishing macro-micro relationships and some possible difficulties with complex reasoning.

  7. Simple voltage-controlled current source for wideband electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy: circuit dependences and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, F.; Macías, R.; Bragós, R.; Lindecrantz, K.

    2011-11-01

    In this work, the single Op-Amp with load-in-the-loop topology as a current source is revisited. This circuit topology was already used as a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) in the 1960s but was left unused when the requirements for higher frequency arose among the applications of electrical bioimpedance (EBI). The aim of the authors is not only limited to show that with the currently available electronic devices it is perfectly viable to use this simple VCCS topology as a working current source for wideband spectroscopy applications of EBI, but also to identify the limitations and the role of each of the circuit components in the most important parameter of a current for wideband applications: the output impedance. The study includes the eventual presence of a stray capacitance and also an original enhancement, driving with current the VCCS. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements, an accurate model of the output impedance is provided, explaining the role of the main constitutive elements of the circuit in the source's output impedance. Using the topologies presented in this work and the proposed model, any electronic designer can easily implement a simple and efficient current source for wideband EBI spectroscopy applications, e.g. in this study, values above 150 kΩ at 1 MHz have been obtained, which to the knowledge of the authors are the largest values experimentally measured and reported for a current source in EBI at this frequency.

  8. A computational model for epidural electrical stimulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Marco; Wenger, Nikolaus; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Musienko, Pavel; Beauparlant, Janine; Bassi Luciani, Lorenzo; Courtine, Grégoire; Micera, Silvestro

    2013-12-04

    Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of lumbosacral segments can restore a range of movements after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanisms and neural structures through which EES facilitates movement execution remain unclear. Here, we designed a computational model and performed in vivo experiments to investigate the type of fibers, neurons, and circuits recruited in response to EES. We first developed a realistic finite element computer model of rat lumbosacral segments to identify the currents generated by EES. To evaluate the impact of these currents on sensorimotor circuits, we coupled this model with an anatomically realistic axon-cable model of motoneurons, interneurons, and myelinated afferent fibers for antagonistic ankle muscles. Comparisons between computer simulations and experiments revealed the ability of the model to predict EES-evoked motor responses over multiple intensities and locations. Analysis of the recruited neural structures revealed the lack of direct influence of EES on motoneurons and interneurons. Simulations and pharmacological experiments demonstrated that EES engages spinal circuits trans-synaptically through the recruitment of myelinated afferent fibers. The model also predicted the capacity of spatially distinct EES to modulate side-specific limb movements and, to a lesser extent, extension versus flexion. These predictions were confirmed during standing and walking enabled by EES in spinal rats. These combined results provide a mechanistic framework for the design of spinal neuroprosthetic systems to improve standing and walking after neurological disorders.

  9. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Analog Circuits. Volume III. Fault Diagnosis in the Tableau Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    of the limited fault assumption is that of Biernacki and Bandler who developed an approach to multiple fault location for linear networks. Here the...and J. W. Bandler , "Multiple-Fault Location of Analog Circuits," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems, Vol. CAS-28, 361-367, May 1981. [5] R. A. DeCarlo

  10. Power Shaping : A New Paradigm for Stabilization of Nonlinear RLC Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, Romeo; Jeltsema, Dimitri; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we prove that for a class of RLC circuits with convex energy function and weak electromagnetic coupling it is possible to “add a differentiation” to the port terminals preserving passivity—with a new storage function that is directly related to the circuit power. The result is of inter

  11. Cavity equations for a positive- or negative-refraction-index material with electric and magnetic nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártin, Daniel A.; Hoyuelos, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    We study evolution equations for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with plane mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative-refraction-index material with third-order effective electric and magnetic nonlinearities. Two coupled nonlinear equations for the electric and magnetic amplitudes are obtained. We prove that the description can be reduced to one Lugiato-Lefever equation with generalized coefficients. A stability analysis of the homogeneous solution, complemented with numerical integration, shows that any combination of the parameters should correspond to one of three characteristic behaviors.

  12. The non-linear link between electricity consumption and temperature in Europe: A threshold panel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessec, Marie [CGEMP, Universite Paris-Dauphine, Place du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny Paris (France); Fouquau, Julien [LEO, Universite d' Orleans, Faculte de Droit, d' Economie et de Gestion, Rue de Blois, BP 6739, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between electricity demand and temperature in the European Union. We address this issue by means of a panel threshold regression model on 15 European countries over the last two decades. Our results confirm the non-linearity of the link between electricity consumption and temperature found in more limited geographical areas in previous studies. By distinguishing between North and South countries, we also find that this non-linear pattern is more pronounced in the warm countries. Finally, rolling regressions show that the sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature in summer has increased in the recent period. (author)

  13. A pulse-compression-ring circuit for high-efficiency electric propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Thomas L

    2008-03-01

    A highly efficient, highly reliable pulsed-power system has been developed for use in high power, repetitively pulsed inductive plasma thrusters. The pulsed inductive thruster ejects plasma propellant at a high velocity using a Lorentz force developed through inductive coupling to the plasma. Having greatly increased propellant-utilization efficiency compared to chemical rockets, this type of electric propulsion system may one day propel spacecraft on long-duration deep-space missions. High system reliability and electrical efficiency are extremely important for these extended missions. In the prototype pulsed-power system described here, exceptional reliability is achieved using a pulse-compression circuit driven by both active solid-state switching and passive magnetic switching. High efficiency is achieved using a novel ring architecture that recovers unused energy in a pulse-compression system with minimal circuit loss after each impulse. As an added benefit, voltage reversal is eliminated in the ring topology, resulting in long lifetimes for energy-storage capacitors. System tests were performed using an adjustable inductive load at a voltage level of 3.3 kV, a peak current of 20 kA, and a current switching rate of 15 kA/micros.

  14. An improved electrical and thermal model of a microbolometer for electronic circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würfel, D.; Vogt, H.

    2012-09-01

    The need for uncooled infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) for imaging systems has increased since the beginning of the nineties. Examples for the application of IRFPAs are thermography, pedestrian detection for automotives, fire fighting, and infrared spectroscopy. It is very important to have a correct electro-optical model for the simulation of the microbolometer during the development of the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) used for IRFPAs. The microbolometer as the sensing element absorbs infrared radiation which leads to a change of its temperature due to a very good thermal insulation. In conjunction with a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the sensing material (typical vanadium oxide or amorphous silicon) this temperature change results in a change of the electrical resistance. During readout, electrical power is dissipated in the microbolometer, which increases the temperature continuously. The standard model for the electro-optical simulation of a microbolometer includes the radiation emitted by an observed blackbody, radiation emitted by the substrate, radiation emitted by the microbolometer itself to the surrounding, a heat loss through the legs which connect the microbolometer electrically and mechanically to the substrate, and the electrical power dissipation during readout of the microbolometer (Wood, 1997). The improved model presented in this paper takes a closer look on additional radiation effects in a real IR camera system, for example the radiation emitted by the casing and the lens. The proposed model will consider that some parts of the radiation that is reflected from the casing and the substrate is also absorbed by the microbolometer. Finally, the proposed model will include that some fraction of the radiation is transmitted through the microbolometer at first and then absorbed after the reflection at the surface of the substrate. Compared to the standard model temperature and resistance of the microbolometer can be

  15. Three-dimensional Model Analysis of Electric Field Excited by Multi-circuit Intersecting Overhead Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dongping; LEI Hui; ZHANG Zhanlong; HE Wei

    2013-01-01

    This work is carried out to predict the special distribution of electric field induced by multi-circuit intersecting overhead high-voltage (HV) transmission lines (TLs) within a large range without any expensive and time-consuming computation.The two main parts of the presented methodology are 1) setting up a three-dimensional (3D) model to calculate the electric field based on combining catenary equations with charge simulation method and 2) calculating the hybrid electric field excited by multi-circuit intersecting TLs using coordinate transformation and superposition technique.Examples of different TLs configurations,including a 220 kV single-circuit horizontally configured TLs,a 500 kV single-circuit triangularly configured TLs and a combination of the 220 kV TLs and the 550 kV TLs,are illustrated to verify the validity of this methodology.A more complicatal configurations,including a 500 kV double-circuit TLs and two 220kV single-circuit horizontally configured TLs,are also calculated.Conclusions were drawn from the simulation:1) The presented 3D model outperforms 2D models in describing the electric field distribution generated by practical HV TLs with sag and span.2) Coordinate transformation and superposition technique considerably simplify the electric field computation for multi-circuit TLs configurations,which makes it possible to deal with complex engineering problems.3) The electric field in the area covered by multiple intersecting overhead TLs is distorted and the hybrid electric field strength in some partial region increases so sharply that it might exceed the admissible value.4) The configuration parameters of the TLs and the spatial configuration of multi-circuit TLs,for instance,the height of TLs,the length of span and the intersection angle of multiple circuits,influence the strength and the distribution of hybrid electric field.The influence regularities summarized in this paper can be referred by future TL designs to meet the electromagnetic

  16. The influence of circuit inductance on the energy characteristics of electric discharge and deformation of plates in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenkov, V. M.; Bychkov, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of discharge-circuit inductance on the efficiency of conversion of energy stored in a capacitor bank, evolved in the electric-discharge channel in water, and spent for the resulting plastic deformation of plates. It is established for the first time that a growth in inductance of the discharge circuit produces a positive effect on the deformation of plates by increasing the amount of energy spent in this process.

  17. Mechanisms of the global electric circuit and lightning variability on the ENSO time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareev, Evgeny; Volodin, Evgeny; Slyunyaev, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Many studies of lightning activity on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) time scale show increased activity over tropical land areas during the warm El Niño phase (e.g., Satori et al., 2009; Price, 2009). The mechanisms of this variability—particularly in terms of its role in the global electric circuit (GEC)—are still under debate (e.g., Williams and Mareev, 2014). In this study a general circulation model of the atmosphere and ocean INMCM4.0 (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Coupled Model) is used for modelling the GEC variability on the ENSO time scale. The ionospheric potential (IP) and the lightning flash rate are calculated to study regional peculiarities and possible mechanisms of lightning variation. The IP parameterisation is used (Mareev and Volodin, 2014) which takes into account quasi-stationary currents of electrified clouds (including thunderstorms) as principal contributors into the DC global circuit. The account of conductivity variation in the IP parameterisation is suggested based on the approach realised in (Slyunyaev et al., 2014). Comparison of simulation results with the observational data on lightning activity on the ENSO time scale is discussed. Numerical simulations suggest that the inter-annual IP variability is low and does not exceed 1% of the mean value, being tightly correlated with the mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean (180W-100W, 5S-5N—El Niño area). The IP maximum corresponds to the SST minimum. This result can be explained taking into account that during El Niño (positive temperature anomaly) precipitations in the equatorial part of the Pacific increase while in other tropic zones including the land areas they decrease. Comparison of simulation results with the observational data on lightning activity on the ENSO time scale is discussed. During the El Niño period in the model, the mean aerosol content in the atmosphere decrease, which is caused by the weakening of the winds over Sahara and

  18. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers-Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance, electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data, we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  19. Electrically controlled nonlinear optical generation and signal processing in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenshan

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials have offered not only the unprecedented opportunity to generate unconventional electromagnetic properties that are not found in nature, but also the exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with tailored high-order effects. Two particularly compelling directions of current interests are active metamaterials, where the optical properties can be purposely manipulated by external stimuli, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light. By exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically-controlled nonlinear processes from photonic metamaterials. We show that a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including the wave mixing and the optical rectification, can be purposely modulated by applied voltage signals. In addition, electrically-induced and voltage-controlled nonlinear effects facilitate us to demonstrate the backward phase matching in a negative index material, a long standing prediction in nonlinear metamaterials. Other results to be covered in this talk include photon-drag effect in plasmonic metamaterials and ion-assisted nonlinear effects from metamaterials in electrolytes. Our results reveal a grand opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electrooptic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities. Reference: L. Kang, Y. Cui, S. Lan, S. P. Rodrigues, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Communications, 5, 4680 (2014). S. P. Rodrigues and W.Cai, Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 387 (2015). S. Lan, L. Kang, D. T. Schoen, S. P. Rodrigues, Y. Cui, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Materials, 14, 807 (2015).

  20. Circuit modeling of the electrical impedance: part III. Disuse following bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, C A

    2013-05-01

    Multifrequency measurements of the electrical impedance of muscle have been extended to the study of disuse following bone fracture, and analyzed using the five-element circuit model used earlier in the study of the effects of disease. Eighteen subjects recovering from simple fractures on upper or lower limbs were examined (ten males, eight females, aged 18-66). Muscles on uninjured contralateral limbs were used as comparison standards, and results are presented in terms of the ratios p(injured)/p(uninjured), where p stands for the circuit parameter r1, r2, r3, 1/c1 or 1/c2. These are strikingly similar to the diseased-to-healthy ratios for patients with neuromuscular disease, reported in part I of this series. In particular, r1 is virtually unaffected and the ratios for r2, r3, 1/c1 and 1/c2 can be as large as in serious disease. Furthermore, the same pattern of relationships between the parameters is found, suggesting that there is a common underlying mechanism for the impedance changes. Atrophy and fibrosis are examined as candidates for that mechanism, but it is argued that their effects are too small to explain the observed changes. Fundamental considerations aside, the sensitivity, reproducibility and technical simplicity of the technique recommend its use for in-flight assessments of muscles during orbital or interplanetary missions.

  1. Quantifying Demyelination in NK venom treated nerve using its electric circuit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, H. K.; Das, D.; Doley, R.; Sahu, P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Reduction of myelin in peripheral nerve causes critical demyelinating diseases such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. Clinical monitoring of these diseases requires rapid and non-invasive quantification of demyelination. Here we have developed formulation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in terms of demyelination considering electric circuit model of a nerve having bundle of axons for its quantification from NCV measurements. This approach has been validated and demonstrated with toad nerve model treated with crude Naja kaouthia (NK) venom and also shows the effect of Phospholipase A2 and three finger neurotoxin from NK-venom on peripheral nerve. This opens future scope for non-invasive clinical measurement of demyelination.

  2. Comparison of Parametrization Techniques for an Electrical Circuit Model of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are an emerging energy storage technology, which draw interest due to its high theoretical specific capacity (approx. 1675 Ah/kg) and theoretical energy density of almost 2600 Wh/kg. In order to analyse their dynamic behaviour and to determine their suitability...... for various commercial applications, battery performance models are needed. The development of such models represents a challenging task especially for Li-S batteries because this technology during their operation undergo several different chemical reactions, known as polysulfide shuttle. This paper focuses...... on the comparison of different parametrization methods of electrical circuit models (ECMs) for Li-S batteries. These methods are used to parametrize an ECM based on laboratory measurements performed on a Li-S pouch cell. Simulation results of ECMs are presented and compared against measurement values...

  3. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc - Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E. J.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H. C.; Hardy, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Kelley, M. C.; Fleischman, J. R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from the Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment (PIIE), conducted from Sondrestrom, Greenland, on March 15, 1985, designed for an investigation of processes which lead to the generation of small-scale (less than 1 km) ionospheric irregularities within polar-cap F-layer auroras. An instrumented rocket was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to measure energetic electron flux, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a sun-aligned arc, coordinated with simultaneous measurements from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory. Results indicated the existence of two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability.

  4. New Breakdown Electric Field Calculation for SF6 High Voltage Circuit Breaker Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ph.ROBIN-JOUAN; M.YOUSFI

    2007-01-01

    The critical electric fields of hot SF6 are calculated including both electron and ion kinetics in wide ranges of temperature and pressure,namely from 300 K up to 4000 K and 2 atmospheres up to 32 atmospheres respectively.Based on solving a multi-term electron Boltzmann equation the calculations use improved electron-gas collision cross sections for twelve SF6 dissociation products with a particular emphasis on the electron-vibrating molecule interactions.The ion kinetics is also considered and its role on the critical field becomes non negligible as the temperature is above 2000 K.These critical fields are then used in hydrodynamics simulations which correctly predict the circuit breaker behaviours observed in the case of breaking tests.

  5. Memory Elements: A Paradigm Shift in Lagrangian Modeling of Electrical Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltsema, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    Meminductors and memcapacitors do not allow a Lagrangian formulation in the classical sense since these elements are nonconservative in nature and the associated energies are not state functions. To circumvent this problem, a different configuration space is considered that, instead of the usual loop charges, consist of time-integrated loop charges. As a result, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations provide a set of integrated Kirchhoff voltage laws in terms of the element fluxes. Memristive losses can be included via a second scalar function that has the dimension of action. A dual variational principle follows by considering variations of the integrated node fluxes and yields a set of integrated Kirchhoff current laws in terms of the element charges. Although time-integrated charge is a somewhat unusual quantity in circuit theory, it may be considered as the electrical analogue of a mechanical quantity called absement. Based on this analogy, simple mechanical devices are presented that can serve as did...

  6. Double negative elastic metamaterial design through electrical-mechanical circuit analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Simon A

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies into solid elastic metamaterials which have a simultaneously negative effective bulk modulus and density have proposed designs for materials with relatively narrow bandwidths, because of the reliance on resonators to provide the dispersive material properties. Some of the proposed novel applications for metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks and sub-wavelength lenses, generally require materials with inherently larger bandwidths for practical exploitation. In this paper, a well-known electromagnetic metamaterial design is used together with the electrical-mechanical circuit analogies to propose a simultaneously double negative elastic metamaterial design which does not suffer from the narrow bandwidth constraints of previous designs. An interesting consequence of the proposed design is that it has an effective wavelength which asymptotically goes to infinity with frequency.

  7. Electrical circuit models for performance modeling of Lithium-Sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage technologies such as Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are widely used in the present effort to move towards more ecological solutions in sectors like transportation or renewable-energy integration. However, today's Li-ion batteries are reaching their limits and not all demands...... of the industry are met yet. Therefore, researchers focus on alternative battery chemistries as Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S), which have a huge potential due to their high theoretical specific capacity (approx. 1675 Ah/kg) and theoretical energy density of almost 2600 Wh/kg. To analyze the suitability of this new...... emerging technology for various applications, there is a need for Li-S battery performance model; however, developing such models represents a challenging task due to batteries' complex ongoing chemical reactions. Therefore, the literature review was performed to summarize electrical circuit models (ECMs...

  8. Developing an Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  9. Nonlinear waves on the free surface of a dielectric liquid in an oblique electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M., E-mail: nick@iep.uran.ru; Kochurin, E. A., E-mail: kochurin@iep.uran.ru [Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrophysics (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of the free surface of an ideal dielectric liquid that is exposed to an external oblique electric field has been studied theoretically. In the framework of the Hamiltonian formalism, a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations has been derived that describes the dynamics of nonlinear waves in the small-angle approximation. It is established that for a liquid with high dielectric permittivity, these equations have a solution in the form of plane waves of arbitrary shape that propagate without distortion in the direction of the horizontal component of the external field.

  10. Nonlinear manipulation of tunable microwave amplification and attenuation in superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Chao; Zhang, Hai-Yang; He, Qing; Ge, Guo-Qin

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the controllable nonlinear microwave modulation in a cyclically driven three-level superconducting Josephson system. By designing two subtle matched conditions in the △-type atom-field configuration, a new physical mechanism - combined action of nonlinear wave mixing and wave interference - is developed and leads to not only amplification but also attenuation for two microwave signals. Our results show that such a nonlinear manipulation of the signal transition from enhancement to damping can be tuned in a large scope by controlling the relative phase and the driving-field frequency and thus the solid-state Josephson system can act as a phase- and frequency-controlled amplitude modulator. Our study opens up a fascinating perspective for its widespread applications in nonlinear optics and quantum information science.

  11. Using the Zero-Resistance Spark Circuit on the Wire Cut Electric Discharge Machine to Realize Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hsien Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing emphasis on the development green manufacturing technologies. To improve processing and energy efficiency of modern Wire Cut Electric Discharge Machines (WEDM, many studies have focused on the design of the device’s discharge circuit. Currently, most such circuits use a resistor to impose current-limitations. When current flows through this resistor, considerable electrical energy converted into heat. The generated heat increases the temperature in the discharge circuit, which negatively impacts processing and energy efficiency, even though the temperature rise could be controlled by arranging cooling devices around the discharge circuit. This study seeks to produce an improved discharge circuit for use in WEDMs. We use DC-DC and electronic voltage regulation technology to convert the energy originally dissipated in the resistor directly into the energy for use in machining. The Zero-Resistance Spark Circuit is the critical design to realize the energy saving effect. Experimental results indicate energy savings of 10 to 15%.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-08-04

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  13. Regulatory Analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 142: Leakage through electrical isolators in instrumentation circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rourk, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    Generic Issue (GI) 142 deals with staff concerns about the design of isolation devices used to ensure separation between Class 1E and non-Class 1E electrical control and instrumentation circuits. This issue was initiated in June 1987. Staff reviews of the implementation of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) requirement indicated that some isolation devices used to provide an interface between the non-Class 1E SPDS and the Class 1E safety systems would allow signal leakage if electrically challenged. It was unknown if the amount of leakage posed a hazard to safe operation of the Class 1E system. A review of failure records does not reveal any incidents of system damage caused by isolation device challenge. Furthermore, a review of existing PRA data indicates that the safety significance of ID challenge is low, at the expected challenge event frequency. However, based upon the potential design variations in future control systems resulting from application of computer technology, additional design and qualification test requirements for future plants are recommended.

