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Sample records for nonlinear elastic 1-d

  1. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  2. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  3. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  4. Nonlinear pulse propagation phenomena in 1D photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centini, Marco; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Scalora, Michael; Sibilia, Concita; Bloemer, Mark J.; Bowden, Charles M.; Bertolotti, Mario

    2002-06-01

    We numerically investigate nonlinear pulse propagation in finite, 1-d photonic crystals, and highlight novel properties that may help pave the way to a new class of high-efficiency nano-devices. We show that phase matching conditions for multiple wavelength generation and interactions can be achieved by judiciously combining material's index dispersions and geometrical features. We also show that enhanced nonlinear interactions can occur with efficiencies three orders of magnitude larger with respect to bulk materials having the same lengths and nonlinearity. Finally, we suggest potential applications as miniaturized second and third harmonic generators, nonlinear mirrors, parametric amplifiers, and optical switchers.

  5. Unidirectional transmission in 1D nonlinear photonic crystal based on topological phase reversal by optical nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Li; Xiaoyong Hu; Hong Yang; Qihuang Gong

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, brin...

  6. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  7. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  8. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...

  9. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamics of 1D pulsating detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, S. P.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    The development of 1D instability of a detonation wave is numerically simulated for a two-stage chemical model. The shock-fitting approach is employed to track the leading detonation front. In order to determine its motion, the equation for the acceleration of the shock wave derived from the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions and the characteristic relations is integrated along with the reactive Euler equations. The fifth-order WENO scheme is used, time stepping is performed with the four-stage Runge-Kutta-Gill method. It is shown that in a certain range of parameters of the problem (the degree of overdrive f, the dissociation energy Ed and the activation energy Ea ), the Zeldovich-Neumann-Döring stationary solution is unstable with respect to 1D disturbances. The evolution of disturbances at later nonlinear stages is studied. Nonlinear saturation of the growth of disturbances leads to the formation of a stable limit cycle. When changing the parameters of the problem, the period doubling bifurcation can occur leading to the appearance of pulsations with two different maxima of the amplitude.

  10. Nonlinear 1D DPCM image prediction using polynomial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liatsis, Panos; Hussain, Abir J.

    1999-03-01

    This work presents a novel polynomial neural network approach to 1D differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) design for image compression. This provides an alternative to current tradition and neural networks techniques, by allowing the incremental construction of higher-order polynomials of different orders. The proposed predictor utilizes Ridge Polynomial Neural Networks (RPNs), which allow the use of linear and non-linear terms, and avoid the problem of the combinatorial explosion of the higher-order terms. In RPNs, there is no requirement to select the number of hidden units or the order of the network. Extensive computer simulations have demonstrated that the resulting encoders work very well. At a transmission rate of 1 bit/pixel, the 1D RPN system provides on average a 13 dB improvement in SNR over the standard linear DPCM and a 9 dB improvement when compared to HONNs. A further result of the research was that third-order RPNs can provide very good predictions in a variety of images.

  11. Unidirectional transmission in 1D nonlinear photonic crystal based on topological phase reversal by optical nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a scheme of unidirectional transmission in a 1D nonlinear topological photonic crystal based on the topological edge state and three order optical nonlinearity. The 1D photonic crystals consists of a nonlinear photonic crystal L and a linear photonic crystal R. In the backward direction, light is totally reflected for the photons transmission prohibited by the bandgap. While in the forward direction, light interacts with the nonlinear photonic crystal L by optical Kerr effect, bringing a topological phase reversal and results the topological edge mode arising at the interface which could transmit photons through the bandgaps both of the photonic crystal L and R. When the signal power intensity larger than a moderate low threshold value of 10.0 MW/cm2, the transmission contrast ratio could remain at 30 steadily.

  12. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1987-01-01

    In continuation of an earlier study of propagation of solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods, numerical investigations of blowup, reflection, and fission at continuous and discontinuous variation of the cross section for the rod and reflection at the end of the rod are presented. The results...

  13. Beams on nonlinear elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette

    2014-01-01

    In order to determination vertical deflections and rail bending moments the Winkler model (1867) is often used. This linear model neglects several conditions. For example, by using experimental results, it has been observed that there is a substantial increase in the maximum rail deflection and rail bending moment when considering the nonlinearity of the track support system. A deeper mathematical analysis of the models is necessary in order to obtain better methods for more accurate numerical solutions in the determination of deflections and rail bending moments. This paper is intended to be a small step in this direction

  14. Nonlinear elasticity of disordered fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingchen; Levine, Herbert; Mao, Xiaoming; Sander, Leonard M.

    One of the most striking mechanical properties in disordered biopolymer gels is strong nonlinearities. In the case of athermal gels (such as collagen- I) the nonlinearity has long been associated with a crossover from a bending dominated to a stretching dominated regime of elasticity. The physics of this crossover is related to the existence of a central-force isostatic point and to the small bending modulus for most gels. This crossover induces scaling behavior for the elastic moduli. In particular, for linear elasticity such a scaling law has been demonstrated by Broedersz et al. We generalize the scaling to the nonlinear regime with a two-parameter scaling law involving three critical exponents. We do numerical testing of the scaling law for two disordered lattice models, and find a good scaling collapse for the shear modulus in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. We compute all the critical exponents for the two lattice models and discuss the applicability of our results to real systems.

  15. Nonlinear elasticity of alginate gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Alginate is a naturally occurring anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown algae. Because of biocompatibility, low toxicity, and simple gelation process, alginate gels are used in biomedical and food applications. Here, we report the rheological behavior of ionically crosslinked alginate gels, which are obtained by in situ gelation of alginates with calcium salts, in between two parallel plates of a rheometer. Strain stiffening behavior was captured using large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) experiments. In addition, negative normal stress was observed for these gels, which has not been reported earlier for any polysaccharide networks. The magnitude of negative normal stress increases with applied strain and can exceed that of the shear stress at large strain. Rheological results fitted with a constitutive model that considers both stretching and bending of chains indicate that nonlinearity is likely related to the stretching of the chains between the crosslink junctions. The results provide an improved understanding of the deformation mechanism of ionically crosslinked alginate gel and the results will be important in developing synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) from these materials.

  16. Dispersion characteristics of a nonlinear elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khajehtourian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study wave dispersion in a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic metamaterial consisting of a thin rod with periodically attached local resonators. Our model is based on an exact finite-strain dispersion relation for a homogeneous solid, utilized in conjunction with the standard transfer matrix method for a periodic medium. The nonlinearity considered stems from large elastic deformation in the thin rod, whereas the metamaterial behavior is associated with the dynamics of the local resonators. We derive an approximate dispersion relation for this system and provide an analytical prediction of band-gap characteristics. The results demonstrate the effect of the nonlinearity on the characteristics of the band structure, including the size, location, and character of the band gaps. For example, large deformation alone may cause a pair of isolated Bragg-scattering and local-resonance band gaps to coalesce. We show that for a wave amplitude on the order of one-eighth of the unit cell size, the effect of the nonlinearity in the structure considered is no longer negligible when the unit-cell size is one-fourteenth of the wavelength or larger.

  17. Manipulating acoustic wave reflection by a nonlinear elastic metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxin; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Bertoldi, Katia; Tournat, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    The acoustic wave reflection properties of a nonlinear elastic metasurface, derived from resonant nonlinear elastic elements, are theoretically and numerically studied. The metasurface is composed of a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with quadratic elastic nonlinearity. The possibility of converting, during the reflection process, most of the fundamental incoming wave energy into the second harmonic wave is shown, both theoretically and numerically, by means of a proper design of the nonlinear metasurface. The theoretical results from the harmonic balance method for a monochromatic source are compared with time domain simulations for a wave packet source. This protocol allows analyzing the dynamics of the nonlinear reflection process in the metasurface as well as exploring the limits of the operating frequency bandwidth. The reported methodology can be applied to a wide variety of nonlinear metasurfaces, thus possibly extending the family of exotic nonlinear reflection processes.

  18. Sapphire: A kinking nonlinear elastic solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; Kalidindi, S. R.

    2006-03-01

    Kinking nonlinear elastic (KNE) solids are a recently identified large class of solids that deform fully reversibly by the formation of dislocation-based kink bands [Barsoum et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255508 (2004)]. We further conjectured that a high c/a ratio-that ensures that only basal slip is operative-is a sufficient condition for a solid to be KNE. The c/a ratio of sapphire is 2.73 and thus, if our conjecture is correct, it should be a KNE solid. Herein by repeatedly loading-up to 30 times-the same location of sapphire single crystals of two orientations-A and C-with a 1 μm radius spherical nanoindenter, followed by atomic force microscopy, we showed that sapphire is indeed a KNE solid. After pop-ins of the order of 100 nm, the repeated loadings give rise to fully reversible, reproducible hysteresis loops wherein the energy dissipated per unit volume per cycle Wd is of the order of 0.5 GJ/m3. Wd is due to the back and fro motion of the dislocations making up the incipient kink bands that are fully reversible. The results presented here strongly suggest that-like in graphite and mica-kink bands play a more critical role in the room temperature constrained deformation of sapphire than had hitherto been appreciated. Our interpretation is also in agreement with, and can explain most, recent nanoindentation results on sapphire.

  19. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.

    2013-10-16

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.

  20. Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    application of the nonlinear elasticity complex is in developing mixed finite element methods for large deformations, which will be pursued in a future...framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these...conditions. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS geometric theory for nonlinear elasticity, discrete exterior calculus 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION

  1. Resonant Column Tests and Nonlinear Elasticity in Simulated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Resmi; Sitharam, T. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rocks are generally regarded as linearly elastic even though the manifestations of nonlinearity are prominent. The variations of elastic constants with varying strain levels and stress conditions, disagreement between static and dynamic moduli, etc., are some of the examples of nonlinear elasticity in rocks. The grain-to-grain contact, presence of pores and joints along with other compliant features induce the nonlinear behavior in rocks. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is demonstrated through resonant column tests and numerical simulations in this paper. Resonant column tests on intact and jointed gypsum samples across varying strain levels have been performed in laboratory and using numerical simulations. The paper shows the application of resonant column apparatus to obtain the wave velocities of stiff samples at various strain levels under long wavelength condition, after performing checks and incorporating corrections to the obtained resonant frequencies. The numerical simulation and validation of the resonant column tests using distinct element method are presented. The stiffness reductions of testing samples under torsional and flexural vibrations with increasing strain levels have been analyzed. The nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is reflected in the results, which is enhanced by the presence of joints. The significance of joint orientation and influence of joint spacing during wave propagation have also been assessed and presented using the numerical simulations. It has been found that rock joints also exhibit nonlinear behavior within the elastic limit.

  2. A 1-D model of the nonlinear dynamics of the human lumbar intervertebral disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Giacomo; Huber, Gerd; Püschel, Klaus; Ferguson, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Lumped parameter models of the spine have been developed to investigate its response to whole body vibration. However, these models assume the behaviour of the intervertebral disc to be linear-elastic. Recently, the authors have reported on the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the human lumbar intervertebral disc. This response was shown to be dependent on the applied preload and amplitude of the stimuli. However, the mechanical properties of a standard linear elastic model are not dependent on the current deformation state of the system. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a model that is able to describe the axial, nonlinear quasi-static response and to predict the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the disc. The ability to adapt the model to an individual disc's response was a specific focus of the study, with model validation performed against prior experimental data. The influence of the numerical parameters used in the simulations was investigated. The developed model exhibited an axial quasi-static and dynamic response, which agreed well with the corresponding experiments. However, the model needs further improvement to capture additional peculiar characteristics of the system dynamics, such as the change of mean point of oscillation exhibited by the specimens when oscillating in the region of nonlinear resonance. Reference time steps were identified for specific integration scheme. The study has demonstrated that taking into account the nonlinear-elastic behaviour typical of the intervertebral disc results in a predicted system oscillation much closer to the physiological response than that provided by linear-elastic models. For dynamic analysis, the use of standard linear-elastic models should be avoided, or restricted to study cases where the amplitude of the stimuli is relatively small.

  3. Uniform stability of damped nonlinear vibrations of an elastic string

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we are concerned about uniform stability of damped nonlinear transverse vibrations of an elastic string fixed at its two ends. The vibrations governed by nonlinear integro-differential equation of Kirchoff type, is shown to possess energy uniformly bounded by exponentially decaying function of time. The result is ...

  4. Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, LW

    2003-01-01

    In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it

  5. Correlation between ultrasonic nonlinearity and elastic nonlinearity in heat-treated aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Beom; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technique is a potential nondestructive method to evaluate material degradation, in which the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is usually measured. The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is defined by the elastic nonlinearity coefficients of the nonlinear Hooke’s equation. Therefore, even though the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter is not equal to the elastic nonlinearity parameter, they have a close relationship. However, there has been no experimental verification of the relationship between the ultrasonic and elastic nonlinearity parameters. In this study, the relationship is experimentally verified for a heat-treated aluminum alloy. Specimens of the aluminum alloy were heat-treated at 300°C for different periods of time (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 h). The relative ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter of each specimen was then measured, and the elastic nonlinearity parameter was determined by fitting the stress-strain curve obtained from a tensile test to the 5th-order-polynomial nonlinear Hooke’s equation. The results showed that the variations in these parameters were in good agreement with each other.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of flexible plates lying on elastic foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trushin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes numerical procedures for analysis of flexible rectangular plates lying on elastic foundation. Computing models are based on the theory of plates with account of transverse shear deformations. The finite difference energy method of discretization is used for reducing the initial continuum problem to finite dimensional problem. Solution procedures for nonlinear problem are based on Newton-Raphson method. This theory of plates and numerical methods have been used for investigation of nonlinear behavior of flexible plates on elastic foundation with different properties.

  7. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  8. Multiwave nonlinear couplings in elastic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This short contribution considers the essentials of nonlinear wave properties in typical mechanical systems such as an infinite straight bar, a circular ring, and a flat plate. It is found that nonlinear resonance is experienced in all the systems exhibiting continuous and discrete spectra, respectively. Multiwave interactions and the stability of coupled modes with respect to small perturbations are discussed. The emphasis is placed on mechanical phenomena, for example, stress amplification, although some analogies with some nonlinear optical systems are also obvious. The nonlinear resonance coupling in a plate within the Kirchhoff-Love approximation is selected as a two-dimensional example exhibiting a rich range of resonant wave phenomena. This is originally examined by use of Whitham's averaged Lagrangian method. In particular, the existence of three basic resonant triads between longitudinal, shear, and bending modes is shown. Some of these necessarily enter cascade wave processes related to the instability of some mode components of the triad under small perturbations.

  9. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  10. On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...

  11. Nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks revealed by dynamic acousto-elastic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Riviere, Jacques; Guyer, Robert; Johnson, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks is studied at the laboratory scale with the goal of illuminating observations at the Earth scale, for instance during strong ground motion and earthquake slip processes. A technique called Dynamic Acousto-Elastic Testing (DAET) is used to extract the nonlinear elastic response of disparate rocks (sandstone, granite and soapstone). DAET is the dynamic analogous to standard (quasi-static) acousto-elastic testing. It consists in measuring speed of sound with high-frequency low amplitude pulses (MHz range) across the sample while it is dynamically loaded with a low frequency, large amplitude resonance (kHz range). This particular configuration provides the instantaneous elastic response over a full dynamic cycle and reveals unprecedented details: instantaneous softening, tension/compression asymmetry as well as hysteretic behaviors. The strain-induced modulation of ultrasonic pulse velocities ('fast dynamics') is analyzed to extract nonlinearity parameters. A projection method is used to extract the harmonic content and a careful comparison of the fast dynamics response is made. In order to characterize the rate of elastic recovery ('slow dynamics'), we continue to monitor the ultrasonic wave velocity for about 30 minutes after the low-frequency resonance is turned off. In addition, the frequency, pressure and humidity dependences of the nonlinear parameters are reported for a subset of samples. We find that the nonlinear components can be clustered into two categories, which suggests that two main mechanisms are at play. The first one, related to the second harmonic, is likely related to the opening/closing of microstructural features such as cracks and grain/grain contacts. In contrast, the second mechanism is related to all other nonlinear parameters (transient softening, hysteresis area and higher order harmonics) and may arise from shearing mechanisms at grain interfaces.

  12. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2017-08-16

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  13. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-06

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  14. Non-linear elastic thermal stress analysis with phase changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amada, S.; Yang, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The non-linear elastic, thermal stress analysis with temperature induced phase changes in the materials is presented. An infinite plate (or body) with a circular hole (or tunnel) is subjected to a thermal loading on its inner surface. The peak temperature around the hole reaches beyond the melting point of the material. The non-linear diffusion equation is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The material properties change rapidly at temperatures where the change of crystal structures and solid-liquid transition occur. The elastic stresses induced by the transient non-homogeneous temperature distribution are calculated. The stresses change remarkably when the phase changes occur and there are residual stresses remaining in the plate after one cycle of thermal loading. (Auth.)

  15. DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dyrda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear

  16. Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Highly Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Elastic Woodpile Periodic Structures E. Kim,1 F. Li,1 C. Chong,2 G. Theocharis ,3 J. Yang,1 and P.G. Kevrekidis2...Kevrekidis, IMA J. Appl. Math. 76, 389 (2011). [4] G. Theocharis , N. Boechler, and C. Daraio, in Phononic Crystals and Metamaterials, Ch. 6, Springer...9] N. Boechler, G. Theocharis , and C. Daraio, Nature Ma- terials 10, 665 (2011). [10] F. Li, P. Anzel, J. Yang, P.G. Kevrekidis, and C. Daraio, Nat

  17. Nonlinear inversion of resistivity sounding data for 1-D earth models using the Neighbourhood Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, A. O.; Xie, Jun; Olorunfemi, M. O.

    2018-01-01

    To reduce ambiguity related to nonlinearities in the resistivity model-data relationships, an efficient direct-search scheme employing the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA) was implemented to solve the 1-D resistivity problem. In addition to finding a range of best-fit models which are more likely to be global minimums, this method investigates the entire multi-dimensional model space and provides additional information about the posterior model covariance matrix, marginal probability density function and an ensemble of acceptable models. This provides new insights into how well the model parameters are constrained and make assessing trade-offs between them possible, thus avoiding some common interpretation pitfalls. The efficacy of the newly developed program is tested by inverting both synthetic (noisy and noise-free) data and field data from other authors employing different inversion methods so as to provide a good base for comparative performance. In all cases, the inverted model parameters were in good agreement with the true and recovered model parameters from other methods and remarkably correlate with the available borehole litho-log and known geology for the field dataset. The NA method has proven to be useful whilst a good starting model is not available and the reduced number of unknowns in the 1-D resistivity inverse problem makes it an attractive alternative to the linearized methods. Hence, it is concluded that the newly developed program offers an excellent complementary tool for the global inversion of the layered resistivity structure.

  18. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  19. Reliability analysis of beam on elastic nonlinear foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydrýšek K.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the solution of simple beam continually supported by elastic (Winkler's foundation. The foundation contains longitudinal nonlinearity. For the calculation of displacements and bending stresses are used analytical procedures (approximate solution in the form of polynomial function and probabilistic approaches (SBRA method, Monte Carlo Simulation Method, AntHill software. Probabilistic approach includes influences of variability of load, shape and material of the beam, and variability of modulus of the foundation. Probabilistic approach is used for the reliability expertise of the beam and calculation of safety.

  20. One-dimensional deformations of nonlinearly elastic micropolar bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenina, A.; Zubov, L. M.

    2010-08-01

    We find families of finite deformations of a Cosserat elastic continuum on which the system of equilibrium equations is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. These families can be used to describe the expansion, tension, and torsion of a hollow circular cylinder, cylindrical bending of a rectangular slab, straightening of a circular arch, reversing of a cylindrical tube, formation of screw and wedge dislocations in a hollow cylinder, and other types of deformations. In the case of a physically nonlinear material model, the above-listed families of deformations can be used to construct exact solutions of several problems of strong bending of micropolar bodies.

  1. Some features of vibrations in homogeneous 1D resistant elastic lumped line

    CERN Document Server

    Karavashkin, S B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will consider the effect of resistance on vibration processes in a semi-infinite elastic lumped and distributed lines. We will see that for the given type of line, the progressive pattern of vibrations remains also at the overcritical frequencies, and the phase delay is always less than the value, corresponding to the first Brillouin zone. Comparing the obtained results with experimental data of the phase velocity of ultrasonic wave in the carbonic acid gas, we will see that taking the resistance into consideration, we can essentially refine the conventional models and promote their better correspondence to the experimental data.

  2. Quasi-quadratic elements for nonlinear compressible and incompressible elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, A.; Favino, M.; Krause, R.

    2017-10-01

    This work deals with novel triangular and tetrahedral elements for nonlinear elasticity. While it is well-known that linear and quadratic elements perform, respectively, poorly and accurately in this context, their cost is very different. We construct an approximation that falls in-between these two cases, which we refer to as quasi-quadratic. We seek to satisfy the following: (1) absence of locking and pressure oscillations in the incompressible limit, (2) an exact equivalence to quadratic elements on linear problems, and (3) a computational cost comparable to linear elements on nonlinear problems. Our construction is formally based on the Hellinger-Reissner principle, where strains and displacement are interpolated linearly on nested meshes, but it can be recast in a pure displacement form via static condensation. We show that (1) and (2) are fulfilled via numerical studies on a series of benchmarks and analyze the cost of quadrature in order to show (3).

  3. Dumbbell formation for elastic capsules in nonlinear extensional Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Cross-slot and four-roll-mill microdevices are commonly used for particle manipulation and characterization owing to the stagnation-point flow at the device center. Because of the solid boundaries, these devices may generate extensional Stokes flows where the velocity is a nonlinear function of position associated with a decreased pressure at the particle edges and an increased pressure at the particle middle. Our computational investigation shows that in this class of Stokes flows, an elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane develops two distinct steady-state conformations at strong flows, i.e., an elongated weak dumbbell shape with rounded edges at low flow nonlinearity and a laterally extended dumbbell shape at high flow nonlinearity. These effects are more pronounced for the less strain-hardening capsules which develop a flat extended middle where the two sides of the membrane approach each other. The strong stability properties of the strain-hardening capsules (owing to the development of strong membrane tensions) contrast significantly with the behavior of droplets in these nonlinear flows which are unable to achieve highly deformed steady-state dumbbell shapes owing to their constant surface tension.

  4. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 1D wave propagation in a nonlinear heterogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, S.; Glinsky, N.; Mercerat, E. D.; Bonilla Hidalgo, L. F.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a nodal high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 1D wave propagation in nonlinear media. We solve the elastodynamic equations written in the velocity-strain formulation and apply an upwind flux adapted to heterogeneous media with nonlinear constitutive behavior coupling stress and strain. Accuracy, convergence and stability of the method are studied through several numerical applications. Hysteresis loops distinguishing loading and unloading-reloading paths are also taken into account. We investigate several effects of nonlinearity in wave propagation, such as the generation of high frequencies and the frequency shift of resonant peaks to lower frequencies. Finally, we compare the results for both nonlinear models, with and without hysteresis, and highlight the effects of the former on the stabilization of the numerical scheme.

  5. Dispersion Effects in Nonlinear Light Propagation in 1-D Fiber Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    ...: The contractor will investigate the use of the so-called nonlinear coupled mode equations (NLCME) to obtain approximate solutions of Maxwells equations for light propagation in periodic optical fiber structures...

  6. Linear analysis using secants for materials with temperature dependent nonlinear elastic modulus and thermal expansion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, John W.

    2017-08-01

    Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.

  7. The effect of magnetic field on bistability in 1D photonic crystal doped by magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study the defect mode and bistability behavior of 1-D photonic band gap structure with magnetized plasma and coupled nonlinear defects. The transfer matrix method has been employed to investigate the magnetic field effect on defect mode frequency and bistability threshold. The obtained results show that the frequency of defect mode and bistability threshold can be altered, without changing the structure of the photonic multilayer. Therefore, the bistability behavior of the subjected structure in the presence of magnetized plasma can be utilized in manufacturing wide frequency range devices

  8. Aberrated surface soliton formation in a nonlinear 1D and 2D photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A; Lysak, Tatiana M; Trykin, Evgenii M

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a novel type of surface soliton-aberrated surface soliton-appearance in a nonlinear one dimensional photonic crystal and a possibility of this surface soliton formation in two dimensional photonic crystal. An aberrated surface soliton possesses a nonlinear distribution of the wavefront. We show that, in one dimensional photonic crystal, the surface soliton is formed at the photonic crystal boundary with the ambient medium. Essentially, that it occupies several layers at the photonic crystal boundary and penetrates into the ambient medium at a distance also equal to several layers, so that one can infer about light energy localization at the lateral surface of the photonic crystal. In the one dimensional case, the surface soliton is formed from an earlier formed soliton that falls along the photonic crystal layers at an angle which differs slightly from the normal to the photonic crystal face. In the two dimensional case, the soliton can appear if an incident Gaussian beam falls on the photonic crystal face. The influence of laser radiation parameters, optical properties of photonic crystal layers and ambient medium on the one dimensional surface soliton formation is investigated. We also discuss the influence of two dimensional photonic crystal configuration on light energy localization near the photonic crystal surface. It is important that aberrated surface solitons can be created at relatively low laser pulse intensity and for close values of alternating layers dielectric permittivity which allows their experimental observation.

  9. Lagrange multipliers in elastic-plastic torsion problem for nonlinear monotone operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, S.; Maugeri, A.; Puglisi, D.

    2015-08-01

    The existence of Lagrange multipliers as a Radon measure is ensured for an elastic-plastic torsion problem associated to a nonlinear strictly monotone operator. A regularization of this result, namely the existence of Lp Lagrange multipliers, is obtained under strong monotonicity assumption on the operator. Moreover, the relationships between elastic-plastic torsion problem and the obstacle problem are investigated. Finally, an example of the so-called "Von Mises functions" is provided, namely of solutions of the elastic-plastic torsion problem, associated to nonlinear monotone operators, which are not obtained by means of the obstacle problem in the case f =constant.

  10. On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elastic model structure is itself a generalization of most physical elastic structures in common use in Structural Engineering .The dynamic buckling load is obtained nontrivially and compared with related previous results of similar loading conditions. The result shows that the dynamic buckling load does not depend on ...

  11. On the vibrations of a simply supported square plate on a weakly nonlinear elastic foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarubinskaya, M.A.; Van Horssen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for a weakly nonlinear plate equation with a quadratic nonlinearity will be studied. This initial-boundary value problem can be regarded as a simple model describing free oscillations of a simply supported square plate on an elastic foundation. It is

  12. Magneto-elastic oscillator: Modeling and analysis with nonlinear magnetic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Aravind; Ali, Shaikh Faruque; Arockiarajan, A.

    2017-04-01

    The magneto-elastically buckled beam is a classic example of a nonlinear oscillator that exhibits chaotic motions. This system serves as a model to analyze the motion of elastic structures in magnetic fields. The system follows a sixth order magneto-elastic potential and may have up to five static equilibrium positions. However, often the non-dimensional Duffing equation is used to approximate the system, with the coefficients being derived from experiments. In few other instances, numerical methods are used to evaluate the magnetic field values. These field values are then used to approximate the nonlinear magnetic restoring force. In this manuscript, we derive analytical closed form expressions for the magneto-elastic potential and the nonlinear restoring forces in the system. Such an analytical formulation would facilitate tracing the effect of change in a parameter, such as the magnet dimension, on the dynamics of the system. The model is derived assuming a single mode approximation, taking into account the effect of linear elastic and nonlinear magnetic forces. The developed model is then numerically simulated to show that it is accurate in capturing the system dynamics and bifurcation of equilibrium positions. The model is validated through experiments based on forced vibrations of the magneto-elastic oscillator. To gather further insights about the magneto-elastic oscillator, a parametric study has been conducted based on the field strength of the magnets and the distance between the magnets and the results are reported.

  13. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear...... spring-mass chains with non-linear inclusions. The presented analytical and numerical results suggest that the effective material properties can easily be altered by establishing finite amplitude HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain....

  14. Nonlinear 1D and 2D waveform inversions of SS precursors and their applications in mantle seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, R.; Gu, Y. J.; Sacchi, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic velocities and the topography of mantle discontinuities are crucial for the understanding of mantle structure, dynamics and mineralogy. While these two observables are closely linked, the vast majority of high-resolution seismic images are retrieved under the assumption of horizontally stratified mantle interfaces. This conventional correction-based process could lead to considerable errors due to the inherent trade-off between velocity and discontinuity depth. In this study, we introduce a nonlinear joint waveform inversion method that simultaneously recovers discontinuity depths and seismic velocities using the waveforms of SS precursors. Our target region is the upper mantle and transition zone beneath Northeast Asia. In this region, the inversion outcomes clearly delineate a westward dipping high-velocity structure in association with the subducting Pacific plate. Above the flat part of the slab west of the Japan sea, our results show a shear wave velocity reduction of 1.5% in the upper mantle and 10-15 km depression of the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Changbaishan volcanic field. We also identify the maximum correlation between shear velocity and transition zone thickness at an approximate slab dip of 30 degrees, which is consistent with previously reported values in this region.To validate the results of the 1D waveform inversion of SS precursors, we discretize the mantle beneath the study region and conduct a 2D waveform tomographic survey using the same nonlinear approach. The problem is simplified by adopting the discontinuity depths from the 1D inversion and solving only for perturbations in shear velocities. The resulting models obtained from the 1D and 2D approaches are self-consistent. Low-velocities beneath the Changbai intraplate volcano likely persist to a depth of 500 km. Collectively, our seismic observations suggest that the active volcanoes in eastern China may be fueled by a hot thermal anomaly originating from the mantle transition

  15. Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated

  16. Locomotion based on nonlinear magneto-elastic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Boehm, V; Popp, J; Naletova, V; Turkov, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approximately steady motion of two equal mass points, connected by a non linear magneto-elastic element. It is supposed that the system moves along a straight line in the presence of internal excitation and non symmetric Coulomb dry frictional force acting from the surface upon each mass point opposite to the direction of motion. Thereby, the magnitude of this force is also dependent on the direction of motion. Excitation is carried out due to action internal harmonic forces. Such forces arise for a spring made of a magnetizable elastic material by the influence of an external magnetic field.

  17. Nonlinear Vibration of an Elastically Restrained Tapered Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimpour, S; Ganji, S.S; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical simulation of an elastically restrained tapered cantilever beam using the energy balance method (EBM) and the iteration perturbation method (IPM). To assess the accuracy of solutions, we compare the results with the harmonic balance method (HBM). The obtained re...

  18. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extending the Nonlinear-Beam-Dynamics Concept of 1D Fixed Points to 2D Fixed Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, G.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of nonlinear dynamics traces back to the study of the dynamics of planets with the seminal work of Poincaré at the end of the nineteenth century: Les Méthodes Nouvelles de la Mécanique Céleste, Vols. 1–3 (Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1899). In his work he introduced a methodology fruitful for investigating the dynamical properties of complex systems, which led to the so-called “Poincaré surface of section,” which allows one to capture the global dynamical properties of a system, characterized by fixed points and separatrices with respect to regular and chaotic motion. For two-dimensional phase space (one degree of freedom) this approach has been extremely useful and applied to particle accelerators for controlling their beam dynamics as of the second half of the twentieth century.We describe here an extension of the concept of 1D fixed points to fixed lines in two dimensions. These structures become the fundamental entities for characterizing the nonlinear motion in the four-dimensional phas...

  20. A general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model for magnetostrictive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da-Guang; Li, Meng-Han; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-01-01

    For magnetostrictive rods under combined axial pre-stress and magnetic field, a general one-dimension nonlinear magneto-elastic coupled constitutive model was built in this paper. First, the elastic Gibbs free energy was expanded into polynomial, and the relationship between stress and strain and the relationship between magnetization and magnetic field with the polynomial form were obtained with the help of thermodynamic relations. Then according to microscopic magneto-elastic coupling mechanism and some physical facts of magnetostrictive materials, a nonlinear magneto-elastic constitutive with concise form was obtained when the relations of nonlinear strain and magnetization in the polynomial constitutive were instead with transcendental functions. The comparisons between the prediction and the experimental data of different magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, Metglas and Ni showed that the predicted magnetostrictive strain and magnetization curves were consistent with experimental results under different pre-stresses whether in the region of low and moderate field or high field. Moreover, the model can fully reflect the nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling characteristics between magnetic, magnetostriction and elasticity, and it can effectively predict the changes of material parameters with pre-stress and bias field, which is useful in practical applications

  1. Bulk Nonlinear Elastic Strain Waves in a Bilayer Coaxial Cylindrical Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, I. A.; Samsonov, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of the propagation of long nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bilayer coaxial cylindrical rod with an ideal contact between the layers has been considered. Expressions for transverse displacements through longitudinal displacements have been derived. The former satisfies free boundary conditions and continuity conditions for displacements and stresses at the interlayer interface with the desired accuracy. It has been shown how these expressions generalize the well-known plane-section and Love hypotheses for an isotropic homogeneous rod. An equation for the propagation of a nonlinearly elastic strain longitudinal wave has been derived, and its particular solution in the form of a solitary traveling wave has been studied.

  2. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, Erica G; Wereley, Norman M

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30–80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible. (paper)

  3. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  4. MODELING OF NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND BUCKLING OF ELASTIC INHOMOGENEOUS SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the fundamentals of the method of solving static problems of geometrically nonlinear deformation, buckling, and postbuckling behavior of thin thermoelastic inhomogeneous shells with complex-shaped mid-surface, geometrical features throughout the thickness, and multilayer structure under complex thermomechanical loading. The method is based on the geometrically nonlinear equations of three-dimensional thermoelasticity and the moment finiteelement scheme. The method is justified numerically. Comparing solutions with those obtained by other authors and by software LIRA and SCAD is conducted.