  14. Highly conductive and ultrastretchable electric circuits from covered yarns and silver nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2015-04-28

    Stretchable electronics, as a promising research frontier, has achieved progress in a variety of sophisticated applications. The realization of stretchable electronics frequently involves the demand for a stretchable conductor as an electrical circuit. However, it still remains a challenge to fabricate high-performance (working strain exceeding 200%) stretchable conductors. Here, we present for the first time a facile, cost-effective, and scalable method for manufacturing ultrastretchable composite fibers with a "twining spring" configuration: cotton fibers twining spirally around a polyurethane fiber. The composite fiber possesses a high conductivity up to 4018 S/cm, which remains as high as 688 S/cm at 500% tensile strain. In addition, the conductivity of the composite fiber (initial conductivity of 4018 S/cm) remains perfectly stable after 1000 bending events and levels off at 183 S/cm after 1000 cyclic stretching events of 200% strain. Stretchable LED arrays are integrated efficiently utilizing the composite fibers as a stretchable electric wiring system, demonstrating the potential applications in large-area stretchable electronics. The biocompatibility of the composite fiber is verified, opening up its prospects in the field of implantable devices. Our fabrication strategy is also versatile for the preparation of other specially functionalized composite fibers with superb stretchability.

  15. Learning Electrical Circuits: The Effects of the 4C-ID Instructional Approach in the Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário; Miranda, Guilhermina Lobato

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional) on learners' knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two…

  16. Analogy for Drude’s free electron model to promote students’ understanding of electric circuits in lower secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José BM de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at a deep understanding of some basic concepts of electric circuits in lower secondary schools, this work introduces an analogy between the behavior of children playing in a school yard with a central lake, subject to different conditions, rules, and stimuli, and Drude’s free electron model of metals. Using this analogy from the first school contacts with electric phenomena, one can promote students’ understanding of concepts such as electric current, the role of generators, potential difference effects, energy transfer, open and closed circuits, resistances, and their combinations in series and parallel. One believes that through this analogy well-known previous misconceptions of young students about electric circuit behaviors can be overcome. Furthermore, students’ understanding will enable them to predict, and justify with self-constructed arguments, the behavior of different elementary circuits. The students’ predictions can be verified—as a challenge of self-produced understanding schemes—using laboratory experiments. At a preliminary stage, our previsions were confirmed through a pilot study with three classrooms of 9th level Portuguese students.

  17. To Compare the Effects of Computer Based Learning and the Laboratory Based Learning on Students' Achievement Regarding Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Bekir; Kanli, Uygar; Ingec, Sebnem Kandil

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the research problem was: "Is the computer based physics instruction as effective as laboratory intensive physics instruction with regards to academic success on electric circuits 9th grade students?" For this research of experimental quality the design of pre-test and post-test are applied with an experiment and a control…

  18. A Comparison of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits in Simulation Only and Simulation-Laboratory Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Tomi; Nurmi, Sami; Veermans, Koen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare learning outcomes of students using a simulation alone (simulation environment) with outcomes of those using a simulation in parallel with real circuits (combination environment) in the domain of electricity, and to explore how learning outcomes in these environments are mediated by implicit (only…

  19. Comparing and Combining Real and Virtual Experimentation: An Effort to Enhance Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Z. C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate value of combining Real Experimentation (RE) with Virtual Experimentation (VE) with respect to changes in students' conceptual understanding of electric circuits. To achieve this, a pre-post comparison study design was used that involved 88 undergraduate students. The participants were randomly assigned…

  20. A Case Study Analysing the Process of Analogy-Based Learning in a Teaching Unit about Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatz, Roland; Ryder, James; Schwedes, Hannelore; Scott, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to analyse the learning processes of a 16-year-old student as she learns about simple electric circuits in response to an analogy-based teaching sequence. Analogical thinking processes are modelled by a sequence of four steps according to Gentner's structure mapping theory (activate base domain, postulate local…

  1. Conceptions of Pupils of the Primary on the Topic of an Electric Circuit in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu; Trudel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research conducted with 237 pupils from Canada, France, and Morocco, between 10 and 12 years of age, on the setting and functioning of simple electric circuits, demonstrates that similar explanatory systems of the students. For this, we had given them a paper and pencil questionnaire of a sixty minutes duration. The first question was…

  2. Using a Conflict Map as an Instructional Tool To Change Student Conceptions in Simple Series Electric-Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of using a conflict map on 8th grade students' conceptual change and ideational networks about simple series electric circuits. Analyzes student interview data through a flow map method. Shows that the use of conflict maps could help students construct greater, richer, and more integrated ideational networks about electric…

  3. The Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Diagnostic Assessment: The Case of the Potential Difference in Parallel Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between accuracy of and confidence in performance of 114 prospective primary school teachers in answering diagnostic questions on potential difference in parallel electric circuits. The participants were required to indicate their confidence in their answers for each question. Bias and calibration indices were…

  4. Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Engineering College Students While Learning Electric Circuit Concepts with Enhanced Guided Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated engineering college students' self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies while learning electric circuit concepts using enhanced guided notes (EGN). Our goal was to describe how students exercise SRL strategies and how their grade performance changes after using EGN. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what…

  5. Analogy for Drude's Free Electron Model to Promote Students' Understanding of Electric Circuits in Lower Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria José B. M.; Salvador, Andreia; Costa, Maria Margarida R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at a deep understanding of some basic concepts of electric circuits in lower secondary schools, this work introduces an analogy between the behavior of children playing in a school yard with a central lake, subject to different conditions, rules, and stimuli, and Drude's free electron model of metals. Using this analogy from the first…

  6. The Effects on Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits of Introducing Virtual Manipulatives within a Physical Manipulatives-Oriented Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; de Jong, Ton

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether Virtual Manipulatives (VM) within a Physical Manipulatives (PM)-oriented curriculum affect conceptual understanding of electric circuits and related experimentation processes. A pre-post comparison study randomly assigned 194 undergraduates in an introductory physics course to one of five conditions: three…

  7. Some Nonlinear Reconstruction Algorithms for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J G

    2001-03-09

    An impedance camera [Henderson and Webster, 1978; Dines and Lytle, 1981]--or what is now more commonly called electrical impedance tomography--attempts to image the electrical impedance (or just the conductivity) distribution inside a body using electrical measurements on its boundary. The method has been used successfully in both biomedical [Brown, 1983; Barber and Brown, 1986; J. C. Newell, D. G. Gisser, and D. Isaacson, 1988; Webster, 1990] and geophysical applications [Wexler, Fry, and Neurnan, 1985; Daily, Lin, and Buscheck, 1987], but the analysis of optimal reconstruction algorithms is still progressing [Murai and Kagawa, 1985; Wexler, Fry, and Neurnan, 1985; Kohn and Vogelius, 1987; Yorkey and Webster, 1987; Yorkey, Webster, and Tompkins, 1987; Berryman and Kohn, 1990; Kohn and McKenney, 1990; Santosa and Vogelius, 1990; Yorkey, 1990]. The most common application is monitoring the influx or efflux of a highly conducting fluid (such as brine in a porous rock or blood in the human body) through the volume being imaged. For biomedical applications, this met hod does not have the resolution of radiological methods, but it is comparatively safe and inexpensive and therefore provides a valuable alternative when continuous monitoring of a patient or process is desired. The following discussion is intended first t o summarize the physics of electrical impedance tomography, then to provide a few details of the data analysis and forward modeling requirements, and finally to outline some of the reconstruction algorithms that have proven to be most useful in practice. Pointers to the literature are provided throughout this brief narrative and the reader is encouraged to explore the references for more complete discussions of the various issues raised here.

  8. Modulational Instability in a Pair of Non-identical Coupled Nonlinear Electrical Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Tala-Tebue; Aurelien Kenfack-Jiotsa; Marius Hervé Tatchou-Ntemfack; Timoléon Crépin Kofané

    2013-01-01

    In this work,we investigate the dynamics of modulated waves non-identical coupled nonlinear transmission lines.Traditional methods for avoiding mode mixing in identical coupled nonlinear electrical lines consist of adding the same number of linear inductors in each branch.Adding linear inductors in a single line leads to asymmetric coupled nonlinear electrical transmission lines which propagate the signal and the mode mixing.On one hand,the difference between the two lines induced the fission for only one mode of propagation.This fission is influenced by the amplitude of the signal and the amount of the input energy as well; it also narrows the width of the input pulse soliton,leading to a possible increasing of the bit rate.On the other hand,the dissymmetry of the two lines converts the network into a good amplifier for the w_ mode which corresponds to the regime admitting low frequencies.

  9. Verification and Analysis of Implementing Virtual Electric Devices in Circuit Simulation of Pulsed DC Electrical Devices in the NI MULTISIM 10.1 Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solov'ev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis results of the implementation potential and evaluation of the virtual electric devices reliability when conducting circuit simulation of pulsed DC electrical devices in the NI Multisim 10.1environment. It analyses metrological properties of electric measuring devices and sensors of the NI Multisim 10.1environment. To calculate the reliable parameters of periodic non-sinusoidal electrical values based on their physical feasibility the mathematical expressions have been defined.To verify the virtual electric devices a circuit model of the power section of buck DC converter with enabled devices under consideration at its input and output is used as a consumer of pulse current of trapezoidal or triangular form. It is used as an example to show a technique to verify readings of virtual electric measuring devices in the NI Multisim 10.1environment.It is found that when simulating the pulsed DC electric devices to measure average and RMS voltage supply and current consumption values it is advisable to use the probe. Electric device power consumption read from the virtual power meter is equal to its average value, and its displayed power factor is inversely proportional to the input current form factor. To determine the RMS pulsed DC current by ammeter and multi-meter it is necessary to measure current by these devices in DC and AC modes, and then determine the RMS value of measurement results.Virtual electric devices verification has proved the possibility of their application to determine the energy performance of transistor converters for various purposes in the circuit simulation in the NI 10.1 Multisim environment, thus saving time of their designing.

  10. The characteristic electric impedance of the circuits and its influences in the transient currents; A impedancia caracteristica dos circuitos e sua influencia nas correntes transitorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kascher, Ronaldo [Tesla Projetos e Consultoria Ltda. (Brazil)

    1997-05-01

    Usually not considered in the calculation of the maximum bearable current or even in the voltage drop throughout the electric circuits, the characteristic electric impedance assumes considerable relevance, especially concerning long distance electric power transmission lines. When dimensioning the protection devices, the consideration of the characteristic electric impedance may drastically reduce the necessary investments. 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Electric circuit model for MgO-doped ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M. K.; Bhatnagar, M. C.; Sharma, G. L.

    1998-12-01

    The MgO-doped ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic pellets were studied for its humidity-sensitive electrical conduction. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to define the humidity-sensitive electrical properties. This model is in agreement with the experimental findings. The electrical conduction is largely controlled by the intergranular impedance except at very high humidities. The impedance of the pellets showed inductive behavior in high-humidity region. This behavior can be attributed to the spherical paths adopted by charge carrier because conduction is mainly through the spherical grain surface.

  12. Adaptive backstepping control, synchronization and circuit simulation of a 3-D novel jerk chaotic system with two hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a six-term 3-D novel jerk chaotic system with two hyperbolic sinusoidal nonlinearities has been proposed, and its qualitative properties have been detailed. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel jerk system are obtained as L1 = 0.07765,L2 = 0, and L3 = −0.87912. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel jerk system is obtained as DKY = 2.08833. Next, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to stabilize the novel jerk chaotic system with two unknown parameters. Moreover, an adaptive backstepping controller is designed to achieve complete chaos synchronization of the identical novel jerk chaotic systems with two unknown parameters. Finally, an electronic circuit realization of the novel jerk chaotic system using Spice is presented in detail to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model

  13. An Eight-Term Novel Four-Scroll Chaotic System with Cubic Nonlinearity and its Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sampath

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work proposes an eight-term novel four-scroll chaotic system with cubic nonlinearity and analyses its fundamental properties such as dissipativity, equilibria, symmetry and invariance, Lyapunov exponents and KaplanYorke dimension. The phase portraits of the novel chaotic system, which are obtained in this work by using MATLAB, depict the four-scroll attractor of the system. For the parameter values and initial conditions chosen in this work, the Lyapunov exponents of the novel four-scroll chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.75335, L2 = 0 and L3 = −22.43304. Also, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel four-scroll chaotic system is obtained as DKY = 2.0336. Finally, an electronic circuit realization of the novel four-scroll chaotic system is presented by using SPICE to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model.

  14. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth. Evidence from Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Lang, Yang; Chang, Chih-Heng [Department of Managerial Economics, Nanhua University, Chiayi 62102 (China); Lin, Hung-Pin [Department of International Business and Trade, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 82445 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (1) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (2) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (1) and (2), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth. (author)

  15. Linear and nonlinear causality between sectoral electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng-Lang [Department of Managerial Economics, Nanhua University, Chiayi 62102, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hung-Pin, E-mail: lhp0606@stu.edu.t [Department of International Business and Trade, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Heng [Department of Managerial Economics, Nanhua University, Chiayi 62102, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigates the linear and nonlinear causality between the total electricity consumption (TEC) and real gross domestic production (RGDP). Unlike previous literature, we solve the undetermined relation between RGDP and electricity consumption by classifying TEC into industrial sector consumption (ISC) and residential sector consumption (RSC) as well as investigating how TEC, ISC, and RSC influence Taiwan's RGDP. By using the Granger's linear causality test, it is shown that (i) there is a bidirectional causality among TEC, ISC, and RGDP, but a neutrality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the linear causality and (ii) there is still a bidirectional causality between TEC and RGDP, but a unidirectional causality between RSC and RGDP with regard to the nonlinear causality. On the basis of (i) and (ii), we suggest that the electricity policy formulators loosen the restriction on ISC and limit RSC in order to achieve the goal of economic growth.

  16. A Practical Circuit-based Model for State of Health Estimation of Li-ion Battery Cells in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Long

    2011-08-23

    In this thesis the development of the state of health of Li-ion battery cells under possible real-life operating conditions in electric cars has been characterised. Furthermore, a practical circuit-based model for Li-ion cells has been developed that is capable of modelling the cell voltage behaviour under various operating conditions. The Li-ion cell model can be implemented in simulation programs and be directly connected to a model of the rest of the electronic system in electric vehicles. Most existing battery models are impractical for electric vehicle system designers and require extensive background knowledge of electrochemistry to be implemented. Furthermore, many models do not take the effect of regenerative braking into account and are obtained from testing fully charged cells. However, in real-life applications electric vehicles are not always fully charged and utilise regenerative braking to save energy. To obtain a practical circuit model based on real operating conditions and to model the state of health of electric vehicle cells, numerous 18650 size LiFePO4 cells have been tested under possible operating conditions. Capacity fading was chosen as the state of health parameter, and the capacity fading of different cells was compared with the charge processed instead of cycles. Tests have shown that the capacity fading rate is dependent on temperature, charging C-rate, state of charge and depth of discharge. The obtained circuit model is capable of simulating the voltage behaviour under various temperatures and C-rates with a maximum error of 14mV. However, modelling the effect of different temperatures and C-rates increases the complexity of the model. The model is easily adjustable and the choice is given to the electric vehicle system designer to decide which operating conditions to take into account. By combining the test results for the capacity fading and the proposed circuit model, recommendations to optimise the battery lifetime are proposed.

  17. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  18. Dynamic spike threshold and nonlinear dendritic computation for coincidence detection in neuromorphic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Parker, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    We present an electronic cortical neuron incorporating dynamic spike threshold and active dendritic properties. The circuit is simulated using a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor SPICE model. We demonstrate that our neuron has lower spike threshold for coincident synaptic inputs; however when the synaptic inputs are not in synchrony, it requires larger depolarization to evoke the neuron to fire. We also demonstrate that a dendritic spike is key to precisely-timed input-output transformation, produces reliable firing and results in more resilience to input jitter within an individual neuron.

  19. Lyapunov based nonlinear control of electrical and mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behal, Aman

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes the design and implementation of various control strategies centered around the following applications: (i) an improved indirect field oriented controller for the induction motor, (ii) partial state feedback control of an induction motor with saturation effects, (iii) tracking control of an underactuated surface vessel, and (iv) an attitude tracking controller for an underactuated spacecraft. The theory found in each of these sections is demonstrated through simulation or experimental results. An introduction to each of these four primary chapters can be found in chapter one. In the second chapter, the previously published tracking control of [16] 1 is presented in the indirect field oriented control (IFOC) notation to achieve exponential rotor velocity/rotor flux tracking. Specifically, it is illustrated how the proposed IFOC controller can be rewritten in the manner of [16] to allow for a direct Lyapunov stability proof. Experimental results (implemented with the IFOC algorithm) are provided to corroborate the efficacy of the algorithm. In the third chapter, a singularity-free, rotor position tracking controller is presented for the full order, nonlinear dynamic model of the induction motor that includes the effects of magnetic saturation. Specifically, by utilizing the pi-equivalent saturation model, an observer/controller strategy is designed that achieves semi-global exponential rotor position tracking and only requires stator current, rotor velocity, and rotor position measurements. Simulation and experimental results are included to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. In the fourth chapter, a continuous, time-varying tracking controller is designed that globally exponentially forces the position/orientation tracking error of an under-actuated surface vessel to a neighborhood about zero that can be made arbitrarily small (i.e., global uniformly ultimately boundedness (GUUB)). The result is facilitated by

  20. Wideband vibrational electromagnetic energy harvesters with nonlinear polyimide springs based on rigid-flex printed circuit boards technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi; Hong, Hao-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Hung

    2016-12-01

    A wideband vibrational electromagnetic energy harvester employing nonlinear spring effects is proposed and demonstrated. The harvesters were designed and fabricated by commercial rigid-flex printed circuit boards technology. Rigid FR-4 boards were used for mechanical support and coil winding, whereas flexible polyimide films were patterned for mechanical springs and mass platforms. Two sets of coils were patterned and fabricated in the harvester with an internal coil resistance of about 16 Ω each. Two rare-earth magnets were attached to the central platform as shuttle mass. The total dimension of the harvester was 20 × 20 × 4 mm3. In vibration tests, nonlinearity could be observed even at 0.1 grms vibration level due to the spring hardening effect. The frequency for peak induced voltage increased from 187 Hz at low vibration to 382 Hz at 5 grms vibration. The effective half-power bandwidth increased from 8 Hz at 0.1 grms to 32 Hz at 1 grms and 52 Hz at 5 grms due to the hysteresis in frequency response. For a matched load and 1 grms vibration at 250 Hz, the maximum output power was 160 nW, corresponding to a power density of 100 nW cm-3.

  1. A heuristic nonlinear constructive method for electric power distribution system reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Thomas E.

    1998-12-01

    The electric power distribution system usually operates in a radial configuration, with tie switches between circuits to provide alternate feeds. The losses would be minimized if all switches were closed, but this is not done because it complicates the system's protection against overcurrents. Whenever a component fails, some of the switches must be operated to restore power to as many customers as possible. As loads vary with time, switch operations may reduce losses in the system. Both of these are applications for reconfiguration. The problem is combinatorial, which precludes algorithms that guarantee a global optimum. Most existing reconfiguration algorithms fall into two categories. In the first, branch exchange, the system operates in a feasible radial configuration and the algorithm opens and closes candidate switches in pairs. In the second, loop cutting, the system is completely meshed and the algorithm opens candidate switches to reach a feasible radial configuration. Reconfiguration algorithms based on linearized transshipment, neural networks, heuristics, genetic algorithms, and simulated annealing have also been reported, but not widely used. These existing reconfiguration algorithms work with a simplified model of the power system, and they handle voltage and current constraints approximately, if at all. The algorithm described here is a constructive method, using a full nonlinear power system model that accurately handles constraints. The system starts with all switches open and all failed components isolated. An optional network power flow provides a lower bound on the losses. Then the algorithm closes one switch at a time to minimize the increase in a merit figure, which is the real loss divided by the apparent load served. The merit figure increases with each switch closing. This principle, called discrete ascent optimal programming (DAOP), has been applied to other power system problems, including economic dispatch and phase balancing. For

  2. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  3. Investigating the role of socially mediated metacognition during collaborative troubleshooting of electric circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. Van De Bogart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing students’ ability to troubleshoot is an important learning outcome for many undergraduate physics lab courses, especially electronics courses. In other work, metacognition has been identified as an important feature of troubleshooting. However, that work has focused primarily on individual students’ metacognitive processes or troubleshooting abilities. In contrast, electronics courses often require students to work in pairs, and hence students’ in-class experiences likely have significant social dimensions that are not well understood. In this work, we use an existing framework for socially mediated metacognition to analyze audiovisual data from think-aloud activities in which eight pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning electric circuit. In doing so, we provide insight into some of the social metacognitive dynamics that arise during collaborative troubleshooting. We find that students engaged in socially mediated metacognition at multiple key transitions during the troubleshooting process. Reciprocated metacognitive dialogue arose when students were collectively strategizing about which measurements to perform, or reaching a shared understanding of the circuit’s behavior. Our research demonstrates the value of the framework of socially mediated metacognition in providing insight into the nature of collaborative student troubleshooting in the context of electronics. As such, this framework may be a useful resource for future efforts to examine and support the development of student troubleshooting skills in other upper-division laboratory courses.

  4. Simulation of the Universal-Time Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Charging Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackerras, D.; Darvenzia, M.; Orville, R. E.; Williams, E. R.; Goodman, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A global lightning model that includes diurnal and annual lightning variation, and total flash density versus latitude for each major land and ocean, has been used as the basis for simulating the global electric circuit charging rate. A particular objective has been to reconcile the difference in amplitude ratios [AR=(max-min)/mean] between global lightning diurnal variation (AR approx. = 0.8) and the diurnal variation of typical atmospheric potential gradient curves (AR approx. = 0.35). A constraint on the simulation is that the annual mean charging current should be about 1000 A. The global lightning model shows that negative ground flashes can contribute, at most, about 10-15% of the required current. For the purpose of the charging rate simulation, it was assumed that each ground flash contributes 5 C to the charging process. It was necessary to assume that all electrified clouds contribute to charging by means other than lightning, that the total flash rate can serve as an indirect indicator of the rate of charge transfer, and that oceanic electrified clouds contribute to charging even though they are relatively inefficient in producing lightning. It was also found necessary to add a diurnally invariant charging current component. By trial and error it was found that charging rate diurnal variation curves in Universal time (UT) could be produced with amplitude ratios and general shapes similar to those of the potential gradient diurnal variation curves measured over ocean and arctic regions during voyages of the Carnegie Institute research vessels.

  5. Incorporating single molecules into electrical circuits. The role of the chemical anchoring group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Edmund; La Rosa, Andrea; González, M Teresa; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Martín, Nazario

    2015-02-21

    Constructing electronic circuits containing singly wired molecules is at the frontier of electrical device miniaturisation. When a molecule is wired between a pair of electrodes, the two points of contact are determined by the chemical anchoring groups, located at the ends of the molecule. At this point, when a bias is applied, electrons are channelled from a metallic environment through an extremely narrow constriction, essentially a single atom, into the molecule. The fact that this is such an abrupt change in the electron pathway makes the nature of the chemical anchoring groups critically important regarding the propagation of electrons from the electrode across the molecule. A delicate interplay of phenomena can occur when a molecule binds to the electrodes, which can produce profound differences in conductance properties depending on the anchoring group. This makes answering the question "what is the best anchoring group for single molecule studies" far from straight forward. In this review, we firstly take a look at techniques developed to 'wire-up' single molecules, as understanding their limitations is key when assessing a molecular wire's performance. We then analyse the various chemical anchoring groups, and discuss their merits and disadvantages. Finally we discuss some theoretical concepts of molecular junctions to understand how transport is affected by the nature of the chemical anchor group.

  6. An ICPSO-RBFNN nonlinear inversion for electrical resistivity imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江沸菠; 戴前伟; 董莉

    2016-01-01

    To improve the global search ability and imaging quality of electrical resistivity imaging(ERI) inversion, a two-stage learning ICPSO algorithm of radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) based on information criterion (IC) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. In the proposed method, IC is applied to obtain the hidden layer structure by calculating the optimal IC value automatically and PSO algorithm is used to optimize the centers and widths of the radial basis functions in the hidden layer. Meanwhile, impacts of different information criteria to the inversion results are compared, and an implementation of the proposed ICPSO algorithm is given. The optimized neural network has one hidden layer with 261 nodes selected by AKAIKE’s information criterion (AIC) and it is trained on 32 data sets and tested on another 8 synthetic data sets. Two complex synthetic examples are used to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method with two learning stages. The results show that the proposed method has better performance and higher imaging quality than three-layer and four-layer back propagation neural networks (BPNNs) and traditional least square(LS) inversion.

  7. Magnetic circuit of a contactless torque sensor for electric power steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Ekkehart; Jerems, Frank

    Modern passenger cars are increasingly equipped with electromechanical steering assist rather than hydraulic systems known for many decades. Major benefits are reduced fuel consumption (up to 0.2l/100 km) and increased functionality. As such a system reacts to the drivers input in terms of steering torque or steering effort, a sensor is required that accurately measures the steering torque. Valeo has adopted a magnetic technology and has improved the performance by adding specially designed flux concentration devices. The magnetic circuit consists of a multi-pole ring magnet and a pair of ring-shaped soft magnetic parts rotating together with the steering shaft and an additional pair of soft magnetic flux concentration devices which are fixed stationary inside the housing. The steering torque causes a relative twist between magnet and the soft magnetic rings, therefore implementing a proportional magnetisation of the latter. A U-shape was chosen for the flux concentration devices in order to compensate mechanical tolerances of the system. The main focus of this paper will be on the tolerance behaviour of the sensor system and the impact of the flux concentration devices. Because of the nonlinear nature of the magnetisation curve of the NiFe alloy used extensive 3D FEM simulation was necessary. Simulation enables us to have a look inside the soft magnetic material and predict the spatial magnetisation distribution with the benefit of avoiding saturation. The result is an optimised sensor, which meets both the harsh environmental conditions inside the motor compartment as well as the cost pressure in the automotive business.

  8. Second order optical nonlinearity of graphene due to electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J. L.; Vermeulen, N.; Sipe, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllability of these effects by tuning the chemical potential, taking advantage of the dominant role played by interband optical transitions in the response. PMID:28262762

  9. Consistency and advantage of loop regularization method merging with Bjorken-Drell's analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2012-07-01

    The consistency of loop regularization (LORE) method is explored in multiloop calculations. A key concept of the LORE method is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) which are evaluated from the Feynman diagrams by adopting the Feynman parametrization and ultraviolet-divergence-preserving (UVDP) parametrization. It is then inevitable for the ILIs to encounter the divergences in the UVDP parameter space due to the generic overlapping divergences in the four-dimensional momentum space. By computing the so-called αβγ integrals arising from two-loop Feynman diagrams, we show how to deal with the divergences in the parameter space with the LORE method. By identifying the divergences in the UVDP parameter space to those in the subdiagrams, we arrive at the Bjorken-Drell analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits. The UVDP parameters are shown to correspond to the conductance or resistance in the electrical circuits, and the divergence in Feynman diagrams is ascribed to the infinite conductance or zero resistance. In particular, the sets of conditions required to eliminate the overlapping momentum integrals for obtaining the ILIs are found to be associated with the conservations of electric voltages, and the momentum conservations correspond to the conservations of electrical currents, which are known as the Kirchhoff laws in the electrical circuits analogy. As a practical application, we carry out a detailed calculation for one-loop and two-loop Feynman diagrams in the massive scalar ϕ 4 theory, which enables us to obtain the well-known logarithmic running of the coupling constant and the consistent power-law running of the scalar mass at two-loop level. Especially, we present an explicit demonstration on the general procedure of applying the LORE method to the multiloop calculations of Feynman diagrams when merging with the advantage of Bjorken-Drell's circuit analogy.

  10. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  11. ELECTRICALLY FORCED THICKNESS-SHEAR VIBRATIONS OF QUARTZ PLATE WITH NONLINEAR COUPLING TO EXTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongxing Wu; Jiashi Yang; Jianke Du; Ji Wang

    2008-01-01

    We study electrically forced nonlinear thickness-shear vibrations of a quartz plate resonator with relatively large amplitude. It is shown that thickness-shear is nonlinearly coupled to extension due to the well-known Poynting effect in nonlinear elasticity. This coupling is relatively strong when the resonant frequency of the extensional mode is about twice the resonant frequency of the thickness-shear mode. This happens when the plate length/thickness ratio assumes certain values. With this nonlinear coupling, the thickness-shear motion is no longer sinusoidal. Coupling to extension also affects energy trapping which is related to device mounting. When damping is 0.01, nonlinear coupling causes a frequency shift of the order of 10-e which is not insignificant,and an amplitude change of the order of 10-8. The effects are expected to be stronger under real damping of 10-5 or larger. To avoid nonlinear coupling to extension, certain values of the aspect ratio of the plate should be avoided.

  12. Nonlinear magneto-electric response of a giant magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Wen Gao; Juan-Juan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we investigate the nonlinear coupling magneto-electric (ME) effect of a giant magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite cylinder.The nonlinear constitutive relations of the ME material are taken into account,and the influences of the nonlinear material properties on the ME effect are investigated for the static and dynamic cases,respectively.The influences of different constraint conditions on the ME effect are discussed.In the dynamic case considering nonlinear material properties,the double frequency ME response (The response frequency is twice the applied magnetic frequency) is obtained and discussed,which can be used to explain the experiment phenomenon in which the input signal with frequency f is converted to the output signal with 2f in ME laminated structures.Some calculations on nonlinear ME effect are conducted.The obtained results indicate that the nonlinear material properties affect not only the magnitude of the ME effect in the static case but also the ME response frequency in the dynamic case.

  13. Electrically actuated MEMS resonators: Effects of fringing field and nonlinear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies the nonlinear electromechanical response of a MEMS resonator numerically. A nonlinear continuous multi-physics model of the MEMS resonator is developed taking into account the effects of fringing field, size, residual axial load, and viscoelasticity. Moreover, both longitudinal and transverse motions are accounted for in the system modelling and simulations. The equations of motion of the MEMS resonator are obtained employing Hamilton's principle together with the modified version of the couple stress based theory (to account for size effects) and the Kelvin-Voigt model (to account for nonlinear energy dissipation). The Meijs-Fokkema electrostatic load formula is used to reliably model the fringing field effects. The continuous multi-physics model, consisting of geometrical, electrical, and viscos nonlinearities is discretised via a weighted-residual method, yielding a set of nonlinearly coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The resultant set of ODEs is solved numerically when the microresonator is actuated by a biased DC voltage and an AC voltage. The results of the numerical simulations are presented in the form of DC voltage-deflection, DC voltage-natural frequency, and AC frequency-displacement diagrams. The effects of fringing field, residual axial load, small-scale, and nonlinear energy dissipation are highlighted. It is shown that fringing field effects are significant on both static and dynamic electromechanical responses of the MEMS resonator.

  14. Alternating current multi-circuit electric machines a new approach to the steady-state parameter determination

    CERN Document Server

    Asanbayev, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This book details an approach for realization of the field decomposition concept. The book presents the  methods as well as techniques and procedures for establishing electric machine circuit-loops and determining their parameters. The methods developed have been realized using the models of machines with laminated and solid rotor having classical structure. The use of such models are well recognized and simplifies practical implementation of the obtained results. This book also: ·         Includes methods for a construction of electric machine equivalent circuits that allows the replacement of the field models of the machine with simple circuit models ·         Demonstrates the practical implementation of the proposed techniques and procedures ·         Presents parameters of the circuit-loops in the form most convenient for practical implementation ·         Uses methods based on machine models widely used in practice

  15. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  16. Consistency and Advantage of Loop Regularization Method Merging with Bjorken-Drell's Analogy Between Feynman Diagrams and Electrical Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Da

    2011-01-01

    The consistency of loop regularization (LORE) method is explored in multiloop calculations. A key concept of the LORE method is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) which are evaluated from the Feynman diagrams by adopting the Feynman parametrization and ultraviolet-divergence-preserving(UVDP) parametrization. It is then inevitable for the ILIs to encounter the divergences in the UVDP-parameter space due to the generic overlapping divergences in the 4-dimensional momentum space. By computing the so-called $\\alpha\\beta\\gamma$ integrals arising from two loop Feynman diagrams, we show how to deal with the divergences in the parameter space by applying for the LORE method. By identifying the divergences in the UVDP-parameter space to those in the subdiagrams of two loop diagrams, we arrive at the Bjorken-Drell's analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits, where the UVDP parameters are associated with the conductance or resistance in the electrical circuits. In particular, the sets o...

  17. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  18. A LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) for biological tissue impedance analysis and equivalent circuit modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Tushar Kanti

    2016-12-05

    Under an alternating electrical signal, biological tissues produce a complex electrical bioimpedance that is a function of tissue composition and applied signal frequencies. By studying the bioimpedance spectra of biological tissues over a wide range of frequencies, we can noninvasively probe the physiological properties of these tissues to detect possible pathological conditions. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can provide the spectra that are needed to calculate impedance parameters within a wide range of frequencies. Before impedance parameters can be calculated and tissue information extracted, impedance spectra should be processed and analyzed by a dedicated software program. National Instruments (NI) Inc. offers LabVIEW, a fast, portable, robust, user-friendly platform for designing dataanalyzing software. We developed a LabVIEW-based electrical bioimpedance spectroscopic data interpreter (LEBISDI) to analyze the electrical impedance spectra for tissue characterization in medical, biomedical and biological applications. Here, we test, calibrate and evaluate the performance of LEBISDI on the impedance data obtained from simulation studies as well as the practical EIS experimentations conducted on electronic circuit element combinations and the biological tissue samples. We analyze the Nyquist plots obtained from the EIS measurements and compare the equivalent circuit parameters calculated by LEBISDI with the corresponding original circuit parameters to assess the accuracy of the program developed. Calibration studies show that LEBISDI not only interpreted the simulated and circuitelement data accurately, but also successfully interpreted tissues impedance data and estimated the capacitive and resistive components produced by the compositions biological cells. Finally, LEBISDI efficiently calculated and analyzed variation in bioimpedance parameters of different tissue compositions, health and temperatures. LEBISDI can also be used for human tissue

  19. Spin–orbit interaction effect on nonlinear optical rectification of quantum wire in the presence of electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lahon, Siddhartha, E-mail: sid.lahon@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jha, Pradip Kumar [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, DDU College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gumber, Sukirti; Mohan, Man [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-04-01

    Here we have investigated the influence of external electric field and magnetic field on the nonlinear optical rectification of a parabolic confinement wire in the presence of Rashba spin–orbit interaction. We have used density matrix formulation for obtaining optical properties within the effective mass approximation. The results are presented as a function of quantum wire radius, electric field, magnetic field, Rashba spin–orbit interaction strength and photon energy. Our results indicate an increase of electric field gives the red-shift of the peak positions of nonlinear optical rectification. The role of confinement strength and spin–orbit interaction strength as control parameters on this nonlinear property have been demonstrated.

  20. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  1. Analytical Solutions of the Electrical RLC Circuit via Liouville–Caputo Operators with Local and Non-Local Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Gómez-Aguilar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we obtain analytical solutions for the electrical RLC circuit model defined with Liouville–Caputo, Caputo–Fabrizio and the new fractional derivative based in the Mittag-Leffler function. Numerical simulations of alternative models are presented for evaluating the effectiveness of these representations. Different source terms are considered in the fractional differential equations. The classical behaviors are recovered when the fractional order α is equal to 1.

  2. A Coupled Dynamical Model of Redox Flow Battery Based on Chemical Reaction, Fluid Flow, and Electrical Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minghua; Hikihara, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The redox (Reduction-Oxidation) flow battery is one of the most promising rechargeable batteries due to its ability to average loads and output of power sources. The transient characteristics are well known as the remarkable feature of the battery. Then it can also compensate for a sudden voltage drop. The dynamics are governed by the chemical reactions, fluid flow, and electrical circuit of its structure. This causes the difficulty of the analysis at transient state. This paper discusses the...

  3. Ubiquity of chaotic magnetic-field lines generated by three-dimensionally crossed wires in modern electric circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, M; Miyaguchi, T; Imagawa, K; Nakamura, K

    2009-12-01

    We investigate simple three-dimensionally crossed wires carrying electric currents which generate chaotic magnetic-field lines (CMFLs). As such wire systems, cross-ring and perturbed parallel-ring wires are studied, since topologically equivalent configurations to these systems can often be found in contemporary electric and integrated circuits. For realistic fundamental wire configurations, the conditions for wire dimensions (size) and current values to generate CMFLs are numerically explored under the presence of the weak but inevitable geomagnetic field. As a result, it is concluded that CMFLs can exist everywhere; i.e., they are ubiquitous in the modern technological world.

  4. A Field Method for Integrating Equations of Motion of Nonlinear Mechanico-Electrical Coupling Dynamical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Li; FU Hao

    2008-01-01

    We deai with the generalization of the field method to weakly non-linear mechanico-electricai coupling systems.The field co-ordinates and field momenta approaches are combined with the method of multiple time scales in order to obtain the amplitudes and phase of oscillations in the frst approximation. An example in mechanico-electrical coupling systems is given to illustrate this method.

  5. Coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling for short-circuit prediction in a lithium-ion cell under mechanical abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-09-01

    In order to better understand the behavior of lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, a coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, electrical and thermal response is presented for predicting short-circuit under external crush. The combined mechanical-electrical-thermal response is simulated in a commercial finite element software LS-DYNA® using a representative-sandwich finite-element model, where electrical-thermal modeling is conducted after an instantaneous mechanical crush. The model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under quasi-static indentation. Model predictions show good agreement with experiments: the fracture of the battery structure under an indentation test is accurately predicted. The electrical-thermal simulation predicts the current density and temperature distribution in a reasonable manner. Whereas previously reported models consider the mechanical response exclusively, we use the electrical contact between active materials following the failure of the separator as a criterion for short-circuit. These results are used to build a lumped representative sandwich model that is computationally efficient and captures behavior at the cell level without resolving the individual layers.

  6. Effects of the Physical Laboratory versus the Virtual Laboratory in Teaching Simple Electric Circuits on Conceptual Achievement and Attitudes Towards the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ercan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Current study examined the effects of virtual and physical laboratory practices on students' conceptual achievement in the subject of electricity and their attitudes towards simple electric circuits. Two groups (virtual and physical) selected through simple random sampling was taught with web-aided material called "Electricity in Our…

  7. Disassembly and physical separation of electric/electronic components layered in printed circuit boards (PCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeryeong; Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jae-chun

    2012-11-30

    Although printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain various elements, only the major elements (i.e., those with content levels in wt% or over grade) of and precious metals (e.g., Ag, Au, and platinum groups) contained within PCBs can be recycled. To recover other elements from PCBs, the PCBs should be properly disassembled as the first step of the recycling process. The recovery of these other elements would be beneficial for efforts to conserve scarce resources, reuse electric/electronic components (EECs), and eliminate environmental problems. This paper examines the disassembly of EECs from wasted PCBs (WPCBs) and the physical separation of these EECs using a self-designed disassembling apparatus and a 3-step separation process of sieving, magnetic separation, and dense medium separation. The disassembling efficiencies were evaluated by using the ratio of grinding area (E(area)) and the weight ratio of the detached EECs (E(weight)). In the disassembly treatment, these efficiencies were improved with an increase of grinder speed and grinder height. 97.7% (E(area)) and 98% (E(weight)) could be accomplished ultimately by 3 repetitive treatments at a grinder speed of 5500 rpm and a grinder height of 1.5mm. Through a series of physical separations, most groups of the EECs (except for the diode, transistor, and IC chip groups) could be sorted at a relatively high separation efficiency of about 75% or more. To evaluate the separation efficiency with regard to the elemental composition, the distribution ratio (R(dis)) and the concentration ratio (R(conc)) were used. 15 elements could be separated with the highest R(dis) and R(conc) in the same separated division. This result implies that the recyclability of the elements is highly feasible, even though the initial content in EECs is lower than several tens of mg/kg.

  8. The principle of elaboration of the relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of high voltage electrical line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiorsak M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the elaboration of the principle of relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation, based on the six phase’s symmetrical components. It is shown that the unsymmetrical short circuits between the closely placed phases are characterized by appearance of zero and tertiary sequences of symmetrical components. This fact can be used to choose them for relay protection. The electrical basic circuits and formulas for calculation of the passive parameters of zero and tertiary filters of currents (voltages are done. It is presented the structural-functional basic circuit scheme for relay protection against short circuits between the closely placed phases of higher voltage electrical line with self-compensation.