  5. A Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Elasticity for Impact Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    simple shear are compared in figures 3a, b, and c, respectively. Stresses are normalized by ambient bulk modulus B0; Poisson’s ratio is . Stresses...0 is the ambient pressure derivative of the tangent bulk modulus. The pressure-volume response of the Eulerian model similar is similar to the...Magazine A 2000, 80, 2827–2840. 9. Gregoryanz, E.; Hemley, R. J.; Mao , H.; Gillet, P. High Pressure Elasticity of -Quartz: Instability and

  6. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for nonlinear elastic wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Matar, Olivier; Guerder, Pierre-Yves; Li, YiFeng; Vandewoestyne, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2012-05-01

    A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) to solve the linear and nonlinear elastic wave equation in heterogeneous media with arbitrary high order accuracy in space on unstructured triangular or quadrilateral meshes is presented. This DG-FEM method combines the geometrical flexibility of the finite element method, and the high parallelization potentiality and strongly nonlinear wave phenomena simulation capability of the finite volume method, required for nonlinear elastodynamics simulations. In order to facilitate the implementation based on a numerical scheme developed for electromagnetic applications, the equations of nonlinear elastodynamics have been written in a conservative form. The adopted formalism allows the introduction of different kinds of elastic nonlinearities, such as the classical quadratic and cubic nonlinearities, or the quadratic hysteretic nonlinearities. Absorbing layers perfectly matched to the calculation domain of the nearly perfectly matched layers type have been introduced to simulate, when needed, semi-infinite or infinite media. The developed DG-FEM scheme has been verified by means of a comparison with analytical solutions and numerical results already published in the literature for simple geometrical configurations: Lamb's problem and plane wave nonlinear propagation.

  7. Contribution to the study of heavy-ion induced quasi-elastic processes in the 2s-1d shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, A.

    1982-06-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we present a study of the charge exchange reaction 28 Si( 18 O, 18 F) 28 Al at 56 MeV. This reaction can be easily understood in terms of a one-step direct charge exchange mechanism. With a very simple shell model, it can be interpreted that a neutron of the 18 O in the Jsup(π)=0 + , T=1 state interacts with a proton in the dsub(5/2) shell of 28 Si and they exchange their spin and charge forming Jsup(π)=1 + , T=0 18 F, and Jsup(π)=3 + or 2 + , T=1 28 Al. In the present analysis of data, we have first performed the direct charge exchange DWBA calculations. These results are compared with the exact-finite-range (EFR) second order DWBA calculations which take into account the successive one-nucleon stripping and pickup, and pickup and stripping process. In the second part, we wish to report results and analysis concerning the 24 Mg+ 12 C system. The 180 0 c.m. angle scattering excitation functions were measured between 12- and 27-MeV c.m. corresponding to a range in the compound 36 Ar excitation energy of 28.3 to 43.3 MeV. Several angular distributions for the elastic and inelastic scattering have been measured on the top of the bumps of the elastic scattering excitation function. These elastic scattering angular distributions cannot be fitted by a single squared Legendre polynomial of order L. A complete phase shift analysis is presented. We discuss also the shapes of the first 24 Mg 2 + inelastic scattering angular distributions with respect to the shape of the elastic scattering differential cross section [fr

  8. Experimental and theoretical studies of spectral alteration in ultrasonic waves resulting from nonlinear elastic response in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.

  9. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  10. Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Equations of motion for anisotropic nonlinear elastic continuum in the gravitational field are written in the form convenient for numerical calculations. The energy-stress tensor is expressed through scalar and tensor products of three vectors frozen in the continuum. Examples of expansion of the energy-stress tensor into scalar and tensor invariants corresponding to some crystal classes are given. 47 refs

  11. A nonlinear theory for elastic plates with application to characterizing paper properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik

    1984-03-01

    A theory of thin plates which is physically as well as kinematically nonlinear is, developed and used to characterize elastic material behavior for arbitrary stretching and bending deformations. It is developed from a few clearly defined assumptions and uses a unique treatment of strain energy. An effective strain concept is introduced to simplify the theory to a...

  12. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  13. Influence of elastic supports on non-linear steady-state vibrations of Zener material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litewka, Przemysław; Lewandowski, Roman

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports numerical results of analyses of steady-state harmonic vibrations of von Kármán non-linear plates made from Zener material with various elastic support conditions. Influences of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account, thus the model is able to predict the behaviour of plates with a moderate thickness. The amplitude equation for the plate is obtained using the time-averaged principle of virtual work for the assumed harmonic form of excitation and plate displacements as well as the harmonic balance method for Zener material and non-linear elastic supports. Plates are discretised using 8-noded rectangular plate finite elements. The discretised amplitude equation is solved for the response curves using a path-following method. Results of two numerical examples are presented and the qualitative and quantitative influence of support elastic properties is discussed.

  14. A non-linear elastic constitutive framework for replicating plastic deformation in solids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Scott Alan; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2014-02-01

    Ductile metals and other materials typically deform plastically under large applied loads; a behavior most often modeled using plastic deformation constitutive models. However, it is possible to capture some of the key behaviors of plastic deformation using only the framework for nonlinear elastic mechanics. In this paper, we develop a phenomenological, hysteretic, nonlinear elastic constitutive model that captures many of the features expected of a plastic deformation model. This model is based on calculating a secant modulus directly from a materials stress-strain curve. Scalar stress and strain values are obtained in three dimensions by using the von Mises invariants. Hysteresis is incorporated by tracking an additional history variable and assuming an elastic unloading response. This model is demonstrated in both single- and multi-element simulations under varying strain conditions.

  15. Nonlinear to Linear Elastic Code Coupling in 2-D Axisymmetric Media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Explosions within the earth nonlinearly deform the local media, but at typical seismological observation distances, the seismic waves can be considered linear. Although nonlinear algorithms can simulate explosions in the very near field well, these codes are computationally expensive and inaccurate at propagating these signals to great distances. A linearized wave propagation code, coupled to a nonlinear code, provides an efficient mechanism to both accurately simulate the explosion itself and to propagate these signals to distant receivers. To this end we have coupled Sandia's nonlinear simulation algorithm CTH to a linearized elastic wave propagation code for 2-D axisymmetric media (axiElasti) by passing information from the nonlinear to the linear code via time-varying boundary conditions. In this report, we first develop the 2-D axisymmetric elastic wave equations in cylindrical coordinates. Next we show how we design the time-varying boundary conditions passing information from CTH to axiElasti, and finally we demonstrate the coupling code via a simple study of the elastic radius.

  16. Pump and probe waves in dynamic acousto-elasticity: Comprehensive description and comparison with nonlinear elastic theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, J.; Renaud, G.; Guyer, R. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    Standard nonlinear ultrasonic methods such as wave frequency mixing or resonance based measurements allow one to extract average, bulk variations of modulus and attenuation versus strain level. In contrast, dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) provides the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle including hysteresis and memory effects, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression. In this work, we address experimental difficulties and apply new processing methods, illustrating them with a Berea sandstone sample. A projection procedure is used to analyze the complex nonlinear signatures and extract the harmonic content. Amplitude dependences of the harmonic content are compared with existing models. We show that a combination of classical and hysteretic nonlinear models capture most of the observed phenomena. Some differences between existing models and experimental data are highlighted, however. A progressive decrease of the power-law amplitude dependence is found for harmonics larger than the second and for strains larger than 10-6. This observation is related to the phenomenon of acoustic conditioning that brings the material to a metastable state for each new excitation amplitude. Analysis of the steady-state regime provides additional information regarding acoustic conditioning, i.e., a progressive decrease of the amplitude of odd harmonics during excitation time with a log(t)-dependence. This observation confirms that the harmonic content is affected by the conditioning. Experimental challenges addressed include the fact that the compressional mode used for DAE can be affected by bending/torsion modes: their influence is evaluated, and guidances are given to minimize effects.

  17. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H.; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H.; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W.; Horsley, David A.

    2015-03-01

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.

  18. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H.; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H.; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W.; Horsley, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes. PMID:25762243

  19. Stress corrosion crack depth investigation using the time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian E; Pieczonka, Lukasz; Remillieux, Marcel C; Ulrich, Timothy J; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of the ability to probe depth information of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are presented using the time reversed elastic nonlinearity diagnostic (TREND). Depth estimation of SCC is important to determine when a stainless steel canister has been breached. TREND is a method to focus elastic energy to a point in space in order to probe that point for damage and its' depth penetration is used here to study depth information about SCC. High frequencies are used to probe near the surface, while low frequencies are used to probe deeper into a stainless steel section of a cylinder.

  20. Adaptive, Small-Rotation-Based, Corotational Technique for Analysis of 2D Nonlinear Elastic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Rungamornrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and accurate numerical technique for analysis of two-dimensional frames accounted for both geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear elastic material behavior. An adaptive remeshing scheme is utilized to optimally discretize a structure into a set of elements where the total displacement can be decomposed into the rigid body movement and one possessing small rotations. This, therefore, allows the force-deformation relationship for the latter part to be established based on small-rotation-based kinematics. Nonlinear elastic material model is integrated into such relation via the prescribed nonlinear moment-curvature relationship. The global force-displacement relation for each element can be derived subsequently using corotational formulations. A final system of nonlinear algebraic equations along with its associated gradient matrix for the whole structure is obtained by a standard assembly procedure and then solved numerically by Newton-Raphson algorithm. A selected set of results is then reported to demonstrate and discuss the computational performance including the accuracy and convergence of the proposed technique.

  1. Bulk nonlinear elastic strain waves in a bar with nanosize inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gula, Igor A.; Samsonov (†), Alexander M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model for propagation of the long nonlinearly elastic longitudinal strain waves in a bar, which contains nanoscale structural inclusions. The model is governed by a nonlinear doubly dispersive equation (DDE) with respect to the one unknown longitudinal strain function. We...... obtained the travelling wave solutions to DDE, and, in particular, the strain solitary wave solution, which was shown to be significantly affected by parameters of the inclusions. Moreover we found some critical inaccuracies, committed in papers by others in the derivation of a constitutive equation...... for the long strain waves in a microstructured medium, revised them, and showed an importance of improvements for correct estimation of wave parameters....

  2. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  3. A preconditioner for the finite element computation of incompressible, nonlinear elastic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    Large, incompressible elastic deformations are governed by a system of nonlinear partial differential equations. The finite element discretisation of these partial differential equations yields a system of nonlinear algebraic equations that are usually solved using Newton's method. On each iteration of Newton's method, a linear system must be solved. We exploit the structure of the Jacobian matrix to propose a preconditioner, comprising two steps. The first step is the solution of a relatively small, symmetric, positive definite linear system using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method. This is followed by a small number of multigrid V-cycles for a larger linear system. Through the use of exemplar elastic deformations, the preconditioner is demonstrated to facilitate the iterative solution of the linear systems arising. The number of GMRES iterations required has only a very weak dependence on the number of degrees of freedom of the linear systems.

  4. Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy in symbiosis with time reversal for localization of defects: TR-NEWS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 14-14 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * ESAM * time reversal (TR) * TR-NEWS imaging * tomography * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  5. A nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupled hysteretic constitutive model for magnetostrictive alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ke; Kou Yong; Zheng Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive alloys. The model considered here is thermodynamically motivated and based on the Gibbs free energy function. A nonlinear part of the elastic strain arising from magnetic domain rotation induced by the pre-stress is taken into account. Furthermore, the movement of the domain walls is incorporated to describe hysteresis based on Jiles–Atherton's model. Then a set of closed and analytical expressions of the constitutive law for the magnetostrictive rods and films are obtained, and the parameters appearing in the model can be determined by those measurable experiments in mechanics and physics. Comparing this model with other existing models in this field, the quantitative results show that the relationships obtained here are more effective to describe the effects of the pre-stress or in-plane residual stress and ambient temperature on the magnetization or the magnetostriction hysteresis loops. - Highlights: ► A general hysteretic constitutive law of nonlinear magneto-thermo-elastic coupling for magnetostrictive materials is proposed. ► Model is thermodynamically motivated and the reversible magnetic domain rotation and irreversible domain wall motion are taken. ► The predictions are in good accordance with the experimental data including both rods and films. ► Magnetostrictive alloys are sensitive to environment temperature and pre-stress or residual stress.

  6. Flexural analysis of the Magallanes retroarc basin of southern South America: A 1-D elastic-plastic model for deflection of attenuated lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, J. C.; Hilley, G. E.; Graham, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of inelastic bending of attenuated lithosphere on foreland flexure and basin geometry in the Upper Cretaceous Magallanes Basin of southern South America. The lack of correlation between topographic load from the present-day Patagonian Andes and the distribution of total sediment thickness in the adjacent Magallanes Basin suggests that that foreland lithosphere has accumulated irrecoverable strain and thus, inelastic flexure should be considered. We present a 1-D numerical analysis using an elastic-plastic model for plate bending and explore the effects of yield stress, spatially-variable flexural rigidity, and size of the tapered topographic load. The Upper Cretaceous Magallanes retroforeland basin formed during Andean orogenesis after closure of a Late Jurassic quasi-oceanic backarc basin. The unusually thick (>5 km) succession of Cenomanian-Maastrichtian sedimentary rocks were deposited in a deep-marine axial foredeep. Sediment thickness profiles across the Cenomanian-Turonian basin fill define a curve with high amplitude and long-wavelength deflection and a substantially suppressed forebulge. Secondly, observed thicknesses across the basin show a distinct inflection point, located ~200 km east of the palinspastically-restored thrust front, that separates a deep (>2.5 km thick) depocenter that thins abruptly toward the craton. Linear elastic models using a range of flexural rigidities (3.6 x 1022 to 2.8 x 1023 N-m) corresponding to elastic thicknesses of 20-40 km for both line loads and distributed loads do not fit observed sediment thicknesses. We explore the effects of obducted high-density oceanic blocks in the thrust belt, spatial variations in elastic thickness of attenuated lithosphere, and permanent strain on foreland flexure. In elastic-plastic models, the plate deforms elastically when the fiber stress is less than the maximum yield stress. When the bending stress in the plate reaches the yield stress, the outer

  7. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  8. Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessamine P Winer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual cells retain the same stiffness-dependent differences unless they are very close or in molecular contact. On nonlinear strain-stiffening fibrin gels, the same cell types become maximally spread even when the low strain elastic modulus would predict a round morphology, and cells are influenced by the presence of neighbors hundreds of microns away. Time lapse microscopy reveals that fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin deform the substrate by several microns up to five cell lengths away from their plasma membrane through a force limited mechanism. Atomic force microscopy and rheology confirm that these strains locally and globally stiffen the gel, depending on cell density, and this effect leads to long distance cell-cell communication and alignment. Thus cells are acutely responsive to the nonlinear elasticity of their substrates and can manipulate this rheological property to induce patterning.

  9. The 'sixth sense' of ultrasound: probing nonlinear elasticity with acoustic radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzina, Bojan B; Dontsov, Egor V; Urban, Matthew W; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2015-05-07

    Prompted by a recent finding that the magnitude of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) in isotropic tissue-like solids depends linearly on a particular third-order modulus of elasticity-hereon denoted by C, this study investigates the possibility of estimating C from the amplitude of the ARF-generated shear waves. The featured coefficient of nonlinear elasticity, which captures the incipient nonlinear interaction between the volumetric and deviatoric modes of deformation, has so far received only a limited attention in the context of soft tissues due to the fact that the latter are often approximated as (i) fluid-like when considering ultrasound waves, and (ii) incompressible under static deformations. On establishing the analytical and computational platform for the proposed sensing methodology, the study proceeds with applying the prototype technique toward estimating via ARF the third-order modulus C in a series of tissue-mimicking phantoms. To help validate the concept and its implementation, the germane third-order modulus is independently estimated in each phantom via an established technique known as acoustoelasticity. The C-estimates obtained respectively via acoustoelasticity and the new theory of ARF show a significant degree of consistency. The key features of the new sensing methodology are that: (a) it requires no external deformation of a material other than that produced by the ARF, and (b) it estimates the nonlinear C-modulus locally, over the focal region of an ultrasound beam-where the shear waves are being generated.

  10. Nonlinear mechanics of surface growth for cylindrical and spherical elastic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Fabio; Yavari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we formulate the initial-boundary value problems of accreting cylindrical and spherical nonlinear elastic solids in a geometric framework. It is assumed that the body grows as a result of addition of new (stress-free or pre-stressed) material on part of its boundary. We construct Riemannian material manifolds for a growing body with metrics explicitly depending on the history of applied external loads and deformation during accretion and the growth velocity. We numerically solve the governing equilibrium equations in the case of neo-Hookean solids and compare the accretion and residual stresses with those calculated using the linear mechanics of surface growth.

  11. Postbuckling of magneto-electro-elastic CNT-MT composite nanotubes resting on a nonlinear elastic medium in a non-uniform thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, M.; Shamsi, M.; Saidi, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    As a first endeavor, the effect of nonlinear elastic foundation on the postbuckling behavior of smart magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) composite nanotubes is investigated. The composite nanotube is affected by a non-uniform thermal environment. A typical MEE composite nanotube consists of microtubules (MTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a MEE cylindrical nanoshell for smart control. It is assumed that the nanoscale layers of the system are coupled by a polymer matrix or filament network depending on the application. In addition to thermal loads, magneto-electro-mechanical loads are applied to the composite nanostructure. Length scale effects are taken into account using the nonlocal elasticity theory. The principle of virtual work and von Karman's relations are used to derive the nonlinear governing differential equations of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes. Using Galerkin's method, nonlinear critical buckling loads are determined. Various types of non-uniform temperature distribution in the radial direction are considered. Finally, the effects of various parameters such as the nonlinear constant of elastic medium, thermal loading factor and small scale coefficient on the postbuckling of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes are studied.

  12. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco; Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations

  13. Metamaterials-based sensor to detect and locate nonlinear elastic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzi, Antonio S.; Scalerandi, Marco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miniaci, Marco; Bosia, Federico [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Pugno, Nicola M. [Laboratory of Bio-Inspired and Graphene Nanomechanics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, acoustic metamaterials have attracted increasing scientific interest for very diverse technological applications ranging from sound abatement to ultrasonic imaging, mainly due to their ability to act as band-stop filters. At the same time, the concept of chaotic cavities has been recently proposed as an efficient tool to enhance the quality of nonlinear signal analysis, particularly in the ultrasonic/acoustic case. The goal of the present paper is to merge the two concepts in order to propose a metamaterial-based device that can be used as a natural and selective linear filter for the detection of signals resulting from the propagation of elastic waves in nonlinear materials, e.g., in the presence of damage, and as a detector for the damage itself in time reversal experiments. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and the potential of the device in providing improved signal-to-noise ratios and enhanced focusing on the defect locations.

  14. A New Theory of Non-Linear Thermo-Elastic Constitutive Equation of Isotropic Hyperelastic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liao, Yufei

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of temperature and strain variables on materials. According to the relationship of conjugate stress-strain, a complete and irreducible non-linear constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is derived and the constitutive equations of 16 types of isotropic hyperelastic materials are given we study the transformation methods and routes of 16 kinds of constitutive equations and the study proves that transformation of two forms of constitutive equation. As an example of application, the non-linear thermo-elastic constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is combined with the natural vulcanized rubber experimental data in the existing literature base on MATLAB, The results show that the fitting accuracy is satisfactory.

  15. Study on Attenuation, Modulus of Elasticity and Nonlinearity in Thermowood Using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hæggström, E.; Wallin, A.; Hoffren, H.; Hassinen, T.; Viitaniemi, P.

    2005-04-01

    We determined ultrasonically the attenuation, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and nonlinearity parameter (B/A) of dry defect-free thermally modified wood samples ("thick" 10 × 50 × 100 mm3 and "thin" 2 × 40 × 150 mm3) of Finnish pine, Pinus Sylvestris, as a function of treatment temperature (60-240 °C, three hours in protective water steam). The samples were cut as radial-tangential (RT) planes, and as longitudinal-radial (LR) planes. Two distinct regions of change in mechanical parameters were seen: one around 140 C where both the linear and nonlinear parameters increased and one around 230 C where the mechanical parameters decreased. These treatment temperatures thus serves as candidates for quality class delimiters for these soft wood samples.

  16. International Benchmark on Numerical Simulations for 1D, Nonlinear Site Response (PRENOLIN) : Verification Phase Based on Canonical Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Régnier, Julie; Bonilla, Luis-Fabian; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Bertrand, Etienne; Hollender, Fabrice; Kawase, Hiroshi; Sicilia, Deborah; Arduino, Pedro; Amorosi, Angelo; Asimaki, Dominiki; Pisano, F.

    2016-01-01

    PREdiction of NOn‐LINear soil behavior (PRENOLIN) is an international benchmark aiming to test multiple numerical simulation codes that are capable of predicting nonlinear seismic site response with various constitutive models. One of the objectives of this project is the assessment of the

  17. Equation of state, nonlinear elastic response, and anharmonic properties of diamond-cubic silicon and germanium. First-principles investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenju [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Institute of Fluid Physics, Sichuan (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics; Gu, Jianbing [Institute of Fluid Physics, Sichuan (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). College of Physical Science and Technology; Kuang, Xiaoyu [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Xiang, Shikai [Institute of Fluid Physics, Sichuan (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear elastic properties of diamond-cubic silicon and germanium have not been investigated sufficiently to date. Knowledge of these properties not only can help us to understand nonlinear mechanical effects but also can assist us to have an insight into the related anharmonic properties, so we investigate the nonlinear elastic behaviour of single silicon and germanium by calculating their second- and third-order elastic constants. All the results of the elastic constants show good agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Such a phenomenon indicates that the present values of the elastic constants are accurate and can be used to further study the related anharmonic properties. Subsequently, the anharmonic properties such as the pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants, Grueneisen constants of long-wavelength acoustic modes, and ultrasonic nonlinear parameters are explored. All the anharmonic properties of silicon calculated in the present work also show good agreement with the existing experimental results; this consistency not only reveals that the calculation method of the anharmonic properties is feasible but also illuminates that the anharmonic properties obtained in the present work are reliable. For the anharmonic properties of germanium, since there are no experimental result and other theoretical data till now, we hope that the anharmonic properties of germanium first offered in this work would serve as a reference for future studies.

  18. Interfacial elastic fingering in Hele-Shaw cells: A weakly nonlinear study

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Gabriel D.

    2013-11-11

    We study a variant of the classic viscous fingering instability in Hele-Shaw cells where the interface separating the fluids is elastic, and presents a curvature-dependent bending rigidity. By employing a second-order mode-coupling approach we investigate how the elastic nature of the interface influences the morphology of emerging interfacial patterns. This is done by focusing our attention on a conventionally stable situation in which the fluids involved have the same viscosity. In this framework, we show that the inclusion of nonlinear effects plays a crucial role in inducing sizable interfacial instabilities, as well as in determining the ultimate shape of the pattern-forming structures. Particularly, we have found that the emergence of either narrow or wide fingers can be regulated by tuning a rigidity fraction parameter. Our weakly nonlinear findings reinforce the importance of the so-called curvature weakening effect, which favors the development of fingers in regions of lower rigidity. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. Nonlinear Dispersive Elastic Waves in Solids: Exact, Approximate, and Numerical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehtourian, Romik

    Wave motion lies at the heart of many disciplines in the physical sciences and engineering. For example, problems and applications involving light, sound, heat, or fluid flow are all likely to involve wave dynamics at some level. A particular class of problems is concerned with the propagation of elastic waves in a solid medium, such as a fiber-reinforced composite material responding to vibratory excitations, or soil and rock admitting seismic waves moments after the onset of an earthquake, or phonon transport in a semiconducting crystal like silicon. Regardless of the type of wave, the dispersion relation provides a fundamental characterization of the elastodynamic properties of the medium. The first part of the dissertation examines the propagation of a large-amplitude elastic wave in a one-dimensional homogeneous medium with a focus on the effects of inherent nonlinearities on the dispersion relation. Considering a thin rod, where the thickness is small compared to the wavelength, an exact, closed-form formulation is presented for the treatment of two types of nonlinearity in the strain-displacement gradient relation: Green-Lagrange and Hencky. The derived relation is then verified by direct time-domain simulations, examining both instantaneous dispersion (by direct observation) and short-term, pre-breaking dispersion (by Fourier transformation). A high-order perturbation analysis is also conducted yielding an explicit analytical space-time solution, which is shown to be spectrally accurate. The results establish a perfect match between theory and simulation and reveal that regardless of the strength of the nonlinearity, the dispersion relation fully embodies all information pertaining to the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism that unfolds as an arbitrary-profiled wave evolves in the medium. In the second part of the dissertation, the analysis is extended to a continuous periodic thin rod exhibiting multiple phases or embedded local resonators. The

  20. All-optical sensitive phase shifting based on nonlinear out-of-plane coupling through 1-D slab photonic crystal with a layer of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Reza; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Yu, Quanqiang; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2014-06-16

    We realize all-optical sensitive phase shifting based on nonlinear out-of-plane coupling to a slab waveguide through Fano resonance of a slab 1-D photonic crystal (PhC). We use a graphene layer as the nonlinear material and change its refractive index by the input light intensity through Kerr nonlinear effect to obtain a shift in the Fano resonance frequency. The Fano resonance and self-focusing effect lead to light-intensity enhancement on the graphene in the PhC, reinforcing the nonlinear effect of refractive index in the graphene. Through finite-difference time-domain simulation, we demonstrate that the phase changing sensitivity obtained can be 4 orders higher than that by a single graphene under the same input light intensity. Moreover the threshold pump intensity for all-optical sensitive phase shifting in the coupled light to the waveguide is as low as ~4 MW per square centimeter. The results are applicable in micro optical integrated circuits for phase shifters, phase modulators, power limiters, and phase logic elements for optical computation, digital phase shift keying in communication systems, and non-contact sensitive signal detectors.

  1. Geometric method for stability of non-linear elastic thin shells

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Jordanka

    2002-01-01

    PREFACE This book deals with the new developments and applications of the geometric method to the nonlinear stability problem for thin non-elastic shells. There are no other published books on this subject except the basic ones of A. V. Pogorelov (1966,1967,1986), where variational principles defined over isometric surfaces, are postulated, and applied mainly to static and dynamic problems of elastic isotropic thin shells. A. V. Pogorelov (Harkov, Ukraine) was the first to provide in his monographs the geometric construction of the deformed shell surface in a post-critical stage and deriving explicitely the asymptotic formulas for the upper and lower critical loads. In most cases, these formulas were presented in a closed analytical form, and confirmed by experimental data. The geometric method by Pogorelov is one of the most important analytical methods developed during the last century. Its power consists in its ability to provide a clear geometric picture of the postcritical form of a deformed shell surfac...

  2. Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle in the theory of nonlinear elasticity with the combined approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporykhin, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The assignment of a portion of the edge conditions in the deformed state and a portion of them in the initial state so that the initial and deformed states of the body are unknowns is a characteristic feature of the statement of a number of technological problems. Haber and Haber and Abel have performed studies in this direction, where constitutive relationships have been constructed within the framework of a linearly elastic material. Use of the displacements of individual particles as variable parameters in these relationships has required additional conditions that do not follow from the formulated problem. Use of familiar variational principles described in Euler coordinates is rendered difficult by the complexity of edge-condition formulation in the special case when the initial state is unknown. The latter is governed by the fact that variational principles are derived from the initial formulations open-quotes in Lagrangian coordinates,close quotes by recalculating the operation functional. Using Lagrange's principle, Novikov and Sporykhin constructed constitutive equations in the general case of a nonlinearly elastic body with edge conditions assigned in different configurations. An analogous problem is solved in this paper using the Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle

  3. Nonlinear 1-D stationary flows in multi-ion plasmas – sonic and critical loci – solitary and "oscillatory" waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Dubinin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional stationary flows of a plasma consisting of two ion populations and electrons streaming against a heavy ion cloud are studied. The flow structure is critically governed by the position of sonic and critical points, at which the flow is shocked or choked. The concept of sonic and critical points is suitably generalized to the case of multi-ion plasmas to include a differential ion streaming. For magnetic field free flows, the sonic and critical loci in the (upx, uhx space coincide. Amongst the different flow patterns for the protons and heavy ions, there is a possible configuration composed of a "heavy ion shock" accompanied by a proton rarefaction. The magnetic field introduces a "stiffness" for the differential ion streaming transverse to the magnetic field. In general, both ion fluids respond similarly in the presence of "ion obstacle"; the superfast (subfast flows are decelerated (accelerated. The collective flow is choked when the dynamic trajectory (upx, uhx crosses the critical loci. In specific regimes the flow contains a sequence of solitary structures and as a result, the flow is strongly bunched. In each such substructure the protons are almost completely replaced by the heavies. A differential ion streaming is more accessible in the collective flows oblique to the magnetic field. Such a flexibility of the ion motion is determined by the properties of energy integrals and the Bernoulli energy functions of each ion species. The structure of flows, oblique to the magnetic field, depends critically on the velocity regime and demonstrates a rich variety of solitary and oscillatory nonlinear wave structures. The results of the paper are relevant to the plasma and field environments at comets and planets through the interaction with the solar wind.

  4. Nonlinear elastic properties of superconducting antiperovskites MNNi 3 (M =Zn, Cd, Mg, Al, Ga, and In) from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lili

    2014-05-22

    We present theoretical studies for the third-order elastic constants (TOECs) of superconducting antiperovskites MNNi 3 (M = Zn, Cd, Mg, Al, Ga, and In) using the density functional theory (DFT) and homogeneous deformation method. From the nonlinear least-square fitting, the elastic constants are extracted from a polynomial fit to the calculated strain-energy data. Calculated second-order elastic constants (SOECs) are compared with the previous theoretical calculations, and a very good agreement was found. The nonlinear effects often play an important role when the finite strains are larger than approximately 2.5 %. Besides, we have computed the pressure derivatives of SOECs and provided rough estimations for the Grüneisen constants of long-wavelength acoustic modes by using the calculated TOECs. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic and static analysis of shallow spherical shell resting on two-parameters elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civalek, Ö.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study nonlinear static and dynamic responses of shallow spherical shells resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations are carried out. The formulation of the shells is based on the Donnell theory. The nonlinear governing equations of motion of shallow shells are discretized in space and time domains using the discrete singular convolution and the differential quadrature methods, respectively. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the open literature. The effects of the Winkler and Pasternak foundation parameters on nonlinear static and dynamic response of shells are investigated. Some results are also presented for circular plate as special case. Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is studied. It is important to state that the increase in damping parameter causes decrease in the dynamic response of the shells. It is shown that the shear parameter of the foundation has a significant influence on the dynamic and static response of the shells. Also, the response of the shell is decreased with the increasing value of the shear parameter of the foundation. Parametric studies considering different geometric variables have also been investigated. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear responses of shallow spherical shells are presented. • The effects of foundation parameters are investigated. • Damping effect on nonlinear dynamic response of shells is also studied

  6. Nonlinear Elasticity of Borocarbide Superconductor YNi2B2C: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available First-principles calculations combined with homogeneous deformation methods are used to investigate the second- and third-order elastic constants of YNi2B2C with tetragonal structure. The predicted lattice constants and second-order elastic constants of YNi2B2C agree well with the available data. The effective second-order elastic constants are obtained from the second- and third-order elastic constants for YNi2B2C. Based on the effective second-order elastic constants, Pugh’s modulus ratio, Poisson’s ratio, and Vickers hardness of YNi2B2C under high pressure are further investigated. It is shown that the ductility of YNi2B2C increases with increasing pressure.

  7. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  8. Numerical simulation of the interaction between a nonlinear elastic structure and compressible flow by the discontinuous Galerkin method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosík, Adam; Feistauer, M.; Hadrava, Martin; Horáček, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 267, September (2015), s. 382-396 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : discontinuous Galerkin method * nonlinear elasticity * compressible viscous flow * fluid–structure interaction Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0096300315002453/pdfft?md5=02d46bc730e3a7fb8a5008aaab1da786&pid=1-s2.0-S0096300315002453-main.pdf

  9. Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso

    2017-07-10

    Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced birefringence, we can readily extract the twist elastic coefficient K 22 of thermotropic and lyotropic chiral nematics (N*). The value of K 22 we obtain for chiral doped 5CB thermotropic N* well matches those reported in the literature. With this same strategy, we could determine for the first time K 22 of the N* phase of concentrated aqueous solutions of DNA oligomers, bypassing the limitations that so far prevented measuring the elastic constants of this class of liquid crystalline materials. The present study also enlightens the significant nonlinear optical response of DNA liquid crystals.

  10. Approximate non-linear multiparameter inversion for multicomponent single and double P-wave scattering in isotropic elastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Mao, Weijian

    2018-03-01

    An asymptotic quadratic true-amplitude inversion method for isotropic elastic P waves is proposed to invert medium parameters. The multicomponent P-wave scattered wavefield is computed based on a forward relationship using second-order Born approximation and corresponding high-frequency ray theoretical methods. Within the local double scattering mechanism, the P-wave transmission factors are elaborately calculated, which results in the radiation pattern for P-waves scattering being a quadratic combination of the density and Lamé's moduli perturbation parameters. We further express the elastic P-wave scattered wavefield in a form of generalized Radon transform (GRT). After introducing classical backprojection operators, we obtain an approximate solution of the inverse problem by solving a quadratic non-linear system. Numerical tests with synthetic data computed by finite-differences scheme demonstrate that our quadratic inversion can accurately invert perturbation parameters for strong perturbations, compared with the P-wave single-scattering linear inversion method. Although our inversion strategy here is only syncretized with P-wave scattering, it can be extended to invert multicomponent elastic data containing both P-wave and S-wave information.

  11. Nonlinear vibration of thick FGM plates on elastic foundation subjected to thermal and mechanical loads using the first-order shear deformation plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Duc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response and vibration of thick functionally graded material (FGM plates using both of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and stress function with full motion equations (not using Volmir’s assumptions. The FGM plate is assumed to rest on elastic foundation and subjected to mechanical, thermal, and damping loads. Numerical results for dynamic response of the FGM plate are obtained by Runge–Kutta method. The results show the material properties, the elastic foundations, mechanical and thermal loads on the nonlinear dynamic response of functionally graded plates.

  12. A sandwich bar element for geometric nonlinear thermo-elastic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murín J.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with a two-node straight sandwich composite bar element with constant double symmetric rectangular cross-sectional area. This new bar element (based on the non-linear second-order theory is intended to perform the non-incremental full geometric non-linear analysis. Stiffness matrix of this composite bar contains transfer constants, which accurately describe polynomial uniaxial variation of the material thermo-physical properties.In the numerical experiments the weak coupled thermo-structural geometric non-linear problem was solved. Obtained results were compared with several analyses made by ANSYS programme. Findings show good accuracy of this new finite element. The results obtained with this element do not depend on the element mesh density.