  9. Quantum Fluctuation in Thermal Vacuum State for Mesoscopic LC Electric Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; LIANG Xian-Ting

    2000-01-01

    We consider the quantization of LC (inductance-capacitance) circuit at a finite temperature T as any practical circuits always produce Joule heat except for superconductivity. It is shown that the quantum mechanical zeropoint fluctuations of both charge and current increase with upgoing T. Thermal field dynamics is used in ourdiscussion.

  10. Quantum Fluctuation in Mesoscopic Coupled LC Electric Circuits at FiniteTemperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xian-Ting; FAN Hong-Yi

    2001-01-01

    We consider the quantization of two coupled LC circuits with mutual inductance at a finite temperature T. It is shown that the quantum mechanical zero-point fluctuations of currents in the two circuits both increase with upgoing T. Thermal field dynamics and Weyl-Wigner theorern are used in our calculation of ensemble average of the observables.

  11. The two independent equations of circuits in integral form of field theory: The fundamental law of circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shennian

    2005-01-01

    Circuit theory is an extremely important basic theory in electrical and electronic sciences and technologies. Over more than a century, researchers have come to the conclusion that a fundamental law of circuits needs to satisfy the following three conditions: (1) Independency. It must be able to solve independently the basic problems of general solutions to the distribution of current and voltage in circuits. (2)Fundamentality. It cannot be derived from circuit theory and it must be the starting point for the establishment of circuit theory; it deduces the problem relevant to circuit theory by using purely logical inference, and establishes circuit theory into an independent deductive system. (3) Applicability. It must be widely applicable to all spheres of circuits,which includes sinusoidal steady-state linear and nonlinear networks, non-sinusoidal steady-state linear and nonlinear networks, transient-state processes, etc. From all networks to which the fundamental law of circuits applies, sinusoidal steady-state linear network is chosen as the most basic one to demonstrate that the two independent equations of circuits in integral form derived from Maxwell equations are able to meet these three conditions. Consequently, it is believed to be the fundamental law of circuits newly recognized today. This paper also makes the initiative to establish a circuit theory by which the basic rules of electromagnetic field govern the circuits, and the unity of electromagnetic fields and circuits is achieved.

  12. Aeroelastic flutter enhancement by exploiting the combined use of shape memory alloys and nonlinear piezoelectric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Vagner Candido de; Silva, Tarcísio Marinelli Pereira; De Marqui Junior, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the combined effects of semi-passive control using shunted piezoelectric material and passive pseudoelastic hysteresis of shape memory springs on the aerolastic behavior of a typical section is investigated. An aeroelastic model that accounts for the presence of both smart materials employed as mechanical energy dissipation devices is presented. The Brinson model is used to simulate the shape memory material. New expressions for the modeling of the synchronized switch damping on inductor technique (developed for enhanced piezoelectric damping) are presented, resulting in better agreement with experimental data. The individual effects of each nonlinear mechanism on the aeroelastic behavior of the typical section are first verified. Later, the combined effects of semi-passive piezoelectric control and passive shape memory alloy springs on the post-critical behavior of the system are discussed in details. The range of post-flutter airflow speeds with stable limit cycle oscillations is significantly increased due to the combined effects of both sources of energy dissipation, providing an effective and autonomous way to modify the behavior of aeroelastic systems using smart materials.

  13. Nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvesters fabricated by rigid-flex printed circuit board technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi; Hong, Hao-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Hung

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a wideband electromagnetic energy harvester designed and fabricated by commercial rigid-flex PCB technology is demonstrated. The rigid FR-4 boards are used for mechanical frames and coil winding whereas the flexible polyimide film is used for mechanical springs and mass platforms. The total dimension of the device is 20 × 20 × 2 mm3. The internal coil resistance is 15 Ω. In vibration tests, nonlinearity can be observed even at 0.1 g vibration level due to the spring hardening effect. The peak frequency was increased as the vibration level increased. The effective bandwidth was increased from 6 Hz at 0.1 g to 21 Hz at 0.5 g and 27 Hz at 1 g, respectivel, due to the hysteresis effect. For a matched load and 1 g vibration at 240 Hz, the maximum output power is 24.5 nW, corresponding to a power density of 31 nW/cm3.

  14. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  15. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  16. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  17. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  18. Effects of Electric Contact Failure on Signal Transmission in the Lossy Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ya; SUN Bai-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on the former research results of the influence of contact failure in ideal and unmatched circuits, this paper further studies theoretically the effects of contact failure on the digital signal transmission in the lossy circuits, which may happen widely in practical applications. Experiences show that even in high-quality lines, losses deform the voltage and current wave shapes owing to their effects on the amplitude of the various waves making up the over-all line voltage and current. Although the derivations show that the effects of contact failure in the lossy circuits on the signal transmission are quite complicated. The probability of occurrence of error codes can be increased significantly.

  19. Improving the electromagnetic compatibility of track circuits with electric rolling stock of double power supply with induction traction motors and electrictraction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Visin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research results of many authors on the effect of current interference from the existing electric rolling stock with induction traction motors (ITM on the track circuits and the possibility of exceeding the train traffic safety standards are used. The new promising scheme of power circuit for electric locomotive of double power supply with an ITM applying the intermediary high-frequency transformer for reducing significantly the interference effects to SCB and communication devices is developed.

  20. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We study drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts (QPC), coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of QPC gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the non-linear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit,...

  1. SOLUTION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A NONLINEAR DIRECT CURRENT CIRCUIT USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN AMAYA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe una estrategia numérica orientada hacia la solución de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales que con frecuencia aparecen en el análisis de circuitos electrónicos. Esta estrategia se fundamenta en el uso del algoritmo de optimización de enjambre de partículas (PSO, como alternativa al tradicionalNewton-Raphson. Se tomó inicialmente, a título de ejemplo demostrativo, un circuito compuesto de dos resistencias lineales y un diodo. Seguidamente se utiliza otro ligeramente más complejo, constituido por una fuente de corriente, cuatro resistencias y dos diodos. Se encontró que el PSO posee mayor robustez frente al método tradicional. Fundamentado en estos resultados, se observó que esta alternativa de solución tiene características muy atractivas cuando se requiere solucionar este tipo de circuitos independientemente de su tamaño y complejidad.

  2. Physically based analysis of electrical frequency response of passive microelectronic circuits by heterodyne lock-in thermal means

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, J.; Perpiñà, X.; Altet, J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jordà, X.

    2013-11-01

    This paper combines the heterodyne modulation technique with lock-in detection approaches to characterize the electrical behaviour of electronic systems in the frequency domain by thermal means. A thermal test chip (TTC), featuring a heating resistor and an embedded thermal sensor, is used as a test vehicle to assess this approach. The frequency response of the heating resistor has been first characterized by electrical measurements, yielding to a suitable TTC equivalent circuit which qualitatively explains its behaviour. Then, in order to infer this behaviour by thermal means, the heating resistor temperature has been heterodynally detected by on-chip local sensing (embedded thermal sensor) and off-chip spatially resolved (infrared lock-in thermography) techniques. The results of this paper show that from low-frequency temperature measurements it is possible to obtain the electrical frequency response of the TTC and to detect and locate capacitive coupling that disturbs the high-frequency operation of the device.

  3. Effects of a parallel resistor on electrical characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer in open-circuit transient state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Tsai

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates electrical transient characteristics of a Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer (PT), including maximum voltages, time constants, energy losses and average powers, and their improvements immediately after turning OFF. A parallel resistor connected to both input terminals of the PT is needed to improve the transient characteristics. An equivalent circuit for the PT is first given. Then, an open-circuit voltage, involving a direct current (DC) component and an alternating current (AC) component, and its related energy losses are derived from the equivalent circuit with initial conditions. Moreover, an AC power control system, including a DC-to-AC resonant inverter, a control switch and electronic instruments, is constructed to determine the electrical characteristics of the OFF transient state. Furthermore, the effects of the parallel resistor on the transient characteristics at different parallel resistances are measured. The advantages of adding the parallel resistor also are discussed. From the measured results, the DC time constant is greatly decreased from 9 to 0.04 ms by a 10 k(omega) parallel resistance under open output.

  4. Nonlinear Marangoni instability of a liquid jet in the presence of electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Kadry; Sirwah, Magdy A.; Assaf, Achmed [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mathematics

    2009-11-15

    The work discusses the linear and nonlinear stability of cylindrical surface deformations between two incompressible fluids. The interface is carrying a uniform surface charge. The inner fluid is assumed to be a liquid jet. Both fluids are modeled as a special type of a Newtonian viscous fluid. Furthermore, the effect of surface adsorption is taken into account. Both fluids are assumed to be dielectric and the stability is discussed in the presence of a constant electric field in axial direction. The analysis is performed along the lines of a multiple scale perturbation expansion with additional slow time and space variables. The various stability criteria are discussed both analytically and numerically. The results are displayed in many plots showing the stability criteria in various parameter planes. The results show the dual role of the electric field and the negative rate of change of surface tension with the concentration of surfactant on the system stability, in both the linear and nonlinear steps. The nonlinear theory, when used to investigate the stability of liquid jet, appears accurately to predict new unstable regions. (orig.)

  5. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Liangcheng; Chou, Stephen Y

    2014-05-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new plasmonic nonlinear light generation (NLG) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only achieves high second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement (76-fold), large SHG tunability by bias (8%/V), wide tuning range (280%), 7.8 × 10(-9) conversion efficiency, and high stability but also exhibits a SHG tuning, that is bipolar rather than unipolar, not due to the third-order nonlinear polarization term, hence fundamentally different from the classic electric field induced SHG-tuning (EFISH). We propose a new SHG tuning mechanism: the second-order nonlinear polarization term enhanced by plasmonic effects, changed by charge injection and negative oxygen vacancies movement, and is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than EFISH. p-CASH is a bipolar parallel-plate capacitor with thin layers of plasmonic nanostructures, a TiOx (semiconductor and nonlinear) and a SiO2 (insulator) sandwiched between two electrodes. Fabrication of p-CASH used nanoimprint on 4″ wafer and is scalable to wallpaper-sized areas. The new structure, new properties, and new understanding should open up various new designs and applications of NLG in various fields.

  6. Characterization of electrosynthesized conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite: optical nonlinearity and electrical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afarin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Shahriari, Esmaeil; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Kasim, Anuar; Behzad, Kasra

    2012-01-01

    The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite are discussed. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of monomers in the presence of different amounts of MWNTs using sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant at room temperature and normal pressure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicates that the polymer is wrapped around the nanotubes. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices (n(2)) and the nonlinear absorption (β) of the samples with different MWNT concentrations measurements were performed by a single Z-scan method using continuous wave (CW) laser beam excitation wavelength of λ = 532 nm. The results show that both nonlinear optical parameters increased with increasing the concentration of MWNTs. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities were also calculated and found to follow the same trend as n(2) and β. In addition, the conductivity of the composite film was found to increase rapidly with the increase in the MWNT concentration.

  7. Characterization of Electrosynthesized Conjugated Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composite: Optical Nonlinearity and Electrical Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite are discussed. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of monomers in the presence of different amounts of MWNTs using sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (SDBS as surfactant at room temperature and normal pressure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM indicates that the polymer is wrapped around the nanotubes. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices (n2 and the nonlinear absorption (β of the samples with different MWNT concentrations measurements were performed by a single Z-scan method using continuous wave (CW laser beam excitation wavelength of λ = 532 nm. The results show that both nonlinear optical parameters increased with increasing the concentration of MWNTs. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities were also calculated and found to follow the same trend as n2 and β. In addition, the conductivity of the composite film was found to increase rapidly with the increase in the MWNT concentration.

  8. Inductive intrinsic localized modes in a one-dimensional nonlinear electric transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Mukaide, T.; Nakaguchi, T.; Sievers, A. J.

    2016-07-01

    The experimental properties of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have long been compared with theoretical dynamical lattice models that make use of nonlinear onsite and/or nearest-neighbor intersite potentials. Here it is shown for a one-dimensional lumped electrical transmission line that a nonlinear inductive component in an otherwise linear parallel capacitor lattice makes possible a new kind of ILM outside the plane wave spectrum. To simplify the analysis, the nonlinear inductive current equations are transformed to flux transmission line equations with analog onsite hard potential nonlinearities. Approximate analytic results compare favorably with those obtained from a driven damped lattice model and with eigenvalue simulations. For this mono-element lattice, ILMs above the top of the plane wave spectrum are the result. We find that the current ILM is spatially compressed relative to the corresponding flux ILM. Finally, this study makes the connection between the dynamics of mass and force constant defects in the harmonic lattice and ILMs in a strongly anharmonic lattice.

  9. Transmission of the electric fields to the low latitude ionosphere in the magnetosphere-ionosphere current circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Kumiko K.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind energy is transmitted to low latitude ionosphere in a current circuit from a dynamo in the magnetosphere to the equatorial ionosphere via the polar ionosphere. During the substorm growth phase and storm main phase, the dawn-to-dusk convection electric field is intensified by the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), driving the ionospheric DP2 currents composed of two-cell Hall current vortices in high latitudes and Pedersen currents amplified at the dayside equator (EEJ). The EEJ-Region-1 field-aligned current (R1 FAC) circuit is completed via the Pedersen currents in midlatitude. On the other hand, the shielding electric field and the Region-2 FACs develop in the inner magnetosphere, tending to cancel the convection electric field at the mid-equatorial latitudes. The shielding often causes overshielding when the convection electric field reduces substantially and the EEJ is overcome by the counter electrojet (CEJ), leading to that even the quasi-periodic DP2 fluctuations are contributed by the overshielding as being composed of the EEJ and CEJ. The overshielding develop significantly during substorms and storms, leading to that the mid and low latitude ionosphere is under strong influence of the overshielding as well as the convection electric fields. The electric fields on the day- and night sides are in opposite direction to each other, but the electric fields in the evening are anomalously enhanced in the same direction as in the day. The evening anomaly is a unique feature of the electric potential distribution in the global ionosphere. DP2-type electric field and currents develop during the transient/short-term geomagnetic disturbances like the geomagnetic sudden commencements (SC), which appear simultaneously at high latitude and equator within the temporal resolution of 10 s. Using the SC, we can confirm that the electric potential and currents are transmitted near-instantaneously to low latitude ionosphere on both day- and night

  10. IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF THE POWER CIRCUIT OF THE ELECTRIC TRAINS ЕР2Т AND ЕПЛ2Т

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Visin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The transitional processes in shunt circuit of traction engines, which armatures and excitation windings are connected in non-conducting direction as to the flowing power current, are considered in this paper. The changes in the control circuits of braking switch and in the shunt power circuit of traction engines with additional mounting a resistor of 0.5 Ohm are proposed. All this modernization will allow increasing greatly the operation reliability of power circuit of ЭР2Т and ЕПЛ2Т electric locomotives during their service life.

  11. A Circuit Simulation Technique for Congested Network Traffic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Huang, Heng

    2007-12-01

    The relation between electrical circuit and traffic network has been proposed by Sasaki and Inouye, but they proposed link cost function is a linear function which cannot present the congestion situation. Cho and Huang extended the link cost function to a nonlinear function which can explain the congested network. In this paper, we proposed a foremost and novel approach to solve the traffic assignment problem (TAP) by simulating the electrical circuit network which consists of nonlinear link cost function models. Comparing with the solutions of Frank-Wolfe algorithm, the simulation results are nearly identical. Thus, the simulation of a network circuit model can be applied to solve network traffic assignment problems. Finally, two examples are proposed, and the results confirmed that electrical circuit simulation is workable in solving congested network traffic assignment problems.

  12. Nonlinear static and dynamic responses of an electrically actuated viscoelastic microbeam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. M. Fu; J. Zhang

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis,nonlinear static and dynamic responses of a viscoelastic microbeam under two kinds of electric forces [a purely direct current (DC) and a combined current composed of a DC and an alternating current] are studied. By using Taylor series expansion, a governing equation of nonlinear integro-differential type is derived, and numerical analyses are performed.When a purely DC is applied, there exist an instantaneous pull-in voltage and a durable pull-in voltage of which the physical meanings are also given, whereas under an applied combined current, the effect of the element relaxation coefficient on the dynamic pull-in phenomenon is observed where the largest Lyapunov exponent is taken as a criterion for the dynamic pull-in instability of viscoelastic microbeams.

  13. Modeling and Computer Simulation of the Pulsed Powering of Mechanical D.C. Circuit Breakers for the CERN/LHC Superconducting Magnet Energy Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Anushat, V; Erokhin, A; Kussul, A; Medvedko, A S

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of modeling and computer simulation of non-linear devices such as the Electromagnetic Driver of a D.C. Circuit Breaker. The mechanical and electromagnetic parts of the Driver are represented as equivalent electrical circuits and all basic processes of the Driver's magnetic circuit are calculated.

  14. Electronic meter with custom integrated circuit for electric energy measurement; Medidor eletronico de energia eletrica com circuito integrado dedicado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Roberto Pereira

    1990-04-01

    The design and implementation of an electrical energy electronic meter for operation at low voltages, according to two steps of development carried out in Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL is described. In the first step, an electronic meter with discrete commercial components has been developed, in order to demonstrate to the Brazilian power suppliers the feasibility of such a device for electrical energy metering and charging. The second step was constituted by the design of an integrated circuit, aiming the reduction of the cost of the meter as well as the enhancement of its reliability. Several techniques of electrical energy measurement are presented. The meter with discrete components makes use of a time division multiplier (TDM), in order to determine the active power in the load. Voltage and current levels have been reduced through the use of voltage and current sensors compatible with the TDM's inputs. A V-F converter employing continuos integration, has been used for the determination of the energy consumed by the load through the integration of the TDM's output signal. Most of the discrete components of the meter have been replaced by the dedicated integrated circuit. The TDM has remained essentially the same, but the V-F converter has been changed into a dual-slope one, which is more adequate for implementation in a single chip. The tests performed with the prototypes of the meter including both the meter with discrete components and the meter with the custom-made integrated circuit have presented measurement errors of less the 0,2 %. The initial goal, according to Brazilian specifications of electromechanical meters and international specifications for electronic meters, was 1 %. (author)

  15. Cavity equations for a positive or negative refraction index material with electric and magnetic non-linearities

    CERN Document Server

    Mártin, Daniel A; 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.056601

    2012-01-01

    We study evolution equations for electric and magnetic field amplitudes in a ring cavity with plane mirrors. The cavity is filled with a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. Two coupled non-linear equations for the electric and magnetic amplitudes are obtained. We prove that the description can be reduced to one Lugiato Lefever equation with generalized coefficients. A stability analysis of the homogeneous solution, complemented with numerical integration, shows that any combination of the parameters should correspond to one of three characteristic behaviors.

  16. Accumulation boundaries: codimension-two accumulation of accumulations in phase diagrams of semiconductor lasers, electric circuits, atmospheric and chemical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cristian; Gallas, Jason Alfredo Carlson

    2008-02-28

    We report high-resolution phase diagrams for several familiar dynamical systems described by sets of ordinary differential equations: semiconductor lasers; electric circuits; Lorenz-84 low-order atmospheric circulation model; and Rössler and chemical oscillators. All these systems contain chaotic phases with highly complicated and interesting accumulation boundaries, curves where networks of stable islands of regular oscillations with ever-increasing periodicities accumulate systematically. The experimental exploration of such codimension-two boundaries characterized by the presence of infinite accumulation of accumulations is feasible with existing technology for some of these systems.

  17. Testable Subsystems Generation for Fault Detection and Isolation Using a Structural Matching Rank Algorithm Testability of an Electrical Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benazzouz Djamel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an advanced way of dealing with testable subsystems and residual generation for fault detection and isolation based on structural analysis is presented. The developed technique considers execution issues; therefore, it has a more realistic point of view compared to classical structural approaches available in the literature. First, theoretical aspects of structural analysis are considered and introduced. Then the way of incorporating them to test the structural proprieties is explained. Finally, we show how the proposed (upgraded matching rank algorithm can be used in order to choose the most suited matching that leads to computational sequences and detection tests. The method is demonstrated using an electrical circuit.

  18. Electric Field-Induced Second Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Silicon Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Timurdogan, E; Watts, M R

    2016-01-01

    The demand for nonlinear effects within a silicon platform to support photonic circuits requiring phase-only modulation, frequency doubling, and/or difference frequency generation, is becoming increasingly clear. However, the symmetry of the silicon crystal inhibits second order optical nonlinear susceptibility, $\\chi^{(2)}$. Here, we show that the crystalline symmetry is broken when a DC field is present, inducing a $\\chi^{(2)}$ in a silicon waveguide that is proportional to the large $\\chi^{(3)}$ of silicon. First, Mach-Zehnder interferometers using the DC Kerr effect optical phase shifters in silicon ridge waveguides with p-i-n junctions are demonstrated with a $V_{\\pi}L$ of $2.4Vcm$ in telecom bands $({\\lambda}_{\\omega}=1.58{\\mu}m)$ without requiring to dope the silicon core. Second, the pump and second harmonic modes in silicon ridge waveguides are quasi-phase matched when the magnitude, spatial distribution of the DC field and $\\chi^{(2)}$ are controlled with p-i-n junctions. Using these waveguides, sec...

  19. Impurity-related nonlinear optical properties in delta-doped quantum rings: Electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: rrestre@gmail.com [Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Morales, A.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, CP 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico); Baghramyan, H.M.; Barseghyan, M.G. [Department of Solid State Physics, Yerevan State University, Al. Manookian 1, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the donor impurity binding energy for the ground (1s-like) and the excited (2p{sub z}-like) states as well as the impurity-related nonlinear optical absorption and relative changes in the refraction index in a GaAs single quantum ring with axial n-type delta-doping. The delta-like potential along the z-direction is an approximate model analytically described using a Lorentzian function with two parameters. Additionally we consider the application of an electric field along the z-direction. It is found that the changes in the geometry of the quantum ring, the change in the 2D impurity density of the delta-like doping, and different values of the electric field lead to a shifting of the resonant peaks of the optical responses spectrum.

  20. Regular rotating electrically charged black holes and solitons in nonlinear electrodynamics minimally coupled to gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dymnikova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    In nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to gravity, regular spherically symmetric electrically charged solutions satisfy the weak energy condition and have obligatory de Sitter centre. By the G\\"urses-G\\"ursey algorithm they are transformed to spinning electrically charged solutions asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer. Rotation transforms de Sitter center into de Sitter vacuum surface which contains equatorial disk $r=0$ as a bridge. We present general analysis of the horizons, ergoregions and de Sitter surfaces, as well as the conditions of the existence of regular solutions to the field equations. We find asymptotic solutions and show that de Sitter vacuum surfaces have properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, violation of the weak energy condition is prevented by the basic requirement of electrodynamics of continued media, and the Kerr ring singularity is replaced with the superconducting current.

  1. Solenoid-Simulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical properties of solenoids imitated for tests of control circuits. Simulation circuit imitates voltage and current responses of two engine-controlling solenoids. Used in tests of programs of digital engine-control circuits, also provides electronic interface with circuits imitating electrical properties of pressure sensors and linear variable-differential transformers. Produces voltages, currents, delays, and discrete turnon and turnoff signals representing operation of solenoid in engine-control relay. Many such circuits used simulating overall engine circuitry.

  2. Study of the selective effect on cells induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field with the resistor-capacitor circuit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Fei; Xiao Dengming; Li Zhaozhi

    2009-01-01

    A resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit model is proposed to study the effect of nanosecond pulsed electric field on cells according to the structure and electrical parameters of cells. After a nanosecond step field has been applied, the variation of voltages across cytomembrane and mitochondria membrane both in normal and in malignant cells are studied with this model. The time for selectively targeting the mitochondria membrane and malignant cell can be evaluated much easily with curves that show the variation of voltage across each membrane with time. Ramp field is the typical field applied in electrobiology. The voltages across each membrane induced by ramp field are analyzed with this model. To selectively target the mitochondria membrane, proper range of ramp slope is needed. It is relatively difficult to decide the range of a slope to selectively affect the malignant cell. Under some conditions, such a range even does not exist.

  3. Three-dimensional modelling of electric-arc development in a low-voltage circuit-breaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras, L.; Henry, D.; Jeandel, D.; Scott, J. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, CNRS/Universite de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon/Universite Lyon 1/INSA de Lyon, ECL, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Wild, J. [Schneider Electric, 37 quai Merlin, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-09-15

    This article describes direct numerical simulation of the first three milliseconds following ignition of the arc in a low-voltage circuit-breaker using a computational-fluid-dynamics code adapted for electric-arc modelling. The mobile electrode is allowed for by a moving mesh. The results describe the evolution of the arc with time in terms of its detailed electrical, thermal and fluid dynamic properties. They allow the identification of several phases during the overall arc development process studied here: arc initialisation in the widening electrode gap, arc-thermal expansion, displacement of the arc towards the tip of the mobile electrode, and the beginning of commutation to the fixed electrode. (author)

  4. Network model and short circuit program for the Kennedy Space Center electric power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Assumptions made and techniques used in modeling the power network to the 480 volt level are discussed. Basic computational techniques used in the short circuit program are described along with a flow diagram of the program and operational procedures. Procedures for incorporating network changes are included in this user's manual.

  5. Nonlinear optical rectification in laterally-coupled quantum well wires with applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanghui; Guo, Kangxian; Zhang, Zhongmin; Hassanbadi, Hassan; Lu, Liangliang

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear optical rectification coefficient χ0(2) in laterally-coupled AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum well wires with an applied electric field is theoretically investigated using the effective mass approximation as well as the numerical energy levels and wavefunctions of electrons. We find that χ0(2) is greatly influenced by the electric field as well as both the distance and the radius of the coupled system. A blue shift of χ0(2) with increasing electric field is exhibited while a red shift followed by a blue shift with increasing distance or radius is exhibited. A nonmonotonic behavior can be found in the resonant peak values of χ0(2) along with the increase of the electric field, the distance or the radius. One or two of the following physical mechanisms: the increased localization of the ground and first-excited states, the reduced coupling and the reduced quantum confinement effect are applied to elucidate the results above. Our results play a potential role in infrared photodetectors based on the coupled system.

  6. Modelling the non-linear response of Spanish electricity demand to temperature variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral-Carcedo, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Analisis Economico; Vicens-Otero, J. [Universidad de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Economia Aplicada

    2005-05-01

    The demand for electricity is a key variable because its links to economic activity and development; however, the electricity consumption also depends on other non-economic variables, notably the weather. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of temperatures on the variability of the Spanish daily electricity demand, and especially to characterise the non-linearity of the response of demand to variations in temperature. In this article, we explore the ability of Smooth Transition (STR), Threshold Regression (TR), and Switching Regressions (SR) models, to handle both aspects. As we conclude, the use of LSTR approach offers two main advantages. First, it captures adequately the smooth response of electricity demand to temperature variations in intermediate ranges of temperatures. Second, it provides a method to analyse the validity of temperature thresholds used to build the ''cooling degree days'' (CDD) and ''heating degree days'' (HDD) variables traditionally employed in the literature. (author)

  7. Physiological processes non-linearly affect electrophysiological recordings during transcranial electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Nima; Hipp, Joerg F; Siegel, Markus

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) is a promising tool to non-invasively manipulate neuronal activity in the human brain. Several studies have shown behavioral effects of tES, but stimulation artifacts complicate the simultaneous investigation of neural activity with EEG or MEG. Here, we first show for EEG and MEG, that contrary to previous assumptions, artifacts do not simply reflect stimulation currents, but that heartbeat and respiration non-linearly modulate stimulation artifacts. These modulations occur irrespective of the stimulation frequency, i.e. during both transcranial alternating and direct current stimulations (tACS and tDCS). Second, we show that, although at first sight previously employed artifact rejection methods may seem to remove artifacts, data are still contaminated by non-linear stimulation artifacts. Because of their complex nature and dependence on the subjects' physiological state, these artifacts are prone to be mistaken as neural entrainment. In sum, our results uncover non-linear tES artifacts, show that current techniques fail to fully remove them, and pave the way for new artifact rejection methods.

  8. Analysis of the property of nonlinear hybrid circuit by FDTD%基于FDTD的非线性混合电路特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅诣偲; 吴先良; 黄志祥; 鲁思龙; 任信钢; 杜红梅

    2012-01-01

    The full-wave analysis of nonlinear hybrid circuit is made by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and the electromagnetic field distribution graph of microstrip circuits at different moments is obtained. The simulation result of FDTD method and that of commercial software are highly consistent. With full-wave simulation of electromagnetic field, its calculation results are more accurate than those of traditional circuit simulations, and the field value and distribution of electromagnetic field of microstrip circuits at different moments responding to high-frequency signals can be obtained directly, which has important significance for researching the properties of high-frequency nonlinear hybrid circuits and the problems about electromagnetic compatibility and so on.%文章采用三维时域有限差分(FDTD)方法,对非线性混合电路进行了全波分析,不仅获得不同时刻微带电路平面的电磁场分布图,并且所获得的电压分布图与软件仿真结果高度吻合.由于FDTD是电磁场的全波模拟,所得结果比传统电路模拟精度高且可以得到高频信号激励下微带电路所在平面各个时刻时域内的场解,直接观测到场分布情况,为高频非线性混合电路的特性分析提供了有效依据,同时对研究电磁兼容等问题有重要意义.

  9. The response of the earth's global electrical circuit to a solar proton event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzur, I.; Roble, R. G.; Reid, C. C.; Zhuang, H. C.

    An ion chemistry model of the atmosphere is used to calculate the background electric conductivity distribution and its variation during the August 1972 solar proton event and the accompanying Forbush decrease. Two-dimensional model calculations show that the solar protons significantly affect the high-latitude electrical structure of the middle atmosphere without much influence on the electrical structure of the troposphere. The maximum calculated change in the air-earth current, ground electric field, and ionospheric potential is about 10 percent which occurs during the maximum of the Forbush decrease in cosmic ray flux.

  10. Second order nonlinearity in Si by inhomogeneous strain and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jörg; Schriever, Clemens; Bianco, Federica; Cazzanelli, Massimo; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    The lack of a dipolar second order susceptibility (χ(2)) in silicon due to its centro-symmetric diamond lattice usually inhibits efficient second order nonlinear optical processes in the silicon bulk. Depositing stressed silicon nitride layers or growing a thermal oxide layer introduces an inhomogeneous strain into the silicon lattice and breaks the centro-symmetry of its crystal structure thereby creating a χ(2). This causes enhanced second harmonic generation and was observed in reflection and transmission measurements for wavelengths in the infrared. However strain is not the only means to break the structures symmetry. Fixed charges at the silicon nitride/silicon interface cause a high electric field close to the silicon interface which causes electric-field-induced-second-harmonic (EFISH) contributions too. The combination of both effects leads to χ(2) values which are estimated to be of the order as classic χ(2) materials like KDP or LiNiO3. This paves the way for the exploitation of other second order nonlinear processes in the area of silicon photonics and is an example how fundamental optical properties of materials can be altered by strain.

  11. Non-linear response of infinite periodic solids to homogenous electric fields and collective atomic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosez, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    The non-linear response of infinite periodic solids to homogenous electric fields and cooperative atomic displacements will be discussed in the framework of density functional perturbation theory. The approach is based on the “2n + 1” theorem applied to an electric field dependent energy functional. We will focus on the non-linear optical susceptibilities, Raman scattering efficiencies and electrooptic coefficients. Different formulations of third-order energy derivatives will be examined and their convergence with respect to the k-point sampling will be discussed. The method will be applied to conventional semiconductors and to ferroelectric oxides. In the latter case, we will also describe how the first- principles results can be combined to an effective Hamiltonian approach in order to provide access to the temperature dependence of the optical properties. This work was done in collabration with M. Veithen and X. Gonze and was supported by the VolkwagenStiftung, FNRS-Belgium and the FAME-NoE.

  12. Electric field effect on the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in inverted core–shell nanodots with dielectric confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, M.; Radu, A., E-mail: radu@physics.pub.ro; Niculescu, E.C.

    2013-11-15

    Third-order nonlinear optical processes associated with the interlevel transitions in ZnS/CdSe core–shell quantum dots under electric fields are theoretically investigated. Taking into account the dielectric mismatch with the surrounding matrix, the electronic structure of the dots is obtained within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. It is shown that large applied electric fields break the symmetry of the confinement potential and lead to a significant blue-shift of the peak positions in the nonlinear optical spectrum. The size effect is also discussed and it is proved that large nonlinear susceptibility can be obtained by increasing the thickness of the nanocrystal shell. Our results suggest that external factors such as the applied electric field and orientation of the incident light polarization can be used – in addition to spatial confinement – to improve the performances of the optical devices. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear optical processes in ZnS/CdSe QDs under electric field were studied. • The effective mass and parabolic band approximations were used. • The dielectric mismatch of the QDs with the surrounding matrix was considered. • Increasing the thickness of the shell could lead to large nonlinear susceptibility. • Incident light polarization with respect to the electric field was discussed.

  13. Anterior wrist and medial malleolus as the novel sites of tissue selection: a retrospective study on electric shock death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangtao; Su, Ruibing; Lv, Junyao; Hu, Bo; Gu, Huan; Li, Xianxian; Gu, Jiang; Yu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-06

    Our previous work demonstrated that characteristic changes could occur in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus in electric deaths through the hand-to-foot electric circuit pathway in an electric shock rat model. However, whether the same phenomenon occurs in humans is unknown. The aim of the present retrospective study was to ascertain whether the anterior wrist and medial malleolus could also be selected as the promising and significant sites in electric death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway. Nineteen human cases from the autopsy and one clinical survivor who sustained a severe electric shock through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway were analyzed. Additional ten autopsy patients who died from traffic accidents and sudden cardiac attacks were used as the control group. Histopathological changes in the soft tissues of the anterior wrist and medial malleolus in all autopsy patients, as well as the electric current pathway of the survivor, were observed. The results showed that the nuclear polarizations in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus soft tissues of the electric death were extremely noticeable as compared with the controls. The most severe electrical injury in the survivor occurred in the anterior wrist. These findings suggest that the soft tissues of the anterior wrist and/or the medial malleolus as the narrowest parts of the limbs could be used as the complementary sites for tissue selection and considered as necessary locations for examinations to assess the electric death in medicolegal identification.

  14. Student use of model-based reasoning when troubleshooting an electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    Troubleshooting systems is an integral part of experimental physics in both research and educational settings. Accordingly, ability to troubleshoot is an important learning goal for undergraduate physics lab courses. We investigate students' model-based reasoning on a troubleshooting task using data collected in think-aloud interviews during which pairs of students from two institutions attempted to diagnose and repair a malfunctioning circuit. Our analysis scheme was informed by the Experimental Modeling Framework, which describes physicists' use of mathematical and conceptual models when reasoning about experimental systems. We show that system and subsystem models were crucial for the evaluation of repairs to the circuit and played an important role in some troubleshooting strategies. Finally, drawing on data from interviews with electronics instructors from a broad range of institution types, we outline recommendations for model-based approaches to teaching and learning troubleshooting skills.

  15. High-fidelity pulse density modulation in neuromorphic electric circuits utilizing natural heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    Hospedales et al. have recently proposed a neural network model of the “vestibulo-ocular reflex” (VOR) in which a common input was given to multiple nonidentical spiking neurons that were exposed to uncorrelated temporal noise, and the output was represented by the sum of these neurons. Although the function of the VOR network is equivalent to pulse density modulation, the neurons' non-uniformity and temporal noises given to the neurons were shown to improve the output spike's fidelity to the analog input. In this paper, we propose a CMOS analog circuit for implementing the VOR network that exploits the non-uniformity of real MOS devices. Through extensive laboratory experiments using discrete MOS devices, we show that the output's fidelity to the input pulses is clearly improved by using multiple neuron circuits, in which the non-uniformity is naturally embedded into the devices.

  16. Charge Yield at Low Electric Fields: Considerations for Bipolar Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2013-01-01

    A significant reduction in total dose damage is observed when bipolar integrated circuits are irradiated at low temperature. This can be partially explained by the Onsager theory of recombination, which predicts a strong temperature dependence for charge yield under low-field conditions. Reduced damage occurs for biased as well as unbiased devices because the weak fringing field in thick bipolar oxides only affects charge yield near the Si/SiO2 interface, a relatively small fraction of the total oxide thickness. Lowering the temperature of bipolar ICs - either continuously, or for time periods when they are exposed to high radiation levels - provides an additional degree of freedom to improve total dose performance of bipolar circuits, particularly in space applications.

  17. Charge Yield at Low Electric Fields: Considerations for Bipolar Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2013-01-01

    A significant reduction in total dose damage is observed when bipolar integrated circuits are irradiated at low temperature. This can be partially explained by the Onsager theory of recombination, which predicts a strong temperature dependence for charge yield under low-field conditions. Reduced damage occurs for biased as well as unbiased devices because the weak fringing field in thick bipolar oxides only affects charge yield near the Si/SiO2 interface, a relatively small fraction of the total oxide thickness. Lowering the temperature of bipolar ICs - either continuously, or for time periods when they are exposed to high radiation levels - provides an additional degree of freedom to improve total dose performance of bipolar circuits, particularly in space applications.

  18. Investigating the Role of Model-Based Reasoning While Troubleshooting an Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Van De Bogart, Kevin L.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the overlap of two nationally recognized learning outcomes for physics lab courses, namely, the ability to model experimental systems and the ability to troubleshoot a malfunctioning apparatus. Modeling and troubleshooting are both nonlinear, recursive processes that involve using models to inform revisions to an apparatus. To probe the…

  19. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D finite-element models (FEMs) of electrical machines. Accurate computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D FEM is not an easy task. Compared to the existing energy-perturbation method, the new technique......-perturbation method. The new method proposed is validated using experimental results on two different permanent magnet machines....

  20. Effects of barium on the nonlinear electrical characteristics and dielectric properties of SnO2-based varistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chun-Ming; Wang Jin-Feng; Wang Chun-Lei; Chen Hong-Cun; Su Wen-Bin; Zang Guo-Zhong; Qi Peng; Zhao Ming-Lei; Ming Bao-Quan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of barium on electrical and dielectric properties of the SnO2·Co2Oa.Ta2O5 varistor system sintered at 1250℃ for 60min were investigated. It is found that barium significantly improves the nonlinear properties. The breakdown electrical field increases from 378.0 to 2834.5V/mm, relative dielectric constant (at 1kHz) falls from 1206 to 161 and the resistivity (at 1kHz) rises from 60.3 to 1146.5kΩ·cm with an increase of BaCO3 concentration from 0mol%to 1.00mol%. The sample with 1.00mol% barium has the best nonlinear electrical property and the highest nonlinear coefficient (α=29.2). A modified defect barrier model is introduced to illustrate the grain-boundary barrier formation of barium-doped SnO2-based varistors.

  1. Circuit modification in electrical field flow fractionation systems generating higher resolution separation of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasci, Tonguc O; Johnson, William P; Fernandez, Diego P; Manangon, Eliana; Gale, Bruce K

    2014-10-24

    Compared to other sub-techniques of field flow fractionation (FFF), cyclical electrical field flow fractionation (CyElFFF) is a relatively new method with many opportunities remaining for improvement. One of the most important limitations of this method is the separation of particles smaller than 100nm. For such small particles, the diffusion rate becomes very high, resulting in severe reductions in the CyElFFF separation efficiency. To address this limitation, we modified the electrical circuitry of the ElFFF system. In all earlier ElFFF reports, electrical power sources have been directly connected to the ElFFF channel electrodes, and no alteration has been made in the electrical circuitry of the system. In this work, by using discrete electrical components, such as resistors and diodes, we improved the effective electric field in the system to allow high resolution separations. By modifying the electrical circuitry of the ElFFF system, high resolution separations of 15 and 40nm gold nanoparticles were achieved. The effects of applying different frequencies, amplitudes and voltage shapes have been investigated and analyzed through experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. arXiv Application of the Waveform Relaxation Technique to the Co-Simulation of Power Converter Controller and Electrical Circuit Models

    CERN Document Server

    Maciejewski, Michał; Schöps, Sebastian; Auchmann, Bernhard; Bortot, Lorenzo; Prioli, Marco; Verweij, Arjan P.

    In this paper we present the co-simulation of a PID class power converter controller and an electrical circuit by means of the waveform relaxation technique. The simulation of the controller model is characterized by a fixed-time stepping scheme reflecting its digital implementation, whereas a circuit simulation usually employs an adaptive time stepping scheme in order to account for a wide range of time constants within the circuit model. In order to maintain the characteristic of both models as well as to facilitate model replacement, we treat them separately by means of input/output relations and propose an application of a waveform relaxation algorithm. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum number of iterations of the proposed algorithm are mathematically analyzed. The concept of controller/circuit coupling is illustrated by an example of the co-simulation of a PI power converter controller and a model of the main dipole circuit of the Large Hadron Collider.

  3. Non-Linear Compton Scattering in a Strong Rotating Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Raicher, Erez; Zigler, Arie

    2016-01-01

    The non-linear Compton scattering rate in a rotating electric field is explicitly calculated for the first time. For this purpose, a novel solution to the Klein-Gordon equation in the presence of a rotating electric field is applied. An analytical expression for the emission rate is obtained, as well as a simplified approximation adequate for emplementation in kinetic codes. The spectrum is numerically calculated for nowadays optical and X-ray laser parameters. The results are compared to the standard Volkov-Ritus rate for a particle in a plane wave, which is commonly assumed to be valid for a rotating electric field under certain conditions. Subsequent deviations between the two models, both in the radiated power and the spectral shape, are demonstrated. First, the typical number of photons participating in the scattering process is much smaller compared to the Volkov-Ritus rate, resulting in up to an order of magnitude lower emitted power. Furthermore, our model predicts a discrete harmonics spectrum for el...