  13. Assessment of Two Analytical Methods in Solving the Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Beam Deformation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – In the last two decades with the rapid development of nonlinear science, there has appeared ever-increasing interest of scientists and engineers in the analytical techniques for nonlinear problems. This paper considers linear and nonlinear systems that are not only regarded as general...... boundary value problems, but also are used as mathematical models in viscoelastic and inelastic flows. The purpose of this paper is to present the application of the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) and variational iteration method (VIM) to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering...... and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However...

  14. The Role of Nonlinear Substrate Elasticity in the Wrinkling of Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of substrate nonlinearity on the stability of wrinkling of thin films bonded to compliant substrates is investigated within the initial post-bifurcation range when wrinkling first emerges. A fully nonlinear neo-Hookean bilayer composed of a thin film on a deep substrate is analyzed for a wide range of the film/substrate stiffness ratio, from films that are very stiff compared to the substrate to those only slightly stiffer. Substrate pre-stretch prior to film attachment is shown to h...

  15. The exploration of nonlinear elasticity and its efficient parameterization for crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; Van der Ven, Anton

    2017-10-01

    Conventional approaches to analyzing the very large coherency strains that can occur during solid-state phase transformations are founded in linear elasticity and rely on infinitesimal strain metrics. Despite this, there are many technologically important examples where misfit strains of multi-phase mixtures are very large during their synthesis and/or application. In this paper, we present a framework for constructing strain-energy expressions and stress-strain relationships beyond the linear-elastic limit for crystalline solids. This approach utilizes group theoretical concepts to minimize both the number of free parameters in the strain-energy expression and amount of first-principles training data required to parameterize strain-energy models that are invariant to all crystal symmetries. Within this framework, the strain-energy and elastic stiffness can be described to high accuracy in terms of a set of conventional symmetry-adapted finite strain metrics that we define independent of crystal symmetry. As an illustration, we use first-principles electronic structure data to parameterize strain energy polynomials and employ them to explore the strain-energy surfaces of HCP Zr and Mg, as well as several important Zr-H and Mg-Nd phases that are known to precipitate coherently within the HCP matrices of Zr and Mg.

  16. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  17. DESTRUCTION CRITERION IN MODEL OF NON-LINEAR ELASTIC PLASTIC MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Shved

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a destruction criterion in a specific phenomenological model of elastic plastic medium which significantly differs from the known criteria. In case of vector interpretation of rank-2 symmetric tensors yield surface in the Cauchy stress space is formed by closed piecewise concave surfaces of its deviator sections with due account of experimental data. Section surface is determined by normal vector which is selected from two private vectors of criterial “deviator” operator. Such selection is not always possible in the case of anisotropy growth. It is expected that destruction can only start when a process point in the stress space is located in the current deviator section of the yield surface. It occurs when a critical point appears in the section, and a private value of an operator becomes N-fold in the point that determines the private vector corresponding to the normal vector. Unique and reasonable selection of the normal vector becomes impossible in the critical point and an yield criteria loses its significance in the point.When the destruction initiation is determined there is a possibility of a special case due to the proposed conic form of the yield surface. The deviator section degenerates into the point at the yield surface peak. Criterion formulation at the surface peak lies in the fact that there is no physically correct solution while using a state equation in regard to elastic distortion measures with a fixed tensor of elastic turn. Such usage of the equation is always possible for the rest points of the yield surface and it is considered as an obligatory condition for determination of the deviator section. A critical point is generally absent at any deviator section of the yield surface for isotropic material. A limiting value of the mean stress has been calculated at uniform tension.

  18. The role of nonlinear substrate elasticity in the wrinkling of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John W

    2013-06-28

    The role of substrate nonlinearity in the stability of wrinkling of thin films bonded to compliant substrates is investigated within the initial post-bifurcation range when wrinkling first emerges. A fully nonlinear neo-Hookean bilayer composed of a thin film on a deep substrate is analysed for a wide range of the film-substrate stiffness ratio, from films that are very stiff compared with the substrate to those only slightly stiffer. Substrate pre-stretch prior to film attachment is shown to have a significant effect on the nonlinearity relevant to wrinkling. Two dimensionless parameters are identified that control the stability and mode shape evolution of the bilayer: one specifying arbitrary uniform substrate pre-stretch and the other a stretch-modified modulus ratio. For systems with film stiffness greater than about five times that of the substrate the wrinkling bifurcation is stable, whereas for systems with smaller relative film stiffness bifurcation can be unstable, especially if substrate pre-stretch is not tensile.

  19. Breathing as a low frequency wave propagation in nonlinear elastic permeable medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Elizabeth; McKenzie, David R.; Suchowerska, Natalka; Fulton, Roger R.

    2007-01-01

    Breathing can be regarded as a type of low frequency wave propagation. Unlike sound propagation in open air, in breathing, the air compressibility is not as important as the flow of air, and to a first approximation the air can be regarded as incompressible. We have developed a one-dimensional analytical description of wave motion in a metamaterial consisting of a porous elastic medium contained within chambers, separated by plates with orifices representing the minor airways. The metamaterial is placed within a cylinder with impermeable sides representing the thorax, driven at one end by a piston representing the diaphragm. The incompressible air is able to escape from the top of the cylinder. The solutions to the wave equation have characteristics that depend on the values of permeability (defined by the size of the orifice in the plates), the Young's modulus of the elastic medium and the density of lung tissue. A 'normal' regime is identified in which the strain of the medium near the diaphragm is large and the strain at the top of the cylinder near the outlet is small. An 'abnormal' regime is also identified in which the opposite applies. A rapid transition between the two regimes can be caused by changing the parameters representing the lung tissue. This transition may represent the onset of a disease state such as asthma

  20. A nonlinear theory for fibre-reinforced magneto-elastic rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambella, Jacopo; Favata, Antonino; Tomassetti, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    We derive a model for the finite motion of a fibre-reinforced magneto-elastic rod. The reinforcing particles are assumed weakly and uniformly magnetized, rigid and firmly embedded into the elastomeric matrix. We deduce closed-form expressions of the quasi-static motion of the rod in terms of the external magnetic field and of the body forces. The dependences of the motion on the shape of the inclusions, their orientation, their anisotropic magnetic properties and the Young modulus of the matrix are analysed and discussed. Two case studies are presented, in which the rod is used as an actuator suspended in a cantilever configuration. This work can foster new applications in the field of soft-actuators.

  1. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of doubly curved isotropic shells resting on elastic foundation by a combination of harmonic differential quadrature-finite difference methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civalek, Oemer

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response of doubly curved shallow shells resting on Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation has been studied for step and sinusoidal loadings. Dynamic analogues of Von Karman-Donnel type shell equations are used. Clamped immovable and simply supported immovable boundary conditions are considered. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations of the shell are discretized in space and time domains using the harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) and finite differences (FD) methods, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed HDQ-FD coupled methodology is demonstrated by numerical examples. The shear parameter G of the Pasternak foundation and the stiffness parameter K of the Winkler foundation have been found to have a significant influence on the dynamic response of the shell. It is concluded from the present study that the HDQ-FD methodolgy is a simple, efficient, and accurate method for the nonlinear analysis of doubly curved shallow shells resting on two-parameter elastic foundation

  2. On the compatibility equations of nonlinear and linear elasticity in the presence of boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash

    2015-12-01

    We use Hodge-type orthogonal decompositions for studying the compatibility equations of the displacement gradient and the linear strain with prescribed boundary displacements. We show that the displacement gradient is compatible if and only if for any equilibrated virtual first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor field, the virtual work done by the displacement gradient is equal to the virtual work done by the prescribed boundary displacements. This condition is very similar to the classical compatibility equations for the linear strain. Since these compatibility equations for linear and nonlinear strains involve infinite-dimensional spaces and consequently are not easy to use in practice, we derive alternative compatibility equations, which are written in terms of some finite-dimensional spaces and are more useful in practice. Using these new compatibility equations, we present some non-trivial examples that show that compatible strains may become incompatible in the presence of prescribed boundary displacements.

  3. Elastic Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Fagertun, Jens; Larsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fusion of the active appearance model (AAM) and the Riemannian elasticity framework which yields a non-linear shape model and a linear texture model – the active elastic appearance model (EAM). The non-linear elasticity shape model is more flexible than the usual linear subs...

  4. A semi analytical method for electro-thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of nanobeam resting on the Winkler-Pasternak foundations with general elastic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.

  5. Nonlinear vibration of thick FGM plates on elastic foundation subjected to thermal and mechanical loads using the first-order shear deformation plate theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Dinh Duc; Pham Hong Cong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response and vibration of thick functionally graded material (FGM) plates using both of the first-order shear deformation plate theory and stress function with full motion equations (not using Volmir’s assumptions). The FGM plate is assumed to rest on elastic foundation and subjected to mechanical, thermal, and damping loads. Numerical results for dynamic response of the FGM plate are obtained by Runge–Kutta metho...

  6. The influence of fully nonlinear wave forces on aero-hydro-elastic calculations of monopile wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2016-01-01

    and nonlinear irregular wave realizations are calculated using the fully nonlinear potential flow wave model OceanWave3D [1]. The linear and nonlinear wave realizations are compared using both a static analysis on a fixed monopile and dynamic calculations with the aeroelastic code Flex5 [2]. The conclusion from...

  7. Modeling complicated rheological behaviors in encapsulating shells of lipid-coated microbubbles accounting for nonlinear changes of both shell viscosity and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Matula, Thomas J.; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong

    2013-02-01

    It has been accepted that the dynamic responses of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles will be significantly affected by the encapsulating shell properties (e.g., shell elasticity and viscosity). In this work, a new model is proposed to describe the complicated rheological behaviors in an encapsulating shell of UCA microbubbles by applying the nonlinear ‘Cross law’ to the shell viscous term in the Marmottant model. The proposed new model was verified by fitting the dynamic responses of UCAs measured with either a high-speed optical imaging system or a light scattering system. The comparison results between the measured radius-time curves and the numerical simulations demonstrate that the ‘compression-only’ behavior of UCAs can be successfully simulated with the new model. Then, the shell elastic and viscous coefficients of SonoVue microbubbles were evaluated based on the new model simulations, and compared to the results obtained from some existing UCA models. The results confirm the capability of the current model for reducing the dependence of bubble shell parameters on the initial bubble radius, which indicates that the current model might be more comprehensive to describe the complex rheological nature (e.g., ‘shear-thinning’ and ‘strain-softening’) in encapsulating shells of UCA microbubbles by taking into account the nonlinear changes of both shell elasticity and shell viscosity.

  8. Estimating the price elasticity of expenditure for prescription drugs in the presence of non-linear price schedules: an illustration from Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoyannis, Paul; Hurley, Jeremiah; Grootendorst, Paul; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2005-09-01

    The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price endogenous (a function of drug consumption). In this paper we exploit an exogenous change in cost-sharing within the Quebec (Canada) public Pharmacare program to estimate the price elasticity of expenditure for drugs using IV methods. This approach corrects for the endogeneity of price and incorporates the concept of a 'rational' consumer who factors into consumption decisions the price they expect to face at the margin given their expected needs. The IV method is adapted from an approach developed in the public finance literature used to estimate income responses to changes in tax schedules. The instrument is based on the price an individual would face under the new cost-sharing policy if their consumption remained at the pre-policy level. Our preferred specification leads to expenditure elasticities that are in the low range of previous estimates (between -0.12 and -0.16). Naïve OLS estimates are between 1 and 4 times these magnitudes. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nonlinear Parameter-Varying AeroServoElastic Reduced Order Model for Aerostructural Sensing and Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to develop reliable reduced order modeling technologies to automatically generate nonlinear, parameter-varying (PV),...

  10. First-Principles Study of the Nonlinear Elasticity of Rare-Earth Hexaborides REB6 (RE = La, Ce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshi Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complete set of independent second- and third-order elastic constants of rare-earth hexaborides LaB 6 and CeB 6 are determined by the combination method of first-principles calculations and homogeneous deformation theory. The ground-state lattice parameters, second-order elastic constants, and bulk modulus are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The third-order elastic constant of longitudinal mode C 111 has a larger absolute value than other shear modes, showing the contribution to lattice vibrations from longitudinal modes to be greater. The pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants related to the third-order elastic constants are calculated to be positive for the two hexaborides, which are consistent with those of their polycrystalline bulk modulus and shear modulus. Furthermore, the effect of pressure on the structural stability, mechanical property, and elastic anisotropy of the two hexaborides are investigated, showing a reduction in mechanical stability and an increase in ductility and anisotropy with increasing pressure.

  11. Nonlinear free vibration analysis of elastically supported carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beam with the thermal environment in non-deterministic framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari Virendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of nonlinear free vibration behavior of elastically supported carbon nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC beam subjected to thermal loading with random system properties. Material properties of each constituent’s material, volume fraction exponent and foundation parameters are considered as uncorrelated Gaussian random input variables. The beam is supported by a Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity. The higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT with von-Karman non-linearity is used to formulate the governing equation using Hamilton principle. Convergence and validation study is carried out through the comparison with the available results in the literature for authenticity and accuracy of the present approach used in the analysis. First order perturbation technique (FOPT,Second order perturbation technique (SOPT and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS methods are employed to investigate the effect of geometric configuration, volume fraction exponent, foundation parameters, distribution of reinforcement and thermal loading on nonlinear vibration characteristics CNTRC beam.The present work signifies the accurate analysis of vibrational behaviour influences by different random variables. Results are presented in terms of mean, variance (COV and probability density function (PDF for various aforementioned parameters.

  12. Rotational elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-04-01

    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833

  13. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  14. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves

  15. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  16. Nonlinear dynamic stability of the orthotropic functionally graded cylindrical shell surrounded by Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation subjected to a linearly increasing load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kang; Gao, Wei; Wu, Di; Song, Chongmin

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic stability behaviors of the functionally graded (FG) orthotropic circular cylindrical shell surrounded by the two-parameter (Winkler-Pasternak) elastic foundation subjected to a linearly increasing load with the consideration of damping effect. The material properties are assumed to vary gradually in the thickness direction based on an exponential distribution function of the volume fraction of constituent materials. Equations of motion are derived from Hamilton's principle and the nonlinear compatibility equation is considered by the means of modified Donnell shell theory including large deflection. Then the nonlinear dynamic buckling equation is solved by a hybrid analytical-numerical method (combined Galerkin method and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The nonlinear dynamic stability of the FG orthotropic cylindrical shell is assessed based on Budiansky-Roth criterion. Additionally, effects of different parameters such as various inhomogeneous parameters, loading speeds, damping ratios and aspect ratios and thickness ratios of the structure on dynamic buckling are discussed in details. Finally, the proposed method is validated with published literature.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of an Unbalanced Flexible Rotor Supported by Elastic Bearings Lubricated with Piezo-Viscous Polar Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Lahmar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the V. K. Stokes micro-continuum theory, the effects of couple stresses on the nonlinear dynamic response of the unbalanced Jeffcott’s flexible rotor supported by layered hydrodynamic journal bearings is presented in this paper. A nonlinear transient modified Reynolds’ equation is derived and discretized by the finite element method to obtain the fluid-film pressure field as well as the film thickness by means of the implicit Euler method. The nonlinear orbits of the rotor center are determined by solving the nonlinear differential equations of motion with the explicit Euler’s scheme taking into account the flexibility of rotor. According to the obtained results, the combined effects of couple stresses due to the presence of polymer additives in lubricant and the pressure dependent viscosity on the nonlinear dynamic response of the rotor-bearing system are significant and cannot be ignored or overlooked. As expected, these effects are more noticeable for polymers characterized by higher length molecular chains.

  18. Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucchetti, Liana; Fraccia, Tommaso P.; Ciciulla, Fabrizio; Bellini, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the whole history of liquid crystals science, the balancing of intrinsic elasticity with coupling to external forces has been the key strategy for most application and investigation. While the coupling of the optical field to the nematic director is at the base of a wealth of thoroughly described optical effects, a significant variety of geometries and materials have not been considered yet. Here we show that by adopting a simple cell geometry and measuring the optically induced bi...

  19. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical simulation of shear and the Poynting effects by the finite element method: An application of the generalised empirical inequalities in non-linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Angela Mihai, L.

    2013-03-01

    Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Application of the R-Functions Method for Nonlinear Bending of Orthotropic Shallow Shells on an Elastic Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurpa, Lidiya; Lyubitska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Geometrically nonlinear behavior of orthotropic shallow shells subjected to the transverse load and resting on Winkler’s foundation is investigated. On base of the R-function theory and variational methods problem's solution for shells with complex plan form is proposed. The algorithm to finding upper and lower critical loads is developed. The stress-strain state of shallow shells with the complex planform is investigated including different boundary conditions, properties of mate...

  2. A novel two-layer, coupled finite element approach for modeling the nonlinear elastic and viscoelastic behavior of human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Thomas; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2011-07-01

    A novel finite element approach is presented to simulate the mechanical behavior of human red blood cells (RBC, erythrocytes). As the RBC membrane comprises a phospholipid bilayer with an intervening protein network, we propose to model the membrane with two distinct layers. The fairly complex characteristics of the very thin lipid bilayer are represented by special incompressible solid shell elements and an anisotropic viscoelastic constitutive model. Properties of the protein network are modeled with an isotropic hyperelastic third-order material. The elastic behavior of the model is validated with existing optical tweezers studies with quasi-static deformations. Employing material parameters consistent with literature, simulation results are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Available models in literature neglect either the surface area conservation of the RBC membrane or realistic loading conditions of the optical tweezers experiments. The importance of these modeling assumptions, that are both included in this study, are discussed and their influence quantified. For the simulation of the dynamic motion of RBC, the model is extended to incorporate the cytoplasm. This is realized with a monolithic fully coupled fluid-structure interaction simulation, where the fluid is described by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian framework. It is shown that both membrane viscosity and cytoplasm viscosity have significant influence on simulation results. Characteristic recovery times and energy dissipation for varying strain rates in dynamic laser trap experiments are calculated for the first time and are found to be comparable with experimental data.

  3. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Deb Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenonaffects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multidented functional lubricants such as ARJ-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  4. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  5. 1D Nano materials 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanqiu Zhu, Y.; Ma, R.; Whitby, R.; Acquah, S.

    2013-01-01

    We witnessed an initial hyped period and enthusiasm on carbon nano tubes in the 1990s later went through a significant expansion into nano tubes of other materials (metal di chalcogenides, boron nitride, etc.) as well as various nano wires and nano rods. While much of the hype might have gone, the research on one-dimensional (1D) nano materials has matured as one of the most active research areas within the nano science and nano technology community, flourishing with ample, exciting, and new research opportunities. Just like any other research frontier, researchers working in the 1D nano materials field are constantly striving to develop new fundamental science as well as potential applications. It remains a common belief that versatility and tunability of 1D nano materials would challenge many new rising tasks coming from our resource and energy demanding modern society. The traditional semiconductor industry has produced so many devices and systems from transistors, sensors, lasers, and LEDs to more sophisticated solar panels, which are now part of our daily lives. By down sizing the core components or parts to 1D form, one might wonder how fundamentally the dimensionality and morphology would impact the device performance, this is, as always, requiring us to fully understand the structure-property relationship in 1D nano materials. It may be equally crucial in connecting discovery-driven fundamental science to market-driven technology industry concerning potentially relevant findings derived from these novel materials. The importance of a platform that allows active researchers in this field to present their new development in a timely and efficient manner is therefore self-evident. Following the success of two early special issues devoted to 1D nano materials, this is the third one in a row organized by the same group of guest editors, attesting that such a platform has been well received by the readers

  6. Non-reciprocity in nonlinear elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity is a fundamental property of linear time-invariant (LTI) acoustic waveguides governed by self-adjoint operators with symmetric Green's functions. The break of reciprocity in LTI elastodynamics is only possible through the break of time reversal symmetry on the micro-level, and this can be achieved by imposing external biases, adding nonlinearities or allowing for time-varying system properties. We present a Volterra-series based asymptotic analysis for studying spatial non-reciprocity in a class of one-dimensional (1D), time-invariant elastic systems with weak stiffness nonlinearities. We show that nonlinearity is neither necessary nor sufficient for breaking reciprocity in this class of systems; rather, it depends on the boundary conditions, the symmetries of the governing linear and nonlinear operators, and the choice of the spatial points where the non-reciprocity criterion is tested. Extension of the analysis to higher dimensions and time-varying systems is straightforward from a mathematical point of view (but not in terms of new non-reciprocal physical phenomena), whereas the connection of non-reciprocity and time irreversibility can be studied as well. Finally, we show that suitably defined non-reciprocity measures enable optimization, and can provide physical understanding of the nonlinear effects in the dynamics, enabling one to establish regimes of "maximum nonlinearity." We highlight the theoretical developments by means of a numerical example.

  7. Bulk solitary waves in elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, A. M.; Dreiden, G. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Shvartz, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    A short and object oriented conspectus of bulk solitary wave theory, numerical simulations and real experiments in condensed matter is given. Upon a brief description of the soliton history and development we focus on bulk solitary waves of strain, also known as waves of density and, sometimes, as elastic and/or acoustic solitons. We consider the problem of nonlinear bulk wave generation and detection in basic structural elements, rods, plates and shells, that are exhaustively studied and widely used in physics and engineering. However, it is mostly valid for linear elasticity, whereas dynamic nonlinear theory of these elements is still far from being completed. In order to show how the nonlinear waves can be used in various applications, we studied the solitary elastic wave propagation along lengthy wave guides, and remarkably small attenuation of elastic solitons was proven in physical experiments. Both theory and generation for strain soliton in a shell, however, remained unsolved problems until recently, and we consider in more details the nonlinear bulk wave propagation in a shell. We studied an axially symmetric deformation of an infinite nonlinearly elastic cylindrical shell without torsion. The problem for bulk longitudinal waves is shown to be reducible to the one equation, if a relation between transversal displacement and the longitudinal strain is found. It is found that both the 1+1D and even the 1+2D problems for long travelling waves in nonlinear solids can be reduced to the Weierstrass equation for elliptic functions, which provide the solitary wave solutions as appropriate limits. We show that the accuracy in the boundary conditions on free lateral surfaces is of crucial importance for solution, derive the only equation for longitudinal nonlinear strain wave and show, that the equation has, amongst others, a bidirectional solitary wave solution, which lead us to successful physical experiments. We observed first the compression solitary wave in the

  8. A homogenization procedure for geometrically non-linear free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular plates with porosities, resting on elastic foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoucine Boutahar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some Functionally Graded Materials contain pores due to the result of processing; this influences their elastic and mechanical properties. Therefore, it may be very useful to examine the vibration behavior of thin Functionally Graded Annular Plates Clamped at both edges including porosities. In the present study, the rule of mixture is modified to take into account the effect of porosity and to approximate the material properties assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the examined annular plate. A semi-analytical model based on Hamilton’s principle and spectral analysis is adopted using a homogenization procedure to reduce the problem under consideration to that of an equivalent isotropic homogeneous annular plate. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative method. The effects of porosity, material property, and elastic foundations characteristics on the CCFGAP axisymmetric large deflection response are presented and discussed in detail.

  9. Non-Linear Analysis of Compressively/thermally Stressed Elastic Shell Structures on the Steelpan and the Underlying Theory of the Tuning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achong, A.

    1999-05-01

    This paper presents a non-linear analysis of the dome-shaped notes on the steelpan under compressive and thermal stresses. Equations are derived for the static and dynamic response of symmetrically distorted notes. Analytical results are obtained for modal frequencies, non-linear coupling coefficients and the buckling parameter. Experimental results demonstrate the vibration characteristics and their dependence on temperature. Experimental results were also obtained for the effects of stress relaxation which follows the shaping and tuning process of these notes by hammer peening. The results of the analysis are applicable to other shell-like structures not necessarily designed for musical purposes.

  10. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  11. Nonlinear dynamics between linear and impact limits

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipchuk, Valery N; Wriggers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book examines nonlinear dynamic analyses based on the existence of strongly nonlinear but simple counterparts to the linear models and tools. Discusses possible application to periodic elastic structures with non-smooth or discontinuous characteristics.

  12. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... platform for realizing a 1D atom, and are the subject of theoretical and experimental investigations in this thesis. We use _nite element method in 3D to calculate the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic-crystal membranes. The detailed spatial maps show strong inhibition of LDOS in the bandgap...... atom. One of the signatures and functions of a 1D atom is the nonlinear optical response at the single-photon level. A PCW chip is designed to experimentally study the transmission spectrum of an embedded QD. The transmission spectrum is shown to be modi_ed by 30% around the resonance of the QD...

  13. Elastic strips

    OpenAIRE

    Chubelaschwili, David; Pinkall, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding an explicit description of a developable narrow Moebius strip of minimal bending energy, which was first formulated by M. Sadowsky in 1930, we will develop the theory of elastic strips. Recently E.L. Starostin and G.H.M. van der Heijden found a numerical description for an elastic Moebius strip, but did not give an integrable solution. We derive two conservation laws, which describe the equilibrium equations of elastic strips. In applying these laws we find...

  14. A Formalism for the Consistent Description of Non-Linear Elasticity of Anisotropic Media Formalisme pour une description cohérente de l'élasticité non linéaire des milieux anisotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helbig K.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of elastic waves is generally treated under four assumptions: - that the medium is isotropic,- that the medium is homogeneous, - that there is a one-to-one relationship between stress and strain, - that stresses are linearly related to strains (equivalently, that strains are linearly related to stresses. Real media generally violate at least some-and often all-of these assumptions. A valid theoretical description of wave propagation in real media thus depends on the qualitative and quantitative description of the relevant inhomogeneity, anisotropy, and non-linearity: one either has to assume (or show that the deviation from the assumption can - for the problem at hand - be neglected, or develop a theoretical description that is valid even under the deviation. While the effect of a single deviation from the ideal state is rather well understood, difficulties arise in the combination of several such deviations. Non-linear elasticity of anisotropic (triclinic rock samples has been reported, e. g. by P. Rasolofosaon and H. Yin at the 6th IWSA in Trondheim (Rasolofosaon and Yin, 1996. Non-linear anisotropic elasticity matters only for non-infinitesimalamplitudes, i. e. , at least in the vicinity of the source. How large this vicinity is depends on the accuracy of observation and interpretation one tries to maintain, on the source intensity, and on the level of non-linearity. This paper is concerned with the last aspect, i. e. , with the meaning of the numbers beyond the fact that they are the results of measurements. As a measure of the non-linearity of the material, one can use the strain level at which the effective stiffness tensor deviates significantly from the zero-strain stiffness tensor. Particularly useful for this evaluation is the eigensystem (six eigenstiffnesses and six eigenstrains of the stiffness tensor : the eigenstrains provide suitable strain typesfor the calculation of the effective stiffness tensor, and the

  15. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  16. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  17. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites with different 1-D ZnO nanorod weight ratios (15 and 25%) had better selectivity and sensitivity towards NH3 at room temperature. Keywords. 1-D ZnO nanorods; PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites; photocatalytic activity; sensitivity. 1. Introduction. The synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures ...

  18. On the Nonlinear Vibrational Responses of a Large Vessel with a Broad Bow Flare under Wave Excitation: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicheng Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully coupled nonlinear three-dimensional (3D hydroelastic method is developed to investigate vibrational responses of a large ship with a pronounced bow flare subjected to high seas. This numerical model consists of a 3D boundary element method, 1D Euler-Bernoulli beam model, and a 2D generalized Wagner model. Green water loads were considered. Experimental study was carried out in a towing tank on a self-propelled segmented model with nonuniform steel backbones. The ship model was tested in regular incident waves of large amplitude. Impact pressure and nonlinear vertical bending moments were measured and compared with numerical predictions. The proposed nonlinear model produced similar results to the experimental model. Furthermore, the effects of elastic modes and nonlinearities on the numerical results were analyzed.

  19. Homogenization of 1D and 2D magnetoelastic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the equivalent in-plane mechanical properties of one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D, periodic magneto-elastic lattices. A lumped parameter model describes the lattices using magnetic dipole moments in combination with axial and torsional springs. The homogenization procedure is applied to systems linearized about stable configurations, which are identified by minimizing potential energy. Simple algebraic expressions are derived for the properties of 1D structures. Results for 1D lattices show that a variety of stiffness changes are possible through reconfiguration, and that magnetization can either stiffen or soften a structure. Results for 2D hexagonal and re-entrant lattices show that both reconfigurations and magnetization have drastic effects on the mechanical properties of lattice structures. Lattices can be stiffened or softened and the Poisson’s ratio can be tuned. Furthermore for certain hexagonal lattices the sign of Poisson’s ratio can change by varying the lattice magnetization. In some cases presented, analytical and numerically estimated equivalent properties are validated through numerical simulations that also illustrate the unique characteristics of the investigated configurations.

  20. On nonlinear thermo-electro-elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Mehnert, Markus; Hossain, Mokarram; Steinmann, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Electro-active polymers (EAPs) for large actuations are nowadays well-known and promising candidates for producing sensors, actuators and generators. In general, polymeric materials are sensitive to differential temperature histories. During experimental characterizations of EAPs under electro-mechanically coupled loads, it is difficult to maintain constant temperature not only because of an external differential temperature history but also because of the changes in internal temperature caus...

  1. On nonlinear thermo-electro-elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Markus; Hossain, Mokarram; Steinmann, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Electro-active polymers (EAPs) for large actuations are nowadays well-known and promising candidates for producing sensors, actuators and generators. In general, polymeric materials are sensitive to differential temperature histories. During experimental characterizations of EAPs under electro-mechanically coupled loads, it is difficult to maintain constant temperature not only because of an external differential temperature history but also because of the changes in internal temperature caused by the application of high electric loads. In this contribution, a thermo-electro-mechanically coupled constitutive framework is proposed based on the total energy approach. Departing from relevant laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations are formulated. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed thermo-electro-mechanically coupled framework, a frequently used non-homogeneous boundary-value problem, i.e. the extension and inflation of a cylindrical tube, is solved analytically. The results illustrate the influence of various thermo-electro-mechanical couplings.

  2. Nonlinearly coupled thermo-visco-elasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 1243-1275 ISSN 1021-9722 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kelvin-voigt rheology * small strains * nonsimple materials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.971, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00030-012-0207-9

  3. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The PPy/1-D ZnO nanocompositeswere used for the sensing of NH 3 , LPG, CO 2 and H 2 S gases, respectively, at room temperature. It was observed that PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites with different 1-D ZnO nanorod weight ratios (15 and 25%) had better selectivity and sensitivity towards NH3 at room temperature.

  4. Social exploration of 1D games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce...... interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration....

  5. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    platform for realizing a 1D atom, and are the subject of theoretical and experimental investigations in this thesis. We use _nite element method in 3D to calculate the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic-crystal membranes. The detailed spatial maps show strong inhibition of LDOS in the bandgap...... as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs. A large......A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...

  6. Elastic regimes of subisostatic athermal fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licup, A. J.; Sharma, A.; MacKintosh, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Athermal models of disordered fibrous networks are highly useful for studying the mechanics of elastic networks composed of stiff biopolymers. The underlying network architecture is a key aspect that can affect the elastic properties of these systems, which include rich linear and nonlinear elasticity. Existing computational approaches have focused on both lattice-based and off-lattice networks obtained from the random placement of rods. It is not obvious, a priori, whether the two architectures have fundamentally similar or different mechanics. If they are different, it is not clear which of these represents a better model for biological networks. Here, we show that both approaches are essentially equivalent for the same network connectivity, provided the networks are subisostatic with respect to central force interactions. Moreover, for a given subisostatic connectivity, we even find that lattice-based networks in both two and three dimensions exhibit nearly identical nonlinear elastic response. We provide a description of the linear mechanics for both architectures in terms of a scaling function. We also show that the nonlinear regime is dominated by fiber bending and that stiffening originates from the stabilization of subisostatic networks by stress. We propose a generalized relation for this regime in terms of the self-generated normal stresses that develop under deformation. Different network architectures have different susceptibilities to the normal stress but essentially exhibit the same nonlinear mechanics. Such a stiffening mechanism has been shown to successfully capture the nonlinear mechanics of collagen networks.

  7. 1D Printing of Recyclable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellucci, Daniel; MacCurdy, Robert; Lipson, Hod

    2017-01-01

    string. Here, we demonstrate a 1D printing system that uses an approach inspired by the ribosome to fabricate a variety of specialized robotic automata from a single string of source material. This proof-ofconcept system involves both a novel manufacturing platform that configures the source material...... using folding and a computational optimization tool that allows designs to be produced from the specification of high-level goals. We show that our 1D printing system is able to produce three distinct robots from the same source material, each of which is capable of accomplishing a specialized...

  8. Composite Beam Theory with Material Nonlinearities and Progressive Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fang

    Beam has historically found its broad applications. Nowadays, many engineering constructions still rely on this type of structure which could be made of anisotropic and heterogeneous materials. These applications motivate the development of beam theory in which the impact of material nonlinearities and damage on the global constitutive behavior has been a focus in recent years. Reliable predictions of these nonlinear beam responses depend on not only the quality of the material description but also a comprehensively generalized multiscale methodology which fills the theoretical gaps between the scales in an efficient yet high-fidelity manner. The conventional beam modeling methodologies which are built upon ad hoc assumptions are in lack of such reliability in need. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation is to create a reliable yet efficient method and the corresponding tool for composite beam modeling. A nonlinear beam theory is developed based on the Mechanics of Structure Genome (MSG) using the variational asymptotic method (VAM). The three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear continuum problem is rigorously reduced to a one-dimensional (1D) beam model and a two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional analysis featuring both geometric and material nonlinearities by exploiting the small geometric parameter which is an inherent geometric characteristic of the beam. The 2D nonlinear cross-sectional analysis utilizes the 3D material models to homogenize the beam cross-sectional constitutive responses considering the nonlinear elasticity and progressive damage. The results from such a homogenization are inputs as constitutive laws into the global nonlinear 1D beam analysis. The theoretical foundation is formulated without unnecessary kinematic assumptions. Curvilinear coordinates and vector calculus are utilized to build the 3D deformation gradient tensor, of which the components are formulated in terms of cross-sectional coordinates, generalized beam strains, unknown warping

  9. Remarks on stability of magneto-elastic shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Domański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability of plane shock waves for a model of perfect magnetoelasticityis investigated. Important mathematical properties, like loss of strict hyperbolicityand loss of genuine nonlinearity, and their consequences for the stability ofmagneto-elastic shocks are discussed. It is shown that some of these shocks do not satisfyclassical Lax stability conditions. Both compressible and incompressible models ofmagneto-elasticity are discussed.[b]Keywords[/b]: perfect magneto-elasticity, shock waves, stability conditions

  10. Analysis of flexible layered shallow shells on elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupishin, L.; Kolesnikov, A.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2017-05-01

    This paper contains numerical analysis of a layered geometric nonlinear flexible shallow shell based on an elastic foundation. Rise of arch in the center of the shell, width, length and type of support are given. The design variable is taken to be the thickness of the shallow shell, the form of the middle surface forming and the characteristic of elastic foundations. Critical force coefficient and stress of shells are calculated by Bubnov-Galerkin. Stress, characteristic of elastic foundations - thickness dependence are presented.