  4. History of Physics as a Tool to Detect the Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Students: The Case of Simple Electric Circuits in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Matteo

    2014-04-01

    The present paper advocates the use of History of Science into the teaching of science in primary education through a case study in the field of electricity. In this study, which provides both historical and experimental evidence, a number of conceptual difficulties faced by early nineteenth century physicists are shown to be a useful tool to detect 5th grade pupils' conceptions about the simple electric circuits. This result was obtained through the administration of schematics showing circuital situation inspired to early 1800s experiments on the effects of electric current on water electrolysis and on the behaviour of magnetic compasses. It is also shown that the detecting of pupils' alternative ideas about electric current in a circuit is highly dependent on the survey methodology (open ended questions and drawings, multiple-choice item, connecting card work, and history of science tasks were considered in this study) and that the so-called "unipolar model" of electric circuit is more pervasive than previously acknowledged. Finally, a highly significant hybrid model of electric current is identified.

  5. NONLINEAR J-E CHARACTERISTICS IN THE ELECTRIC-THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM STATE FOR HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zheng; Yi-hu Song; Xiao-su Yi

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear J-E characteristics under self-heating equilibrium for conductive composites based on high density polyethylene were studied. The results show that there are identical conduction mechanisms under self-heating equilibrium for the composites with various initial resistivities determined by filler content or ambient temperature. The nonlinear conduction behavior was involved in the limited microstructure transformations of the conducting network induced by electrical field applied and the corresponding self-heating effect. A reversible thermal fuse (RTF) model was suggested to interpret the physical origin of the nonlinear J-E characteristics.

  6. ZER4型蓄电池电力工程车主电路分析%The Main Circuit Analysis of ZER4 Battery Electric Locomotives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玉丹; 丁伟民; 李琛玫

    2016-01-01

    This article mainly take ZER4 Battery Electric Locomotives for example detailed presents the following aspects: from structure of main circuit, technical parameters, principle of main circuit, power supply mode conversion and circuit protection.%主要以ZER4型蓄电池电力工程车为例,从主电路结构、主要技术参数、主电路原理、各供电模式转换分析及电路保护等进行详尽的阐述。

  7. 车载网络技术对汽车传统电路的影响%Influence of Vehicle Network Technology on Traditional Vehicle electric Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋捷

    2013-01-01

      文章论述了车载网络技术对汽车传统电路的影响。通过比较前照灯的传统电路与自适应前照明系统工作原理和布线方式等方面的不同,说明传统汽车电路已经远远不能满足智能汽车的需要。%The thesis discuss influence of vehicle network technology on traditional vehicle electric circuit. According to comparing with the headlamp traditional electric circuit and adaptive font-lighting system , we conclude that the tradi-tional automobile electric circuit data transmission has been far from satisfying the needs of the smart car.

  8. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  9. 直流与交流电气线路中铜导线短路痕迹的分析%Analysis on short circuit trace of copper wire in direct and alternating current electric circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连铁; 高伟; 赵长征; 袁晓光

    2012-01-01

    直流电气线路及交流电气线路中铜导线发生短路故障时所形成的熔痕的组织特征不同,为区分二者之间的差别,利用模拟试验手段制备出金相样品,并采用宏观分析、金相分析等各种技术手段进行分析总结,归纳出二者发生短路故障时所形成的痕迹特征规律.模拟研究结果表明,直流线路一次短路熔痕的金相组织以细小的柱状晶为主,且孔洞较少;在交流线路中,一次短路故障形成的熔痕的金相组织胞状晶较多,且交、直流电气线路中铜导线发生短路故障时所形成的熔痕的组织特征明显不同,这些特征可用于实际鉴定工作中.%The microstructural characteristics of melted marks formed due to the short circuit fault of copper wire in direct current(DC) and alternating current(AC) electric circuits are different.In order to distinguish the difference between them,the metallographic samples were prepared through the simulation tests.In addition,such technical means as macro analysis and metallographic analysis were used to analyze and summarize the characteristics of the mark formed due to the short circuit fault in DC and AC electric circuits.The simulation results show that the microstructures of melted marks formed due to the primary short circuit fault in DC circuit are mainly composed of fine columnar crystals with fewer holes.However,the microstructures of melted marks formed due to the primary short circuit fault in AC circuit contain more cellular crystals.Furthermore,the microstructural characteristics of melted marks formed due to the short circuit faults of copper wire in DC and AC electric circuits are obviously different,and can provide the reference for the actual identification work.

  10. An analytical study of non-linear behaviour of coupled 2+2x0.5 DOF electro-magneto-mechanical system by a method of multiple scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    An electro-magneto-mechanical system combines three physical domains - a mechanical structure, a magnetic field and an electric circuit. The interaction between these domains is analysed for a structure with two degrees of freedom (translational and rotational) and two electrical circuits. Each...... electrical circuit is described by a differential equation of the 1st order, which is considered to contribute to the coupled system by 0.5 DOF. The electrical and mechanical systems are coupled via a magnetic circuit, which is inherently non-linear, due to a non-linear nature of the electro-magnetic force...

  11. Generation of Nonlinear Electric Field Bursts in the Outer Radiation Belt through Electrons Trapping by Oblique Whistler Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, Oleksiy; Drake, James; Mozer, Forrest

    2016-04-01

    Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.

  12. Properties and application of a multichannel integrated circuit for low-artifact, patterned electrical stimulation of neural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottowy, Paweł; Skoczeń, Andrzej; Gunning, Deborah E.; Kachiguine, Sergei; Mathieson, Keith; Sher, Alexander; Wiącek, Piotr; Litke, Alan M.; Dąbrowski, Władysław

    2012-01-01

    Objective Modern multielectrode array (MEA) systems can record the neuronal activity from thousands of electrodes, but their ability to provide spatio-temporal patterns of electrical stimulation is very limited. Furthermore, the stimulus-related artifacts significantly limit the ability to record the neuronal responses to the stimulation. To address these issues, we designed a multichannel integrated circuit for patterned MEA-based electrical stimulation and evaluated its performance in experiments with isolated mouse and rat retina. Approach The Stimchip includes 64 independent stimulation channels. Each channel comprises an internal digital-to-analog converter that can be configured as a current or voltage source. The shape of the stimulation waveform is defined independently for each channel by the real-time data stream. In addition, each channel is equipped with circuitry for reduction of the stimulus artifact. Main results Using a high-density MEA stimulation/recording system, we effectively stimulated individual retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and recorded the neuronal responses with minimal distortion, even on the stimulating electrodes. We independently stimulated a population of RGCs in rat retina and, using a complex spatio-temporal pattern of electrical stimulation pulses, we replicated visually-evoked spiking activity of a subset of these cells with high fidelity. Significance Compared with current state-of-the-art MEA systems, the Stimchip is able to stimulate neuronal cells with much more complex sequences of electrical pulses and with significantly reduced artifacts. This opens up new possibilities for studies of neuronal responses to electrical stimulation, both in the context of neuroscience research and in the development of neuroprosthetic devices. PMID:23160018

  13. Stationary and nonstationary models of the global electric circuit: Well-posedness, analytical relations, and numerical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Slyunyaev, N. N.; Mareev, E. A.; Zhidkov, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the formulation of the problem of global atmospheric electric circuit modeling. It was shown that under some relatively simple and widely used simplifying assumptions this problem can be reduced to finding the temporal and spatial dependencies of the electric potential on the specified generators, which are determined by the external electric current density. They correspond to thunderclouds in the real atmosphere. The ionospheric potential (the potential difference between the upper and lower atmospheric boundaries) is not specified explicitly but can be uniquely determined from the solution. The formulations of the stationary and nonstationary problems are given in terms of the potential and their well-posedness is discussed. We obtained a number of analytical relations under some restrictions on the distribution of conductivity. They include the formulas which explicitly express the ionospheric potential in terms of the problem parameters. The examples of numerical calculations using the software developed on the basis of general formulations of the stationary and nonstationary problems are demonstrated.

  14. Robust stabilization for a class of nonlinear systems via a single input control applicable to chaotic systems and its circuit implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeong-Jeu; Wu, Yu-Biaw; Wang, Ching-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the concept of global exponential ε-stabilization is introduced and the robust stabilization for a class of nonlinear systems with single input is investigated. Based on Lyapunov-like Theorem with differential and integral inequalities, a feedback control is proposed to realize the global stabilization of such nonlinear systems with any pre-specified exponential convergence rate. The guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be also correctly estimated. This result can be straightforwardly applicable to some famous chaotic systems. Besides, it will be proven that a single and linear control, with lower dimensions than that of the states, can realize the global exponential stability of some famous chaotic systems. Finally, comparisons of our main results with recently published results as well as numerical examples with circuit realization are provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the obtained results.

  15. On a regular charged black hole with a nonlinear electric source

    CERN Document Server

    Culetu, Hristu

    2014-01-01

    A modified version of the Reissner-Nordstrom metric is proposed on the grounds of the nonlinear electrodynamics model. The source of curvature is an anisotropic fluid with $p_{r} = -\\rho$ which resembles the Maxwell stress tensor at $r >> q^{2}/2m$, where $q$ and $m$ are the mass and charge of the particle, respectively. We found the black hole horizon entropy obeys the relation $S = |W|/2T = A_{H}/4$, with $W$ the Komar energy and $A_{H}$ the horizon area. The electric field around the source depends not only on its charge but also on its mass. The corresponding electrostatic potential $\\Phi(r)$ is finite everywhere, vanishes at the origin and at $r = q^{2}/6m$ and is nonzero asymptotically, with $\\Phi_{\\infty} = 3m/2q$.

  16. Linear and Nonlinear Electrical Models of Neurons for Hopfield Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Farah; Iqbal, Shaukat; Hussain, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-11-01

    A novel electrical model of neuron is proposed in this presentation. The suggested neural network model has linear/nonlinear input-output characteristics. This new deterministic model has joint biological properties in excellent agreement with the earlier deterministic neuron model of Hopfield and Tank and to the stochastic neuron model of McCulloch and Pitts. It is an accurate portrayal of differential equation presented by Hopfield and Tank to mimic neurons. Operational amplifiers, resistances, capacitor, and diodes are used to design this system. The presented biological model of neurons remains to be advantageous for simulations. Impulse response is studied and conferred to certify the stability and strength of this innovative model. A simple illustration is mapped to demonstrate the exactness of the intended system. Precisely mapped illustration exhibits 100 % accurate results.

  17. Second-order nonlinear susceptibility in quantum dot structure under applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Noori, Farah T. Mohammed; Al-Khursan, Amin H.

    2015-06-01

    A model for quantum dot (QD) subbands, when the dots are in the form of quantum disks, under applied electric field was stated. Then, subbands of dots with different disk radii and heights were calculated under applied field. The competition between the shift due to confinement by field and the size was shown for subbands. Second-order nonlinear susceptibility in quantum dots (QDs) was derived using density matrix theory which is, then, simulated using the calculated subbands. Both interband (IB) and intersubband (ISB) transitions were discussed. High second-order susceptibility in QDs was predicted. The results show a reduction in the susceptibility with the applied field while the peak wavelength was mainly relates to energy difference between subbands. A good match between theory and laboratory experiments was observed. Laboratory experiments at terahertz region might be possible using valence intersubband which is important in many device applications.

  18. Electric vehicle state of charge estimation: Nonlinear correlation and fuzzy support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hanmin; Xiao, Jian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the state of charge (SOC) of the lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack by applying machine learning strategy. To reduce the noise sensitive issue of common machine learning strategies, a kind of SOC estimation method based on fuzzy least square support vector machine is proposed. By applying fuzzy inference and nonlinear correlation measurement, the effects of the samples with low confidence can be reduced. Further, a new approach for determining the error interval of regression results is proposed to avoid the control system malfunction. Tests are carried out on modified COMS electric vehicles, with two battery packs each consists of 24 50 Ah LiFePO4 batteries. The effectiveness of the method is proven by the test and the comparison with other popular methods.

  19. A nonlinear fuzzy assisted image reconstruction algorithm for electrical capacitance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deabes, W A; Abdelrahman, M A

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear method based on a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) to improve the images obtained from Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) is proposed. Estimation of the molten metal characteristic in the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) process is a novel application in the area of the tomography process. The convergence rate of iterative image reconstruction techniques is dependent on the accuracy of the first image. The possibility of the existence of metal in the first image is computed by the proposed fuzzy system. This first image is passed to an iterative image reconstruction technique to get more precise images and to speed up the convergence rate. The proposed technique is able to detect the position of the metal on the periphery of the imaging area by using just eight capacitive sensors. The final results demonstrate the advantage of using the FIS compared to the performance of the iterative back projection image reconstruction technique.

  20. Electrical nonlinear response of a photomixer for applications in ultrafast measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Florin L.

    2014-05-01

    Electrical nonlinear response of a low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixer is exploited for THz-wave modulation, detection and waveform sampling. Current-voltage response at low bias field is modelled by electron drift velocity saturation. THz-wave rectification is discussed in a small-signal approximation and experimentally addressed in connection with the curvature of IV plot. The optical heterodyne signal from two lasers down-converted with the photomixer is modulated by applying an alternative bias field. Conversely, heterodyne detection of a continuous-wave THz source is demonstrated with the photomixer using the optical beat between the lasers as local oscillator. Alternatively, THz-waves with tunable carrier and pulse repetition rate are generated with a THz frequency multiplier driven by a pulsed microwave synthesizer. Asynchronous optical sampling with a pulsed optical beat is demonstrated with the heterodyne detection scheme.

  1. Non-linear analysis of body responses to functional electrical stimulation on hemiplegic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W W; Acharya, U R; Lim, T C; Low, H W

    2009-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a method of applying low-level electrical currents to restore or improve body functions lost through nervous system impairment. FES is applied to peripheral nerves that control specific muscles or muscle groups. Application of advanced signal computing techniques to the medical field has helped to achieve practical solutions to the health care problems accurately. The physiological signals are essentially non-stationary and may contain indicators of current disease, or even warnings about impending diseases. These indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random on the timescale. However, to study and pinpoint these subtle changes in the voluminous data collected over several hours is tedious. These signals, e.g. walking-related accelerometer signals, are not simply linear and involve non-linear contributions. Hence, non-linear signal-processing methods may be useful to extract the hidden complexities of the signal and to aid physicians in their diagnosis. In this work, a young female subject with major neuromuscular dysfunction of the left lower limb, which resulted in an asymmetric hemiplegic gait, participated in a series of FES-assisted walking experiments. Two three-axis accelerometers were attached to her left and right ankles and their corresponding signals were recorded during FES-assisted walking. The accelerometer signals were studied in three directions using the Hurst exponent H, the fractal dimension (FD), the phase space plot, and recurrence plots (RPs). The results showed that the H and FD values increase with increasing FES, indicating more synchronized variability due to FES for the left leg (paralysed leg). However, the variation in the normal right leg is more chaotic on FES.

  2. Nonlinear Control Synthesis for Electrical Power Systems Using Controllable Series Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarekar, N S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector $g(x)$ in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stab...

  3. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  4. Development of hydraulic power unit and accumulator charging circuit for electricity generation, storage and distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.N.Okoye; JIANG Ji-hai; LIU Hai-chang

    2008-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to convert hydraulic energy to electric energy and saves both the pressure and electrical energy for re - use during the next system upstroke using two secondary units coupled to induction motor to drive cylinder loads. During upstroke operation, the variable pump/motor (P/M) driven by both electric motor and the second (P/M) works as hydraulic pump and output flow to the cylinders which drive the load. During load deceleration, the cylinders work as pump while the operation of the two secondary units are reversed, the variable (P/M) works as a motor generating a torque with the electric motor to drive the other(P/M) which transforms mechanical energy to hydraulic energy that is saved in the accumulator. When the en-ergy storage capacity of the accumulator is attained as the operation continues, energy storage to the accumulator is thermostatically stopped while the induction motor begins to work as a generator and generates electricity that is stored in the power distribution unit. Simulations were performed using a limited PT2 Block, I.e. 2nd-ordertransfer function with limitation of slope and signal output to determine suitable velocity of the cylinder which will match high performance and system stability. A mathematical model suited to the simulation of the hydrau-lic accumulator both in an open-or close-loop system is presented. The quest for improvement of lower energy capacity storage, saving and re-utilization of the conventional accumulator resulting in the short cycle time usage of hydraulic accumulators both in domestic and industrial purposes necessitates this research. The outcome of the research appears to be very efficient for generating fluctuation free electricity, power quality and reliability, energy saving/reutilization and system noise reduction.

  5. The Equivalent Electrokinetic Circuit Model of Ion Concentration Polarization Layer: Electrical Double Layer, Extended Space Charge and Electro-convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Inhee; Huh, Keon; Kwak, Rhokyun; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-11-01

    The first direct chronopotentiometric measurement was provided to distinguish the potential difference through the extended space charge (ESC) layer which is formed with the electrical double layer (EDL) near a perm-selective membrane. From this experimental result, the linear relationship was obtained between the resistance of ESC and the applied current density. Furthermore, we observed the step-wise distributions of relaxation time at the limiting current regime, confirming the existence of ESC capacitance other than EDL's. In addition, we proposed the equivalent electrokinetic circuit model inside ion concentration polarization (ICP) layer under rigorous consideration of EDL, ESC and electro-convection (EC). In order to elucidate the voltage configuration in chronopotentiometric measurement, the EC component was considered as the "dependent voltage source" which is serially connected to the ESC layer. This model successfully described the charging behavior of the ESC layer with or without EC, where both cases determined each relaxation time, respectively. Finally, we quantitatively verified their values utilizing the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. Therefore, this unified circuit model would provide a key insight of ICP system and potential energy-efficient applications.

  6. Experimental verification of a thermal equivalent circuit dynamic model on an extended range electric vehicle battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramotar, Lokendra; Rohrauer, Greg L.; Filion, Ryan; MacDonald, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    The development of a dynamic thermal battery model for hybrid and electric vehicles is realized. A thermal equivalent circuit model is created which aims to capture and understand the heat propagation from the cells through the entire pack and to the environment using a production vehicle battery pack for model validation. The inclusion of production hardware and the liquid battery thermal management system components into the model considers physical and geometric properties to calculate thermal resistances of components (conduction, convection and radiation) along with their associated heat capacity. Various heat sources/sinks comprise the remaining model elements. Analog equivalent circuit simulations using PSpice are compared to experimental results to validate internal temperature nodes and heat rates measured through various elements, which are then employed to refine the model further. Agreement with experimental results indicates the proposed method allows for a comprehensive real-time battery pack analysis at little computational expense when compared to other types of computer based simulations. Elevated road and ambient conditions in Mesa, Arizona are simulated on a parked vehicle with varying quiescent cooling rates to examine the effect on the diurnal battery temperature for longer term static exposure. A typical daily driving schedule is also simulated and examined.

  7. Creating a simple electric circuit with children between the ages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Βασιλικη

    Art. # 1233, 9 pages, doi: 10.15700/saje.v36n2a1233 ... In the context of science education and the various branches of psychology that have to do with learning ... While studying the question of how eight-year-old children tackle simple electrical phenomena, Shipstone ... children's predictions and explanations regarding.

  8. Resolving Vacuum Fluctuations in an Electrical Circuit by Measuring the Lamb Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragner, Andreas; Goppl, Martin; Blais, Alexandre; Wallraff, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Quantum theory predicts that empty space is not truly empty. Even in the absence of any particles or radiation, in pure vacuum, virtual particles are constantly created and annihilated. In an electromagnetic field, the presence of virtual photons manifests itself as a small renormalization of the energy of a quantum system, known as the Lamb shift. We present an experimental observation of the Lamb shift in a solid-state system. The strong dispersive coupling of a superconducting electronic circuit acting as a quantum bit (qubit) to the vacuum field in a transmission-line resonator leads to measurable Lamb shifts of up to 1.4% of the qubit transition frequency. The qubit is also observed to couple more strongly to the vacuum field than to a single photon inside the cavity, an effect that is explained by taking into account the limited anharmonicity of the higher excited qubit states.

  9. Nonlinear physics of electrical wave propagation in the heart: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus; Echebarria, Blas

    2016-09-01

    The beating of the heart is a synchronized contraction of muscle cells (myocytes) that is triggered by a periodic sequence of electrical waves (action potentials) originating in the sino-atrial node and propagating over the atria and the ventricles. Cardiac arrhythmias like atrial and ventricular fibrillation (AF,VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) are caused by disruptions and instabilities of these electrical excitations, that lead to the emergence of rotating waves (VT) and turbulent wave patterns (AF,VF). Numerous simulation and experimental studies during the last 20 years have addressed these topics. In this review we focus on the nonlinear dynamics of wave propagation in the heart with an emphasis on the theory of pulses, spirals and scroll waves and their instabilities in excitable media with applications to cardiac modeling. After an introduction into electrophysiological models for action potential propagation, the modeling and analysis of spatiotemporal alternans, spiral and scroll meandering, spiral breakup and scroll wave instabilities like negative line tension and sproing are reviewed in depth and discussed with emphasis on their impact for cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Electric-field-induced fabrication of covalently linked second-order nonlinear optical multilayer films on nonconductive substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhao, Lisha; Cui, Zhanchen

    2012-01-15

    A highly stable second-order nonlinear optical multilayer film was constructed on insulating substrates using the electric-field-induced layer-by-layer assembly technique. The substrates used in this method could be arbitrary. In another, the substrates could be modified with polyanion solution by spin coating as cladding layer. Then, the nonlinear optical multilayer films were assembled on the cladding layer directly by the electric-field-induced layer-by-layer assembly technique. The resulting cross-linked multilayer films fabricated by this method displayed high optical transparency, good thermal stability, and excellent nonlinear optical properties which can be made into waveguide devices directly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication and electrical characterization of sub-micron diameter through-silicon via for heterogeneous three-dimensional integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, R.; Brown, D. K.; Bakir, M. S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and electrical characterization of high aspect-ratio (AR) sub-micron diameter through silicon vias (TSVs) for densely interconnected three-dimensional (3D) stacked integrated circuits (ICs). The fabricated TSV technology features an AR of 16:1 with 680 nm diameter copper (Cu) core and 920 nm overall diameter. To address the challenges in scaling TSVs, scallop-free low roughness nano-Bosch silicon etching and direct Cu electroplating on a titanium-nitride (TiN) diffusion barrier layer have been developed as key enabling modules. The electrical resistance of the sub-micron TSVs is measured to be on average 1.2 Ω, and the Cu resistivity is extracted to be approximately 2.95 µΩ cm. Furthermore, the maximum achievable current-carrying capacity (CCC) of the scaled TSVs is characterized to be approximately 360 µA for the 680 nm Cu core.

  12. Do Skilled Elementary Teachers Hold Scientific Conceptions and Can They Accurately Predict the Type and Source of Students' Preconceptions of Electric Circuits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Holding scientific conceptions and having the ability to accurately predict students' preconceptions are a prerequisite for science teachers to design appropriate constructivist-oriented learning experiences. This study explored the types and sources of students' preconceptions of electric circuits. First, 438 grade 3 (9 years old) students were…

  13. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF TRANSIENT EMERGENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES IN THE SYSTEM OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRACTION DC. 2. SHORT CIRCUIT WITH ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Mihalichenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description of mathematical model of the system of traction electric power supply with load in the short circuit condition as well as the calculation results of this emergency process. The transition values as well as the character of their change, which can be used for detection of emergency processes, have been determined.

  14. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Basic Electricity and Electronics. CANTRAC A-100-0010. Module 34: Linear Integrated Circuits. Study Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chief of Naval Education and Training Support, Pensacola, FL.

    This individualized learning module on linear integrated circuits is one in a series of modules for a course in basic electricity and electronics. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instructional and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Two lessons are included in…

  15. New model simulations of the global atmospheric electric circuit driven by thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds: The roles of lightning and sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rycroft, Michael J.; Odzimek, Anna; Arnold, Neil F.

    2007-01-01

    Several processes acting below, in and above thunderstorms and in electrified shower clouds drive upward currents which close through the global atmospheric electric circuit, These are all simulated in a novel way using the software package PSpice. A moderate negative cloud-to-ground lightning di...

  16. A new pulse width signal processing with delay-line and non-linear circuit (for ToT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orita, Tadashi, E-mail: orita@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Shimazoe, Kenji; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Boxuan, Shi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-21

    Traditional pulse-height-analysis systems suffer from the complexity arising from ADC circuits. In particular, it is difficult to be applied to a large format array of pixilated detectors. Each channel of such an energy resolving multichannel system must be low power consumption and therefore it must be composed of simple circuits. The time-over-threshold (ToT) method provides an inexpensive way in such a system. However, ToT method suffers from a poor linearity. We now propose a method to improve the linearity with the dynamic time-over-threshold method that relies on a dynamic threshold voltage and the trapezoidal shaping method.

  17. Calculation of cooling internal circuits loss of load curve in giant electric machines; Calculo da curva de perda de carga dos circuitos axiais internos de refrigeracao de maquinas eletricas gigantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Hilton Penha [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia do Produto; Passos, Alex Sandro Barbosa [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Produto

    2001-07-01

    This article describes a method for calculation of the loss of load curve for the ventilation axial circuits. The method assumes the ventilation circuit representation in a way similar to the electrical circuits. The great difficulty of circuit solution resides in the non linearity of the loss of load resistances and the equations relating the pressures and flows. The method is based on the association of the resistance curves of loss of load in a such way that, when the resistance curve of the total circuit loss of load is obtained, the blower operation point can be easily obtained and, consequently, the individual flows for each section of the circuit.

  18. All-electrical nonlinear fano resonance in coupled quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shiran

    This thesis is motivated by recent interest in the Fano resonance (FR). As a wave-interference phenomenon, this resonance is of increasing importance in optics, plasmon-ics, and metamaterials, where its ability to cause rapid signal modulations under variation of some suitable parameter makes it desirable for a variety of applications. In this thesis, I focus on a novel manifestation of this resonance in systems of coupled quantum point contacts (QPCs). The major finding of this work is that the FR in this system may be ma-nipulated by applying a nonlinear DC bias to the system. Under such conditions, we are able to induce significant distortions of resonance lineshape, providing a pathway to all-electrical manipulation of the FR. To interpret this behavior we apply a recently-developed model for a three-path FR, involving an additional "intruder" continuum. We have previously used this model to account for the magnetic-field induced distortions of the FR observed in coupled QPCs, and show here that this model also provides a frame-work for understanding the observed nonlinear behavior. Our work therefore reveals a new manifestation of the FR that can be sensitively tailored by external control, a finding that may eventually allow the application of this feature to nanoelectronics. Since the in-terference scheme involves in this thesis is a completely general one, it should be broadly applicable across a variety of different wave-based systems, including those in both pho-tonics and electronics and opening up the possibility of new applications in areas such as chemical and biological sensing and secure communications.

  19. Nonlinear control synthesis for electrical power systems using controllable series capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjarekar, N.S.; Banavar, Ravi N. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Systems and Control Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this work we derive asymptotically stabilizing control laws for electrical power systems using two nonlinear control synthesis techniques. For this transient stabilization problem the actuator considered is a power electronic device, a controllable series capacitor (CSC). The power system is described using two different nonlinear models - the second order swing equation and the third order flux-decay model. To start with, the CSC is modeled by the injection model which is based on the assumption that the CSC dynamics is very fast as compared to the dynamics of the power system and hence can be approximated by an algebraic equation. Here, by neglecting the CSC dynamics, the input vector g(x) in the open loop system takes a complex form - the injection model. Using this model, interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology is demonstrated on two power systems: a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system and a two machine system. Further, IDA-PBC is used to derive stabilizing controllers for power systems, where the CSC dynamics are included as a first order system. Next, we consider a different control methodology, immersion and invariance (I and I), to synthesize an asymptotically stabilizing control law for the SMIB system with a CSC. The CSC is described by a first order system. As a generalization of I and I, we incorporate the power balance algebraic constraints in the load bus to the SMIB swing equation, and extend the design philosophy to a class of differential algebraic systems. The proposed result is then demonstrated on another example: a two-machine system with two load buses and a CSC. The controller performances are validated through simulations for all cases.

  20. Electric field effect on the zigzag (6,0) single-wall BC2N nanotube for use in nano-electronic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baei, Mohammad T; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Moghimi, Masoumeh; Hashemian, Saeede

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the effect of external electric field on the zigzag (6,0) single-wall BC2N nanotube using density functional theory calculations. Analysis of the structural parameters indicates that the nanotube is resistant against the external electric field strengths. Analysis of the electronic structure of the nanotube indicates that the applied parallel electric field strengths have a much stronger interaction with the nanotube with respect to the transverse electric field strengths and the nanotube is easier to modulate by the applied parallel electric field. Our results show that the properties of the nanotube can be controlled by the proper external electric field for use in nano-electronic circuits.

  1. Nonlinear imaging techniques for the observation of cell membrane perturbation due to pulsed electric field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Erick K.; Beier, Hope T.; Thompson, Gary L.; Roth, Caleb C.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear optical probes, especially those involving second harmonic generation (SHG), have proven useful as sensors for near-instantaneous detection of alterations to orientation or energetics within a substance. This has been exploited to some success for observing conformational changes in proteins. SHG probes, therefore, hold promise for reporting rapid and minute changes in lipid membranes. In this report, one of these probes is employed in this regard, using nanosecond electric pulses (nsEPs) as a vehicle for instigating subtle membrane perturbations. The result provides a useful tool and methodology for the observation of minute membrane perturbation, while also providing meaningful information on the phenomenon of electropermeabilization due to nsEP. The SHG probe Di- 4-ANEPPDHQ is used in conjunction with a tuned optical setup to demonstrate nanoporation preferential to one hemisphere, or pole, of the cell given a single square shaped pulse. The results also confirm a correlation of pulse width to the amount of poration. Furthermore, the polarity of this event and the membrane physics of both hemispheres, the poles facing either electrode, were tested using bipolar pulses consisting of two pulses of opposite polarity. The experiment corroborates findings by other researchers that these types of pulses are less effective in causing repairable damage to the lipid membrane of cells.

  2. Nonlinear inversion of electrical resistivity imaging using pruning Bayesian neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei-Bo; Dai, Qian-Wei; Dong, Li

    2016-06-01

    Conventional artificial neural networks used to solve electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) inversion problem suffer from overfitting and local minima. To solve these problems, we propose to use a pruning Bayesian neural network (PBNN) nonlinear inversion method and a sample design method based on the K-medoids clustering algorithm. In the sample design method, the training samples of the neural network are designed according to the prior information provided by the K-medoids clustering results; thus, the training process of the neural network is well guided. The proposed PBNN, based on Bayesian regularization, is used to select the hidden layer structure by assessing the effect of each hidden neuron to the inversion results. Then, the hyperparameter α k , which is based on the generalized mean, is chosen to guide the pruning process according to the prior distribution of the training samples under the small-sample condition. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than other common adaptive regularization methods in geophysics. The inversion of synthetic data and field data suggests that the proposed method suppresses the noise in the neural network training stage and enhances the generalization. The inversion results with the proposed method are better than those of the BPNN, RBFNN, and RRBFNN inversion methods as well as the conventional least squares inversion.

  3. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented.......The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  4. Ultra-broadband Nonlinear Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits in SiGe, GaAs and InP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    conversion gain with a 3 dB bandwidth of 10 GHz for SiGe and in excess of 20 GHz for GaAs processes. The concurrent LO-IF isolation is better than -25 dB, without including the improvement due to the combiner circuit. The converter circuits exhibit similar instantaneous bandwidth at IF and RF ports of ≫ 7.......5 GHz and ≫ 10 GHz for SiGe BiCMOS and GaAs MMIC, respectively. Analysis of the frequency behaviour of frequency converting devices is presented for improved mixer design. Millimeter-wave front-end components for advanced microwave imaging and communications purposes have also been demonstrated...

  5. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  6. Analysis, Adaptive Control and Adaptive Synchronization of a Nine-Term Novel 3-D Chaotic System with Four Quadratic Nonlinearities and its Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaidyanathan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes a nine-term novel 3-D chaotic system with four quadratic nonlinearities and details its qualitative properties. The phase portraits of the 3-D novel chaotic system simulated using MATLAB, depict the strange chaotic attractor of the system. For the parameter values chosen in this work, the Lyapunov exponents of the novel chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 6.8548, L2 = 0 and L3 = −32.8779. Also, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel chaotic system is obtained as DKY = 2.2085. Next, an adaptive controller is design to achieve global stabilization of the 3-D novel chaotic system with unknown system parameters. Moreover, an adaptive controller is designed to achieve global chaos synchronization of two identical novel chaotic systems with unknown system parameters. Finally, an electronic circuit realization of the novel chaotic system is presented using SPICE to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical model.

  7. Description of Self-efficacy and Initial Cognitive Abilities on the Students’ Physics Learning of the Direct Current Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenudin; Maknun, J.; Muslim

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine description of self -efficacy and initial cognitive abilities on the students of MAN 1 Bandung (senior high school) in learning physics on the subject of electrical circuits Direct Current (DC) before they get academy ask assigned in the classroom. From the results of this research can be used as a reference to provide appropriate measures for the advancement of student learning. The theory used in this research is the theory of Bandura. The design in this study using case study and data collection is done by tests and questionnaires, sampling techniques used by random sampling, the study was conducted on 10th grade students of MAN 1 Bandung by the amount of students 35 participants. The results of data analysis showed that the percentage of students who have moderate self-efficacy amounted to 67.05 %, and cognitive ability 50 %, this shows that the process of learning that takes place in school before that junior high school is not much scientific implement processes that provide students the opportunity to discover new things, then learning approaches of right is Problem Based Learning (PBL).

  8. Learning Electrical Circuits: The Effects of the 4C-ID Instructional Approach in the Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional on learners’ knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two groups: an experimental group constituted three intact classes (n = 78; and a control group constituted two intact classes (n = 51. The experimental group was taught using a digital learning environment designed with the 4C-ID model principles while the control group learned the same contents through a conventional method. We assessed the students’ performance (knowledge-acquisition and transfer, the perceived cognitive load, and the instructional efficiency. Results indicated that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on a knowledge-acquisition test and in a learning transfer test. They also perceived a less cognitive load in the transfer test and the learning environment developed with the 4C-ID model proved to be more instructional efficient than the conventional method.

  9. An Examination of AC/HVDC Power Circuits for Interconnecting Bulk Wind Generation with the Electric Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ludois

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of high voltage dc (HVDC transmission for integrating large scale and/or off-shore wind generation systems with the electric grid is attractive in comparison to extra high voltage (EHV ac transmission due to a variety of reasons. While the technology of classical current sourced converters (CSC using thyristors is well established for realization of large HVDC systems, the technology of voltage sourced converters (VSC is emerging to be an alternative approach, particularly suitable for multi-terminal interconnections. More recently, a more modular scheme that may be termed ‘bridge of bridge’ converters (BoBC has been introduced to realize HVDC systems. While all these three approaches are functionally capable of realizing HVDC systems, the converter power circuit design trade-offs between these alternatives are not readily apparent. This paper presents an examination of these topologies from the point of view of power semiconductor requirements, reactive component requirements, operating losses, fault tolerance, multi-terminal operation, modularity, complexity, etc. Detailed analytical models will be used along with a benchmark application to develop a comparative evaluation of the alternatives that maybe used by wind energy/bulk transmission developers for performing engineering trade-off studies.

  10. An examination of AC/HVDC power circuits for interconnecting bulk wind generation with the electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludois, D.; Venkataramanan, G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1415 Engineering Dr. Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The application of high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission for integrating large scale and/or off-shore wind generation systems with the electric grid is attractive in comparison to extra high voltage (EHV) AC transmission due to a variety of reasons. While the technology of classical current sourced converters (CSC) using thyristors is well established for realization of large HVDC systems, the technology of voltage sourced converters (VSC) is emerging to be an alternative approach, particularly suitable for multi-terminal interconnections. More recently, a more modular scheme that may be termed 'bridge of bridge' converters (BoBC) has been introduced to realize HVDC systems. While all these three approaches are functionally capable of realizing HVDC systems, the converter power circuit design trade-offs between these alternatives are not readily apparent. This paper presents an examination of these topologies from the point of view of power semiconductor requirements, reactive component requirements, operating losses, fault tolerance, multi-terminal operation, modularity, complexity, etc. Detailed analytical models will be used along with a benchmark application to develop a comparative evaluation of the alternatives that may be used by wind energy/bulk transmission developers for performing engineering trade-off studies. (author)

  11. Ultra-sensitive electrical immunoassay biosensors using nanotextured zinc oxide thin films on printed circuit board platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michael; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Engel Craven, Jon; Prasad, Shalini

    2014-05-15

    This study demonstrates the development of nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films sputter deposited on printed circuit boards (PCB) to enhance the capability in detecting low concentrations of the protein troponin-T. The presence of this particular biomarker in the bloodstream is a direct indicator of current and/or future risk of various forms of cardiovascular diseases. Electrical transduction through impedance spectroscopy was used to detect troponin-T functionalized immunoassays on nanotextured ZnO surfaces. Calibration of the immunoassay was performed by measuring the impedance changes resulting from the binding of increasing concentrations of troponin-T to the immobilized antibodies on the ZnO surface in (i) phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and (ii) human serum. The limit of detection achieved using this platform was 10 fg/mL and 100 fg/mL in PBS and human serum, respectively. Enhanced detection of troponin-T was found to correlate to the oxygen vacancies in the ZnO thin film. PCB was chosen as the substrate for ease of integration with microelectronic device manufacturing. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A 3-D RBF-FD elliptic solver for irregular boundaries: modeling the atmospheric global electric circuit with topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bayona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model based on Radial Basis Function-generated Finite Differences (RBF-FD is developed for simulating the Global Electric Circuit (GEC within the Earth's atmosphere, represented by a 3-D variable coefficient linear elliptic PDE in a spherically-shaped volume with the lower boundary being the Earth's topography and the upper boundary a sphere at 60 km. To our knowledge, this is (1 the first numerical model of the GEC to combine the Earth's topography with directly approximating the differential operators in 3-D space, and related to this (2 the first RBF-FD method to use irregular 3-D stencils for discretization to handle the topography. It benefits from the mesh-free nature of RBF-FD, which is especially suitable for modeling high-dimensional problems with irregular boundaries. The RBF-FD elliptic solver proposed here makes no limiting assumptions on the spatial variability of the coefficients in the PDE (i.e. the conductivity profile, the right hand side forcing term of the PDE (i.e. distribution of current sources or the geometry of the lower boundary.

  13. Nonlinear Acoustic Characterization of Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    matching so as to transmit as much energy as possible into the test object. In addition to this limitation, ultrasound is only able to measure range by...metric arrays for standoff analysis of targets. In 1982, Yoneyama[4] discussed the nonlinear interaction of ultrasound with air as the “scattering of... cavitation effect. This produces a rectification at higher frequencies just as a diode does in an electrical circuit. This natural rectification allows

  14. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric (EC effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.

  15. Consistency and advantage of loop regularization method merging with Bjorken-Drell's analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Da; Wu, Yue-Liang [Chinese Academy of Science, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (SKLTP), Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The consistency of loop regularization (LORE) method is explored in multiloop calculations. A key concept of the LORE method is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) which are evaluated from the Feynman diagrams by adopting the Feynman parametrization and ultraviolet-divergence-preserving (UVDP) parametrization. It is then inevitable for the ILIs to encounter the divergences in the UVDP parameter space due to the generic overlapping divergences in the four-dimensional momentum space. By computing the so-called {alpha}{beta}{gamma} integrals arising from two-loop Feynman diagrams, we show how to deal with the divergences in the parameter space with the LORE method. By identifying the divergences in the UVDP parameter space to those in the subdiagrams, we arrive at the Bjorken-Drell analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits. The UVDP parameters are shown to correspond to the conductance or resistance in the electrical circuits, and the divergence in Feynman diagrams is ascribed to the infinite conductance or zero resistance. In particular, the sets of conditions required to eliminate the overlapping momentum integrals for obtaining the ILIs are found to be associated with the conservations of electric voltages, and the momentum conservations correspond to the conservations of electrical currents, which are known as the Kirchhoff laws in the electrical circuits analogy. As a practical application, we carry out a detailed calculation for one-loop and two-loop Feynman diagrams in the massive scalar {phi}{sup 4} theory, which enables us to obtain the well-known logarithmic running of the coupling constant and the consistent power-law running of the scalar mass at two-loop level. Especially, we present an explicit demonstration on the general procedure of applying the LORE method to the multiloop calculations of Feynman diagrams when merging with the advantage of Bjorken-Drell's circuit analogy. (orig.)