  11. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pendent process variables viz., dye concentration (crystal violet), catalyst concentration (1-D ZnO nanorods) and the reaction time on the preferred ... shape and size controlled 1-D ZnO nanorod synthesis is quite. ∗. Author for correspondence ... too fast for the precursor to control the size. To overcome this difficulty, CTAB ...

  12. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1-D ZnO nanorods and PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the surfactant-assisted precipitation and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The synthesized nanorods and nanocomposites were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction ...

  13. Development of a 3D consistent 1D neutronics model for reactor core simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Bog; Joo, Han Gyu; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun

    2001-02-01

    In this report a 3D consistent 1D model based on nonlinear analytic nodal method is developed to reproduce the 3D results. During the derivation, the current conservation factor (CCF) is introduced which guarantees the same axial neutron currents obtained from the 1D equation as the 3D reference values. Furthermore in order to properly use 1D group constants, a new 1D group constants representation scheme employing tables for the fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration is developed and functionalized for the control rod tip position. To test the 1D kinetics model with CCF, several steady state and transient calculations were performed and compared with 3D reference values. The errors of K-eff values were reduced about one tenth when using CCF without significant computational overhead. And the errors of power distribution were decreased to the range of one fifth or tenth at steady state calculation. The 1D kinetics model with CCF and the 1D group constant functionalization employing tables as a function of control rod tip position can provide preciser results at the steady state and transient calculation. Thus it is expected that the 1D kinetics model derived in this report can be used in the safety analysis, reactor real time simulation coupled with system analysis code, operator support system etc.

  14. Flexoelectricity and elasticity of asymmetric biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexander G; Sachs, Frederick

    2002-02-01

    In view of the well-established charge and dipolar asymmetry of the two leaflets of a native membrane, the theory of flexoelectricity (and curvature elasticity) is extended to take into account this asymmetry using linear and nonlinear forms of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results are discussed with respect to data from atomic force microscopy studies of electromotility in biomembranes.

  15. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  16. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tudoran, Lucian Barbu [Babes-Bolyai University, Electron Microscopy Center, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Al-Said, Said A Farha; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R, E-mail: stela.pruneanu@itim-cj.r [School of Chemistry, Bedson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of {lambda}-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  18. Effect of foundation nonlinearity on the nonlinear transient response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Nath, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Interaction of clamped orthotropic shallow spherical shells with nonlinear elastic foundations is studied under transient loads. The effect of softening and hardening foundation nonlinearities on the response behaviour of shallow shells has been investigated. Detailed analysis depicting the influence of hardening type foundation nonlinearity on the maximum response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells has been conducted. The numerical results suggest that for the shell-foundation interaction problems undergoing moderately large deformations, the nonlinear model for the foundation must be considered. (orig.) [de

  19. Tissue elasticity and the ageing elastic fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Sherratt, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of elastic tissues to deform under physiological forces and to subsequently release stored energy to drive passive recoil is vital to the function of many dynamic tissues. Within vertebrates, elastic fibres allow arteries and lungs to expand and contract, thus controlling variations in blood pressure and returning the pulmonary system to a resting state. Elastic fibres are composite structures composed of a cross-linked elastin core and an outer layer of fibrillin microfibrils. Th...

  20. On the dynamic buckling of a lightly damped elastic cubic model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technique to determine the dynamic buckling load of a lightly and viscously damped elastic cubic model structure modulated by a sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load. The imperfect elastic cubic (nonlinear) structure is itself a generalization of most elastic physical structures that have been investigated over the years.

  1. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  2. Quantized conductance through reconfigurable 1D channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shicheng; Annadi, Anil; Cheng, Guanglei; Tomczyk, Michelle; Huang, Mengchen; Lee, Hyungwoo; Ryu, Sangwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) system has become a model system to investigate various exotic ground states of condensed matter physics. This system can co-host superconductivity, magnetism, and strong spin-orbit coupling at 2D interfaces which led to predictions of exotic phenomena such as unconventional superconductivity, helical/chiral modes, and Majorana phases in these interfaces. In order to explore these exotic phases high quality 1D devices are desirable. We demonstrate the realization of a gate tunable quantum point contact (QPC) structure embedded in a LAO/STO nanowire created using conductive AFM lithography. We observe integer quantized conductance in the units of e2 / h at high magnetic fields (B = 9 Tesla, T = 50 mK),a signature of the existence of 1D quantum channels. Significantly, we observe quantized conduction for nanowires as long as 1 μm, implying that transport is ballistic along the magnetic-field induced chiral edge states in these devices. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and Grants: AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0524 and FA9550-12-1-0268), NSF (DMR-1124131 and DMR-1104191). AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  4. Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: ·         Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems ·         Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory ·    ...

  5. Tissue elasticity and the ageing elastic fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The ability of elastic tissues to deform under physiological forces and to subsequently release stored energy to drive passive recoil is vital to the function of many dynamic tissues. Within vertebrates, elastic fibres allow arteries and lungs to expand and contract, thus controlling variations in blood pressure and returning the pulmonary system to a resting state. Elastic fibres are composite structures composed of a cross-linked elastin core and an outer layer of fibrillin microfibrils. These two components perform distinct roles; elastin stores energy and drives passive recoil, whilst fibrillin microfibrils direct elastogenesis, mediate cell signalling, maintain tissue homeostasis via TGFβ sequestration and potentially act to reinforce the elastic fibre. In many tissues reduced elasticity, as a result of compromised elastic fibre function, becomes increasingly prevalent with age and contributes significantly to the burden of human morbidity and mortality. This review considers how the unique molecular structure, tissue distribution and longevity of elastic fibres pre-disposes these abundant extracellular matrix structures to the accumulation of damage in ageing dermal, pulmonary and vascular tissues. As compromised elasticity is a common feature of ageing dynamic tissues, the development of strategies to prevent, limit or reverse this loss of function will play a key role in reducing age-related morbidity and mortality.

  6. Integrated magnetic and elastic force systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourauel, Christoph; Köklü, Saduman O; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2002-08-01

    Magnetic force increases as the distance (d) of the force- generating elements (F approximately 1/d(2)) decreases, whereas elastic force decreases as the distance decreases (F approximately kd). These opposing characteristics suggest that combining both force systems will establish an integrated system with a long-range working ability. The objective of this study was to determine the vertical closure force (F(X)) and the transverse axis moment (M(Y)) of an integrated force system, ie, attracting magnets with elastics (vertical or Classes II and III). F(X) and M(Y) were examined on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system. It was found that the integrated force system had a positive closure force (+F(X)) that never declined to 0 and a long working range. Three regions characterized the force-deflection curve of F(X): the magnetic region (0-3 mm, for magnets with 3/16-in medium elastics), in which the decline in magnetic force was larger than the increase in elastic force (6.3-2.5 N); the constant region (3-7 mm), in which the decline in magnetic force equaled the increase in elastic force (2.5-2.9 N); and the elastic region (7-10 mm), in which there was only an increase in elastic force (2.9-3.5 N). The transverse axis moment (+M(Y)), which tends to close the bite, developed especially in magnets with a single vertical elastic. Clinically, inactivation of vertical elastics by closing the mouth can be overruled by the integrated force system because it exerts adequate force level at both short and long distances.

  7. Winkler boundary conditions for three-point bending tests on 1D nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadean, D; McIlroy, David N; Faulkner, Brian E; Eric Aston, D

    2010-01-01

    Bending tests with atomic force microscopes (AFM) is a common method for elasticity measurements on 1D nanomaterials. Interpretation of the force and deflection data is necessary to determine the Young's modulus of the tested material and has been done assuming either of two classic boundary conditions that represent two extreme possibilities for the rigidity of the sample-anchor interface. The elasticity results from the two boundary conditions differ by a factor of four. Furthermore, both boundary conditions ignore the effects of deflections in the anchors themselves. The Winkler model for beams on elastic foundations is developed here for three-point bending tests to provide a more realistic representation. Equations for computing sample elasticity are derived from two sets of boundary conditions for the Winkler model. Application of this model to interpret the measurement of mechanical stiffness of a silica nanowire at multiple points in a three-point bending is discussed. With the correct choice of boundary conditions, the Winkler model gives a better fit for the observed stiffness profile than the classical beam models while providing a result that differs from both by a factor of two and is comparable to the bulk elasticity.

  8. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  9. Nonlinear elastic properties of bulk metallic glasses Zr52.5Ti5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10 and Pd40Cu30Ni10P20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobelev, N.P.; Kolyvanov, E.L.; Khonik, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of uniaxial compression on the propagation of ultrasonic vibrations in Zr 52.5 Ti 5 Cu 17.9 Ni 14.6 Al 10 and Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 bulk metallic glasses produced by melt quenching at a rate of 100 K/s is investigated. Elastic deformation was realized by compression of the samples along their long axis up to strains of about 1 GPa. Deriving of major ratios used during the calculation of the third-order elastic moduli of the glasses is described in brief, the results of the calculations being provided. A qualitative agreement between the calculated results and available data on the influence of the uniform pressure on the sound wave propagation rate was obtained [ru

  10. Comparative study of viscoelastic arterial wall models in nonlinear one-dimensional finite element simulations of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Rashmi; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E; Figueroa, C Alberto; Taylor, Charles A

    2011-08-01

    It is well known that blood vessels exhibit viscoelastic properties, which are modeled in the literature with different mathematical forms and experimental bases. The wide range of existing viscoelastic wall models may produce significantly different blood flow, pressure, and vessel deformation solutions in cardiovascular simulations. In this paper, we present a novel comparative study of two different viscoelastic wall models in nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) simulations of blood flow. The viscoelastic models are from papers by Holenstein et al. in 1980 (model V1) and Valdez-Jasso et al. in 2009 (model V2). The static elastic or zero-frequency responses of both models are chosen to be identical. The nonlinear 1D blood flow equations incorporating wall viscoelasticity are solved using a space-time finite element method and the implementation is verified with the Method of Manufactured Solutions. Simulation results using models V1, V2 and the common static elastic model are compared in three application examples: (i) wave propagation study in an idealized vessel with reflection-free outflow boundary condition; (ii) carotid artery model with nonperiodic boundary conditions; and (iii) subject-specific abdominal aorta model under rest and simulated lower limb exercise conditions. In the wave propagation study the damping and wave speed were largest for model V2 and lowest for the elastic model. In the carotid and abdominal aorta studies the most significant differences between wall models were observed in the hysteresis (pressure-area) loops, which were larger for V2 than V1, indicating that V2 is a more dissipative model. The cross-sectional area oscillations over the cardiac cycle were smaller for the viscoelastic models compared to the elastic model. In the abdominal aorta study, differences between constitutive models were more pronounced under exercise conditions than at rest. Inlet pressure pulse for model V1 was larger than the pulse for V2 and the elastic model

  11. Three-field modeling for MARS 1-D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Lim, Ho-Gon; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chung, Bub-Dong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the three-field modeling of the two-phase mixture is developed. The finite difference equations for the three-field equations thereafter are devised. The solution scheme has been implemented into the MARS 1-D code. The three-field formulations adopted are similar to those for MARS 3-D module, in a sense that the mass and momentum are treated separately for the entrained liquid and continuous liquid. As in the MARS-3D module, the entrained liquid and continuous liquid are combined into one for the energy equation, assuming thermal equilibrium between the two. All the non-linear terms are linearized to arrange the finite difference equation set into a linear matrix form with respect to the unknown arguments. The problems chosen for the assessment of the newly added entrained field consist of basic conceptual tests. Among the tests are gas-only test, liquid-only test, gas-only with supplied entrained liquid test, Edwards pipe problem, and GE level swell problem. The conceptual tests performed confirm the sound integrity of the three-field solver

  12. 1D multi-fluid plasma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, P.; Suender, D.

    1998-01-01

    1D and time-dependent multi-fluid plasma models are derived from multi-fluid MHD equations. Including neutral particles and their ionization stages as fluids increases the number of equations to be solved and the indeterminacy of the results considerably. For this reason, especially for the case of high-Z materials, the impurities are described by distinct approaches without restricting the impurity densities to be small compared with the hydrogen plasma density. Using the approach of the average ion model, neglecting the effect of the neutral particles, equalizing the plasma temperatures and adopting the condition of quasi-neutrality, we arrive at a three-fluid description and analyze wave front solution of the self-consistent system of equations obtained. This system is reduced to a two-fluid description assuming the flow velocities of the electrons and ions to be equal. This model can be reduced further to a currentless, modified one-fluid approach if the impurity density in dependence on the model functions is known. Introducing Lagrangian coordinates and assuming a constant total pressure a single reaction-diffusion equation for the temperature is obtained. A differential equation for the impurity density in dependence of the temperature has to be included. It determines the influence of the impurities on the reaction-diffusion process which affect not only the radiation loss but also the heat conduction. This is demonstrated for carbon, beryllium and high-Z impurities. (orig.)

  13. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.

    2006-12-01

    non-linéarité sous fort confinement, et qui pourraient engendrer un signal résultant d'une interaction onde-onde . Tempérant ce pessimisme, il faut noter qu'un éventuel signal d'interaction non linéaire présenterait l'avantage, quant à sa détection, d'être dans une bande de fréquence différente de celle des ondes utilisées pour l'engendrer. Bien que nous n'ayons pas connaissance d'essais d'application actuels, les perspectives paraissent plus encourageantes dans le domaine du génie civil ou minier. C'est dans le domaine diagraphique, où des distances de propagation sont très faibles, que des applications semblent possibles à moyen terme. Si l'on en juge par le dépôt très récent de plusieurs brevets, les compagnies de logging poursuivraient des recherches dans cette voie. A general and important characteristic of rocks is their elastically nonlinear behavior resulting in significant effects on wave propagation. The nonlinear response of rock is a direct consequence of the compliant nature of rock : the macro-and micro-structure of the material (microcracks, grain-to-grain contacts, etc. . As a result, the material modulus varies as a function of the applied pressure. Interest has grown significantly in the last several years, as illustrated by the increasing number of publications regarding this topic. Here we present a summary of the fundamentals of theory and of experimental observations characteristic of rock, and we address possible applications in geophysics. Two disciplines regarding the nonlinear elasticity of rock have been developed over recent years in tandem :- Acoustoelasticity where wave propagation in statically, prestressed materials is studied. Here one relates the variation in applied pressure to the elastic wavespeed in order to extract the nonlinear coefficients. This area of study includes the topic of stress-induced anisotropy. - Acoustic nonlinearity where we are interested in the temporary and local variation in the elastic

  14. Elastic ring deformation and pedestal contact status analysis of elastic ring squeeze film damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic parametric characteristic of the elastic ring squeeze film damper (ERSFD). Firstly, the coupled oil film Reynolds equations and dynamic equations of an ERSFD supported rotor system are established. The finite differential method and numerical simulation are used to analyze the oil film pressure distribution, bearing capacity of ERSFD, oil film stiffness and damping characteristics during a vibration period. Then, based on the oil film pressure results, the deformation of elastic ring is revealed by the finite element method. Finally, pedestal contact status is analyzed according to the change of oil film thickness during a vibration period. The results reveal that the oil film pressure is sectionally continuous, the deformation of elastic ring is complex under the compression of inner and outer oil film, and different pedestal contacts occur in a vibration period. The level of nonlinearity of the bearing capacity, oil film stiffness and damping can be effectively lightened by application of the elastic ring.

  15. Elastic interaction of hydrogen atoms on graphene: A multiscale approach from first principles to continuum elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Vastola, Guglielmo; Jhon, Mark H.; Sullivan, Michael B.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Srolovitz, David J.

    2016-10-01

    The deformation of graphene due to the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms on its surface and the long-range elastic interaction between hydrogen atoms induced by these deformations are investigated using a multiscale approach based on first principles, empirical interactions, and continuum modeling. Focus is given to the intrinsic low-temperature structure and interactions. Therefore, all calculations are performed at T =0 , neglecting possible temperature or thermal fluctuation effects. Results from different methods agree well and consistently describe the local deformation of graphene on multiple length scales reaching 500 Å . The results indicate that the elastic interaction mediated by this deformation is significant and depends on the deformation of the graphene sheet both in and out of plane. Surprisingly, despite the isotropic elasticity of graphene, within the linear elastic regime, atoms elastically attract or repel each other depending on (i) the specific site they are chemisorbed; (ii) the relative position of the sites; (iii) and if they are on the same or on opposite surface sides. The interaction energy sign and power-law decay calculated from molecular statics agree well with theoretical predictions from linear elasticity theory, considering in-plane or out-of-plane deformations as a superposition or in a coupled nonlinear approach. Deviations on the exact power law between molecular statics and the linear elastic analysis are evidence of the importance of nonlinear effects on the elasticity of monolayer graphene. These results have implications for the understanding of the generation of clusters and regular formations of hydrogen and other chemisorbed atoms on graphene.

  16. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  17. Elastic Self-Doping Organic Single Crystals Exhibiting Flexible Optical Waveguide and Amplified Spontaneous Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Wang, Chenguang; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-04-06

    Organic crystals are generally brittle and tend to crack under applied stress. Doped organic crystals are even more brittle because of lattice defects. Herein, the first doped organic crystals 1d@2d, which display elastic bending ability under applied stress, are reported. Moreover, the potential applications of elastic-doped crystals 1d@2d in flexible optoelectronics are impressively demonstrated. The elastic crystals 1d@2d with high quality and large size are crystalized by a simple and unique "self-doping" process, which is a regular solution evaporation of crude product 1d (2,5-dihydro-3,6-bis(octylamino)terephthalate) containing a minute amount of 2d (3,6-bis(octylamino)terephthalate) as the oxidized byproduct. The host 1d is easily crystallized to form elastic crystals but is nonfluorescent, while the guest 2d has poor crystallinity and is highly emissive. The doping approach integrates the advantages of both 1d and 2d, and thus endows doped crystals 1d@2d with good elasticity as well as intense orange fluorescence. Taking these advantages, the application potentials of these doped crystals 1d@2d are evaluated by measuring optical waveguide and amplified spontaneous emission in both the straight and bent states. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nonlinear properties of a graded-index photonic heterostructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical properties of a one-dimensional (1D) photonic heterostructure with gradedindex nonlinear materials are demonstrated theoretically. The influence of the gradation profile of the graded-index nonlinear layers on the linear and nonlinear responses of the structure are analysed. It is shown that the -factor of the ...

  19. Nonlinear properties of a graded-index photonic heterostructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The optical properties of a one-dimensional (1D) photonic heterostructure with graded- index nonlinear materials are demonstrated theoretically. The influence of the gradation profile of the graded-index nonlinear layers on the linear and nonlinear responses of the structure are analysed. It is shown that the ...

  20. Theory of Spacetime Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Andrei A.; Lurie, Sergey A.

    We present the theory of spacetime elasticity and demonstrate that it involves traditional thermoelasticity. Assuming linear-elastic constitutive behavior and using spacetime transversely-isotropic elastic constants, we derive all principal thermodynamic relations of classical thermoelasticity. We introduce the spacetime principle of virtual work, and use it to derive the equations of motion for both reversible and dissipative thermoelastic dynamics. We show that spacetime elasticity directly implies the Fourier and the Maxwell-Cattaneo laws of heat conduction. However, spacetime elasticity is richer than classical thermoelasticity, and it advocates its own equations of motion for coupled thermoelasticity, complemented by the spectrum of boundary and interface conditions. We argue that the presented framework of spacetime elasticity should prove adequate for describing the thermoelastic phenomena occurring at low temperatures, for interpreting the results of molecular simulations of heat conduction in solids, and also for the optimal heat and stress management in the microelectronic components and the thermoelectric devices.

  1. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  2. Optimization Of Elastic Bridge Trusses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Rimkus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of optimizing elastic bridgetrusses, which is a tool for seeking the establishment of theminimum volume (mass of construction and optimization of thecross-section area and height as well as the structure of the truss.It has been formulated as a nonlinear discrete mathematical programmingproblem. The upper band of the truss works not onlyfor compression but also for bending. The cross-sections of theelements are designed from rolled steel sections. Mathematicalmodels are prepared by using the finite element method and complyingwith requirements for the strength, stiffness and stabilityof the structure. The formulated problems are solved referringto an iterative process and applying the mathematical softwarepackage “MATLAB” along with routine “fmincon”. The ratio ofbuckling is corrected in every case of iteration. Requirementsfor cross-section assortment (discretion are fulfilled employingthe branch and bound method.

  3. Elastic waves and transition to elastic turbulence in a two-dimensional viscoelastic Kolmogorov flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, S.; Boffetta, G.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the two-dimensional periodic Kolmogorov flow of a viscoelastic fluid, described by the Oldroyd-B model, by means of direct numerical simulations. Above a critical Weissenberg number the flow displays a transition from stationary to randomly fluctuating states, via periodic ones. The increasing complexity of the flow in both time and space at progressively higher values of elasticity accompanies the establishment of mixing features. The peculiar dynamical behavior observed in the simulations is found to be related to the appearance of filamental propagating patterns, which develop even in the limit of very small inertial nonlinearities, thanks to the feedback of elastic forces on the flow.

  4. Escape of O(3P), O(1D), and O(1S) from the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Aleksander B.

    2018-01-01

    We have computed here the escape probabilities, fluxes and rates for hot O atoms that are initially produced in the ground state and the first two excited metastable states, O(1D)and O(1S), in the Martian thermosphere by dissociative recombination of O2+. In order to compare our results with those of our previous calculations and with those of others, we have employed here the pre-MAVEN models that we have used previously. To compute the escape probabilities, we have employed the Monte Carlo escape code that has been described previously, but we here use for the first time energy-dependent elastic cross sections for collisions of the energetic O atoms with each of the twelve background species in our model. We also incorporate three mechanisms that interchange identities of the O(3P) and O(1D) atoms, including collisional excitation of O(3P) to O(1D), quenching of O(1D) to O(3P), and excitation exchange of O(1D) with O(3P). We find that the escape probabilities of O atoms that are produced initially as O(1D) are reduced compared to those in which these processes are not included, but the escape probabilities of O atoms that are initially produced as O(3P) are not significantly reduced. As a guide for our future research and those of other investigators, we review here what is known about the interactions of O atoms with other species in which the energies of the O atoms are altered, and several other sources of hot and escaping O, many of which have been suggested by other investigators. We will incorporate these data in a future MAVEN-like model.

  5. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  6. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  7. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  8. Periodization of Duffing oscillators suspended on elastic structure: Mechanical explanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czolczynski, K. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail: dzanta@ck-sg.p.lodz.pl; Kapitaniak, T. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Perlikowski, P. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Stefanski, A. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2007-05-15

    We consider the dynamics of chaotic oscillators suspended on the elastic structure. We show that for the given conditions of the structure, initially uncorrelated chaotic oscillators can synchronize both in chaotic and periodic regimes. The phenomena of the periodization, i.e., the behavior of nonlinear oscillators become periodic as a result of interaction with elastic structure, have been observed. We formulate the criterion for periodization of double well-potential Duffing oscillator evolution in terms of the forces and displacements in the spring elements. We argue that the observed phenomena are generic in the parameter space and independent of the number of oscillators and their location on the elastic structure.

  9. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  10. Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    constant. In the context of this investigation we refer psuedoelastic behavior in the most general sense as any deviation from linearity in the unloading curve. The non-linearity leads to a hysteresis loop upon reloading. The approach is based on the non-conventional theory with a vanishing elastic region as advanced by Dafalias and Popov. The treatment is purely phenomenological where we don't distinguish between macroscopic plasticity and micro-plasticity. The macroscopic uniaxial stress-strain curve is used to define effective plastic response in the same manner as classical plasticity theory except that the nonlinearity during unloading and reloading are incorporated into plasticity. It is shown that such models can be easily formulated within the context of elastoplasticity without violating any physical mechanisms of deformation. Springback for a plane strain bending model is used to demonstrate the potential effect if such a model is applied

  11. Diffusive Public Goods and Coexistence of Cooperators and Cheaters on a 1D Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, István

    2014-01-01

    Many populations of cells cooperate through the production of extracellular materials. These materials (enzymes, siderophores) spread by diffusion and can be applied by both the cooperator and cheater (non-producer) cells. In this paper the problem of coexistence of cooperator and cheater cells is studied on a 1D lattice where cooperator cells produce a diffusive material which is beneficial to the individuals according to the local concentration of this public good. The reproduction success of a cell increases linearly with the benefit in the first model version and increases non-linearly (saturates) in the second version. Two types of update rules are considered; either the cooperative cell stops producing material before death (death-production-birth, DpB) or it produces the common material before it is selected to die (production-death-birth, pDB). The empty space is occupied by its neighbors according to their replication rates. By using analytical and numerical methods I have shown that coexistence of the cooperator and cheater cells is possible although atypical in the linear version of this 1D model if either DpB or pDB update rule is assumed. While coexistence is impossible in the non-linear model with pDB update rule, it is one of the typical behaviors in case of the non-linear model with DpB update rule. PMID:25025985

  12. Nonlinear analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rassias, Themistocles M

    1987-01-01

    ... known that nonlinear partial differential equations can not be treated in the same systematic way as linear ones and this volume provides, among other things, proofs of existence and uniqueness theorems for nonlinear differential equations of a global nature. However, the basic techniques which have proven to be efficient in dealing with li...

  13. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  14. Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension delasticity) and a=1-4/9(2-d)+... (long-ranged elasticity). We show how the dynamical theory recovers the avalanche-size distribution

  15. Numerical study of solitary wave stability in cubic nonlinear Dirac equations in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoba, T. I.

    2018-02-01

    Recently there has occurred a controversy between the semi-analytical prediction of linear stability of the soliton of the massive Gross-Neveu model and direct numerical observations of its instability for small values of the frequency. We revisit the problem of numerical computation of this soliton, find a mechanism behind the numerical instability observed in earlier studies, and propose methods to stably compute the soliton over long times. Thus, we confirm the semi-analytical prediction of the soliton's being linearly stable.

  16. Dispersion Effects in Nonlinear Light Propagation in 1-D Fiber Gratings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... In particular, one class of solutions called "Gap Solitons." exhibit the ability to propagate at any speed from zero to the local speed of light, and offer great promise for various optical storage and buffer devices...

  17. A 1D version of EllipSys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2017-01-01

    A one-dimensional version of EllipSys, labeled as EllipSys1D is presented. Three atmospheric boundary layer test cases are used to show that results of EllipSys1D are exactly the same or very similar as results of EllipSys3D, while EllipSys1D uses 3 to 4 orders of magnitude less CPU hours compare...

  18. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  19. Design, implementation and analysis of fully digital 1-D controllable multiscroll chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper introduces the fully digital implementation of a 1-D multiscroll chaos generator based on a staircase nonlinearity in the 3rd-order jerk system using the Euler approximation. For the first time, digital design is exploited to provide real-time controllability of (i) number of scrolls, (ii) position in 1-D space, (iii) Euler step size and (iv) system parameter. The effect of variations in these fields on the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is analyzed. The system is implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized on an Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA, exhibiting area utilization less than 3.5% and high performance with experimentally verified throughput up to 3.33 Gbits/s. This fully digital system enables applications in modulation schemes and chaos-based cryptosystems without analog to digital conversion. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. (2 + 1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry, duality and projective phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2007-01-01

    A particle system with a (2 + 1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry is constructed by the method of nonlinear realization. It has three essentially different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The subcritical and supercritical phases (describing 2D isotropic ordinary and exotic oscillators) are separated by the critical phase (one-mode oscillator), and are related by a duality transformation. In the flat limit, the system transforms into a free Galilean exotic particle on the noncommutative plane. The wave equations carrying projective representations of the exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry are constructed

  1. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  2. Vibrational Analysis of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube on a Pasternak Elastic Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Continuum mechanics and an elastic beam model were employed in the nonlinear force vibrational analysis of an embedded, curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The analysis considered the effects of the curvature or waviness and midplane stretching of the nanotube on the nonlinear frequency....... By utilizing He’s Energy Balance Method (HEBM), the relationships of the nonlinear amplitude and frequency were expressed for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube. The amplitude frequency response curves of the nonlinear free vibration were obtained for a curved, single-walled carbon nanotube embedded...... in a Pasternak elastic foundation. Finally, the influence of the amplitude of the waviness, midplane stretching nonlinearity, shear foundation modulus, surrounding elastic medium, radius, and length of the curved carbon nanotube on the amplitude frequency response characteristics are discussed. As a result...

  3. Elastic magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sick, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper surveys the field of elastic magnetic electron scattering. Magnetic scattering as a configuration analyzer; magnetic form factors of high multipole order; absolute spectroscopic factors; and non-nucleonic constituents; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Statistical mechanics of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, JH

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.

  5. On the buckling of an elastic rotating beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furta, Stanislaw D.; Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian

    1997-01-01

    A nonlinear model is developed, which describes the buckling phenomena of an elastic beam clamped to the interior of a rotating wheel. We use a power series method to obtain an approximate expression of the buckling equation and compare this with previous results in the literature. The linearized...

  6. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  7. Deflation of elastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliet, Catherine; Quemeneur, François; Marmottant, Philippe; Imhof, Arnout; Pépin-Donat, Brigitte; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2010-03-01

    The deflation of elastic spherical surfaces has been numerically investigated, and show very different types of deformations according the range of elastic parameters, some of them being quantitatively explained through simple calculations. This allows to retrieve various shapes observed on hollow shells (from colloidal to centimeter scale), on lipid vesicles, or on some biological objects. The extension of this process to other geometries allows to modelize vegetal objects such as the ultrafast trap of carnivorous plants.

  8. Nonlinear reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2017-12-01

    We present a direct approach to nonparametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed nonlinear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the nonlinear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to the nonlinear scale (rδrδL>0.5 for k ≲1 h /Mpc ) with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully nonlinear fields, potentially substantially expanding the baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift space distortions information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21 cm intensity mapping initiatives.

  9. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  10. ATR kinase regulates its attenuation via PPM1D phosphatase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debadrita Bhattacharya

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... PPM1D activity or SiRNA mediated depletion of the protein during post replication stress recovery 'phenocopies' ATR ... in mediating its own signal attenuation via PPM1D recruitment to chromatin as an essential mechanism for restarting the .... temperature in 100X oil immersion lens, using Axiovert 200.

  11. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    architectures , practical nonlinearities, nonlinear dynamics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8. NUMBER OF PAGES...performers from Mesodynamic Architectures (MESO) and uPNT all to include devices in these runs. This cost-sharing was planned, and is necessary for...contributions to the performance of MEMS gyroscopes. In particular, we have demonstrated for the first time that Parametric Amplification can improve the

  12. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  13. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R

    2014-01-01

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  14. Morphoelasticity: A theory of elastic growth

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-10-11

    This chapter is concerned with the modelling of growth processes in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlinear elasticity. It begins by considering growth and deformation in a one-dimensional setting, illustrating the key relationship between growth, the elastic response of the material, and the generation of residual stresses. The general three-dimensional theory of morphoelasticity is then developed from conservation of mass and momentum balance equations. In the formulation, the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation tensor, the standard approach in morphoelasticity, is derived in a new way. A discussion of continuous growth is also included. The chapter concludes by working through a sample problem of a growing cylindrical tube. A stability analysis is formulated, and the effect of growth on mucosal folding, a commonly seen instability in biological tubes, is demonstrated.

  15. Orthodontic elastic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A K

    1976-04-01

    Latex elastics and synthetic elastomers have certain similarities and differences. In the fracture tests the latex elastics showed a greater amount of loss in strength than plastic elastomers when stretched over a 21 day period. There is a great variability, as much as 50%, in the tensile strength of the plastic materials taken from the same batch and stretched under the same conditions. The Ormco Power Chain was more resilient than the Unitek AlastiK chain. The Unitek AlastiKs had more force and stretched less. The force decay of synthetic elastomers, stretched over a specific length and time, exhibited a great loss in force. This loss could be as great as 73% during the first day. The decay of force continued at a slower rate during the rest of the 21 day period. Unitek AlastiK C2 double links, when stretched 17 millimeters, had a higher initial force averaging 641 grams (22.5 ounces) than the Ormco Power Chain which averages 342 grams (12.0 ounces). In one day the force was reduced to 171 grams (6.0 ounces) for both materials. The elastic materials within the same batch showed a great variation in the modulus of elasticity under different test conditions. The approximate force generated when stretched dry, within the elastic limit, was 22 grams per millimeter for 3/16 inches heavy latex elastics. The Unitek AlastiK C2 gave a force of 89 grams per millimeter, while the Ormco Power Chain had a value of 46 grams per millimeter. The modulus of elasticity of all of the materials was much lower after immersion in the water bath. The force decay under constant force application to latex, elastic, polymer chains, and tied loops showed that the greatest amount of force decay occurred during the first three hours in the water bath. The forces remained relatively the same throughout the rest of the test period. The elastic materials undergo permanent deformation in shape. The synthetic elastomers exhibited plastic deformation when the elastomers were stretched 17

  16. 75 FR 27411 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B, 1D, 1D1, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ..., Version 148), 1D1, and 1D. since-new (TSN) or in-service-since-last- E, dated October 29, time-since...,200 hours TSN Within 150 hours TSLRPC A292 72 0810, Version or TSO or 3,500 CSN or C, dated July 24...

  17. 75 FR 11072 - Airworthiness Directives; Turbomeca Arriel 1B, 1D, 1D1, and 1S1 Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., Version 148), 1D1, and 1D. since-new (TSN) or in-service-since-last- E, dated October 29, time-since...,200 hours TSN Within 150 hours TSLRPC A292 72 0810, Version or TSO or 3,500 CSN or C, dated July 24...