  16. Nonlinear diffusion and thermo-electric coupling in a two-variable model of cardiac action potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, A.; Loppini, A.; Ruiz-Baier, R.; Ippolito, A.; Camassa, A.; La Camera, A.; Emmi, E.; Di Perna, L.; Garofalo, V.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2017-09-01

    This work reports the results of the theoretical investigation of nonlinear dynamics and spiral wave breakup in a generalized two-variable model of cardiac action potential accounting for thermo-electric coupling and diffusion nonlinearities. As customary in excitable media, the common Q10 and Moore factors are used to describe thermo-electric feedback in a 10° range. Motivated by the porous nature of the cardiac tissue, in this study we also propose a nonlinear Fickian flux formulated by Taylor expanding the voltage dependent diffusion coefficient up to quadratic terms. A fine tuning of the diffusive parameters is performed a priori to match the conduction velocity of the equivalent cable model. The resulting combined effects are then studied by numerically simulating different stimulation protocols on a one-dimensional cable. Model features are compared in terms of action potential morphology, restitution curves, frequency spectra, and spatio-temporal phase differences. Two-dimensional long-run simulations are finally performed to characterize spiral breakup during sustained fibrillation at different thermal states. Temperature and nonlinear diffusion effects are found to impact the repolarization phase of the action potential wave with non-monotone patterns and to increase the propensity of arrhythmogenesis.

  17. Fractal Electronic Circuits Assembled From Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, M. S.; McCarthy, D.; Taylor, R. P.; Brown, S. A.

    2009-07-01

    Many patterns in nature can be described using fractal geometry. The effect of this fractal character is an array of properties that can include high internal connectivity, high dispersivity, and enhanced surface area to volume ratios. These properties are often desirable in applications and, consequently, fractal geometry is increasingly employed in technologies ranging from antenna to storm barriers. In this paper, we explore the application of fractal geometry to electrical circuits, inspired by the pervasive fractal structure of neurons in the brain. We show that, under appropriate growth conditions, nanoclusters of Sb form into islands on atomically flat substrates via a process close to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), establishing fractal islands that will form the basis of our fractal circuits. We perform fractal analysis of the islands to determine the spatial scaling properties (characterized by the fractal dimension, D) of the proposed circuits and demonstrate how varying growth conditions can affect D. We discuss fabrication approaches for establishing electrical contact to the fractal islands. Finally, we present fractal circuit simulations, which show that the fractal character of the circuit translates into novel, non-linear conduction properties determined by the circuit's D value.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of a family of LC tuned inverters. [dc to square wave circuits for power conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    A family of four dc-to-square-wave LC tuned inverters are analyzed using singular point. Limit cycles and waveshape characteristics are given for three modes of oscillation: quasi-harmonic, relaxation, and discontinuous. An inverter in which the avalanche breakdown of the transistor emitter-to-base junction occurs is discussed and the starting characteristics of this family of inverters are presented. The LC tuned inverters are shown to belong to a family of inverters with a common equivalent circuit consisting of only three 'series' elements: a five-segment piecewise-linear current-controlled resistor, linear inductor, and linear capacitor.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of an electrically actuated mems device: Experimental and theoretical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-11-15

    This study deals with an experimental and theoretical investigation of an electrically actuated micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). The experimental nonlinear dynamics are explored via frequency sweeps in a neighborhood of the first symmetric natural frequency, at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation. Both the non-resonant branch, the resonant one, the jump between them, and the presence of a range of inevitable escape (dynamic pull-in) are observed. To simulate the experimental behavior, a single degree-offreedom spring mass model is derived, which is based on the information coming from the experimentation. Despite the apparent simplicity, the model is able to catch all the most relevant aspects of the device response. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Nevertheless, the theoretical predictions are not completely fulfilled in some aspects. In particular, the range of existence of each attractor is smaller in practice than in the simulations. This is because, under realistic conditions, disturbances are inevitably encountered (e.g. discontinuous steps when performing the sweeping, approximations in the modeling, etc.) and give uncertainties to the operating initial conditions. A reliable prediction of the actual (and not only theoretical) response is essential in applications. To take disturbances into account, we develop a dynamical integrity analysis. Integrity profiles and integrity charts are performed. They are able to detect the parameter range where each branch can be reliably observed in practice and where, instead, becomes vulnerable. Moreover, depending on the magnitude of the expected disturbances, the integrity charts can serve as a design guideline, in order to effectively operate the device in safe condition, according to the desired outcome. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  20. Meaningful learning of concepts of electric circuits making use of a virtual teaching environment by students of Young and Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliéverson Guerchi Gonzales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a teaching sequence that worked the fundamental concepts of electricity, as the intensity of the electric current, the electrical resistance and the combination of resistors in the Youth and Adult Education. The instructional material used as support of the teaching sequence was a Virtual Teaching Environment (VTE. The Virtual Teaching Environment includes issues related to simple electric circuits and its development is based on the principles of progressive differentiation and integrative reconciliation as proposed by the Meaningful Verbal Learning Theory by David Ausubel. Another milestone of this work is the Conceptual Change Model by Posner and colleagues. In order to evaluate the impact of the proposed teaching sequence on the students’ learning of the subject we made use of qualitative and quantitative analysis. For this goal, two classrooms in the second phase of Education of Young and Adult level were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group had access to the content through the VTE, while the control group accessed the content in the format of the traditional classroom. Data were collected in three moments: semi-structured clinical interview, test dissertation with real images of the components of simple electrical circuits and test dissertation with symbols usually used in physics to represent the electrical circuit components. All tests were applied before and after instruction. These tests were designed to search for evidence to the promotion of meaningful learning and conceptual change in students’ beliefs. The results, both quantitative and qualitative, indicate a significant difference in the post-tests of the experimental group as compared to the post-tests of the control group which points out to the positive effect of the proposed teaching sequence in to develop meaningful learning by the experimental group.

  1. 电路课程的历史、现状和前景%History, Status, and Prospects of the Electric Circuit Courses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚绍文; 郑君里; 于歆杰

    2011-01-01

    电路课程是高等学校电工程和信息类专业,甚至其它专业的一门重要的专业基础课。该课程的历史悠久,许多内容已相当成熟。但由于电子技术和信息技术的飞速发展,本课程仍然需要更新与改革。关于“电路课程如何更新与改革”这一话题,全世界有关院校都在热烈讨论。本文试图从回顾电路理论的发展过程中,从我国电路课程的演变中,从国际上最新发展动向中及从我国和美国近期电路课程的比较中探寻电路课程改革的方向。%The electric circuit course is an important specialized basic course for electrical and information or even more disciplines. It has long history and most of its contents are mature. But with the rapid development of electronic and information technology, the course still needs updates and reformation. In this paper, the authors try to find the reformation direction for the course by reviewing the development procedure of the circuit theory, evolving of the electric circuit course in China, surveying the latest developments in the world, and comparing the electric circuit courses from China and USA.

  2. 1D Modeling of a Bifacial Silicon Solar Cell under Frequency Modulation Monochromatic Illumination: Determination of the Equivalent Electrical Circuit Related to the Surface Recombination Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ly Diallo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present in this study the determination of the equivalent electrical circuits associated to the recombination velocities for a bifacial silicon solar cell under frequency modulation and monochromatic illumination. This determination is based on Bode and Nyquist diagrams that is the variations of the phase and the module of the back surface and intrinsic junction recombination velocities. Their dependence on illumination wavelength is also shown.

  3. The effect of non-linear capacitances in the localization properties of aperiodic dual electric transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Edmundo; Garrido, Alejandro; Neira, Félix

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the localization properties of dual electric transmission lines with non-linear capacitances. The VC,n voltage across each capacitor is selected as a non-linear function of the electric charge qn, i.e., VC,n = qn(1/Cn -ɛn|qn|2) where Cn is the linear part of the capacitance and ɛn the amplitude of the non-linear term. We follow a binary distribution of values of ɛn, according to the Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. The localization behavior of this non-linear case indicates that the case m = 2 does not belong to the m ≥ 3, family because when m changes from m = 2 to m = 3, the number of extended states diminishes dramatically. This proves the topological difference of the m = 2 and m = 3 families. However, by increasing m values, localization behavior of the m-tupling family resembles that of the m = 2, case because the system begins to regain its extended states. The exact same result was obtained recently in the study of linear direct transmission lines with m-tupling distribution of inductances. Consequently, we state that the localization behavior of the m-tupling family as a function of the m value is independent of both the linear and the non-linear system under study, but independent of the kind of transmission line (dual or direct). This is curious behavior of the m-tupling family and thus deserves more scholarly attention.

  4. Effects of radial electric field on suppression of electron-temperature-gradient mode through multiscale nonlinear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chanho; Kaneko, Toshiro; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ida, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Shigeru; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is ubiquitous in Nature and in the laboratory. Contrary to the importance of the ‘scale-free’ nature of cascade in neutral fluid turbulence, the turbulence in plasma is characterised by dynamics of distinct length scales. The cross-scale interactions can be highly non-symmetric so as to generate the plasma turbulence structures. Here we report that the system of hyper-fine electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) fluctuations and microscopic drift-wave (DW) fluctuations is strongly influenced by the sign of the gradient of the radial electric field through multiscale nonlinear interactions. The selective suppression effects by radial electric field inhomogeneity on DW mode induce a new route to modify ETG mode. This suppression mechanism shows disparity with respect to the sign of the radial electric field inhomogeneity, which can be driven by turbulence, so that it could be a new source for symmetry breaking in the turbulence structure formation in plasmas.

  5. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Nikolian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests, ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model, state of charge (SoC estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT and world harmonized light vehicle profiles have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL and aged (95%, 90% state of health ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro, polarization resistance (Rp, activation resistance (Rp2 and time constants (τ is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C. The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed.

  6. Circuit Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The U-shaped wire devices in the upper photo are Digi-Klipsm; aids to compact packaging of electrical and electronic devices. They serve as connectors linking the circuitry of one circuit board with another in multi-board systems. Digi-Klips were originally developed for Goddard Space Flight Center to meet a need for lightweight, reliable connectors to replace hand-wired connections formerly used in spacecraft. They are made of beryllium copper wire, noted for its excellent conductivity and its spring-like properties, which assure solid electrical contact over a long period of time.

  7. Nonzero Temperature Squeezing of the Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator and the Applications to the Capacitive Coupled Electric Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mai-Lin; YUAN Bing

    2002-01-01

    A new way to calculate the nonzero temperature quantum fluctuations of the time-dependent harmonicoscillator is proposed and the properties of squeezing are exactly given. The method is applied to the capacitive coupledelectric circuit. It is explicitly shown that squeezing can appear and the squeezing parameters are related to the physicalquantities of the coupled circuit.

  8. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  9. Nonlinear analysis of electromyogram following gait training with myoelectrically triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation in stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Khattar, Bhawna; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2012-12-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) facilitates ambulatory function after paralysis by activating the muscles of the lower extremities. The NMES-assisted stepping can either be triggered by a heel-switch (switch-trigger), or by an electromyogram (EMG)-based gait event detector (EMG-trigger). The command sources—switch-trigger or EMG-trigger—were presented to each group of six chronic (>6 months post-stroke) hemiplegic stroke survivors. The switch-trigger group underwent transcutaneous NMES-assisted gait training for 1 h, five times a week for 2 weeks, where the stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle of the paretic limb was triggered with a heel-switch detecting heel-rise of the same limb. The EMG-trigger group underwent transcutaneous NMES-assisted gait training of the same duration and frequency where the stimulation was triggered with surface EMG from medial gastrocnemius (MG) of the paretic limb in conjunction with a heel-switch detecting heel-rise of the same limb. During the baseline and post-intervention surface EMG assessment, a total of 10 s of surface EMG was recorded from bilateral MG muscle while the subjects tried to stand steady on their toes. A nonlinear tool—recurrence quantification analysis (RQA)—was used to analyze the surface EMG. The objective of this study was to find the effect of NMES-assisted gait training with switch-trigger or EMG-trigger on two RQA parameters—the percentage of recurrence (%Rec) and determinism (%Det), which were extracted from surface EMG during fatiguing contractions of the paretic muscle. The experimental results showed that during fatiguing contractions, (1) %Rec and %Det have a higher initial value for paretic muscle than the non-paretic muscle, (2) the rate of change in %Rec and %Det was negative for the paretic muscle but positive for the non-paretic muscle, (3) the rate of change in %Rec and %Det significantly increased from baseline for the paretic muscle after EMG-triggered NMES

  10. Automatic System for the D.C. High Voltage Qualification of the Superconducting Electrical Circuits of the LHC Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Bednarek, M; Jurkiewicz, P; Kotarba, A; Ludwin, J; Olek, S

    2008-01-01

    A d.c. high voltage test system has been developed to verify automatically the insulation resistance of the powering circuits of the LHC. In the most complex case, up to 72 circuits share the same volume inside cryogenic lines. Each circuit can have an insulation fault versus any other circuit or versus ground. The system is able to connect up to 80 circuits and apply a voltage up to 2 kV D.C. The leakage current flowing through each circuit is measured within a range of 1 nA to 1.6 mA. The matrix of measurements allows characterizing the paths taken by the currents and locating weak points of the insulation between circuits. The system is composed of a D.C. voltage source and a data acquisition card. The card is able to measure with precision currents and voltages and to drive up to 5 high voltage switching modules offering 16 channels each. A LabVIEW application controls the system for an automatic and safe operation. This paper describes the hardware and software design, the testing methodology and the res...

  11. Preparation of AgCl Nano-Crystal Embedded Tellurite Nonlinear Optical Glasses under Electric Field Accompanied Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIN; Wenhai HUANG; Bofang LI; Chong JIN; Changcheng LIU; Shuhua LEI; Zhenrong SUN

    2008-01-01

    The quantum effect of nano-crystals is an important factor to improve nonlinear optical performance of nano-crystal embedded glasses,while controlling the size distribution and content of nano-crystals in the glass accurately is a key to obtain good quality.The auxiliary direct current electric field,accompanied with heat treatment,was applied on AgCl containing niobic tellurite glass sheet.The nucleation and crystallization of the glass were well controlled under auxiliary electric field.It was found that the average size of AgCl nano-crystal particles in the glass is smaller than that under single heat treatment,and the content of nano-crystals is higher.Therefore the third-order nonlinear optical performance of the glass was increased a lot.The local-area distributed AgCl nano-crystal particles can also be embedded into a glass sheet by using locally applied electric field.

  12. A comparative study of modelling AC electric arc by one-dimensional interpolation for power system harmonics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yu-Jen; Hung Jen-Pan; Chen Shang-I; Lin Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Electric arc is a discharge phenomenon caused by particular electrical events and arc produced facilities in power system, for example the occurrence of short-circuit fault in feeders and the use of electric arc furnace for steel-making. All of these electric arcs have a highly nonlinear nature and can be considered as a significant source of power quality problems. To investigate the impacts of the electric arcs on power quality studies the development of the electric arc models for simulati...

  13. The Nonlinear Ohm's Law: Plasma Heating by Strong Electric Fields and its Effects on the Ionization Balance in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The MHD of protoplanetary disks crucially depends on the ionization state of the disks. Recent simulations suggest that MHD turbulence in the disks can generate a strong electric field in the local rest frame. Such a strong field can heat up plasmas and thereby change the ionization balance. To study this effect, we construct a charge reaction model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as plasma accretion by dust grains. The resulting Ohm's law is nonlinear in the electric field strength. We find that the gas-phase electron abundance decreases with increasing the electric field strength when plasma accretion onto grains dominates over gas-phase recombination, because electron heating accelerates electron--grain collisions. This leads to an increase in the magnetic resistivity, and possibly to a self-regulation of the MHD turbulence. In some cases, even the electric current decreases with increasing the field strength in a certain field range. The N...

  14. Application of Fast Vacuum Circuit Breaker in Electric System%快速真空断路器在电力系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾绍贵; 马奎; 吴旭涛; 孙丽琼

    2016-01-01

    介绍了涡流驱动型快速真空断路器的原理,分析了目前配网消弧消谐、故障选线及触电防护、电网短路电流限制、串联补偿及变压器直流偏磁抑制等技术的现状和存在的问题。根据快速真空断路器特点,提出了解决相关技术问题的方法,阐述了相关装置的结构、试验及应用情况,并对快速真空断路器在电力系统中的应用进行了展望。%Introduction was made to the principle of eddy current forced fast vacuum circuit breaker. Analysis was made to the technolo-gies used and problems existing including arc and resonance elimination, fault line selection and electric shock protection, grid short-circuit current limitation, series compensation and transformer direct current magnetic bias suppression etc technologies in distribution network at present. According to the characteristic of fast vacuum circuit breaker, the solution method of those problems was proposed. This paper ex-pounded the structure, experiment and application of the relevant device. The further application of the circuit breaker is prospected.

  15. A New Approach for Modeling Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Using Electrical Equivalent Circuit Analogy: Basis of Theoretical Formulations and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Tchakoua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Models are crucial in the engineering design process because they can be used for both the optimization of design parameters and the prediction of performance. Thus, models can significantly reduce design, development and optimization costs. This paper proposes a novel equivalent electrical model for Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbines (DTVAWTs. The proposed model was built from the mechanical description given by the Paraschivoiu double-multiple streamtube model and is based on the analogy between mechanical and electrical circuits. This work addresses the physical concepts and theoretical formulations underpinning the development of the model. After highlighting the working principle of the DTVAWT, the step-by-step development of the model is presented. For assessment purposes, simulations of aerodynamic characteristics and those of corresponding electrical components are performed and compared.

  16. The Changing Global Atmospheric Electric Circuit as a Way of Causing Space Weather Effects on Middle Atmosphere Electrodynamic and Thermodynamic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L.; Shirochkov, A.

    So far the solar wind energy contribution to energetic balance of the middle atmosphere was ignored in any climatic research. However the solar wind is a permanent source of electromagnetic energy constantly supplied to the near-Earth space and its role is evaluated properly in magnetospheric and ionospheric (to lesser extent) studies. We made extensive studies of the direct solar wind influence on the thermodynamic features of the middle atmosphere by analyzing data of the rocket and balloon sounding. Data of many stations covering latitudinal belt 80o N-55o N and 90o S-65o S- were used. It was found that the stratospheric temperature closely correlated with the solar wind energy expressed as the subsolar distance between the Earth and magnetopause. The best coupling between these two parameters (r>0,8) was obtained for altitudes 22-26 km with decreasing (but meaningful) coupling up and dawn from these heights. Similar dependence between this space parameter and ozone density in its stratospheric maximum was obtained also. As a very important factor a strong (r=0,78) coupling between magnetopause position and magnitude of atmospheric electric field measured by high-altitude balloons above South P leo Station must be mentioned. All these findings allowed us to propose concept of the global electric circuit as a physical mechanism for explanation of a direct coupling between the solar wind and the middle atmosphere. We suggest a new, modified version of the circuit where an external Electro-motive Force generator driven by the solar wind energy is located at dayside magnetopause. The passive elements of this circuit are the ionospheric Elayer (external element of previous version of the- circuit), stratospheric conducting layer of heavy ions (h=20-25 km) and conducting layer of the Earth surface. In this configuration a previous scheme of the global electric circuit is a part of the proposed version of it. The changes of stratospheric temperature could be explained

  17. Design of protection circuit for lithium battery used in electric bicycle%电动自行车锂电池组保护电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许英杰; 孙郅佶; 李帆; 范贤光

    2012-01-01

    The lithium battery with superior performance is the development trend of the electric bicycle power, but needs a dedicated protection circuit to work with so as to ensure the safety and long-period operation. In this paper, a protection circuit board including S-8209A was designed for the lithium battery set with 4-parallel and 10-serial connection mode. It achieved the functions of overcharge protection, overdischarge protection, overcharge-overdischarge balance and overcurrent protection. The circuit has been already applied to the electric bikes with the lithium batteries.%为保证电动自行车锂电池组安全、长寿命的运行,需为其配备专用管理保护电路.为此,针对一款4并10串规格的锂电池组设计了一套保护电路板,采用S-8209A保护芯片,实现了过充电保护、过放电保护、电池充放电平衡、过电流保护、正常带载等功能,已被可靠应用于某款电动自行车的锂电池组中.

  18. Nonlinear Effects in Piezoelectric Transformers Explained by Thermal-Electric Model Based on a Hypothesis of Self-Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2012-01-01

    As the trend within power electronic still goes in the direction of higher power density and higher efficiency, it is necessary to develop new topologies and push the limit for the existing technology. Piezoelectric transformers are a fast developing technology to improve efficiency and increase...... power density of power converters. Nonlinearities in piezoelectric transformers occur when the power density is increased enough. The simple linear equations are not valid at this point and more complex theory of electro elasticity must be applied. In This work a simplified thermo-electric model...

  19. Molding of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures: Dependence of the non-linear electric permittivity on system size and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Alabastri, A.

    2013-10-25

    In this paper, we review the principal theoretical models through which the dielectric function of metals can be described. Starting from the Drude assumptions for intraband transitions, we show how this model can be improved by including interband absorption and temperature effect in the damping coefficients. Electronic scattering processes are described and included in the dielectric function, showing their role in determining plasmon lifetime at resonance. Relationships among permittivity, electric conductivity and refractive index are examined. Finally, a temperature dependent permittivity model is presented and is employed to predict temperature and non-linear field intensity dependence on commonly used plasmonic geometries, such as nanospheres. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  20. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)