  18. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  19. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-01-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  20. Chaotic Dynamics of the Partially Follower-Loaded Elastic Double Pendulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1995-01-01

    The non-linear dynamics of the elastically restrained double pendulum, with non-conservative follower-type loading and linear damping, is re-examined with specific reference to the occurrence of chaotic motion. A local non-linear perturbation analysis is performed, showing that in three distinct...

  1. Elastic constants of calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Elastic membranes in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H

    2016-07-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  4. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  5. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  6. A novel nonlinear damage resonance intermodulation effect for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2017-04-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a theoretical model able to predict the generation of nonlinear elastic effects associated to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the steady-state nonlinear response of local defect resonance (LDR). The LDR effect is used in nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy to enhance the excitation of the material damage at its local resonance, thus to dramatically increase the vibrational amplitude of material nonlinear phenomena. The main result of this work is to prove both analytically and experimentally the generation of novel nonlinear elastic wave effects, here named as nonlinear damage resonance intermodulation, which correspond to a nonlinear intermodulation between the driving frequency and the LDR one. Beside this intermodulation effect, other nonlinear elastic wave phenomena such as higher harmonics of the input frequency and superharmonics of LDR frequency were found. The analytical model relies on solving the nonlinear equation of motion governing bending displacement under the assumption of both quadratic and cubic nonlinear defect approximation. Experimental tests on a damaged composite laminate confirmed and validated these predictions and showed that using continuous periodic excitation, the nonlinear structural phenomena associated to LDR could also be featured at locations different from the damage resonance. These findings will provide new opportunities for material damage detection using nonlinear ultrasounds.

  7. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE) NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhenov V.A.; Sacharov A.S.; Guliar A. I.; Pyskunov S.O.; Maksymiuk Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  8. FEATURES APPLICATION CIRCUIT MOMENT FINITE ELEMENT (MSSE NONLINEAR CALCULATIONS OF PLATES AND SHELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based MSSE created shell CE general type, which allows you to analyze the stress-strain state of axisymmetrical shells and plates in problems of physical and geometric nonlinearity. The principal nonlinear elasticity theory, algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations for determining the temperature and plastic deformation.

  9. A new technique for solving the 1-D burgers equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address a new computational method, which is called the decomposition-Sumudu-like-integral-transform method, to handle the 1-D Burgers equation. The proposed method enables the efficient and accurate.

  10. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  11. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  12. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  13. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. The law of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.

  15. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  16. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  17. Double scattering channels for 1D NLS in the energy space and its generalization to higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Luigi; Visciglia, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of 1D NLS perturbed with a steplike potential. We prove that the nonlinear solutions satisfy the double scattering channels in the energy space. The proof is based on concentration-compactness/rigidity method. We prove moreover that in dimension higher than one, classical scattering holds if the potential is periodic in all but one dimension and is steplike and repulsive in the remaining one.

  18. Impact of CD1d deficiency on metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya E Kotas

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs are innate-like T cells that are highly concentrated in the liver and recognize lipids presented on the MHC-like molecule CD1d. Although capable of a myriad of responses, few essential functions have been described for iNKTs. Among the many cell types of the immune system implicated in metabolic control and disease, iNKTs seem ideally poised for such a role, yet little has been done to elucidate such a possible function. We hypothesized that lipid presentation by CD1d could report on metabolic status and engage iNKTs to regulate cellular lipid content through their various effector mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we examined CD1d deficient mice in a variety of metabolically stressed paradigms including high fat feeding, choline-deficient feeding, fasting, and acute inflammation. CD1d deficiency led to a mild exacerbation of steatosis during high fat or choline-deficient feeding, accompanied by impaired hepatic glucose tolerance. Surprisingly, however, this phenotype was not observed in Jα18⁻/⁻ mice, which are deficient in iNKTs but express CD1d. Thus, CD1d appears to modulate some metabolic functions through an iNKT-independent mechanism.

  19. Internal resonance of an elastic body levitated above high-Tc superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokuzawa, T; Toshihiko, S; Yoshizawa, M

    2010-01-01

    In high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation systems, levitated bodies can keep stable levitation with no contact and no control and thus their damping is very small. Thanks to these features, their applications to various apparatus are expected. However, on account of their small damping, the nonlinearity of electromagnetic levitation force can give notable effects upon motion of the levitated bodies. Therefore this nonlinearity must be taken into account to accurately analyze the dynamical behavior of the levitated bodies. Structures of such a levitated body can show elastic deformation if the large electromagnetic force acts on it. Therefore, we need to deal with the model as an elastic body. As mentioned above, nonlinear characteristics easily appear in this elastic vibration on account of the small damping. Especially when the ratio of the natural frequencies of the eigenmodes is integer, internal resonance can occur. This nonlinear resonance is derived from nonlinear interactions among the eigenmodes of the elastic levitated body. This kind of internal resonance of an elastic body appearing in high-Tc superconducting levitation systems has not been studied so far. This research especially deals with internal resonance of a beam supported at both its ends by electromagnetic forces acting on permanent magnets. The governing equation with the nonlinear boundary conditions for the dynamics of a levitated beam has been derived. Numerical results show internal resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. Experimental results are qualitatively in good agreement with numerical ones.

  20. Corrugated Membrane Nonlinear Deformation Process Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic elements are widely used in instrumentation. They are used to create a particular interference between the parts, for accumulating mechanical energy, as the motion transmission elements, elastic supports, and sensing elements of measuring devices. Device reliability and quality depend on the calculation accuracy of the elastic elements. A corrugated membrane is rather common embodiment of the elastic element.The corrugated membrane properties depend largely on its profile i.e. a generatrix of the meridian surface.Unlike other types of pressure elastic members (bellows, tube spring, the elastic characteristics of which are close to linear, an elastic characteristic of the corrugated membrane (typical movement versus external load is nonlinear. Therefore, the corrugated membranes can be used to measure quantities, nonlinearly related to the pressure (e.g., aircraft air speed, its altitude, pipeline fluid or gas flow rate. Another feature of the corrugated membrane is that significant movements are possible within the elastic material state. However, a significant non-linearity of membrane characteristics leads to severe complicated calculation.This article is aimed at calculating the corrugated membrane to obtain the elastic characteristics and the deformed shape of the membrane meridian, as well as at investigating the processes of buckling. As the calculation model, a thin-walled axisymmetric shell rotation is assumed. The material properties are linearly elastic. We consider a corrugated membrane of sinusoidal profile. The membrane load is a uniform pressure.The algorithm for calculating the mathematical model of an axisymmetric corrugated membrane of constant thickness, based on the Reissner’s theory of elastic thin shells, was realized as the author's program in C language. To solve the nonlinear problem were used a method of changing the subspace of control parameters, developed by S.S., Gavriushin, and a parameter marching method

  1. An experimental spatio-temporal state transition of coupled magneto-elastic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Yoshisuke

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the vibration and the traveling wave in a coupled magneto-elastic beam system are discussed experimentally. The vibration excited by the periodical forcing at the beam system propagates to another as a wave through the coupling elastic beams. Each magneto-elastic beam shows the variety of vibrations caused by the nonlinearity of the potential well and the wave propagation with time delay. The temporal vibration of the magneto-elastic beam is explained with relations to the spatial state transition based on the experimental results. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics.

  2. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  3. Nonlinear viscoelastic properties of tissue assessed by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkus, Ralph; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; El-Khoury, Carl; Servois, Vincent; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias

    2006-11-01

    A technique to assess qualitatively the presence of higher-order viscoelastic parameters is presented. Low-frequency, monochromatic elastic waves are emitted into the material via an external vibrator. The resulting steady-state motion is detected in real time via an ultra fast ultrasound system using classical, one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasound speckle correlation for motion estimation. Total data acquisition lasts only for about 250 ms. The spectrum of the temporal displacement data at each image point is used for analysis. The presence of nonlinear effects is detected by inspection of the ratio of the second harmonics amplitude with respect to the total amplitude summed up to the second harmonic. Results from a polyacrylamide-based phantom indicate a linear response (i.e., the absence of higher harmonics) for this type of material at 65 Hz mechanical vibration frequency and about 100 microm amplitude. A lesion, artificially created by injection of glutaraldehyde into a beef specimen, shows the development of higher harmonics at the location of injection as a function of time. The presence of upper harmonics is clearly evident at the location of a malignant lesion within a mastectomy.

  4. Elastic properties of Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn single crystals with bcc crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.W.; Li, S.J.; Obbard, E.G.; Wang, H.; Wang, S.C.; Hao, Y.L.; Yang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The single crystals of Ti2448 alloy with the bcc crystal structure were prepared. → The elastic moduli and constants were measured by several resonant methods. → The crystal shows significant elastic asymmetry in tension and compression. → The crystal exhibits weak nonlinear elasticity with large elastic strain ∼2.5%. → The crystal has weak atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low symmetry. - Abstract: Single crystals of Ti2448 alloy (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) were grown successfully using an optical floating-zone furnace. Several kinds of resonant methods gave consistent Young's moduli of 27.1, 56.3 and 88.1 GPa and shear moduli of 34.8, 11.0 and 14.6 GPa for the , and oriented single crystals, and C 11 , C 12 and C 44 of 57.2, 36.1 and 35.9 GPa respectively. Uniaxial testing revealed asymmetrical elastic behaviors of the crystals: tension caused elastic softening with a large reversible strain of ∼4% and a stress plateau of ∼250 MPa, whereas compression resulted in gradual elastic stiffening with much smaller reversible strain. The crystals exhibited weak nonlinear elasticity with a large elastic strain of ∼2.5% and a high strength, approaching ∼20% and ∼30% of its ideal shear and ideal tensile strength respectively. The crystals showed linear elasticity with a small elastic strain of ∼1%. These elastic deformation characteristics have been interpreted in terms of weakened atomic interactions against crystal distortion to low crystal symmetry under external applied stresses. These results are consistent with the properties of polycrystalline Ti2448, including high strength, low elastic modulus, large recoverable strain and weak strengthening effect due to grain refinement.

  5. Assembly of 1D Granular Structures from Sulfonated Polystyrene Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikkelsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Being able to systematically modify the electric properties of nano- and microparticles opens up new possibilities for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials such as the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D colloidal and granular materials. Fabricating 1D structures from individual particles offers plenty of applications ranging from electronic sensors and photovoltaics to artificial flagella for hydrodynamic propulsion. In this work, we demonstrate the assembly of 1D structures composed of individual microparticles with modified electric properties, pulled out of a liquid environment into air. Polystyrene particles were modified by sulfonation for different reaction times and characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and dipolar force measurements. We found that by increasing the sulfonation time, the values of both electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the particles increase, and that the relaxation frequency of particle electric polarization changes, causing the measured dielectric loss of the particles to shift towards higher frequencies. We attributed these results to water adsorbed at the surface of the particles. With sulfonated polystyrene particles exhibiting a range of electric properties, we showed how the electric properties of individual particles influence the formation of 1D structures. By tuning applied voltage and frequency, we were able to control the formation and dynamics of 1D structures, including chain bending and oscillation.

  6. Three wave coupling and explosive instability of magneto-elastic excitations in FeBO3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevstafyev, O.; Preobrazhensky, V.; Pernod, P.; Berzhansky, V.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric generation of coupled triads of magneto-elastic waves is studied experimentally in FeBO 3 single crystal under transversal electromagnetic pumping at the temperature range 77-293 K. The explosive supercritical dynamics of three wave coupling is observed when the pumping phase is modulated according to the nonlinear frequency shift of an excited magnetoelastic mode. The experimental results are in agreement with strongly nonlinear model of magneto-elastic excitations in antiferromagnets with 'easy plane' magnetic anisotropy. - Research highlights: → Parametric excitation of coupled magneto-elastic triads in FeBO 3 under EM pumping. → Quasi-singular pumping phase modulation to compensate nonlinear frequency shift. → Observation of explosive instability at the temperature range 77-293 K. → Supercritical triads excitation strongly nonlinear model of magneto-elastic dynamics.

  7. Designing interactively with elastic splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie

    2018-01-01

    We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....

  8. Flexible Photodetectors Based on 1D Inorganic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Flexible photodetectors with excellent flexibility, high mechanical stability and good detectivity, have attracted great research interest in recent years. 1D inorganic nanostructures provide a number of opportunities and capabilities for use in flexible photodetectors as they have unique geometry, good transparency, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and excellent electronic/optoelectronic properties. This article offers a comprehensive review of several types of flexible photodetectors based on 1D nanostructures from the past ten years, including flexible ultraviolet, visible, and infrared photodetectors. High‐performance organic‐inorganic hybrid photodetectors, as well as devices with 1D nanowire (NW) arrays, are also reviewed. Finally, new concepts of flexible photodetectors including piezophototronic, stretchable and self‐powered photodetectors are examined to showcase the future research in this exciting field. PMID:27774404

  9. Solitary waves in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C X; Pan, E; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    A simple nonlinear model is proposed in this paper to study the solitary wave in a circular magneto-electro-elastic rod. Based on the constitutive relation for transversely isotropic piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials, combined with the differential equations of motion, we derive the longitudinal wave motion equation in a long circular rod. The nonlinearity considered is geometrically associated with the nonlinear normal strain in the longitudinal rod direction and the transverse Poisson's effect is included by introducing the effective Poisson's ratio. The nonlinear solitary wave equation is solved by the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method and numerical examples demonstrate not only the existence of such a wave but also some interesting characteristics of the solitary wave in the rod made of different multiphase coupled materials

  10. Elasticity in Elastics-An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisetty, Supradeep Kumar; Nimagadda, Chakrapani; Begam, Madhoom Ponnachi; Nalamotu, Raghuveer; Srivastav, Trilok; Gs, Shwetha

    2014-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from application of forces to teeth. Elastics in orthodontics have been used both intra-orally and extra- orally to a great effect. Their use, combined with good patient co-operation provides the clinician with the ability to correct both anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and synthetic elastomers. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition. It's the intent of the clinician to maintain optimal force values over desired period of time. The majority of the orthodontic elastics on the market are latex elastics. Since the early 1990s, synthetic products have been offered in the market for latex-sensitive patients and are sold as nonlatex elastics. There is limited information on the risk that latex elastics may pose to patients. Some have estimated that 0.12-6% of the general population and 6.2% of dental professionals have hypersensitivity to latex protein. There are some reported cases of adverse reactions to latex in the orthodontic population but these are very limited to date. Although the risk is not yet clear, it would still be inadvisable to prescribe latex elastics to a patient with a known latex allergy. To compare the in-vitro performance of latex and non latex elastics. Samples of 0.25 inch, latex and non latex elastics (light, medium, heavy elastics) were obtained from three manufacturers (Forestadent, GAC, Glenroe) and a sample size of ten elastics per group was tested. The properties tested included cross sectional area, internal diameter, initial force generated by the elastics, breaking force and the force relaxation for the different types of elastics. Force relaxation testing involved stretching the elastics to three times marketed internal diameter (19.05 mm) and measuring force level at intervals over a period of 48 hours. The data were

  11. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenkov, I., E-mail: ivan.lisenkov@phystech.edu [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Oakland University, 2200 N. Squirrel Rd., Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kalyabin, D., E-mail: dmitry.kalyabin@phystech.edu [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Osokin, S. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klos, J.W.; Krawczyk, M. [Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Nikitov, S., E-mail: nikitov@cplire.ru [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya st., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Instituskij per., Dolgoprudny, 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, 112 Bol' shaya Kazach' ya, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films. - Highlights: • Magnetostatic surface spin waves in 1D magnonic crystals were studied theoretically. • Mathematical model is based on plane wave method. • Mathematical model was applied to different types of magnonic crystals. • Stop band formation and nonreciprocity were obtained.

  12. Highly nonparaxial (1+1)-D subwavelength optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, C; Ciattoni, A; Palange, E

    2010-04-12

    A general approach for describing (1+1)-D subwavelength optical field whose waist is much smaller than the wavelength is presented. Exploiting the vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory, a suitable expansion in the ratio between the beam waist and the wavelength allows us to prove the a (1+1)D highly nonparaxial field is generally the product of a cylindrical wave carrier and an envelope which is angularly slowly varying. We apply our general approach to the case of highly nonparaxial Hermite-Gaussian beams whose description is fully analytical.

  13. Finsler Geometry of Nonlinear Elastic Solids with Internal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    depend on both position and direction or internal state. This generality is in contrast to classical Riemannian geometry, wherein ultimate dependence of...mechanics [3], electrodynamics [4], heat conduction [5], and continuum mechanics of solids [6]. The latter topic, i.e., continuum physics of deformable...the locally relaxed intermediate state of the crystal, following earlier classical differential–geometric treatments by the Japanese school [24]. Kondo

  14. Modelling of non-linear elastic tissues for surgical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misra, Sarthak; Ramesh, K.T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Realistic modelling of the interaction between surgical instruments and human organs has been recognised as a key requirement in the development of high-fidelity surgical simulators. Primarily due to computational considerations, most of the past real-time surgical simulation research has assumed

  15. Uniform stability of damped nonlinear vibrations of an elastic string

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The textbook treatment of transverse vibrations of a metallic wire (string), governed by the linear wave equation, does not portray existence of whirling out of plane motion. The phenomenon was first observed by Hunton as reported by Harrison [9]. The reference to other subsequent experiments can be found in the book by ...

  16. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  17. An elastic second skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  18. Some Differential Geometric Relations in the Elastic Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the elastic shells is one of the most important parts of the theory of solid mechanics. The elastic shell can be described with its middle surface; that is, the three-dimensional elastic shell with equal thickness comprises a series of overlying surfaces like middle surface. In this paper, the differential geometric relations between elastic shell and its middle surface are provided under the curvilinear coordinate systems, which are very important for forming two-dimensional linear and nonlinear elastic shell models. Concretely, the metric tensors, the determinant of metric matrix field, the Christoffel symbols, and Riemann tensors on the three-dimensional elasticity are expressed by those on the two-dimensional middle surface, which are featured by the asymptotic expressions with respect to the variable in the direction of thickness of the shell. Thus, the novelty of this work is that we can further split three-dimensional mechanics equations into two-dimensional variation problems. Finally, two kinds of special shells, hemispherical shell and semicylindrical shell, are provided as the examples.

  19. Inverse parameter identification for a branching 1D arterial network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the invertability of a branching 1D arterial blood flow network. We limit our investigation to a single bifurcating vessel, where the material properties, unloaded areas and variables characterizing the input and output...

  20. Energy harvesting and storage in 1D devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-06-01

    Power systems and electronic devices that are bulky and rigid are not practical for use in wearable applications that require flexibility and breathability. To address this, a range of 1D energy harvesting and storage devices have been fabricated that show promise for such applications compared with their 2D and 3D counterparts. These 1D devices are based on fibres that are flexible and can accommodate deformation, for example, by twisting and stretching. The fibres can be woven into textiles and fabrics that breathe freely or can be integrated into different materials that fit the curved surface of the human body. In this Review, the development of fibre-based energy harvesting and storage devices is presented, focusing on dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and their integrated devices. An emphasis is placed on the interface between the active materials and the electrodes or electrolyte in the 1D devices. The differing properties of these interfaces compared with those in 2D and 3D devices are derived from the curved surface and long charge transport path in 1D electrodes.

  1. Crystal structure, characterization and magnetic properties of a 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal X-ray structural characterization revealsthat the side arm carboxylate group of the coordinated Schiff base exhibits a μ 1 , 3 -bridging mode and connectsthe neighbouring copper(II) ions leading to a zigzag 1D chain structure where the copper(II) ions displaydistorted square pyramidal geometries. Variable ...

  2. Anti-cytokine therapies in T1D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepom, Gerald T; Ehlers, Mario; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of proinflammatory cytokines is clinically beneficial in several autoimmune disorders. Several of these cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, suggesting opportunities for design of clinical trials in type 1 diabetes that incorporate select...... suitable for modulating the immune response in T1D....

  3. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  4. Modeling of 1-D Nanowires and analyzing their Hydrogen and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUDIP PAN

    Modeling of 1-D Nanowires and analyzing their Hydrogen and Noble. Gas Binding Ability. †. SUDIP PANa, RANAJIT SAHAa, ASHUTOSH GUPTAb and PRATIM K CHATTARAJa,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,. Kharagpur, West Bengal 721 302, ...

  5. Void growth in an elastic-plastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, A.

    1972-01-01

    The uniaxial deformation of an elastic-plastic medium containing a doubly periodic square array of circular cylindrical voids is studied under plane-strain conditions. Both the effects of geometrical nonlinearities resulting from large deformation and physical nonlinearities arising from plastic material behavior are included in formulating the problem. A variational principle is used as the basis for implementing a finite-element solution. Results are obtained for the change in void shape and size under increasing overall strain, the overall tensile behavior of the material with voids, and the development of the plastic zone about a void.

  6. Stability and boundary stabilization of 1-D hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bastin, Georges

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores the modeling of conservation and balance laws of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems using partial differential equations. It presents typical examples of hyperbolic systems for a wide range of physical engineering applications, allowing readers to understand the concepts in whichever setting is most familiar to them. With these examples, it also illustrates how control boundary conditions may be defined for the most commonly used control devices. The authors begin with the simple case of systems of two linear conservation laws and then consider the stability of systems under more general boundary conditions that may be differential, nonlinear, or switching. They then extend their discussion to the case of nonlinear conservation laws and demonstrate the use of Lyapunov functions in this type of analysis. Systems of balance laws are considered next, starting with the linear variety before they move on to more general cases of nonlinear ones. They go on to show how the problem of boundary...

  7. Plane Wave-Perturbative Method for Evaluating the Effective Speed of Sound in 1D Phononic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Flores Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for calculating the effective sound velocities for a 1D phononic crystal is presented; it is valid when the lattice constant is much smaller than the acoustic wave length; therefore, the periodic medium could be regarded as a homogeneous one. The method is based on the expansion of the displacements field into plane waves, satisfying the Bloch theorem. The expansion allows us to obtain a wave equation for the amplitude of the macroscopic displacements field. From the form of this equation we identify the effective parameters, namely, the effective sound velocities for the transverse and longitudinal macroscopic displacements in the homogenized 1D phononic crystal. As a result, the explicit expressions for the effective sound velocities in terms of the parameters of isotropic inclusions in the unit cell are obtained: mass density and elastic moduli. These expressions are used for studying the dependence of the effective, transverse and longitudinal, sound velocities for a binary 1D phononic crystal upon the inclusion filling fraction. A particular case is presented for 1D phononic crystals composed of W-Al and Polyethylene-Si, extending for a case solid-fluid.

  8. Robust 1D inversion and analysis of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, R.J.; Christensen, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based electrical and electromagnetic methods are used systematically for quantitative hydrogeologic investigations in Denmark. In recent years, a desire for faster and more cost-efficient methods has led to growing interest in the possibility of using airborne systems, and in 2001 a number...... of test flights were performed using a frequency-domain, helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) system. We perform a theoretical examination of the resolution capabilities of the applied system. Quantitative model parameter analyses show that the system only weakly resolves conductive, near-surface layers...... but can resolve layer boundary to a depth of more than 100 m. Modeling experiments also show that the effect of altimeter errors on the inversion results is serious. We suggest a new interpretation scheme for HEM data founded solely on full nonlinear 1D inversion and providing layered-earth models...

  9. Robust 1D inversion and analysis of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, R.J.; Christensen, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    but can resolve layer boundary to a depth of more than 100 m. Modeling experiments also show that the effect of altimeter errors on the inversion results is serious. We suggest a new interpretation scheme for HEM data founded solely on full nonlinear 1D inversion and providing layered-earth models...... of test flights were performed using a frequency-domain, helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) system. We perform a theoretical examination of the resolution capabilities of the applied system. Quantitative model parameter analyses show that the system only weakly resolves conductive, near-surface layers...... supported by datamisfit parameters and a quantitative model-parameter analysis. The backbone of the scheme is the removal of cultural coupling effects followed by a multilayer inversion that in turn provides reliable starting models for a subsequent few-layer inversion. A new procedure for correlation...

  10. Nonlinear morphoelastic plates II: Exodus to buckled states

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, J.

    2011-05-11

    Morphoelasticity is the theory of growing elastic materials. The theory is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient and provides a formulation of the deformation and stresses induced by growth. Following a companion paper, a general theory of growing non-linear elastic Kirchhoff plate is described. First, a complete geometric description of incompatibility with simple examples is given. Second, the stability of growing Kirchhoff plates is analyzed. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  11. Nonlinear time reversal signal processing techniques applied to acousto-mechanical imaging of complex materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Caliez, M.; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 3 (2015) ISSN 0001-4966 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acousto-mechanical characterization of skin aging * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * PM-space statistical approach Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  12. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  13. Ident 1D - a novel software tool for an easy identification of material constitutive parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ber, L.; Cotoni, V.; Nicola, L.; Sainte Catherine, C.

    1998-01-01

    Non-linear finite element computations make use of very sophisticated constitutive equations for description of materials behaviour. The first difficulty encountered by potential users is the gap existing between raw material characterisation on uniaxial specimens and the knowledge of the required equation's parameters. There are very few software for this particular task. IDENT 1D is a special software developed under Matlab language in our laboratory, which is able to provide a complete optimised parameters set for implemented models. The originality of IDENT 1D is that no initial estimation of the material parameters is requested of the user. Two main examples are described in this article: the Lemaitre and Chaboche creep law coupled with damage and a non unified cyclic law proposed by Contesti and Cailletaud with a separation of plastic and viscous strain terms which is called DDI model. For both laws, the identification method is completely described. Each method is then applied to a set of experimental data. In both cases, the results of the parameters identification show a very good agreement with experimental data. (authors)

  14. Nonlinear buckling of woven fabrics, part I: elastic and non-elastic cases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fabric buckling model proposed by Grosberg and Swani has been modified by incorporating Huang’s bending rule. The proposed model is an extension of the present model and also covers the special cases. The numerical results appear...

  15. Nonlinear continuum mechanics and large inelastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yuriy I

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous axiomatic approach to continuum mechanics under large deformation. In addition to the classical nonlinear continuum mechanics - kinematics, fundamental laws, the theory of functions having jump discontinuities across singular surfaces, etc. - the book presents the theory of co-rotational derivatives, dynamic deformation compatibility equations, and the principles of material indifference and symmetry, all in systematized form. The focus of the book is a new approach to the formulation of the constitutive equations for elastic and inelastic continua under large deformation. This new approach is based on using energetic and quasi-energetic couples of stress and deformation tensors. This approach leads to a unified treatment of large, anisotropic elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformations. The author analyses classical problems, including some involving nonlinear wave propagation, using different models for continua under large deformation, and shows how different models lead t...

  16. Test of 1D carbon-carbon composite prototype tiles for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G.; Pimazzoni, A.; Canton, A.; Palma, M. Dalla; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.

    2017-08-01

    Additional heating will be provided to the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER by injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova (Italy), the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. To this purpose the STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) diagnostic will be used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short operation (several seconds) and to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirement regarding the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The most important measurements performed by STRIKE are beam uniformity, beamlet divergence and stripping losses. The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon matrix-Carbon Fibre reinforced Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. The requirements of the 1D CFC material include a large thermal conductivity along the tile thickness (at least 10 times larger than in the other directions); low specific heat and density; uniform parameters over the tile surface; capability to withstand localised heat loads resulting in steep temperature gradients. So 1D CFC is a very anisotropic and delicate material, not commercially available, and prototypes are being specifically realised. This contribution gives an overview of the tests performed on the CFC prototype tiles, aimed at verifying their thermal behaviour. The spatial uniformity of the parameters and the ratio between the thermal conductivities are assessed by means of a power laser at Consorzio RFX. Dedicated linear and non-linear simulations are carried out to interpret the experiments and to estimate the thermal conductivities; these simulations are described and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented.

  17. Fundamental topics for thermo-elastic stress analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper delivers a consistent collection of theoretical fundamentals needed to perform rather sound experimental stress analyses on thermo-elastic materials. An exposition of important concepts of symmetry and so-called peer groups, yielding the very base for a rational description of materials, goes ahead and is followed by an introduction to the constitutive theory of simple materials. Neat distinction is made between stress contributions determined by deformational and thermal impressions, on the one part, and stress constraints not accessible to strain gauging, on the other part. The mathematical formalism required for establishing constitutive equations is coherently developed from scratch and aided, albeit not subrogated, by intuition. The main intention goes to turning some of the recent advances in the nonlinear field theories of thermomechanics to practical account. A full success therein, obviously, results under the restriction to thermo-elasticity. In adverting to more particular subjects, the elementary static effects of nonlinear isotropic elasticity are pointed out. Due allowance is made for thermal effects likely to occur in heat conducting materials also beyond the isothermal or isentropic limit cases. Linearization of the constitutive equations for anisotropic thermo-elastic materials is then shown to entail the formulas of the classical theory. (orig./MM) [de

  18. Modelling nonlinearity in piezoceramic transducers: From equations to nonlinear equivalent circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenthoine, D; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P; Haumesser, L; Vander Meulen, F; Lematre, M; Lethiecq, M

    2011-02-01

    Quadratic nonlinear equations of a piezoelectric element under the assumptions of 1D vibration and weak nonlinearity are derived by the perturbation theory. It is shown that the nonlinear response can be represented by controlled sources that are added to the classical hexapole used to model piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. As a consequence, equivalent electrical circuits can be used to predict the nonlinear response of a transducer taking into account the acoustic loads on the rear and front faces. A generalisation of nonlinear equivalent electrical circuits to cases including passive layers and propagation media is then proposed. Experimental results, in terms of second harmonic generation, on a coupled resonator are compared to theoretical calculations from the proposed model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Elastic and viscoplastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebensohn, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review crystal elasticity and plasticity-based self-consistent theories and apply them to the determination of the effective response of polycrystalline aggregates. These mean-field formulations, which enable the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of polycrystalline aggregates based on the heterogeneous and/or directional properties of their constituent single crystal grains and phases, are ideal tools to establish relationships between microstructure and properties of these materials, ubiquitous among fuels and structural materials for nuclear systems. (author)

  20. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E

    1994-01-01

    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  1. Series Elastic Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    7.2 Planetary rover 75 7.3 Biped Robot 76 8 Conclusions 77 8.1 Review of Thesis 77 8.2 Further Work 77 List of Figures 1-1 Schematic of...have only four degrees of freedom, and a simple gripper. 75 76 CHAPTER 7. APPLICATIONS Figure 7-1: Photograph of robot arm 7.3 Biped Robot ...Another group at MIT is building a biped walking robot using series elastic actuators. The design of the actuators differs in that instead of using a

  2. Developing 1D nanostructure arrays for future nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke DG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is intense and growing interest in one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures from the perspective of their synthesis and unique properties, especially with respect to their excellent optical response and an ability to form heterostructures. This review discusses alternative approaches to preparation and organization of such structures, and their potential properties. In particular, molecular-scale printing is highlighted as a method for creating organized pre-cursor structure for locating nanowires, as well as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS templated growth using nano-channel alumina (NCA, and deposition of 1-D structures with glancing angle deposition (GLAD. As regards novel optical properties, we discuss as an example, finite size photonic crystal cavity structures formed from such nanostructure arrays possessing highQand small mode volume, and being ideal for developing future nanolasers.

  3. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ovando C, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  4. Supported plasma-made 1D heterostructures: perspectives and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, Ana; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Romero-Gomez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R, E-mail: anaisabel.borras@icmse.csic.es [Materials Science Institute of Seville (CSIC-Universidad Sevilla), C/Americo Vespucio 49 41092, Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-05-04

    Plasma-related methods have been widely used in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres (NFs) and semiconducting inorganic nanowires (NWs). A natural progression of the research in the field of 1D nanostructures is the synthesis of multicomponent NWs and NFs. In this paper we review the state of the art of the fabrication by plasma methods of 1D heterostructures including applications and perspectives. Furthermore, recent developments on the use of metal seeds (Ag, Au, Pt) to obtain metal-oxide nanostructures are also extensively described. Results are shown for various metal substrates, either metal foils or supported nanoparticles/thin films of the metal where the effects of the size, surface coverage, percolation degree and thickness of the metal seeds have been systematically evaluated. The possibilities of the process are illustrated by the preparation of nanostructured films and supported NFs of different metal-oxides (Ag, Au and SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZnO). Particularly, in the case of silver, the application of an oxygen plasma treatment prior to the deposition of the oxide was critical for efficiently controlling the growth of the 1D heterostructures. A phenomenological model is proposed to account for the thin-film nanostructuring and fibre formation by considering basic phenomena such as stress relaxation, inhomogeneities in the plasma sheath electrical field and the local disturbance of the oxide growth.

  5. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  6. Design guidance for elastic followup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naugle, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed.

  7. System Reduction in Nonlinear Multibody Dynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Rubak, Rune

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the system reduction in nonlinear multibody dynamics of wind turbines is investigated for various updating schemes of the moving frame of reference. In one case, the moving frame of reference is updated to a stiff body, relative to which the elastic deformations are fixed at one end....... In the other case, the stiff body motion is defined as the chord line connecting the end points of the beam, and the elastic deformations are simply supported at the end points. The system reduction is performed by discretizing the spatial motion into a set of rigid body modes and linear elastic eigenmodes...

  8. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  9. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  10. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  11. On The Dynamic Analysis of Non-Uniform Beams With Non-Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the same way, the elastic properties of the beam, the flexural rigidity, and the mass density per unit length, and the elastic modulus parameter are expressed as functions of the spatial variable x. However, the main objectives of this study is to investigate the effect of (i) non-linear constant parameter (ii) velocity of the ...

  12. Strongly nonlinear waves in a chain of Teflon beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Herbold, E. B.; Jin, S.

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional “sonic vacuum” type phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE,Teflon) spheres with different diameters in a Teflon holder. It was demonstrated that this polymer-based sonic vacuum, with exceptionally low elastic modulus of particles, supports propagation of strongly nonlinear solitary waves with a very low speed. These solitary waves can be described using the classical nonlinear Hertz law despite the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and ...

  13. Multisoliton solutions, completely elastic collisions and non-elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the nature of solitonsolutions before and after their interactions, and present their fusion (non-elastic) and elastic collisions of the soliton solutions. ... Department of Mathematics, Pabna University of Science and Technology, Pabna 6600, Bangladesh; School of Mathematics and Physics, University of ...

  14. Tensor network simulation of QED on infinite lattices: Learning from (1 +1 ) d , and prospects for (2 +1 ) d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Kai; Orús, Román

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of lattice gauge theories with tensor network (TN) methods is becoming increasingly fruitful. The vision is that such methods will, eventually, be used to simulate theories in (3 +1 ) dimensions in regimes difficult for other methods. So far, however, TN methods have mostly simulated lattice gauge theories in (1 +1 ) dimensions. The aim of this paper is to explore the simulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED) on infinite lattices with TNs, i.e., fermionic matter fields coupled to a U (1 ) gauge field, directly in the thermodynamic limit. With this idea in mind we first consider a gauge-invariant infinite density matrix renormalization group simulation of the Schwinger model—i.e., QED in (1 +1 ) d . After giving a precise description of the numerical method, we benchmark our simulations by computing the subtracted chiral condensate in the continuum, in good agreement with other approaches. Our simulations of the Schwinger model allow us to build intuition about how a simulation should proceed in (2 +1 ) dimensions. Based on this, we propose a variational ansatz using infinite projected entangled pair states (PEPS) to describe the ground state of (2 +1 ) d QED. The ansatz includes U (1 ) gauge symmetry at the level of the tensors, as well as fermionic (matter) and bosonic (gauge) degrees of freedom both at the physical and virtual levels. We argue that all the necessary ingredients for the simulation of (2 +1 ) d QED are, a priori, already in place, paving the way for future upcoming results.

  15. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  16. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  17. Nonlinear ultrasound modelling and validation of fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, G. P. Malfense; Ciampa, F.; Ginzburg, D.; Onder, E.; Meo, M.

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear ultrasound techniques have shown greater sensitivity to microcracks and they can be used to detect structural damages at their early stages. However, there is still a lack of numerical models available in commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools that are able to simulate the interaction of elastic waves with the materials nonlinear behaviour. In this study, a nonlinear constitutive material model was developed to predict the structural response under continuous harmonic excitation of a fatigued isotropic sample that showed anharmonic effects. Particularly, by means of Landau's theory and Kelvin tensorial representation, this model provided an understanding of the elastic nonlinear phenomena such as the second harmonic generation in three-dimensional solid media. The numerical scheme was implemented and evaluated using a commercially available FEA software LS-DYNA, and it showed a good numerical characterisation of the second harmonic amplitude generated by the damaged region known as the nonlinear response area (NRA). Since this process requires only the experimental second-order nonlinear parameter and rough damage size estimation as an input, it does not need any baseline testing with the undamaged structure or any dynamic modelling of the fatigue crack growth. To validate this numerical model, the second-order nonlinear parameter was experimentally evaluated at various points over the fatigue life of an aluminium (AA6082-T6) coupon and the crack propagation was measured using an optical microscope. A good correlation was achieved between the experimental set-up and the nonlinear constitutive model.

  18. On the closure of circular holes in nonlinear viscous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Many rocks exhibit viscous behaviors which have to be taken into account in applications ranging from wellbores creeping during drilling to salt caves or hard rock mine tunnels shrinking with time. We address all these different cases using a unified configuration. We consider a 2D plane strain problem where a circular hole, representing the wellbore, the cave or the mine tunnel depending on the application, is embedded in an infinite incompressible non-linear viscous material. The problem is purely mechanical. Not only the rheological model used here is well suited for real formations but it can also represent many different sorts of rocks like salts, shales, quartzite and even ice. The major difference between the applications concerns the relevant time scales and they must therefore be separated according to that. For short timescale applications like wellbore creep during drilling it is first necessary to determine whether an elastic component must or must not be taken into account. This analysis is carried out using a non-linear viscoelastic Maxwell model. If it is acknowledged that a purely viscous rheology is enough, as can be the case for salts, then we can proceed with our unified configuration. We start by considering the case where the medium is isotropic and where pressure boundary conditions are prescribed both at the hole rim and at infinity. This problem is 1D due to axial symmetry. Analytical solutions to very similar problems have already been provided and we compare the solution we have derived to the existing ones. We show that our solution is consistent and that we recover similar results to the ones derived for comparable rheologies. Using MILAMIN, a fast finite element code, we investigate further two cases which lead to angular dependency and stress concentrations around the hole. In the first case we add a deviatoric stress at infinity and we study the impact of this extra stress on the solution. It is important to understand this parameter

  19. 1-D blood flow modelling in a running human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Viktor; Halász, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to simulate blood flow in a mobile human arterial network, specifically, in a running human subject. In order to simulate the effect of motion, a previously published immobile 1-D model was modified by including an inertial force term into the momentum equation. To calculate inertial force, gait analysis was performed at different levels of speed. Our results show that motion has a significant effect on the amplitudes of the blood pressure and flow rate but the average values are not effected significantly.

  20. 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V A; Senichenkov, I Yu

    2010-01-01

    A 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport is derived for a given set of turbulent transport coefficients. The averaging is performed taking account of the poloidal variation of the toroidal fluxes and is based on the ambipolar condition of the zero net radial current through the flux surface. It is demonstrated that taking account of the Pfirsch-Schlueter fluxes leads to a torque in the toroidal direction which is proportional to the gradient of the ion temperature. This effect is new and has not been discussed before. The boundary condition at the separatrix, which is based on the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma, is formulated.

  1. 1D models for condensation induced water hammer in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemeling, Frank; Neuhas, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) are caused by contact of steam and subcooled water. Thus, modeling the direct contact condensation is a crucial step towards the simulation of condensation induced water hammer with 1D pressure surge codes. Therefore, also the TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH and Co. KG inhouse pressure surge code DYVRO has been equipped with a new contact condensation model. The validation of DYVRO against an experiment dealing with CIWH is presented in this contribution. (orig.)

  2. The Application of Simulation Method in Isothermal Elastic Natural Gas Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chunlei; Guan, Shiming; Zhao, Yue; Cao, Jinggang; Chu, Yanji

    2018-02-01

    This Elastic pipeline mathematic model is of crucial importance in natural gas pipeline simulation because of its compliance with the practical industrial cases. The numerical model of elastic pipeline will bring non-linear complexity to the discretized equations. Hence the Newton-Raphson method cannot achieve fast convergence in this kind of problems. Therefore A new Newton Based method with Powell-Wolfe Condition to simulate the Isothermal elastic pipeline flow is presented. The results obtained by the new method aregiven based on the defined boundary conditions. It is shown that the method converges in all cases and reduces significant computational cost.

  3. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient-driven...

  4. A hyper elasticity method for interactive virtual design of hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Erleben, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    We present a computational efficient method for isotropic hyper elasticity based on functional analysis. By selecting a class of shape functions, we arrive at a computational scheme which yields very sparse tensors. This enables fast computations of the hyper elastic energy potential and its...... derivatives. We achieve efficiency and performance through the use of shape functions that are linear in their parameters and through rotation into the eigenspace of the right Cauchy–Green strain tensor. This makes near real time evaluation of hyper elasticity of complex meshes on CPU relatively easy...... to implement. The approach does not rely on a specific shape function or material model but offers a general framework for isotropic hyper elasticity. The method is aimed at interactive and accurate non-linear hyper elastic modeling for a wide range of industrial virtual design applications, which we exemplify...

  5. Measurement of the elastic cross section for positive pions on carbon at 142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyer, A.T.

    1976-12-01

    A measurement of the elastic cross section dsigma/dΩ was made for the reaction π + + 12 C → π + + 12 C with 142 MeV pions at ten angles ranging from 35 to 85 0 in the laboratory. This experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A double focusing magnetic spectrometer observed a cylindrical styrofoam target. The resulting momentum spectra were recorded by an array of nineteen totally depleted surface barrier detectors located at the spectrometer's focal plane. The spectra from the styrofoam were composed of peaks representing proton elastic, carbon elastic, carbon inelastic, and carbon quasi-elastic channels. A function made of Gaussians representing the two body channels and a distribution representing the quasi-elastic channel was fit to the data using a nonlinear least squares algorithm. The ratio of the carbon elastic to proton elastic cross sections was calculated from the areas of the corresponding Gaussians and then multiplied by the proton elastic cross section of Bugg et al eliminating several sources of systematic errors such as beam normalization. The differential cross sections were found to have the usual diffraction structure with a forward peak and a minimum near 55 0 . Finally, the carbon elastic cross sections were compared to similar π - + 12 C cross sections of Binon et al using the optical model

  6. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  7. Analytic study of 1D diffusive relativistic shock acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshet, Uri, E-mail: ukeshet@bgu.ac.il [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Be' er-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-10-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) by relativistic shocks is thought to generate the dN / dE ∝ E{sup −p} spectra of charged particles in various astronomical relativistic flows. We show that for test particles in one dimension (1D), p {sup −1}=1−ln[γ{sub d}(1+β{sub d})]/ln[γ{sub u}(1+β{sub u})], where β{sub u}(β{sub d}) is the upstream (downstream) normalized velocity, and γ is the respective Lorentz factor. This analytically captures the main properties of relativistic DSA in higher dimensions, with no assumptions on the diffusion mechanism. Unlike 2D and 3D, here the spectrum is sensitive to the equation of state even in the ultra-relativistic limit, and (for a J(üttner-Synge equation of state) noticeably hardens with increasing 1<γ{sub u}<57, before logarithmically converging back to p (γ{sub u→∞})=2. The 1D spectrum is sensitive to drifts, but only in the downstream, and not in the ultra-relativistic limit.

  8. Study of 1D Strange Charmed Meson Family Using HQET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently LHCb predicted spin 1 and spin 3 states Ds1⁎(2860 and Ds3⁎(2860 which are studied through their strong decays and are assigned to fit the 13D1 and 13D3 states in the charm spectroscopy. In this paper, using the heavy quark effective theory, we state that assigning Ds1⁎(2860 as the mixing of 13D1-23S1 states is rather a better justification to its observed experimental values than a pure state. We study its decay modes variation with hadronic coupling constant gxh and the mixing angle θ. We appoint spin 3 state Ds3⁎(2860 as the missing 1D  3-JP state and also study its decay channel behavior with coupling constant gyh. To appreciate the above results, we check the variation of decay modes for their spin partners states, that is, 1D2 and 1D2′, with their masses and strong coupling constant, that is, gxh and gyh. Our calculation using HQET approach gives mixing angle of the 13D1-23S1 state for Ds1⁎(2860 to lie in the range (-1.6 radians ≤θ≤-1.2 radians. Our calculation for coupling constant values gives gxh to lie within value range of 0.17–0.20 and gyh to be 0.40. We expect from experiments to observe this mixing angle to verify our results.

  9. A Framework for Low-Communication 1-D FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tak Peter Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-performance computing on distributed-memory systems, communication often represents a significant part of the overall execution time. The relative cost of communication will certainly continue to rise as compute-density growth follows the current technology and industry trends. Design of lower-communication alternatives to fundamental computational algorithms has become an important field of research. For distributed 1-D FFT, communication cost has hitherto remained high as all industry-standard implementations perform three all-to-all internode data exchanges (also called global transposes. These communication steps indeed dominate execution time. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework from which many single-all-to-all and easy-to-implement 1-D FFT algorithms can be derived. For large-scale problems, our implementation can be twice as fast as leading FFT libraries on state-of-the-art computer clusters. Moreover, our framework allows tradeoff between accuracy and performance, further boosting performance if reduced accuracy is acceptable.

  10. Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.

  11. Multigroup Synchronization in 1D-Bernoulli Chaotic Collaborative CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumith Babu Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Code-division multiple access (CDMA has played a remarkable role in the field of wireless communication systems, and its capacity and security requirements are still being addressed. Collaborative multiuser transmission and detection are a contemporary technique used in CDMA systems. The performance of these systems is governed by the proper accommodation of the users and by proper synchronization schemes. The major research concerns in the existing multiuser overloaded CDMA schemes are (i statistically uncorrelated PN sequences that cause multiple-access interference (MAI and (ii the security of the user’s data. In this paper, a novel grouped CDMA scheme, the 1D-Bernoulli chaotic collaborative CDMA (BCC-CDMA, is introduced, in which mutually orthogonal chaotic sequences spread the users’ data within a group. The synchronization of multiple groups in this scheme has been analyzed under MAI limited environments and the results are presented. This increases the user capacity and also provides sufficient security as a result of the correlation properties possessed by the chaotic codes. Multigroup synchronization is achieved using a 1D chaotic pilot sequence generated by the Bernoulli Map. The mathematical model of the proposed system is described and compared with the theoretical model of the synchronization in CDMA, the simulation results of which are presented.

  12. Nonlinear theory of electroelastic and magnetoelastic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfmann, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a unified theory of nonlinear electro-magnetomechanical interactions of soft materials capable of large elastic deformations. The authors include an overview of the basic principles of the classical theory of electromagnetism from the fundamental notions of point charges and magnetic dipoles through to distributions of charge and current in a non-deformable continuum, time-dependent electromagnetic fields and Maxwell’s equations. They summarize the basic ingredients of continuum mechanics that are required to account for the deformability of material and present nonlinear constitutive frameworks for electroelastic and magnetoelastic interactions in a highly deformable material. The equations contained in the book are used to formulate and solve a variety of representative boundary-value problems for both nonlinear electroelasticity and magnetoelasticity.

  13. Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza

    2018-04-01

    Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.

  14. A Survey of Nonlinear Dynamics (Chaos Theory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    example of an n = 1 Hamiltonian system does have separatrices. This is the 1D pendulum (Fig. 4.2): 9=p, p=-asin9;H(9,p) =p2 /2- acosO . (4-5) Phase space...method. There is no substitute for the actual labor of applying the nonlinear operator to a sum of normal modes, producing a general Galerkin vector

  15. Nonlinear acoustic techniques for landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of the top surface vibration of a buried (inert) VS 2.2 anti-tank plastic landmine reveal significant resonances in the frequency range between 80 and 650 Hz. Resonances from measurements of the normal component of the acoustically induced soil surface particle velocity (due to sufficient acoustic-to-seismic coupling) have been used in detection schemes. Since the interface between the top plate and the soil responds nonlinearly to pressure fluctuations, characteristics of landmines, the soil, and the interface are rich in nonlinear physics and allow for a method of buried landmine detection not previously exploited. Tuning curve experiments (revealing ``softening'' and a back-bone curve linear in particle velocity amplitude versus frequency) help characterize the nonlinear resonant behavior of the soil-landmine oscillator. The results appear to exhibit the characteristics of nonlinear mesoscopic elastic behavior, which is explored. When two primary waves f1 and f2 drive the soil over the mine near resonance, a rich spectrum of nonlinearly generated tones is measured with a geophone on the surface over the buried landmine in agreement with Donskoy [SPIE Proc. 3392, 221-217 (1998); 3710, 239-246 (1999)]. In profiling, particular nonlinear tonals can improve the contrast ratio compared to using either primary tone in the spectrum. .

  16. A nonlinear screen as an element for sound absorption and frequency conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses a model for a screen with dissipative and nonlinear elastic properties that can be used in acoustic sound absorption and frequency conversion systems. Calculation and estimation schemes are explained that are necessary for understanding the functional capabilities of the device. Examples of the nonlinear elements in the screen and promising applications are described.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of a sliding beam on two supports under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The beam is referred to as a Gospodnetic–Frisch-Fay beam, after the researchers who reported its static deformation in closed form. The freedom of the beam to slide on its supports imparts a nonlinear characteristic to the force-deflection response. The restoring elastic force of the beam possesses characteristics similar to ...

  18. Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with finite element analysis of the soil–structure systems considering the coupled effect of elastic structure and materially nonlinear soil. The equations of motion of both soil and structure have been expressed in terms of displacement variable. The structure and the soil domain are treated as two separate ...

  19. Nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy and acoustic emission in SHM of aircrafts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Chlada, Milan; Krofta, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, SI (2012), s. 36-40 ISSN 1213-3825 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : NDT * structural health monitoring * acoustic emission * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy * time reversal mirrors Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  20. Nonlinear wave propagation studies, dispersion modeling, and signal parameters correction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk

    ..: ..., 2004, 00. [European Workshop on FP6-AERONEWS /1./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2004-16.09.2004] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 502927 - AERO-NEWS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nodestructive testing * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  1. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  2. Engineering and manipulating topological qubits in 1D quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotetes, Panagiotis; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the Josephson effect in TNT and NTN junctions, consisting of topological (T) and normal (N) phases of semiconductor-superconductor 1D heterostructures in the presence of a Zeeman field. A key feature of our setup is that, in addition to the variation of the phase of the superconducting order parameter, we allow the orientation of the magnetic field to change along the junction. We find a novel magnetic contribution to the Majorana Josephson coupling that permits the Josephson current to be tuned by changing the orientation of the magnetic field along the junction. We also predict that a spin current can be generated by a finite superconducting phase difference, rendering these materials potential candidates for spintronic applications. Finally, this new type of coupling not only constitutes a unique fingerprint for the existence of Majorana bound states but also provides an alternative pathway for manipulating and braiding topological qubits in networks of wires.

  3. Traveling waves in a continuum model of 1D schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Kanso, Eva; Shelley, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We construct and analyze a continuum model of a 1D school of flapping swimmers. Our starting point is a delay differential equation that models the interaction between a swimmer and its upstream neighbors' wakes, which is motivated by recent experiments in the Applied Math Lab at NYU. We coarse-grain the evolution equations and derive PDEs for the swimmer density and variables describing the upstream wake. We study the equations both analytically and numerically, and find that a uniform density of swimmers destabilizes into a traveling wave. Our model makes a number of predictions about the properties of such traveling waves, and sheds light on the role of hydrodynamics in mediating the structure of swimming schools.

  4. Directed enzymatic activation of 1-D DNA tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sudhanshu; Chandran, Harish; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; LaBean, Thomas H; Reif, John

    2015-02-24

    The tile assembly model is a Turing universal model of self-assembly where a set of square shaped tiles with programmable sticky sides undergo coordinated self-assembly to form arbitrary shapes, thereby computing arbitrary functions. Activatable tiles are a theoretical extension to the Tile assembly model that enhances its robustness by protecting the sticky sides of tiles until a tile is partially incorporated into a growing assembly. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a simplified version of the Activatable tile assembly model. In particular, we demonstrate the simultaneous assembly of protected DNA tiles where a set of inert tiles are activated via a DNA polymerase to undergo linear assembly. We then demonstrate stepwise activated assembly where a set of inert tiles are activated sequentially one after another as a result of attachment to a growing 1-D assembly. We hope that these results will pave the way for more sophisticated demonstrations of activated assemblies.

  5. Interior volume of (1 + D)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Nilanjandev; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the maximum interior volume, enclosed by the event horizon, of a (1 + D)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Taking into account the mass change due to Hawking radiation, we show that the volume increases towards the end of the evaporation. This fact is not new as it has been observed earlier for four-dimensional case. The interesting point we observe is that this increase rate decreases towards the higher value of space dimensions D; i.e. it is a decelerated expansion of volume with the increase of spatial dimensions. This implies that for a sufficiently large D, the maximum interior volume does not change. The possible implications of these results are also discussed.

  6. Improving 1D Site Specific Velocity Profiles for the Kik-Net Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James; Edwards, Benjamin; Pilz, Marco; Fäh, Donat; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    recorded data from the Kik-Net network. First, using a reliable subset of sites, the empirical surface to borehole (S/B) ratio is calculated in the frequency domain using all events recorded at that site. In a subsequent step, we use numerical simulation to produce 1D SH transfer function curves using a suite of stochastic velocity models. Comparing the resulting amplification with the empirical S/B ratio we find optimal 1D velocity models and their uncertainty. The method will be tested to determine the level of initial information required to obtain a reliable Vs profile (e.g., starting Vs model, only Vs30, site-class, H/V ratio etc.) and then applied and tested against data from other regions using site-to-reference or empirical spectral model amplification.

  7. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    . ) ( ) r. (. ) ( ). The governing partial differential equation for axisymmetric elasticity problems are the strain- displacement equations, the differential equations of equilibrium and the material constitutive laws, subject to the displacement and ...

  8. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  9. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  10. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  11. Effect of Intrinsic Ripples on Elasticity of the Graphene Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun

    2015-12-01

    The effect of intrinsic ripples on the mechanical response of the graphene monolayer is investigated under uniaxial loading using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a focus on nonlinear behavior at a small strain. The calculated stress-strain response shows a nonlinear relation through the entire range without constant slopes as a result of the competition between ripple softening and bond stretching hardening. For a small strain, entropic contribution is dominant due to intrinsic ripples, leading to elasticity softening. As the ripples flatten at increasing strain, the energetic term due to C-C bonds stretching competes with the entropic contribution, followed by energetic dominant deformation. Elasticity softening is enhanced at increased temperature as the ripple amplitude increases. The study shows that the intrinsic ripple of graphene affects elasticity. This result suggests that a change of ripple amplitudes due to various environmental conditions such as temperature, and substrate interactions can lead to a change of the mechanical properties of graphene. The understanding of the rippling effect on the mechanical behavior of 2D materials is useful for strain-based ripple manipulation for their engineering applications.

  12. Microstructure, elastic deformation behavior and mechanical properties of biomedical β-type titanium alloy thin-tube used for stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuxing; Yu, Zhentao; Ong, Chun Yee Aaron; Kent, Damon; Wang, Gui

    2015-05-01

    Cold-deformability and mechanical compatibility of the biomedical β-type titanium alloy are the foremost considerations for their application in stents, because the lower ductility restricts the cold-forming of thin-tube and unsatisfactory mechanical performance causes a failed tissue repair. In this paper, β-type titanium alloy (Ti-25Nb-3Zr-3Mo-2Sn, wt%) thin-tube fabricated by routine cold rolling is reported for the first time, and its elastic behavior and mechanical properties are discussed for the various microstructures. The as cold-rolled tube exhibits nonlinear elastic behavior with large recoverable strain of 2.3%. After annealing and aging, a nonlinear elasticity, considered as the intermediate stage between "double yielding" and normal linear elasticity, is attributable to a moderate precipitation of α phase. Quantitive relationships are established between volume fraction of α phase (Vα) and elastic modulus, strength as well as maximal recoverable strain (εmax-R), where the εmax-R of above 2.0% corresponds to the Vα range of 3-10%. It is considered that the "mechanical" stabilization of the (α+β) microstructure is a possible elastic mechanism for explaining the nonlinear elastic behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  14. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  15. Free vibration of elastically supported thin cylinders including gyroscopic effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    1998-10-29

    Full Text Available stream_source_info loveday_1998.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30419 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name loveday_1998.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 D[R[ 747723*JSV 106...# or in_nite "rigid#[ 7 0887 Academic Press 0[ INTRODUCTION The vibration of thin elastic shells has been studied by many researchers[ The results of many of these studies have been summarised by Leissa 0 and Blevins 1 [ The literature contains numerous...

  16. DNA Bending elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  17. The Faraday Pavilion: activating bending in the design and analysis of an elastic gridshell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Lafuente Hernandez, Elisa; Gengnagel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    as the input for a quantitative engineering simulation, where the equilibrium shape and load-bearing capacity of the elastically-bent structure is calculated with a non-linear, three-dimensional finite element model within the FEM-package Sofistik. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of both methods...

  18. Mathematical theory of elastic and elasto-plastic bodies an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Necas, J

    2013-01-01

    The book acquaints the reader with the basic concepts and relations of elasticity and plasticity, and also with the contemporary state of the theory, covering such aspects as the nonlinear models of elasto-plastic bodies and of large deflections of plates, unilateral boundary value problems, variational principles, the finite element method, and so on.

  19. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  20. Thermomechanical Elastic Post-Buckling of Functionally Graded Materials Plate with Random System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, K. R.; Lal, Achchhe; Singh, B. N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the stochastic post-buckling response of elastically supported FGM plate with random system properties subjected to uniform and nonuniform temperature change with temperature-dependent and -independent material properties. The FGMs plate is supported with two parameters of Pasternak foundation with Winkler cubic nonlinearity. The basic formulation is based on higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) with von-Karman nonlinearity using modified C0 continuity. A direct iterative-based nonlinear finite element method combined with first-order perturbation technique is used to compute the second-order statistics (mean and coefficient of variation) of post-buckling response of FGM plates.

  1. Nonlinear vibration and rippling instability for embedded carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Payam; Mehdipour, I.; Farshidianfar, A.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the rippling deformations, a nonlinear continuum elastic model is developed to analyze the transverse vibration of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded on a Winkler elastic foundation. The nonlinear natural frequency has been derived analytically for typical boundary conditions using the perturbation method of multi-scales. The results indicate that the nonlinear resonant frequency due to the rippling is related to the stiffness of the foundation, the boundary conditions, the excitation load-to-damping ratio, and the diameter-to-length ratio. Moreover, the rippling instability of carbon nanotubes, as a structural instability, is introduced and the influences of several effective parameters on this kind of instability are widely discussed

  2. A computational approach for coupled 1D and 2D/3D CFD modelling of pulse Tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The physics behind Stirling-type cryocoolers are complicated. One dimensional (1D) simulation tools offer limited details and accuracy, in particular for cryocoolers that have non-linear configurations. Multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods are useful but are computationally expensive in simulating cyrocooler systems in their entirety. In view of the fact that some components of a cryocooler, e.g., inertance tubes and compliance tanks, can be modelled as 1D components with little loss of critical information, a 1D-2D/3D coupled model was developed. Accordingly, one-dimensional – like components are represented by specifically developed routines. These routines can be coupled to CFD codes and provide boundary conditions for 2D/3D CFD simulations. The developed coupled model, while preserving sufficient flow field details, is two orders of magnitude faster than equivalent 2D/3D CFD models. The predictions show good agreement with experimental data and 2D/3D CFD model.

  3. A new numerical treatment based on Lucas polynomials for 1D and 2D sinh-Gordon equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Ömer

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new mixed method based on Lucas and Fibonacci polynomials is developed for numerical solutions of 1D and 2D sinh-Gordon equations. Firstly time variable discretized by central finite difference and then unknown function and its derivatives are expanded to Lucas series. With the help of these series expansion and Fibonacci polynomials, matrices for differentiation are derived. With this approach, finding the solution of sinh-Gordon equation transformed to finding the solution of an algebraic system of equations. Lucas series coefficients are acquired by solving this system of algebraic equations. Then by plugginging these coefficients into Lucas series expansion numerical solutions can be obtained consecutively. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that Lucas polynomial based method is convenient for 1D and 2D nonlinear problems. By calculating L2 and L∞ error norms of some 1D and 2D test problems efficiency and performance of the proposed method is monitored. Acquired accurate results confirm the applicability of the method.

  4. Variable-range hopping in 2D quasi-1D electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teber, S.

    2005-12-01

    A semi-phenomenological theory of variable-range hopping (VRH) is developed for two-dimensional (2D) quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) systems such as arrays of quantum wires in the Wigner crystal regime. The theory follows the phenomenology of Efros, Mott and Shklovskii allied with microscopic arguments. We first derive the Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states, g(ε), where ε is the energy of the charge excitation. We then derive the main exponential dependence of the electron conductivity in the linear (L), i.e. σ(T) ∼ exp [-(T L /T) γL ], and current in the non-linear (NL), i.e. j(E) ∼ [-(E NL /E) γNL ], response regimes (E is the applied electric field). Due to the strong anisotropy of the system and its peculiar dielectric properties we show that unusual, with respect to known results, Coulomb gaps open followed by unusual VRH laws, i.e. with respect to the disorder-dependence of T L and E NL and the values of γ L and γ NL . (author)

  5. Cellular reprogramming dynamics follow a simple 1D reaction coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja Pusuluri, Sai; Lang, Alex H.; Mehta, Pankaj; Castillo, Horacio E.

    2018-01-01

    Cellular reprogramming, the conversion of one cell type to another, induces global changes in gene expression involving thousands of genes, and understanding how cells globally alter their gene expression profile during reprogramming is an ongoing problem. Here we reanalyze time-course data on cellular reprogramming from differentiated cell types to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and show that gene expression dynamics during reprogramming follow a simple 1D reaction coordinate. This reaction coordinate is independent of both the time it takes to reach the iPSC state as well as the details of the experimental protocol used. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that such a reaction coordinate emerges from epigenetic landscape models where cellular reprogramming is viewed as a ‘barrier-crossing’ process between cell fates. Overall, our analysis and model suggest that gene expression dynamics during reprogramming follow a canonical trajectory consistent with the idea of an ‘optimal path’ in gene expression space for reprogramming.

  6. Parallelization of elliptic solver for solving 1D Boussinesq model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarwidi, D.; Adytia, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a parallel implementation of an elliptic solver in solving 1D Boussinesq model is presented. Numerical solution of Boussinesq model is obtained by implementing a staggered grid scheme to continuity, momentum, and elliptic equation of Boussinesq model. Tridiagonal system emerging from numerical scheme of elliptic equation is solved by cyclic reduction algorithm. The parallel implementation of cyclic reduction is executed on multicore processors with shared memory architectures using OpenMP. To measure the performance of parallel program, large number of grids is varied from 28 to 214. Two test cases of numerical experiment, i.e. propagation of solitary and standing wave, are proposed to evaluate the parallel program. The numerical results are verified with analytical solution of solitary and standing wave. The best speedup of solitary and standing wave test cases is about 2.07 with 214 of grids and 1.86 with 213 of grids, respectively, which are executed by using 8 threads. Moreover, the best efficiency of parallel program is 76.2% and 73.5% for solitary and standing wave test cases, respectively.

  7. Modeling of 1D Anomalous Diffusion in Fractured Nanoporous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinali Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractured nanoporous reservoirs include multi-scale and discontinuous fractures coupled with a complex nanoporous matrix. Such systems cannot be described by the conventional dual-porosity (or multi-porosity idealizations due to the presence of different flow mechanisms at multiple scales. More detailed modeling approaches, such as Discrete Fracture Network (DFN models, similarly suffer from the extensive data requirements dictated by the intricacy of the flow scales, which eventually deter the utility of these models. This paper discusses the utility and construction of 1D analytical and numerical anomalous diffusion models for heterogeneous, nanoporous media, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas production from tight, unconventional reservoirs with fractured horizontal wells. A fractional form of Darcy’s law, which incorporates the non-local and hereditary nature of flow, is coupled with the classical mass conservation equation to derive a fractional diffusion equation in space and time. Results show excellent agreement with established solutions under asymptotic conditions and are consistent with the physical intuitions.

  8. The molecular spin filter constructed from 1D organic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Ning; Wang, Baolin; Bian, Baoan

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a molecular spin filter, which is constructed from the 1D metallic organic chain (Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n ). The spin-polarized transport properties of the molecular spin filter are explored by combining density functional theory with nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Theoretical results reveal that Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect, and only the spin-down electrons can transmit through the molecular chain. At the given bias voltage window [−1 eV,1 eV], the calculated spin filter efficiency is close to 100% in the case of n≥3. We find that the effect of spin polarization origin from both Fe n+1 and (C 6 H 4 ) n . In addition, negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain. The results can help us understand the spin transport properties of organic molecular chain. - Highlights: • Theoretical results reveal that Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain exhibits robust spin filtering effect. • The effect of spin polarization origin from both of Fe n+1 and (C 6 H 4 ) n . • Negative difference resistance behavior appears in Fe n+1 (C 6 H 4 ) n molecular chain

  9. An implicit solver for 1D arterial network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jason; Van Loon, Raoul

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the 1D blood flow equations are solved using a newly proposed enhanced trapezoidal rule method (ETM), which is an extension to the simplified trapezoidal rule method. At vessel junctions, the conservation of mass and conservation of total pressure are held as system constraints using Lagrange multipliers that can be physically interpreted as external flow rates. The ETM scheme is compared with published arterial network benchmark problems and a dam break problem. Strengths of the ETM scheme include being simple to implement, intuitive connection to lumped parameter models, and no restrictive stability criteria such as the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. The ETM scheme does not require the use of characteristics at vessel junctions, or for inlet and outlet boundary conditions. The ETM forms an implicit system of equations, which requires only one global solve per time step for pressure, followed by flow rate update on the elemental system of equations; thus, no iterations are required per time step. Consistent results are found for all benchmark cases, and for a 56-vessel arterial network problem, it gives very satisfactory solutions at a spatial and time discretization that results in a maximum CFL of 3, taking 4.44 seconds per cardiac cycle. By increasing the time step and element size to produce a maximum CFL number of 15, the method takes only 0.39 second per cardiac cycle with only a small compromise on accuracy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Nonlinearity in structural and electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Beardmore, K.M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project strengthens a nonlinear technology base relevant to a variety of problems arising in condensed matter and materials science, and applies this technology to those problems. In this way the controlled synthesis of, and experiments on, novel electronic and structural materials provide an important focus for nonlinear science, while nonlinear techniques help advance the understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of microstructure and dynamics in complex materials. This research is primarily focused on four topics: (1) materials microstructure: growth and evolution, and porous media; (2) textures in elastic/martensitic materials; (3) electro- and photo-active polymers; and (4) ultrafast photophysics in complex electronic materials. Accomplishments included the following: organization of a ''Nonlinear Materials'' seminar series and international conferences including ''Fracture, Friction and Deformation,'' ''Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions,'' and ''Landscape Paradigms in Physics and Biology''; invited talks at international conference on ''Synthetic Metals,'' ''Quantum Phase Transitions,'' ''1996 CECAM Euroconference,'' and the 1995 Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society; large-scale simulations and microscopic modeling of nonlinear coherent energy storage at crack tips and sliding interfaces; large-scale simulation and microscopic elasticity theory for precursor microstructure and dynamics at solid-solid diffusionless phase transformations; large-scale simulation of self-assembling organic thin films on inorganic substrates; analysis and simulation of smoothing of rough atomic surfaces; and modeling and analysis of flux pattern formation in equilibrium and nonequilibrium Josephson junction arrays and layered superconductors

  11. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)

  12. Environmentally sensitive life-cycle traits have low elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Olsen, Mette; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between population growth rate and the life-cycle traits contributing to it are nonlinear and variable. This has made it difficult for ecologists to consistently predict changes in population dynamics from observations on changes in life-cycle traits. We show that traits having...... a high sensitivity to chemical toxicants tend to have a low elasticity, meaning that changes in them have a relatively low impact on population growth rate, compared to other life-cycle traits. This makes evolutionary sense in that there should be selection against variability in population growth rate....... In particular, we found that fecundity was generally more sensitive to chemical stress than was juvenile or adult survival or time to first reproduction, whereas fecundity typically had a lower elasticity than the other life-cycle traits. Similar relationships have been recorded in field populations for a wide...

  13. Ethanol catalytic optical driven deposition for 1D and 2D materials with ultra-low power threshold of 0 dBm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Bohua; Xiao, Xu; Guo, Chaoshi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Meng; Wu, Kan; Chen, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    We have demonstrated a generalized optical driven deposition method, ethanol catalytic deposition (ECD) method, which is widely applicable to the deposition of a broad range of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials with common deposition parameters. Using ECD method, deposition of 1D material carbon nanotubes and 2D materials MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 on tapered fiber has been demonstrated with the threshold power as low as 0 dBm. To our knowledge, this is the lowest threshold power ever reported in optical driven deposition, noting that the conventional optical driven deposition has a threshold typically near 15 dBm. It means ECD method can significantly reduce the power requirement and simplify the setup of the optical driven deposition as well as its wide applicability to different materials, which benefits the research on optical nonlinearity and ultrafast photonics of 1D and 2D materials.

  14. Nonlinear elliptic differential equations with multivalued nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Nonlinear elliptic differential equations with multivalued ... has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth .... A is upper semicontinuous (as a set-valued map) from every finite dimensional subspace of X into ...

  15. Elastic-plastic transition: A universal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the initial stress-strain behavior in a tensile test is often characterized as linear elastic up to a yield stress and nonlinear plastic thereafter, the pre-yield transition region is known to exhibit significant curvature and hysteresis. Hundreds of high-precision loading-unloading-loading tensile tests were performed using 26 commercial sheet alloys exhibiting a wide range of strength, ductility and crystal structure. Analysis of the results reveals the following: 1.There is no significant linear elastic region; the proportional limit is ~0 MPa when measured with sufficient sensitivity. 2.Each of the hundreds of measured transitional stress-strain curves can be characterized by a single parameter, here called the “modulus reduction rate.”The corresponding equation captures ~80% of the observed variation, a factor of 3 to 6 better than a one-parameter linear approximation. 3.Most interestingly, the transitional behavior for all alloys follows a “Universal Law” requiring no fit parameters. The law depends only upon the strength of the material and its Young’s modulus, both of which are can be measured by independent tests or adopted from handbooks. The Universal Law captures ~90% of the variation represented by the one-parameter representation and eliminates the need for mechanical testing to implement and apply. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. The results provide a simple path to significantly improving applied constitutive models in the transitional regime. The consistency of the effect for such a wide range of metals and suggests that the origin of the behavior lies in the pile-up and relaxation of dislocation arrays.

  16. Global nonlinear optimization for the estimation of static shift and interpretation of 1-D magnetotelluric sounding data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkoprovo Biswas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of conducting inhomogeneities in near-surface structures, apparent resistivity data in magnetotelluric sounding can be severely distorted. This is due to electric fields generated from boundary charges on surficial inhomogeneities. Such distortion persists throughout the entire recording range and is known as static shift in magnetotellurics. Frequency-independent static shifts manifest as vertical, parallel shifts that occur in plots of the dual logarithmic scale of apparent resistivity versus time period. The phase of magnetotelluric sounding data remains unaffected by the static shift and can be used to remove the static shift to some extent. However, individual inversion of phase data yields highly nonunique results, and alone it will not work to correctly remove the static shift. Inversions of uncorrected magnetotelluric data yield erroneous and unreliable estimations, while static-shift-corrected magnetotelluric data provide better and reliable estimations of the resistivities and thicknesses of subsurface structures. In the present study, static shift (a frequency-independent real constant is also considered as one of the model parameters and is optimized together with other model parameters (resistivity and thickness using the very fast simulated annealing global inversion technique. This implies that model parameters are determined simultaneously with the estimate of the static shift in the data. Synthetic and noisy data generated for a number of models are interpreted, to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to yield reliable estimates of subsurface structures when the apparent resistivity data are affected by static shift. Individual inversions of static-shift-affected apparent resistivity data and phase data yield unreliable estimations of the model parameters. Furthermore, the estimated model parameters after individual data inversions do not show any systematic correlations with the amount of static shift in the data. The present study shows that only joint inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase data, without or with optimizing of the static shift, yields models that show good fits between the observed and the model data. Joint inversion results also reveal a systematic relationship between the estimated model parameters and the static shift in the data. The proposed approach also shows that estimated resistivities are ‘S’ (the static shift parameter times the actual resistivities, and that estimated thicknesses are √S times the actual thicknesses without optimization of the static shift. This result is in good agreement with the existing relationship in the literature. Therefore, the global optimization procedure developed can be effectively used to optimize the static shifts in data, to obtain reliable estimations of model parameters. Subsequently, joint inversion of the apparent resistivity and phase data, with optimization of the static shift, is performed, which yields accurate estimates of subsurface structures. It is demonstrated that this approach can also be used when the data is not affected by the static shift. In such cases, the estimated static shift parameter ‘S’ will be close to unity. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated with a field example from Singhbhum craton, eastern India, by providing an accurate estimation of the craton thickness and the conducting structure that lies below the craton.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of a sliding beam on two supports under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with nonlinear stiffness and linear damping in a random vibration environment. ... interconnected joints imparted the means of energy dissipation to the system. .... slope angle. For this reason a polynomial fit is developed. The best fit is found to be of order eleven in the form,. Pl2. EI. = a1. ( d l. ) + a3. ( d l. )3. + a5. ( d l. )5.

  18. Compact titanium dioxide waveguides with high nonlinearity at telecommunication wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Hu, Hao; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2018-01-01

    .43 mu m(2)) and a low loss (5.4 +/- 1 dB/cm) at telecommunication wavelengths around 1550 nm have been fabricated and measured. A microring resonator having a 50 mu m radius has been measured to have a loaded quality factor of 53500. Four-wave mixing experiments reveal a nonlinear parameter...

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  20. An accurate and efficient analytical method for 1D hexagonal quasicrystal coating based on Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peng-Fei; Chen, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    As a solid material between the crystal and the amorphous, the study on quasicrystals has become an important branch of condensed matter physics. Due to the special arrangement of atoms, quasicrystals own some desirable properties, such as low friction coefficient, low adhesion, high wear resistance and low porosity. Thus, quasicrystals are expected to be applied to the coating surfaces for engines, solar cells, nuclear fuel containers and heat converters. However, when the quasicrystals are used as coating material, it is very hard to simulate the coupling fields by the finite elements numerical methods because of its thin thickness and extreme stress gradient. This is the main reason why the structure of quasicrystal coating cannot be calculated accurately and stably by various numerical platform. A general solution method which can be used to solve this contact problem for a 1D hexagonal quasicrystal coating perfectly bonded to a transversely isotropic semi-infinite substrate under the point force is presented in this paper. The solutions of the Green's function under the distributed load can be obtained through the superposition principle. The simulation results show that this method is correct and effective, which has high calculation accuracy and fast convergence speed. The phonon-phason coupling field and elastic field in the coating and semi-infinite substrate will be derived based on the axisymmetric general solution, and the complicated coupling field of quasicrystals in coating contact space is explicitly presented in terms of elementary functions. In addition, the relationship between the coating thickness or external force and the stress component is also obtained to solve practical problems in engineering applications. The solutions presented not only bear theoretical merits, but also can serve as benchmarks to clarify various approximate methods.

  1. On the buckling of an elastic rotating beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furta, Stanislaw D.; Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian

    1997-01-01

    A nonlinear model is developed, which describes the buckling phenomena of an elastic beam clamped to the interior of a rotating wheel. We use a power series method to obtain an approximate expression of the buckling equation and compare this with previous results in the literature. The linearized...... problem is integrated and this results in a second order differential equation of the Fuchs type, which allows an asymptotic expansion of the buckling equation. By means of Lyapunov and Chetaev functions, a rigorous proof is given that the loss of stability of the trivial equilibrium shape occurs for any...

  2. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  3. Appraisal of elastic follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Elastic computations are widely used in structural analysis, and their results are used when material behaviour is non elastic. The current practice is the partition of the computed stress between primary and secondary stress. The basic characteristic of primary stress is that it is not self limiting. On the contrary the basic characteristic of a secondary stress is that it is self limiting, and failure from one application of the stress is not to be expected. It must be emphasized that self limitation is not sufficient and that it is also necessary that strains are small enough to avoid any material disorder. Unfortunately, elastic computations do not give real strain distribution and computed strain in highly stressed areas can be magnified under conditions of plastic temperature is high enough, an undesirable amount of creep occurs in areas of reduced strength and failure can happen. In creep range, to avoid elastic follow up, the most important part of elastically computed stress is considered as primary. This practice is over conservative, and the aim of this paper is to provide indications to choise what fraction of a self limiting stress can be considered as secondary. (orig./GL)

  4. Role of isostaticity and load-bearing microstructure in the elasticity of yielded colloidal gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Lilian C; Newman, Richmond S; Glotzer, Sharon C; Solomon, Michael J

    2012-10-02

    We report a simple correlation between microstructure and strain-dependent elasticity in colloidal gels by visualizing the evolution of cluster structure in high strain-rate flows. We control the initial gel microstructure by inducing different levels of isotropic depletion attraction between particles suspended in refractive index matched solvents. Contrary to previous ideas from mode coupling and micromechanical treatments, our studies show that bond breakage occurs mainly due to the erosion of rigid clusters that persist far beyond the yield strain. This rigidity contributes to gel elasticity even when the sample is fully fluidized; the origin of the elasticity is the slow Brownian relaxation of rigid, hydrodynamically interacting clusters. We find a power-law scaling of the elastic modulus with the stress-bearing volume fraction that is valid over a range of volume fractions and gelation conditions. These results provide a conceptual framework to quantitatively connect the flow-induced microstructure of soft materials to their nonlinear rheology.

  5. Robust torque control of an elastic robotic arm based on invertibility and feedback stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. N.; Schy, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to the control of elastic robotic systems for space applications using inversion, servocompensation, and feedback stabilization is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. Using an inversion algorithm, a nonlinear decoupling control law, u sub d, is derived such that in the closed loop system, independent control of joint angles by the three joint torquers is accomplished. For the stabilization of elastic oscillations, a linear feedback torquer control law, u sub s, is obtained applying linear quadratic optimization to the linearized arm model augmented with a servocompensator about the terminal state. Simulation results show that, in spite of uncertainties in the payload and vehicle angular velocity, good joint angle control and damping of elastic oscillations are obtained with the torquer control law u = u sub d + u sub s.

  6. A comparison of time-history elastic plastic piping analysis with measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavuzzo, R.J.; Sansalone, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The GE/ETEC Green piping system was subjected to high seismic inputs from hydraulic sleds at each pipe foundation. These inputs were high enough to force bending stresses into the plastic regime. Strain gages recorded the pipe response at various positions within the system. The ABAQUS finite element code was used to model this piping system and the dynamic input. Problems associated with the dynamic input are discussed. Various types of finite elements were evaluated for accurancy. Both an elastic time-history analysis and an elastic-plastic time-history analysis of the system were conducted. Results of these analyses are compared to each other and the experimental data. These comparisons indicated that elastic analysis of dynamic strains are conservative at all points of comparison and that there is good agreement between the nonlinear elastic-plastic analysis and experimental data. (orig.)

  7. Electromechanical properties of 1D ZnO nanostructures: nanopiezotronics building blocks, surface and size-scale effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide nanostructures are the main components of nanogenerators and central to the emerging field of nanopiezotronics. Understanding the underlying physics and quantifying the electromechanical properties of these structures, the topic of this research study, play a major role in designing next-generation nanoelectromechanical devices. Here, atomistic simulations are utilized to study surface and size-scale effects on the electromechanical response of 1D ZnO nanostructures. It is shown that the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of these structures are controlled by their size, cross-sectional geometry, and loading configuration. The study reveals enhancement of the piezoelectric and elastic modulus of ZnO nanowires (NW) with diameter d > 1 nm, followed by a sudden drop for d macron]1[combining macron]0) and (011[combining macron]0) planes in NBs. Transition from a surface-reconstructed dominant to a surface-relaxed dominant region is demonstrated for lateral dimensions <1 nm. New phase-transformation (PT) kinetics from piezoelectric wurtzite to nonpiezoelectric body-centered tetragonal (WZ → BCT) and graphite-like phase (WZ → HX) structures occurs in ZnO NWs loaded up to large strains of ∼10%.

  8. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz nonlinear...

  9. Nonlinear Microwave Optomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinearity is essential for creation of non-classical states of the cavity or mechanical resonator such as squeezed or cat states. A microwave cavity can be made nonlinear by, for instance, adding Josephson junctions. The mechanical resonator is inherently nonlinear. The radiation pressure

  10. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  11. Nonlinear Curvature Expressions for Combined Flapwise Bending, Chordwise Bending, Torsion and Extension of Twisted Rotor Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, R. G.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1976-01-01

    The nonlinear curvature expressions for a twisted rotor blade or a beam undergoing transverse bending in two planes, torsion, and extension were developed. The curvature expressions were obtained using simple geometric considerations. The expressions were first developed in a general manner using the geometrical nonlinear theory of elasticity. These general nonlinear expressions were then systematically reduced to four levels of approximation by imposing various simplifying assumptions, and in each of these levels the second degree nonlinear expressions were given. The assumptions were carefully stated and their implications with respect to the nonlinear theory of elasticity as applied to beams were pointed out. The transformation matrices between the deformed and undeformed blade-fixed coordinates, which were needed in the development of the curvature expressions, were also given for three of the levels of approximation. The present curvature expressions and transformation matrices were compared with corresponding expressions existing in the literature.

  12. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing.

  13. Spherically symmetric elasticity in relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa pk 7.5, E-07122 Palma (Spain); Brito, I; Vaz, E G L R, E-mail: jcarot@uib.ca, E-mail: ireneb@mct.uminho.p, E-mail: evaz@mct.uminho.p

    2010-05-01

    The relativistic theory of elasticity is reviewed within the spherically symmetric context with a view towards the modelling of star interiors possessing elastic properties such as the ones expected in neutron stars. Emphasis is placed on generality in the main sections of the paper, and the results are then applied to specific examples. Along the way, a few general results for spacetimes admitting isometries are deduced, and their consequences are fully exploited in the case of spherical symmetry relating them next to the the case in which the material content of the spacetime is some elastic material. This paper extends and generalizes the pioneering work by Magli and Kijowski [1], Magli [2] and [3], and complements, in a sense, that by Karlovini and Samuelsson in their interesting series of papers [4], [5] and [6].

  14. Nonlinear Time Reversal Tomography of Structural Defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Dos Santos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2009), 045003-045010 ISSN N. [ICNEM /14/. Lisabon, 01.06.2009 - 06.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * DORT method * time reversal (TR) Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=PMARCW000003000001045003000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes

  15. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  16. Complex variable methods in elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    England, A H

    2003-01-01

    The plane strain and generalized plane stress boundary value problems of linear elasticity are the focus of this graduate-level text, which formulates and solves these problems by employing complex variable theory. The text presents detailed descriptions of the three basic methods that rely on series representation, Cauchy integral representation, and the solution via continuation. Its five-part treatment covers functions of a complex variable, the basic equations of two-dimensional elasticity, plane and half-plane problems, regions with circular boundaries, and regions with curvilinear bounda

  17. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  18. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  19. ELASTIC AND SAFETY CLUTCH WITH RADIAL TAPERED ROLLER AND METALLIC ELASTIC ELEMENTS AXIALLY ARRANGED

    OpenAIRE

    STROE Ioan

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a new type of clutch named `Elastic and Safety Clutch` that can accomplish the functions of the elastic and those of the safety clutches, but it is not a combined clutch. The proposed clutch is an elastic and safety clutch with metallic intermediate elements. The paper presents the elastic and safety clutch with radial tapered roller and metallic elastic elements axially arranged. The design and verification computing relations of the elastic and safety...

  20. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  1. Variation of nonlinearity parameter at low fundamental amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Daniel J.

    1999-04-01

    Recent harmonic generation measurements of the nonlinearity parameter β in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys have shown a transition to lower values at low fundamental amplitude levels. Values for β at high (>10 Å) fundamental levels are in the range predicted by single-crystal second- and third-order elastic constants while lower fundamental levels (alloy by others. The source of the effect is unclear but initial results may require a reexamination of current methods for measurement of third-order elastic constants.

  2. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    production was increased in TBC1D1-deficient mice. In isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) but not soleus muscle, glucose transport in response to insulin, AICAR, or contraction was impaired by TBC1D1 deficiency. The reduction in glucose transport in EDL muscle from TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice may...

  3. Bifurcation of elastic solids with sliding interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigoni, D.; Bordignon, N.; Piccolroaz, A.; Stupkiewicz, S.

    2018-01-01

    Lubricated sliding contact between soft solids is an interesting topic in biomechanics and for the design of small-scale engineering devices. As a model of this mechanical set-up, two elastic nonlinear solids are considered jointed through a frictionless and bilateral surface, so that continuity of the normal component of the Cauchy traction holds across the surface, but the tangential component is null. Moreover, the displacement can develop only in a way that the bodies in contact do neither detach, nor overlap. Surprisingly, this finite strain problem has not been correctly formulated until now, so this formulation is the objective of the present paper. The incremental equations are shown to be non-trivial and different from previously (and erroneously) employed conditions. In particular, an exclusion condition for bifurcation is derived to show that previous formulations based on frictionless contact or `spring-type' interfacial conditions are not able to predict bifurcations in tension, while experiments-one of which, ad hoc designed, is reported-show that these bifurcations are a reality and become possible when the correct sliding interface model is used. The presented results introduce a methodology for the determination of bifurcations and instabilities occurring during lubricated sliding between soft bodies in contact.

  4. Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Solutions or Surface Cracks in Tension Using an Interpolation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, P. A.; Wells, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    No closed form solutions exist for the elastic-plastic J-integral for surface cracks due to the nonlinear, three-dimensional nature of the problem. Traditionally, each surface crack must be analyzed with a unique and time-consuming nonlinear finite element analysis. To overcome this shortcoming, the authors have developed and analyzed an array of 600 3D nonlinear finite element models for surface cracks in flat plates under tension loading. The solution space covers a wide range of crack shapes and depths (shape: 0.2 less than or equal to a/c less than or equal to 1, depth: 0.2 less than or equal to a/B less than or equal to 0.8) and material flow properties (elastic modulus-to-yield ratio: 100 less than or equal to E/ys less than or equal to 1,000, and hardening: 3 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 20). The authors have developed a methodology for interpolating between the goemetric and material property variables that allows the user to reliably evaluate the full elastic-plastic J-integral and force versus crack mouth opening displacement solution; thus, a solution can be obtained very rapidly by users without elastic-plastic fracture mechanics modeling experience. Complete solutions for the 600 models and 25 additional benchmark models are provided in tabular format.

  5. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  6. Fully digital 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos as hardware pseudo random number generators

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-10-07

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos using the sawtooth nonlinearity in a 3rd order ODE with the Euler approximation. Systems indicate chaotic behaviour through phase space boundedness and positive Lyapunov exponent. Low-significance bits form a PRNG and pass all tests in the NIST SP. 800-22 suite without post-processing. Real-time control of the number of scrolls allows distinct output streams with 2-D and 3-D multiscroll chaos enabling greater controllability. The proposed PRNGs are experimentally verified on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with logic utilization less than 1.25%, throughput up to 5.25 Gbits/s and up to 512 distinct output streams with low cross-correlation.

  7. Riemann–Cartan Geometry of Nonlinear Dislocation Mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, Arash

    2012-03-09

    We present a geometric theory of nonlinear solids with distributed dislocations. In this theory the material manifold-where the body is stress free-is a Weitzenböck manifold, that is, a manifold with a flat affine connection with torsion but vanishing non-metricity. Torsion of the material manifold is identified with the dislocation density tensor of nonlinear dislocation mechanics. Using Cartan\\'s moving frames we construct the material manifold for several examples of bodies with distributed dislocations. We also present non-trivial examples of zero-stress dislocation distributions. More importantly, in this geometric framework we are able to calculate the residual stress fields, assuming that the nonlinear elastic body is incompressible. We derive the governing equations of nonlinear dislocation mechanics covariantly using balance of energy and its covariance. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Nonlinear Modeling of Cables with Flexural Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lacarbonara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A geometrically exact formulation of cables suffering axis stretching and flexural curvature is presented. The dynamical formulation is based on nonlinearly viscoelastic constitutive laws for the tension and bending moment with the additional constitutive nonlinearity accounting for the no-compression condition. A continuation method, combined with a mixed finite-difference spatial discretization, is then employed to path-follow the static responses of cables subject to forces or support displacements. These computations, conducted in the quasistatic regime, are based on cables with linearly elastic material behaviors, whereas the nonlinearity is in the geometric stiffness terms and the no-compression behavior. The finite-difference results have been confirmed employing a weak formulation based on quadratic Lagrangian finite elements. The influence of the flexural stiffness on the nonlinear static responses is assessed comparing the results with those obtained for purely extensible cables. The properties of the frequencies of the linear normal modes of cables with flexural stiffness are also investigated and compared with those of purely extensible cables.

  9. Theory for nonlinear dynamic force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnham, Oscar; Andersson, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information on the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear manner. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work, we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory, we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic, and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found that the nonlinear DFS (NLDFS) theory correctly predicted the numerical results. We also present a protocol suggesting an experimental approach and analysis method of the data to estimate the bond length and the thermal off-rate.

  10. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of visco-elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran

    2012-04-21

    Visco-elastic materials are known for their capability of dissipating energy. This energy is converted into heat and thus changes the temperature of the materials. In addition to the dissipation effect, an external thermal stimulus can also alter the temperature in a viscoelastic body. The rate of stress relaxation (or the rate of creep) and the mechanical and physical properties of visco-elastic materials, such as polymers, vary with temperature. This study aims at understanding the effect of coupling between the thermal and mechanical response that is attributed to the dissipation of energy, heat conduction, and temperature-dependent material parameters on the overall response of visco-elastic solids. The non-linearly viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Schapery (Further development of a thermodynamic constitutive theory: stress formulation, 1969,Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997) is used and modified to incorporate temperature- and stress-dependent material properties. This study also formulates a non-linear energy equation along with a dissipation function based on the Gibbs potential of Schapery (Mech. Time-Depend. Mater. 1:209-240, 1997). A numerical algorithm is formulated for analyzing a fully coupled thermo-visco-elastic response and implemented it in a general finite-element (FE) code. The non-linear stress- and temperature-dependent material parameters are found to have significant effects on the coupled thermo-visco-elastic response of polymers considered in this study. In order to obtain a realistic temperature field within the polymer visco-elastic bodies undergoing a non-uniform heat generation, the role of heat conduction cannot be ignored. © Springer Science+Business Media, B. V. 2012.

  11. Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin-Adams M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a

  12. Modeling Anisotropic Elastic Wave Propagation in Jointed Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, R.; Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical approach for determining the anisotropic stiffness of materials with nonlinearly-compliant joints capable of sliding. The proposed method extends existing ones for upscaling the behavior of a medium with open cracks and inclusions to cases relevant to natural fractured and jointed rocks, where nonlinearly-compliant joints can undergo plastic slip. The method deviates from existing techniques by incorporating the friction and closure states of the joints, and recovers an anisotropic elastic form in the small-strain limit when joints are not sliding. We present the mathematical formulation of our method and use Representative Volume Element (RVE) simulations to evaluate its accuracy for joint sets with varying complexity. We then apply the formulation to determine anisotropic elastic constants of jointed granite found at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) where the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a campaign of underground chemical explosions, are performed. Finally, we discuss the implementation of our numerical approach in a massively parallel Lagrangian code Geodyn-L and its use for studying wave propagation from underground explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Hydro-elastic complementarity in black branes at large D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emparan, Roberto [ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física Fonamental, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Izumi, Keisuke; Luna, Raimon [Departament de Física Fonamental, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Ryotaku [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Tanabe, Kentaro [Theory Center, Institute of Particles and Nuclear Studies, KEK,Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-06-21

    We obtain the effective theory for the non-linear dynamics of black branes — both neutral and charged, in asymptotically flat or Anti-deSitter spacetimes — to leading order in the inverse-dimensional expansion. We find that black branes evolve as viscous fluids, but when they settle down they are more naturally viewed as solutions of an elastic soap-bubble theory. The two views are complementary: the same variable is regarded in one case as the energy density of the fluid, in the other as the deformation of the elastic membrane. The large-D theory captures finite-wavelength phenomena beyond the conventional reach of hydrodynamics. For asymptotically flat charged black branes (either Reissner-Nordstrom or p-brane-charged black branes) it yields the non-linear evolution of the Gregory-Laflamme instability at large D and its endpoint at stable non-uniform black branes. For Reissner-Nordstrom AdS black branes we find that sound perturbations do not propagate (have purely imaginary frequency) when their wavelength is below a certain charge-dependent value. We also study the polarization of black branes induced by an external electric field.

  14. Estimation of parameters of constant elasticity of substitution production functional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaboob, B.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Sankar, J. Ravi

    2017-11-01

    Nonlinear model building has become an increasing important powerful tool in mathematical economics. In recent years the popularity of applications of nonlinear models has dramatically been rising up. Several researchers in econometrics are very often interested in the inferential aspects of nonlinear regression models [6]. The present research study gives a distinct method of estimation of more complicated and highly nonlinear model viz Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production functional model. Henningen et.al [5] proposed three solutions to avoid serious problems when estimating CES functions in 2012 and they are i) removing discontinuities by using the limits of the CES function and its derivative. ii) Circumventing large rounding errors by local linear approximations iii) Handling ill-behaved objective functions by a multi-dimensional grid search. Joel Chongeh et.al [7] discussed the estimation of the impact of capital and labour inputs to the gris output agri-food products using constant elasticity of substitution production function in Tanzanian context. Pol Antras [8] presented new estimates of the elasticity of substitution between capital and labour using data from the private sector of the U.S. economy for the period 1948-1998.

  15. Artificial muscle using nonlinear elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Banahalli

    2002-03-01

    Anisotropic freestanding films or fibers of nematic elastomers from laterally attached side-chain polymers show muscle-like mechanical properties. The orientational order of the liquid crystal side groups imposes a conformational anisotropy in the polymer backbone. When a large change in the order parameter occurs, as at the nematic-isotropic phase transition, there is a concomitant loss of order in the backbone which results in a contraction of the film in the direction of the director orientation. The crosslinked network imposes a symmetry-breaking field on the nematic and drives the nematic-isotropic transition towards a critical point with the application of external stress. Isostrain studies on these nonlinear elastomers, show that there are large deviations from ideal classical rubber elasticity and the contributions from total internal energy to the elastic restoring force cannot be ignored. The liquid crystal elastomers exhibiting anisoptopic contraction/extension coupled with a graded strain response to an applied external stimulus provide an excellent framework for mimicking muscular action. Liquid crystal elastomers by their very chemical nature have a number of ‘handles’ such as the liquid crystalline phase range, density of crosslinking, flexibility of the backbone, coupling between the backbone and the mesogen and the coupling between the mesogen and the external stimulus, that can be tuned to optimize the mechanical properties. We have demonstrated actuation in nematic elastomers under thermal and optical stimuli. We have been able to dope the elastomers with dyes to make them optically active. We have also doped them with carbon nanotubes in order to increase the thermal and electrical conductivity of the elastomer.

  16. Modelling and Intelligent Control of an Elastic Link Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Loudini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, precise control of the end-point position of a planar single-link elastic manipulator robot is discussed. The Timoshenko beam theory (TBT has been used to characterize the structural link elasticity including important damping mechanisms. A suitable nonlinear model is derived based on the Lagrangian assumed modes method. Elastic link manipulators are classified as systems possessing highly complex dynamics. In addition, the environment in which they operate may have a lot of disturbances. These give rise to special problems that may be solved using intelligent control techniques. The application of two advanced control strategies based on fuzzy set theory is investigated. The first closed-loop control scheme to be applied is the standard Proportional-Derivative (PD type fuzzy logic controller (FLC, also known as PD-type Mamdani's FLC (MPDFLC. Then, a genetic algorithm (GA is used to optimize the MPDFLC parameters with innovative tuning procedures. Both the MPDFLC and the GA optimized FLC (GAOFLC are implemented and tested to achieve a precise control of the manipulator end-point. The performances of the adopted closed-loop intelligent control strategies are examined via simulation experiments.

  17. Rotation, inversion and perversion in anisotropic elastic cylindrical tubes and membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2013-03-06

    Cylindrical tubes and membranes are universal structural elements found in biology and engineering over a wide range of scales.Working in the framework of nonlinear elasticity, we consider the possible deformations of elastic cylindrical shells reinforced by one or two families of fibres. We consider both small and large deformations and the reduction from thick cylindrical shells (tubes) to thin shells (cylindrical membranes). In particular, a number of universal parameter regimes can be identified where the response behaviour of the cylinder is qualitatively different. This include the possibility of inversion of twist or axial strain when the cylinder is subject to internal pressure. Copyright © The Royal Society 2013.

  18. Simulation Modeling of the 4DL Reinforced Imperfect Composite Elastic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretskiy, A. E.; Magnitsky, I. V.; Odinabekov, F. R.; Sergeeva, E. S.; Tashchilov, S. V.

    2018-02-01

    Two models simulating the 4DL-reinforced imperfect material elastic behavior are analyzed. The model that involves direct introduction of an imperfect fiber-matrix contact is found to predict higher values for the compressive modulus of elasticity, rather than for the tensile one. This model also gives non-linear stress-strain diagram along some directions. Both models demonstrate a significant rigidity scale effect. Given the effects observed in actual practice with the materials of this class, conclusion was made about second model’s usefulness in engineering practice.

  19. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2016-09-06

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  20. Geometric nonlinear formulation for thermal-rigid-flexible coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops geometric nonlinear hybrid formulation for flexible multibody system with large deformation considering thermal effect. Different from the conventional formulation, the heat flux is the function of the rotational angle and the elastic deformation, therefore, the coupling among the temperature, the large overall motion and the elastic deformation should be taken into account. Firstly, based on nonlinear strain-displacement relationship, variational dynamic equations and heat conduction equations for a flexible beam are derived by using virtual work approach, and then, Lagrange dynamics equations and heat conduction equations of the first kind of the flexible multibody system are obtained by leading into the vectors of Lagrange multiplier associated with kinematic and temperature constraint equations. This formulation is used to simulate the thermal included hub-beam system. Comparison of the response between the coupled system and the uncoupled system has revealed the thermal chattering phenomenon. Then, the key parameters for stability, including the moment of inertia of the central body, the incident angle, the damping ratio and the response time ratio, are analyzed. This formulation is also used to simulate a three-link system applied with heat flux. Comparison of the results obtained by the proposed formulation with those obtained by the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model shows the significance of considering all the nonlinear terms in the strain in case of large deformation. At last, applicability of the approximate nonlinear model and the linear model are clarified in detail.

  1. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  2. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  3. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in epitaxial ferroelectrics at high electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexei; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Landahl, Eric C; Adams, Bernhard; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2008-01-18

    Nonlinear effects in the coupling of polarization with elastic strain have been predicted to occur in ferroelectric materials subjected to high electric fields. Such predictions are tested here for a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin film at electric fields in the range of several hundred MV/m and strains reaching up to 2.7%. The piezoelectric strain exceeds predictions based on constant piezoelectric coefficients at electric fields from approximately 200 to 400 MV/m, which is consistent with a nonlinear effect predicted to occur at corresponding piezoelectric distortions.

  4. On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elasticity measurement. In this paper, we present a new definition of elasticity measurement and propose a quantifying and measuring method using a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC model, which is easy to use for precise calculation of elasticity value of a cloud computing platform. Our numerical results demonstrate the basic parameters affecting elasticity as measured by the proposed measurement approach. Furthermore, our simulation and experimental results validate that the proposed measurement approach is not only correct but also robust and is effective in computing and comparing the elasticity of cloud platforms. Our research in this paper makes significant contribution to quantitative measurement of elasticity in cloud computing.

  5. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  6. The Price Elasticity of Residential Energy Use,

    Science.gov (United States)

    household energy- consumption behavior : The difference between the own-price elasticity of total consumption and that of saturation is a measure of the responsiveness of ’conservation’ to price....estimates of the own-price elasticities of total consumption but almost surely will produce erroneous estimates of the cross-price elasticities. As regards

  7. short communication thermodynamic parameters of elasticity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, AGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, AHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, ASe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the ...

  8. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  9. Acute exercise and physiological insulin induce distinct phosphorylation signatures on TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pehmøller, Christian; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers...... in response to physiological stimuli in human skeletal muscle and support the idea that Akt and AMPK are upstream kinases. TBC1D1 phosphorylation signatures were comparable between in vitro contracted mouse skeletal muscle and exercised human muscle, and we show that AMPK was regulating phosphorylation...... of these sites in mouse muscle. Contraction and exercise elicited a different phosphorylation pattern of TBC1D4 in mouse compared with human muscle, and although different circumstances in our experimental setup may contribute to this difference, the observation exemplifies that transferring findings between...

  10. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  11. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  12. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  13. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  14. Solution of Contact Problems for Nonlinear Gao Beam and Obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Machalová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact problem for a large deformed beam with an elastic obstacle is formulated, analyzed, and numerically solved. The beam model is governed by a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation developed by Gao, while the obstacle is considered as the elastic foundation of Winkler’s type in some distance under the beam. The problem is static without a friction and modeled either using Signorini conditions or by means of normal compliance contact conditions. The problems are then reformulated as optimal control problems which is useful both for theoretical aspects and for solution methods. Discretization is based on using the mixed finite element method with independent discretization and interpolations for foundation and beam elements. Numerical examples demonstrate usefulness of the presented solution method. Results for the nonlinear Gao beam are compared with results for the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam model.

  15. Riemann-Cartan geometry of nonlinear disclination mechanics

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.

    2012-03-23

    In the continuous theory of defects in nonlinear elastic solids, it is known that a distribution of disclinations leads, in general, to a non-trivial residual stress field. To study this problem, we consider the particular case of determining the residual stress field of a cylindrically symmetric distribution of parallel wedge disclinations. We first use the tools of differential geometry to construct a Riemannian material manifold in which the body is stress-free. This manifold is metric compatible, has zero torsion, but has non-vanishing curvature. The problem then reduces to embedding this manifold in Euclidean 3-space following the procedure of a classical nonlinear elastic problem. We show that this embedding can be elegantly accomplished by using Cartan\\'s method of moving frames and compute explicitly the residual stress field for various distributions in the case of a neo-Hookean material. © 2012 The Author(s).

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Electromechanical Coupling for Mechanical Elastic Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural scheme of mechanical elastic energy storage (MEES system served by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM and bidirectional converters is designed. The aim of the research is to model and control the complex electromechanical system. The mechanical device of the complex system is considered as a node in generalized coordinate system, the terse nonlinear dynamic model of electromechanical coupling for the electromechanical system is constructed through Lagrange-Maxwell energy method, and the detailed deduction of the mathematical model is presented in the paper. The theory of direct feedback linearization (DFL is applied to decouple the nonlinear dynamic model and convert the developed model from nonlinear to linear. The optimal control theory is utilized to accomplish speed tracking control for the linearized system. The simulation results in three different cases show that the proposed nonlinear dynamic model of MEES system is correct; the designed algorithm has a better control performance in contrast with the conventional PI control.

  17. Bcl-xL regulates CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells by altering CD1d trafficking through the endocytic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B; Carey, Gregory B; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-09-01

    NKT cells are a unique subset of T cells that recognize glycolipid Ags presented in the context of CD1d molecules. NKT cells mount strong antitumor responses and are a major focus in developing effective cancer immunotherapy. It is known that CD1d molecules are constantly internalized from the cell surface, recycled through the endocytic compartments, and re-expressed on the cell surface. However, little is known about the regulation of CD1d-mediated Ag processing and presentation in B cell lymphoma. Prosurvival factors of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-xL, are often upregulated in B cell lymphomas and are intimately linked to sphingolipid metabolism, as well as the endocytic compartments. We hypothesized that Bcl-xL can regulate CD1d-mediated Ag presentation to NKT cells. We found that overexpression or induction of Bcl-xL led to increased Ag presentation to NKT cells. Conversely, the inhibition or knockdown of Bcl-xL led to decreased NKT cell activation. Furthermore, knockdown of Bcl-xL resulted in the loss of CD1d trafficking to lysosome-associated membrane protein 1(+) compartments. Rab7, a late endosomal protein, was upregulated and CD1d molecules accumulated in the Rab7(+) late endosomal compartment. These results demonstrate that Bcl-xL regulates CD1d-mediated Ag processing and presentation to NKT cells by altering the late endosomal compartment and changing the intracellular localization of CD1d. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Multisoliton solutions, completely elastic collisions and non-elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mst Shekha Khatun

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... ... mathematical physics [20–31]. Some advanced applications of such new analyti- cal methods for practical problems have been found in [32–40]. Studies of completely integrable equations with non-linear phenomena is one successful way to connect with to solitary wave fields and engineering concepts.

  19. Elastic response of graphene nanodomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sascha; Stradi, Daniele; Gnecco, Enrico; Barja, Sara; Kawai, Shigeki; Díaz, Cristina; Alcamí, Manuel; Martín, Fernando; Vázquez de Parga, Amadeo Lopez; Miranda, Rodolfo; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst

    2013-04-23

    The mechanical behavior of a periodically buckled graphene membrane has been investigated by noncontact atomic force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. When a graphene monolayer is grown on Ru(0001), a regular arrangement of 0.075 nm high nanodomes forming a honeycomb lattice with 3 nm periodicity forms spontaneously. This structure responds in a perfectly reversible way to relative normal displacements up to 0.12 nm. Indeed, the elasticity of the nanodomes is proven by realistic DFT calculations, with an estimated normal stiffness k∼40 N/m. Our observations extend previous results on macroscopic graphene samples and confirm that the elastic behavior of this material is maintained down to nanometer length scales, which is important for the development of new high-frequency (terahertz) electromechanical devices.

  20. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  1. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative Φ 4 -model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation

  2. Non-linear time reversal ultrasonic pseudo-tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Vejvodová, Šárka; Krofta, Josef; Převorovský, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3/4 (2011), s. 206-213 ISSN 1741-8410. [NDT in Progress. Praha, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : NDT * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy * time reversal mirrors * ultrasonic pseudo-tomography Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.inderscience.com/offer.php?id=43216

  3. Design Wave Load Prediction by Non-Linear Strip Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    Some methods for predicting global stochastic wave load responses in ships are presented. The methods take into account the elastic behaviour of the ship and at least some of the non-linearities in the wave-induced loadings.Numerical rsults obtained for actual ships are reviewed with special...... emphasis on their usefulness in design procedures covering both extreme responses and fatigue damage predictions....

  4. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  5. Elastic scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, Jan; Deile, M

    The seemingly simple elastic scattering of protons still presents a challenge for the theory. In this thesis we discuss the elastic scattering from theoretical as well as experimental point of view. In the theory part, we present several models and their predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the Coulomb-hadronic interference, where we present a new eikonal calculation to all orders of alpha, the fine-structure constant. In the experimental part we introduce the TOTEM experiment which is dedicated, among other subjects, to the measurement of the elastic scattering at the LHC. This measurement is performed primarily with the Roman Pot (RP) detectors - movable beam-pipe insertions hundreds of meters from the interaction point, that can detect protons scattered to very small angles. We discuss some aspects of the RP simulation and reconstruction software. A central point is devoted to the techniques of RP alignment - determining the RP sensor positions relative to each other and to the beam. At the end we pres...

  6. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  7. Elasticity of population growth with respect to the intensity of biotic or abiotic driving factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte T

    2017-04-01

    Demographic analysis can elucidate how driving factors, such as climate or species interactions, affect populations. One important question is how growth would respond to future changes in the mean intensity of a driving factor or in its variability, such as might be expected in a fluctuating and shifting climate. Here I develop an approach to computing new stochastic elasticities to address this question. The linchpin of this novel approach is the multidimensional demographic difference that expresses how a population responds to change in the driving factor between two discrete levels of intensity. I use this difference to design a perturbation matrix that links data from common empirical sampling schemes with rigorous theory for stochastic elasticities. Although the starting point is a difference, the products of this synthesis are true derivatives: they are elasticity with respect to the mean intensity of a driving factor, and elasticity with respect to variability in a driving factor. Applying the methods to published data, I demonstrate how these new elasticities can shed light on growth rate response within and at the boundary of the previously observed range of the driving factor, thus helpfully indicating nonlinearity in the observed and in the potential future response. The stochastic approach simplifies in a fixed environment, yielding a compact formula for deterministic elasticity to a driving factor. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Numerical study of elastic turbulence in a 3D curvilinear micro-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongna; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Li, Fengchen

    2012-11-01

    Elastic turbulence is an intriguing phenomenon of viscoelastic fluid flow, and dominated by the strong nonlinear elasticity due to the existence of flexible microstructures. It implies the possibility to generate a turbulent state (so-called an elastic turbulence) in the micro-scale devices by introducing the viscoelastic fluids, which could significantly enhance the mixing efficiency therein. Several experiments have been carried out to study its characteristics and underlying physics. However, the difficulty in measuring the flow information and behaviors of the microstructures, especially in the cross section normal to the mean flow direction, limits our current understanding and controlling. In the present study, the nondimensionalization method in which the characteristic velocity is defined as the ratio of the solution viscosity to the width of the channel was adopted to simulate the elastic turbulence in the micro-scale devices. And the elastic turbulent flow was obtained numerically in the 3D curvilinear micro-channel. Therein, the characteristics of the velocity field and polymer's behavior are discussed. Moreover, the energy transfer between the kinetic energy and the polymer's elastic energy is also investigated to understand its physical mechanism. Supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science research fellowship and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology via `Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming' of Global Center of Excellence (G-COE) program (J-051).

  9. Application of 1 D Finite Element Method in Combination with Laminar Solution Method for Pipe Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudar, O. I.; Dudar, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The features of application of the 1D dimensional finite element method (FEM) in combination with the laminar solutions method (LSM) for the calculation of underground ventilating networks are considered. In this case the processes of heat and mass transfer change the properties of a fluid (binary vapour-air mix). Under the action of gravitational forces it leads to such phenomena as natural draft, local circulation, etc. The FEM relations considering the action of gravity, the mass conservation law, the dependence of vapour-air mix properties on the thermodynamic parameters are derived so that it allows one to model the mentioned phenomena. The analogy of the elastic and plastic rod deformation processes to the processes of laminar and turbulent flow in a pipe is described. Owing to this analogy, the guaranteed convergence of the elastic solutions method for the materials of plastic type means the guaranteed convergence of the LSM for any regime of a turbulent flow in a rough pipe. By means of numerical experiments the convergence rate of the FEM - LSM is investigated. This convergence rate appeared much higher than the convergence rate of the Cross - Andriyashev method. Data of other authors on the convergence rate comparison for the finite element method, the Newton method and the method of gradient are provided. These data allow one to conclude that the FEM in combination with the LSM is one of the most effective methods of calculation of hydraulic and ventilating networks. The FEM - LSM has been used for creation of the research application programme package “MineClimate” allowing to calculate the microclimate parameters in the underground ventilating networks.

  10. Forming a complex with MHC class I molecules interferes with mouse CD1d functional expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukaradhya J Gourapura

    Full Text Available CD1d molecules are structurally similar to MHC class I, but present lipid antigens as opposed to peptides. Here, we show that MHC class I molecules physically associate with (and regulate the functional expression of mouse CD1d on the surface of cells. Low pH (3.0 acid stripping of MHC class I molecules resulted in increased surface expression of murine CD1d on antigen presenting cells as well as augmented CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. Consistent with the above results, TAP1-/- mice were found to have a higher percentage of type I NKT cells as compared to wild type mice. Moreover, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from TAP1-/- mice showed increased antigen presentation by CD1d compared to wild type mice. Together, these results suggest that MHC class I molecules can regulate NKT cell function, in part, by masking CD1d.

  11. Analytical Solutions to Nonlinear Conservative Oscillator with Fifth-Order Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfahania, M. G.; Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin

    2010-01-01

    are presented to obtain an approximate solution. The major concern is to assess the accuracy of these approximate methods in predicting the system response within a certain range of system parameters by examining their ability to establish an actual (numerical) solution. Therefore, the analytical results......This paper describes analytical and numerical methods to analyze the steady state periodic response of an oscillator with symmetric elastic and inertia nonlinearity. A new implementation of the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and an ancient Chinese method called the max-min approach...

  12. Linearized versus non-linear inverse methods for seismic localization of underground sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Geok Lian; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Difference elastic wave-field numerical method. In this paper, the accuracy and performance of the linear beamformer and nonlinear inverse methods to localize a underground seismic source are checked and compared using computer generated synthetic experimental data. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America......., and the Bayes nonlinear inversion method. The travel times used in the beamformer are derived from solving the Eikonal equation. In the linearized inversion method, we assume that the elastic waves are predominantly acoustic waves, and the acoustic approximation is applied. For the nonlinear inverse method, we...... apply the Bayesian framework where the misfit function is the posterior probability distribution of the model space. The model parameters are the location of the seismic source that we are interested in estimating. The forward problem solver applied for the nonlinear inverse method is a Finite...

  13. One-Dimensional Mass-Spring Chains Supporting Elastic Waves with Non-Conventional Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two classes of phononic structures that can support elastic waves with non-conventional topology, namely intrinsic and extrinsic systems. The non-conventional topology of elastic wave results from breaking time reversal symmetry (T-symmetry of wave propagation. In extrinsic systems, energy is injected into the phononic structure to break T-symmetry. In intrinsic systems symmetry is broken through the medium microstructure that may lead to internal resonances. Mass-spring composite structures are introduced as metaphors for more complex phononic crystals with non-conventional topology. The elastic wave equation of motion of an intrinsic phononic structure composed of two coupled one-dimensional (1D harmonic chains can be factored into a Dirac-like equation, leading to antisymmetric modes that have spinor character and therefore non-conventional topology in wave number space. The topology of the elastic waves can be further modified by subjecting phononic structures to externally-induced spatio-temporal modulation of their elastic properties. Such modulations can be actuated through photo-elastic effects, magneto-elastic effects, piezo-electric effects or external mechanical effects. We also uncover an analogy between a combined intrinsic-extrinsic systems composed of a simple one-dimensional harmonic chain coupled to a rigid substrate subjected to a spatio-temporal modulation of the side spring stiffness and the Dirac equation in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The modulation is shown to be able to tune the spinor part of the elastic wave function and therefore its topology. This analogy between classical mechanics and quantum phenomena offers new modalities for developing more complex functions of phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials.

  14. Elastic fibres in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Andrew K; Simpson, Andreja; Steer, Ruth; Cain, Stuart A; Kielty, Cay M

    2013-08-20

    Elastic fibres are insoluble components of the extracellular matrix of dynamic connective tissues such as skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. They are laid down during development, and comprise a cross-linked elastin core within a template of fibrillin-based microfibrils. Their function is to endow tissues with the property of elastic recoil, and they also regulate the bioavailability of transforming growth factor β. Severe heritable elastic fibre diseases are caused by mutations in elastic fibre components; for example, mutations in elastin cause supravalvular aortic stenosis and autosomal dominant cutis laxa, mutations in fibrillin-1 cause Marfan syndrome and Weill-Marchesani syndrome, and mutations in fibulins-4 and -5 cause autosomal recessive cutis laxa. Acquired elastic fibre defects include dermal elastosis, whereas inflammatory damage to fibres contributes to pathologies such as pulmonary emphysema and vascular disease. This review outlines the latest understanding of the composition and assembly of elastic fibres, and describes elastic fibre diseases and current therapeutic approaches.

  15. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  16. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  17. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  18. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C

    2014-07-01

    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermann, Susanne; Prétôt, René; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nodularin are hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species. Their toxicity is based on active cellular uptake and subsequent inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/2A, leading to hyperphosphorylation and cell death. To date, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin in fish is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 in zebrafish (drOatp1d1, Slco1d1) in cellular uptake in zebrafish. We stably transfected CHO and HEK293 cell lines expressing drOatp1d1. In both transfectants, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin was demonstrated by competitive inhibition of uptake with fluorescent substrate lucifer yellow. Direct uptake of MC-LR was demonstrated by immunostaining, and indirectly by the high cytotoxicity in stable transfectants. By means of a synthesized fluorescent labeled MC-LR derivative, direct uptake was further confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing drOatp1d1. Additionally, uptake and toxicity was investigated in the permanent zebrafish liver cell line ZFL. These cells had only a low relative abundance of drOatp1d1, drOatp2b1 and drOatp1f transcripts, which correlated with the lack of MC-LR induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional changes of genes indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, a known effect of this toxin. Our study demonstrates that drOatp1d1 functions as an uptake transporter for both MC-LR and nodularin in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  1. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  2. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  3. Symmetry-Breaking Bifurcations for Free Elastic Shell of Biological Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovich, Andrei; Treder, Hanna

    2007-09-01

    Considered is a two-dimensional mathematical model for free elastic exterior shell of a biological cluster. The cluster shell is connected with cluster kernel by elastic links. The inside part is filled by compressed gas or fluid. The nonlinear functional-differential equation describing the form of shell has been obtained using variational principle and contains several physical parameters. For each parameter value this equation has a radial symmetry solution. Our goal is to identify the bifurcation which breaks the symmetry. The critical values of bifurcation parameter and buckling modes are found by considering the linearised problem. The nonlinear model is reduced to operator equation with Fredholm type operator of index 0. The Crandall-Rabinovitz bifurcation theorem (gradient case) is used to prove the bifurcation theorem.

  4. Strongly nonlinear wave dynamics in a chain of polymer coated beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    Strongly nonlinear phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of Parylene-C coated steel spheres in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) holder. This system exhibits strongly nonlinear properties and extends the range of materials supporting "sonic vacuum" type behavior. The combination of a high density core and a soft (low elastic modulus) coating ensures a relatively low velocity of wave propagation. The beads contact interaction caused by the deformation of the Parylene coating can be desc...

  5. Code conforming determination of cumulative usage factors for general elastic-plastic finite element analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, Juergen; Goetz, Andreas; Hilpert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of fatigue analyses of several relevant nuclear and conventional design codes (ASME, KTA, EN, AD) for power plant components differentiate between an elastic, simplified elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic fatigue check. As a rule, operational load levels will exclude the purely elastic fatigue check. The application of the code procedure of the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue check is common practice. Nevertheless, resulting cumulative usage factors may be overly conservative mainly due to high code based plastification penalty factors Ke. As a consequence, the more complex and still code conforming general elastic-plastic fatigue analysis methodology based on non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) is applied for fatigue design as an alternative. The requirements of the FEA and the material law to be applied have to be clarified in a first step. Current design codes only give rough guidelines on these relevant items. While the procedure for the simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analysis and the associated code passages are based on stress related cycle counting and the determination of pseudo elastic equivalent stress ranges, an adaptation to elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges is required for the elastic-plastic fatigue check. The associated requirements are explained in detail in the paper. If the established and implemented evaluation mechanism (cycle counting according to the peak and valley respectively the rainflow method, calculation of stress ranges from arbitrary load-time histories and determination of cumulative usage factors based on all load events) is to be retained, a conversion of elastic-plastic strains and strain ranges into pseudo elastic stress ranges is required. The algorithm to be applied is described in the paper. It has to be implemented in the sense of an extended post processing operation of FEA e.g. by APDL scripts in ANSYS registered . Variations of principal stress (strain) directions during the loading

  6. Finite-element based perturbation analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Kevin; Narisetti, Raj K.; Leamy, Michael J.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Wave propagation in continuous, periodic structures subject to weak nonlinearities is studied using a finite-element discretization of a single unit cell followed by a perturbation analysis. The dispersion analysis is integrated with commercial finite-element analysis (FEA) software to expedite nonlinear analysis of geometrically-complex unit cells. A simple continuous multilayer system is used to illustrate the principle aspects of the procedure. A periodic structure formed by membrane elements on nonlinear elastic supports is used to demonstrate the versatility of the procedure. Weakly nonlinear band diagrams are generated in which amplitude-dependent bandgaps and group velocities are identified. The nonlinear dispersion analysis procedure described, coupled with commercial FEA software, should facilitate the study of wave propagation in a wide-variety of geometrically-complex, nonlinear periodic structures.

  7. Superworld volume dynamics of super branes from nonlinear realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Ivanov, E.; Krivonos, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the concept of the partial breaking of global supersymmetry (PBGS), it has been derived the world volume superfield equations of motion for N=1, D=4 supermembrane, as well as for the space-time filling D2- and D3-branes, from nonlinear realizations of the corresponding supersymmetries. It has been argued that it is of no need to take care of the relevant automorphism groups when being interested in the dynamical equations. This essentially facilitates computations. As a by-product, it has been obtained a new polynomial representation for the d=3,4 Born-Infeld equations, with merely a cubic nonlinearity

  8. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Elastic Deformation Analysis on MHD Viscous Dissipative Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid: An Exact Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar

    2017-05-01

    This communication is devoted to analyze elastic deformation on electrically conducted viscoelastic fluid in the presence of viscous dissipation effects. Non-linear analysis is computed through exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Special emphasis is provided for elastic deformation in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics effects. Concentration profile is discussed significantly in the presence constructive and destructive chemical reaction. Results are displayed through graphs and discussed for physical parameters that are used in present analysis. Notable findings include that temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of Prandtl number and a decreasing function of elastic deformation. In addition, heat transfer rate is enhanced by increasing the conjugate parameter (γ) which measures the strength of surface heating.

  10. CD1d-Restricted Type II NKT Cells Reactive With Endogenous Hydrophobic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Sakiko; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    NKT cells belong to a distinct subset of T cells that recognize hydrophobic antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecules, such as CD1d. Because NKT cells stimulated by antigens can activate or suppress other immunocompetent cells through an immediate production of a large amount of cytokines, they are regarded as immunological modulators. CD1d-restricted NKT cells are classified into two subsets, namely, type I and type II. CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells express invariant T cell receptors (TCRs) and react with lipid antigens, including the marine sponge-derived glycolipid α-galactosylceramide. On the contrary, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells recognize a wide variety of antigens, including glycolipids, phospholipids, and hydrophobic peptides, by their diverse TCRs. In this review, we focus particularly on CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize endogenous hydrophobic peptides presented by CD1d. Previous studies have demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells usually act as pro-inflammatory cells but sometimes behave as anti-inflammatory cells. It has been also demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells play opposite roles to CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells; thus, they function as anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cells depending on the situation. In line with this, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize type II collagen peptide have been demonstrated to act as anti-inflammatory cells in diverse inflammation-induction models in mice, whereas pro-inflammatory CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells reactive with sterol carrier protein 2 peptide have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of small vessel vasculitis in rats.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Al Hennawi, Qais M.

    2015-05-01

    In this thesis, we present theoretical and experimental investigation into the nonlinear statics and dynamics of clamped-clamped in-plane MEMS arches when excited by an electrostatic force. Theoretically, we first solve the equation of motion using a multi- mode Galarkin Reduced Order Model (ROM). We investigate the static response of the arch experimentally where we show several jumps due to the snap-through instability. Experimentally, a case study of in-plane silicon micromachined arch is studied and its mechanical behavior is measured using optical techniques. We develop an algorithm to extract various parameters that are needed to model the arch, such as the induced axial force, the modulus of elasticity, and the initially induced initial rise. After that, we excite the arch by a DC electrostatic force superimposed to an AC harmonic load. A softening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the first resonance frequency due to the quadratic nonlinearity coming from the arch geometry and the electrostatic force. Also, a hardening spring behavior is observed when the excitation is close to the third (second symmetric) resonance frequency due to the cubic nonlinearity coming from mid-plane stretching. Then, we excite the arch by an electric load of two AC frequency components, where we report a combination resonance of the summed type. Agreement is reported among the theoretical and experimental work.

  12. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  13. Analysis of HD Journal Bearings Considering Elastic Deformation and Non-Newtonian Rabinowitsch Fluid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the performance of a finite length journal bearing, taking into account effects of non-Newtonian Rabinowitsch flow rheology and elastic deformations of the bearing liner. According to the Rabinowitsch fluid model, the cubic-stress constitutive equation is used to account for the non-Newtonian effects of pseudoplastic and dilatant lubricants. Integrating the continuity equation across the film, the nonlinear non-Newtonian Reynolds-type equation is derived. The elasticity part of the problem is solved on the base of Vlassov model of an elastic foundation. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation is carried out by using FDM with over-relaxation technique. The results for steady state bearing performance characteristics have been calculated for various values of nonlinear factor and elasticity parameters. It was concluded that in comparison with the Newtonian lubricants, higher values of film pressure and load carrying capacity have been obtained for dilatant lubricants, while the case was reversed for pseudoplastic lubricants.

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. and Elastic Active Media Morphogenesis Through the Interplay of Nonlinear Chemical Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Borckmans, P; Khokhlov, A. R; Métens, S; Chemomechanical Instabilities in Responsive Materials

    2009-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of the papers presented by renowned specialists of each field. It is the first book in which the communities of nonlinear chemists and gel specialist communicate and show how interactions between the two fields can actually produce working devices based on the transduction of chemical to mechanical energy and vice-versa. Beside subtle ways of using the slaving of responsive materials devices to oscillatory reactions, emphasis is brought on emerging properties that are possessed by neither of the separated constituents. Several contributions on these aspects are included, in relation to their potential relevance to biological, medical and technological applications. The whole constitutes a specific multidisciplinary "new" field. Both advanced and basic aspects of the two fields can be found the this collection of lectures. The book will not only benefit to doctoral students or young post-docs to learn the ropes of both subjects, but also to active researchers from one field, to...

  15. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  16. Material variability in elastic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, B.; Sperandio, M.; Guinovart, J.

    1997-01-01

    The structures of Fast Reactors (FRs) are subjected to high temperatures and their design is checked mainly against elastic rules. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of uncertainties in material properties on creep-fatigue assessment according to the elastic route of the RCC-MR code, so as to evaluate the subsequent margins. This work has been conducted by FRAMATOME, in cooperation with GEC, NNC and SIEMENS, in the frame of the activities of the Working Group on Codes and standards of DG XI/C (Nuclear Safety of Installations). The material considered is the 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel (RCC-MR 1S type material). The work is divided into two phases: the first one consists of the identification of the scatterband of material properties used in the elastic creep-fatigue assessment route of the RCC-MR code and the second of the study of the influence of the scatter on the results of elastic calculations and creep-fatigue assessment, with the aim to evaluate the difference in lifetime as a function of the set of material properties used and the relative importance of each material property. The latter will be based on one example of application typical of FRs structure. The example chosen consists of a plate to shell junction subjected to a thermal transient. Calculations are carried out using design material properties, mean material properties and properties leading to minimum and maximum life duration. Results of creep-fatigue analyses with material properties leading to minimum life duration are shown to be similar to those with design material properties, giving results of the same order to magnitude. Results with mean material properties and properties leading to maximum life duration exhibit significant margins compared to design analyses. Sensitivity analyses carried out on the basis of the maximum and minimum material property values show that properties which are the most significant for creep-fatigue assessment are the S r curves, the K s

  17. A rational route to SCM materials based on a 1-D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-07-07

    Thermal annealing of a discrete complex with terminal SeCN anions and monodentate coligands enforces the formation of a 1D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer that shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. Therefore, this approach offers a rational route to 1D materials that might show single chain magnetic behaviour. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Influence of lipid rafts on CD1d presentation by dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wei; Martaresche, Cecile; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    corresponding to lipid rafts and we describe that alpha-GalCer enhanced CD1d amount in the low density detergent insoluble fraction. We conclude that the membrane environment of CD1d can influence antigen presentation mainly when the endocytic pathway is required. Flow cytometry analysis can provide additional...

  19. Weyl geometry and the nonlinear mechanics of distributed point defects

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.

    2012-09-05

    The residual stress field of a nonlinear elastic solid with a spherically symmetric distribution of point defects is obtained explicitly using methods from differential geometry. The material manifold of a solid with distributed point defects-where the body is stress-free-is a flat Weyl manifold, i.e. a manifold with an affine connection that has non-metricity with vanishing traceless part, but both its torsion and curvature tensors vanish. Given a spherically symmetric point defect distribution, we construct its Weyl material manifold using the method of Cartan\\'s moving frames. Having the material manifold, the anelasticity problem is transformed to a nonlinear elasticity problem and reduces the problem of computing the residual stresses to finding an embedding into the Euclidean ambient space. In the case of incompressible neo-Hookean solids, we calculate explicitly this residual stress field. We consider the example of a finite ball and a point defect distribution uniform in a smaller ball and vanishing elsewhere. We show that the residual stress field inside the smaller ball is uniform and hydrostatic. We also prove a nonlinear analogue of Eshelby\\'s celebrated inclusion problem for a spherical inclusion in an isotropic incompressible nonlinear solid. © 2012 The Royal Society.

  20. Bending of a nonlinear beam reposing on an unilateral foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machalová J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is going to deal with bending of a nonlinear beam whose mathematical model was proposed by D. Y. Gao in (Gao, D. Y., Nonlinear elastic beam theory with application in contact problems and variational approaches,Mech. Research Communication, 23 (1 1996. The model is based on the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis and under assumption of nonzero lateral stress component enables moderately large deflections but with small strains. This is here extended by the unilateralWinkler foundation. The attribution unilateral means that the foundation is not connected with the beam. For this problem we demonstrate a mathematical formulation resulting from its natural decomposition which leads to a saddle-point problem with a proper Lagrangian. Next we are concerned with methods of solution for our problem by means of the finite element method as the paper (Gao, D. Y., Nonlinear elastic beam theory with application in contact problems and variational approaches, Mech. Research Communication, 23 (1 1996 has no mention of it. The main alternatives are here the solution of a system of nonlinear nondifferentiable equations or finding of a saddle point through the use of the augmented Lagrangian method. This is illustrated by an example in the final part of the article.

  1. Non-linear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.

  2. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  3. Phase properties of elastic waves in systems constituted of adsorbed diatomic molecules on the (001) surface of a simple cubic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P. A.; Runge, K.

    2018-03-01

    A Green's function-based numerical method is developed to calculate the phase of scattered elastic waves in a harmonic model of diatomic molecules adsorbed on the (001) surface of a simple cubic crystal. The phase properties of scattered waves depend on the configuration of the molecules. The configurations of adsorbed molecules on the crystal surface such as parallel chain-like arrays coupled via kinks are used to demonstrate not only linear but also non-linear dependency of the phase on the number of kinks along the chains. Non-linear behavior arises for scattered waves with frequencies in the vicinity of a diatomic molecule resonance. In the non-linear regime, the variation in phase with the number of kinks is formulated mathematically as unitary matrix operations leading to an analogy between phase-based elastic unitary operations and quantum gates. The advantage of elastic based unitary operations is that they are easily realizable physically and measurable.

  4. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  5. Surface elastic properties in silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Giordano, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    The elastic behavior of the external surface of a solid body plays a key role in nanomechanical phenomena. While bulk elasticity enjoys the benefits of a robust theoretical understanding, many surface elasticity features remain unexplored: some of them are here addressed by blending together continuum elasticity and atomistic simulations. A suitable readdressing of the surface elasticity theory allows to write the balance equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates and to investigate the dependence of the surface elastic parameters on the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surface. In particular, we predict the radial strain induced by surface effects in spherical and cylindrical silicon nanoparticles and provide evidence that the surface parameters are nearly independent of curvatures and, therefore, of the surface conformation.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of functionally graded laminates considering piezoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behjat, Ba Shir [Mechanical Engineering Faculty Sahand Univ. of Technology, Sahand New Tawn (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshravan Mohamad Reza [Tabriz Univ., Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, static bending analysis of functionally graded plates with piezoelectric layers has been carried out considering geometrical nonlinearity in different sets of mechanical and electrical loadings. Only the geometrical nonlinearity has been taken into account. The governing equations are obtained using potential energy and Hamilton's principle. The finite element model is derived based on constitutive equation of piezoelectric material accounting for coupling between elasticity and electric effect by using higher order elements. The present finite element used displacement and electric potential as nodal degrees of freedom. Results are presented for two constituent FGM plate under different mechanical boundary conditions. Numerical results for FGM plate are given in dimensionless graphical forms. Effects of material composition and boundary conditions on nonlinear response of the plate are also studied.

  7. Elasticities of Turkish Exports and Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Ayla Ogus; Niloufer Sohrabji

    2009-01-01

    The Turkish current account has been exploding in the last few years leading to concerns of a crisis. One of the primary factors identified in the rising deficits is the appreciating lira. In addition, income elasticity of exports and imports can also shed light on continuing trade deficits. In this paper we analyze exchange rate and income elasticity of Turkish imports and exports. We find a significant gap between domestic and foreign income elasticities (for exports and imports respectivel...

  8. Elastic properties of graphite and interstitial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasse, J.-B.

    1977-01-01

    The graphite elastic constants C 33 and C 44 , reflecting the interaction of the graphitic planes, were experimentally measured as a function of irradiation and temperature. A model of non-central strength atomic interaction was established to explain the experimental results obtained. This model is valid at zero temperature. The temperature dependence of the elastic properties was analyzed. The influence of the elastic property variations on the specific heat of the lattice at very low temperature was investigated [fr

  9. Elegent -- an elastic event generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kašpar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD can not be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy sqrt(s). These distributions at ISR, SppS, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework.

  10. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  11. parametric nonlinear quasivariational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2005-01-01

    uniqueness results and sensitivity analysis of solutions are also established for the system of generalized nonlinear parametric quasivariational inequalities and some convergence results of iterative sequence generated by the algorithm with errors are proved.

  12. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    and remains the prime source of energy in non-terrestrial applications such as those in sky-explorers. However, a renewable energy source is expensive, bulky, and its performance is weather dependent, which make testing of downstream converters very difficult. As a result, a nonlinear source emulator (NSE...... of a proposed NSE system with high dynamic performance. The goal of the work is to achieve a state-of-the art transient time of 10 µs. In order to produce the arbitrary nonlinear curve, the exponential function of a typical diode is used, but the diode can be replaced by other nonlinear curve reference...... simulation of nonlinear source systems with higher output power. In this work, a module will consist of two fundamental units: an isolated power supply and an NSE. The isolated power supply has to possess a very low circuit input-to-output capacitance (very low Cio) in order to reduce the effect...

  13. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    filter, Bayesian decision theory, Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT), and constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) processing (31). Once the...Abbreviations, and Acronyms CFAR constant false alarm rate CNR cognitive nonlinear radar EM electromagnetic FCC Federal Communications Comission

  14. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  15. Nonlinear differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Struble, Raimond A

    2017-01-01

    Detailed treatment covers existence and uniqueness of a solution of the initial value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability of nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. 1962 edition.

  16. Nonlinear ambipolar diffusion waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, J.T.; Rowlands, G.

    1985-07-01

    The evolution of a plasma perturbation in a neutral gas is considered using the ambipolar diffusion approximation. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived and, in the one-dimensional case, exact solutions of shock type are obtained.

  17. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  18. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Crossing a Nonlinear Resonance: Adiabatic Invariants and the Melnikov-Arnold Integral. Sudhir R Jain. General Article Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 797-813 ...

  19. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  20. Dissipative dynamics of matter-wave solitons in a nonlinear optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Tomio, Lauro; Gammal, A.; Luz, H. L. F. da

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics and stability of solitons in two-dimensional (2D) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), with one-dimensional (1D) conservative plus dissipative nonlinear optical lattices, are investigated. In the case of focusing media (with attractive atomic systems), the collapse of the wave packet is arrested by the dissipative periodic nonlinearity. The adiabatic variation of the background scattering length leads to metastable matter-wave solitons. When the atom feeding mechanism is used, a dissipative soliton can exist in focusing 2D media with 1D periodic nonlinearity. In the defocusing media (repulsive BEC case) with harmonic trap in one direction and nonlinear optical lattice in the other direction, the stable soliton can exist. Variational approach simulations are confirmed by full numerical results for the 2D Gross-Pitaevskii equation